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Sample records for a4 facilitates cross-class

  1. A Model for Teaching Large Classes: Facilitating a "Small Class Feel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Rosealie P.; Pappas, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model for teaching large classes that facilitates a "small class feel" to counteract the distance, anonymity, and formality that often characterize large lecture-style courses in higher education. One author (E. P.) has been teaching a 300-student general education critical thinking course for ten years, and the…

  2. Antigen storage compartments in mature dendritic cells facilitate prolonged cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfoort, Nadine; Camps, Marcel G; Khan, Selina; Filippov, Dmitri V; Weterings, Jimmy J; Griffith, Janice M; Geuze, Hans J; van Hall, Thorbald; Verbeek, J Sjef; Melief, Cornelis J; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2009-04-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for priming of naive CD8(+) T lymphocytes to exogenous antigens, so-called "cross-priming." We report that exogenous protein antigen can be conserved for several days in mature DCs, coinciding with strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming potency in vivo. After MHC class I peptide elution, protein antigen-derived peptide presentation is efficiently restored, indicating the presence of an intracellular antigen depot. We characterized this depot as a lysosome-like organelle, distinct from MHC class II compartments and recently described early endosomal compartments that allow acute antigen presentation in MHC class I. The storage compartments we report here facilitate continuous supply of MHC class I ligands. This mechanism ensures sustained cross-presentation by DCs, despite the short-lived expression of MHC class I-peptide complexes at the cell surface.

  3. Social affiliation in same-class and cross-class interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Stéphane; Kraus, Michael W; Carpenter, Nichelle C; Piff, Paul K; Beermann, Ursula; Keltner, Dacher

    2017-02-01

    Historically high levels of economic inequality likely have important consequences for relationships between people of the same and different social class backgrounds. Here, we test the prediction that social affiliation among same-class partners is stronger at the extremes of the class spectrum, given that these groups are highly distinctive and most separated from others by institutional and economic forces. An internal meta-analysis of 4 studies (N = 723) provided support for this hypothesis. Participant and partner social class were interactively, rather than additively, associated with social affiliation, indexed by affiliative behaviors and emotions during structured laboratory interactions and in daily life. Further, response surface analyses revealed that paired upper or lower class partners generally affiliated more than average-class pairs. Analyses with separate class indices suggested that these patterns are driven more by parental income and subjective social class than by parental education. The findings illuminate the dynamics of same- and cross-class interactions, revealing that not all same-class interactions feature the same degree of affiliation. They also reveal the importance of studying social class from an intergroup perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. [Class III surgical patients facilitated by accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-qi; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Zou, Wei; Bai, Yun-yang; Jiang, Jiu-hui

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the treatment time and the anterior and posterior teeth movement pattern as closing extraction space for the Class III surgical patients facilitated by accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment. There were 10 skeletal Class III patients in accelerated osteogenic orthodontic group (AOO) and 10 patients in control group. Upper first premolars were extracted in all patients. After leveling and alignment (T2), corticotomy was performed in the area of maxillary anterior teeth to accelerate space closing.Study models of upper dentition were taken before orthodontic treatment (T1) and after space closing (T3). All the casts were laser scanned, and the distances of the movement of incisors and molars were digitally measured. The distances of tooth movement in two groups were recorded and analyzed. The alignment time between two groups was not statistically significant. The treatment time in AOO group from T2 to T3 was less than that in the control group (less than 9.1 ± 4.1 months). The treatment time in AOO group from T1 to T3 was less than that in the control group (less than 6.3 ± 4.8 months), and the differences were significant (P 0.05). Accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment could accelerate space closing in Class III surgical patients and shorten preoperative orthodontic time. There were no influence on the movement pattern of anterior and posterior teeth during pre-surgical orthodontic treatment.

  6. Application of collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold facilitates periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosen, Y; Miyaji, H; Kato, A; Sugaya, T; Kawanami, M

    2012-10-01

    A three-dimensional scaffold may play an important role in periodontal tissue engineering. We prepared bio-safe collagen hydrogel, which exhibits properties similar to those of native extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of implantation of collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold on periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in dogs. The collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold was prepared by injecting collagen hydrogel, cross-linked to the ascorbate-copper ion system, into a collagen sponge. Class II furcation defects (of 5 mm depth and 3 mm width) were surgically created in beagle dogs. The exposed root surface was planed and demineralized with EDTA. In the experimental group, the defect was filled with collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold. In the control group, no implantation was performed. Histometric parameters were evaluated 2 and 4 wk after surgery. At 2 wk, the collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold displayed high biocompatibility and biodegradability with numerous cells infiltrating the scaffold. In the experimental group, reconstruction of alveolar bone and cementum was frequently observed 4 wk after surgery. Periodontal ligament tissue was also re-established between alveolar bone and cementum. Volumes of new bone, new cementum and new periodontal ligament were significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group. In addition, epithelial down-growth was suppressed by application of collagen hydrogel. The collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold possessed high tissue compatibility and degradability. Implantation of the scaffold facilitated periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in beagle dogs. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Contrast class cues and performance facilitation in a hypothesis-testing task: evidence for an iterative counterfactual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Maggie; Ball, Linden J

    2012-04-01

    Hypothesis-testing performance on Wason's (Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 12:129-140, 1960) 2-4-6 task is typically poor, with only around 20% of participants announcing the to-be-discovered "ascending numbers" rule on their first attempt. Enhanced solution rates can, however, readily be observed with dual-goal (DG) task variants requiring the discovery of two complementary rules, one labeled "DAX" (the standard "ascending numbers" rule) and the other labeled "MED" ("any other number triples"). Two DG experiments are reported in which we manipulated the usefulness of a presented MED exemplar, where usefulness denotes cues that can establish a helpful "contrast class" that can stand in opposition to the presented 2-4-6 DAX exemplar. The usefulness of MED exemplars had a striking facilitatory effect on DAX rule discovery, which supports the importance of contrast-class information in hypothesis testing. A third experiment ruled out the possibility that the useful MED triple seeded the correct rule from the outset and obviated any need for hypothesis testing. We propose that an extension of Oaksford and Chater's (European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 6:149-169, 1994) iterative counterfactual model can neatly capture the mechanisms by which DG facilitation arises.

  8. Cultural hegemony? Educators' perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with 'cultural hegemony' that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is 'critical consciousness'. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations.

  9. Cultural hegemony? Educators’ perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Zaidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method: The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results: Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion: Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations.

  10. Cultural hegemony? Educators’ perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    Background We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations. PMID:27890048

  11. Developing and Evaluating Medical Humanities Problem-Based Learning Classes Facilitated by the Teaching Assistants Majored in the Liberal Arts: A Longitudinal Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Kao, Tze-Wah; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Although medical humanities courses taught by teachers from nonmedical backgrounds are not unusual now, few studies have compared the outcome of medical humanities courses facilitated by physicians to that by teaching assistants majored in the liberal arts. The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the satisfaction of medical students with medical humanities problem-based learning (PBL) classes facilitated by nonmedical teaching assistants (TAF) majored in the liberal arts, and those facilitated by the attending physicians (APF) and (2) examine the satisfaction of medical students with clinical medicine-related and clinical medicine-unrelated medical humanities PBL classes.A total of 123 medical students, randomly assigned to 16 groups, participated in this study. There were 16 classes in the course: 8 of them were TAF classes; and the others were APF classes. Each week, each group rotated from 1 subject of the 16 subjects of PBL to another subject. All of the 16 groups went through all the 16 subjects in the 2013 spring semester. We examined the medical students' satisfaction with each class, based on a rating score collected after each class was completed, using a scale from 0 (the lowest satisfaction) to 100 (the highest satisfaction). We also conducted multivariate linear regression analysis to examine the association between the independent variables and the students' satisfaction.Medical students were more satisfied with the TAF (91.35 ± 7.75) medical humanities PBL classes than APF (90.40 ± 8.42) medical humanities PBL classes (P = 0.01). Moreover, medical students were more satisfied with the clinical medicine-unrelated topics (92.00 ± 7.10) than the clinical medicine-related topics (90.36 ± 7.99) in the medical humanities PBL course (P = 0.01).This medical humanities PBL course, including nonmedical subjects and topics, and nonmedical teaching assistants from the liberal arts as class facilitators, was satisfactory. This

  12. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation is a professional journal of the Association of Psychology in Sport and Human Behaviour. It publishes a wide variety of original articles and reports relevant to cultural and sport behaviour, theoretical propositions, research outcomes ...

  13. Developing and Evaluating Medical Humanities Problem-Based Learning Classes Facilitated by the Teaching Assistants Majored in the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Kao, Tze-Wah; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although medical humanities courses taught by teachers from nonmedical backgrounds are not unusual now, few studies have compared the outcome of medical humanities courses facilitated by physicians to that by teaching assistants majored in the liberal arts. The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the satisfaction of medical students with medical humanities problem-based learning (PBL) classes facilitated by nonmedical teaching assistants (TAF) majored in the liberal arts, and those facilitated by the attending physicians (APF) and (2) examine the satisfaction of medical students with clinical medicine-related and clinical medicine-unrelated medical humanities PBL classes. A total of 123 medical students, randomly assigned to 16 groups, participated in this study. There were 16 classes in the course: 8 of them were TAF classes; and the others were APF classes. Each week, each group rotated from 1 subject of the 16 subjects of PBL to another subject. All of the 16 groups went through all the 16 subjects in the 2013 spring semester. We examined the medical students’ satisfaction with each class, based on a rating score collected after each class was completed, using a scale from 0 (the lowest satisfaction) to 100 (the highest satisfaction). We also conducted multivariate linear regression analysis to examine the association between the independent variables and the students’ satisfaction. Medical students were more satisfied with the TAF (91.35 ± 7.75) medical humanities PBL classes than APF (90.40 ± 8.42) medical humanities PBL classes (P = 0.01). Moreover, medical students were more satisfied with the clinical medicine-unrelated topics (92.00 ± 7.10) than the clinical medicine-related topics (90.36 ± 7.99) in the medical humanities PBL course (P = 0.01). This medical humanities PBL course, including nonmedical subjects and topics, and nonmedical teaching assistants from the liberal arts as class facilitators, was

  14. Facilitators and barriers experienced by federal cross-sector partners during the implementation of a healthy eating campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melissa Anne; Desroches, Sophie; Marquis, Marie; Turcotte, Mylène; Provencher, Véronique

    2017-09-01

    To identify facilitators and barriers that Health Canada's (HC) cross-sector partners experienced while implementing the Eat Well Campaign: Food Skills (EWC; 2013-2014) and describe how these experiences might differ according to distinct partner types. A qualitative study using hour-long semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with HC partners that were transcribed verbatim. Facilitators and barriers were identified inductively and analysed according partner types. Implementation of a national mass-media health education campaign. Twenty-one of HC's cross-sector partners (food retailers, media and health organizations) engaged in the EWC. Facilitators and barriers were grouped into seven major themes: operational elements, intervention factors, resources, collaborator traits, developer traits, partnership factors and target population factors. Four of these themes had dual roles as both facilitators and barriers (intervention factors, resources, collaborator traits and developer traits). Sub-themes identified as both facilitators and barriers illustrate the extent to which a facilitator can easily become a barrier. Partnership factors were unique facilitators, while operational and target population factors were unique barriers. Time was a barrier that was common to almost all partners regardless of partnership type. There appeared to be a greater degree of uniformity among facilitators, whereas barriers were more diverse and unique to the realities of specific types of partner. Collaborative planning will help public health organizations anticipate barriers unique to the realities of specific types of organizations. It will also prevent facilitators from becoming barriers. Advanced planning will help organizations manage time constraints and integrate activities, facilitating implementation.

  15. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class III gaming. 502.4 Section 502.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.4 Class III gaming. Class III gaming means all forms of gaming that are not class I gaming or class...

  16. Facilitation of syngeneic stem cell engraftment by anti-class I monoclonal antibody pretreatment of unirradiated recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voralia, M.; Semeluk, A.; Wegmann, T.G.

    1987-01-01

    We have established a murine model of syngeneic bone marrow transplantation based on the use of monoclonal antibody as the sole conditioning regimen in unirradiated recipients. Administration of a single injection of monoclonal antibody directed against major histocompatibility complex-encoded class I determinants facilitated permanent hemopoietic stem cell engraftment without any apparent side-effects. Whereas untreated hosts exhibited a maximal chimerism of 15% at donor cell doses of up to 12 X 10(7) bone marrow cells, pretreatment by 2 mg of anti-class I antibody one week prior to transplantation of 3 X 10(7) syngeneic bone marrow cells resulted in a mean donor representation of about 80%. The antibody can be given up to four weeks prior to transplantation, and the degree of donor engraftment observed is a function of the dose of antibody administered. The fact that specific antibody enhanced engraftment in two strain combinations indicates that antibody is the active agent in facilitating engraftment and that facilitation is not strain-restricted. Anti-class I antibodies of the IgG2a, but not IgG1, isotype are effective in promoting engraftment. Although the isotype requirement suggests a role for antibody-mediated cytotoxicity in promoting stem cell engraftment, the extensive time-frame of facilitation suggests that other effects of the antibody may also be involved. The model of syngeneic bone marrow transplantation we describe here will be useful in studying the mechanisms regulating stem cell engraftment and may have potential clinical application as an approach to autologous marrow transplantation

  17. A Latent Class Analysis of Weight-Related Health Behaviors among 2- and 4-year College Students, and Associated Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, C; Stigler, M; Lust, K; Laska, M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the complex patterning of weight-related health behaviors in 2- and 4-year college students. The objective of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of weight-related health behaviors among college youth. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogenous, mutually exclusive classes of nine health behaviors which represent multiple theoretically/clinically relevant dimensions of obesity risk among 2- versus 4-year college students using cross-sectional statewide surveillance data (n= 17,584). Additionally, differences in class membership on selected sociodemographic characteristics were examined using a model-based approach. Analysis was conducted separately for both college groups, and 5 and 4 classes were identified for 2-and 4-year college students, respectively. Four classes were similar across 2-and 4-year college groups and were characterized as “mostly healthy dietary habits, active”, “moderately high screen time, active”, “moderately healthy dietary habits, inactive”, and “moderately high screen time, inactive”. “Moderately healthy dietary habits, high screen time” was the additional class unique to 2-year college students. These classes differed on a number of sociodemographic characteristics, including the proportion in each class who were classified as obese. Implications for prevention scientists and future intervention programs are considered. PMID:24990599

  18. Teachers Class Size, Job Satisfaction and Morale in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied staff class size, job satisfaction and morale in some secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teacher class size and workload were used as independent variables while the dependent variables were students' academic performance, teacher satisfaction and morale. Out of the ...

  19. Cross-sensory facilitation reveals neural interactions between visual and tactile motion in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies show that the human brain integrates information across the different senses and that stimuli of one sensory modality can enhance the perception of other modalities. Here we study the processes that mediate cross-modal facilitation and summation between visual and tactile motion. We find that while summation produced a generic, non-specific improvement of thresholds, probably reflecting higher-order interaction of decision signals, facilitation reveals a strong, direction-specific interaction, which we believe reflects sensory interactions. We measured visual and tactile velocity discrimination thresholds over a wide range of base velocities and conditions. Thresholds for both visual and tactile stimuli showed the characteristic dipper function, with the minimum thresholds occurring at a given pedestal speed. When visual and tactile coherent stimuli were combined (summation condition the thresholds for these multi-sensory stimuli also showed a dipper function with the minimum thresholds occurring in a similar range to that for unisensory signals. However, the improvement of multisensory thresholds was weak and not directionally specific, well predicted by the maximum likelihood estimation model (agreeing with previous research. A different technique (facilitation did, however, reveal direction-specific enhancement. Adding a non-informative pedestal motion stimulus in one sensory modality (vision or touch selectively lowered thresholds in the other, by the same amount as pedestals in the same modality. Facilitation did not occur for neutral stimuli like sounds (that would also have reduced temporal uncertainty, nor for motion in opposite direction, even in blocked trials where the subjects knew that the motion was in the opposite direction showing that the facilitation was not under subject control. Cross-sensory facilitation is strong evidence for functionally relevant cross-sensory integration at early levels of sensory

  20. Facilitating cross-cultural adjustment : the case of North European expatriates in China

    OpenAIRE

    Reegård, Kine

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural adjustment is considered crucial for expatriate success. Such adjustment may be enhanced by providing the expatriates with the knowledge and awareness of norms and appropriate behaviours of the host country by means of cross-cultural training. Language training may also facilitate interaction with host nationals, thereby providing the expatriate with insight into the host country’s culture increase their understanding of the new environment. Further, cross-cultural training and...

  1. A Pilot Study: Facilitating Cross-Cultural Understanding with Project-Based Collaborative Learning in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated three aspects: how project-based collaborative learning facilitates cross-cultural understanding; how students perceive project-based collaborative learning implementation in a collaborative cyber community (3C) online environment; and what types of communication among students are used. A qualitative case study approach…

  2. Mathematical Models Suggest Facilitated Fatty Acids Crossing of the Luminal Membrane in the Cardiac Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Efrath

    2017-02-01

    Long-chain fatty acids cross a few membranes on their way from the capillary blood to the cardiomyocyte cytosol, where they are utilized as an essential source of energy. Details of the transport mechanism across those membranes remained elusive despite decades of laboratory and theoretical work. Here we inspect several optional scenarios for the crossing of the luminal membrane of the endothelial cell, the first barrier that should be crossed: a passive diffusion, facilitation by receptors for albumin and facilitation by fatty acids transporters. Related measured rate constants are incorporated in a theoretical simulation that is based on reaction-diffusion equations. Asymptotic analytical solutions for the resulting stiff boundary value problems are formulated based on singular perturbations theory. We conclude that a passive diffusion has to be supplemented with facilitation mechanisms in order to meet energy requirements. Binding sites for albumin, scattered on the membrane face, might enhance the flux provided that they internalize the captured fatty acids and speed up the dissociation of the albumin-fatty acids complex. As such enhancement is moderate, another mechanism seems to be essential for an adequate supply of fatty acids. Lack of experimental data prohibits us from computing the quantitative effect of membrane fatty acids transporters but their involvement in the membrane crossing is inferred.

  3. Poly-Cross-Linked PEI Through Aromatically Conjugated Imine Linkages as a New Class of pH-Responsive Nucleic Acids Packing Cationic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Jin, Tuo

    2016-01-01

    Cationic polyimines polymerized through aromatically conjugated bis-imine linkages and intra-molecular cross-linking were found to be a new class of effective transfection materials for their flexibility in structural optimization, responsiveness to intracellular environment, the ability to facilitate endosome escape and cytosol release of the nucleic acids, as well as self-metabolism. When three phthalaldehydes of different substitution positions were used to polymerize highly branched low-molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI 1.8K), the product through ortho-phthalimines (named PPOP) showed significantly higher transfection activity than its two tere- and iso-analogs (named PPTP and PPIP). Physicochemical characterization confirmed the similarity of three polyimines in pH-responded degradability, buffer capacity, as well as the size and Zeta potential of the polyplexes formed from the polymers. A mechanistic speculation may be that the ortho-positioned bis-imine linkage of PPOP may only lead to the straight trans-configuration due to steric hindrance, resulting in larger loops of intra-polymer cross-linking and more flexible backbone. PMID:26869931

  4. 27 CFR 4.34 - Class and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class and type. 4.34 Section 4.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.34 Class...

  5. Cross-Cultural Socialization at Tibetan Classes (Schools) in the Interior: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Longyan

    2010-01-01

    Education by means of the Tibetan Classes (schools) in "neidi," or China's interior regions (or the Tibet Class), was a creative measure in the history of China's ethnic minority education, and the cross-cultural growth and experiences of the Tibetan students as they went to school in China's interior regions was of special significance…

  6. High-definition transcranial direct-current stimulation of the right M1 further facilitates left M1 excitability during crossed facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibel, Vincent; Muthalib, Makii; Teo, Wei-Peng; Perrey, Stephane

    2018-04-01

    The crossed-facilitation (CF) effect refers to when motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked in the relaxed muscles of one arm are facilitated by contraction of the opposite arm. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-definition transcranial direct-current stimulation (HD-tDCS) applied to the right primary motor cortex (M1) controlling the left contracting arm [50% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)] would further facilitate CF toward the relaxed right arm. Seventeen healthy right-handed subjects participated in an anodal and cathodal or sham HD-tDCS session of the right M1 (2 mA for 20 min) separated by at least 48 h. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit MEPs and cortical silent periods (CSPs) from the left M1 at baseline and 10 min into and after right M1 HD-tDCS. At baseline, compared with resting, CF (i.e., right arm resting, left arm 50% MVIC) increased left M1 MEP amplitudes (+97%) and decreased CSPs (-11%). The main novel finding was that right M1 HD-tDCS further increased left M1 excitability (+28.3%) and inhibition (+21%) from baseline levels during CF of the left M1, with no difference between anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS sessions. No modulation of CSP or MEP was observed during sham HD-tDCS sessions. Our findings suggest that CF of the left M1 combined with right M1 anodal or cathodal HD-tDCS further facilitated interhemispheric interactions during CF from the right M1 (contracting left arm) toward the left M1 (relaxed right arm), with effects on both excitatory and inhibitory processing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows modulation of the nonstimulated left M1 by right M1 HD-tDCS combined with crossed facilitation, which was probably achieved through modulation of interhemispheric interactions.

  7. PDS4 Data Within the PSA — A Cross-Mission and Cross-Discipline Approach to a PDS4 Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T. L.; Martinez, S.; Coia, D.; Barbarisi, I.; Barthelemy, M.; Besse, S.; Fraga Agudo, D.; Grotheer, E.; Heather, D.; Vallat, C.

    2018-04-01

    The cross-mission and cross-discipline nature of the European Space Agency planetary science archive has led to a degree of standardization of PDS4 data structures and attributes housed by the archive demonstrating that the PDS core could adopt a similar approach.

  8. Iranian Nurses’ Views on Barriers and Facilitators in Patient Education: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanli, Somayeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a major factor in patient-centered care, patient education has a great impact on the quality of care provided by nurses; however, clinical nurses’ performance with regard to patient education is not satisfactory. This study is an attempt to investigate barriers and facilitators in patient education from nurses’ point of view. Methods: 122 nurses at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences participated in this descriptive-cross sectional study. Sampling was based on the census method. The questionnaire used to collect data included questions about nurses’ demography, barriers (10 questions), and facilitators (10 questions) in patient education. The questionnaire was designed to be completed independently. To analyze the data, the researchers used descriptive statistics, including frequency, mean and standard deviation. Results: The highest scores related to barriers to patient education were: nurses’ insufficient knowledge, patients’ physical and emotional unpreparedness, and lack of a proper environment for education. The most important facilitators, on the other hand, were: enhancement of instructing nurses’ knowledge and skills, motivating nurses, and a step-by-step approach to patient education. Conclusion: It is important that nurses be prepared and motivated to train their patients. By satisfactory patient education on the part of nurses, patients will be more willing to cooperate in the treatment process. PMID:26156926

  9. Iranian Nurses' Views on Barriers and Facilitators in Patient Education: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanli, Somayeh; Badiyepeymaie Jahromi, Zohreh

    2015-03-18

    As a major factor in patient-centered care, patient education has a great impact on the quality of care provided by nurses; however, clinical nurses' performance with regard to patient education is not satisfactory. This study is an attempt to investigate barriers and facilitators in patient education from nurses' point of view. 122 nurses at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences participated in this descriptive-cross sectional study. Sampling was based on the census method. The questionnaire used to collect data included questions about nurses' demography, barriers (10 questions), and facilitators (10 questions) in patient education. The questionnaire was designed to be completed independently. To analyze the data, the researchers used descriptive statistics, including frequency, mean and standard deviation. The highest scores related to barriers to patient education were: nurses' insufficient knowledge, patients' physical and emotional unpreparedness, and lack of a proper environment for education. The most important facilitators, on the other hand, were: enhancement of instructing nurses' knowledge and skills, motivating nurses, and a step-by-step approach to patient education. It is important that nurses be prepared and motivated to train their patients. By satisfactory patient education on the part of nurses, patients will be more willing to cooperate in the treatment process.

  10. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien who...

  11. Fas (CD95) expression and death-mediating function are induced by CD4 cross-linking on CD4+ T cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Desbarats, J; Freed, J H; Campbell, P A; Newell, M K

    1996-01-01

    The CD4 receptor contributes to T-cell activation by coligating major histocompatibility complex class II on antigen presenting cells with the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex, and triggering a cascade of signaling events including tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins. Paradoxically, CD3 cross-linking prior to TCR stimulation results in apoptotic cell death, as does injection of anti-CD4 antibodies in vivo of CD4 ligation by HIV glycoprotein (gp) 120. In this report we investig...

  12. Four Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurious Behavior among Chinese Adolescents: Findings from a Latent Class Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Xin

    Full Text Available Self-injurious behavior (SIB among adolescents is an important public health issue worldwide. It is still uncertain whether homogeneous subgroups of SIB can be identified and whether constellations of SIBs can co-occur due to the high heterogeneity of these behaviors. In this study, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a large school-based sample and latent class analysis was performed (n = 10,069, mean age = 15 years to identify SIB classes based on 11 indicators falling under direct SIB (DSIB, indirect SIB (ISIB, and suicide attempts (SAs. Social and psychological characteristics of each subgroup were examined after controlling for age and gender. Results showed that a four-class model best fit the data and each class had a distinct pattern of co-occurrence of SIBs and external measures. Class 4 (the baseline/normative group, 65.3% had a low probability of SIB. Class 3 (severe SIB group, 3.9% had a high probability of SIB and the poorest social and psychological status. Class 1 (DSIB+SA group, 14.2% had similar scores for external variables compared to class 3, and included a majority of girls [odds ratio (OR = 1.94]. Class 2 (ISIB group, 16.6% displayed moderate endorsement of ISIB items, and had a majority of boys and older adolescents (OR = 1.51. These findings suggest that SIB is a heterogeneous entity, but it may be best explained by four homogenous subgroups that display quantitative and qualitative differences. Findings in this study will improve our understanding on SIB and may facilitate the prevention and treatment of SIB.

  13. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section... CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D who is a: (a) Duly ordained minister of religion; or (b) Regular...

  14. An allosteric conduit facilitates dynamic multisite substrate recognition by the SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmok, Veronika; Orlicky, Stephen; Cheng, Jing; Song, Jianhui; Bah, Alaji; Delgoshaie, Neda; Lin, Hong; Mittag, Tanja; Sicheri, Frank; Chan, Hue Sun; Tyers, Mike; Forman-Kay, Julie D.

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitin ligase SCFCdc4 mediates phosphorylation-dependent elimination of numerous substrates by binding one or more Cdc4 phosphodegrons (CPDs). Methyl-based NMR analysis of the Cdc4 WD40 domain demonstrates that Cyclin E, Sic1 and Ash1 degrons have variable effects on the primary Cdc4WD40 binding pocket. Unexpectedly, a Sic1-derived multi-CPD substrate (pSic1) perturbs methyls around a previously documented allosteric binding site for the chemical inhibitor SCF-I2. NMR cross-saturation experiments confirm direct contact between pSic1 and the allosteric pocket. Phosphopeptide affinity measurements reveal negative allosteric communication between the primary CPD and allosteric pockets. Mathematical modelling indicates that the allosteric pocket may enhance ultrasensitivity by tethering pSic1 to Cdc4. These results suggest negative allosteric interaction between two distinct binding pockets on the Cdc4WD40 domain may facilitate dynamic exchange of multiple CPD sites to confer ultrasensitive dependence on substrate phosphorylation.

  15. 40 CFR 82.4 - Prohibitions for class I controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... violation of this subpart. Any person selling unused class I controlled substances produced or imported... substances. 82.4 Section 82.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prohibitions for class I controlled substances. (a)(1) Prior to January 1, 1996, for all Groups of class I...

  16. Pollution reduction technology program for class T4(JT8D) engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The technology required to develop commercial gas turbine engines with reduced exhaust emissions was demonstrated. Can-annular combustor systems for the JT8D engine family (EPA class T4) were investigated. The JT8D turbofan engine is an axial-flow, dual-spool, moderate-bypass-ratio design. It has a two-stage fan, a four-stage low-pressure compressor driven by a three-stage low-pressure turbine, and a seven-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage high-pressure turbine. A cross section of the JT8D-17 showing the mechanical configuration is given. Key specifications for this engine are listed.

  17. The status of the Hanaro class 4 power outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyungkyoo, K.; Hoansung, J.; Jongsup, W.

    2004-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plant. All who use electric power desire a perfect frequency, voltage stability, and reliability all the time. But this cannot be realized in practice because of the many causes of a power supply disturbance that are beyond the control of the utility. Since the first criticality of the Hanaro research reactor, the major reasons for reactor trips were system malfunctions and inexperienced operators in the initial stage of its operation. As Hanaro is stabilizing, the power supply outage becomes the major reason for a reactor trip. This paper describes the status of power supply outages. This paper deals with not only the outages which have an effect on Hanaro operation but also the reasons for the Hanaro class-4 power outages. The class-4 power is a commercial power which supplies the load centers and the large motors such as primary cooling pumps and secondary cooling pumps. Even if a class-4 power outage occurs, Hanaro is safe because of the reactor cooling by natural convection and the flywheel effect of the primary cooling pumps. The analysis of the characteristics and the trends of the outages can provide clues to how the outages can be minimized and what the impact of the outages are on the operation. For the site-wide class-4 power, the latest failure rate has been 2.36 per year and the mean time to repair is 23,78 minutes for the exponentially weighted mowing average. The unavailability of the Class-4 power is 1.5 10 -4

  18. A cross-sectional study of facilitators and barriers of Iranian nurses' participation in continuing education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2013-12-27

    Continuing education is one of the modern strategies to maintain and elevate knowledge and professional skills of nurses which in turn elevate the health status of society. Since several factors affect nurses' participation in continuing education, it's essential to know promoters and obstacles in this issue and plan accordingly. In this cross-sectional study, 361 Iranian nurses who were recruited by convenience sampling method completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire from October 2012 to April 2013. Topics covered the participants' attitudes towards facilitators and barriers of their participation in continuing education. Mean and standard deviation of participants ' age were 37.14±7.58 years and 93.94% were female. The maximum score of facilitators and barriers to nurses' participation in continuing education were related to "Update my knowledge" and "Work commitments" respectively. The results showed among Iranian nurses, the mean score of personal and structural barriers was significantly higher than the mean score of interpersonal ones (F=2122.66, peducation programs by enforcement of facilitators and reducing barriers focusing on the personal and structural barriers.

  19. A Valid Matérn Class of Cross-Covariance Functions for Multivariate Random Fields With Any Number of Components

    KAUST Repository

    Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a valid parametric family of cross-covariance functions for multivariate spatial random fields where each component has a covariance function from a well-celebrated Matérn class. Unlike previous attempts, our model indeed allows

  20. Occupational Social Class and Personality Traits in Relation to Leisure-Time Physical Activity Level: Cross-Sectional Results From the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gitte L; Mortensen, Erik L; Rod, Naja H; Lange, Theis; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Hansen, Åse M; Lund, Rikke

    2017-06-01

    To investigate separate and combined associations of occupational social class and personality traits with late midlife leisure-time physical activity duration and intensity. Cross-sectional data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank ( N = 4,649) were analyzed using linear regression models with leisure-time physical activity (metric equivalence) as outcome. Low versus high occupational social class was associated with 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [3%, 5%]) greater leisure-time physical activity duration, but 2% (CI = [1%, 3%]) lower intensity. Each 10-unit increase in extraversion was associated with 5% (CI = [2%, 8%]) greater duration. Intensity increased by each 10-unit increase in conscientiousness (6%, CI = [4%, 7%]), openness (3%, CI = [1%, 4%]), neuroticism (3%, CI = [1%, 4%]), and extraversion (5%, CI = [4%, 7%]). Conscientiousness was positively associated with duration in low, but not in high, occupational social class (interaction p value = .002). Higher occupational social class was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity duration, but higher intensity. Extraversion was positively associated with duration and intensity. Conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism were positively associated with intensity. Overall, interactions were not consistent.

  1. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  2. Race, ethnicity, language, social class, and health communication inequalities: a nationally-representative cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasisomayajula Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While mass media communications can be an important source of health information, there are substantial social disparities in health knowledge that may be related to media use. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of cancer-related health communications is patterned by race, ethnicity, language, and social class.In a nationally-representative cross-sectional telephone survey, 5,187 U.S. adults provided information about demographic characteristics, cancer information seeking, and attention to and trust in health information from television, radio, newspaper, magazines, and the Internet. Cancer information seeking was lowest among Spanish-speaking Hispanics (odds ratio: 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.63 compared to non-Hispanic whites. Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to pay attention to (odds ratio: 3.10; 95% confidence interval: 2.07-4.66 and trust (odds ratio: 2.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.53-4.47 health messages from the radio. Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to pay attention to (odds ratio: 2.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.88-3.04 and trust (odds ratio: 2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.61-2.90 health messages on television. Those who were college graduates tended to pay more attention to health information from newspapers (odds ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.75, magazines (odds ratio: 1.86; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.60, and the Internet (odds ratio: 4.74; 95% confidence interval: 2.70-8.31 and had less trust in cancer-related health information from television (odds ratio: 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.62 and radio (odds ratio: 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.86 compared to those who were not high school graduates.Health media use is patterned by race, ethnicity, language and social class. Providing greater access to and enhancing the quality of health media by taking into account factors associated with social

  3. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning

    OpenAIRE

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ?ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were ...

  4. A new class of spatially homogeneous 4D string backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Batakis, N A

    1995-01-01

    A new class of spatially homogeneous 4D string backgrounds, the X(d\\rightarrow) according to a recent classification, is presented and shown to contain only five generic types. In contrast to the case of X(d\\uparrow) (which contains as a subclass all possible FRW backgrounds), exact SO(3) isotropy is always broken in the X(d\\rightarrow) class. This is due to the H-field, whose dual is necessarily along a principal direction of anisotropy. Nevertheless, FRW symmetry can be attained asymptotically for Bianchi-types I and VII_0 in a rather appealing physical context. Other aspects of the solutions found for types X=I,II,III,VI_{-1}, and of the VII_0 case are briefly discussed.

  5. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey : a latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, SS; Dias, JG; Willekens, FJ

    Objective To investigate the degree of individual heterogeneity related to complex dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National

  6. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey: a latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, S.; Dias, J.; Willekens, F.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the degree of individual heterogeneity related to complex dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National

  7. Regioselective Wacker Oxidation of Internal Alkenes: Rapid Access to Functionalized Ketones Facilitated by Cross-Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill

    2013-07-26

    Wacka wacka: The title reaction makes use of a wide range of directing groups (DG) to enable the highly regioselective oxidation of alkenes, and occurs predictably at the distal position. Both E and Z alkenes afford valuable functionalized ketones and cross-metathesis was shown to facilitate the preparation of the starting materials. BQ=benzoquinone.

  8. Regioselective Wacker Oxidation of Internal Alkenes: Rapid Access to Functionalized Ketones Facilitated by Cross-Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill; Wickens, Zachary K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Wacka wacka: The title reaction makes use of a wide range of directing groups (DG) to enable the highly regioselective oxidation of alkenes, and occurs predictably at the distal position. Both E and Z alkenes afford valuable functionalized ketones and cross-metathesis was shown to facilitate the preparation of the starting materials. BQ=benzoquinone.

  9. Learning Geomorphology Using Aerial Photography in a Web-Facilitated Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R. Evan

    2013-01-01

    General education students taking freshman-level physical geography and geomorphology classes at Arizona State University completed an online laboratory whose main tool was Google Earth. Early in the semester, oblique and planimetric views introduced students to a few volcanic, tectonic, glacial, karst, and coastal landforms. Semi-quantitative…

  10. Cross-spectrum symbol synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallister, R. D.; Simon, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    A popular method of symbol synchronization exploits one aspect of generalized harmonic analysis, normally referred to as the cross-spectrum. Utilizing nonlinear techniques, the input symbol energy is effectively concentrated onto multiples of the symbol clock frequency, facilitating application of conventional phase lock synchronization techniques. A general treatment of the cross-spectrum technique is developed and shown to be applicable across a broad class of symbol modulation formats. An important specific symbol synchronization application is then treated, focusing the general development to provide both insight and quantitative measure of the performance impact associated with variation in these key synchronization parameters: symbol modulation format, symbol transition probability, symbol energy to noise density ratio, and symbol rate to filter bandwidth ratio.

  11. 32 CFR 1630.42 - Class 4-C: Alien or dual national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-C: Alien or dual national. 1630.42... CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.42 Class 4-C: Alien or dual national. In Class 4-C shall be placed any registrant who... service in the United States. (b) Is an alien and who has departed from the United States prior to being...

  12. Class III orthognathic surgical cases facilitated by accelerated osteogenic orthodontics: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, JiaQi; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Jiang, JiuHui

    2015-11-01

    To describe a multidisciplinary treatment approach that includes corticotomy, orthodontic force and orthognathic surgery for the management of skeletal Class III surgical cases. The main advantage of the combined techniques is a reduction in treatment time for young adult patients. Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (AOO) was delivered to three young adult patients during their pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. After aligning and levelling the dental arches, a piezosurgical corticotomy was performed to the buccal aspect of the alveolar bone. Bone graft materials were used to cover the decorticated area and soft tissue flaps were replaced. The mean time for extraction space closure was 5.4 ± 1.3 months and the mean time for pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was 12.0 ± 0.9 months. The average total treatment time was 20.4 ± 2.4 months. A pre-existing bony fenestration in the buccal cortex adjacent to the right lateral incisor root apex of Case 1 was corrected. The facial aesthetics of three patients improved following multidisciplinary treatment. This approach may be an efficient method for the orthognathic patient who desires a reduced treatment time, but further clinical research is required.

  13. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV...

  14. Some fundamental considerations on the dynamics of class B laser threshold crossing

    OpenAIRE

    Puccioni, G. P.; Wang, T.; Lippi, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    With the help of a simple rate equation model, we analyze the intrinsic dynamics of threshold crossing for Class B lasers. A thorough discussion of the characteristics and the limitations of this very commonly employed model, which provides excellent qualitative predictions on the laser behaviour, is offered. Approximate solutions for the population inversion and for the field intensity, up to the point where the latter reaches macroscopic levels, are found and discussed, together with the as...

  15. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified in...

  16. Diminutives facilitate word segmentation in natural speech: cross-linguistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J; Gillis, Steven; Samson, Graham

    2007-06-01

    Final-syllable invariance is characteristic of diminutives (e.g., doggie), which are a pervasive feature of the child-directed speech registers of many languages. Invariance in word endings has been shown to facilitate word segmentation (Kempe, Brooks, & Gillis, 2005) in an incidental-learning paradigm in which synthesized Dutch pseudonouns were used. To broaden the cross-linguistic evidence for this invariance effect and to increase its ecological validity, adult English speakers (n=276) were exposed to naturally spoken Dutch or Russian pseudonouns presented in sentence contexts. A forced choice test was given to assess target recognition, with foils comprising unfamiliar syllable combinations in Experiments 1 and 2 and syllable combinations straddling word boundaries in Experiment 3. A control group (n=210) received the recognition test with no prior exposure to targets. Recognition performance improved with increasing final-syllable rhyme invariance, with larger increases for the experimental group. This confirms that word ending invariance is a valid segmentation cue in artificial, as well as naturalistic, speech and that diminutives may aid segmentation in a number of languages.

  17. In Search of Cross-Talk Facilitation in a Dual-Cued Recall Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Timothy C.; Bajic, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Despite earlier evidence that the presence of 2 redundant cues can facilitate activation of a common response, T. C. Rickard and D. Bajic (2004) found no dual-cue facilitation in the case of cued recall, provided that each cue-response association was learned independently. In this study the authors investigated the generality of their results…

  18. A Novel Design of 4-Class BCI Using Two Binary Classifiers and Parallel Mental Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Geng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel 4-class single-trial brain computer interface (BCI based on two (rather than four or more binary linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifiers is proposed, which is called a “parallel BCI.” Unlike other BCIs where mental tasks are executed and classified in a serial way one after another, the parallel BCI uses properly designed parallel mental tasks that are executed on both sides of the subject body simultaneously, which is the main novelty of the BCI paradigm used in our experiments. Each of the two binary classifiers only classifies the mental tasks executed on one side of the subject body, and the results of the two binary classifiers are combined to give the result of the 4-class BCI. Data was recorded in experiments with both real movement and motor imagery in 3 able-bodied subjects. Artifacts were not detected or removed. Offline analysis has shown that, in some subjects, the parallel BCI can generate a higher accuracy than a conventional 4-class BCI, although both of them have used the same feature selection and classification algorithms.

  19. EphA4 defines a class of excitatory locomotor-related interneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, S. J B; Lundfald, Line; Kiehn, Ole

    2005-01-01

    of these interneurons provide direct excitation to ipsilateral motor neurons as determined by spike-triggered averaging of the local ventral root DC trace. Our findings substantiate the role of EphA4-positive interneurons as significant components of the ipsilateral locomotor network and describe a group of putative...... of the role of these cells in the network. One such marker is the EphA4 axon guidance receptor. EphA4-null mice display an abnormal rabbit-like hopping gait that is thought to be the result of synchronization of the normally alternating, bilateral locomotor network via aberrant crossed connections....... In this study, we have performed whole-cell patch clamp on EphA4-positive interneurons in the flexor region (L2) of the locomotor network. We provide evidence that although EphA4 positive interneurons are not entirely a homogeneous population, most of them fire in a rhythmic manner. Moreover, a subset...

  20. CrossLink: a novel method for cross-condition classification of cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chifeng; Sastry, Konduru S; Flore, Mario; Gehani, Salah; Al-Bozom, Issam; Feng, Yusheng; Serpedin, Erchin; Chouchane, Lotfi; Chen, Yidong; Huang, Yufei

    2016-08-22

    We considered the prediction of cancer classes (e.g. subtypes) using patient gene expression profiles that contain both systematic and condition-specific biases when compared with the training reference dataset. The conventional normalization-based approaches cannot guarantee that the gene signatures in the reference and prediction datasets always have the same distribution for all different conditions as the class-specific gene signatures change with the condition. Therefore, the trained classifier would work well under one condition but not under another. To address the problem of current normalization approaches, we propose a novel algorithm called CrossLink (CL). CL recognizes that there is no universal, condition-independent normalization mapping of signatures. In contrast, it exploits the fact that the signature is unique to its associated class under any condition and thus employs an unsupervised clustering algorithm to discover this unique signature. We assessed the performance of CL for cross-condition predictions of PAM50 subtypes of breast cancer by using a simulated dataset modeled after TCGA BRCA tumor samples with a cross-validation scheme, and datasets with known and unknown PAM50 classification. CL achieved prediction accuracy >73 %, highest among other methods we evaluated. We also applied the algorithm to a set of breast cancer tumors derived from Arabic population to assign a PAM50 classification to each tumor based on their gene expression profiles. A novel algorithm CrossLink for cross-condition prediction of cancer classes was proposed. In all test datasets, CL showed robust and consistent improvement in prediction performance over other state-of-the-art normalization and classification algorithms.

  1. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  2. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  3. A cross-sectional investigation of parenting style and friendship as mediators of the relation between social class and mental health in a university community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Kelly, Benjamin M

    2015-10-05

    This study tested a novel explanation for the positive relation between social class and mental health among university students. Students with a higher social class were expected to have experienced more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles; these parenting styles were expected to lead to greater friendship and social integration at university; and greater friendship and integration were expected to lead to better mental health. To test this model, the researchers asked 397 Australian undergraduate students to complete an online survey. The research used a cross-sectional correlational design, and the data was analysed using bootstrapped multiple serial mediation tests. Consistent with predictions, parenting style, general friendship and support, and social integration at university mediated the relation between social class and mental health. The present results suggest that working-class parenting styles may inhibit the development of socially-supportive friendships that protect against mental health problems. The potential effectiveness of interventions based on (a) social integration and (b) parenting style is discussed. Future research in this area should employ a longitudinal research design in order to arrive at clearer causal conclusions about the relations between social class, parenting styles, friendship, social integration, and mental health.

  4. Using Collaborative Technology in CS Education to facilitate Cross-Site Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Devlin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available With offshore computing becoming more prevalent, it is essential that we increase our students' employability by providing new and relevant experiences in software development and project management; giving them valuable skills that are essential in an ever-increasing and changing global market. What is new about the work we discuss here is how collaborative technologies have facilitated a year-long cross-site software engineering project between Durham University and Newcastle University students. Our use of various collaboration technologies such as online discussion forums, video-conferencing, company repositories, version control software etc., as part of the collaborative team project has not only encouraged students to develop technical 'transferable' skills but also gain an understanding, through realistic experiences, of how the use of these technologies involves more than just learning their technical aspects and operation, but that it is essential to develop and implement the soft processes and skills required to use them successfully and effectively and hence optimize their cross-site working partnerships and productivity. In this paper we describe the project, the technologies employed by the student teams and the results and anecdotal evidence of staff and students that show the successes and, it must be admitted, occasional failures of this work. We discuss how we have tried to manage the expectations of the students throughout the project, how the technologies we have provided have affected the students' experience of cross-site collaboration and the impact of crosssite collaboration on our assessment strategies and curriculum design.

  5. How far can we explain the social class differential in respiratory function? A cross-sectional population study of 21,991 men and women from EPIC-Norfolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, Emily; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the association between occupational social class and respiratory function, as measured by forced expiratory volume in one-second (FEV 1 ). We examined the cross sectional relationship between lung function and social class in a population study of 21,991 men and women aged 39-79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993-1997. There was a significant socioeconomic gradient in age adjusted lung function with a difference of 0.37 in mean FEV 1 in men and 0.20 in women, respectively between social class I and V. The age adjusted OR for having poor lung function was 4.13 (95% CI 2.66-6.42) in men and 2.64 (95% CI 1.74-3.99) in women for social class V compared to I. This difference was substantially attenuated after adjustment for height, weight, smoking status, respiratory illness, educational level, living in a deprived area, physical activity and plasma vitamin C levels. There was a strong socioeconomic gradient in respiratory function. In men the gradient appeared to be largely explained by smoking status and height; in women a large part of the gradient was explained by potentially modifiable factors. This suggests that socioeconomic inequalities in respiratory function may be preventable or modifiable and highlights factors for further exploration

  6. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite.

  7. Mechanical properties of ASTM A508 Class 4 steel used in the LWBR closure head and support flange (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.M.; Hall, J.F.

    1978-07-01

    The LWBR closure head and support flange are manufactured from forgings of ASTM A508 Class 4 steel rather than the ASTM A508 Class 2 forging material more commonly used in reactor vessels and closure heads. Forgings involved were approximately 300,000 pounds and 46,000 pounds. The extensive material test program conducted on ASTM A508 Class 4 LWBR forgings is described. The results of the tests confirm that the A508 Class 4 material used for the LWBR forgings has been quite good through thickness, fracture toughness, and strength properties and fully meet all specified requirements

  8. The role of CD4+ T cells in cell-mediated immunity to LCMV: studies in MHC class I and class II deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1994-01-01

    Parameters of the virus-specific T-cell response were analysed in order to dissect the contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to cell-mediated immunity to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. In MHC class II deficient mice, initial T-cell responsiveness was not impaired, but virus clearance...... was delayed, and virus-specific Td activity declined more rapidly. Furthermore, class I restricted Tc memory appeared to be impaired in these mice. To directly evaluate the role of CD4+ cells in virus clearance and T-cell mediated inflammation, MHC class I deficient mice were also studied. No virus...... exudate. This low-grade response was associated with some degree of virus control as organ titres were lower in these animals than in matched T-cell deficient nu/nu mice or class I deficient mice treated with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. This confirms that CD4+ cells are not needed to induce a virus...

  9. Using Text Mining to Characterize Online Discussion Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Norma; Baumer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating class discussions effectively is a critical yet challenging component of instruction, particularly in online environments where student and faculty interaction is limited. Our goals in this research were to identify facilitation strategies that encourage productive discussion, and to explore text mining techniques that can help…

  10. Fitness levels and physical activity among class A drug users entering prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jan; Butt, Christine; Dawes, Helen; Foster, Charlie; Neale, Joanne; Plugge, Emma; Wheeler, Carly; Wright, Nat

    2012-12-01

    Physical activity could benefit drug users' physiological and mental health. Previous research has suggested that physical activity levels change when drug users enter prison. Twenty-five class A drug users who were new to prison answered physical activity and drug use cross-sectional questionnaires, took a submaximal fitness test and wore a pedometer for 1 week. Participants' mean aerobic capacity was estimated as 49 mls O2/kg/min (±12 SD). Their mean self-reported walking distance outside of prison was 4.67 miles on an average day (±4.14 SD). Pedometer data suggest they walked a mean of 1.8 miles/day in prison. Many class A drug users entering prison had high levels of fitness and physical activity before admission, often gained from walking. Walking activity reduced when they entered prison, posing a challenge to maintaining healthy activity levels.

  11. ClusterSignificance: A bioconductor package facilitating statistical analysis of class cluster separations in dimensionality reduced data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serviss, Jason T.; Gådin, Jesper R.; Eriksson, Per

    2017-01-01

    , e.g. genes in a specific pathway, alone can separate samples into these established classes. Despite this, the evaluation of class separations is often subjective and performed via visualization. Here we present the ClusterSignificance package; a set of tools designed to assess the statistical...... significance of class separations downstream of dimensionality reduction algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate the design and utility of the ClusterSignificance package and utilize it to determine the importance of long non-coding RNA expression in the identity of multiple hematological malignancies....

  12. Cross-linking BioThings APIs through JSON-LD to facilitate knowledge exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jiwen; Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Lelong, Sebastien; Adesara, Julee; Tsueng, Ginger; Su, Andrew I; Wu, Chunlei

    2018-02-01

    Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are now widely used to distribute biological data. And many popular biological APIs developed by many different research teams have adopted Javascript Object Notation (JSON) as their primary data format. While usage of a common data format offers significant advantages, that alone is not sufficient for rich integrative queries across APIs. Here, we have implemented JSON for Linking Data (JSON-LD) technology on the BioThings APIs that we have developed, MyGene.info , MyVariant.info and MyChem.info . JSON-LD provides a standard way to add semantic context to the existing JSON data structure, for the purpose of enhancing the interoperability between APIs. We demonstrated several use cases that were facilitated by semantic annotations using JSON-LD, including simpler and more precise query capabilities as well as API cross-linking. We believe that this pattern offers a generalizable solution for interoperability of APIs in the life sciences.

  13. Using Technology to Facilitate Grading Consistency in Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Abby; Neale, Larry

    2012-01-01

    University classes in marketing are often large and therefore require teams of teachers to cover all of the necessary activities. A major problem with teaching teams is the inconsistency that results from myriad individuals offering subjective opinions (Preston 1997). This innovation uses the latest moderation techniques along with Audience…

  14. Biography of Aureal T. Cross: World class coal geologist, palynologist, paleobotanist and educator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Tom L. [Department of Plant Biology, School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2007-01-02

    An Ohioan by birth, June 4, 1916, in Findlay, Hancock County, Aureal T. Cross grew up an Iowan on a dairy farm near Waterloo at Castle Hill. He was the second of five children of Congregational Minister Raymond W. and Mrs. Myra Jane Coon Cross. Aureal's grade school education was mostly in a one-room school at Castle Hill, then to East Waterloo, junior high and high school, where music was as important as farm work before and after classes. On a history and music scholarship at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Aureal was drawn to L. R. Wilson's physical geology course and the summer reconnaissance trips. Graduating from Coe College in 1939 with an honors thesis on pollen analysis, Aureal completed his Masters in 1941 and a PhD thesis in 1943 at the University of Cincinnati with J. H. Hoskins on Pennsylvanian age plants from coal-balls. During 1942-1946 he taught premedical U.S. Navy students at the University of Notre Dame with a 1943-1944 leave as a National Research Council Fellow. Aureal and Christina Aleen Teyssier met during 1943 in Pittsburgh and married in 1945. Aureal replaced K. E. Caster, his paleontology mentor, for three and one half years (1946-1949) in the Geology Department at Cincinnati, and did field mapping for the Ohio Geological Survey during the summers. Cross established (1949-1957) productive graduate training and research programs in the West Virginia University Geology Department and the West Virginia Geologic and Economic Survey where he had dual appointments. His move (1957-1961) to Exploration Geology, at Amoco's Pan American Petroleum Corporation Research Center in Tulsa, Oklahoma, permitted him to develop and supervise a major palynological research group. The return to academia (1961) at Michigan State University in East Lansing resulted in one of the most comprehensive graduate training programs in paleobotany, palynology, biostratigraphy and paleoecology in North America. Although Aureal Cross officially retired in 1986

  15. 2D CFT blocks for the 4D class Sk theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, Vladimir; Pomoni, Elli

    2017-03-01

    This is the first in a series of papers on the search for the 2D CFT description of a large class of 4D N=1 gauge theories. Here, we identify the 2D CFT symmetry algebra and its representations, namely the conformal blocks of the Virasoro/W-algebra, that underlie the 2D theory and reproduce the Seiberg-Witten curves of the N=1 gauge theories. We find that the blocks corresponding to the SU(N) S k gauge theories involve fields in certain non-unitary representations of the W kN algebra. These conformal blocks give a prediction for the instanton partition functions of the 4D N=1 SCFTs of class S k .

  16. Circumvention of regulatory CD4(+) T cell activity during cross-priming strongly enhances T cell-mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Antje; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Lahl, Katharina; Neuenhahn, Michael; Schmitz, Frank; Anderl, Florian; Wagner, Hermann; Sparwasser, Tim; Busch, Dirk H; Kastenmüller, Kathrin

    2008-06-01

    Immunization with purified antigens is a safe and practical vaccination strategy but is generally unable to induce sustained CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection against intracellular pathogens. Most efforts to improve the CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines have focused on co-administration of adjuvant to support cross-presentation and dendritic cell maturation. In addition, it has been shown that CD4(+) T cell help during the priming phase contributes to the generation of protective CD8(+) memory T cells. In this report we demonstrate that the depletion of CD4(+) T cells paradoxically enhances long-lasting CD8-mediated protective immunity upon protein vaccination. Functional and genetic in vivo inactivation experiments attribute this enhancement primarily to MHC class II-restricted CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), which appear to physiologically suppress the differentiation process towards long-living effector memory T cells. Since, in functional terms, this suppression by Treg largely exceeds the positive effects of conventional CD4(+) T cell help, even the absence of all CD4(+) T cells or lack of MHC class II-mediated interactions on priming dendritic cells result in enhanced CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity. These findings have important implications for the improvement of vaccines against intracellular pathogens or tumors, especially in patients with highly active Treg.

  17. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  18. Facilitating Community-Based Exercise for People With Stroke: Cross-Sectional e-Survey of Physical Therapist Practice and Perceived Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carrie; Chitussi, Danielle; Elliot, Sarah; Giannone, Jennifer; McMahon, Mary-Katherine; Sibley, Kathryn M; Tee, Alda; Matthews, Julie; Salbach, Nancy M

    2016-04-01

    Educating people with stroke about community-based exercise programs (CBEPs) is a recommended practice that physical therapists are well positioned to implement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the provision of education about CBEPs to people with stroke, barriers to providing education, and preferences for resources to facilitate education among physical therapists in neurological practice. A cross-sectional e-survey of physical therapists treating adults with stroke in Ontario, Canada, was conducted. A link to the questionnaire was emailed to physical therapists in a provincial stroke network, a provincial physical therapy association, and on hospital and previous research lists. Responses from 186 physical therapists were analyzed. The percentage of respondents who reported providing CBEP education was 84.4%. Only 36.6% reported typically providing education to ≥7 out of 10 patients with stroke. Physical (90.5%) and preventative (84.6%) health benefits of exercise were most frequently discussed. Therapists reported most commonly delivering education at discharge (73.7%). Most frequently cited barriers to educating patients were a perceived lack of suitable programs (53.2%) and a lack of awareness of local CBEPs (23.8%). Lists of CBEPs (94.1%) or brochures (94.1%) were considered to be facilitators. The percentage of physical therapists providing CBEP education varied across acute, rehabilitation, and public outpatient settings. The percentage of physical therapists providing education may have been overestimated if respondents who deliver CBEP education were more likely to participate and if participants answered in a socially desirable way. Even though a high proportion of physical therapists provide CBEP education, education is not consistently delivered to the majority of patients poststroke. Although a CBEP list or brochure would facilitate education regarding existing CBEPs, efforts to implement CBEPs are needed to help overcome the lack of suitable

  19. A Working Class Girl Re-searching “Going Home” - Growing up Working Class Becoming a Research Scholar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena

    trajectory. A social trajectory crossing social classes. Traveling back and forth between the social field of the blacksmiths and the social field within academia confronts me with a feeling of being an insider and outsider in both social contexts simultaneously. During the process I become aware of how...... the concept of upward mobility (which my trajectory would be defined as) provokes and makes me ask: Was what I came from something bad? Something I had to move away/escape from? How does a possible social class inferiority inform my observations and analysis? And what does it mean for my future moves within...

  20. Cas4 Facilitates PAM-Compatible Spacer Selection during CRISPR Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian N. Kieper; Cristóbal Almendros; Juliane Behler; Rebecca E. McKenzie; Franklin L. Nobrega; Anna C. Haagsma; Jochem N.A. Vink; Wolfgang R. Hess; Stan J.J. Brouns

    2018-01-01

    Summary: CRISPR-Cas systems adapt their immunological memory against their invaders by integrating short DNA fragments into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci. While Cas1 and Cas2 make up the core machinery of the CRISPR integration process, various class I and II CRISPR-Cas systems encode Cas4 proteins for which the role is unknown. Here, we introduced the CRISPR adaptation genes cas1, cas2, and cas4 from the type I-D CRISPR-Cas system of Synechocystis sp....

  1. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, S?rgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Methods Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes we...

  2. Using Mobile Devices to Facilitate Student Questioning in a Large Undergraduate Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; Burgin, Stephen R.; De Paor, Declan G.; Gregory, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    Asking scientific questions is the first practice of science and engineering listed in the Next Generation Science Standards. However, getting students to ask unsolicited questions in a large class can be difficult. In this qualitative study, undergraduate students sent SMS text messages to the instructor who received them on his mobile phone and…

  3. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Somogyi, Gabor; Trocsanyi, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of [1-4], over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

  4. Computer classes and games in virtual reality environment to reduce loneliness among students of an elderly reference center: Study protocol for a randomised cross-over design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Thaiany Pedrozo Campos; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle de; Crocetta, Tania Brusque; Antão, Jennifer Yohanna Ferreira de Lima; Barbosa, Renata Thais de Almeida; Guarnieri, Regiani; Massetti, Thais; Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de Mello; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2017-03-01

    Physical and mental changes associated with aging commonly lead to a decrease in communication capacity, reducing social interactions and increasing loneliness. Computer classes for older adults make significant contributions to social and cognitive aspects of aging. Games in a virtual reality (VR) environment stimulate the practice of communicative and cognitive skills and might also bring benefits to older adults. Furthermore, it might help to initiate their contact to the modern technology. The purpose of this study protocol is to evaluate the effects of practicing VR games during computer classes on the level of loneliness of students of an elderly reference center. This study will be a prospective longitudinal study with a randomised cross-over design, with subjects aged 50 years and older, of both genders, spontaneously enrolled in computer classes for beginners. Data collection will be done in 3 moments: moment 0 (T0) - at baseline; moment 1 (T1) - after 8 typical computer classes; and moment 2 (T2) - after 8 computer classes which include 15 minutes for practicing games in VR environment. A characterization questionnaire, the short version of the Short Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (SELSA-S) and 3 games with VR (Random, MoviLetrando, and Reaction Time) will be used. For the intervention phase 4 other games will be used: Coincident Timing, Motor Skill Analyser, Labyrinth, and Fitts. The statistical analysis will compare the evolution in loneliness perception, performance, and reaction time during the practice of the games between the 3 moments of data collection. Performance and reaction time during the practice of the games will also be correlated to the loneliness perception. The protocol is approved by the host institution's ethics committee under the number 52305215.3.0000.0082. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journal articles and conferences. This clinical trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  5. Cross section and asymmetry parameter calculations for the C 1s photoionization of CH4, CF4, and CCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalense, Alexandra P. P.; Brescansin, Luiz M.; Lucchese, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    We have computed cross sections and asymmetry parameters for the C 1s photoionization of CX 4 (X=H, F, Cl) using the Schwinger variational method with Pade corrections. We present a comparative study that shows the influence of the identity of the X atom on the computed cross sections. Predicted cross sections are in good agreement with available photoionization and photoabsorption experimental data. We conclude that the presence of heavy outer atoms produces resonance structures in the photoionization cross sections and in the asymmetry parameters. We find a single nonvalence resonant state in the photoionization of CF 4 and multiple resonances in CCl 4 that have significant d-orbital character in the vicinity of the Cl atoms

  6. Inhibition of MHC class I is a virulence factor in herpes simplex virus infection of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T Orr

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV has a number of genes devoted to immune evasion. One such gene, ICP47, binds to the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP 1/2 thereby preventing transport of viral peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum, loading of peptides onto nascent major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I molecules, and presentation of peptides to CD8 T cells. However, ICP47 binds poorly to murine TAP1/2 and so inhibits antigen presentation by MHC class I in mice much less efficiently than in humans, limiting the utility of murine models to address the importance of MHC class I inhibition in HSV immunopathogenesis. To address this limitation, we generated recombinant HSVs that efficiently inhibit antigen presentation by murine MHC class I. These recombinant viruses prevented cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing of infected cells in vitro, replicated to higher titers in the central nervous system, and induced paralysis more frequently than control HSV. This increase in virulence was due to inhibition of antigen presentation to CD8 T cells, since these differences were not evident in MHC class I-deficient mice or in mice in which CD8 T cells were depleted. Inhibition of MHC class I by the recombinant viruses did not impair the induction of the HSV-specific CD8 T-cell response, indicating that cross-presentation is the principal mechanism by which HSV-specific CD8 T cells are induced. This inhibition in turn facilitates greater viral entry, replication, and/or survival in the central nervous system, leading to an increased incidence of paralysis.

  7. 32 CFR 1630.48 - Class 4-A-A: Registrant who has performed military service for a foreign nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... military service for a foreign nation. 1630.48 Section 1630.48 National Defense Other Regulations Relating... who has performed military service for a foreign nation. In Class 4-A-A shall be placed any registrant... be written in the English language. [52 FR 24456, July 1, 1987] ...

  8. Teacher’s Mathematical Communication Profile in Facilitating and Guiding Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, R.; Budayasa, I. K.; Suwarsono, St.

    2018-01-01

    Teacher’s communication skill plays an important role, one of which is to guide a class discussion for teaching purposes. This study aimed to investigate a teacher’s mathematical communication profile in facilitating and guiding a class discussion. This study is qualitative. A junior teacher of high school (i.e., a teacher with 1 to 5 year teaching experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teacher’s mathematical communication in facilitating and guiding a discussion with the rules of sinus as the teaching material, and it was followed by a deep interview. The result showed that the junior teacher facilitated and guided a class discussion include providing responses (answer) addressing students’ difficulties and providing chances for students to propose and explain their ideas and be active in discussion. The junior teacher provides responses at sharp, optimal, and specific manner. In addition, she provides chances for her students to explain their thinking and have a discussion in anticipative, observative, selective, and connective manner. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers develop mathematical communication skills and use them to develop students’ mathematical communication skills.

  9. Are white evangelical Protestants lower class? A partial test of church-sect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadel, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Testing hypotheses derived from church-sect theory and contemporary research about changes in evangelical Protestants' social status, I use repeated cross-sectional survey data spanning almost four decades to examine changes in the social-class hierarchy of American religious traditions. While there is little change in the social-class position of white evangelical Protestants from the early 1970s to 2010, there is considerable change across birth cohorts. Results from hierarchical age-period-cohort models show: (1) robust, across-cohort declines in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and liberal Protestants, affiliates of "other" religions, and the unaffiliated, (2) stability in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and moderate, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Protestants, (3) moderate across-cohort growth in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and Catholics, and (4) these patterns vary across indicators of social class. The findings in this article provide partial support for church-sect theory as well as other theories of social change that emphasize the pivotal role of generations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-rated health in different social classes of Slovenian adult population: nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Jerneja; Pahor, Majda; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2011-02-01

    Self-rated health can be influenced by several characteristics of the social environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-rated health and self-assessed social class in Slovenian adult population. The study was based on the Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention Health Monitor database. During 2004, 8,741/15,297 (57.1%) participants aged 25-64 years returned posted self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted estimates of association between poor self-rated health and self-assessed social class. Poor self-rated health was reported by 9.6% of participants with a decrease from lower to upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class (35.9 vs. 3.7%). Logistic regression showed significant association between self-rated health and all self-assessed social classes. In an adjusted model, poor self-rated health remained associated with self-assessed social class (odds ratio for lower vs. upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class 4.23, 95% confidence interval 2.46-7.25; P social classes. Participants from lower self-assessed social class reported poor self-rated health most often and should comprise the focus of multisectoral interventions.

  11. Identification and validation of a gene causing cross-resistance between insecticide classes in Anopheles gambiae from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara N; Stevenson, Bradley J; Müller, Pie; Wilding, Craig S; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Field, Stuart G; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J I; Ranson, Hilary; Donnelly, Martin James

    2012-04-17

    In the last decade there have been marked reductions in malaria incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Sustaining these reductions will rely upon insecticides to control the mosquito malaria vectors. We report that in the primary African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, a single enzyme, CYP6M2, confers resistance to two classes of insecticide. This is unique evidence in a disease vector of cross-resistance associated with a single metabolic gene that simultaneously reduces the efficacy of two of the four classes of insecticide routinely used for malaria control. The gene-expression profile of a highly DDT-resistant population of A. gambiae s.s. from Ghana was characterized using a unique whole-genome microarray. A number of genes were significantly overexpressed compared with two susceptible West African colonies, including genes from metabolic families previously linked to insecticide resistance. One of the most significantly overexpressed probe groups (false-discovery rate-adjusted P P450 gene CYP6M2. This gene is associated with pyrethroid resistance in wild A. gambiae s.s. populations) and can metabolize both type I and type II pyrethroids in recombinant protein assays. Using in vitro assays we show that recombinant CYP6M2 is also capable of metabolizing the organochlorine insecticide DDT in the presence of solubilizing factor sodium cholate.

  12. A three-dimensional soft tissue analysis of Class III malocclusion: a case-controlled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Ama; Chaggar, Amrit; Zou, Li Fong

    2018-03-01

    The present study used the optical surface laser scanning technique to compare the facial features of patients aged 8-18 years presenting with Class I and Class III incisor relationship in a case-control design. Subjects with a Class III incisor relationship, aged 8-18 years, were age and gender matched with Class I control and underwent a 3-dimensional (3-D) optical surface scan of the facial soft tissues. Landmark analysis revealed Class III subjects displayed greater mean dimensions compared to the control group most notably between the ages of 8-10 and 17-18 years in both males and females, in respect of antero-posterior (P = 0.01) and vertical (P = 0.006) facial dimensions. Surface-based analysis, revealed the greatest difference in the lower facial region, followed by the mid-face, whilst the upper face remained fairly consistent. Significant detectable differences were found in the surface facial features of developing Class III subjects.

  13. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8(+) T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  14. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewoud Bernardus Compeer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I MHC complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (APC capable of antigen cross-presentation, description of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC, there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlight DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, recycling and maturation including the sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell-surface directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  15. Do Facilitated Online Dual Credit Classes Result in Deep Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark Education Partnership, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This study, with funding from the Jennings Foundation, sought to answer the following broad research question: Do facilitated online dual credit courses result in deep learning? The answer to this question is key to addressing barriers many students face in bridging from high school to college. This report includes a descriptive case study that…

  16. A class Hierarchical, object-oriented approach to virtual memory management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincent F.; Campbell, Roy H.; Johnston, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    The Choices family of operating systems exploits class hierarchies and object-oriented programming to facilitate the construction of customized operating systems for shared memory and networked multiprocessors. The software is being used in the Tapestry laboratory to study the performance of algorithms, mechanisms, and policies for parallel systems. Described here are the architectural design and class hierarchy of the Choices virtual memory management system. The software and hardware mechanisms and policies of a virtual memory system implement a memory hierarchy that exploits the trade-off between response times and storage capacities. In Choices, the notion of a memory hierarchy is captured by abstract classes. Concrete subclasses of those abstractions implement a virtual address space, segmentation, paging, physical memory management, secondary storage, and remote (that is, networked) storage. Captured in the notion of a memory hierarchy are classes that represent memory objects. These classes provide a storage mechanism that contains encapsulated data and have methods to read or write the memory object. Each of these classes provides specializations to represent the memory hierarchy.

  17. The Role of Interactive Whiteboard on Motivating Learners in Mathematics Classes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mtchedlishvili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of motivation and enthusiasm by the use of interactive whiteboard has improved self- esteem, encouragement and success of many learners who have found mathematics difficult. This study aims to investigate whether the use of interactive whiteboard in mathematics classes promotes motivation of learners which facilitates learning process. 40 lecturers and 40 students were surveyed in the study and the results have been compared and it has been found that interactive whiteboard enhances interactivity, motivates learners and facilitates learning in mathematics classes.

  18. Perceptual complexity of faces and voices modulates cross-modal behavioral facilitation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Joassin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Joassin et al. (Neuroscience Letters, 2004,369,132-137 observed that the recognition of face-voice associations led to an interference effect, i.e. to decreased performances relative to the recognition of faces presented in isolation. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that this interference effect could be due to the fact that voices were more difficult to recognize than faces. For this purpose, we modified some faces by morphing to make them as difficult to recognize as the voices. Twenty one healthy volunteers performed a recogniton task of previously learned face-voice associations in 5 conditions: voices (A, natural faces (V, morphed faces (V30, voice-natural face associations (AV and voice-morphed faces associations (AV30. As expected, AV led to interference, as it was less well and slower performed than V. However, when faces were as difficult to recognize as voices, their simultaneous presentation produced a clear facilitation, AV30 being significantly better and faster performed than A and V30. These results demonstrate that matching or not the perceptual complexity of the unimodal stimuli modulates the potential cross-modal gains of the bimodal situations.

  19. Vertical Integration: Results from a Cross-Course Student Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Thomas; Lewis, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the results of a cross-class project involving sophomore-level students in an Operations Analysis (OA) class with junior-level students in an Operations Management (OM) class. The students formed virtual teams and developed a simulation model of a call center. The OM students provided the management expertise, while the OA…

  20. Allosteric activation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by efavirenz facilitates midazolam binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Tsujino, Hirofumi; Miki, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Masaya; Matsubara, Chiaki; Miyata, Sara; Yamashita, Taku; Takeshita, Kohei; Yonezawa, Yasushige; Uno, Tadayuki

    2017-12-18

    1. The purpose of this study is to investigate the heteroactivation mechanism of CYP3A4 by efavirenz, which enhances metabolism of midazolam in vivo, in terms of its binding to CYP3A4 with in vitro spectroscopic methods. 2. Efavirenz exhibited a type II spectral change with binding to CYP3A4 indicating a possible inhibitor. Although dissociation constant (K d ) was approximated as 520 μM, efavirenz enhanced binding affinity of midazolam as a co-existing drug with an estimated iK d value of 5.6 µM which is comparable to a clinical concentration. 3. Efavirenz stimulated the formation of 1'-hydroxymidazolam, and the product formation rate (V max ) concentration-dependently increased without changing the K m . Besides, an efavirenz analogue, [6-chloro-1,4-dihydro-4-(1-pentynyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-3,1-benzoxazin-2-one] (efavirenz impurity) slightly facilitated the binding affinity of midazolam in a concentration-dependent manner. These results propose that efavirenz affects midazolam-binding via binding to the peripheral site which is apart from the active site of CYP3A4. 4. A molecular dynamics simulation also suggested the bound-efavirenz was repositioned to effector-binding site. As a consequence, our spectroscopic studies clarified the heteroactivation of CYP3A4 caused by efavirenz with a proper affinity to the peripheral site, and we concluded the method can be a useful tool for characterising the potential for drug-drug interactions.

  1. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  2. The duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Jeelani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Pubertal growth peak is closely associated with a rapid increase in mandibular length and offers a wide range of therapeutic modifiability. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the mean ages of onset and duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using lateral cephalograms of 230 subjects with growth potential (110 males, 120 females. Subjects were categorized into three classes (Class I = 81, Class II = 82, Class III = 67, according to the sagittal relationship established between the maxilla and the mandible. The cervical vertebral maturation stage was recorded by means of Baccetti's method. The mean ages at CS3 and CS4 and the CS3-CS4 age interval were compared between boys and girls and among three skeletal classes. Results: Pubertal growth peak occurred on average four months earlier in girls than boys (p = 0.050. The average duration of pubertal growth peak was 11 months in Class I, seven months in Class II and 17 months in Class III subjects. Interclass differences were highly significant (Cohen's d > 0.08. However, no significant difference was found in the timing of pubertal growth peak onset among three skeletal classes (p = 0.126 in boys, p = 0.262 in girls. Conclusions: Girls enter pubertal growth peak on average four months earlier than boys. Moreover, the duration of pubertal growth peak is on average four months shorter in Class II and six months longer in Class III subjects as compared to Class I subjects.

  3. MHC class II molecules deliver costimulatory signals in human T cells through a functional linkage with IL-2-receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Kanner, S B; Ledbetter, J A

    1993-01-01

    MHC class II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune and infectious disorders. Because stimulation of class II molecules by mAb or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of PTK3 in T cells, we hypothesized that class II signals play...... tyrosine phosphorylation of specific substrates including PLC-gamma 1. Combined stimulation of IL-2R and class II molecules had an additive effect on tyrosine phosphorylation. Pretreatment of T cells with a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, inhibited IL-2 and class II-induced proliferation...... a regulatory function in T cell activation. Here, we show that cross-linking HLA-DR and -DP but not -DQ molecules by immobilized mAb enhanced proliferative T cell responses to IL-2. In contrast, class II stimulation had no effect on IL-4-induced proliferation. The costimulatory effect was most pronounced...

  4. Casting wider nets for anxiety and depression: disability-driven cross-diagnostic subtypes in a large cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, R B K; van Loo, H M; Vermunt, J K; Meijer, R R; Hartman, C A; Schoevers, R A; Wardenaar, K J; de Jonge, P

    2016-12-01

    In search of empirical classifications of depression and anxiety, most subtyping studies focus solely on symptoms and do so within a single disorder. This study aimed to identify and validate cross-diagnostic subtypes by simultaneously considering symptoms of depression and anxiety, and disability measures. A large cohort of adults (Lifelines, n = 73 403) had a full assessment of 16 symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders, and measurement of physical, social and occupational disability. The best-fitting subtyping model was identified by comparing different hybrid mixture models with and without disability covariates on fit criteria in an independent test sample. The best model's classes were compared across a range of external variables. The best-fitting Mixed Measurement Item Response Theory model with disability covariates identified five classes. Accounting for disability improved differentiation between people reporting isolated non-specific symptoms ['Somatic' (13.0%), and 'Worried' (14.0%)] and psychopathological symptoms ['Subclinical' (8.8%), and 'Clinical' (3.3%)]. Classes showed distinct associations with clinically relevant external variables [e.g. somatization: odds ratio (OR) 8.1-12.3, and chronic stress: OR 3.7-4.4]. The Subclinical class reported symptomatology at subthreshold levels while experiencing disability. No pure depression or anxiety, but only mixed classes were found. An empirical classification model, incorporating both symptoms and disability identified clearly distinct cross-diagnostic subtypes, indicating that diagnostic nets should be cast wider than current phenomenology-based categorical systems.

  5. Gender differences in the association of individual social class and neighbourhood unemployment rate with prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study from the DIAB-CORE consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Grit; Hartwig, Saskia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Moebus, Susanne; Pundt, Noreen; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Maier, Werner; Meisinger, Christa; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Berger, Klaus

    2013-06-21

    To analyse gender differences in the relationship of individual social class, employment status and neighbourhood unemployment rate with present type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Five cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in five regions of Germany from 1997 to 2006. The sample consisted of 8871 individuals residing in 226 neighbourhoods from five urban regions. Prevalent T2DM. We found significant multiplicative interactions between gender and the individual variables--social class and employment status. Social class was statistically significantly associated with T2DM in men and women, whereby this association was stronger in women (lower vs higher social class: OR 2.68 (95% CIs 1.66 to 4.34)) than men (lower vs higher social class: OR 1.78 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.58)). Significant associations of employment status and T2DM were only found in women (unemployed vs employed: OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.92); retired vs employed: OR 1.77 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.84); others vs employed: OR 1.64 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.67)). Neighbourhood unemployment rate was associated with T2DM in men (high vs low tertile: OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.96)). Between-study and between-neighbourhood variations in T2DM prevalence were more pronounced in women. The considered covariates helped to explain statistically the variation in T2DM prevalence among men, but not among women. Social class was inversely associated with T2DM in both men and women, whereby the association was more pronounced in women. Employment status only affected T2DM in women. Neighbourhood unemployment rate is an important predictor of T2DM in men, but not in women.

  6. Effect of Class III bone anchor treatment on airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung; De Clerck, Hugo; Wilson, Michael; Golden, Brent

    2015-07-01

    To compare airway volumes and minimum cross-section area changes of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) versus untreated Class III controls. Twenty-eight consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 10 and 14 years (mean age, 11.9 years) were treated using Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (two in the infra-zygomatic crests of the maxilla and two in the anterior mandible). The subjects had cone beam computed tomographs (CBCTs) taken before initial loading (T1) and 1 year out (T2). Twenty-eight untreated Class III patients (mean age, 12.4 years) had CBCTs taken and cephalograms generated. The airway volumes and minimum cross-sectional area measurements were performed using Dolphin Imaging 11.7 3D software. The superior border of the airway was defined by a plane that passes through the posterior nasal spine and basion, while the inferior border included the base of the epiglottis to the lower border of C3. From T1 to T2, airway volume from BAMP-treated subjects showed a statistically significant increase (1499.64 mm(3)). The area in the most constricted section of the airway (choke point) increased slightly (15.44 mm(2)). The airway volume of BAMP patients at T2 was 14136.61 mm(3), compared with 14432.98 mm(3) in untreated Class III subjects. Intraexaminer correlation coefficients values and 95% confidence interval values were all greater than .90, showing a high degree of reliability of the measurements. BAMP treatment did not hinder the development of the oropharynx.

  7. Facilitating Transition to Team Based Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    profession, but at the same time it becomes very difficult to identify where and how the design is created since form-giving now becomes a group effort. So as a way to ease the transition from highly framed and facilitated high school learning context to university self-driven learning context a small...... given to two set of students; one set that received the survival kit in 2011 and 2012 and one set that did not. The questionnaire inquires the students’ attitude towards 4 aspects: 1.General level of preparedness for team and problem based project work 2.Level of information of expectations from...... supervisors and programme 3.Reflection of the role in a team, problem based project work 4.The level of information of special expectations from the Industrial Design program towards team and problem based project work. Results indicates that Class receiving the “Survival Kit” improved in the calibration...

  8. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  9. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, Sérgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes were measured on the dental casts obtained before (T1) and after treatment (T2) and at a mean of 6.9 years after the end of treatment (T3). The groups were matching regarding sex distribution, pretreatment, posttreatment and long-term posttreatment ages, and treatment and long-term posttreatment times. They were also comparable concerning the initial malocclusion severity and the occlusal results at the end of treatment. Stability evaluation was calculated by subtracting the posttreatment from the long-term posttreatment index values (T3 - T2). T tests were used to compare the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. There were no intergroup differences regarding the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. Treatment of class II subdivision malocclusion with 3 and 4 premolar extractions have a similar long-term posttreatment occlusal stability.

  10. New SCALE-4 features related to cross-section processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Greene, N.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCALE code system has a standardized scheme for processing problem-dependent cross section from problem-independent waste libraries. Some improvements and new capabilities in the processing scheme have been incorporated into the new Version 4 release of the SCALE system. The new features include the capability to consider annular cylindrical and spherical unit cells, and improved Dancoff factor formulation, and changes to the NITAWL-II module to perform resonance self-shielding with reference to infinite dilute values. A review of these major changes in the cross-section processing scheme for SCALE-4 is presented in this paper

  11. Carrier-facilitated transport of Cd(II) through a supported liquid membrane containing thiacalix[4]arene derivatives as ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghbani, Asma; Tayeb, Rafik; Dhahbi, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of a facilitated transport process of cadmium ions through a SLM system incorporating new extractant agents, thiacalix[4]arenes, was studied. These molecules have sulfur atoms instead of usual methylene bridges. The chemical modification of the upper or the lower rim provides a great variety of supra molecules having different complexation ability and different conformational behaviour. The efficiency of the transport across the inner membrane organic liquid phase is shown to depend on the chemical (affinity) and structural (conformational states possible) parameters of these complexing molecules. In this work, two different thiacalix[4]arenes were selected as effective ionophore for the treatment of liquid media loaded in Cd(II). The results show that these thiacalix[4]arenes derivative ensure facilitated transport of cadmium cations through supported liquid membranes. Especially, the non-substituted thiacalix[4]arene can be considered as an effective extractant agent. The incidence of several parameters on transport efficiency such as pH of both aqueous solutions and carrier concentration was studied. The permeation of the species is due to a proton potential gradient (the driving force of the process) existing between the two opposite sides of the SLM. The initial flux, J, is found to be equal to 6.7.10 -7 mol.m -2 .s -1 , under optimal experimental conditions.

  12. Facilitating Neuron-Specific Genetic Manipulations in Drosophila melanogaster Using a Split GAL4 Repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Michael-John; Luan, Haojiang; Shropshire, William C; Sutcliffe, Ben; Cocanougher, Benjamin; Scott, Robert L; Frechter, Shahar; Zlatic, Marta; Jefferis, Gregory S X E; White, Benjamin H

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to map neural circuits have been galvanized by the development of genetic technologies that permit the manipulation of targeted sets of neurons in the brains of freely behaving animals. The success of these efforts relies on the experimenter's ability to target arbitrarily small subsets of neurons for manipulation, but such specificity of targeting cannot routinely be achieved using existing methods. In Drosophila melanogaster , a widely-used technique for refined cell type-specific manipulation is the Split GAL4 system, which augments the targeting specificity of the binary GAL4-UAS (Upstream Activating Sequence) system by making GAL4 transcriptional activity contingent upon two enhancers, rather than one. To permit more refined targeting, we introduce here the "Killer Zipper" (KZip + ), a suppressor that makes Split GAL4 targeting contingent upon a third enhancer. KZip + acts by disrupting both the formation and activity of Split GAL4 heterodimers, and we show how this added layer of control can be used to selectively remove unwanted cells from a Split GAL4 expression pattern or to subtract neurons of interest from a pattern to determine their requirement in generating a given phenotype. To facilitate application of the KZip + technology, we have developed a versatile set of LexA op -KZip + fly lines that can be used directly with the large number of LexA driver lines with known expression patterns. KZip + significantly sharpens the precision of neuronal genetic control available in Drosophila and may be extended to other organisms where Split GAL4-like systems are used. Copyright © 2017 Dolan et al.

  13. 2D CFT blocks for the 4D class S{sub k} theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Vladimir [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Pomoni, Elli [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2017-03-15

    This is the first in a series of papers on the search for the 2D CFT description of a large class of 4D N=1 gauge theories. Here, we identify the 2D CFT symmetry algebra and its representations, namely the conformal blocks of the Virasoro/W-algebra, that underlie the 2D theory and reproduce the Seiberg-Witten curves of the N=1 gauge theories. We find that the blocks corresponding to the SU(N) S{sub k} gauge theories involve fields in certain non-unitary representations of the W{sub kN} algebra. These conformal blocks give a prediction for the instanton partition functions of the 4D N=1 SCFTs of class S{sub k}.

  14. Cross-talk between the NR3B and NR4A families of orphan nuclear receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammi, Johanna; Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Huppunen, Johanna; Aarnisalo, Piia

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (NR3B family) and Nurr1, NGFI-B, and Nor1 (NR4A family) are orphan nuclear receptors lacking identified natural ligands. The mechanisms regulating their transcriptional activities have remained elusive. We have previously observed that the members of NR3B and NR4A families are coexpressed in certain cell types such as osteoblasts and that the ability of Nurr1 to transactivate the osteopontin promoter is repressed by ERRs. We have now studied the cross-talk between NR3B and NR4A receptors. We show that NR3B and NR4A receptors mutually repress each others' transcriptional activity. The repression involves intact DNA-binding domains and dimerization interfaces but does not result from competition for DNA binding or from heterodimerization. The activation functions of NR3B and NR4A receptors are dispensable for the cross-talk. In conclusion, we report that cross-talk between NR3B and NR4A receptors is a mechanism modulating the transcriptional activities of these orphan nuclear receptors

  15. Evaluation of doctors' performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salwani; Salam, Abdus; Alattraqchi, Ahmed G; Annamalai, Lakshmi; Chockalingam, Annamalai; Elena, Wan Putri; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Abubakar, Abdullahi Rabiu; Haque, Mainul

    2015-01-01

    Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students' perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school. This was a cross-sectional study conducted of the medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The study population was 468 preclinical medical students from years 1 and 2 of academic year 2012-2013. Data were collected using a validated instrument. There were six different sections of questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The data were then compiled and analyzed, using SPSS version 20. The response rate was 73%. Among 341 respondents, 30% were male and 70% were female. Eighty-five percent of respondents agree or strongly agree that the lectures had met the criteria with regard to organization of lecture materials. Similarly, 97% of students agree or strongly agree that lecturers maintained adequate voices and gestures. Medical students are quite satisfied with the lecture classes and the lectures. However, further research is required to identify student-centered teaching and learning methods to promote active learning.

  16. Simulation of cross-talk noise of high energy X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Rifeng; Zhang Ping; Zhang Zehong

    2005-01-01

    The signal-noise ratio of detectors and the image quality will be affected by the detector cross-talk noise. The authors use EGSnrc to research the cross-talk noise in the CdWO 4 detector module, and analyze various factors which can bring about the cross-talk noise. The work will facilitate the selection of detector module and offer some parameters for the correction of cross-talk noise with software. (authors)

  17. 27 CFR 4.22 - Blends, cellar treatment, alteration of class or type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blends, cellar treatment, alteration of class or type. 4.22 Section 4.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of...

  18. Lived experiences of nurse educators on teaching in a large class at a nursing college in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Ndawo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gradual increase in the number of learners admitted into a nursing college in Gauteng resulted in an increase in class size without a proportional increase in the number of nurse educators. Objectives: To explore and describe the experiences of nurse educators teaching in large classes at a nursing college in Gauteng in order to present recommendations to facilitate teaching and learning. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, and phenomenological research design which is contextual in nature was used. A total of 20 nurse educators were selected through purposive sampling, and in-depth phenomenological semi-structured individual interviews were conducted between January and February 2013. Data were analysed together with the field notes, using Tesch’s open coding protocol of qualitative data analysis. Lincoln and Guba’s four principles were used to ensure trustworthiness. Results: The themes that emerged from this study were that nurse educators experienced difficulty in recognising learners as individuals in a large class, using innovative pedagogical strategies, and managing a large class. These findings had a negative impact on meaningful teaching and learning as they interfered with an enabling learning environment. Recommendations: Nurse educators should be empowered with facilitative skills in order to effectively manage a large class and hence to achieve teaching and learning abilities. Conclusion: There is a need for nurse educators to finding alternative ways to overcome challenges associated with teaching in large classes and prepare learners to render individualised, caring and holistic nursing care to each unique patient in the healthcare setting. Keywords: Large class, Teaching, Learning; Hindrance

  19. A pilot clinical study of Class III surgical patients facilitated by improved accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, JiaQi; Jiang, Jiu-Hui; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Bai, YunYang; Zou, Wei

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate if the improved accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (IAOO) procedure could speed Class III surgical patients' preoperative orthodontic treatment duration and, if yes, to what extent. This study was also designed to determine whether or not an IAOO procedure affects the tooth-moving pattern during extraction space closure. The samples in this study consisted of 24 Class III surgical patients. Twelve skeletal Class III surgery patients served as an experimental group (group 1) and the others as a control group (group 2). Before treatment, the maxillary first premolars were removed. For group 1, after the maxillary dental arch was aligned and leveled (T2), IAOO procedures were performed in the maxillary alveolar bone. Except for this IAOO procedure in group 1, all 24 patients experienced similar combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. Study casts of the maxillary dentitions were made before orthodontic treatment (T1) and after extraction space closure (T3). All of the casts were laser scanned, and the amount of movement of the maxillary central incisor, canine, and first molar, as well as arch widths, were digitally measured and analyzed by using the three-dimensional model superimposition method. The time durations T3-T2 were significantly reduced in group 1 by 8.65 ± 2.67 months and for T3-T1 were reduced by 6.39 ± 2.00 months (P teeth movement in the sagittal, vertical, and transverse dimensions between the two groups (P > .05). The IAOO can reduce the surgical orthodontic treatment time for the skeletal Class III surgical patient by more than half a year on average. The IAOO procedures do not save anchorage.

  20. Synthesis of 4-substituted tetrahydropyridines by cross-coupling of enol phosphates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, U.S.; Martiny, L.; Begtrup, M.

    2005-01-01

    Enol phosphates, synthesized from 4-piperidone, react by palladium catalyzed cross-coupling with arylboronic acids and by iron and palladium catalyzed cross-coupling with Grignard reagents to give 4-substituted tetrahydropyridines. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. A Latent Class Analysis of Weight-Related Health Behaviors among 2-and 4-Year College Students and Associated Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the complex patterning of weight-related health behaviors in 2-and 4-year college students. The objective of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of weight-related health behaviors among college students. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogenous, mutually exclusive classes of nine health…

  2. Assessing Student Performance in Hybrid versus Web-Facilitated Personal Health Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Blankson, Faustina; Kempland, Monica; Schaefer, Courtney

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of web-facilitated and hybrid course delivery formats on student learning outcomes for four sections of an undergraduate Personal Health course at a public institution. This is a quasi-experimental study. Two sections were taught as hybrid classes and two sections were taught as webfacilitated classes.…

  3. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate induced cross-neutralizing antibody against subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16.Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses.The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had 4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (∼20% of participants against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8 against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16.EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01268787.

  4. Some Aspects of Culture Teaching in Foreign Language and ESP Classes: Cultural Scripts and Small Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Baranovskaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the problem of teaching culture in the foreign language classes at all levels of education. Cultural studies should not be separated from the language syllabus and foreign language learning should not be limited to formal learning of systems of sounds, words, and syntactic structures, but should also include learning the culture of the target language. Success in intercultural communication depends greatly on the understanding of a number of cultural features. The article emphasizes the importance of teaching and learning target culture, as well as introduces the analysis of cultural scripts and small talk in English, Russian and Polish languages. Understanding the cultural differences will benefit and facilitate cross-cultural communication under diverse circumstances. Thereby, this issue is relevant to foreign language and ESP classes focusing on the improvement of both students’ language and cultural skills.

  5. Santee Cooper cross units 3 & 4: an EPCM success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickson, K.; Neher, S.; Koontz, N. [WorleyParons (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In late 2001, Santee Cooper began a project to add a third 600 MW unit to its coal-fired Cross Generating Station in Cross, S.C. Plans also included a fourth unit to be added later. The engineering, procurement and construction (EPCM) of Units 3 and 4 would eventually span almost seven years. The Cross Project demonstrates how Santee Cooper empowered its EPCM contractor to manage for change and how a well conceived plan and thoroughly developed schedule provide the necessary structure and flexibility to successful do so. The Cross Project experience reinforces the idea that for large projects an EPCM arrangement provides the agility necessary to manage change and the means to manage risk. The design, furnish and erect contracts were performance based contracts executed early to firm up the plant design and layout. 2 photos.

  6. Peak shifting and cross-class subsidization: The impacts of solar PV on changes in electricity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Erik; Beppler, Ross; Blackburn, Chris; Staver, Benjamin; Brown, Marilyn; Matisoff, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of distributed solar necessitates additional research into the impacts on both utilities and their customers. In this paper we use New Jersey solar data, PJM market data, and demand profiles from a PJM utility to investigate rate and bill impacts of large-scale solar penetration. In addition to the subsidization of solar adopters by non-participants, we highlight the channels through which cross-subsidization of rate classes can arise in practice. The results of our study indicate that the fear of a utility “death spiral” may be exaggerated. Significant solar can be incorporated with only a 2% increase in non-participant bills. At high levels of penetration, distributed solar has the potential to alter the system peak hour which affects the allocation of costs across rate-classes. As the peak hour shifts to the evening when solar production diminishes, residential customers face higher distribution costs. Policy makers and utilities need to be aware of these challenges in designing the next generation of rates that are better aligned with cost causality. - Highlights: • We develop a model of electricity costs with large amounts of solar adoption. • Solar adoption leads to cost redistribution across customer classes. • Costs are redistributed partially because peak utility load shifts later in the day. • Residential distributed solar generation affects electricity bills the most. • We confirm the subsidy of participants by non-participants in net metering programs.

  7. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  8. Measurements of Electron Proton Elastic Cross Sections for 0.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, M.E.; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Arshak Asaturyan; Steven Avery; Baker, O.; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; Bochna, C.W.; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Brown, D.S.; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Fox, B.; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Yongguang Liang; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Martin, J.W.; Kevin Mcilhany; David Mckee; David Meekins; Miller, M.A.; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Rodney Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; Rollinde, E.; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; Smith, C.; Samuel Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-01-01

    We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 distinct kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 < Q2 < 5.5 (GeV/c)2. These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the Q2 range, where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. This data set shows good agreement with previous cross section measurements, indicating that if a heretofore unknown systematic error does exist in the cross section measurements, then it is intrinsic to all such measurements

  9. Developing Mathematical Knowledge Through Class Discussion: One Teacher's Struggles in Implementing Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Rebecca S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the experience of one secondary mathematics teacher during his efforts to facilitate mathematical discussions in a secondary algebra class. Class discussions and interviews were documented and analyzed to investigate the patterns of discussion, the teacher's role in facilitating discussion, and the struggles encountered by the teacher through his attempts to enact reform-oriented strategies. The investigation focused on the teacher's vision for ...

  10. Facilitating cultural border crossing in urban secondary science classrooms: A study of inservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Anna Karina

    Research acknowledges that if students are to be successful science, they must learn to navigate and cross cultural borders that exist between their own cultures and the subculture of science. This dissertation utilized a mixed methods approach to explore how inservice science teachers working in urban schools construct their ideas of and apply the concepts about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as relevant to the teaching and learning of science. The study used the lenses of cultural capital, social constructivism, and cultural congruency in the design and analysis of each of the three phases of data collection. Phase I identified the perspectives of six inservice science teachers on science culture, cultural border crossing, and which border crossing methods, if any, they used during science teaching. Phase II took a dialectical approach as the teachers read about science culture and cultural border crossing during three informal professional learning community meetings. This phase explored how teachers constructed their understanding of cultural border crossing and how the concept applied to the teaching and learning of science. Phase III evaluated how teachers' perspectives changed from Phase I. In addition, classroom observations were used to determine whether teachers' practices in their science classrooms changed from Phase I to Phase III. All three phases collected data through qualitative (i.e., interviews, classroom observations, and surveys) and quantitative (Likert items) means. The findings indicated that teachers found great value in learning about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as it pertained to their teaching methods. This was not only evidenced by their interviews and surveys, but also in the methods they used in their classrooms. Final conclusions included how the use of student capital resources (prior experiences, understandings and knowledge, ideas an interests, and personal beliefs), if supported by

  11. 23 CFR 750.107 - Class 3 and 4 signs outside informational sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... areas. (6) Not more than one such sign advertising activities being conducted as a single enterprise or... ENVIRONMENT HIGHWAY BEAUTIFICATION National Standards for Regulation by States of Outdoor Advertising Adjacent... traffic not served by an informational site within 12 air miles of the advertised activity; (2) Class 4...

  12. A Java class library for accessing Cadplan data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagler, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    A Java class library was developed to be able to access the data of the treatment planning system Varian Cadplan which was decommissioned in 2005. The library reads and encapsulates the most important patient data. It facilitates creating viewing software for CT slices, contours and isodoses. Keeping alive old Cadplan hardware is no longer necessary. The files can be stored on any server in the network of a department and they can be accessed from any workstation capable of running Java software. (orig.)

  13. PBL Group Autonomy in a High School Environmental Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D. Mark; Belland, Brian R.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing class sizes, teachers and facilitators alike hope for learning groups where students work together in self-contained and autonomous ways requiring reduced teacher support. Yet many instructors find the idea of developing independent learning in small groups to be elusive particularly in K-12 settings (Ertmer and Simons in…

  14. Integrated Data Analysis (IDCA) Program - PETN Class 4 Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of PETN Class 4. The PETN was found to have: 1) an impact sensitivity (DH50) range of 6 to 12 cm, 2) a BAM friction sensitivity (F50) range 7 to 11 kg, TIL (0/10) of 3.7 to 7.2 kg, 3) a ABL friction sensitivity threshold of 5 or less psig at 8 fps, 4) an ABL ESD sensitivity threshold of 0.031 to 0.326 j/g, and 5) a thermal sensitivity of an endothermic feature with Tmin = ~ 141 °C, and a exothermic feature with a Tmax = ~205°C.

  15. Social closure, micro-class immobility and the intergenerational reproduction of the upper class: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggera, Lucia; Barone, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    This article assesses how processes of social closure enhance intergenerational immobility in the regulated professions and thus promote persistence at the top of the occupational hierarchy. We compare four European countries (GB, Germany, Denmark and Sweden) that differ considerably in their degree of professional regulation and in their broader institutional arrangements. We run log-linear and logistic regression models on a cumulative dataset based on three large-scale surveys with detailed and highly comparable information at the level of unit occupations. Our analyses indicate that children of licensed professionals are far more likely to inherit the occupation of their parents and that this stronger micro-class immobility translates into higher chances of persistence in the upper class. These results support social closure theory and confirm the relevance of a micro-class approach for the explanation of social fluidity and of its cross-national variations. Moreover, we find that, when children of professionals do not reproduce the micro-class of their parents, they still display disproportionate chances of persistence in professional employment. Hence, on the one hand, processes of social closure erect barriers between professions and fuel micro-class immobility at the top. On the other hand, the cultural proximity of different professional groups drives intense intergenerational exchanges between them. Our analyses indicate that these micro- and meso-class rigidities work as complementary routes to immobility at the top. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  16. A model to facilitate collaborative social support for pregnant students in secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matlala SF

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sogo F Matlala Department of Public Health, University of Limpopo, Sovenga, South Africa Abstract: Pregnancy among secondary school students remains a public health problem and is associated with school dropout as well as poor maternal and child health outcomes. Schools in South Africa no longer expel pregnant students as was the case before 2000. Instead, the government encourages them to remain in class to complete their education, but pregnant students often face stigma, and some drop out of school as a result. To remain in class and access antenatal care, pregnant students require social support from teachers, parents and professional nurses. Unfortunately, teachers, parents and professional nurses support pregnant students on an ad hoc basis, and this calls for a model to facilitate collaborative social support. The purpose of this paper is to present and describe a model to facilitate collaborative social support for pregnant students attending secondary schools in South Africa, using the model description steps of Chinn and Kramer. The model is designed as a tool to enable pregnant students to remain in school, attend antenatal care and in the end, deliver healthy babies. The professional nurse, as a member and leader of the school health team which visits secondary schools to provide a package of school health services, is the agent or facilitator of the model. Keywords: communication, health team, learner pregnancy, maternal and child health, school health services, social network

  17. A note on a model for quay crane scheduling with non-crossing constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Alberto; Friberg, Henrik Alsing; Røpke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the quay crane scheduling problem with non-crossing constraints, which is an operational problem that arises in container terminals. An enhancement to a mixed integer programming model for the problem is proposed and a new class of valid inequalities is introduced. Computatio......This article studies the quay crane scheduling problem with non-crossing constraints, which is an operational problem that arises in container terminals. An enhancement to a mixed integer programming model for the problem is proposed and a new class of valid inequalities is introduced...

  18. Social Networking Tools to Facilitate Cross-Program Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul; Howard, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Students working on a highly collaborative project used social networking technology for community building activities as well as basic project-related communication. Requiring students to work on cross-program projects gives them real-world experience working in diverse, geographically dispersed groups. An application used at Appalachian State…

  19. Children’s and Adolescents’ Snacking: Interplay between the Individual and the School Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge eGiese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In schools, perceived norms of classmates facilitate but can also inhibit unhealthy food intake in children and adolescents. However, the role of actual class behaviors and attitudes is less established. Thus, the present study examined classmates’ actual eating behavior and food preferences in relation to actual food intake. In addition, it tested whether these normative effects are facilitated by corresponding individual and class food preferences or a positive social self-concept.Methods: The food preferences, social self-concept, and unhealthy snacking frequency of 734 Finnish, 829 German, and 555 Romanian children and adolescents (aged 8-19 from 127 school-classes were assessed.Results: Multilevel analysis at individual and class level showed that classmates shared similar snacking habits (14.7% variance. Moreover, the unhealthy food preference of a school-class was associated with its collective snacking (χ²(1 = 54.67, p < .001, PRV = .32. This effect was facilitated by individual, unhealthy food preferences (χ²(1 = 16.72, p < .001, PRV = .57 and a positive social self-concept (χ²(1 = 5.91, p = .015, PRV = .12.Conclusions: Actual class norms are related to children’s and adolescents’ eating, but their impact depends on individual differences in preferences and social self-concept.

  20. Patterns and predictors of violence against children in Uganda: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kelly; Patalay, Praveetha; Allen, Elizabeth; Knight, Louise; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen

    2016-05-24

    To explore patterns of physical, emotional and sexual violence against Ugandan children. Latent class and multinomial logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional data. Luwero District, Uganda. In all, 3706 primary 5, 6 and 7 students attending 42 primary schools. To measure violence, we used the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional. We used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to assess mental health and administered reading, spelling and maths tests. We identified three violence classes. Class 1 (N=696 18.8%) was characterised by emotional and physical violence by parents and relatives, and sexual and emotional abuse by boyfriends, girlfriends and unrelated adults outside school. Class 2 (N=975 26.3%) was characterised by physical, emotional and sexual violence by peers (male and female students). Children in Classes 1 and 2 also had a high probability of exposure to emotional and physical violence by school staff. Class 3 (N=2035 54.9%) was characterised by physical violence by school staff and a lower probability of all other forms of violence compared to Classes 1 and 2. Children in Classes 1 and 2 were more likely to have worked for money (Class 1 Relative Risk Ratio 1.97, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.51; Class 2 1.55, 1.29 to 1.86), been absent from school in the previous week (Class 1 1.31, 1.02 to 1.67; Class 2 1.34, 1.10 to 1.63) and to have more mental health difficulties (Class 1 1.09, 1.07 to 1.11; Class 2 1.11, 1.09 to 1.13) compared to children in Class 3. Female sex (3.44, 2.48 to 4.78) and number of children sharing a sleeping area predicted being in Class 1. Childhood violence in Uganda forms distinct patterns, clustered by perpetrator and setting. Research is needed to understand experiences of victimised children, and to develop mental health interventions for those with severe violence exposures. NCT01678846; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  1. New evaluated neutron cross section libraries for the GEANT4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Guerrero, C.; Capote, R.

    2012-04-01

    The so-called High Precision neutron physics model implemented in the GEANT4 simulation package allows simulating the transport of neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV. It relies on the G4NDL cross section libraries, prepared by the GEANT4 collaboration from evaluated cross section files and distributed freely together with the code. Even though the performance of the G4NDL library has been improved over the time, users running complex simulations which involve the transport of neutrons do need more flexibility, in particular when assessing the uncertainties in the simulation results due to the neutron (and hence the nuclear) data library used. For this reason, a software tool has been developed for transforming any evaluated neutron cross section library in the ENDF-6 format into the G4NDL format. Furthermore, eight different releases of ENDF-B, JEFF, JENDL, CENDL and BROND national libraries have been translated into the G4NDL format and are distributed by the IAEA nuclear data service at www-nds.iaea.org/geant4. In this way, GEANT4 users have access to the complete list of standard evaluated neutron data libraries when performing Monte Carlo simulations with GEANT4. Consistency checks and a first validation of the libraries have been made following the methods described in this report. (author)

  2. Design, synthesis, and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of 1, 4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-ones as a new class of highly potent nootropic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetti, D; Ghelardini, C; Bartolini, A; Bellucci, C; Dei, S; Galeotti, N; Gualtieri, F; Romanelli, M N; Scapecchi, S; Teodori, E

    2000-05-18

    Several 4-substituted 1,4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-ones have been synthesized and tested in vivo on mouse passive avoidance test, to evaluate their nootropic activity. The results show that they represent a new class of nootropic drugs with a pharmacological profile very similar to that of piracetam, showing much higher potency with respect to the reference. Among the compounds studied, 7 (DM 232) shows outstanding potency, being active at the dose of 0. 001 mg kg(-1) sc.

  3. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  4. Go4 multitasking class library with ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczewski, J; Bertini, D; Essel, H G; Hemberger, M; Kurz, N; Richter, M

    2002-01-01

    In the situation of monitoring an experiment, it is often necessary to control several independently running tasks from one graphical user interface (GUI). Such a GUI must be able to execute commands in the tasks even if they are busy, i.e., getting data, analyzing data, or waiting for data. Moreover, the tasks, being controlled by data streams (i.e., event data samples or slow control data), must be able to send data asynchronously to the GUI for visualization. A multitasking package (C++ class library) that meets these demands has been developed at the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany, in the framework of a new analysis system, Go4, which is based on the ROOT system [CERN, R. Brun et al]. The package provides a thread manager, a task handler, and asynchronous intertask communication between threads through sockets. Hence, objects can be sent at any time from a task to the GUI or vice versa. At the GUI side, an incoming object is accepted by a thread and processed. In a task, a...

  5. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-09-15

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.

  6. High-energy properties of a class of unitary eikonal models for multiproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Redei, L B

    1974-01-01

    The high-energy properties of a simple class of unitary, crossing- symmetric eikonal models of multiproduction are discussed on the basis of the general closed expression given for the S-matrix elements in a previous publication. In particular, the high-energy behaviour of the multiplicity moments is discussed and it is shown that the KNO scaling relation emerges in a very natural fashion in this class of models. (8 refs).

  7. Cross Cultural Validation Of Perceived Workfamily Facilitation Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work family interface contains four unique factors based on studies from western countries. However, some of these studies have questioned the cross cultural adoption of psychological concept, and called for a re-validation prior to adoption. The main purpose of this study is to re-validate the four factor structure that ...

  8. Discovery and computer aided potency optimization of a novel class of small molecule CXCR4 antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vinader

    Full Text Available Amongst the chemokine signalling axes involved in cancer, chemokine CXCL12 acting on chemokine receptor CXCR4 is particularly significant since it orchestrates migration of cancer cells in a tissue-specific metastatic process. High CXCR4 tumour expression is associated with poor prognosis of lung, brain, CNS, blood and breast cancers. We have identified a new class of small molecule CXCR4 antagonists based on the use of computational modelling studies in concert with experimental determination of in vitro activity against CXCL12-induced intracellular calcium mobilisation, proliferation and chemotaxis. Molecular modelling proved to be a useful tool in rationalising our observed potencies, as well as informing the direction of the synthetic efforts aimed at producing more potent compounds.

  9. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... for some poultry classes, while extensive cross breeding has produced poultry with higher meat yields... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) for consultation to ensure that there is no inconsistency... classifications, proposed changes to the game hen classes, and other proposed editorial changes. Response: FSIS...

  10. Practice Facilitators' and Leaders' Perspectives on a Facilitated Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Megan; Brown, Tiffany; Liss, David T; Walunas, Theresa L; Persell, Stephen D

    2018-04-01

    Practice facilitation is a promising approach to helping practices implement quality improvements. Our purpose was to describe practice facilitators' and practice leaders' perspectives on implementation of a practice facilitator-supported quality improvement program and describe where their perspectives aligned and diverged. We conducted interviews with practice leaders and practice facilitators who participated in a program that included 35 improvement strategies aimed at the ABCS of heart health (aspirin use in high-risk individuals, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). Rapid qualitative analysis was used to collect, organize, and analyze the data. We interviewed 17 of the 33 eligible practice leaders, and the 10 practice facilitators assigned to those practices. Practice leaders and practice facilitators both reported value in the program's ability to bring needed, high-quality resources to practices. Practice leaders appreciated being able to set the schedule for facilitation and select among the 35 interventions. According to practice facilitators, however, relying on practice leaders to set the pace of the intervention resulted in a lower level of program intensity than intended. Practice leaders preferred targeted assistance, particularly electronic health record documentation guidance and linkages to state smoking cessation programs. Practice facilitators reported that the easiest interventions were those that did not alter care practices. The dual perspectives of practice leaders and practice facilitators provide a more holistic picture of enablers and barriers to program implementation. There may be greater opportunities to assist small practices through simple, targeted practice facilitator-supported efforts rather than larger, comprehensive quality improvement projects. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  11. Perinatal protein deprivation facilitates morphine cross-sensitization to cocaine and enhances ΔFosB expression in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perondi, María Cecilia; Gutiérrez, María Cecilia; Valdomero, Analía; Cuadra, Gabriel Ricardo

    2017-08-30

    Previous studies have indicated that neural changes induced by early nutritional insult cause an altered response to pharmacological treatments, including addictive drugs. This study evaluates the influence of perinatal protein malnutrition in developing cross-sensitization to cocaine-induced rewarding effects in animals pre-exposed to morphine. Different groups of well-nourished (C-rats) and protein-deprived animals (D-rats) were treated twice a day for three days with increasing doses of morphine or with saline. After 3days, the incentive motivational effects of cocaine were assessed in a Conditioned Place Preference paradigm in both groups. In saline pre-treated animals, dose-response curves to cocaine revealed a conditioning effect in D-rats at doses of 5, 7.5 and 10mg/kg, while this effect was observed in C-rats only with 10 and 15mg/kg. Furthermore, when animals of both groups were pre-treated with escalating doses of morphine, cross-sensitization to the conditioning effect of cocaine was elicited only in D-rats with low doses of cocaine (5 and 7.5mg/kg). In contrast, under the same experimental conditions, C-rats show no cross-sensitization. To correlate this differential rewarding response with a molecular substrate linked to the behavioral changes observed after repeated drug exposure, ΔFosB expression was assessed in different brain regions. D-rats showed a significant increase in this transcription factor in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrated that perinatal protein deprivation facilitates rewarding effects and the development of cross-sensitization to cocaine, which correlates with an upregulation of ΔFosB in brain areas related to the reward circuitry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  13. Barriers and facilitators to exchanging health information: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Karen B; Totten, Annette M; Kassakian, Steven Z; Gorman, Paul N; McDonagh, Marian S; Devine, Beth; Pappas, Miranda; Daeges, Monica; Woods, Susan; Hersh, William R

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing facilitators and barriers to use of health information exchange (HIE). We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library databases between January 1990 and February 2015 using terms related to HIE. English-language studies that identified barriers and facilitators of actual HIE were included. Data on study design, risk of bias, setting, geographic location, characteristics of the HIE, perceived barriers and facilitators to use were extracted and confirmed. Ten cross-sectional, seven multiple-site case studies, and two before-after studies that included data from several sources (surveys, interviews, focus groups, and observations of users) evaluated perceived barriers and facilitators to HIE use. The most commonly cited barriers to HIE use were incomplete information, inefficient workflow, and reports that the exchanged information that did not meet the needs of users. The review identified several facilitators to use. Incomplete patient information was consistently mentioned in the studies conducted in the US but not mentioned in the few studies conducted outside of the US that take a collective approach toward healthcare. Individual patients and practices in the US may exercise the right to participate (or not) in HIE which effects the completeness of patient information available to be exchanged. Workflow structure and user roles are key but understudied. We identified several facilitators in the studies that showed promise in promoting electronic health data exchange: obtaining more complete patient information; thoughtful workflow that folds in HIE; and inclusion of users early in implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new class of organic nitrates: investigations on bioactivation, tolerance and cross-tolerance phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, S; Schulz, E; Oelze, M; König, A; Roegler, C; Lange, K; Sydow, L; Kawamoto, T; Wenzel, P; Münzel, T; Lehmann, J; Daiber, A

    2009-09-01

    The chronic use of organic nitrates is limited by serious side effects including oxidative stress, nitrate tolerance and/or endothelial dysfunction. The side effects and potency of nitroglycerine depend on mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). We sought to determine whether this concept can be extended to a new class of organic nitrates with amino moieties (aminoalkyl nitrates). Vasodilator potency of the organic nitrates, in vitro tolerance and in vivo tolerance (after continuous infusion for 3 days) were assessed in wild-type and ALDH-2 knockout mice by isometric tension studies. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was analysed by L-012-dependent chemiluminescence and protein tyrosine nitration. Aminoethyl nitrate (AEN) showed an almost similar potency to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), even though it is only a mononitrate. AEN-dependent vasodilatation was mediated by cGMP and nitric oxide. In contrast to triethanolamine trinitrate (TEAN) and GTN, AEN bioactivation did not depend on ALDH-2 and caused no in vitro tolerance. In vivo treatment with TEAN and GTN, but not with AEN, induced cross-tolerance to acetylcholine (ACh)-dependent and GTN-dependent relaxation. Although all nitrates tested induced tolerance to themselves, only TEAN and GTN significantly increased mitochondrial oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. The present results demonstrate that not all high potency nitrates are bioactivated by ALDH-2 and that high potency of a given nitrate is not necessarily associated with induction of oxidative stress or nitrate tolerance. Obviously, there are distinct pathways for bioactivation of organic nitrates, which for AEN may involve xanthine oxidoreductase rather than P450 enzymes.

  15. Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2014-02-01

    To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as "Edentulous" (15.2%), "Class 1 = Unfavorable" (13.7%), "Class 2 = Somewhat favorable" (10.4%), and "Class 3 = Favorable" (60.7%). Using "Class 3 = Favorable" as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico.

  16. Functionalized 3-(benzofuran-2-yl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole scaffolds: A new class of antimicrobials and antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javarappa Rangaswamy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new class of functionalized 3-(benzofuran-2-yl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole scaffolds (4a–q was synthesized by a four step reaction in good yields. Initially, o-alkyl derivative of salicyaldehyde (1 readily furnished corresponding 2-acetyl benzofuran (2 on treatment with potassium tert-butoxide (t-BuOK in the presence of molecular sieves. Further, Claisen–Schmidt condensation reaction with 4-methoxy benzaldehyde and hydrazine hydrate followed by coupling of benzoyl chlorides afforded target compounds (4a–q. Representative of the synthesized compounds was characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass, elemental analysis and evaluated for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The results gathered are allowed to conclude that, all newly synthesized analogues exhibit a certain degree of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Among the analogues, compounds (4h and (4j showed an excellent antimicrobial activity in the well plate method. Meanwhile, compounds (4e–f, (4l and (4p showed good antioxidant activity, whereas compound (4g and (4q displayed dominant antioxidant efficacy compared to standard butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA.

  17. Structure-based prediction and identification of 4-epimerization activity of phosphate sugars in class II aldolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Hwa; Hong, Seung-Hye; An, Jung-Ung; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Kim, Dong-Eun; Kang, Lin-Woo; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-05-16

    Sugar 4-epimerization reactions are important for the production of rare sugars and their derivatives, which have various potential industrial applications. For example, the production of tagatose, a functional sweetener, from fructose by sugar 4-epimerization is currently constrained because a fructose 4-epimerase does not exist in nature. We found that class II D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaA) catalyzed the 4-epimerization of D-fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) to D-tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) based on the prediction via structural comparisons with epimerase and molecular docking and the identification of the condensed products of C3 sugars. In vivo, the 4-epimerization activity of FbaA is normally repressed. This can be explained by our results showing the catalytic efficiency of D-fructose-6-phosphate kinase for F6P phosphorylation was significantly higher than that of FbaA for F6P epimerization. Here, we identified the epimerization reactions and the responsible catalytic residues through observation of the reactions of FbaA and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolases (RhaD) variants with substituted catalytic residues using different substrates. Moreover, we obtained detailed potential epimerization reaction mechanism of FbaA and a general epimerization mechanism of the class II aldolases L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase, RhaD, and FbaA. Thus, class II aldolases can be used as 4-epimerases for the stereo-selective synthesis of valuable carbohydrates.

  18. Social class, employment status and inequality in psychological well-being in the UK: Cross-sectional and fixed effects analyses over two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lindsay; Paskov, Marii

    2016-10-01

    A body of academic research has shown a social class gradient in psychological well-being. Some recent work has also suggested that the gradient is worsening over time, though the evidence is mixed. We focus on two straightforward research questions: Is there a class gradient in mental health? Has this gradient changed over time? We answer these questions with attention to two specific causal pathways: employment status and unobserved heterogeneity. We use two data sources: repeated cross-sections from the Health Survey of England (HSE) and longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The combination of pooled OLS regression (with HSE) and fixed effects analysis (with BHPS) allows for a robust analysis of the relationship between class and psychological well-being. We argue that employment status is a confounder in the analysis of class inequalities and show that, along with unobserved heterogeneity, these two pathways go a long way to explain the class gradient. The effects of employment status are substantive and, unlike social class, cannot be explained away by unobserved heterogeneity. We conclude that employment status deserves greater prominence in the debate as both a pathway by which the class gradient transpires, and as another 'dimension' of inequality in its own right. Our overtime analysis suggests that skilled and unskilled manual workers had higher psychological well-being in the 1990s but by 2008 were closer to the average. Class inequalities do not appear to be widening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation on bridging exercises with respect to deep muscle changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Huang, QiuChen; Zheng, Tao; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation on bridging exercises by assessing the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle and thickness of the musculus transversus abdominis. [Subjects] Twelve healthy men. [Methods] Four exercises were evaluated: (a) supine resting, (b) bridging resistance exercise involving posterior pelvic tilting, (c) bridging resistance exercise involving anterior pelvic tilting, and (d) bridging resistance exercise involving neuromuscular joint facilitation. The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle and thickness of the musculus transversus abdominis were measured during each exercise. [Results] The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle and thickness of the musculus transversus abdominis were significantly greater in the neuromuscular joint facilitation group than the others. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention improves the function of deep muscles such as the multifidus muscle and musculus transversus abdominis. Therefore, it can be recommended for application in clinical treatments such as that for back pain.

  20. Paramagnetic scattering cross-sections of Nd and Dy at neutron wavelength between 0.5 A0 - 4 A0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdelkawy, A.; Adib, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1984-01-01

    The paramagnetic scattering cross-sections of Nd and Dy are calculated, for neutron wavelengths between 0.5-4 A, theoretically and deduced from available experimental data. The theoretical calculations are carried out using magnetic form factors deduced from Hartree-Fock radial wave functions for the 4 f electrons. The resulting theoretical curves of the paragnetic scattering cross-sections are compared with those deduced from data obtained using the transmission measurements. Both theoretical and experimental values found to be consistant

  1. A personalized BEST: characterization of latent clinical classes of nonischemic heart failure that predict outcomes and response to bucindolol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Kao

    Full Text Available Heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF are heterogenous, and our ability to identify patients likely to respond to therapy is limited. We present a method of identifying disease subtypes using high-dimensional clinical phenotyping and latent class analysis that may be useful in personalizing prognosis and treatment in HFREF.A total of 1121 patients with nonischemic HFREF from the β-blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial were categorized according to 27 clinical features. Latent class analysis was used to generate two latent class models, LCM A and B, to identify HFREF subtypes. LCM A consisted of features associated with HF pathogenesis, whereas LCM B consisted of markers of HF progression and severity. The Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM Score was also calculated for all patients. Mortality, improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF defined as an increase in LVEF ≥5% and a final LVEF of 35% after 12 months, and effect of bucindolol on both outcomes were compared across HFREF subtypes. Performance of models that included a combination of LCM subtypes and SHFM scores towards predicting mortality and LVEF response was estimated and subsequently validated using leave-one-out cross-validation and data from the Multicenter Oral Carvedilol Heart Failure Assessment Trial.A total of 6 subtypes were identified using LCM A and 5 subtypes using LCM B. Several subtypes resembled familiar clinical phenotypes. Prognosis, improvement in LVEF, and the effect of bucindolol treatment differed significantly between subtypes. Prediction improved with addition of both latent class models to SHFM for both 1-year mortality and LVEF response outcomes.The combination of high-dimensional phenotyping and latent class analysis identifies subtypes of HFREF with implications for prognosis and response to specific therapies that may provide insight into mechanisms of disease. These subtypes may facilitate development of personalized

  2. Getting from A to B-exploring the activation motifs of the class B adhesion G protein-coupled receptor subfamily G member 4/GPR112

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelia Peeters, Miriam; Mos, Iris; Lenselink, Eelke B

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (ADGRs/class B2 G protein-coupled receptors) constitute an ancient family of G protein-coupled receptors that have recently been demonstrated to play important roles in cellular and developmental processes. Here, we describe a first insight...... into the structure-function relationship of ADGRs using the family member ADGR subfamily G member 4 (ADGRG4)/GPR112 as a model receptor. In a bioinformatics approach, we compared conserved, functional elements of the well-characterized class A and class B1 secretin-like G protein-coupled receptors with the ADGRs. We...... identified several potential equivalent motifs and subjected those to mutational analysis. The importance of the mutated residues was evaluated by examining their effect on the high constitutive activity of the N-terminally truncated ADGRG4/GPR112 in a 1-receptor-1-G protein Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  3. Vaccination and Infection as Causative Factors in Japanese Patients With Rasmussen Syndrome: Molecular Mimicry and HLA Class I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukitoshi Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen syndrome is an intractable epilepsy with a putative causal relation with cellular and humoral autoimmunity. Almost half of the patients have some preceding causative factors, with infections found in 38.2%, vaccinations in 5.9% and head trauma in 8.9% of Japanese patients. In a patient with seizure onset after influenza A infections, cross-reaction of the patient's lymphocytes with GluRε2 and influenza vaccine components was demonstrated by lymphocyte stimulation test. Database analyses revealed that influenza A virus hemagglutinin and GluRε2 molecules contain peptides with the patient's HLA class I binding motif (HLA ࢤ A*0201. The relative risks of HLA class I genotypes for Rasmussen syndrome are 6.1 (A*2402, 6.4 (A*0201, 6.3 (A*2601 and 11.4 (B*4601. The relative risks of HLA class I-A and B haplotypes are infinity (A*2601+B*5401, 21.1 (A*2402+B*1501, 13.3 (A*2402+B*4801 and 5.1 (A*2402+B*5201. Some alleles and haplotypes of HLA class I may be the risk factors in Japanese patients. Cross-reactivity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes may contribute to the processes leading from infection to the involvement of CNS.

  4. Introducing StatHand: A Cross-Platform Mobile Application to Support Students' Statistical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; Roberts, Lynne D; Baughman, Frank D; Loxton, Natalie J; Van Rooy, Dirk; Rock, Adam J; Finlay, James

    2016-01-01

    Although essential to professional competence in psychology, quantitative research methods are a known area of weakness for many undergraduate psychology students. Students find selecting appropriate statistical tests and procedures for different types of research questions, hypotheses and data types particularly challenging, and these skills are not often practiced in class. Decision trees (a type of graphic organizer) are known to facilitate this decision making process, but extant trees have a number of limitations. Furthermore, emerging research suggests that mobile technologies offer many possibilities for facilitating learning. It is within this context that we have developed StatHand, a free cross-platform application designed to support students' statistical decision making. Developed with the support of the Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching, StatHand guides users through a series of simple, annotated questions to help them identify a statistical test or procedure appropriate to their circumstances. It further offers the guidance necessary to run these tests and procedures, then interpret and report their results. In this Technology Report we will overview the rationale behind StatHand, before describing the feature set of the application. We will then provide guidelines for integrating StatHand into the research methods curriculum, before concluding by outlining our road map for the ongoing development and evaluation of StatHand.

  5. Global Tactical Cross-Asset Allocation: Applying Value and Momentum Across Asset Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Blitz, D.C.; van Vliet, P.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine global tactical asset allocation (GTAA) strategies across a broad range of asset classes. Contrary to market timing for single asset classes and tactical allocation across similar assets, this topic has received little attention in the existing literature. Our main finding is that momentum and value strategies applied to GTAA across twelve asset classes deliver statistically and economically significant abnormal returns. For a long top-quartile and short b...

  6. LITERATURE AS A FACILITATOR OF TARGET CULTURE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TOPALOĞLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how literature courses, involved in the curriculum of the department of English Language Teaching from the second year to the fourth year, help students to acquire the target culture in EFL classes. Since learning a language does not mean only learning the lexical structures of any language, culture holds an important place in internalizing the way of thinking and appropriate use of target language. This study has been designed in a naturalistic environment, thus interview and observation were used as the main data collection techniques. The study was designed as a descriptive qualitative research. Participants were chosen by the help of an experienced colleague working in the above mentioned department for three years, and most of the participants were under her supervision, thus this case facilitated the process of interviewing participants. The findings showed that the literature courses contribute much to gain the target culture due the very nature of literature reflecting the society and traditions of society in which it was written. In addition, leaarners may have the chance of comparing thier own culture with target culture and this facilitates their learning. However, some missing points and misapplications were reported by students in providing a more appropriate environment for reflecting the target culture.

  7. Impact of nurse-delivered community-based CD4 services on facilitating pre-ART care in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompala, T; Moll, A P; Mtungwa, N; Brooks, R P; Friedland, G H; Shenoi, S V

    2016-08-11

    HIV testing, diagnosis and treatment programs have expanded globally, particularly in resource-limited settings. Diagnosis must be followed by determination of treatment eligibility and referral to care prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). However, barriers and delays along these early steps in the treatment cascade may impede successful ART initiation. New strategies are needed to facilitate the treatment cascade. We evaluated the role of on site CD4+ T cell count phlebotomy services by nurses in facilitating pre-ART care in a community-based voluntary counseling and testing program (CBVCT) in rural South Africa. We retrospectively evaluated CBVCT services during five continuous time periods over three years: three periods when a nurse was present on site, and two periods when the nurse was absent. When a nurse was present, CD4 count phlebotomy was performed immediately after HIV testing to determine ART eligibility. When a nurse was absent, patients were referred to their local primary care clinic for CD4 testing. For each period, we determined the proportion of HIV-positive community members who completed CD4 testing, received notification of CD4 count results, as well as the time to test completion and result notification. Between 2010 and 2013, 7213 individuals accessed CBVCT services; of these, 620 (8.6 %) individuals were HIV-positive, 205 (33.1 %) were eligible for ART according to South African national CD4 count criteria, and 78 (38.0 % of those eligible) initiated ART. During the periods when a professional nurse was available to provide CD4 phlebotomy services, HIV-positive clients were significantly more likely to complete CD4 testing than during periods when these services were not available (85.5 % vs. 37.3 %, p ART care cascade and facilitate timely entry into HIV care.

  8. Intermediate structure studies of 234U cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.D.; Schindler, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron induced fission and total cross sections of 234 U have been measured over the neutron energy range from a few eV to several MeV. Neutron and fission widths for 118 cross section resonances below 1500 eV have been determined and give a class I level spacing of 10.64 + -0.46 eV and a neutron strength function of (0.857 +- 0.108)x10 -4 . These fine structure resonances comprise a narrow intermediate structure resonance in the sub-threshold fission cross section of 234 U. Parameters for the Lorentzian energy dependence of the mean fission width are deduced on the assumption that, relative to this mean, the observed fission widths have a Porter-Thomas distribution. Two large fission widths measured for resonances at 1092.5 eV and 1134 eV may indicate the presence of a second narrow intermediate structure resonance at about this energy. The class II level spacing derived from the observation of 7 resonances below 13 keV is 2.1 +-0.3 keV. Pronounced breaks in the fission cross section at 310 keV, 550 keV and 720 keV are assumed to be due to β-vibrational levels in the second minimum of the Strutinsky potential. Fluctuations due to the presence of class II resonances are strongly evident for each of these vibrational levels. It is shown that the fluctuations near 310 keV are consistent with parameters deduced from the low energy data and this enables parameters for the double humped fission barrier potential to be obtained

  9. 47 CFR 73.6010 - Class A TV station protected contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class A TV station protected contour. 73.6010... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6010 Class A TV station protected contour. (a) A Class A TV station will be protected from interference within the following predicted...

  10. CROPPER: a metagene creator resource for cross-platform and cross-species compendium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Jussi; Storvik, Markus; Wong, Garry

    2006-09-22

    Current genomic research methods provide researchers with enormous amounts of data. Combining data from different high-throughput research technologies commonly available in biological databases can lead to novel findings and increase research efficiency. However, combining data from different heterogeneous sources is often a very arduous task. These sources can be different microarray technology platforms, genomic databases, or experiments performed on various species. Our aim was to develop a software program that could facilitate the combining of data from heterogeneous sources, and thus allow researchers to perform genomic cross-platform/cross-species studies and to use existing experimental data for compendium studies. We have developed a web-based software resource, called CROPPER that uses the latest genomic information concerning different data identifiers and orthologous genes from the Ensembl database. CROPPER can be used to combine genomic data from different heterogeneous sources, allowing researchers to perform cross-platform/cross-species compendium studies without the need for complex computational tools or the requirement of setting up one's own in-house database. We also present an example of a simple cross-platform/cross-species compendium study based on publicly available Parkinson's disease data derived from different sources. CROPPER is a user-friendly and freely available web-based software resource that can be successfully used for cross-species/cross-platform compendium studies.

  11. Some basic theorems on the cross-sums of certain class of numbers (M-1) when the operations are done with different bases M of the arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozoemena, P.C.; Onwumechili, C.A.

    1988-11-01

    Some new theorems have been propounded for the numbers (M-1), as they relate to other numerals, through the basic arithmetical operations, at different bases M. For some reason, we give the proof of the theorems for the case M=10 using mathematical induction, and by Peano's fifth axiom make our generalizations. Comments are made in respect of the numbers (M-1), (in this case 9). Apart from our theorems facilitating mathematical operations, evidences have also been given, from different sources of the interesting properties of this class of numbers, represented in our own case by the numeral 9. The theorems neither violate the divisibility rule for 9 nor are they a consequence of it. From symmetry, a suggestion is made in respect of the possible origin of the numeration in base 10, and the case of a ten dimensional Universe reconsidered. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. The Rake and the X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tine Rosenthal; Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates two models for using learning games to teach across disciplines and classes. Two different learning games are used for bringing together students from different courses to facilitate cross-disciplinary classes on management and organisational learning.......This paper illustrates two models for using learning games to teach across disciplines and classes. Two different learning games are used for bringing together students from different courses to facilitate cross-disciplinary classes on management and organisational learning....

  13. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Semantic Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybeck, Douglas; Herrmann, Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Reports on a cross-cultural investigation of semantic relations, including antonyms, synonyms, and class inclusion, among bilingual adult subjects in the United States, England, Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia, Pakistan, and Hong Kong. Found significant agreement across cultures, especially for antinomy. Results in general support theories of linguistic…

  14. Risk-taking behaviors and subgrouping of suicide in Iran: A latent class analysis of national registries data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebi, Ahmad; Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Abbas; Hashemian, Seyed Sepehr; Khatibi, Seyed Reza; Ghasemzade, Masomeh; Khodadost, Mahmoud

    2017-09-01

    Suicide is one the most important public health problem which is rapidly growing concerns. The aim of this study was to subgroup suicide using LCA method. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran based on 66990 records registered in Ministry of Health in 2014. A case report questionnaire in the form of software was used for case registries. Latent class analysis was used to achieve the research objectives. Four latent classes were identified; (a) Non-lethal attempters without a history of psychiatric disorders, (b) Non-lethal attempters with a history of psychiatric disorders, (c) Lethal attempters without a history of psychiatric disorders, (d) Lethal attempters with a history of psychiatric disorders. The probability of completed/an achieved suicide is high in lethal attempter classes. Being male increases the risk of inclusion in lethal attempters' classes (OR = 4.93). Also, being single (OR = 1.16), having an age lower than 25 years (OR = 1.14) and being a rural citizen (OR = 2.36) associate with lethal attempters classes. The males tend to use more violent methods and have more completed suicide. Majority of the individuals are non-lethal attempters who need to be addressed by implementing preventive interventions and mental support provision. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A case study of Markdale High School's implementation of heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Louis, Fred

    The purpose of this study was to describe Markdale High School's change from separate college preparatory and general level classes to heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies, with particular emphasis on the principal's leadership style, change process, and teacher concerns (Hall & Hord, 2006) experienced during this effort. The researcher used Hall and Hord's (2006) Concern-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) as a conceptual framework. Specifically, the researcher applied three elements of the CBAM model: (a) the Twelve Principles of Change, (b) the Change Facilitator Styles, and (c) the Stages of Concerns. Hall and Hord's framework served as a lens through which the researcher analyzed all data. The researcher used a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to answer the four research questions. The participants completed three instruments: (a) the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ), (b) the Principles of Change Survey, and (c) the Facilitator Style Survey. All three instruments were self-report, paper-pencil surveys. The sample included 72 faculty members who experienced the change over the past three years. Findings from the three data sources and the school principal's comments during debriefing are indicated for each research question and reported by unit of analysis. Respective to the research questions, the researcher concluded that: (1) Markdale High School accomplished the change by implementing both structural and instructional changes supporting to the change to heterogeneous grouping; (2) even though teachers had divergent opinions on the school principal's facilitation style, the principal thought of himself as an incrementalist and a practitioner of differentiated facilitation styles; (3) while half of the faculty felt that they received formal training on heterogeneous grouping, (4) half felt that they did not have a choice in the decision-making process as it occurred with college preparatory and

  16. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial growth in Class I and Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2007-07-01

    To compare the craniofacial growth characteristics of untreated subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion with those of subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from the prepubertal through the postpubertal stages of development. The Class II division 1 sample consisted of 17 subjects (11 boys and six girls). The Class I sample also consisted of 17 subjects (13 boys and four girls). Three craniofacial regions (cranial base, maxilla, and mandible) were analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of thin-plate spline analysis at T1 (prepubertal) and T2 (postpubertal). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons were performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. The results showed an increased cranial base angulation as a morphological feature of Class II malocclusion at the prepubertal developmental phase. Maxillary changes in either shape or size were not significant. Subjects with Class II malocclusion exhibited a significant deficiency in the size of the mandible at the completion of active craniofacial growth as compared with Class I subjects. A significant deficiency in the size of the mandible became apparent in Class II subjects during the circumpubertal period and it was still present at the completion of active craniofacial growth.

  17. HLA Class I Binding 9mer Peptides from Influenza A Virus Induce CD4(+) T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M. J.; Larsen, Mette Voldby; Nielsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    of the pan-specific anti-HLA class II (HLA-II) antibody IVA12. Blocking of HLA-II subtype reactivity revealed that 8 and 6 peptide responses were blocked by anti-HLA-DR and -DP antibodies, respectively. Peptide reactivity of PBMC depleted of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells prior to the ELISPOT culture revealed...... that effectors are either CD4(+) (the majority of reactivities) or CD8(+) T cells, never a mixture of these subsets. Three of the peptides, recognized by CD4(+) T cells showed binding to recombinant DRA1*0101/DRB1*0401 or DRA1*0101/DRB5*0101 molecules in a recently developed biochemical assay. Conclusions....../Significance: HLA-I binding 9mer influenza virus-derived peptides induce in many cases CD4(+) T cell responses restricted by HLA-II molecules....

  18. IDEOLOGY REPRESENTATION ON MEDIA: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS IN CCU CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Indrawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross Culture Understanding (CCU course is described as the process by which students acquire knowledge and skills of aspects of culture of subjective nature such as norms, values and perceptions; of objective nature such as cultural artifacts and ways of life of people of certain cultural backgrounds. This is revealed through analyzing various discourses of oral, written, visual and other media. Learners of this course are exposed to activities of conceptualizing ideas, discussing forms of social phenomena realization and building cultural relativity through which learners grow attitude of appreciation and toleration and eventually build cross cultural communication with people of different backgrounds. A film perpetuating ideology of certain social class in America is discussed by learners in class to reveal prevailing value of being white Anglo-Saxon protestant. Then this is examined in relation to the existing American Dream as people‘s philosophy. The class reports the findings after studying their own national ideology and makes comparison and contradiction between the two ideologies. Learners report the findings in their weekly log book to document the data for further use and to be uploaded in an on-line academic-scientific journal. A qualitative textual analysis method is done to formulate a meaning interpretively. Textual analysis is an appropriate method for analyzing film as it emphasizes on genre of organizational style.

  19. PDDL4J: a planning domain description library for java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellier, D.; Fiorino, H.

    2018-01-01

    PDDL4J (Planning Domain Description Library for Java) is an open source toolkit for Java cross-platform developers meant (1) to provide state-of-the-art planners based on the Pddl language, and (2) to facilitate research works on new planners. In this article, we present an overview of the Automated Planning concepts and languages. We present some planning systems and their most significant applications. Then, we detail the Pddl4j toolkit with an emphasis on the available informative structures, heuristics and search algorithms.

  20. Active Site Loop Dynamics of a Class IIa Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegan, Scott D. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Rukseree, Kamolchanok [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), Tha Khlong (Thailand); Capodagli, Glenn C. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Baker, Erica A. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Krasnykh, Olga [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Franzblau, Scott G. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Mesecar, Andrew D. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-01-08

    The class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs, EC 4.1.2.13) comprises one of two families of aldolases. Instead of forming a Schiff base intermediate using an ε-amino group of a lysine side chain, class II FBAs utilize Zn(II) to stabilize a proposed hydroxyenolate intermediate (HEI) in the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). As class II FBAs have been shown to be essential in pathogenic bacteria, focus has been placed on these enzymes as potential antibacterial targets. Although structural studies of class II FBAs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtFBA), other bacteria, and protozoa have been reported, the structure of the active site loop responsible for catalyzing the protonation–deprotonation steps of the reaction for class II FBAs has not yet been observed. We therefore utilized the potent class II FBA inhibitor phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) as a mimic of the HEI- and DHAP-bound form of the enzyme and determined the X-ray structure of the MtFBA–PGH complex to 1.58 Å. Remarkably, we are able to observe well-defined electron density for the previously elusive active site loop of MtFBA trapped in a catalytically competent orientation. Utilization of this structural information and site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies conducted on a series of residues within the active site loop revealed that E169 facilitates a water-mediated deprotonation–protonation step of the MtFBA reaction mechanism. Furthermore, solvent isotope effects on MtFBA and catalytically relevant mutants were used to probe the effect of loop flexibility on catalytic efficiency. Additionally, we also reveal the structure of MtFBA in its holoenzyme form.

  1. Extending dynamic segmentation with lead generation : A latent class Markov analysis of financial product portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, L.J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    A recent development in marketing research concerns the incorporation of dynamics in consumer segmentation.This paper extends the latent class Markov model, a suitable technique for conducting dynamic segmentation, in order to facilitate lead generation.We demonstrate the application of the latent

  2. HLA Class II Defects in Burkitt Lymphoma: Bryostatin-1-Induced 17 kDa Protein Restores CD4+ T-Cell Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the defects in HLA class I-mediated Ag presentation by Burkitt lymphoma (BL have been well documented, CD4+ T-cells are also poorly stimulated by HLA class II Ag presentation, and the reasons underlying this defect(s have not yet been fully resolved. Here, we show that BL cells are deficient in their ability to optimally stimulate CD4+ T cells via the HLA class II pathway. The observed defect was not associated with low levels of BL-expressed costimulatory molecules, as addition of external co-stimulation failed to result in BL-mediated CD4+ T-cell activation. We further demonstrate that BL cells express the components of the class II pathway, and the defect was not caused by faulty Ag/class II interaction, because antigenic peptides bound with measurable affinity to BL-associated class II molecules. Treatment of BL with broystatin-1, a potent modulator of protein kinase C, led to significant improvement of functional class II Ag presentation in BL. The restoration of immune recognition appeared to be linked with an increased expression of a 17 kDa peptidylprolyl-like protein. These results demonstrate the presence of a specific defect in HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in BL and reveal that treatment with bryostatin-1 could lead to enhanced immunogenicity.

  3. A Genome-wide multidimensional RNAi screen reveals pathways controlling MHC class II antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Petra; van den Hoorn, Tineke; Jongsma, Marlieke L. M.; Bakker, Mark J.; Hengeveld, Rutger; Janssen, Lennert; Cresswell, Peter; Egan, David A.; van Ham, Marieke; ten Brinke, Anja; Ovaa, Huib; Beijersbergen, Roderick L.; Kuijl, Coenraad; Neefjes, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    MHC class II molecules (MHC-II) present peptides to T helper cells to facilitate immune responses and are strongly linked to autoimmune diseases. To unravel processes controlling MHC-II antigen presentation, we performed a genome-wide flow cytometry-based RNAi screen detecting MHC-II expression and

  4. Optimizing solubility and permeability of a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class 4 antibiotic drug using lipophilic fragments disturbing the crystal lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehler, Ulrika; Fagerberg, Jonas H; Svensson, Richard; Larhed, Mats; Artursson, Per; Bergström, Christel A S

    2013-03-28

    Esterification was used to simultaneously increase solubility and permeability of ciprofloxacin, a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class 4 drug (low solubility/low permeability) with solid-state limited solubility. Molecular flexibility was increased to disturb the crystal lattice, lower the melting point, and thereby improve the solubility, whereas lipophilicity was increased to enhance the intestinal permeability. These structural changes resulted in BCS class 1 analogues (high solubility/high permeability) emphasizing that simple medicinal chemistry may improve both these properties.

  5. Comparing Facilitator Priorities of Suicide Survivor Support Groups: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Between Japanese and American Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelman, William; Feigelman, Beverly; Kawashima, Daisuke; Shiraga, Keisuke; Kawano, Kenji

    2017-08-01

    A total of 56 Japanese and 59 American survivor of suicide support group facilitators were asked to rank the mutual aid objectives of their groups following Shulman's scheme in terms of their frequency and importance. Both American and Japanese facilitators showed an emphasis on personal adaptation goals (such as helping bereaved feel less isolated in their grief or encouraging bereaved to share their coping with loss experiences) over collective goals (such as raising monies for more research on mental illness or trying to combat societal suicide stigma in their local communities). Differences were also noted with American facilitators evaluating helping with problem solving, sharing different ways of coping, viewing personal issues as societal problems, and advocating for promoting social change as significantly higher than the Japanese did. We believe some of these contrasts reflect differences in American and Japanese cultural values.

  6. Craniofacial changes in Class III malocclusion as related to skeletal and dental maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2007-08-01

    In this large cross-sectional study, we aimed to analyze growth trends in white subjects with Class III malocclusion using both skeletal and dental maturation staging. The sample consisted of 1091 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records of Class III patients (560 female, 531 male). Cephalometric dentoskeletal measurements were compared at subsequent stages in cervical vertebral maturation and Hellman's categorization of dental development by means of ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc tests in both sexes separately. The findings indicated that, in Class III malocclusion, the pubertal peak in mandibular growth occurs between stages 3 and 4 of cervical vertebral maturation, with average increases in total mandibular length of about 8 and 5.5 mm in Class III boys and girls, respectively. Significant changes in total mandibular length occur until young adulthood (18 years on average), with increases between late maturation stages (4 through 6) that were twice as large as in subjects with normal occlusion for the Class III females, and 3 times as large as in subjects with normal occlusion for the Class III males. Growth trends toward accentuated Class III profile and increased vertical dimension of the face also become apparent at late developmental stages (corresponding with complete eruption of the second and third molars).

  7. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following......: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...

  8. RMS: a platform for managing cross-disciplinary and multi-institutional research project collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; Pelfrey, Clara M; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2014-11-30

    Cross-institutional cross-disciplinary collaboration has become a trend as researchers move toward building more productive and innovative teams for scientific research. Research collaboration is significantly changing the organizational structure and strategies used in the clinical and translational science domain. However, due to the obstacles of diverse administrative structures, differences in area of expertise, and communication barriers, establishing and managing a cross-institutional research project is still a challenging task. We address these challenges by creating an integrated informatics platform to reduce the barriers to biomedical research collaboration. The Request Management System (RMS) is an informatics infrastructure designed to transform a patchwork of expertise and resources into an integrated support network. The RMS facilitates investigators' initiation of new collaborative projects and supports the management of the collaboration process. In RMS, experts and their knowledge areas are categorized and managed structurally to provide consistent service. A role-based collaborative workflow is tightly integrated with domain experts and services to streamline and monitor the life-cycle of a research project. The RMS has so far tracked over 1,500 investigators with over 4,800 tasks. The research network based on the data collected in RMS illustrated that the investigators' collaborative projects increased close to 3 times from 2009 to 2012. Our experience with RMS indicates that the platform reduces barriers for cross-institutional collaboration of biomedical research projects. Building a new generation of infrastructure to enhance cross-disciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration has become an important yet challenging task. In this paper, we share the experience of developing and utilizing a collaborative project management system. The results of this study demonstrate that a web-based integrated informatics platform can facilitate and

  9. A survey of the use of hearing aid and assistive devices among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... The classes used were classes four and five, while 40 volunteered teachers and parents were also selected to respond to a carefully worded ten items questionnaire through a mail system and follow up exercises both on telephone and personal visits.

  10. TermGenie - a web-application for pattern-based ontology class generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Heiko; Berardini, Tanya Z; Foulger, Rebecca E; Hill, David P; Lomax, Jane; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Roncaglia, Paola; Mungall, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Biological ontologies are continually growing and improving from requests for new classes (terms) by biocurators. These ontology requests can frequently create bottlenecks in the biocuration process, as ontology developers struggle to keep up, while manually processing these requests and create classes. TermGenie allows biocurators to generate new classes based on formally specified design patterns or templates. The system is web-based and can be accessed by any authorized curator through a web browser. Automated rules and reasoning engines are used to ensure validity, uniqueness and relationship to pre-existing classes. In the last 4 years the Gene Ontology TermGenie generated 4715 new classes, about 51.4% of all new classes created. The immediate generation of permanent identifiers proved not to be an issue with only 70 (1.4%) obsoleted classes. TermGenie is a web-based class-generation system that complements traditional ontology development tools. All classes added through pre-defined templates are guaranteed to have OWL equivalence axioms that are used for automatic classification and in some cases inter-ontology linkage. At the same time, the system is simple and intuitive and can be used by most biocurators without extensive training.

  11. Antisense and sense expression of cDNA coding for CYP73A15, a class II cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, leads to a delayed and reduced production of lignin in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, K.; Choi, J. W.; O'Connell, A. P.; Jupe, S. C.; Schuch, W.; Lewis, N. G.; Bolwell, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    A number of plant species contain the class II of genes encoding the cytochrome P450, CYP73, the cognate protein of which cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, is the second enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In order to begin to determine possible functionality, tobacco has been transformed with a truncated French bean class II cinnamate hydroxylase (CYP73A15) in the sense and antisense orientations. Signals for C4H protein could be detected in vascular tissue from wild-type plants using heterologous probes. The transformed plants showed a normal phenotype, even though detectable C4H protein was much reduced in tissue prints. Young propagated transformants displayed a range of reduced C4H activities, as well as either reduced or no phloroglucinol-stainable lignin. However, all mature tobacco plants showed the accumulation of lignin, even though its deposition was apparently delayed. This was not due to induction of tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity, which was not detected, but instead it is presumed due to sufficient C4H residual activity. Analysis of the lignin content of the plants showed reductions of up to 30% with a slightly reduced syringyl to guaiacyl ratio as compared to wild type. This reduction level was favourable in comparison with some other targets in the lignification pathway that have been manipulated including that of class I cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. It is proposed that the class II cinnamate 4-hydroxylase might also function in lignification in a number of species including French bean and tobacco, based on these data.

  12. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Schinkel, Daniel; Annema, Anne J.; Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, Bram

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant

  13. ESELEM 4: a code for calculating fine neutron spectrum and multi-group cross sections in plate lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masayuki; Katsuragi, Satoru; Narita, Hideo.

    1976-07-01

    The multi-group treatment has been used in the design study of fast reactors and analysis of experiments at fast critical assemblies. The accuracy of the multi-group cross sections therefore affects strongly the results of these analyses. The ESELEM 4 code has been developed to produce multi-group cross sections with an advanced method from the nuclear data libraries used in the JAERI Fast set. ESELEM 4 solves integral transport equation by the collision probability method in plate lattice geometry to obtain the fine neutron spectrum. A typical fine group mesh width is 0.008 in lethargy unit. The multi-group cross sections are calculated by weighting the point data with the fine structure neutron flux. Some devices are applied to reduce computation time and computer core storage required for the calculation. The slowing down sources are calculated with the use of a recurrence formula derived for elastic and inelastic scattering. The broad group treatment is adopted above 2 MeV for dealing with both light any heavy elements. Also the resonance cross sections of heavy elements are represented in a broad group structure, for which we use the values of the JAERI Fast set. The library data are prepared by the PRESM code from ENDF/A type nuclear data files. The cross section data can be compactly stored in the fast computer core memory for saving the core storage and data processing time. The programme uses the variable dimensions to increase its flexibility. The users' guide for ESELEM 4 and PRESM is also presented in this report. (auth.)

  14. Evaluation of doctors' performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salwani Ismail,1 Abdus Salam,2 Ahmed G Alattraqchi,1 Lakshmi Annamalai,1 Annamalai Chockalingam,1 Wan Putri Elena,3 Nor Iza A Rahman,1 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,1 Mainul Haque1 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Background: Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students' perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted of the medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The study population was 468 preclinical medical students from years 1 and 2 of academic year 2012–2013. Data were collected using a validated instrument. There were six different sections of questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The data were then compiled and analyzed, using SPSS version 20. Results: The response rate was 73%. Among 341 respondents, 30% were male and 70% were female. Eighty-five percent of respondents agree or strongly agree that the lectures had met the criteria with regard to organization of lecture materials. Similarly, 97% of students agree or strongly agree that lecturers maintained adequate voices and gestures. Conclusion: Medical students are quite satisfied with the lecture classes and the lectures. However, further research is required to identify student-centered teaching and learning methods to promote active learning. Keywords: lecture, effectiveness, evaluation, undergraduate medical

  15. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  16. Induction of homologous and cross-reactive GII.4-specific blocking antibodies in children after GII.4 New Orleans norovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevic, Vesna; Malm, Maria; Vesikari, Timo

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are major causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children worldwide and the most common viral cause of AGE in countries where rotavirus incidence has been eliminated by vaccination. Previous infections with the dominant GII.4 NoV genotype confer only partial protection against evolving immune escape variants that emerge every few years. The objective of this work was to investigate GII.4-specific homologous and cross-reactive antibody responses in young children after NoV GII.4-2009 New Orleans (NO) infection. Virus-like particles (VLPs) representing GII.4-1999, GII.4-2009 NO, and GII.4-2012 Sydney genotypes were used in ELISA and histo-blood group antigen blocking assays to examine acute and convalescent sera of five children <2 years of age infected with GII.4-2009 NO. GII.4-2009 NO infection induced IgG seroconversion to all three tested NoV GII.4 variants. Homologous blocking antibodies to GII.4-2009 NO were detected in each convalescent sera. Fourfold increase in cross-blocking antibodies to GII.4-2012 Sydney was observed in 4/5 subjects, but no child developed cross-blocking antibodies to GII.4-1999. In conclusion, antibodies induced in young children after norovirus GII.4 infection are targeted against the causative variant and may cross-protect against strains that are closely related, but not with more distinct and earlier GII.4 genotypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. School and class-level variations and patterns of physical activity: a multilevel analysis of Danish high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenholt, Carina Bjørnskov; Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Danquah, Ida Høgstedt; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2018-02-14

    There is limited knowledge of physical activity (PA) patterns among high school students. High schools plays an important role as context for the students, but it is uncertain to what extent schools influence student participation in PA during leisure time. The purpose of this study is to describe patterns of PA and assess variations between schools and classes in PA, in a large cohort of Danish high school students. Self-reported cross-sectional data came from The Danish National Youth Study, comprising a total of 70,674 students attending 119 different schools and 3213 classes. Multilevel logistic regressions were applied to evaluate the association between socio-demographic variables and patterns of PA, and to assess the impact of schools and classes on PA measures. Students whose parents have achieved a lower level of education, older students and girls of perceived ethnic minority generally participated less in several forms of PA during leisure time. Substantial variations between schools were observed in terms of participation in PA at school during leisure time and in terms of use of active transportation to and from school. The school-level accounted for 9% (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.09 (95% CI: 0.06-0.11)) and 8% (ICC = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.07-0.11)) of the variation for participation in PA during leisure time and active transportation. Overall, students whose parents achieved a lower level of education, older students and girls of perceived ethnic minority represent vulnerable groups in relation to participation in several forms of PA during leisure time. The ICCs indicate that schools, in particular, have the potential to influence participation in PA at school during leisure time and active transportation to and from school. Thus, high schools should encourage and facilitate activities aimed at engaging students in PA during leisure time as well as encourage active transportation.

  18. A latent class distance association model for cross-classified data with a categorical response variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, José Fernando; de Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem J

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we propose a latent class distance association model for clustering in the predictor space of large contingency tables with a categorical response variable. The rows of such a table are characterized as profiles of a set of explanatory variables, while the columns represent a single outcome variable. In many cases such tables are sparse, with many zero entries, which makes traditional models problematic. By clustering the row profiles into a few specific classes and representing these together with the categories of the response variable in a low-dimensional Euclidean space using a distance association model, a parsimonious prediction model can be obtained. A generalized EM algorithm is proposed to estimate the model parameters and the adjusted Bayesian information criterion statistic is employed to test the number of mixture components and the dimensionality of the representation. An empirical example highlighting the advantages of the new approach and comparing it with traditional approaches is presented. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Modifying Formative Evaluation Techniques For Distance Education Class Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. WALKER

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Modifying Formative Evaluation Techniques For Distance Education Class Evaluation Assistant Professor Scott L. WALKERDepartment of GeographyTexas State UniversitySan Marcos, USA ABSTRACTPost-secondary classes are usually followed by mandatory summative evaluations, yet changes in teaching and course structure cannot be made with summative evaluations. Formative evaluations in online education can result in candid responses from students if a third-party facilitator is involved in the process. This paper presents a method for conducting formative evaluation in an online class by utilizing the assistance of a colleague. Results of one such evaluation are presented, as are its advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Roundup Ready soybean gene concentrations in field soil aggregate size classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Booth, David J; Gulden, Robert H; Campbell, Rachel G; Powell, Jeff R; Klironomos, John N; Pauls, K Peter; Swanton, Clarence J; Trevors, Jack T; Dunfield, Kari E

    2009-02-01

    Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans containing recombinant Agrobacterium spp. CP4 5-enol-pyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (cp4 epsps) genes tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate are extensively grown worldwide. The concentration of recombinant DNA from RR soybeans in soil aggregates was studied due to the possibility of genetic transformation of soil bacteria. This study used real-time PCR to examine the concentration of cp4 epsps in four field soil aggregate size classes (>2000 microm, 2000-500 microm, 500-250 microm and 2000 mum fraction contained between 66.62% and 99.18% of total gene copies, although it only accounted for about 30.00% of the sampled soil. Aggregate formation may facilitate persistence of recombinant DNA.

  1. Cross sections for electron-impact excitation of krypton from the levels of 4p6, 4p55s, and 4p55p configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jiaolong; Yuan Jianmin; Wu Jianhua; Jin Fengtao; Zhao Gang

    2005-01-01

    The electron-impact excitation cross sections at low electron energies have been calculated using a fully relativistic R-matrix method for transitions between levels of 4p 6 , 4p 5 5s, and 4p 5 5p configurations. To ensure the convergence of results, we have paid special attention to the factors that may affect the convergence of cross sections. For examples, we have included extensive configuration interactions in the wave-function expansion of the target states. A large enough R-matrix boundary has been taken to ensure the convergence of atomic wave functions. Contributions to cross sections from a large number of partial waves (up to J=39.5) have been explicitly calculated. The final results are in good agreement with recent experimental data by Jung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 163202 (2005)] after shifting the position of electron energy. The relative difference is about 10% for four transitions out of the metastable levels. The results eliminated the significant discrepancies between theory and experimental work on excitation cross sections out of the metastable levels reported in the literature

  2. Engembangan Virtual Class Untuk Pembelajaran Augmented Reality Berbasis Android

    OpenAIRE

    Arief, Rifiana; Umniati, Naeli

    2012-01-01

    Augmanted Reality for android handphone has been a trend among collage students of computer department who join New Media course. To develop this application, the knowladge about visual presentation theory and case study of Augmanted Reality on android phoneneed to be conducted. Learning media through virtual class can facilitate the students' needs in learning and developing Augmanted Reality. The method of this study in developing virtual class for Augmented Reality learning were: a) having...

  3. The DAG project, a 4m class telescope: the telescope main structure performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marcuzzi, E.; Manfrin, C.; Battistel, C.; Pirnay, O.; Flebus, Carlo; Yeşilyaprak, C.; Keskin, O.; Yerli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi (DAG-Eastern Anatolia Observatory) Project is a 4m class optical, near-infrared Telescope and suitable enclosure which will be located at an altitude of 3.170m in Erzurum, Turkey. The DAG telescope is a project fully funded by Turkish Ministry of Development and the Atatürk University of Astrophysics Research Telescope - ATASAM. The Project is being developed by the Belgian company AMOS (project leader), which is also the optics supplier and EIE GROUP, the Telescope Main Structure supplier and responsible for the final site integration. The design of the Telescope Main Structure fits in the EIE TBO Program which aims at developing a Dome/Telescope systemic optimization process for both performances and competitive costs based on previous project commitments like NTT, VLT, VST and ASTRI. The optical Configuration of the DAG Telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien with two Nasmyth foci and a 4m primary thin mirror controlled in shape and position by an Active Optic System. The main characteristics of the Telescope Main Structure are an Altitude-Azimuth light and rigid structure system with Direct Drive Systems for both axis, AZ Hydrostatic Bearing System and Altitude standard bearing system; both axes are equipped with Tape Encoder System. An innovative Control System characterizes the telescope performance.

  4. A Valid Matérn Class of Cross-Covariance Functions for Multivariate Random Fields With Any Number of Components

    KAUST Repository

    Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.

    2012-03-01

    We introduce a valid parametric family of cross-covariance functions for multivariate spatial random fields where each component has a covariance function from a well-celebrated Matérn class. Unlike previous attempts, our model indeed allows for various smoothnesses and rates of correlation decay for any number of vector components.We present the conditions on the parameter space that result in valid models with varying degrees of complexity. We discuss practical implementations, including reparameterizations to reflect the conditions on the parameter space and an iterative algorithm to increase the computational efficiency. We perform various Monte Carlo simulation experiments to explore the performances of our approach in terms of estimation and cokriging. The application of the proposed multivariate Matérnmodel is illustrated on two meteorological datasets: temperature/pressure over the Pacific Northwest (bivariate) and wind/temperature/pressure in Oklahoma (trivariate). In the latter case, our flexible trivariate Matérn model is valid and yields better predictive scores compared with a parsimonious model with common scale parameters. © 2012 American Statistical Association.

  5. Global Tactical Cross-Asset Allocation: Applying Value and Momentum Across Asset Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine global tactical asset allocation (GTAA) strategies across a broad range of asset classes. Contrary to market timing for single asset classes and tactical allocation across similar assets, this topic has received little attention in the existing literature. Our

  6. Membrane-bound heat shock proteins facilitate the uptake of dying cells and cross-presentation of cellular antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Fang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Wu, Weicheng; Shao, Miaomiao; Wang, Lan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were originally identified as stress-responsive proteins and serve as molecular chaperones in different intracellular compartments. Translocation of HSPs to the cell surface and release of HSPs into the extracellular space have been observed during the apoptotic process and in response to a variety of cellular stress. Here, we report that UV irradiation and cisplatin treatment rapidly induce the expression of membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 upstream the phosphatidylserine exposure. Membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the release of IL-6 and IL-1β as well as DC maturation by the evaluation of CD80 and CD86 expression. On the other hand, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 on cells could facilitate the uptake of dying cells by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), as a common receptor for Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90, is response for their recognition and mediates the uptake of dying cells. Furthermore, membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the cross-presentation of OVA antigen from E.G7 cells and inhibition of the uptake of dying cells by LOX-1 decreases the cross-presentation of cellular antigen. Therefore, the rapid exposure of HSPs on dying cells at the early stage allows for the recognition by and confers an activation signal to the immune system.

  7. Duration of the pubertal peak in skeletal Class I and Class III subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuc-Michalska, Małgorzata; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-01-01

    To estimate and compare the duration of the pubertal growth peak in Class I and Class III subjects. The data examined consisted of pretreatment lateral cephalometric records of 218 skeletal Class I or Class III subjects (93 female and 125 male subjects) of white ancestry. The duration of the pubertal peak was calculated from the average chronological age intervals between stages CS3 and CS4 of the cervical vertebral maturation in Class I vs Class III groups (t-test). In skeletal Class I subjects, the pubertal peak had a mean duration of 11 months, whereas in Class III subjects it lasted 16 months. The average difference (5 months) was statistically significant (P < .001). The growth interval corresponding to the pubertal growth spurt (CS3-CS4) was longer in Class III subjects than in subjects with normal skeletal relationships; the larger increases in mandibular length during the pubertal peak reported in the literature for Class III subjects may be related to the longer duration of the pubertal peak.

  8. Measurements of electron-proton elastic cross sections for 0.4 2 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, M.E.; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Razmik Asaturyan; Steven Avery; Baker, O.; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; Bochna, C.W.; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Brown, D.S.; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Fox, B.; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Yongguang Liang; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Martin, J.W.; Kevin McIlhany; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; Miller, J.W.; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Buz Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; Rollinde, E.; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; Smith, C.; Stepan Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-01-01

    We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 unique kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 2 2 . These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the Q 2 range where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab

  9. Modelling of Signal - Level Crossing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Novak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an object-oriented model of a railway level-crossing system created for the purpose of functional requirements specification. Unified Modelling Language (UML, version 1.4, which enables specification, visualisation, construction and documentation of software system artefacts, was used. The main attention was paid to analysis and design phases. The former phase resulted in creation of use case diagrams and sequential diagrams, the latter in creation of class/object diagrams and statechart diagrams.

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unit a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unit a 4 Table 4 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... Part 60—Model Rule—Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unit a For...

  11. Validation of the WIMSD4M cross-section generation code with benchmark results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, J.R.; Woodruff, W.L.; Leal, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    The WIMSD4 code has been adopted for cross-section generation in support of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Subsequently, the code has undergone several updates, and significant improvements have been achieved. The capability of generating group-collapsed micro- or macroscopic cross sections from the ENDF/B-V library and the more recent evaluation, ENDF/B-VI, in the ISOTXS format makes the modified version of the WIMSD4 code, WIMSD4M, very attractive, not only for the RERTR program, but also for the reactor physics community. The intent of the present paper is to validate the WIMSD4M cross-section libraries for reactor modeling of fresh water moderated cores. The results of calculations performed with multigroup cross-section data generated with the WIMSD4M code will be compared against experimental results. These results correspond to calculations carried out with thermal reactor benchmarks of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) unreflected HEU critical spheres, the TRX LEU critical experiments, and calculations of a modified Los Alamos HEU D 2 O moderated benchmark critical system. The benchmark calculations were performed with the discrete-ordinates transport code, TWODANT, using WIMSD4M cross-section data. Transport calculations using the XSDRNPM module of the SCALE code system are also included. In addition to transport calculations, diffusion calculations with the DIF3D code were also carried out, since the DIF3D code is used in the RERTR program for reactor analysis and design. For completeness, Monte Carlo results of calculations performed with the VIM and MCNP codes are also presented

  12. Validation of the WIMSD4M cross-section generation code with benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, J.R.; Woodruff, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Leal, L.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The WIMSD4 code has been adopted for cross-section generation in support of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Subsequently, the code has undergone several updates, and significant improvements have been achieved. The capability of generating group-collapsed micro- or macroscopic cross sections from the ENDF/B-V library and the more recent evaluation, ENDF/B-VI, in the ISOTXS format makes the modified version of the WIMSD4 code, WIMSD4M, very attractive, not only for the RERTR program, but also for the reactor physics community. The intent of the present paper is to validate the WIMSD4M cross-section libraries for reactor modeling of fresh water moderated cores. The results of calculations performed with multigroup cross-section data generated with the WIMSD4M code will be compared against experimental results. These results correspond to calculations carried out with thermal reactor benchmarks of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) unreflected HEU critical spheres, the TRX LEU critical experiments, and calculations of a modified Los Alamos HEU D{sub 2}O moderated benchmark critical system. The benchmark calculations were performed with the discrete-ordinates transport code, TWODANT, using WIMSD4M cross-section data. Transport calculations using the XSDRNPM module of the SCALE code system are also included. In addition to transport calculations, diffusion calculations with the DIF3D code were also carried out, since the DIF3D code is used in the RERTR program for reactor analysis and design. For completeness, Monte Carlo results of calculations performed with the VIM and MCNP codes are also presented.

  13. The fast neutron SEU cross section of a 4 Mb SRAM memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Junior, Evaldo C.F.; Goncalez, Odair L.; Cruz, Marco Aurelio da; Prado, Adriane Cristina Mendes; Federico, Claudio Antonio; Gaspar, Felipe de Barros

    2013-01-01

    The results of a static test of single event upset (SEU) produced by fast neutrons on an ISSI 4Mb SRAM memory are reported in this work. To perform the tests, it was built a platform based on a motherboard which is controlled by microprocessor, whose function is to perform the writing, reading and control of the memories under irradiation. The irradiation was performed with a set of 8 241 Am-Be neutrons source in a quasi-isotropic incidence. The SEU cross was calculated from the accumulated bit flip count. (author)

  14. 78 FR 45478 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...-0531; Airspace Docket No. 13-ANM-20] Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules...

  15. Additional file 4: of MHC class II expression and potential antigen-presenting cells in the retina during experimental autoimmune uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lipski, Deborah; Dewispelaere, RÊmi; Foucart, Vincent; Caspers, Laure; Defrance, Matthieu; Bruyns, Catherine; Willermain, François

    2017-01-01

    Figure S4. MHC class II expression in the retina during classical EAU. Three weeks after immunization, eye cryosections were prepared and stained for MHC class II (green) and IBA1 (red) or endoglin (magenta) detection. Cell nuclei were stained with Hoechst (blue). Each picture was chosen as representative of an experiment conducted on six or more animals. A. MHC class II and IBA1 expression. B. MHC class II and endoglin expression. (PPTX 7276 kb)

  16. ENGEMBANGAN VIRTUAL CLASS UNTUK PEMBELAJARAN AUGMENTED REALITY BERBASIS ANDROID

    OpenAIRE

    Rifiana Arief; Naeli Umniati

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Augmanted Reality for android handphone has been a trend among collage students of computer department who join New Media course. To develop this application, the knowladge about visual presentation theory and case study of Augmanted Reality on android phoneneed to be conducted. Learning media through virtual class can facilitate the students’ needs in learning and developing Augmanted Reality. The method of this study in developing virtual class for Augmented Reality learning we...

  17. The direct health services costs of providing assisted reproduction services in overweight or obese women: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Abha; Scotland, Graham; Bell, Jacqueline; McTavish, Alison; Hamilton, Mark; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2009-03-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising. Hence, it is likely that a higher proportion of women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment are overweight or obese. In a retrospective cross-sectional analysis using routinely collected data of an IVF Unit and maternity hospital in a tertiary care setting in the UK, direct costs were assessed for all weight classes. Costs for underweight, overweight and obese were compared with those for women with normal body mass index (BMI). Of 1756 women, who underwent their first cycle of IVF between 1997 and 2006, 43 (2.4%) were underweight; 988 (56.3%) had normal BMI; 491 (28.0%) were overweight; 148 (8.4%) were obese (class I) and 86 (4.9%) were obese (class II). The mean (95% CI) cost of each live birth resulting from IVF was pound 18,747 (13 864-27 361) in underweight group; pound 16,497 (15 374-17 817) in women with normal BMI; pound 18,575 (16,648-21,081) in overweight women; pound 18,805 (15 397-23 554) in obese class I; pound 20,282 (15 288-28 424) in obese class II or over. The cost of a live birth resulting from IVF is not different in underweight, overweight and obese class I when compared with women with normal BMI. However, due to increased obstetric complications weight loss should still be recommended prior to commencing IVF even in overweight or obese (class I) women.

  18. Barriers and Facilitators to Community CPR Education in San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Kristin M; Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Hammes, Andrew; Kroehl, Miranda; García, Raquel Quiros; McDermott, Manrique Umaña; Lowenstein, Steven R

    2016-10-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival after prehospital cardiac arrest. While community CPR training programs have been implemented across the US, little is known about their acceptability in non-US Latino populations. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to enrolling in CPR training classes and performing CPR in San José, Costa Rica. After consulting 10 San José residents, a survey was created, pilot-tested, and distributed to a convenience sample of community members in public gathering places in San José. Questions included demographics, CPR knowledge and beliefs, prior CPR training, having a family member with heart disease, and prior witnessing of a cardiac arrest. Questions also addressed barriers to enrolling in CPR classes (cost/competing priorities). The analysis focused on two main outcomes: likelihood of registering for a CPR class and willingness to perform CPR on an adult stranger. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated to test for associations between patient characteristics and these outcomes. Among 371 participants, most were male (60%) and education (OR: 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2). Believing that CPR does not work was associated with a higher likelihood of not attending a CPR class (OR: 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-7.9). Fear of performing mouth-mouth, believing CPR is against God's will, and fear of legal risk were associated with a likelihood of not attending a CPR class and not performing CPR on a stranger (range of ORs: 2.4-3.9). Most San José residents are willing to take CPR classes and perform CPR on a stranger. To implement a community CPR program, barriers must be considered, including misgivings about CPR efficacy and legal risk. Hands-only CPR programs may alleviate hesitancy to perform mouth-to-mouth. Schmid KM , Mould-Millman NK , Hammes A , Kroehl M , Quiros García R , Umaña McDermott M , Lowenstein SR . Barriers and facilitators to community CPR education in San José, Costa Rica. Prehosp Disaster Med

  19. 47 CFR 73.6014 - Protection of digital Class A TV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of digital Class A TV stations. 73... Class A TV stations. An application to change the facilities of an existing Class A TV station will not be accepted if it fails to protect authorized digital Class A TV stations and applications for...

  20. TCRs Used in Cancer Gene Therapy Cross-React with MART-1/Melan-A Tumor Antigens via Distinct Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Hossain, Moushumi; Baker, Brian M. (Notre)

    2013-09-18

    T cells engineered to express TCRs specific for tumor Ags can drive cancer regression. The first TCRs used in cancer gene therapy, DMF4 and DMF5, recognize two structurally distinct peptide epitopes of the melanoma-associated MART-1/Melan-A protein, both presented by the class I MHC protein HLA-A*0201. To help understand the mechanisms of TCR cross-reactivity and provide a foundation for the further development of immunotherapy, we determined the crystallographic structures of DMF4 and DMF5 in complex with both of the MART-1/Melan-A epitopes. The two TCRs use different mechanisms to accommodate the two ligands. Although DMF4 binds the two with a different orientation, altering its position over the peptide/MHC, DMF5 binds them both identically. The simpler mode of cross-reactivity by DMF5 is associated with higher affinity toward both ligands, consistent with the superior functional avidity of DMF5. More generally, the observation of two diverging mechanisms of cross-reactivity with the same Ags and the finding that TCR-binding orientation can be determined by peptide alone extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying TCR cross-reactivity.

  1. ZAP-70 and p72syk are signaling response elements through MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Grosmaire, L S; Blake, J

    1995-01-01

    Ligation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens expressed on antigen-activated human CD4+ T-lymphocytes induces early signal transduction events including the activation of tyrosine kinases, the tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase-C gamma 1 and the mobilization...... of intracellular calcium. Similar responses have been observed in B-cells following stimulation of MHC class II molecules, including the increased production of intracellular cAMP. In this report, we demonstrate that the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase is a responsive signaling element following cross-linking of HLA...... by herbimycin A. MHC class II ligation on B-lymphocytes resulted in cell death, which was both qualitatively distinct from Fas-induced apoptosis and partially protected by herbimycin A pretreatment. Thus, ligation of MHC class II molecules expressed on human lymphocytes stimulates the ZAP-70/p72syk family...

  2. Introducing StatHand: A cross-platform mobile application to support students’ statistical decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James Allen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although essential to professional competence in psychology, quantitative research methods are a known area of weakness for many undergraduate psychology students. Students find selecting appropriate statistical tests and procedures for different types of research questions, hypotheses and data types particularly challenging, and these skills are not often practiced in class. Decision trees (a type of graphic organizer are known to facilitate this decision making process, but extant trees have a number of limitations. Furthermore, emerging research suggests that mobile technologies offer many possibilities for facilitating learning. It is within this context that we have developed StatHand, a free cross-platform application designed to support students’ statistical decision making. Developed with the support of the Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching, StatHand guides users through a series of simple, annotated questions to help them identify a statistical test or procedure appropriate to their circumstances. It further offers the guidance necessary to run these tests and procedures, then interpret and report their results. In this Technology Report we will overview the rationale behind StatHand, before describing the feature set of the application. We will then provide guidelines for integrating StatHand into the research methods curriculum, before concluding by outlining our road map for the ongoing development and evaluation of StatHand.

  3. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ip, Wan-Yim; Sally Chan, Wai Chi

    2016-10-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among mainland Chinese mothers in the early postpartum period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in a regional teaching hospital with childbirth rate over 3000 per year at Guangzhou, China from April 1 to July 14, 2014. a total of 571 Chinese mothers who were within 72-96hours post partum were recruited consecutively to the study. data were collected by the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS) and a socio-demographic data sheet. a total of 640 eligible women was approached and 571 mothers completed the study with the response rate of 89%. Mothers reported moderate level of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. The best-fit regression analysis revealed six variables that explained 43.9% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. They were intention of breast feeding, support from husband, support from nurses/midwives, attending antenatal breast feeding classes, time from childbirth to initiate breast feeding and previous breast feeding experience. this study found six predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. In order to increase maternal breast feeding self-efficacy level, a more women-centred approach is recommended. Mothers and fathers should be facilitated to attend antenatal classes on breast feeding. New mother' husband could be encouraged in supporting breast feeding. Nurses and midwives could encourage new mothers to initiate breast feeding as soon as possible. Further work to promote early mother-infant contact post birth, such as via skin to skin contact should also be facilitated where possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and biological activity of a new class of insecticides: the N-(5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelbarger, Joseph D; Parker, Marshall H; Yap, Maurice Ch; Buysse, Ann M; Babcock, Jonathan M; Hunter, Ricky; Adelfinskaya, Yelena; Samaritoni, Jack G; Garizi, Negar; Trullinger, Tony K

    2017-04-01

    Optimization studies on a high-throughput screening (HTS) hit led to the discovery of a series of N-(6-arylpyridazin-3-yl)amides with insecticidal activity. It was hypothesized that the isosteric replacement of the pyridazine ring with a 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring could lead to more potent biological activity and/or a broader sap-feeding pest spectrum. The resulting N-(5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amides were explored as a new class of insecticides. Several methods for 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole synthesis were used for the preparation of key synthetic intermediates. Subsequent coupling to variously substituted carboxylic acid building blocks furnished the final targets, which were tested for insecticidal activity against susceptible strains of Aphis gossypii (Glover) (cotton aphid), Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (green peach aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (sweetpotato whitefly). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on both the amide tail and the aryl A-ring of novel N-(5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amides led to a new class of insecticidal molecules active against sap-feeding insect pests. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Literacy education, reading engagement, and library use in multilingual classes

    OpenAIRE

    Tonne, Ingebjørg; Pihl, Joron

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this paper is literacy education and reading engagement in multilingual classes. What facilitates reading engagement in the language of instruction in multilingual classes? In this paper, we analyze reading engagement in a literature-based literacy program in Norway (2007–2011). The design was a research and development project in which teachers, researchers, and librarians collaborated within literacy education. We present pedagogical interventions within the project and analyze...

  6. Reading and response as facilitation to the teaching and learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading and response as facilitation to the teaching and learning of ... and strategies that can be used in the classroom towards teaching student's reading skills. ... The population comprises all forth year English teaching methods class.

  7. Preliminary assessment of Geant4 HP models and cross section libraries by reactor criticality benchmark calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Xiao-Xiao; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Mullet, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Geant4 is an open source general purpose simulation toolkit for particle transportation in matter. Since the extension of the thermal scattering model in Geant4.9.5 and the availability of the IAEA HP model cross section libraries, it is now possible to extend the application area of Geant4......, U and O in uranium dioxide, Al metal, Be metal, and Fe metal. The native HP cross section library G4NDL does not include data for elements with atomic number larger than 92. Therefore, transuranic elements, which have impacts for a realistic reactor, can not be simulated by the combination of the HP...... models and the G4NDL library. However, cross sections of those missing isotopes were made available recently through the IAEA project “new evaluated neutron cross section libraries for Geant4”....

  8. Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deana D. Pennington

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex environmental problem solving depends on cross-disciplinary collaboration among scientists. Collaborative research must be preceded by an exploratory phase of collective thinking that creates shared conceptual frameworks. Collective thinking, in a cross-disciplinary setting, depends on the facility with which collaborators are able to learn and understand each others' perspectives. This paper applies three perspectives on learning to the problem of enabling cross-disciplinary collaboration: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, constructivism, and organizational learning. Application of learning frameworks to collaboration provides insights regarding receptive environments for collaboration, and processes that facilitate cross-disciplinary interactions. These environments and interactions need time to develop and require a long phase of idea generation preceding any focused research effort. The findings highlight that collaboration is itself a complex system of people, scientific theory, and tools that must be intentionally managed. Effective management of the system requires leaders who are facilitators and are capable of orchestrating effective environments and interactions.

  9. Linac4 crosses the 100 MeV threshold

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    The new linear accelerator, which from 2020 will be the first link in the accelerator chain, has entered a new stage of its commissioning.   Members of the team in charge of the commissioning of Linac4 in the accelerator’s control room. A few hours earlier, Linac4 accelerated a beam to 107 MeV for the first time. We couldn’t have imagined a more appropriate date: on 1 July (1.07), Linac4 reached an energy of 107 MeV. Having crossed the 100 MeV barrier, the linear accelerator is now on the home straight of its commissioning. “This stage was very quick – it took less than two weeks,” says Alessandra Lombardi, deputy project leader of Linac4, in charge of the commissioning. In 2020, Linac4 will replace the existing Linac2 as the first link in the accelerator chain. It will accelerate beams of H- ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) to 160 MeV, compared to 50 MeV with Linac2. The new machine is particularly sophisticated as it comprises...

  10. The role of CD4 in antigen-independent activation of isolated single T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelso, A; Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    The membrane molecule CD4 (L3T4) is thought to facilitate activation of Class II H-2-restricted T cells by binding to Ia determinants on antigen-presenting cells. Recent reports suggest that CD4 can also contribute to antigen-independent activation by anti-T cell receptor (TCR) antibodies. An ass...

  11. Mediator facilitates transcriptional activation and dynamic long-range contacts at the IgH locus during class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Claudepierre, Anne-Sophie; Robert, Isabelle; Rocha, Pedro P; Raviram, Ramya; Schiavo, Ebe; Heyer, Vincent; Bonneau, Richard; Luo, Vincent M; Reddy, Janardan K; Borggrefe, Tilman; Skok, Jane A; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo

    2016-03-07

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by the transcription-coupled recruitment of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to Ig switch regions (S regions). During CSR, the IgH locus undergoes dynamic three-dimensional structural changes in which promoters, enhancers, and S regions are brought to close proximity. Nevertheless, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we show that Med1 and Med12, two subunits of the mediator complex implicated in transcription initiation and long-range enhancer/promoter loop formation, are dynamically recruited to the IgH locus enhancers and the acceptor regions during CSR and that their knockdown in CH12 cells results in impaired CSR. Furthermore, we show that conditional inactivation of Med1 in B cells results in defective CSR and reduced acceptor S region transcription. Finally, we show that in B cells undergoing CSR, the dynamic long-range contacts between the IgH enhancers and the acceptor regions correlate with Med1 and Med12 binding and that they happen at a reduced frequency in Med1-deficient B cells. Our results implicate the mediator complex in the mechanism of CSR and are consistent with a model in which mediator facilitates the long-range contacts between S regions and the IgH locus enhancers during CSR and their transcriptional activation. © 2016 Thomas-Claudepierre et al.

  12. Crossed Module Bundle Gerbes; Classification, String Group and Differential Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jurco, Branislav

    2005-01-01

    We discuss nonabelian bundle gerbes and their differential geometry using simplicial methods. Associated to any crossed module there is a simplicial group NC, the nerve of the 1-category defined by the crossed module and its geometric realization |NC|. Equivalence classes of principal bundles with structure group |NC| are shown to be one-to-one with stable equivalence classes of what we call crossed module gerbes bundle gerbes. We can also associate to a crossed module a 2-category C'. Then t...

  13. How social-class stereotypes maintain inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T

    2017-12-01

    Social class stereotypes support inequality through various routes: ambivalent content, early appearance in children, achievement consequences, institutionalization in education, appearance in cross-class social encounters, and prevalence in the most unequal societies. Class-stereotype content is ambivalent, describing lower-SES people both negatively (less competent, less human, more objectified), and sometimes positively, perhaps warmer than upper-SES people. Children acquire the wealth aspects of class stereotypes early, which become more nuanced with development. In school, class stereotypes advantage higher-SES students, and educational contexts institutionalize social-class distinctions. Beyond school, well-intentioned face-to-face encounters ironically draw on stereotypes to reinforce the alleged competence of higher-status people and sometimes the alleged warmth of lower-status people. Countries with more inequality show more of these ambivalent stereotypes of both lower-SES and higher-SES people. At a variety of levels and life stages, social-class stereotypes reinforce inequality, but constructive contact can undermine them; future efforts need to address high-status privilege and to query more heterogeneous samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THEMIS-4: a coherent punctual and multigroup cross section library for Monte Carlo and SN codes from ENDF/B4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, G.; Gonnord, J.; Monnier, A.; Nimal, J.C.

    1983-05-01

    The THEMIS cross section processing system has been developped to produce punctual data for MONTE CARLO and coherent multigroup data for SN codes from ENDF/B. The THEMIS-4 data base has been generated from ENDF/B4 using the system and can be accessed by the 3-D Monte Carlo system TRIPOLI-2 and by the SN codes ANISN and DOT. An interpretation of ORNL fusion shielding benchmark is presented

  15. A Latent Class Analysis of Pathological-Gambling Criteria Among High School Students: Associations With Gambling, Risk and Health/Functioning Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify subtypes of adolescent gamblers based on the 10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria for pathological gambling and the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition criteria for gambling disorder and to examine associations between identified subtypes with gambling, other risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Methods Using cross-sectional survey data from 10 high schools in Connecticut (N = 3901), we conducted latent class analysis to classify adolescents who reported past-year gambling into gambling groups on the basis of items from the Massachusetts Gambling Screen. Adolescents also completed questions assessing demographic information, substance use (cigarette, marijuana, alcohol, and other drugs), gambling behaviors (relating to gambling formats, locations, motivations, and urges), and health/functioning characteristics (eg, extracurricular activities, mood, aggression, and body mass index). Results The optimal solution consisted of 4 classes that we termed low-risk gambling (86.4%), at-risk chasing gambling (7.6%), at-risk negative consequences gambling (3.7%), and problem gambling (PrG) (2.3%). At-risk and PrG classes were associated with greater negative functioning and more gambling behaviors. Different patterns of associations between at-risk and PrG classes were also identified. Conclusions Adolescent gambling classifies into 4 classes, which are differentially associated with demographic, gambling patterns, risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Early identification and interventions for adolescent gamblers should be sensitive to the heterogeneity of gambling subtypes. PMID:25275877

  16. Geometrical aspects of reaction cross sections for 3He, 4He and 12C projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.

    2003-04-01

    A black-disc model combined with accurate matter densities has been used for an investigation of reaction cross sections for 3 He, 4 He and 12 C projectiles. A simple relation is derived between the energy dependence of the reaction cross sections and the strength of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. A comparison is also made of the reaction cross sections for 3 He and 4 He for six different nuclei 12 C, 16 O, 40 Ca, 58,60 Ni and 208 Pb

  17. Pharyngeal airway dimensions in skeletal class II: A cephalometric growth study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu-Akcam, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal dimensions of individuals with skeletal class II, division 1 and division 2 patterns during the pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods for comparison with a skeletal class I control group. Totally 124 lateral cephalograms (47 for skeletal class I; 45 for skeletal class II, division 1; and 32 for skeletal class II, division 2) in pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods were selected from the department archives. Thirteen landmarks, 4 angular and 4 linear measurements, and 4 proportional calculations were obtained. The ANOVA and Duncan test were applied to compare the differences among the study groups during the growth periods. Statistically significant differences were found between the skeletal class II, division 2 group and other groups for the gonion-gnathion/sella-nasion angle. The sella-nasion-B-point angle was different among the groups, while the A-point-nasion-B-point angle was significantly different for all 3 groups. The nasopharyngeal airway space showed a statistically significant difference among the groups throughout the growth periods. The interaction among the growth periods and study groups was statistically significant regarding the upper oropharyngeal airway space measurement. The lower oropharyngeal airway space measurement showed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with the smallest dimension observed in the skeletal class II, division 2 group. The naso-oropharyngeal airway dimensions showed a statistically significant difference among the class II, division 1; class II, division 2; and class I groups during different growth periods

  18. Pharyngeal airway dimensions in skeletal class II: A cephalometric growth study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu-Akcam, Ozge [Clinic of Orthodontics, Ministry of Health, Tepebasi Oral and Dental Health Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2017-03-15

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal dimensions of individuals with skeletal class II, division 1 and division 2 patterns during the pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods for comparison with a skeletal class I control group. Totally 124 lateral cephalograms (47 for skeletal class I; 45 for skeletal class II, division 1; and 32 for skeletal class II, division 2) in pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods were selected from the department archives. Thirteen landmarks, 4 angular and 4 linear measurements, and 4 proportional calculations were obtained. The ANOVA and Duncan test were applied to compare the differences among the study groups during the growth periods. Statistically significant differences were found between the skeletal class II, division 2 group and other groups for the gonion-gnathion/sella-nasion angle. The sella-nasion-B-point angle was different among the groups, while the A-point-nasion-B-point angle was significantly different for all 3 groups. The nasopharyngeal airway space showed a statistically significant difference among the groups throughout the growth periods. The interaction among the growth periods and study groups was statistically significant regarding the upper oropharyngeal airway space measurement. The lower oropharyngeal airway space measurement showed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with the smallest dimension observed in the skeletal class II, division 2 group. The naso-oropharyngeal airway dimensions showed a statistically significant difference among the class II, division 1; class II, division 2; and class I groups during different growth periods.

  19. Radiometric Cross-Calibration of GF-4 in Multispectral Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixia Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The GaoFen-4 (GF-4, launched at the end of December 2015, is China’s first high-resolution geostationary optical satellite. A panchromatic and multispectral sensor (PMS is onboard the GF-4 satellite. Unfortunately, the GF-4 has no onboard calibration assembly, so on-orbit radiometric calibration is required. Like the charge-coupled device (CCD onboard HuanJing-1 (HJ or the wide field of view sensor (WFV onboard GaoFen-1 (GF-1, GF-4 also has a wide field of view, which provides challenges for cross-calibration with narrow field of view sensors, like the Landsat series. A new technique has been developed and used to calibrate HJ-1/CCD and GF-1/WFV, which is verified viable. The technique has three key steps: (1 calculate the surface using the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF characterization of a site, taking advantage of its uniform surface material and natural topographic variation using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+/Operational Land Imager (OLI imagery and digital elevation model (DEM products; (2 calculate the radiance at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA with the simulated surface reflectance using the atmosphere radiant transfer model; and (3 fit the calibration coefficients with the TOA radiance and corresponding Digital Number (DN values of the image. This study attempts to demonstrate the technique is also feasible to calibrate GF-4 multispectral bands. After fitting the calibration coefficients using the technique, extensive validation is conducted by cross-validation using the image pairs of GF-4/PMS and Landsat-8/OLI with similar transit times and close view zenith. The validation result indicates a higher accuracy and frequency than that given by the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA using vicarious calibration. The study shows that the new technique is also quite feasible for GF-4 multispectral bands as a routine long-term procedure.

  20. Developing facilitation skills--a narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jennifer M

    2003-07-01

    Effective facilitation has been identified in the literature as one of three elements, along with context and evidence, that have a dynamic and coexisting relationship to enable the successful uptake of evidence into practice. This paper presents an overview of the concept of facilitation within the context of practice development, ahead of a personal and professional reflective account of a 'developing facilitator'. In the summer of 2001, the author was instrumental in organising the first Practice Development School in Melbourne. Thrown in at the deep end, she found herself co-facilitating with an experienced practice developer from the United Kingdom. Having never facilitated in the arena of an action learning group, nor worked in the field of practice development, there was initially a sense of impending overload and drowning in the new knowledge and skills that needed to be acquired. Drawing upon the work of narrative inquiry the author shares her experiences in the anticipation that in telling her story it will assist others in their journey of becoming a facilitator.

  1. EJ2-MCNPlib. Contents of the JEF-2.2 based neutron cross-section library for MCNP4A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.; Oppe, J.

    1995-05-01

    In this report a description is given of the EJ2-MCNPlib library. The EJ2-MCNPlib library is to be used for reactivity/critically calculations and general neutron/photon transport calculations with the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The library is based on the European JEF-2.2 nuclear data evaluation and contains data for all (i.e. 313) nuclides available on this evaluation.The cross-section data were generated using the NJOY cross-section processing code system, version 91.118. For easy reference cross-section plots are given in this report for the total, elastic and absorption cross sections for all nuclides on the EJ2-MCNPlib library. Furthermore, for verification purposes a graphical intercomparison is given of the results of standard benchmark calculations performed with JEF-2.2 cross-section data and with ENDF/B-V cross-section data (whenever available). 6 refs

  2. Boys and girls smoking within the Danish elementary school classes: a group-level analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Due, Pernille

    2002-01-01

    smokers within school classes does not correlate. There is high variation in male and female smoking behaviour between school classes. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of social classroom environment on the processes causing smoking behaviour may be different for boys and girls. This paper illustrates......AIMS: To quantify the correlation between male and female smoking prevalence in elementary school classes by group-level analysis. METHODS: This study was the Danish contribution to the cross-national study Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 1998. Ninety school classes at grade nine (1......,515 students) from a random sample of schools in Denmark took part. The proportion of male and female "at all" smokers and daily smokers in the school class was calculated. RESULTS: The mean "at all" smoking proportion in the school classes is 39% for girls and 32% for boys. The proportion of male and female...

  3. Photodetachment cross sections for He-(4P0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Alton, G.D.; Pegg, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The first measurements are reported of photodetachment cross sections for He - (formed through charge exchange of He + with Ca vapor) over the photon energy range from 1.77 to 2.75 eV. The energies of autodetached electrons from the metastable He - beam have also been determined for the first time. The autodetached electron energy agrees within experimental error (+-0.25 eV) with the known 1s2s2p) 4 P 0 He - energy level. This taken with measurements for the lifetime of He - infers that charge exchange of He + with Ca vapor produces 4 P 0 He -

  4. Targeting the sugar metabolism of tumors with a first-in-class 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB4) inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Jason; Clark, Jennifer; Lanceta, Lilibeth; Trent, John O; Telang, Sucheta

    2015-07-20

    Human tumors exhibit increased glucose uptake and metabolism as a result of high demand for ATP and anabolic substrates and this metabolotype is a negative prognostic indicator for survival. Recent studies have demonstrated that cancer cells from several tissue origins and genetic backgrounds require the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 4 (PFKFB4), a regulatory enzyme that synthesizes an allosteric activator of glycolysis, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. We report the discovery of a first-in-class PFKFB4 inhibitor, 5-(n-(8-methoxy-4-quinolyl)amino)pentyl nitrate (5MPN), using structure-based virtual computational screening. We find that 5MPN is a selective inhibitor of PFKFB4 that suppresses the glycolysis and proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines but not non-transformed epithelial cells in vitro. Importantly, 5MPN has high oral bioavailability and per os administration of a non-toxic dose of 5MPN suppresses the glucose metabolism and growth of tumors in mice.

  5. Investigation of Academic Success, Self-Esteem and Academic Self-Concept in 4th Class Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Seher

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey due to changes in the age starting school implemented during the 2012-2013 academic year, children ages from 60 months to 84 months were subject to the same educational program in the same class. By the 2015-2016 academic year these children were at the end of 4th class. This research aimed to investigate the Turkish and mathematic…

  6. Dance is more than therapy: Qualitative analysis on therapeutic dancing classes for Parkinson's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Priscila A; Slade, Susan C; McClelland, Jodie; Morris, Meg E

    2017-10-01

    To understand the benefits and limitations of therapeutic dancing classes for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and how best to design and implement classes. A stakeholder forum explored the opinions of 18 allied health clinicians, dance instructors, people with PD and caregivers. Data were thematically analysed and interpreted within a grounded theory framework. Four main themes were identified: (1) the need to consider the stage of disease progression when designing classes; (2) recognition that dance is more than just therapy; (3) the benefits of carefully selecting music to move by; (4) ways to design classes that are both feasible and engaging. These themes give rise to the theory that dancing classes can provide more than just therapeutic benefits. Dance affords creative expression and enables people to immerse themselves in the art-form, rather than focussing on the disease. The results highlight the benefits of enabling individuals with PD to be able to express themselves in a supportive environment that does not see them solely through the lens of Parkinson's. The feasibility of dance programs can be increased by educating dancing teachers about PD and the unique needs of people living with this condition. Well-structured dance classes can promote social-connectedness and joy, in addition to facilitating movement to music and physical activity. Consumers advised that careful planning of the classes and tailoring them to participant needs optimizes outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Not all experiences of (inauthenticity are created equal: A latent class analysis approach(retitled Identifying Differences in the Experience of (InAuthenticity: A Latent Class Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison P. Lenton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally, psychologists consider state authenticity– that is, the subjective sense of being one’s true self – to be a unitary and unidimensional construct, such that (a the phenomenological experience of authenticity is thought to be similar no matter its trigger, and (b inauthenticity is thought to be simply the opposing pole (on the same underlying construct of authenticity. Using latent class analysis, we put this conceptualization to a test. In order to avoid over-reliance on a Western conceptualization of authenticity, we used a cross-cultural sample (N = 543, comprising participants from Western, South-Asian, East-Asian, and South-East Asian cultures. Participants provided either a narrative in which the described when they felt most like being themselves or one in which they described when they felt least like being themselves. The analysis identified six distinct classes of experiences: two authenticity classes ('everyday' and 'extraordinary', three inauthenticity classes ('self-conscious,' 'deflated,' and 'extraordinary', and a class representing convergence between authenticity and inauthenticity. The classes were phenomenologically distinct, especially with respect to negative affect, private and public self-consciousness, and self-esteem. Furthermore, relatively more interdependent cultures were less likely to report experiences of extraordinary (inauthenticity than relatively more independent cultures. Understanding the many facets of (inauthenticity may enable researchers to connect different findings and explain why the attainment of authenticity can be difficult.

  8. Cross-Informant Agreement on Child and Adolescent Withdrawn Behavior: A Latent Class Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David H.; Althoff, Robert R.; Walkup, John T.; Hudziak, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Withdrawn behavior (WB) relates to many developmental outcomes, including pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety, depression, psychosis, personality disorders and suicide. No study has compared the latent profiles of different informants' reports on WB. This study uses multi-informant latent class analyses (LCA) of the child behavior checklist…

  9. Cultivating the Under-Mined: Cross-Case Analysis as Knowledge Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Khan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a plethora of case studies in the social sciences, it is the authors' opinion that case studies remain relatively under-mined sources of expertise. Cross-case analysis is a research method that can mobilize knowledge from individual case studies. The authors propose that mobilization of case knowledge occurs when researchers accumulate case knowledge, compare and contrast cases, and in doing so, produce new knowledge. In this article, the authors present theories of how people can learn from sets of cases. Second, existing techniques for cross-case analysis are discussed. Third, considerations that enable researchers to engage in cross-case analysis are suggested. Finally, the authors introduce a novel online database: the Foresee (4C database. The purpose of the database is to mobilize case knowledge by helping researchers perform cross-case analysis and by creating an online research community that facilitates dialogue and the mobilization of case knowledge. The design of the 4C database is informed by theories of how people learn from case studies and cross-case analysis techniques. We present evidence from case study research that use of the 4C database helps to mobilize previously dormant case study knowledge to foster greater expertise. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801348

  10. pbarp, pbarD, pbar sup 4 He annihilation cross sections at low energy

    CERN Document Server

    Tessaro, S; Capponi, M; Cereda, B; De Castro, S; Ferretti, A; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Piccinini, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vezzani, A; Vigotti, F; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Belli, G; Corradini, M; Donzella, A; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Temnikov, P P; Usai, G L; Ableev, V G; Denisov, O Yu; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sapozhnikov, M G; Tretyak, V I; Poli, M; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Nichitiu, F; Petrascu, C; Rosca, A; Cavion, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Lombardi, M; Vannucci, Luigi; Vedovato, G; Andrighetto, A; Morando, M; Ricci, R A; Bendiscioli, G; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Saino, A; Salvini, P; Filippi, A; Balestra, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Calvo, D; Cerello, P G; Costa, S; D'Isep, F; Fava, L; Feliciello, A; Ferrero, L; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Marcello, S; Mirfakhraee, N; Panzieri, D; Parena, D; Rossetto, E; Tosello, F; Zosi, G; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Minetti, B; Pauli, G; Tessaro, S; Santi, L

    1999-01-01

    New measurements of the pbarp annihilation cross section have been performed with the OBELIX apparatus between 37 and 70 MeV/c. From previous samples of data it was already clear that the 1/p behaviour for the annihilation cross section is drastically modified at very low momenta, due to the Coulomb interaction. However, at the lowest measured momentum (43.6 MeV/c), the annihilation cross section was unexpectedly high; this evidence suggested a more accurate investigation of this region. Furthermore, measurements of annihilation cross section have been performed with pbar impinging on D sub 2 and sup 4 He targets.

  11. Facilitating Peer Discourse to Support Third Graders' Comprehension of the News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michelle; Massad, Michael, Sr.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how one third-grade teacher facilitated daily peer-led discussions around articles from a local newspaper. Two students were assigned to select and summarize an article, then lead a whole-class discussion with the teacher's help. The teacher differentially scaffolded engagement with newspaper articles, adaptively responding to…

  12. Drug-target interaction prediction via class imbalance-aware ensemble learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Ali; Wu, Min; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2016-12-22

    Multiple computational methods for predicting drug-target interactions have been developed to facilitate the drug discovery process. These methods use available data on known drug-target interactions to train classifiers with the purpose of predicting new undiscovered interactions. However, a key challenge regarding this data that has not yet been addressed by these methods, namely class imbalance, is potentially degrading the prediction performance. Class imbalance can be divided into two sub-problems. Firstly, the number of known interacting drug-target pairs is much smaller than that of non-interacting drug-target pairs. This imbalance ratio between interacting and non-interacting drug-target pairs is referred to as the between-class imbalance. Between-class imbalance degrades prediction performance due to the bias in prediction results towards the majority class (i.e. the non-interacting pairs), leading to more prediction errors in the minority class (i.e. the interacting pairs). Secondly, there are multiple types of drug-target interactions in the data with some types having relatively fewer members (or are less represented) than others. This variation in representation of the different interaction types leads to another kind of imbalance referred to as the within-class imbalance. In within-class imbalance, prediction results are biased towards the better represented interaction types, leading to more prediction errors in the less represented interaction types. We propose an ensemble learning method that incorporates techniques to address the issues of between-class imbalance and within-class imbalance. Experiments show that the proposed method improves results over 4 state-of-the-art methods. In addition, we simulated cases for new drugs and targets to see how our method would perform in predicting their interactions. New drugs and targets are those for which no prior interactions are known. Our method displayed satisfactory prediction performance and was

  13. Barriers and facilitators to care for the terminally ill: a cross-country case comparison study of Canada, England, Germany, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Christopher A; Howell, Doris; Zakus, David; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-02-01

    Why do many patients not die at their preferred location? Analyze system-level characteristics influencing the ability to implement best practices in delivering care for terminally ill adults (barriers and facilitators). Cross-country comparison study from a "most similar-most different" perspective, triangulating evidence from a scoping review of the literature, document analyses, and semi-structured key informant interviews. Case study of Canada, England, Germany, and the United States. While similar with regard to leading causes of death, patient needs, and potential avenues to care, different models of service provision were employed in the four countries studied. Although hospice and palliative care services were generally offered with standard care along the disease continuum and in various settings, and featured common elements such as physical, psycho-social, and spiritual care, outcomes (access, utilization, etc.) varied across jurisdictions. Barriers to best practice service provision included legislative (including jurisdictional), regulatory (e.g. education and training), and financial issues as well as public knowledge and perception ("giving up hope") challenges. Advance care planning, dedicated and stable funding toward hospice and palliative care, including caregiver benefits, population aging, and standards of practice and guidelines to hospice and palliative care, were identified as facilitators. Successful implementation of effective and efficient best practice approaches to care for the terminally ill, such as shared care, requires concerted action to align these system-level characteristics; many factors were identified as being essential but not sufficient. Policy implementation needs to be tailored to the respective health-care system(s), monitored, and fine-tuned.

  14. Total Cross Sections and Event Properties from Real to Virtual Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friberg, Christer; Sjoestrand, Torbjoern

    2000-01-01

    A model for total cross sections with virtual photons is presented. In particular gamma*-p and gamma*-gamma* cross sections are considered. Our approach extends on a model for photoproduction, where the total cross section is subdivided into three distinct event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. With increasing photon virtuality, the latter two decrease in importance. Instead Deep Inelastic Scattering dominates, with the direct class being the O(alpha s ) correction thereof. Hence, the model provides a smooth transition between the two regions. By the breakdown into different event classes, one may aim for a complete picture of all event properties. (author)

  15. Non-surgical Management of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion with Bilateral Posterior Crossbite: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Lalima; Nayan, Kamal

    2016-12-01

    A 16-year-old female patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion and bilateral posterior cross bite complaining of difficulty in chewing was treated orthodontically without surgery (camouflage treatment). The treatment comprised of fixed orthodontic treatment with MBT prescription (0.022˝×0.028˝ slot) using quad helix appliance for bilateral expansion of maxillary arch and Class III elastics for occlusal correction. Post-treatment records showed normal overbite and overjet with acceptable occlusion. So with this treatment strategy of expanding the maxillary arch using a quad helix appliance and use of Class III elastics, we achieved a good result with optimal occlusion.

  16. National CrossTalk. Volume 13, Number 4, Fall 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This publication contains the following articles: (1) "Truth in Tuition" (Susan C. Thomson); (2) In Katrina's Wake (Kathy Witkowsky); (3) News from the Center: New Center Associates; (4) Colorado On the Edge…

  17. A robust demonstration of the cognate facilitation effect in first-language and second-language naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Lam, Boji Pak Wing; Cruz, Diana; Fulton, Aislynn

    2016-01-01

    The cognate facilitation effect refers to the phenomenon that in bilinguals performance on various vocabulary tasks is enhanced for cross-linguistic cognates as opposed to noncognates. However, research investigating the presence of the cognate advantage in bilingual children remains limited. Most studies with children conducted to date has not included a control group or rigorously designed stimuli, which may jeopardize the validity and robustness of the emerging evidence. The current study addressed these methodological problems by examining performance in picture naming tasks in 34 4- to 7-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals and 52 Mandarin-English bilinguals as well as 37 English-speaking monolinguals who served as controls. Stimuli were controlled for phonology, word frequency, and length. The Spanish-English bilinguals performed better for cognates than for noncognates and exhibited a greater number of doublet responses (i.e., providing correct responses in both languages) in naming cognate targets than in naming noncognates. The control groups did not show differences in performance between the two sets of words. These findings provide compelling evidence that cross-linguistic similarities at the phonological level allow bootstrapping of vocabulary learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamics, integrability and topology for some classes of Kolmogorov Hamiltonian systems in R+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre, Jaume; Xiao, Dongmei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we first give the sufficient and necessary conditions in order that two classes of polynomial Kolmogorov systems in R+4 are Hamiltonian systems. Then we study the integrability of these Hamiltonian systems in the Liouville sense. Finally, we investigate the global dynamics of the completely integrable Lotka-Volterra Hamiltonian systems in R+4. As an application of the invariant subsets of these systems, we obtain topological classifications of the 3-submanifolds in R+4 defined by the hypersurfaces axy + bzw + cx2 y + dxy2 + ez2 w + fzw2 = h, where a , b , c , d , e , f , w and h are real constants.

  19. Creating Cross-disciplinary Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Elaine R

    2012-01-01

    Because of its focus on the biological underpinnings of action and behavior, neuroscience intersects with many fields of human endeavor. Some of these cross-disciplinary intersections have been long standing, while others, such as neurotheology or neuroeconomics, are more recently formed fields. Many undergraduate institutions have sought to include cross-disciplinary courses in their curriculum because this style of pedagogy is often seen as applicable to real world problems. However, it can be difficult for faculty with specialized training within their discipline to expand beyond their own fields to offer cross-disciplinary courses. I have been creating a series of multi- or cross-disciplinary courses and have found some strategies that have helped me successfully teach these classes. I will discuss general strategies and tools in developing these types of courses including: 1) creating mixed experience classrooms of students and contributing faculty 2) finding the right tools that will allow you to teach to a mixed population without prerequisites 3) examining the topic using multiple disciplinary perspectives 4) feeding off student experience and interest 5) assessing the impact of these courses on student outcomes and your neuroscience program. This last tool in particular is important in establishing the validity of this type of teaching for neuroscience students and the general student population.

  20. A Novel Class of Small Molecule Agonists with Preference for Human over Mouse TLR4 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Marshall

    Full Text Available The best-characterized Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 ligands are lipopolysaccharide (LPS and its chemically modified and detoxified variant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL. Although both molecules are active for human TLR4, they demonstrate a potency preference for mouse TLR4 based on data from transfected cell lines and primary cells of both species. After a high throughput screening process of small molecule libraries, we have discovered a new class of TLR4 agonist with a species preference profile differing from MPL. Products of the 4-component Ugi synthesis reaction were demonstrated to potently trigger human TLR4-transfected HEK cells but not mouse TLR4, although inclusion of the human MD2 with mTLR4 was able to partially recover activity. Co-expression of CD14 was not required for optimal activity of Ugi compounds on transfected cells, as it is for LPS. The species preference profile for the panel of Ugi compounds was found to be strongly active for human and cynomolgus monkey primary cells, with reduced but still substantial activity for most Ugi compounds on guinea pig cells. Mouse, rat, rabbit, ferret, and cotton rat cells displayed little or no activity when exposed to Ugi compounds. However, engineering the human versions of TLR4 and MD2 to be expressed in mTLR4/MD2 deficient mice allowed for robust activity by Ugi compounds both in vitro and in vivo. These findings extend the range of compounds available for development as agonists of TLR4 and identify novel molecules which reverse the TLR4 triggering preference of MPL for mouse TLR4 over human TLR4. Such compounds may be amenable to formulation as more potent human-specific TLR4L-based adjuvants than typical MPL-based adjuvants.

  1. Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A literature review. ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 4 (2007) > ... critical clinical decisions and also make astute clinical judgment that are logical to solve health related problems.

  2. Science education in a bilingual class: problematising a translational practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünsal, Zeynep; Jakobson, Britt; Molander, Bengt-Olov; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2016-10-01

    In this article we examine how bilingual students construe relations between everyday language and the language of science. Studies concerning bilingual students language use in science class have mainly been conducted in settings where both the teacher and the students speak the same minority language. In this study data was collected in a class consisting of students aged 13-14. All students had Turkish as their minority language, whereas the teacher's minority language was Bosnian. The class was observed when they were working with acids and bases. In addition, the students were interviewed in groups. They were asked about how they use their languages during science lessons and then asked to describe and explain scientific phenomena and processes that had been a part of the observed lessons. For the analysis, practical epistemology analysis and the theory of translanguaging were used. The results show how the students' everyday language repertoire may limit their possibilities to make meaning of science. In particular, the teacher's practice of facilitating and supporting students' understanding of science content by relating it to concrete examples took another direction since the everyday words he used were not a part of the students' language repertoire. The study also shows how the students used their minority language as a resource to translate words from Swedish to Turkish in order to proceed with the science activities. However, translating scientific concepts was problematic and led to the students' descriptions of the concepts not being in line with how they are viewed in science. Finally, the study also demonstrates how monolingual exams may limit bilingual students' achievements in science. The study contributes by presenting and discussing circumstances that need to be taken into consideration when planning and conducting science lessons in classes where the teacher and the student do not share the same minority language.

  3. A vaccine encoding conserved promiscuous HIV CD4 epitopes induces broad T cell responses in mice transgenic to multiple common HLA class II molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Pereira Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Current HIV vaccine approaches are focused on immunogens encoding whole HIV antigenic proteins that mainly elicit cytotoxic CD8+ responses. Mounting evidence points toward a critical role for CD4+ T cells in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication, probably due to cognate help. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses might, therefore, have a protective effect in HIV replication. In addition, successful vaccines may have to elicit responses to multiple epitopes in a high proportion of vaccinees, to match the highly variable circulating strains of HIV. Using rational vaccine design, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 algorithm-selected conserved, "promiscuous" (multiple HLA-DR-binding B-subtype HIV CD4 epitopes - previously found to be frequently recognized by HIV-infected patients. We assessed the ability of the vaccine to induce broad T cell responses in the context of multiple HLA class II molecules using different strains of HLA class II- transgenic mice (-DR2, -DR4, -DQ6 and -DQ8. Mice displayed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of significant breadth and magnitude, and 16 out of the 18 encoded epitopes were recognized. By virtue of inducing broad responses against conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes that can be recognized in the context of widely diverse, common HLA class II alleles, this vaccine concept may cope both with HIV genetic variability and increased population coverage. The vaccine may thus be a source of cognate help for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by conventional immunogens, in a wide proportion of vaccinees.

  4. Barriers and facilitators for the implementation of an online clinical health community in addition to usual fertility care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Johanna W M; Faber, Marjan J; den Boogert, Anne G; Cohlen, Ben J; van der Linden, Paul J Q; Kremer, Jan A M; Nelen, Willianne L D M

    2013-08-30

    Online health communities are becoming more popular in health care. Patients and professionals can communicate with one another online, patients can find peer support, and professionals can use it as an additional information channel to their patients. However, the implementation of online health communities into daily practice is challenging. These challenges relate to the fact that patients need to be activated to (1) become a member (ie, subscription) and (2) participate actively within the community before any effect can be expected. Therefore, we aimed at answering 2 research questions: (1) what factors are associated with subscription to an online health community, and (2) which are associated with becoming an active participant within an online health community. To identify barriers and facilitators as perceived by patients for the implementation of an online health community. We performed a cross-sectional study. Three Dutch fertility clinics (2 IVF-licensed) offered their patients a secure online clinical health community through which clinicians can provide online information and patients can ask questions to the medical team or share experiences and find support from peers. We randomly selected and invited 278 men and women suffering from infertility and attending 1 of the participating clinics. Participants filled out a questionnaire about their background characteristics and current use of the online community. Possible barriers and facilitators were divided into 2 parts: (1) those for subscription to the community, and (2) those for active participation in the community. We performed 2 multivariate logistic regression analyses to calculate determinants for both subscription and active participation. Subscription appeared to be associated with patients' background characteristics (eg, gender, treatment phase), intervention-related facilitators (odds ratio [OR] 2.45, 95% CI 1.14-5.27), and patient-related barriers (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.54), such as

  5. Crystal Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ECM4, a Xi-Class Glutathione Transferase that Reacts with Glutathionyl-(hydroquinones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Schwartz

    Full Text Available Glutathionyl-hydroquinone reductases (GHRs belong to the recently characterized Xi-class of glutathione transferases (GSTXs according to unique structural properties and are present in all but animal kingdoms. The GHR ScECM4 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied since 1997 when it was found to be potentially involved in cell-wall biosynthesis. Up to now and in spite of biological studies made on this enzyme, its physiological role remains challenging. The work here reports its crystallographic study. In addition to exhibiting the general GSTX structural features, ScECM4 shows extensions including a huge loop which contributes to the quaternary assembly. These structural extensions are probably specific to Saccharomycetaceae. Soaking of ScECM4 crystals with GS-menadione results in a structure where glutathione forms a mixed disulfide bond with the cysteine 46. Solution studies confirm that ScECM4 has reductase activity for GS-menadione in presence of glutathione. Moreover, the high resolution structures allowed us to propose new roles of conserved residues of the active site to assist the cysteine 46 during the catalytic act.

  6. A Cross-National Study of Secondary Science Classroom Environments in Australia and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Adolphe, F. S. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of classroom environments in Australia and Indonesia. A modified version of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was used simultaneously in these two countries to: 1) cross validate the modified WIHIC; 2) investigate differences between countries and sexes in perceptions of…

  7. Rab5 Enhances Classical Swine Fever Virus Proliferation and Interacts with Viral NS4B Protein to Facilitate Formation of NS4B Related Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever virus (CSFV is a fatal pig pestivirus and causes serious financial losses to the pig industry. CSFV NS4B protein is one of the most important viral replicase proteins. Rab5, a member of the small Rab GTPase family, is involved in infection and replication of numerous viruses including hepatitis C virus and dengue virus. Until now, the effects of Rab5 on the proliferation of CSFV are poorly defined. In the present study, we showed that Rab5 could enhance CSFV proliferation by utilizing lentivirus-mediated constitutive overexpression and eukaryotic plasmid transient overexpression approaches. On the other hand, lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown of Rab5 dramatically inhibited virus production. Co-immunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase pulldown and laser confocal microscopy assays further confirmed the interaction between Rab5 and CSFV NS4B protein. In addition, intracellular distribution of NS4B-Red presented many granular fluorescent signals (GFS in CSFV infected PK-15 cells. Inhibition of basal Rab5 function with Rab5 dominant negative mutant Rab5S34N resulted in disruption of the GFS. These results indicate that Rab5 plays a critical role in facilitating the formation of the NS4B related complexes. Furthermore, it was observed that NS4B co-localized with viral NS3 and NS5A proteins in the cytoplasm, suggesting that NS3 and NS5A might be components of the NS4B related complex. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Rab5 positively modulates CSFV propagation and interacts with NS4B protein to facilitate the NS4B related complexes formation.

  8. Nonlinear degenerate cross-diffusion systems with nonlocal interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Di Francesco, M.; Esposito, A.; Fagioli, S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a class of systems of partial differential equations with nonlinear cross-diffusion and nonlocal interactions, which are of interest in several contexts in social sciences, finance, biology, and real world applications. Assuming a uniform "coerciveness" assumption on the diffusion part, which allows to consider a large class of systems with degenerate cross-diffusion (i.e. of porous medium type) and relaxes sets of assumptions previously considered in the literature, we prove g...

  9. A combined crossed molecular beams and theoretical study of the reaction CN + C2H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balucani, Nadia; Leonori, Francesca; Petrucci, Raffaele; Wang, Xingan; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Skouteris, Dimitrios; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Gargano, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The CN + C 2 H 4 reaction was investigated in crossed beam experiments. • Electronic structure calculations of the potential energy surface were performed. • RRKM estimates qualitatively reproduce the experimental C 2 H 3 NC yield. - Abstract: The CN + C 2 H 4 reaction has been investigated experimentally, in crossed molecular beam (CMB) experiments at the collision energy of 33.4 kJ/mol, and theoretically, by electronic structure calculations of the relevant potential energy surface and Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) estimates of the product branching ratio. Differently from previous CMB experiments at lower collision energies, but similarly to a high energy study, we have some indication that a second reaction channel is open at this collision energy, the characteristics of which are consistent with the channel leading to CH 2 CHNC + H. The RRKM estimates using M06L electronic structure calculations qualitatively support the experimental observation of C 2 H 3 NC formation at this and at the higher collision energy of 42.7 kJ/mol of previous experiments

  10. Teaching physiotherapy skills in culturally-diverse classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimmer-Somers Karen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural competence, the ability to work in cross-cultural situations, has been acknowledged as a core skill for physiotherapists and other health professionals. Literature in this area has focused on the rationale for physiotherapists to provide culturally-competent care and the effectiveness of various educational strategies to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge about cultural competence by physiotherapists and physiotherapy students. However, there is a paucity of research on how students with different cultural needs, who are attending one university class, can be accommodated within a framework of learning core physiotherapy skills to achieve professional standards. Results This paper reports on steps which were taken to resolve the specific needs of a culturally-diverse body of first year physiotherapy students, and the impact this had on teaching in a new physiotherapy program located in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. Physiotherapy legislative, accreditation and registration requirements were considered in addition to anti-discrimination legislation and the four ethical principles of decision making. Conclusions Reflection on this issue and the steps taken to resolve it has resulted in the development of a generic framework which focuses on providing quality and equitable physiotherapy education opportunities to all students. This framework is generalizable to other health professions worldwide.

  11. Computational screening of Six Antigens for potential MHC class II restricted epitopes and evaluating its CD4+ T-Cell Responsiveness against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases for which no vaccine exists. In spite of extensive efforts, no successful vaccine is available against this dreadful infectious disease. To support the vaccine development, immunoinformatics approach was applied to search for potential MHC-classII restricted epitopes that can activate the immune cells. Initially, a total of 37 epitopes derived from six, stage dependent over expressed antigens were predicted, which were presented by at least 26 diverse MHC class II alleles including: DRB10101, DRB10301, DRB10401, DRB10404, DRB10405, DRB10701, DRB10802, DRB10901, DRB11101, DRB11302, DRB11501, DRB30101, DRB40101, DRB50101, DPA10103-DPB10401, DPA10103-DPB10201, DPA10201-DPB10101, DPA10103-DPB10301_DPB10401, DPA10301-DPB10402, DPA10201-DPB105021, DQA10102-DQB10602, DQA10401-DQB10402, DQA10501-QB10201, DQA10501-DQB10301, DQA10301-DQB10302 and DQA10101-DQB10501. Based on the population coverage analysis and HLA cross presentation ability, six epitopes namely, FDLFLFSNGAVVWWG (P1, YPVYPFLASNAALLN (P2, VYPFLASNAALLNLI (P3, LALLIMLYALIATQF (P4, LIMLYALIATQFSDD (P5, IMLYALIATQFSDDA (P6 were selected for further analysis. Stimulation with synthetic peptide alone or as a cocktail triggered the intracellular IFN-γ production. Moreover, specific IgG class of antibodies was detected in the serum of active VL cases against P1, P4, P and P6 in order to evaluate peptide effect on humoral immune response. Additionally, most of the peptides, except P2, were found to be non-inducer of CD4+ IL-10 against both active VL as well as treated VL subjects. Peptide immunogenicity was validated in BALB/c mice immunized with cocktail of synthetic peptide emulsified in complete Freund’s adjuvant/incomplete Freund’s adjuvant. The immunized splenocytes induced strong spleen cell proliferation upon parasite re-stimulation. Furthermore, an increased IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-17 and IL-22 production augmented with

  12. The 4p6 autoionization cross section of Rb atoms excited by low-energy electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovik, A; Roman, V; Kupliauskienė, A

    2012-01-01

    The autoionization cross section of rubidium atoms was obtained by measuring the total normalized intensities of ejected-electron spectra arising from the decay of the 4p 5 n 1 l 1 n 2 l 2 autoionizing levels. The electron impact energy range from the 4p 6 excitation threshold at 15.31 up to 50 eV was investigated. The cross section reaches the maximum value of (2.9 ± 0.6) × 10 −16  cm 2 at 21.8 eV impact energy. The general behaviours of the cross section and the role of particular autoionizing configurations in its formation were considered on the basis of large-scale configuration interaction calculations of energies, cross sections, autoionization probabilities in 5snl(n ⩽ 7; l ⩽ 4) and 4d nl(n ⩽ 5; l ⩽ 2) configurations as well as the measured excitation functions for the lowest levels in 5s 2 and 4d5s configurations. The resonance behaviour of the cross section between 15.3 and 18.5 eV impact energy is caused exclusively by the negative-ion resonances present close to the excitation thresholds of the (5s 2 ) 2 P and (4d5s) 4 P autoionizing levels. At higher impact energies, the autoionization cross section is composed of contributions from the high-lying quartet and doublet levels in 4d5s, 5p and 5s5p, 5d, 6s, 6p configurations. From the comparison of the present data with available experimental and calculated ionization cross sections, the 5s + 4p 6 direct ionization cross section of rubidium atoms was determined with the maximum value of (7.2 ± 2.2) × 10 −16  cm 2 at 36 eV. It was also found that the 4p 6 excitation–autoionization is the dominant indirect ionization process contributing over 30% of the total single ionization of rubidium atoms by electron impact in the 15.3–50 eV energy range. (paper)

  13. Evaluation of the porcine Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene as a positional candidate for a fatness QTL in a cross between Landrace and Hampshire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Camilla Vibeke; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Nielsen, V.H.

    2006-01-01

    . In a previously performed genome scan based on a Hampshire x Landrace cross, we detected one quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass fat/meat ratio and one QTL affecting the biceps femoris muscle, both close to the position of MC4R on porcine chromosome 1. In this study, the two lines were found...

  14. Assessing climate change risks to the natural environment to facilitate cross-sectoral adaptation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Iain

    2018-06-13

    Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. Assessing climate change risks to the natural environment to facilitate cross-sectoral adaptation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Iain

    2018-06-01

    Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  16. Direct binding to antigen-coated beads refines the specificity and cross-reactivity of four monoclonal antibodies that recognize polymorphic epitopes of HLA class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, H G; Parham, P

    2013-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies with specificity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I determinants of HLA were originally characterized using serological assays in which the targets were cells expressing three to six HLA class I variants. Because of this complexity, the specificities of the antibodies were defined indirectly by correlation. Here we use a direct binding assay, in which the targets are synthetic beads coated with 1 of 111 HLA class I variants, representing the full range of HLA-A, -B and -C variation. We studied one monoclonal antibody with monomorphic specificity (W6/32) and four with polymorphic specificity (MA2.1, PA2.1, BB7.2 and BB7.1) and compared the results with those obtained previously. W6/32 reacted with all HLA class I variants. MA2.1 not only exhibits high specificity for HLA-A*02, -B*57 and -B*58, but also exhibited cross-reactivity with HLA-A*11 and -B*15:16. At low concentration (1 µg/ml), PA2.1 and BB7.2 were both specific for HLA-A*02 and -A*69, and at high concentration (50 µg/ml) exhibited significant cross-reactions with HLA-A*68, -A*23 and -A*24. BB7.1 exhibits specificity for HLA-B*07 and -B*42, as previously described, but reacts equally well with HLA-B*81, a rare allotype defined some 16 years after the description of BB7.1. The results obtained with cell-based and bead-based assays are consistent and, in combination with amino acid sequence comparison, increase understanding of the polymorphic epitopes recognized by the MA2.1, PA2.1, BB7.2 and BB7.1 antibodies. Comparison of two overlapping but distinctive bead sets from two sources gave similar results, but the overall levels of binding were significantly different. Several weaker reactions were observed with only one of the bead sets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Oral health status of a sample of Venezuelan patients with spina bifida. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Morales-Chávez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spina bifida (SB is a congenital malformation of the spinal cord associated with several vertebral abnormalities caused by incomplete neural tube closure. The aim of this study is to report on the oral health status of a sample of Venezuelan patients with SB. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was performed in 30 patients with SB to determine their oral health status and other variables of interest. Results: A 46.7% of the patients had a history of caries: 22% in the 1-4 year group, 71.4% in the 5-7 year group, and 100% in the 8-16 year group. The dmft and DMFT indices were 1.55 and 3.50, respectively. A 46.7% of the patients had gingivitis, 30% had dental calculus, with an OHI-S of 2. The 83% had Angle Class II and 17%, Angle Class I. A 40% had parafunctional habits such as digital suction, use of pacifiers and onicophagia. The 70% had deep palate. Conclusion: Patients with SB have specific oral characteristics and risk factors that must be taken into account in dental treatments to provide adequate care and improve their quality of life

  18. Representative value of cross-fault in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet block and case analysis of the 2016 Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisha Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The equation for determining cross-fault representative value is calculated based on hanging wall and foot wall reference level surfaces. The cross-fault data reliability are analyzed base on the stability of reference datum and observation points, thereby facilitating plotting of the representative value curves after removing interference. The spatial and temporal characteristics of fault deformation abnormalities before the 2016 Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake, as well as the fault-movement characteristics reflected by representative value, are summarized. The results show that many site trends had changed 1–3 years before the Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake in the Qilian Fault, reflecting certain background abnormalities. The short-term abnormalities centrally had appeared in the 6 months to 1 year period before the earthquake near and in the neighborhood of the source region, demonstrating a significantly increased number of short-term abnormalities. Many sites near and in the neighborhood of the source region had strengthened inverse activities or had changed from positive to inverse activities in the most recent 2–3 years, which reflect stress-field enhancements or adjustment features.

  19. Skeletal class III malocclusion treated using a non-surgical approach supplemented with mini-implants: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Benitez Farret, Milton M

    2013-09-01

    We describe a 28-year-old man who sought orthodontic treatment complaining about the esthetics of his smile and difficulties associated with masticatory function. The patient had a straight facial profile, skeletal and dental class III relationship, anterior open bite and posterior crossbite. He refused orthognathic surgery and was therefore treated with camouflage orthodontics supplemented with the placement of one mini-implant in each side of the mandible to facilitate movement of the lower dentition distally, tooth-by-tooth. At the end of treatment, a class I molar relationship was obtained, with an ideal overjet and overbite and excellent intercuspation. Furthermore, the open bite and crossbite were corrected. Analysis 2 years after treatment revealed good stability of treatment outcome.

  20. Structural evaluation of a nanobody targeting complement receptor Vsig4 and its cross reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yurong; Ouyang, Zhenlin; Schoonooghe, Steve; Luo, Siyu; De Baetselier, Patrick; Lu, Wuyuan; Muyldermans, Serge; Raes, Geert; Zheng, Fang

    2017-06-01

    Vsig4 is a recently identified immune regulatory protein related to the B7 family with dual functionality: a negative regulator of T cell activation and a receptor for the complement components C3b and C3c. Here we present a structural evaluation of a nanobody, Nb119, against the extracellular IgV domain protein of both mouse and human recombinant Vsig4, which have a high degree of sequence identity. Although mouse and human Vsig4 bind to Nb119 with a 250 times difference in dissociation constants, the interaction results in a highly identical assembly with a RMSD of 0.4Å. The molecular determinants for Vsig4 recognition and cross reactivity unveiled by the atomic structure of Nb119 in complex with mVsig4 and hVsig4 afford new insights useful for the further optimization of the nanobody for potential use in humans. Additionally, structural analysis of the Vsig4-Nb119 complexes indicates that Nb119 occupies the interface on Vsig4 recognized by the macroglobulin-like domains MG4 and MG5 of C3b. Thus an affinity-improved Nb119 may have the potential to influence the activation of both T cells and complement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Preparing TESOL Students for the ESOL Classroom: A Cross-Cultural Project in Intercultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-López-Portillo, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Intercultural communication classes for TESOL students give them a solid foundation for their work with their own ESOL students. This article presents the cross-cultural project that TESOL students have to complete in a required intercultural communication class at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County and the case study that was used to…

  2. Suppression of TLR4-mediated inflammatory response by macrophage class A scavenger receptor (CD204)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Koji; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Takemura, Kenichi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Lei, XiaoFeng [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Takenobu [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sakashita, Naomi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Human Pathology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro, E-mail: takeya@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} We focused on the interaction between SR-A and TLR4 signaling in this study. {yields} SR-A deletion promoted NF{kappa}B activation in macrophages in septic model mouse. {yields} SR-A suppresses both MyD88-dependent and -independent TLR4 signaling in vitro. {yields} SR-A clears LPS binding to TLR4 which resulting in the suppression of TLR4 signals. -- Abstract: The class A scavenger receptor (SR-A, CD204), one of the principal receptors expressed on macrophages, has been found to regulate inflammatory response and attenuate septic endotoxemia. However, the detailed mechanism of this process has not yet been well characterized. To clarify the regulative mechanisms of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation by SR-A, we evaluated the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling molecules in SR-A-deficient (SR-A{sup -/-}) macrophages. In a septic shock model, the blood levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon (IFN)-{beta} were significantly increased in SR-A{sup -/-} mice compared to wild-type mice, and elevated nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation was detected in SR-A{sup -/-} macrophages. SR-A deletion increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF{kappa}B in vitro. SR-A deletion also promoted the nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B and IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3. In addition, a competitive binding assay with acetylated low-density lipoprotein, an SR-A-specific ligand, and anti-SR-A antibody induced significant activation of TLR4-mediated signaling molecules in wild-type macrophages but not in SR-A{sup -/-} macrophages. These results suggest that SR-A suppresses the macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 in a competitive manner and it plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the LPS-induced inflammatory response.

  3. Subgrouping of risky behaviors among Iranian college students: a latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiri, Saeid; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Yunesian, Masud; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Shamsipour, Mansour; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background Risky behaviors may interrupt development or cause considerable morbidity or mortality. This study’s purpose was to determine subgroups of students based on risky behaviors and assess the prevalence of risky behaviors in each of the subgroups. Participants and methods This anonymous cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2015 and November 2015, with 1,777 students from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, through multistage random sampling method. The data were analyzed by latent class analysis. Results The prevalence rates of cigarette smoking (more than or equal to ten cigarettes), hookah use (≥1 time/month), and alcohol consumption (≥1 time/month) during the last year were 12.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9–14.0), 11.6% (95% CI: 10.0–13.1), and 4.9% (95% CI: 3.8–5.9), respectively. The prevalence rates of illicit opioids (1.8%, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5), cannabis (1.2%, 95% CI: 0.7–1.7), methamphetamine (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–1.6), methylphenidate (2.5%, 95% CI: 1.7–3.2), and extramarital sex (5.5%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.6) over the last year were also estimated. Three latent classes were determined: 1) low risk; 2) cigarette and hookah smoker; and 3) high risk. It is worth mentioning that 3.7% of males and 0.4% of females were in the high risk group. Conclusion Subgrouping of college students showed that a considerable percentage of them, especially males, were classified into the high risk and cigarette and hookah smoker groups. Appropriate preventive measures that consider multiple different risky behaviors simultaneously are needed for this part of the population. PMID:27524898

  4. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25-64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85-1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92-1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health.

  5. Amenable crossed product Banach algebras associated with a class of C*-dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeu, de M.F.E.; Elharti, R.; Pinto, P.R.

    2017-01-01

    We prove that the crossed product Banach algebra ℓ1(G,A;α) that is associated with a C∗-dynamical system (A,G,α) is amenable if G is a discrete amenable group and A is a commutative or finite dimensional C∗-algebra. Perspectives for further developments are indicated.

  6. [Prevalence and determinants of medication during pregnancy by risk class among mothers of liveborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter; Vargas Filho, Edson Fauth; Geib, Débora; Mesquita, Débora Iasmin; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2007-10-01

    In order to identify the maternal determinants of the consumption of medication during pregnancy according to risk class, we conducted a population cohort baseline cross-sectional study with 2,262 mothers of liveborn infants in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected from the Information System on Live Births and through home interviews (an instrument adapted from the Maternity Advice Survey). The drugs were classified according to criteria. We conducted bivariate analyses and logistic regression according to the hierarchical model of determination. 80% of the mothers consumed at least one medicine during the pregnancy, distributed in risk classes as follows: A (53.4%), B (18.1%), C (24.46%), D (1.47%), X (0.06%), and V (various) (2.1%). Incomplete prenatal care and maternal age consumption of medication in class A and pregnancy complications in classes B, C, and D. In class C, cesarean section and previous abortion also determined consumption, which in class V was independent of the variables analyzed. Maternal factors, especially health complications, determine the consumption of medicines during pregnancy, suggesting that the prescribing physician should orient the safe and proper use of such medication.

  7. Is there a nonadherent subtype of hypertensive patient? A latent class analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranak B Trivedi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ranak B Trivedi1, Brian J Ayotte2, Carolyn T Thorpe3, David Edelman4, Hayden B Bosworth51Northwest Health Services Research and Development Service Center of Excellence, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; 2Boston VA Health Care System, Boston, Massachusetts; 3Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin; 4Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; 5Research Professor, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USAAbstract: To determine subtypes of adherence, 636 hypertensive patients (48% White, 34% male reported adherence to medications, diet, exercise, smoking, and home blood pressure monitoring. A latent class analysis approach was used to identify subgroups that adhere to these five self-management behaviors. Fit statistics suggested two latent classes. The first class (labeled “more adherent” included patients with greater probability of adhering to ­recommendations compared with the second class (labeled “less adherent” with regard to nonsmoking (97.7% versus 76.3%, medications (75.5% versus 49.5%, diet (70.7% versus 46.9%, exercise (63.4% versus 27.2%, and blood pressure monitoring (32% versus 3.4%. Logistic regression analyses used to characterize the two classes showed that “more adherent” participants were more likely to report full-time employment, adequate income, and better emotional and physical well-being. Results suggest the presence of a less adherent subtype of hypertensive patients. Behavioral interventions designed to improve adherence might best target these at-risk patients for greater treatment efficiency.Keywords: adherence, hypertension, latent class analysis, self-management

  8. Behavioral self-regulation in a physics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; DeVore, Seth; Stewart, Gay; Michaluk, Lynnette

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the regulation of out-of-class time invested in the academic activities associated with a physics class for 20 consecutive semesters. The academic activities of 1676 students were included in the study. Students reported investing a semester average of 6.5 ±2.9 h out of class per week. During weeks not containing an examination, a total of 4.3 ±2.1 h was reported which was divided between 2.5 ±1.2 h working homework and 1.8 ±1.4 h reading. Students reported spending 7.6 ±4.8 h preparing for each in-semester examination. Students showed a significant correlation between the change in time invested in examination preparation (r =-0.12 , p Students also modified their time invested in reading as the length of the textbook changed; however, this modification was not proportional to the size of the change in textbook length. Very little regulation of the time invested in homework was detected either in response to test grades or in response to changes in the length of homework assignments. Patterns of regulation were different for higher performing students than for lower performing students with students receiving a course grade of "C" or "D" demonstrating little change in examination preparation time in response to lower examination grades. This study suggests that homework preparation time is a fixed variable while examination preparation time and reading time are weakly mutable variables.

  9. Concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hoshang

    2005-01-01

    We propose concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states based on an orthogonal complement of a positive operator-valued measure on quantum phase. In particular, we construct W m class, GHZ m , and GHZ m-1 class concurrences for general pure m-partite states. We give explicit expressions for W 3 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure three-partite states and for W 4 , GHZ 4 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure four-partite states

  10. Knowledge and exercise of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights: a cross-sectional study of female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ganju, Deepika; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Adhikary, Rajatashurva

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV prevention interventions recognize the need to protect the rights of key populations and support them to claim their rights as a vulnerability reduction strategy. This study explores knowledge of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights, among female sex workers (FSWs) and high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) who are beneficiaries of a community mobilization intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey...

  11. HIV Controllers Exhibit Enhanced Frequencies of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Tetramer+ Gag-Specific CD4+ T Cells in Chronic Clade C HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Faatima; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Porichis, Filippos; Mewalal, Nikoshia; Pretorius, Karyn; Ismail, Nasreen; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Carrington, Mary; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Ndhlovu, Zaza M

    2017-04-01

    Immune control of viral infections is heavily dependent on helper CD4 + T cell function. However, the understanding of the contribution of HIV-specific CD4 + T cell responses to immune protection against HIV-1, particularly in clade C infection, remains incomplete. Recently, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramers have emerged as a powerful tool for interrogating antigen-specific CD4 + T cells without relying on effector functions. Here, we defined the MHC class II alleles for immunodominant Gag CD4 + T cell epitopes in clade C virus infection, constructed MHC class II tetramers, and then used these to define the magnitude, function, and relation to the viral load of HIV-specific CD4 + T cell responses in a cohort of untreated HIV clade C-infected persons. We observed significantly higher frequencies of MHC class II tetramer-positive CD4 + T cells in HIV controllers than progressors ( P = 0.0001), and these expanded Gag-specific CD4 + T cells in HIV controllers showed higher levels of expression of the cytolytic proteins granzymes A and B. Importantly, targeting of the immunodominant Gag41 peptide in the context of HLA class II DRB1*1101 was associated with HIV control ( r = -0.5, P = 0.02). These data identify an association between HIV-specific CD4 + T cell targeting of immunodominant Gag epitopes and immune control, particularly the contribution of a single class II MHC-peptide complex to the immune response against HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, these results highlight the advantage of the use of class II tetramers in evaluating HIV-specific CD4 + T cell responses in natural infections. IMPORTANCE Increasing evidence suggests that virus-specific CD4 + T cells contribute to the immune-mediated control of clade B HIV-1 infection, yet there remains a relative paucity of data regarding the role of HIV-specific CD4 + T cells in shaping adaptive immune responses in individuals infected with clade C, which is responsible for the majority of HIV

  12. Grade 4 children’s engagements in cross-sex relationships: A case from one South African Farm School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonhlanhla P Maphanga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores Grade 4 school children’s experiences of cross-sex relationships in a co- educational farm school in uMgungundlovu district in South Africa. The aim is to understand if and how constructions of gender bear on young children’s social relations at the school. Informed by children’s geographies and new sociology of childhood studies, this study uses data from semi-structured interviews and photo-voice imagery based on a qualitative narrative study of three girls and three boys aged between 9 and 12 years. The study found that children’s experiences of cross-sex relationships were deeply entrenched in traditional discourses of masculinities and femininities. These rigidly constructed discourses of gender were found to constrain possibilities and fluidities with which children navigated places and spaces of cross- sex relationships in the school. The hegemonic regulatory power of gender norms was a yardstick, informing children’s organisation and performances of cross-sex relationships even if some children had developed creative ways of subverting dominant gender norms in how they navigated in cross-sex relationships. The study argues for the liberalisation of gender norms, in order to allow children to freely – without being constrained by their genitalia – take subject positions of gender in cross-sex relationships. This would promote sustainable equitable gender relations, as children learn how to engage in cross-sex relationships, beyond the constraining prescripts of dominant masculinities and femininities.

  13. Preclinical development of a novel class of CXCR4 antagonist impairing solid tumors growth and metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Portella

    Full Text Available The CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays a role in cancer metastases, stem cell mobilization and chemosensitization. Proof of concept for efficient CXCR4 inhibition has been demonstrated in stem cell mobilization prior to autologous transplantation in hematological malignancies. Nevertheless CXCR4 inhibitors suitable for prolonged use as required for anticancer therapy are not available. To develop new CXCR4 antagonists a rational, ligand-based approach was taken, distinct from the more commonly used development strategy. A three amino acid motif (Ar-Ar-X in CXCL12, also found in the reverse orientation (X-Ar-Ar in the vMIP-II inhibitory chemokine formed the core of nineteen cyclic peptides evaluated for inhibition of CXCR4-dependent migration, binding, P-ERK1/2-induction and calcium efflux. Peptides R, S and I were chosen for evaluation in in vivo models of lung metastases (B16-CXCR4 and KTM2 murine osteosarcoma cells and growth of a renal cells xenograft. Peptides R, S, and T significantly reduced the association of the 12G5-CXCR4 antibody to the receptor and inhibited CXCL12-induced calcium efflux. The four peptides efficiently inhibited CXCL12-dependent migration at concentrations as low as 10 nM and delayed CXCL12-mediated wound healing in PES43 human melanoma cells. Intraperitoneal treatment with peptides R, I or S drastically reduced the number of B16-CXCR4-derived lung metastases in C57/BL mice. KTM2 osteosarcoma lung metastases were also reduced in Balb/C mice following CXCR4 inhibition. All three peptides significantly inhibited subcutaneous growth of SN12C-EGFP renal cancer cells. A novel class of CXCR4 inhibitory peptides was discovered. Three peptides, R, I and S inhibited lung metastases and primary tumor growth and will be evaluated as anticancer agents.

  14. Serological cross-reaction between O-antigens of Shigella dysenteriae type 4 and an environmental Escherichia albertii isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur; Akter, Selina; Azmuda, Nafisa; Sultana, Munawar; Weill, François-Xavier; Khan, Sirajul Islam; Grimont, Patrick A D; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2013-11-01

    An environmental freshwater bacterial isolate, DM104, appearing as Shigella-like colonies on selective agar plates was found to show strong and specific serological cross-reactivity with Shigella dysenteriae type 4. Biochemical identification according to the analytical profile index, molecular serotyping by restriction of the amplified O-antigen gene cluster (rfb-RFLP), together with phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and multi-locus sequence analysis, identified the isolate as Escherichia albertii. rfb-RFLP of DM104, revealed a profile different from that of S. dysenteriae type 4. However, western blot analysis of extracted lipopolysaccharides demonstrated strong cross-reactivity with S. dysenteriae type 4 using specific monovalent antisera and a lipopolysaccharide gel banding profile similar to that of S. dysenteriae type 4. The observed O-antigen cross-reaction between an E. albertii isolate and S. dysenteriae extends our knowledge of the extent of O-antigen cross-reaction within the Escherichia/Shigella group of organisms, and offers the possibility of using DM104 and similar cross-reacting strains as shigellosis vaccine candidates.

  15. Program ECSX4 (version 78-1): conversion of experimentally measured cross-section data from the four-center-exchange (X-4) format to the Livermore ECSIL format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; Perkins, S.T.

    1978-01-01

    A computer code called ECSX4 converts experimentally measured cross-section data from the four-center-exchange (X-4) format to the Livermore Experimental Cross-Section Information Library (ECSIL) format. The major advantage of this program is that it converts the variable format and dimensioned data of the X-4 format to the fixed-field format and consistent set of units of the ECSIL format. This consistency greatly simplifies the subsequent use of the data for cross-section evaluations. 2 figures, 3 tables

  16. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease.

  17. Differential cross section measurement for the 6Li(n,t)4He Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guohui; Tang Guoyou; Chen Jinxiang; Shi Zhaomin

    2002-01-01

    The differential cross sections and integrated cross sections of the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He reaction were measured at 1.85 and 2.67 MeV by using a gridded ionization chamber. Neutrons were produced through the T(p, n) 3 He reaction. The absolute neutron flux was determined through the 238 U(n, f) reaction. Present results are compared with existing data

  18. Online interprofessional education facilitation: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sherryn Maree; Ward, Catherine; Reeves, Scott

    2018-04-22

    The use of online media to deliver interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming more prevalent across health professions education settings. Facilitation of IPE activities is known to be critical to the effective delivery of IPE, however, specifics about the nature of online IPE facilitation remains unclear. To explore the health professions education literature to understand the extent, range and nature of research on online IPE facilitation. Scoping review methodology was used to guide a search of four electronic databases for relevant papers. Of the 2095 abstracts initially identified, after screening of both abstracts and full-text papers, 10 studies were selected for inclusion in this review. Following abstraction of key information from each study, a thematic analysis was undertaken. Three key themes emerged to describe the nature of the IPE facilitation literature: (1) types of online IPE facilitation contributions, (2) the experience of online IPE facilitation and (3) personal outcomes of online IPE facilitation. These IPE facilitation themes were particularly focused on facilitation of interprofessional student teams on an asynchronous basis. While the included studies provide some insight into the nature of online IPE facilitation, future research is needed to better understand facilitator contributions, and the facilitation experience and associated outcomes, both relating to synchronous and asynchronous online environments.

  19. Transition of Intravenous Treprostinil to Oral Therapy in a Patient with Functional Class IV Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kristina M; Williams, Breann M; Bates, Ruth E; Frantz, Robert P

    2017-08-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) occurs when pulmonary emboli fail to resolve with anticoagulation. For patients with inoperable or residual CTEPH, riociguat is currently the only therapy approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. However, some patients with CTEPH may require therapy beyond riociguat, such as intravenous prostacyclins, which can present significant administration challenges in patients with complex comorbid conditions. We describe a 42-year-old man with T12 paraplegia complicated by CTEPH (functional class IV with substantial right ventricular dysfunction) and severe pressure ulcers. In order to facilitate goals of care (hospital discharge to a skilled nursing facility where parenteral prostanoids could not be administered), he underwent rapid transition from intravenous treprostinil to oral selexipag in the form of a cross-taper over 6 days. The patient required readmission due to worsening symptoms and was transitioned back to intravenous treprostinil; he tolerated conversion to oral treprostinil for approximately 4 months, but it was subsequently discontinued due to nausea and modified goals of care. The patient underwent transition to hospice care 3 months later and eventually died from clinical deterioration. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe transition from intravenous treprostinil to selexipag as well as conversion from parenteral treprostinil to oral treprostinil in a patient with CTEPH and illustrates the approaches to and potential issues with prostanoid transitions. Additional observations are necessary to better understand the relative roles of selexipag and oral treprostinil regarding comparative efficacy and tolerability. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Disparities in Prevalence of Cardiometablic Risk Factors in Rural, Urban-Poor, and Urban-Middle Class Women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Mohan

    Full Text Available Urbanization is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To determine location-based differences in CVD risk factors in India we performed studies among women in rural, urban-poor and urban middle-class locations.Population-based cross-sectional studies in rural, urban-poor, and urban-middle class women (35-70 y were performed at multiple sites. We evaluated 6853 women (rural 2616, 5 sites; urban-poor 2008, 4 sites; urban middle-class 2229, 11 sites for socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors. Descriptive statistics are reported.Mean levels of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR, systolic BP, fasting glucose and cholesterol in rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women showed significantly increasing trends (ANOVAtrend, p 80 cm (28.3, 63.4, 61.9%, waist >90 cm (8.4, 31.4, 38.2%, waist hip ratio (WHR >0.8 (60.4, 90.7, 88.5, WHR>0.9 (13.0, 44.3, 56.1%, hypertension (31.6, 48.2, 59.0% and hypercholesterolemia (13.5, 27.7, 37.4% (Mantel Haenszel X2 ptrend <0.01. Inverse trend was observed for tobacco use (41.6, 19.6, 9.4%. There was significant association of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with overweight and obesity (adjusted R2 0.89-0.99.There are significant location based differences in cardiometabolic risk factors in India. The urban-middle class women have the highest risk compared to urban-poor and rural.

  1. Patterns and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in refugees: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihan, Savannah; Liddell, Belinda J; Byrow, Yulisha; Bryant, Richard A; Nickerson, Angela

    2018-05-01

    Although elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been well-documented in refugees, no study has investigated the heterogeneity of DSM-5 PTSD symptomatology in such populations. This study aimed to determine whether there are unique patterns of DSM-5 defined PTSD symptomatology in refugees, and investigate whether factors characteristic of the refugee experience, including trauma exposure and post-migration stress, predict symptom profiles. Participants were 246 refugees and asylum-seekers from an Arabic-, English-, Farsi-, or Tamil-speaking background who had been resettled in Australia. Participants completed measures of post-migration living difficulties, trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms and functional disability. Latent class analysis was used to identify PTSD symptom profiles, and predictors of class membership were elucidated via multinomial logistic regression. Four classes were identified: a high-PTSD class (21.3%), a high-re-experiencing/avoidance class (15.3%), a moderate-PTSD class (23%), and a no PTSD class (40.3%). Trauma exposure and post-migration stress significantly predicted class membership and classes differed in degree of functional disability. The current study employed a cross-sectional design, which precluded inferences regarding the stability of classes of PTSD symptomatology. This study provides evidence for distinct patterns of PTSD symptomatology in refugees. We identified a novel class, characterized by high-re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms, as well as classes characterized by pervasive, moderate, and no symptomatology. Trauma exposure and post-migration stress differentially contributed to the emergence of these profiles. Individuals with high and moderate probability of PTSD symptoms evidenced substantial disability. These results support conceptualizations of PTSD as a heterogeneous construct, and highlight the importance of considering sub-clinical symptom presentations, as well as the post

  2. CNN-BLPred: a Convolutional neural network based predictor for β-Lactamases (BL) and their classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clarence; Ismail, Hamid D; Saigo, Hiroto; Kc, Dukka B

    2017-12-28

    The β-Lactamase (BL) enzyme family is an important class of enzymes that plays a key role in bacterial resistance to antibiotics. As the newly identified number of BL enzymes is increasing daily, it is imperative to develop a computational tool to classify the newly identified BL enzymes into one of its classes. There are two types of classification of BL enzymes: Molecular Classification and Functional Classification. Existing computational methods only address Molecular Classification and the performance of these existing methods is unsatisfactory. We addressed the unsatisfactory performance of the existing methods by implementing a Deep Learning approach called Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). We developed CNN-BLPred, an approach for the classification of BL proteins. The CNN-BLPred uses Gradient Boosted Feature Selection (GBFS) in order to select the ideal feature set for each BL classification. Based on the rigorous benchmarking of CCN-BLPred using both leave-one-out cross-validation and independent test sets, CCN-BLPred performed better than the other existing algorithms. Compared with other architectures of CNN, Recurrent Neural Network, and Random Forest, the simple CNN architecture with only one convolutional layer performs the best. After feature extraction, we were able to remove ~95% of the 10,912 features using Gradient Boosted Trees. During 10-fold cross validation, we increased the accuracy of the classic BL predictions by 7%. We also increased the accuracy of Class A, Class B, Class C, and Class D performance by an average of 25.64%. The independent test results followed a similar trend. We implemented a deep learning algorithm known as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to develop a classifier for BL classification. Combined with feature selection on an exhaustive feature set and using balancing method such as Random Oversampling (ROS), Random Undersampling (RUS) and Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE), CNN-BLPred performs

  3. Barriers and facilitators to provide quality TIA care in the Veterans Healthcare Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damush, Teresa M; Miech, Edward J; Sico, Jason J; Phipps, Michael S; Arling, Greg; Ferguson, Jared; Austin, Charles; Myers, Laura; Baye, Fitsum; Luckhurst, Cherie; Keating, Ava B; Moran, Eileen; Bravata, Dawn M

    2017-12-12

    To identify key barriers and facilitators to the delivery of guideline-based care of patients with TIA in the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA). We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study of 70 audiotaped interviews of multidisciplinary clinical staff involved in TIA care at 14 VHA hospitals. We de-identified and analyzed all transcribed interviews. We identified emergent themes and patterns of barriers to providing TIA care and of facilitators applied to overcome these barriers. Identified barriers to providing timely acute and follow-up TIA care included difficulties accessing brain imaging, a constantly rotating pool of housestaff, lack of care coordination, resource constraints, and inadequate staff education. Key informants revealed that both stroke nurse coordinators and system-level factors facilitated the provision of TIA care. Few facilities had specific TIA protocols. However, stroke nurse coordinators often expanded upon their role to include TIA. They facilitated TIA care by (1) coordinating patient care across services, communicating across service lines, and educating clinical staff about facility policies and evidence-based practices; (2) tracking individual patients from emergency departments to inpatient settings and to discharge for timely follow-up care; (3) providing and referring TIA patients to risk factor management programs; and (4) performing regular audit and feedback of quality performance data. System-level facilitators included clinical service leadership engagement and use of electronic tools for continuous care across services. The local organization within a health care facility may be targeted to cultivate internal facilitators and a systemic infrastructure to provide evidence-based TIA care. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  4. 47 CFR 73.613 - Protection of Class A TV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of Class A TV stations. 73.613... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.613 Protection of Class A TV stations. (a) An application for a new TV broadcast station or for changes in the operating facilities of an...

  5. A Dialogue with Carl Rogers: Cross-Cultural Challenges of Facilitating Person-Centered Groups in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain-Hill, Alicia; Rogers, Carl R.

    1988-01-01

    Presents brainstorming dialogue with Carl Rogers which was held in January of 1987, shortly before Rogers's death. Explores basic challenges involved in a large-scale, cross-cultural application of person-centered group work in South Africa. (Author)

  6. Adiponectin mediated MHC class II mismatched cardiac graft rejection in mice is IL-4 dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin regulates glucose and fatty-acid metabolism but its role in chronic graft rejection mediated by Th2 cytokines remains ill-defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild type and adiponectin-null mice were used as graft recipients in mouse MHC class II disparate cardiac transplantation (bm12 toB6 and the graft rejection was monitored. In adiponectin-null mice we observed that the cellular infiltrate of eosinophils, CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells was reduced in grafts compared to the controls as was collagen deposition and vessel occlusion. A similar outcome was observed for skin transplants except that neutrophil infiltration was increased. Low levels of IL-4 were detected in the grafts and serum. The effect of adiponectin signaling on IL-4 expression was further investigated. Treatment with AMPK and p38 MAPK inhibitors blocked adiponectin enhanced T cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reactions. Inhibition of AMPK reduced eosinophil infiltration in skin grafts in wild type recipients and in contrast AMPK activation increased eosinophils in adiponectin-null recipients. The addition of adiponectin increased IL-4 production by the T cell line EL4 with augmented nuclear GATA-3 and phospho-STAT6 expression which were suppressed by knockdown of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a direct effect of adiponectin on IL-4 expression which contributes to Th2 cytokine mediated rejection in mouse MHC class II histoincompatible transplants. These results add to our understanding of the interrelationship of metabolism and immune regulation and raise the possibility that AMPK inhibitors may be beneficial in selected types of rejection.

  7. Disruptive cell cycle regulation involving epigenetic downregulation of Cdkn2a (p16Ink4a) in early-stage liver tumor-promotion facilitating liver cell regeneration in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Takuma; Wang, Liyun; Yafune, Atsunori; Kimura, Masayuki; Ohishi, Takumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle aberration was immunohistochemically examined in relation to preneoplastic liver cell foci expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) at early stages of tumor-promotion in rats with thioacetamide (TAA), a hepatocarcinogen facilitating liver cell regeneration. Immunoexpression of p16 Ink4a following exposure to other hepatocarcinogens/promoters and its DNA methylation status were also analyzed during early and late tumor-promotion stages. GST-P + liver cell foci increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis when compared with surrounding liver cells. In concordance with GST-P + foci, checkpoint proteins at G 1 /S (p21 Cip1 , p27 Kip1 and p16 Ink4a ) and G 2 /M (phospho-checkpoint kinase 1, Cdc25c and phospho-Wee1) were either up- or downregulated. Cellular distribution within GST-P + foci was either increased or decreased with proteins related to G 2 -M phase or DNA damage (topoisomerase IIα, phospho-histone H2AX, phospho-histone H3 and Cdc2). In particular, p16 Ink4a typically downregulated in GST-P + foci and regenerative nodules at early tumor-promotion stage with hepatocarcinogens facilitating liver cell regeneration and in neoplastic lesions at late tumor-promotion stage with hepatocarcinogens/promoters irrespective of regenerating potential. Hypermethylation at exon 2 of Cdkn2a was detected at both early- and late-stages. Thus, diverse disruptive expression of G 1 /S and G 2 /M proteins, which allows for clonal selection of GST-P + foci, results in the acquisition of multiple aberrant phenotypes to disrupt checkpoint function. Moreover, increased DNA-damage responses within GST-P + foci may be the signature of genetic alterations. Intraexonic hypermethylation may be responsible for p16 Ink4a -downregulation, which facilitates cell cycle progression in early preneoplastic lesions produced by repeated cell regeneration and late-stage neoplastic lesions irrespective of the carcinogenic mechanism.

  8. poLCA: An R Package for Polytomous Variable Latent Class Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew A. Linzer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available poLCA is a software package for the estimation of latent class and latent class regression models for polytomous outcome variables, implemented in the R statistical computing environment. Both models can be called using a single simple command line. The basic latent class model is a finite mixture model in which the component distributions are assumed to be multi-way cross-classification tables with all variables mutually independent. The latent class regression model further enables the researcher to estimate the effects of covariates on predicting latent class membership. poLCA uses expectation-maximization and Newton-Raphson algorithms to find maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters.

  9. 32 CFR 1639.4 - Exclusion from Class 2-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recognized; or (c) He ceases to be a full-time student; or (d) He fails to maintain satisfactory academic... Class 2-D when: (a) He fails to establish that the theological or divinity school is a recognized school...

  10. Expression, purification, and functional characterization of the insulin-responsive facilitative glucose transporter GLUT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E; Hresko, Richard C; Hruz, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    The insulin-responsive facilitative glucose transporter GLUT4 is of fundamental importance for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite intensive effort, the ability to express and purify sufficient quantities of structurally and functionally intact protein for biophysical analysis has previously been exceedingly difficult. We report here the development of novel methods to express, purify, and functionally reconstitute GLUT4 into detergent micelles and proteoliposomes. Rat GLUT4 containing FLAG and His tags at the amino and carboxy termini, respectively, was engineered and stably transfected into HEK-293 cells. Overexpression in suspension culture yielded over 1.5 mg of protein per liter of culture. Systematic screening of detergent solubilized GLUT4-GFP fusion protein via fluorescent-detection size exclusion chromatography identified lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (LMNG) as highly effective for isolating monomeric GLUT4 micelles. Preservation of structural integrity and ligand binding was demonstrated via quenching of tryptophan fluorescence and competition of ATB-BMPA photolabeling by cytochalasin B. GLUT4 was reconstituted into lipid nanodiscs and proper folding was confirmed. Reconstitution of purified GLUT4 with amphipol A8-35 stabilized the transporter at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time. Functional activity of purified GLUT4 was confirmed by reconstitution of LMNG-purified GLUT4 into proteoliposomes and measurement of saturable uptake of D-glucose over L-glucose. Taken together, these data validate the development of an efficient means to generate milligram quantities of stable and functionally intact GLUT4 that is suitable for a wide array of biochemical and biophysical analyses. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  11. Safety class methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ''safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Safety class items are those in the highest of four categories determined to be of special importance to nuclear safety and, merit appropriately higher-quality design, fabrication, and industrial test standards and codes. The identification of safety class items is approached using a cascading strategy that begins at the 'safety function' level (i.e., a cooling function, ventilation function, etc.) and proceeds down to the system, component, or structure level. Thus, the items that are required to support a safety function are SCls. The basic steps in this procedure apply to the determination of SCls for both new project activities, and for operating facilities. The GDC lists six characteristics of SCls to be considered as a starting point for safety item classification. They are as follows: 1. Those items whose failure would produce exposure consequences that would exceed the guidelines in Section 1300-1.4, ''Guidance on Limiting Exposure of the Public,'' at the site boundary or nearest point of public access 2. Those items required to maintain operating parameters within the safety limits specified in the Operational Safety Requirements during normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences. 3. Those items required for nuclear criticality safety. 4. Those items required to monitor the release of radioactive material to the environment during and after a Design Basis Accident. Those items required to achieve, and maintain the facility in a safe shutdown condition 6. Those items that control Safety Class Item listed above

  12. Predominant typologies of psychopathology in the United States: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabalawy, Renée; Tsai, Jack; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Hoff, Rani; Sareen, Jitender; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) offers a parsimonious way of classifying common typologies of psychiatric comorbidity. We used LCA to identify the nature and correlates of predominant typologies of Axis I and II disorders in a large and comprehensive population-based sample of U.S. adults. We analyzed data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005; n = 34,653), a population-based sample of U.S. adults. We derived latent classes based on all assessed Axis I and II disorders and examined the relationship between the identified Axis I classes and lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, and physical and mental health-related quality of life. A four-class solution was optimal in characterizing predominant typologies of both Axis I and II disorders. For Axis I disorders, these included low psychopathology (n = 28,935, 84.0%), internalizing (n = 3693, 9.9%), externalizing (n = 1426, 4.5%), and high psychopathology (n = 599, 1.6%) classes. For Axis II disorders, these included no/low personality disorders (n = 31,265, 90.9%), obsessive/paranoid (n = 1635, 4.6%), borderline/dysregulated (n = 1319, 3.4%), and highly comorbid (n = 434, 1.1%) classes. Compared to the low psychopathology class, all other Axis I classes had significantly increased odds of mental disorders, elevated Axis II classes, suicide attempts and poorer quality of life, with the high psychopathology class having the overall highest rates of these correlates, with the exception of substance use disorders. Compared to the low psychopathology class, the internalizing and externalizing classes had increased rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, respectively. Axis I and II psychopathology among U.S. adults may be best represented by four predominant typologies. Characterizing co-occurring patterns of psychopathology using person-based typologies represents a higher-order classification system that may be useful in clinical

  13. Cross-linkable liposomes stabilize a magnetic resonance contrast-enhancing polymeric fastener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cartney E; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2014-04-08

    Liposomes are commonly used to deliver drugs and contrast agents to their target site in a controlled manner. One of the greatest obstacles in the performance of such delivery vehicles is their stability in the presence of serum. Here, we demonstrate a method to stabilize a class of liposomes that load gadolinium, a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, as a model cargo on their surfaces. We hypothesized that the sequential adsorption of a gadolinium-binding chitosan fastener on the liposome surface followed by covalent cross-linking of the lipid bilayer would provide enhanced stability and improved MR signal in the presence of human serum. To investigate this hypothesis, liposomes composed of diyne-containing lipids were assembled and functionalized via chitosan conjugated with a hydrophobic anchor and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This postadsorption cross-linking strategy served to stabilize the thermodynamically favorable association between liposome and polymeric fastener. Furthermore, the chitosan-coated, cross-linked liposomes proved more effective as delivery vehicles of gadolinium than uncross-linked liposomes due to the reduced liposome degradation and chitosan desorption. Overall, this study demonstrates a useful method to stabilize a broad class of particles used for systemic delivery of various molecular payloads.

  14. Gender differences in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated gender differences in the cephalometric records of a large-scale cross-sectional sample of Caucasian subjects with Class III malocclusion at different developmental ages. The purpose also was to provide average age-related and sex-related data for craniofacial measures in untreated Class III subjects that are used as reference in the diagnostic appraisal of the patient with Class III disharmony. The sample examined consisted of 1094 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records (557 female subjects and 537 male subjects) of Caucasian Class III individuals. The age range for female subjects was between three years six months and 57 years seven months. The male subject group ranged from three years three months to 48 years five months. Twelve age groups were identified. Skeletal maturity at different age periods also was determined using the stage of cervical vertebral maturation. Gender differences for all cephalometric variables were analyzed using parametric statistics. The findings of the study indicated that Class III malocclusion is associated with a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial parameters, especially from the age of 13 onward. Male subjects with Class III malocclusion present with significantly larger linear dimensions of the maxilla, mandible, and anterior facial heights when compared with female subjects during the circumpubertal and postpubertal periods.

  15. Uncertainties of Electron Capture Cross Sections In Be4+ + H(1s) Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez, L.; Illescas, Clara; Jorge, Alba; Errea, L.F.; Rabadán, I.; Suárez, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have considered one-electron systems where the theoretical methods are well established. The use of different computational alternatives enables the accurate evaluation of nl-partial cross sections in a wide range of collision energies. In the presentation we have analyzed the uncertainties of n-partial charge exchange (CX) cross sections in Be 4+ + H(1s) collisions, which are relevant in tokamak plasmas and experimental data are not available.

  16. Subaltern Classes, Class Struggles and Hegemony : a Gramscian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of “overcoming” conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  17. Crystal Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ECM4, a Xi-Class Glutathione Transferase that Reacts with Glutathionyl-(hydro)quinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mathieu; Didierjean, Claude; Hecker, Arnaud; Girardet, Jean-Michel; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie; Gelhaye, Eric; Favier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Glutathionyl-hydroquinone reductases (GHRs) belong to the recently characterized Xi-class of glutathione transferases (GSTXs) according to unique structural properties and are present in all but animal kingdoms. The GHR ScECM4 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied since 1997 when it was found to be potentially involved in cell-wall biosynthesis. Up to now and in spite of biological studies made on this enzyme, its physiological role remains challenging. The work here reports its crystallographic study. In addition to exhibiting the general GSTX structural features, ScECM4 shows extensions including a huge loop which contributes to the quaternary assembly. These structural extensions are probably specific to Saccharomycetaceae. Soaking of ScECM4 crystals with GS-menadione results in a structure where glutathione forms a mixed disulfide bond with the cysteine 46. Solution studies confirm that ScECM4 has reductase activity for GS-menadione in presence of glutathione. Moreover, the high resolution structures allowed us to propose new roles of conserved residues of the active site to assist the cysteine 46 during the catalytic act. PMID:27736955

  18. Oligonucleotide fishing for STAT6: cross-talk between IL-4 and chemokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, K W; Nielsen, M; Kaltoft, K

    2001-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is essential for the biological activities of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and the development of allergic responses in mice. Here we report on a sensitive and specific assay for STAT6 activation in response to IL-4. We took advantage of double-s...... activation, whereas other chemokines and cytokines do not. In conclusion, our data show that oligonucleotide fishing is a supplementary tool for studying cytokine cross-talk at a genomic level....

  19. Straightforward Synthesis of N-Methyl-4-(pinB-2(3H-benzothiazol-2-one: A Promising Cross-Coupling Reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Izawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclo-condensation of N-methyl-2-bromoaniline with chlorocarbonylsulfenyl chloride (CCSC promoted by PhNMe2 and AlCl3, afforded N-methyl-2-bromo-2(3H-benzothiazol-2-one in good yield. Miyaura–Ishiyama cross-coupling of this brominated 2(3H-benzothiazol-2-one with bis(pinacolatodiborone [(pin2B2] produced a novel N-methyl-4-(pinB-2(3H-benzothiazol-2-one (3 using (pin2B2 in the presence of the PdCl2(PPh32 catalyst. The obtained 4-(pinB compound is regarded as a new entry for the library of Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions.

  20. How Do World-Class Nordic Combined Athletes Differ From Specialized Cross-Country Skiers and Ski Jumpers in Sport-Specific Capacity and Training Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Rasdal, Vegard; Bråten, Steinar; Moen, Frode; Ettema, Gertjan

    2016-10-01

    To compare sport-specific laboratory capacities and the annual training of world-class Nordic combined (NC) athletes with specialized ski jumpers (SJ) and cross-country (XC) skiers. Five world-class athletes from each sports discipline were compared. Ski jump imitations were performed on a 3-dimensional force plate in NC athletes and SJ, whereas XC skiing characteristics were obtained from submaximal and maximal roller ski skating on a treadmill in NC athletes and XC skiers. In addition, anthropometrics and annual training characteristics were determined. NC athletes demonstrated 9% higher body mass and showed 17% lower vertical speed in the ski jump imitation than SJ (all P ski-jumping-specific sessions and outdoor ski jumps compared with SJ. NC athletes performed 31% less endurance training, mainly caused by lower amounts of low- and moderate-intensity training in the classical technique, whereas high-intensity strength and speed training and endurance training in the skating technique did not differ substantially from XC skiers. To simultaneously optimize endurance, explosive, and technical capacities in 2 different disciplines, world-class NC athletes train approximately two-thirds of the XC skier's endurance training volume and perform one-half of the ski-jump-specific training compared with SJ. Still, the various laboratory capacities differed only 10-17% compared with SJ and XC skiers.

  1. A Click Chemistry-Based Proteomic Approach Reveals that 1,2,4-Trioxolane and Artemisinin Antimalarials Share a Common Protein Alkylation Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hanafy M; Barton, Victoria E; Panchana, Matthew; Charoensutthivarakul, Sitthivut; Biagini, Giancarlo A; Ward, Stephen A; O'Neill, Paul M

    2016-05-23

    In spite of the recent increase in endoperoxide antimalarials under development, it remains unclear if all these chemotypes share a common mechanism of action. This is important since it will influence cross-resistance risks between the different classes. Here we investigate this proposition using novel clickable 1,2,4-trioxolane activity based protein-profiling probes (ABPPs). ABPPs with potent antimalarial activity were able to alkylate protein target(s) within the asexual erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7). Importantly, comparison of the alkylation fingerprint with that generated from an artemisinin ABPP equivalent confirms a highly conserved alkylation profile, with both endoperoxide classes targeting proteins in the glycolytic, hemoglobin degradation, antioxidant defence, protein synthesis and protein stress pathways, essential biological processes for plasmodial survival. The alkylation signatures of the two chemotypes show significant overlap (ca. 90 %) both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively, suggesting a common mechanism of action that raises concerns about potential cross-resistance liabilities.

  2. The mechanism of Turing pattern formation in a positive feedback system with cross diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiyan; Liu, Tuoqi; Zhang, Jiajun; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a reaction–diffusion (R–D) system with a double negative feedback loop and find cases where self diffusion alone cannot lead to Turing pattern formation but cross diffusion can. Specifically, we first derive a set of sufficient conditions for Turing instability by performing linear stability analysis, then plot two bifurcation diagrams that specifically identify Turing regions in the parameter phase plane, and finally numerically demonstrate representative Turing patterns according to the theoretical predictions. Our analysis combined with previous studies actually implies an interesting fact that Turing patterns can be generated not only in a class of monostable R–D systems where cross diffusion is not necessary but also in a class of bistable R–D systems where cross diffusion is necessary. In addition, our model would be a good candidate for experimentally testing Turing pattern formation from the viewpoint of synthetic biology. (paper)

  3. A large class of solvable multistate Landau–Zener models and quantum integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Sun, Chen

    2018-06-01

    The concept of quantum integrability has been introduced recently for quantum systems with explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians (Sinitsyn et al 2018 Phys. Rev. Lett. 120 190402). Within the multistate Landau–Zener (MLZ) theory, however, there has been a successful alternative approach to identify and solve complex time-dependent models (Sinitsyn and Chernyak 2017 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 50 255203). Here we compare both methods by applying them to a new class of exactly solvable MLZ models. This class contains systems with an arbitrary number of interacting states and shows quick growth with N number of exact adiabatic energy crossing points, which appear at different moments of time. At each N, transition probabilities in these systems can be found analytically and exactly but complexity and variety of solutions in this class also grow with N quickly. We illustrate how common features of solvable MLZ systems appear from quantum integrability and develop an approach to further classification of solvable MLZ problems.

  4. Barriers and Facilitators to Central Venous Catheter Insertion: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenzie A; Cohen, Elaine R; Hertz, Joelle R; Wayne, Diane B; Mitra, Debi; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2018-03-14

    The aims of the study were to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion among healthcare providers and to understand the extent to which an existing Simulation-Based Mastery Learning (SBML) program may address barriers and leverage facilitators. Providers participating in a CVC insertion SBML train-the-trainer program, in addition to intensive care unit nurse managers, were purposively sampled from Veterans Administration Medical Centers located in geographically diverse areas. We conducted semistructured interviews to assess perceptions of barriers and facilitators to CVC insertion. Deidentified transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and the constant comparative method. We subsequently mapped identified barriers and facilitators to our SBML curriculum to determine whether or not the curriculum addresses these factors. We interviewed 28 providers at six Veterans Administration Medical Centers, identifying the following five overarching factors of perceived barriers to CVC insertion: (1) equipment, (2) personnel/staff, (3) setting or organizational context, (4) patient or provider, and (5) time-related barriers. Three overarching factors of facilitators emerged: (1) equipment, (2) personnel, and (3) setting or organizational context facilitators. The SBML curriculum seems to address most identified barriers, while leveraging many facilitators; building on the commonly identified facilitator of nursing staff contribution by expanding the curriculum to explicitly include nurse involvement could improve team efficiency and organizational culture of safety. Many identified facilitators (e.g., ability to use ultrasound, personnel confidence/competence) were also identified as barriers. Evidence-based SBML programs have the potential to amplify these facilitators while addressing the barriers by providing an opportunity to practice and master CVC insertion skills.

  5. No more walls! A tale of modularity, symmetry, and wall crossing for 1/4 BPS dyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, Natalie M.; Volpato, Roberto; Zimet, Max

    2017-01-01

    We determine the generating functions of 1/4 BPS dyons in a class of 4d N=4 string vacua arising as CHL orbifolds of K3×T 2 , a classification of which has been recently completed. We show that all such generating functions obey some simple physical consistency conditions that are very often sufficient to fix them uniquely. The main constraint we impose is the absence of unphysical walls of marginal stability: discontinuities of 1/4 BPS degeneracies can only occur when 1/4 BPS dyons decay into pairs of 1/2 BPS states. Formally, these generating functions in spacetime can be described as multiplicative lifts of certain supersymmetric indices (twining genera) on the worldsheet of the corresponding nonlinear sigma model on K3. As a consequence, our procedure also leads to an explicit derivation of almost all of these twining genera. The worldsheet indices singled out in this way match precisely a set of functions of interest in moonshine, as predicted by a recent conjecture.

  6. No more walls! A tale of modularity, symmetry, and wall crossing for 1/4 BPS dyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Natalie M. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Volpato, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘Galileo Galilei’,Università di Padova & INFN sez. di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Zimet, Max [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We determine the generating functions of 1/4 BPS dyons in a class of 4d N=4 string vacua arising as CHL orbifolds of K3×T{sup 2}, a classification of which has been recently completed. We show that all such generating functions obey some simple physical consistency conditions that are very often sufficient to fix them uniquely. The main constraint we impose is the absence of unphysical walls of marginal stability: discontinuities of 1/4 BPS degeneracies can only occur when 1/4 BPS dyons decay into pairs of 1/2 BPS states. Formally, these generating functions in spacetime can be described as multiplicative lifts of certain supersymmetric indices (twining genera) on the worldsheet of the corresponding nonlinear sigma model on K3. As a consequence, our procedure also leads to an explicit derivation of almost all of these twining genera. The worldsheet indices singled out in this way match precisely a set of functions of interest in moonshine, as predicted by a recent conjecture.

  7. TRENDS IN USING SOCIAL MEDIA AS SUBSTITUTE FOR CLASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... Keywords: Social media, Class interaction, ODL system, Education, ... caused in both private and public working sectors ... The Role of Social Media in ODL Educational ... and others facilitate academic relationship .... who had also been yearning for education upgrading enrolled for their choice programs.

  8. Using Group Drawings Activities to Facilitate the Understanding of Systemic Aspects of Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Hess, Aurélio; Gonçalves, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present our findings regarding promoting group drawing activities in order to facilitate the learning of systemic aspects of projects. We discuss the approach we used to engage the students and foster learning in our classes. We used group drawing activities in two project...... technique, we followed the five-phased qualitative analysis method, combined with a systems analysis of the data obtained from observation. Five recurrent themes emerged: 1) Making drawings in groups helps content retention and facilitates connections between the concepts explained by the professor; 2...

  9. Cloning and characterization of profilin (Pru du 4), a cross-reactive almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Pallavi; Venkatesh, Yeldur P; Wang, Fang; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2006-10-01

    The identity of allergenic almond proteins is incomplete. Our objective was to characterize patient IgE reactivity to a recombinant and corresponding native almond allergen. An almond cDNA library was screened with sera from patients with allergy for IgE binding proteins. Two reactive clones were sequenced, and 1 was expressed. The expressed recombinant allergen and its native counterpart (purified from unprocessed almond flour) were assayed by 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, dot blot, and ELISA, and screened for cross-reactivity with grass profilin. The 2 selected clones encoded profilin (designated Pru du 4) sequences that differed by 2 silent mutations. By dot-blot analyses, 6 of 18 patient sera (33%) reacted with the recombinant Pru du 4 protein, and 8 of 18 (44%) reacted with the native form. ELISA results were similar. Almond and ryegrass profilins were mutually inhibitable. Two-dimensional immunoblotting revealed the presence of more than 1 native almond profilin isoform. The strength of reactivity of some patients' serum IgE differed markedly between assays and between native and recombinant profilins. Almond nut profilin is an IgE-binding food protein that is cross-reactive with grass pollen profilin and is susceptible to denaturation, resulting in variable reactivity between assay types and between patients. Serum IgE of nearly half of the tested patients with almond allergy reacts with almond nut profilin. Because most patients also had pollinosis, the well-known cross-reactivity between pollen and food profilins could account for this pattern of reactivity.

  10. Pan-specific prediction of peptide-MHC Class I complex stability, a correlate of T cell immunogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael; Fenoy, Emilio; Harndahl, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Binding of peptides to MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules is the most selective event in the processing and presentation of Ags to CTL, and insights into the mechanisms that govern peptide-MHC-I binding should facilitate our understanding of CTL biology. Peptide-MHC-I interactions have traditionally b...

  11. Measurements of photoionization cross sections from the 4p, 5d and 7s excited states of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Nasir; Mahmood, S.; Haq, S.U.; Kalyar, M.A.; Rafiq, M.; Baig, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    New measurements of the photoionization cross sections from the 4p 2 P 1/2,3/2 , 5d 2 D 5/2,3/2 and 7s 2 S 1/2 excited states of potassium are presented. The cross sections have been measured by two-step excitation and ionization using a Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with a thermionic diode ion detector. By applying the saturation technique, the absolute values of the cross sections from the 4p 2 P 3/2 and 4p 2 P 1/2 states at 355 nm are determined as 7.2±1.1 and 5.6±0.8 Mb, respectively. The photoionization cross section from the 5d 2 D 5/2,3/2 excited state has been measured using two excitation paths, two-step excitation and two-photon excitation from the ground state. The measured values of the cross sections from the 5d 2 D 5/2 state by two-photon excitation from the ground state is 28.9±4.3 Mb, whereas in the two-step excitation, the cross section from the 5d 2 D 3/2 state via the 4p 2 P 1/2 state and from the 5d 2 D 5/2,3/2 states via the 4p 2 P 3/2 state are determined as 25.1±3.8 and 30.2±4.5 Mb, respectively. Besides, we have measured the photoionization cross sections from the 7s 2 S 1/2 excited state using the two-photon excitation from the ground state as 0.61±0.09 Mb

  12. Cultural hegemony? Educators? perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Dani?lle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    Background: We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with c...

  13. Use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization, multi-angle airborne radars for class discrimination in a southern temperature forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, N. C.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of radar scatterometers for discrimination and characterization of natural vegetation was investigated. Backscatter measurements were acquired with airborne multi-frequency, multi-polarization, multi-angle radar scatterometers over a test site in a southern temperate forest. Separability between ground cover classes was studied using a two-class separability measure. Very good separability is achieved between most classes. Longer wavelength is useful in separating trees from non-tree classes, while shorter wavelength and cross polarization are helpful for discrimination among tree classes. Using the maximum likelihood classifier, 50% overall classification accuracy is achieved using a single, short-wavelength scatterometer channel. Addition of multiple incidence angles and another radar band improves classification accuracy by 20% and 50%, respectively, over the single channel accuracy. Incorporation of a third radar band seems redundant for vegetation classification. Vertical transmit polarization is critically important for all classes.

  14. Novel Mahalanobis-based feature selection improves one-class classification of early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Ricardo de Lima; Carneiro, Pedro Cunha; Bonin, João Eliton; Macedo, Túlio Augusto Alves; Patrocinio, Ana Claudia; Soares, Alcimar Barbosa

    2018-05-01

    Detection of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for increasing survival rates in up to 40%. One-class classifiers can be used for modeling early HCC in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), but demand the specific knowledge pertaining to the set of features that best describes the target class. Although the literature outlines several features for characterizing liver lesions, it is unclear which is most relevant for describing early HCC. In this paper, we introduce an unconstrained GA feature selection algorithm based on a multi-objective Mahalanobis fitness function to improve the classification performance for early HCC. We compared our approach to a constrained Mahalanobis function and two other unconstrained functions using Welch's t-test and Gaussian Data Descriptors. The performance of each fitness function was evaluated by cross-validating a one-class SVM. The results show that the proposed multi-objective Mahalanobis fitness function is capable of significantly reducing data dimensionality (96.4%) and improving one-class classification of early HCC (0.84 AUC). Furthermore, the results provide strong evidence that intensity features extracted at the arterial to portal and arterial to equilibrium phases are important for classifying early HCC.

  15. Downregulation of RBO-PI4KIIIα Facilitates Aβ42 Secretion and Ameliorates Neural Deficits in Aβ42-Expressing Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Wen-An; Jiang, Li-Xiang; Liu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Bao-Zhu; Lim, Nastasia; Li, Qing-Yi; Huang, Fu-De

    2017-05-10

    Phosphoinositides and their metabolizing enzymes are involved in Aβ 42 metabolism and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. In yeast and mammals, Eighty-five requiring 3 (EFR3), whose Drosophila homolog is Rolling Blackout (RBO), forms a plasma membrane-localized protein complex with phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase Type IIIα (PI4KIIIα) and a scaffold protein to tightly control the level of plasmalemmal phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI 4 P). Here, we report that RBO binds to Drosophila PI4KIIIα, and that in an Aβ 42 -expressing Drosophila model, separate genetic reduction of PI4KIIIα and RBO, or pharmacological inhibition of PI4KIIIα ameliorated synaptic transmission deficit, climbing ability decline, premature death, and reduced neuronal accumulation of Aβ 42 Moreover, we found that RBO-PI4KIIIa downregulation increased neuronal Aβ 42 release and that PI4P facilitated the assembly or oligomerization of Aβ 42 in/on liposomes. These results indicate that RBO-PI4KIIIa downregulation facilitates neuronal Aβ 42 release and consequently reduces neuronal Aβ 42 accumulation likely via decreasing Aβ 42 assembly in/on plasma membrane. This study suggests the RBO-PI4KIIIα complex as a potential therapeutic target and PI4KIIIα inhibitors as drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Phosphoinositides and their metabolizing enzymes are involved in Aβ 42 metabolism and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Here, in an Aβ 42 -expressing Drosophila model, we discovered and studied the beneficial role of downregulating RBO or its interacting protein PI4KIIIα-a protein that tightly controls the plasmalemmal level of PI 4 P-against the defects caused by Aβ 42 expression. Mechanistically, RBO-PI4KIIIα downregulation reduced neuronal Aβ 42 accumulation, and interestingly increased neuronal Aβ 42 release. This study suggests the RBO-PI4KIIIα complex as a novel therapeutic target, and PI4KIIIα inhibitors as new drug candidates. Copyright

  16. Perceived risk associated with ecstasy use: a latent class analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, SS; Carlson, RG; Alexandre, PK; Falck, RS

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define categories of perceived health problems among ecstasy users based on observed clustering of their perceptions of ecstasy-related health problems. Data from a community sample of ecstasy users (n=402) aged 18 to 30, in Ohio, was used in this study. Data was analyzed via Latent Class Analysis (LCA) and Regression. This study identified five different subgroups of ecstasy users based on their perceptions of health problems they associated with their ecstasy use. Almost one third of the sample (28.9%) belonged to a class with “low level of perceived problems” (Class 4). About one fourth (25.6%) of the sample (Class 2), had high probabilities of “perceiving problems on sexual-related items”, but generally low or moderate probabilities of perceiving problems in other areas. Roughly one-fifth of the sample (21.1%, Class 1) had moderate probabilities of perceiving ecstasy health-related problems in all areas. A small proportion of respondents (11.9%, Class 5) had high probabilities of reporting “perceived memory and cognitive problems, and of perceiving “ecstasy related-problems in all areas” (12.4%, Class 3). A large proportion of ecstasy users perceive either low or moderate risk associated with their ecstasy use. It is important to further investigate whether lower levels of risk perception are associated with persistence of ecstasy use. PMID:21296504

  17. Sports Nutrition Knowledge, Perceptions, Resources, and Advice Given by Certified CrossFit Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie Maxwell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale. Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p < 0.01. Conclusion: Nutrition education modules for Level 1 and 2 CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.

  18. Sports Nutrition Knowledge, Perceptions, Resources, and Advice Given by Certified CrossFit Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Cassie; Ruth, Kyle; Friesen, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK) score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale). Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.

  19. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Tolstenkov, A.N.; Yushchenko, O.P.; Baldini, A.; Cobal, M.; Flaminio, V.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra, P.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and K L 0 . It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  20. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  1. Multilevel latent class casemix modelling: a novel approach to accommodate patient casemix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilthorpe, Mark S; Harrison, Wendy J; Downing, Amy; Forman, David; West, Robert M

    2011-03-01

    Using routinely collected patient data we explore the utility of multilevel latent class (MLLC) models to adjust for patient casemix and rank Trust performance. We contrast this with ranks derived from Trust standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). Patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 and resident in Northern and Yorkshire regions were identified from the cancer registry database (n = 24,640). Patient age, sex, stage-at-diagnosis (Dukes), and Trust of diagnosis/treatment were extracted. Socioeconomic background was derived using the Townsend Index. Outcome was survival at 3 years after diagnosis. MLLC-modelled and SMR-generated Trust ranks were compared. Patients were assigned to two classes of similar size: one with reasonable prognosis (63.0% died within 3 years), and one with better prognosis (39.3% died within 3 years). In patient class one, all patients diagnosed at stage B or C died within 3 years; in patient class two, all patients diagnosed at stage A, B or C survived. Trusts were assigned two classes with 51.3% and 53.2% of patients respectively dying within 3 years. Differences in the ranked Trust performance between the MLLC model and SMRs were all within estimated 95% CIs. A novel approach to casemix adjustment is illustrated, ranking Trust performance whilst facilitating the evaluation of factors associated with the patient journey (e.g. treatments) and factors associated with the processes of healthcare delivery (e.g. delays). Further research can demonstrate the value of modelling patient pathways and evaluating healthcare processes across provider institutions.

  2. Multilevel latent class casemix modelling: a novel approach to accommodate patient casemix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forman David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using routinely collected patient data we explore the utility of multilevel latent class (MLLC models to adjust for patient casemix and rank Trust performance. We contrast this with ranks derived from Trust standardised mortality ratios (SMRs. Methods Patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 and resident in Northern and Yorkshire regions were identified from the cancer registry database (n = 24,640. Patient age, sex, stage-at-diagnosis (Dukes, and Trust of diagnosis/treatment were extracted. Socioeconomic background was derived using the Townsend Index. Outcome was survival at 3 years after diagnosis. MLLC-modelled and SMR-generated Trust ranks were compared. Results Patients were assigned to two classes of similar size: one with reasonable prognosis (63.0% died within 3 years, and one with better prognosis (39.3% died within 3 years. In patient class one, all patients diagnosed at stage B or C died within 3 years; in patient class two, all patients diagnosed at stage A, B or C survived. Trusts were assigned two classes with 51.3% and 53.2% of patients respectively dying within 3 years. Differences in the ranked Trust performance between the MLLC model and SMRs were all within estimated 95% CIs. Conclusions A novel approach to casemix adjustment is illustrated, ranking Trust performance whilst facilitating the evaluation of factors associated with the patient journey (e.g. treatments and factors associated with the processes of healthcare delivery (e.g. delays. Further research can demonstrate the value of modelling patient pathways and evaluating healthcare processes across provider institutions.

  3. Multi-label classifier based on histogram of gradients for predicting the anatomical therapeutic chemical class/classes of a given compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Loris; Brahnam, Sheryl

    2017-09-15

    Given an unknown compound, is it possible to predict its Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical class/classes? This is a challenging yet important problem since such a prediction could be used to deduce not only a compound's possible active ingredients but also its therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties, thereby substantially expediting the pace of drug development. The problem is challenging because some drugs and compounds belong to two or more ATC classes, making machine learning extremely difficult. In this article a multi-label classifier system is proposed that incorporates information about a compound's chemical-chemical interaction and its structural and fingerprint similarities to other compounds belonging to the different ATC classes. The proposed system reshapes a 1D feature vector to obtain a 2D matrix representation of the compound. This matrix is then described by a histogram of gradients that is fed into a Multi-Label Learning with Label-Specific Features classifier. Rigorous cross-validations demonstrate the superior prediction quality of this method compared with other state-of-the-art approaches developed for this problem, a superiority that is reflected particularly in the absolute true rate, the most important and harshest metric for assessing multi-label systems. The MATLAB code for replicating the experiments presented in this article is available at https://www.dropbox.com/s/7v1mey48tl9bfgz/ToolPaperATC.rar?dl=0 . loris.nanni@unipd.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Emotion knowledge and autobiographical memory across the preschool years: a cross-cultural longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children, Chinese children from first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the U.S., and European American children. Children's developing emotion knowledge and autobiographical memory were assessed three times at home, when children were 3, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. Children's emotion knowledge uniquely predicted their autobiographical memory ability across groups and time points. Emotion knowledge further mediated culture effects on autobiographical memory. The findings provide important insight into early autobiographical memory development, and extend current theoretical understandings of the emotion-memory interplay. They further have implications for the phenomenon of infantile amnesia and cross-cultural differences in childhood recollections.

  5. Education, class and vernacular awareness on Tyneside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2017-01-01

    . This group consisted of mainly older female speakers and results are interpreted in light of first wave studies on the patterning of language use by class, age and gender. Finally, the issue of vernacular awareness is linked to social indexicality and it is suggested that an interpretation of participants...... identification. The results indicate that participants’ self-identification is at odds with the classification based on education and, furthermore, that the group of participants who identify as middle class but have low educational attainment behave significantly different from the other participants......This chapter reports on a questionnaire study investigating Tyneside residents’ vernacular awareness and attested language use. Participant performance is interpreted on the basis of a cross-tabulation of participants’ social class as determined by their level of education and participants’ own...

  6. Complex relationship between mismatch repair proteins and MBD4 during immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigera, Fernando; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Kenter, Amy L

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) safeguards against genomic instability and is required for efficient Ig class switch recombination (CSR). Methyl CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) binds to MutL homologue 1 (MLH1) and controls the post-transcriptional level of several MMR proteins, including MutS homologue 2 (MSH2). We show that in WT B cells activated for CSR, MBD4 is induced and interacts with MMR proteins, thereby implying a role for MBD4 in CSR. However, CSR is in the normal range in Mbd4 deficient mice deleted for exons 2-5 despite concomitant reduction of MSH2. We show by comparison in Msh2(+/-) B cells that a two-fold reduction of MSH2 and MBD4 proteins is correlated with impaired CSR. It is therefore surprising that CSR occurs at normal frequencies in the Mbd4 deficient B cells where MSH2 is reduced. We find that a variant Mbd4 transcript spanning exons 1,6-8 is expressed in Mbd4 deficient B cells. This transcript can be ectopically expressed and produces a truncated MBD4 peptide. Thus, the 3' end of the Mbd4 locus is not silent in Mbd4 deficient B cells and may contribute to CSR. Our findings highlight a complex relationship between MBD4 and MMR proteins in B cells and a potential reconsideration of their role in CSR.

  7. Barriers and facilitators to end-of-life communication in advanced chronic organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heuvel, Liza Amc; Spruit, Martijn A; Schols, Jos Mga; Hoving, Ciska; Wouters, Emiel Fm; Janssen, Daisy Ja

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this quantitative, cross-sectional study was to identify barriers and facilitators to end-of-life communication experienced by family caregivers of patients with advanced chronic organ failure and to examine agreement in barriers and facilitators between family caregivers and patients. Patients and family caregivers were interviewed using the barriers and facilitators questionnaire. Agreement was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients for continuous variables and Cohen's kappa for categorical variables. A total of 158 patients and family caregiver dyads were included. The most important barriers for family caregivers were related to uncertainty about expected care and focus on staying alive instead of dying. The facilitators were related to trust in and competence of their physician and earlier experiences with death in their (social) environment. For most barriers and facilitators, agreement between patients and family caregivers was fair to moderate. Differences in barriers and facilitators between patients and family caregivers ask for an individual approach to facilitate end-of-life communication.

  8. Cross-Cultural Pedagogy: Practical Strategies for a Successful Interprofessional Study Abroad Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru; Larimer, Susan; Riner, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses some practical strategies for designing and implementing a cross-cultural interprofessional study abroad course, including pre-departure preparation, facilitating small groups with local students, establishing a weekly theme, utilizing role-play and reflective assignments, and implementing meaningful evaluation strategies.…

  9. Subgrouping of risky behaviors among Iranian college students: a latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiri S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Saeid Safiri,1,2 Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar,3 Masud Yunesian,4,5 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,6 Mansour Shamsipour,5 Mohammad Ali Mansournia,1 Akbar Fotouhi1 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 2Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, 3Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 4Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, 5Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 6Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics & Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Risky behaviors may interrupt development or cause considerable morbidity or mortality. This study’s purpose was to determine subgroups of students based on risky behaviors and assess the prevalence of risky behaviors in each of the subgroups.Participants and methods: This anonymous cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2015 and November 2015, with 1,777 students from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, through multistage random sampling method. The data were analyzed by latent class analysis.Results: The prevalence rates of cigarette smoking (more than or equal to ten cigarettes, hookah use (≥1 time/month, and alcohol consumption (≥1 time/month during the last year were 12.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9–14.0, 11.6% (95% CI: 10.0–13.1, and 4.9% (95% CI: 3.8–5.9, respectively. The prevalence rates of illicit opioids (1.8%, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5, cannabis (1.2%, 95% CI: 0.7–1.7, methamphetamine (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–1.6, methylphenidate (2.5%, 95% CI: 1.7–3.2, and extramarital sex (5.5%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.6 over the last year were

  10. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes with ascending social class in urban South Indians is explained by obesity: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-116)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2013-01-01

    Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical.......001). A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk......AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban...

  11. Measurement of e+e-→K K ¯J /ψ cross sections at center-of-mass energies from 4.189 to 4.600 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Albrecht, M.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bakina, O.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, P. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. G.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, S.; Gu, Y. T.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Khan, T.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Koch, L.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Leiber, S.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Jin; Li, Kang; Li, Ke; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Huihui; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Ke; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Morello, G.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Papenbrock, M.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrino, J.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, J. J.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Richter, M.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, J. J.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Sowa, C.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. K.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, G. Y.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Tiemens, M.; Tsednee, B.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, Meng; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zongyuan; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, X.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Y. J.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xie, Y. H.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, Y. X.; Yang, Yifan; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhou, Y. X.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the process e+e-→K K ¯J /ψ at center-of-mass energies from 4.189 to 4.600 GeV using 4.7 fb-1 of data collected by the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider. The Born cross sections for the reactions e+e-→K+K-J /ψ and KS0KS0J /ψ are measured as a function of center-of-mass energy. The energy dependence of the cross section for e+e-→K+K-J /ψ is shown to differ from that for π+π-J /ψ in the region around the Y (4260 ). In addition, there is evidence for a structure around 4.5 GeV in the e+e-→K+K-J /ψ cross section that is not present in π+π-J /ψ .

  12. Evaluation of cross-protection of bluetongue virus serotype 4 with other serotypes in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gcwalisile B. Zulu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT is a non-contagious disease of sheep and other domestic and wild ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV. Currently 26 serotypes of the virus have been identified. In South Africa, 22 serotypes have been identified and BT is controlled mainly by annual vaccinations using a freeze-dried live attenuated polyvalent BTV vaccine. The vaccine is constituted of 15 BTV serotypes divided into three separate bottles and the aim is to develop a vaccine using fewer serotypes without compromising the immunity against the disease. This study is based on previously reported cross-neutralisation of specific BTV serotypes in in vitro studies. Bluetongue virus serotype 4 was selected for this trial and was tested for cross-protection against serotype 4 (control, 1 (unrelated serotype, 9, 10 and 11 in sheep using the serum neutralisation test. The purpose of the study was to determine possible cross-protection of different serotypes in sheep. Of those vaccinated with BTV-4 and challenged with BTV-1, which is not directly related to BTV-4, 20% were completely protected and 80% showed clinical signs, but the reaction was not as severe as amongst the unvaccinated animals. In the group challenged with BTV-10, some showed good protection and some became very sick. Those challenged with BTV-9 and BTV-11 had good protection. The results showed that BTV-4 does not only elicit a specific immune response but can also protect against other serotypes.

  13. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  14. Ligation of the Rectum with an Extracorporeal Sliding Knot Facilitating Laparoscopic Cross-Stapling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    : The extracorporeal ligation of the rectum just proximal to the cut end of the rectum before applying the linear stapling stapler facilitates the procedure and requires only a few firings of the stapler during the laparoscopic rectal resections. Results: Ten patients with a median age of 72 years underwent rectal...

  15. Heterogeneity of postpartum depression: a latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Maternal depression in the postpartum period confers substantial morbidity and mortality, but the definition of postpartum depression remains controversial. We investigated the heterogeneity of symptoms with the aim of identifying clinical subtypes of postpartum depression. Methods Data were aggregated from the international perinatal psychiatry consortium Postpartum Depression: Action Towards Causes and Treatment, which represents 19 institutions in seven countries. 17 912 unique subject records with phenotypic data were submitted. We applied latent class analyses in a two-tiered approach to assess the validity of empirically defined subtypes of postpartum depression. Tier one assessed heterogeneity in women with complete data on the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) and tier two in those with postpartum depression case status. Findings 6556 individuals were assessed in tier one and 4245 in tier two. A final model with three latent classes was optimum for both tiers. The most striking characteristics associated with postpartum depression were severity, timing of onset, comorbid anxiety, and suicidal ideation. Women in class 1 had the least severe symptoms (mean EPDS score 10·5), followed by those in class 2 (mean EPDS score 14·8) and those in class 3 (mean EPDS score 20·1). The most severe symptoms of postpartum depression were significantly associated with poor mood (mean EPDS score 20·1), increased anxiety, onset of symptoms during pregnancy, obstetric complications, and suicidal ideation. In class 2, most women (62%) reported symptom onset within 4 weeks postpartum and had more pregnancy complications than in other two classes (69% vs 67% in class 1 and 29% in class 3). Interpretation PPD seems to have several distinct phenotypes. Further assessment of PPD heterogeneity to identify more precise phenotypes will be important for future biological and genetic investigations. Funding Sources of funding are listed at the end of the

  16. Cellular Repair of DNA–DNA Cross-Links Induced by 1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N. Chesner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotic-induced interstrand DNA–DNA cross-links (ICL interfere with transcription and replication and can be converted to toxic DNA double strand breaks. In this work, we investigated cellular responses to 1,4-bis-(guan-7-yl-2,3-butanediol (bis-N7G-BD cross-links induced by 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB. High pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS assays were used to quantify the formation and repair of bis-N7G-BD cross-links in wild-type Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 and the corresponding isogenic clones V-H1 and V-H4, deficient in the XPD and FANCA genes, respectively. Both V-H1 and V-H4 cells exhibited enhanced sensitivity to DEB-induced cell death and elevated bis-N7G-BD cross-links. However, relatively modest increases of bis-N7G-BD adduct levels in V-H4 clones did not correlate with their hypersensitivity to DEB. Further, bis-N7G-BD levels were not elevated in DEB-treated human clones with defects in the XPA or FANCD2 genes. Comet assays and γ-H2AX focus analyses conducted with hamster cells revealed that ICL removal was associated with chromosomal double strand break formation, and that these breaks persisted in V-H4 cells as compared to control cells. Our findings suggest that ICL repair in cells with defects in the Fanconi anemia repair pathway is associated with aberrant re-joining of repair-induced double strand breaks, potentially resulting in lethal chromosome rearrangements.

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa ER31JA03.009...

  18. Clinical, immunological and genetic features in eleven Algerian patients with major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djidjik Réda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presenting processed antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes during the immune response involves major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. MHC class II genes transcription is regulated by four transcription factors: CIITA, RFXANK, RFX5 and RFXAP. Defects in these factors result in major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency, a primary combined immunodeficiency frequent in North Africa. Autosomal recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene have been reported as being the principal defect found in North African patients with this disorder. In this paper, we describe clinical, immunological and genetic features of 11 unrelated Algerian patients whose monocytes display a total absence of MHC class II molecules. They shared mainly the same clinical picture which included protracted diarrhoea and respiratory tract recurrent infections. Genetic analysis revealed that 9 of the 11 patients had the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26 bp deletion (named I5E6-25_I5E6+1, also known as 752delG26. Immunological and genetic findings in our series may facilitate genetic counselling implementation for Algerian consanguineous families. Further studies need to be conducted to determine 752delG26 heterozygous mutation frequency in Algerian population.

  19. Effects of In-Class Hands-On Laboratories in a Large Enrollment, Multiple Section Blended Linear Circuits Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Bonni H.; Ferri, Aldo A.; Majerich, David M.; Madden, Amanda G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of hands-on learning in an undergraduate circuits class that is taught to non-majors; i.e., students outside of electrical and computing engineering. The course, ECE3710, is taught in a blended format facilitated by the video lectures prepared for two Massive Open Online Courses developed for the Coursera Platform.…

  20. The 1.4 Å Crystal Structure of the Class D [beta]-Lactamase OXA-1 Complexed with Doripenem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Kyle D.; Karpen, Mary E.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Leonard, David A.; Powers, Rachel A.; (Grand Valley); (Case Western U.-Med)

    2010-01-12

    The clinical efficacy of carbapenem antibiotics depends on their resistance to the hydrolytic action of {beta}-lactamase enzymes. The structure of the class D {beta}-lactamase OXA-1 as an acyl complex with the carbapenem doripenem was determined to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Unlike most class A and class C carbapenem complexes, the acyl carbonyl oxygen in the OXA-1-doripenem complex is bound in the oxyanion hole. Interestingly, no water molecules were observed in the vicinity of the acyl linkage, providing an explanation for why carbapenems inhibit OXA-1. The side chain amine of K70 remains fully carboxylated in the acyl structure, and the resulting carbamate group forms a hydrogen bond to the alcohol of the 6{alpha}-hydroxyethyl moiety of doripenem. The carboxylate attached to the {beta}-lactam ring of doripenem is stabilized by a salt bridge to K212 and a hydrogen bond with T213, in lieu of the interaction with an arginine side chain found in most other {beta}-lactamase-{beta}-lactam complexes (e.g., R244 in the class A member TEM-1). This novel set of interactions with the carboxylate results in a major shift of the carbapenem's pyrroline ring compared to the structure of the same ring in meropenem bound to OXA-13. Additionally, bond angles of the pyrroline ring suggest that after acylation, doripenem adopts the {Delta}{sup 1} tautomer. These findings provide important insights into the role that carbapenems may have in the inactivation process of class D {beta}-lactamases.

  1. Put two (and two) together to make the most of physical activity and healthy nutrition - A longitudinal online study examining cross-behavioural mechanisms in multiple health behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Juliane; Lippke, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations for physical activity and for fruit and vegetable intake are often not translated into action due to deficits in self-regulatory strategies. The present study examines the interplay of intention, intergoal facilitation, action and coping planning and self-regulation in facilitating physical activity and healthy nutrition. In an online study, intentions and behaviours were assessed at baseline, intergoal facilitation and planning at 4-week follow-up, self-regulation, physical activity and nutrition at 6-month follow-up in a non-clinical sample. The final sample (n = 711) consisted of 27.2% men, the age ranged from 16 to 78 years. Sequential mediations were tested. Intergoal facilitation, planning and self-regulation mediated the link from intention to physical activity and nutrition; the specific indirect effects were significant. Findings suggest that intergoal facilitation and self-regulation can facilitate behaviour change, in addition to planning. Cross-behavioural mechanisms might facilitate lifestyle change in several domains.

  2. Active Learning with Monty Hall in a Game Theory Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Alan J.; Merz, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a game that students can play on the first day of a game theory class. The game introduces the 4 essential elements of any game and is designed so that its sequel, also played on the first day of class, has students playing the well-known Monty Hall game, which raises the question: Should you switch doors? By implementing a…

  3. Cross-reactivity between avian influenza A (H7N9) virus and divergent H7 subtypic- and heterosubtypic influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Wang, Dayan; Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Chao; Gao, Xin; Xiao, Yan; Ren, Lili; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Shu, Yuelong; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-02-24

    The number of human avian H7N9 influenza infections has been increasing in China. Understanding their antigenic and serologic relationships is crucial for developing diagnostic tools and vaccines. Here, we evaluated the cross-reactivities and neutralizing activities among H7 subtype influenza viruses and between H7N9 and heterosubtype influenza A viruses. We found strong cross-reactivities between H7N9 and divergent H7 subtypic viruses, including H7N2, H7N3, and H7N7. Antisera against H7N2, H7N3, and H7N7 could also effectively neutralize two distinct H7N9 strains. Two-way cross-reactivities exist within group 2, including H3 and H4, whereas one-way cross-reactivities were found across other groups, including H1, H10, H9, and H13. Our data indicate that the hemaglutinins from divergent H7 subtypes may facilitate the development of vaccines for distinct H7N9 infections. Moreover, serologic diagnoses for H7N9 infections need to consider possible interference from the cross-reactivity of H7N9 with other subtype influenza viruses.

  4. Cas4 Facilitates PAM-Compatible Spacer Selection during CRISPR Adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieper, Sebastian N.; Almendros, Cristóbal; Behler, Juliane; McKenzie, Rebecca E.; Nobrega, Franklin L.; Haagsma, Anna C.; Vink, Jochem N.A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Brouns, Stan J.J.

    2018-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems adapt their immunological memory against their invaders by integrating short DNA fragments into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci. While Cas1 and Cas2 make up the core machinery of the CRISPR integration process, various class I and II

  5. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2015-07-01

    Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. To identify patterns (or classes) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, conscientious food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area (N=1,201) participated in this study. Fast-food and soda consumption as well as meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. An eight-class solution was identified: "traditional shopper" (14.9%), "fresh food and supermarket shopper" (14.1%), "convenience shopper" (18.8%), "conscientious convenience shopper" (13.8%), "conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper" (11.8%), "conscientious fresh food shopper" (6.6%), "conscientious nonshopper" (10.2%), and "nonshopper" (9.8%). "Fresh food and supermarket shoppers" and "conscientious fresh food shoppers" had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar), whereas "convenience shoppers" and "conscientious convenience shoppers," and "nonshoppers" had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than "traditional shoppers." These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of healthy food shopping. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CROSS: A GDSS for the Evaluation and Prioritization of Engineering Support Requests and Advanced Technology Projects at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid; Lee, Seunghee

    1996-01-01

    Objective evaluation and prioritization of engineering support requests (ESRs) is a difficult task at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Project Engineering Office. The difficulty arises from the complexities inherent in the evaluation process and the lack of structured information. The purpose of this project is to implement the consensus ranking organizational support system (CROSS), a multiple criteria decision support system (DSS) developed at KSC that captures the decision maker's beliefs through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes. CROSS utilizes the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), subjective probabilities, entropy concept, and maximize agreement heuristic (MAH) to enhance the decision maker's intuition in evaluation ESRs. Some of the preliminary goals of the project are to: (1) revisit the structure of the ground systems working team (GWST) steering committee, (2) develop a template for ESR originators to provide more comple and consistent information to the GSWT steering committee members to eliminate the need for a facilitator, (3) develop an objective and structured process for the initial screening of ESRs, (4) extensive training of the stakeholders and the GWST steering committee to eliminate the need for a facilitator, (5) automate the process as much as possible, (6) create an environment to compile project success factor data on ESRs and move towards a disciplined system that could be used to address supportability threshold issues at the KSC, and (7) investigate the possibility of an organization-wide implementation of CROSS.

  7. Poly(4-vinylphenol) gate insulator with cross-linking using a rapid low-power microwave induction heating scheme for organic thin-film-transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Shang, Ming-Chi; Hsia, Mao-Yuan; Wang, Shea-Jue; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Lee, Win-Der

    2016-03-01

    A Microwave-Induction Heating (MIH) scheme is proposed for the poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) gate insulator cross-linking process to replace the traditional oven heating cross-linking process. The cross-linking time is significantly decreased from 1 h to 5 min by heating the metal below the PVP layer using microwave irradiation. The necessary microwave power was substantially reduced to about 50 W by decreasing the chamber pressure. The MIH scheme is a good candidate to replace traditional thermal heating for cross-linking of PVP as the gate insulator for organic thin-film-transistors.

  8. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization: A Latent Class Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2016-12-01

    Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Collaboration between Mathematics Facilitators and Preschool Teachers Using the Innovative "Senso-Math" Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassidov, Dina; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a mixed-method study of the innovative "Senso-Math" preschool program and the reactions of both the facilitators, who underwent a special training program, and the preschool teachers in whose classes the program was implemented. The goal of the program is to enhance mathematical development in preschool children…

  10. Cas4 Facilitates PAM-Compatible Spacer Selection during CRISPR Adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieper, S.N.; Almendros, Cristóbal; Behler, Juliane; McKenzie, R.E.; Luzia De Nóbrega, F.; van Eijkeren-Haagsma, A.C.; Vink, J.N.A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Brouns, S.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems adapt their immunological memory against their invaders by integrating short DNA fragments into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci. While Cas1 and Cas2 make up the core machinery of the CRISPR integration process, various class I and II

  11. Periodontal health status of transport workers of a union territory in India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent dental diseases, which affects the adult population of the world, varying only in degree from mild to severe. Transport industry is considered an important pillar for socioeconomic development of any nation. The present study was carried out to assess the periodontal health status of transport workers working in Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU buses, Chandigarh (Union territory. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all available CTU workers at all three bus depots. The data were recorded on a modified WHO format (1997. A total of 998 subjects were included for community periodontal index (CPI and attachment loss computations after doing necessary exclusions. Periodontal status was evaluated using CPI. Results: About 8.13% of the subjects had healthy periodontium while maximum subjects (73.2% had a score 2 (calculus as evaluated by CPI. 3.4% (12 of the subjects belonging to upper middle class had deep pockets as compared to 1.9% (10 of the subjects in the lower middle class. None of the subjects in the upper high, high, and upper middle socioeconomic status (SES category had a loss of attachment score 4. 25.9% of the postgraduates had a CPI score of 0 whereas 0.7% high school subjects had a loss of attachment score 4. Conclusion: Advanced periodontal disease (CPI score, 4 affected small number of subjects with maximum subjects (73% having a CPI score of 2. There was statistically significant association of SES and education level with the CPI score and loss of attachment level.

  12. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a digital...

  13. Measurement of differential (n,x{alpha}) cross section using 4{pi} gridded ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Kiyosumi, Takehide; Nauchi, Yasushi; Saito, Keiichiro; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawano, Toshihiko

    1997-03-01

    We carried out the measurements of high resolution {alpha} emission spectra of {sup 58}Ni and {sup nat}Ni between 4.5 and 6.5 MeV, and {sup 12}C(n,x{alpha}) cross section using a 4{pi} gridded ionization chamber. In Ni measurement, overall energy resolution was improved to around 200 keV by optimizing a sample thickness and a neutron source width. Measured alpha spectra showed separate peaks corresponding to the ground and low-lying excited states of the residual nucleus ({sup 55}Fe). These results were compared with another direct measurement and statistical model calculations. In {sup 12}C measurement, GIC was applied for (n,x{alpha}) reactions of light nuclei. This application is difficult to (n,x{alpha}) cross sections of light nuclei, because of the influences of large recoil energy and multi-body break-up. We developed new methods which eliminate the effects of recoil nuclei and multi-body break-up and applied them to {sup 12}C(n,x{alpha}) reaction at En=14.1 MeV. In our experiment, the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be angular differential cross section and {sup 12}C(n,n`3{alpha}) cross section were obtained. (author)

  14. Living in the city: school friendships, diversity and the middle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Neal, Sarah; Iqbal, Humera

    2018-06-01

    Much of the literature on the urban middle classes describes processes of both affiliation (often to the localities) and disaffiliation (often from some of the non-middle-class residents). In this paper, we consider this situation from a different position, drawing on research exploring whether and how children and adults living in diverse localities develop friendships with those different to themselves in terms of social class and ethnicity. This paper focuses on the interviews with the ethnically diverse, but predominantly white British, middle-class parent participants, considering their attitudes towards social and cultural difference. We emphasize the importance of highlighting inequalities that arise from social class and its intersection with ethnicity in analyses of complex urban populations. The paper's contribution is, first, to examine processes of clustering amongst the white British middle-class parents, particularly in relation to social class. Second, we contrast this process, and its moments of reflection and unease, with the more deliberate and purposeful efforts of one middle-class, Bangladeshi-origin mother who engages in active labour to facilitate relationships across social and ethnic difference. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  15. Predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptides binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class II molecules are crucial for initiation and regulation of immune responses. Predicting peptides that bind to a specific MHC molecule plays an important role in determining potential candidates for vaccines. The binding groove in class II MHC is open at both ends, allowing peptides longer than 9-mer to bind. Finding the consensus motif facilitating the binding of peptides to a MHC class II molecule is difficult because of different lengths of binding peptides and varying location of 9-mer binding core. The level of difficulty increases when the molecule is promiscuous and binds to a large number of low affinity peptides. In this paper, we propose two approaches using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA for predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. One uses the information from both binders and non-binders for self-discovery of motifs. The other, in addition, uses information from experimentally determined motifs for guided-discovery of motifs. Results The proposed methods are intended for finding peptides binding to MHC class II I-Ag7 molecule – a promiscuous binder to a large number of low affinity peptides. Cross-validation results across experiments on two motifs derived for I-Ag7 datasets demonstrate better generalization abilities and accuracies of the present method over earlier approaches. Further, the proposed method was validated and compared on two publicly available benchmark datasets: (1 an ensemble of qualitative HLA-DRB1*0401 peptide data obtained from five different sources, and (2 quantitative peptide data obtained for sixteen different alleles comprising of three mouse alleles and thirteen HLA alleles. The proposed method outperformed earlier methods on most datasets, indicating that it is well suited for finding peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. Conclusion We present two MOEA-based algorithms for finding motifs

  16. A qualitative theory guided analysis of stroke survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Sarah L; Donaghy, Marie; Johnston, Marie; Sniehotta, Falko F; van Wijck, Frederike; Johnston, Derek; Greig, Carolyn; McMurdo, Marion E T; Mead, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    After stroke, physical activity and physical fitness levels are low, impacting on health, activity and participation. It is unclear how best to support stroke survivors to increase physical activity. Little is known about the barriers and facilitators to physical activity after stroke. Thus, our aim was to explore stroke survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity. Semi-structured interviews with 13 ambulatory stroke survivors exploring perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity post stroke were conducted in participants' homes, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) informed content analysis of the interview transcripts. Data saturation was reached after interviews with 13 participants (median age of 76 years (inter-quartile range (IQR) = 69-83 years). The median time since stroke was 345 d (IQR = 316-366 d). The most commonly reported TDF domains were "beliefs about capabilities", "environmental context and resources" and "social influence". The most commonly reported perceived motivators were: social interaction, beliefs of benefits of exercise, high self-efficacy and the necessity of routine behaviours. The most commonly reported perceived barriers were: lack of professional support on discharge from hospital and follow-up, transport issues to structured classes/interventions, lack of control and negative affect. Stroke survivors perceive several different barriers and facilitators to physical activity. Stroke services need to address barriers to physical activity and to build on facilitators to promote physical activity after stroke. Physical activity post stroke can improve physical fitness and function, yet physical activity remains low among stroke survivors. Understanding stroke survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity is essential to develop targeted interventions to increase physical activity. Beliefs about capabilities, environmental

  17. Social class variation, the effect of the economic recession and childhood obesity at 3 years of age in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabakhanji, Samira Barbara; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim; Boland, Fiona; Biesma, Regien

    2017-04-01

    Many studies have reported a social class gradient within overweight prevalence ( 1-4 ). Additionally, cross-country comparisons report high overweight trends and a change in food consumption patterns in countries affected by an economic crisis ( 5-11 ). The aim of this study was to assess the association between social class and recession on obesity levels in 3-year-old Irish children. The population-based infant cohort of the national Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study was used. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were calculated and logistic regression models, adjusting for confounders, were used to examine the relationship between social class, effects of the recession and childhood obesity. In 2008, 19.5% of 9-month-olds were obese and 19.4% overweight increasing to 22.7% and 20.4%, respectively by 2011 when the infants were 3 years old (World Health Organization (WHO) criteria). The prevalence of obesity increased by 2.3% to 10.1% for various social classes (unadjusted). However, adjusting for confounders, there was no evidence of a difference in obesity of 3-year-old children across social classes. There was evidence that obesity was 22-27% higher for families who perceived a very significant crisis effect on their family, compared with those significantly affected. Increases in obesity were found to be significantly associated with perceived recession effects on the family, but not with social class. Policy makers should be aware that in times of economic downturn, public health efforts to promote healthy weight are needed at a population level rather than for specific social classes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation of pontic design and partial edentulous areas: A one year cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: By definition, pontic is an artificial replacement of missing tooth (teeth which is essentially used to establish function and esthetics. In order to this fact that, pontic(s is not completely the same as tooth (teeth to be replaced, it may not be concern as a simple type of restoration to achieve the best result, it must be design from the esthetically and hygienically point of view as well as comfort, demand and tissue health of patient. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the pontic designs and their relationship to edentulous partial aras. "nMaterials and Methods: 73 pontics in 57 patients have been included in this cross-sectional study. These patients were under treatment in the department of prosthodontics. A primary cast was achieved from each patient and then the cross-sectional contour of edentulous ridge was depicted. For each patient the type of pontic design was derived from textbook standards and then compared with the design of actual verified Prosthesis at delivery. The shape of tissue surface of each denture was determined by a low viscous impression material. The result of each comparison was recorded in a chart data set. "nResults: The most common pontic design was Modified ridge lap with frequency of 93.2%. The type of ridge was %45.2 normal, %19.2 class I, %8.2 class II and %27.4 class III, respectively. %72.6 of pontics tested have inappropriate design in tissue surface. "nConclusion: It seems that in a high percentage of cases the tissue surface contour of prescribed pontics in department of prosthodontics was incorrect and more attention must be paid to the education of students and technicians.

  19. Latent Class Analysis of Criminal Social Identity in a Prison Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boduszek Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the number of latent classes of criminal social identity that exist among male recidivistic prisoners. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogeneous groups of criminal social identity. Multinomial logistic regression was used to interpret the nature of the latent classes, or groups, by estimating the associationsto number of police arrests, recidivism, and violent offending while controlling for current age. The best fitting latent class model was a five-class solution: ‘High criminal social identity’ (17%, ‘High Centrality, Moderate Affect, Low Ties’ (21.7%, ‘Low Centrality, Moderate Affect, High Ties’ (13.3%,‘Low Cognitive, High Affect, Low Ties’ (24.6%, and ‘Low criminal social identity’ (23.4%. Each of the latent classes was predicted by differing external variables. Criminal social identity is best explained by five homogenous classes that display qualitative and quantitative differences.

  20. Establishing a course in how to facilitate journal clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faebo Larsen, Rikke; Ravnholt, Mette Moesgård; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the potentials and barriers of establishing a course in facilitating journal clubs among non-medical health professionals (NMHP). Background: NMHPs and managers had a wish to offer journal clubs. To accomplish this, there was a need of enhancingcompetences among NMHPs...... with developmental responsibility, both by education and practice in order to establish journalclub in their own department. Methods: A journal club facilitation course was offered to hospital employed NMHPs. Participants were asked to fill outquestionnaires prior to, at midterm, 4 months, and 18 months after......, course participation. At the 18-month follow-up, theirmanagers were asked to fill out questionnaires. Results are discussed in an analytic framework inspired from research onconducting journal clubs and learning transfer. Findings: After 18 months, only three journal clubs were established. Participants...

  1. Gender Discrimination as a Function of Stereotypic and Counterstereotypic Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Thalma E.; Mashraki-Pedhatzur, Sharon; Mantzur, Ahmed; Libby, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Investigated seventh graders' gender discrimination from a cross-cultural perspective. Israeli Arabs and Jews rated two hypothetical male candidates for class representative (who were generally masculine or outstandingly feminine) on their beliefs about their ability to be elected and their willingness to interact with them. Both groups…

  2. ENGEMBANGAN VIRTUAL CLASS UNTUK PEMBELAJARAN AUGMENTED REALITY BERBASIS ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifiana Arief

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Augmanted Reality for android handphone has been a trend among collage students of computer department who join New Media course. To develop this application, the knowladge about visual presentation theory and case study of Augmanted Reality on android phoneneed to be conducted. Learning media through virtual class can facilitate the students’ needs in learning and developing Augmanted Reality. The method of this study in developing virtual class for Augmented Reality learning were: a having preparation to arrange learning unit, b analyzing and developing the content of learning materials, c designing storyboard or scenario of the virtual class, d making website of virtual class, e implementing the website as facility of online learning for Augmanted Reality. The available facilities in virtual class were to check learning units, to choose and download the material in the forms of e-book and presentation slides, to open the relevant website link for material enrichment as well as students’ practice with pre-test and post-test for measuring students’ understanding. By implementing virtual class for Augmanted Reality learning based Android, it is expected to provide alternative learning strategies for students that are interesting and easy to understand. The students are expected to be able to utilize this facility optimally in order to achieve the purposes of learning process and graduates’ competence. Keywords: VirtualClass, Augmented Reality (AR

  3. Development of JFH1-based cell culture systems for hepatitis C virus genotype 4a and evidence for cross-genotype neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Gottwein, Judith Margarete; Jensen, Tina Birk

    2008-01-01

    in serial passages. Sequence analysis of recovered viruses and subsequent reverse genetic studies revealed a vital dependence on one or two NS2 mutations, depending on the 4a/2a junction. Infectivity of ED43/JFH1 viruses was CD81 dependent. The genotype 4 cell culture systems permit functional analyses...... as well as drug and vaccine research on an increasingly important genotype in the Middle East, Africa, and Europe. We also developed genotype 1a intergenotypic recombinants from H77C with vital mutations in NS3. Using H77C/JFH1 and ED43/JFH1 viruses, we demonstrated high homologous neutralizing antibody...... titers in 1a and 4a patient sera, respectively. Furthermore, availability of JFH1 viruses with envelope proteins of the six major HCV genotypes permitted cross-neutralization studies; 1a and 4a serum cross-neutralized 1a, 4a, 5a, and 6a but not 2a and 3a viruses. Thus, the JFH1 intergenotypic...

  4. K,L X-rays production cross sections for 1H and 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitz, C.; Costa, G.J.; Cailleret, J.; Lagarde, G.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental X-ray production cross sections are tabulated for 1 H and 4 He projectiles. In the case of K X-rays, a comparison with theoretical values is also performed in view of applications, such a PIXE analysis [fr

  5. MULTI-STRUCTURAL CLASS: WHAT AND HOW IT IS PERCEIVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mina Tamah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The perception of “students’ learning which equals students’ being given knowledge” has brought about the theatrical mode of classroom instruction which is typically characterized by whole-class presentational techniques in which teachers perform most of the talking in order to transferthe knowledge to the students. Since this mode was ‘attacked’ quite relentlessly,teachers have been continually challenged to make a professionalchange. The professional demand is fortunately facilitated by the existence of innovations in teaching approaches, one of which is cooperative learning. Argued implicitly and/or explicitly in some references (e.g. Kagan et al., 1985; Kaye & Rogers, 1968; Sharan, 1994; Slavin, 1994; Tinzmann et al.,1990 is that it is not a good idea to rely on the exclusive use of cooperative classroom. This article is then intended to provide a model of multistructural class design. It is in fact the exemplification of what the writer has implemented in her reading class of university students. Simply stated, the class which is designed to be multistructural will be depicted and the students’ perception will, too.

  6. Cross-impact method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzić Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper displays the application of the Cross-Impact method in pedagogy, namely a methodological approach which crosses variables in a novel, but statistically justified manner. The method is an innovation in pedagogy as well as in research methodology of social and psychological phenomena. Specifically, events and processes are crossed, that is, experts' predictions of about future interaction of events and processes. Therefore, this methodology is futuristic; it concerns predicting future, which is of key importance for pedagogic objectives. The paper presents two instances of the cross-impact approach: the longer, displayed in fourteen steps, and the shorter, in four steps. They are both accompanied with mathematic and statistical formulae allowing for quantification, that is, a numerical expression of the probability of a certain event happening in the future. The advantage of this approach is that it facilitates planning in education which so far has been solely based on lay estimates and assumptions.

  7. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.

    2010-06-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)

  8. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Z. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)

  9. Molecule-Level g-C3N4 Coordinated Transition Metals as a New Class of Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Electrode Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao

    2017-02-21

    Organometallic complexes with metal-nitrogen/carbon (M-N/C) coordination are the most important alternatives to precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in energy conversion devices. Here, we designed and developed a range of molecule-level graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) coordinated transition metals (M-C3N4) as a new generation of M-N/C catalysts for these oxygen electrode reactions. As a proof-of-concept example, we conducted theoretical evaluation and experimental validation on a cobalt-C3N4 catalyst with a desired molecular configuration, which possesses comparable electrocatalytic activity to that of precious metal benchmarks for the ORR and OER in alkaline media. The correlation of experimental and computational results confirms that this high activity originates from the precise M-N2 coordination in the g-C3N4 matrix. Moreover, the reversible ORR/OER activity trend for a wide variety of M-C3N4 complexes has been constructed to provide guidance for the molecular design of this promising class of catalysts.

  10. SFERXS, Photoabsorption, Coherent, Incoherent Scattering Cross-Sections Function for Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Mtz de la Fuente, O.; Herranz, M.

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: The use of electromagnetic radiation cross-sections in radiation shielding calculations and more generally in transport theory applications actually requires an interpolation between values which are tabulated for certain values of the energy. In order to facilitate this process and to reduce the computer memory requirements, we have developed, by a least squares method, a set of functions which represents the cross-sections for the photoelectric absorption, the coherent (Rayleigh) and the incoherent (Compton) scattering (1). For this purpose we have accepted as true values the ones tabulated by Storm and Israel (2) for the photoeffect, by Hubbell et Al. (3) for the incoherent scattering and by Hubbell and Overbo (4) for the coherent scattering

  11. SCAMPI: A code package for cross-section processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Bowman, S.M.; Broadhead, B.L.; Greene, N.M.; White, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The SCAMPI code package consists of a set of SCALE and AMPX modules that have been assembled to facilitate user needs for preparation of problem-specific, multigroup cross-section libraries. The function of each module contained in the SCANTI code package is discussed, along with illustrations of their use in practical analyses. Ideas are presented for future work that can enable one-step processing from a fine-group, problem-independent library to a broad-group, problem-specific library ready for a shielding analysis

  12. SCAMPI: A code package for cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Bowman, S.M.; Broadhead, B.L.; Greene, N.M.; White, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    The SCAMPI code package consists of a set of SCALE and AMPX modules that have been assembled to facilitate user needs for preparation of problem-specific, multigroup cross-section libraries. The function of each module contained in the SCANTI code package is discussed, along with illustrations of their use in practical analyses. Ideas are presented for future work that can enable one-step processing from a fine-group, problem-independent library to a broad-group, problem-specific library ready for a shielding analysis.

  13. A roentgenocephalometric study on the condylar displacement in angle's class I and III malocclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Seo

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to know correlation of mean values between centric occlusion and centric relation by the cephalogram in Angle's Class I and III malocclusion subjects. 22 adults with Angle's Class I malocclusion (17 men and 5 women, 21 to 27 years of age) and 14 adult with Angle's class III malocclusion (10 men and 4 women, 21 to 27 years of age) were selected form the dental students in Yonsei University. Each subject was given two lateral cephalometric radiographics and cephalometric analysis was performed. All data form these analyses was recorded and statistically processed with CYBER computer system. The results were obtained as follows: 1. There was a strong positive correlation between centric occlusion and centric relation in all subjects with Angle's Class I and III malocclusion. 2. In Angle's Class I malocclusion, measurements in lower facial height revealed significant difference between centric occlusion and centric relation (p<0.05). 3.When the mandible was movement was 1.27 mm (0.2-2.8 mm) in Angle's Class I malocclusion, 1.70 mm(0.55-4.15 mm) in Angle's Class III malocclusion, and 1.44 mm (0.2- 4.15 mm) in all subjects.

  14. A Class-Specific Optimizing Compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Sharp

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Class-specific optimizations are compiler optimizations specified by the class implementor to the compiler. They allow the compiler to take advantage of the semantics of the particular class so as to produce better code. Optimizations of interest include the strength reduction of class:: array address calculations, elimination of large temporaries, and the placement of asynchronous send/recv calls so as to achieve computation/communication overlap. We will outline our progress towards the implementation of a C++ compiler capable of incorporating class-specific optimizations.

  15. CLASS Reliability Training as Professional Development for Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casbergue, Renée M.; Bedford, April Whatley; Burstein, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Use of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) is increasing across the United States as an important indicator of the quality of programs for young children. Professional development is required to facilitate teachers' understanding of the instructional behaviors upon which they will be judged. This study investigated the use of the…

  16. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: active and motivated students, strained facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats

    2008-12-02

    Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator

  17. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: Active and motivated students, strained facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Ronny

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70% and 15 facilitators (71% completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early

  18. Geometrical aspects of reaction cross sections for {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemarsson, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences; Lantz, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). The Svedberg Laboratory

    2003-04-01

    A black-disc model combined with accurate matter densities has been used for an investigation of reaction cross sections for {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C projectiles. A simple relation is derived between the energy dependence of the reaction cross sections and the strength of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. A comparison is also made of the reaction cross sections for {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He for six different nuclei {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 58,60}Ni and {sup 208}Pb.

  19. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-0531; Airspace Docket No. 13-ANM-20] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal... at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Salt Lake...

  20. Measurements of fission cross-sections. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The steps involved in the measurement of fission cross sections are summarized and the range of techniques available are considered. Methods of fission detection are described with particular emphasis on the neutron energy dependent properties of the fission process and the details of fragment energy loss which can lead to energy-dependent changes in detector efficiency. Selected examples of fission cross-section measurements are presented and methods of data reduction, storage, analysis and evaluation, are examined. Finally requested accuracies for fission cross section data are compared to estimated available accuracies. (U.K.)

  1. Arc4nix: A cross-platform geospatial analytical library for cluster and cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingyin; Matyas, Corene J.

    2018-02-01

    Big Data in geospatial technology is a grand challenge for processing capacity. The ability to use a GIS for geospatial analysis on Cloud Computing and High Performance Computing (HPC) clusters has emerged as a new approach to provide feasible solutions. However, users lack the ability to migrate existing research tools to a Cloud Computing or HPC-based environment because of the incompatibility of the market-dominating ArcGIS software stack and Linux operating system. This manuscript details a cross-platform geospatial library "arc4nix" to bridge this gap. Arc4nix provides an application programming interface compatible with ArcGIS and its Python library "arcpy". Arc4nix uses a decoupled client-server architecture that permits geospatial analytical functions to run on the remote server and other functions to run on the native Python environment. It uses functional programming and meta-programming language to dynamically construct Python codes containing actual geospatial calculations, send them to a server and retrieve results. Arc4nix allows users to employ their arcpy-based script in a Cloud Computing and HPC environment with minimal or no modification. It also supports parallelizing tasks using multiple CPU cores and nodes for large-scale analyses. A case study of geospatial processing of a numerical weather model's output shows that arcpy scales linearly in a distributed environment. Arc4nix is open-source software.

  2. Talking about Birth Control in 1877: Gender, Class, and Ideology in the Knowlton Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Flore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the debate around widening access to birth control information in the late nineteenth century through a case study of Annie Besant’s participation in the 1877 Knowlton Trial. Examining Besant’s rhetoric at the trial and in related publications, it highlights the public and performative nature of her campaign to facilitate access to birth control information for working-class married couples. With reference to the representation of issues of gender and social class and the shifting focus from the private to the public in Besant’s rhetoric, the article argues that the late nineteenth-century debate around birth control access was a middle-class debate about working-class life and experience.

  3. C4P cross-section libraries for safety analyses with SIMMER and related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rineiski, A.; Sinitsa, V.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.

    2011-01-01

    A code and data system, C 4 P, is under development at KIT. It includes fine-group master libraries and tools for generating problem-oriented cross-section libraries, primarily for safety studies with the SIMMER code and related analyses. In the paper, the 560-group master library and problem oriented 40-group and 72-group cross-section libraries, for thermal and fast systems, respectively, are described and their performances are investigated. (author)

  4. Poly(4-vinylphenol gate insulator with cross-linking using a rapid low-power microwave induction heating scheme for organic thin-film-transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Microwave-Induction Heating (MIH scheme is proposed for the poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP gate insulator cross-linking process to replace the traditional oven heating cross-linking process. The cross-linking time is significantly decreased from 1 h to 5 min by heating the metal below the PVP layer using microwave irradiation. The necessary microwave power was substantially reduced to about 50 W by decreasing the chamber pressure. The MIH scheme is a good candidate to replace traditional thermal heating for cross-linking of PVP as the gate insulator for organic thin-film-transistors.

  5. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Selby, Talitha M; Meloni, Giovanni; Fan, Haiyan; Pratt, Stephen T

    2008-10-02

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH3 photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; sigma(CH3)(10.2 eV) = (5.7 +/- 0.9) x 10(-18) cm(2) and sigma(CH3)(11.0 eV) = (6.0 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2). The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH3 and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.460 eV, (5.5 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  6. What strategies do ulcerative colitis patients employ to facilitate adherence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakami A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aki Kawakami,1,2 Makoto Tanaka,3 Makoto Naganuma,4 Shin Maeda,5 Reiko Kunisaki,1 Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani2 1Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Japan; 2Department of Gerontological Home Care and Long-term Care Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Gastroenterology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan Background: Overall, 30%–45% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC are non-adherent and have difficulties taking their medications; this non-adherence increases the risk of clinical relapse 1.4- to 5.5-fold. This study aimed to clarify the strategies patients employ to facilitate adherence and determine whether the strategies had an impact on good adherence.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire and review of medical records. Patients diagnosed as having UC and attending one of the outpatient clinics of four urban hospitals from June 2009 to December 2012 were enrolled. A questionnaire was developed to identify the strategies patients employ to facilitate adherence and then administered to patients with UC. Adherence to 5-aminosalicylic acid was calculated, and univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the strategies that were associated with good adherence.Results: The final analyses included 671 participants (mean age 40.2 years; 54.3% males. The valid response rate was 96.9%; 186 (27.7% participants were classified as non-adherent, the mean adherence rate being 86.1% (standard deviation [SD] 17.9. Seven strategies that patients employ to facilitate adherence were identified, the

  7. Design and 4D Printing of Cross-Folded Origami Structures: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Ee Mei Teoh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 4D printing research, different types of complex structure folding and unfolding have been investigated. However, research on cross-folding of origami structures (defined as a folding structure with at least two overlapping folds has not been reported. This research focuses on the investigation of cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thickness with single homogeneous material. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the impact of multi-material components and horizontal hinge thickness. In the case of multi-material structures, the hybrid material composition has a significant impact on the overall maximum strain and Young’s modulus properties. In the case of single material structures, the shape recovery speed is inversely proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness, while the flexural or bending strength is proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness. A hinge with a thickness of 0.5 mm could be folded three times prior to fracture whilst a hinge with a thickness of 0.3 mm could be folded only once prior to fracture. A hinge with a thickness of 0.1 mm could not even be folded without cracking. The introduction of a physical hole in the center of the folding/unfolding line provided stress relief and prevented fracture. A complex flower petal shape was used to successfully demonstrate the implementation of overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines using both single material segments and multi-material segments. Design guidelines for establishing cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thicknesses with single or homogeneous material were established. These guidelines can be used to design and implement complex origami structures with overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines. Combined overlapping folding structures could be implemented and allocating specific hole locations in the overall

  8. Design and 4D Printing of Cross-Folded Origami Structures: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Joanne Ee Mei; An, Jia; Feng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Yue; Chua, Chee Kai; Liu, Yong

    2018-03-03

    In 4D printing research, different types of complex structure folding and unfolding have been investigated. However, research on cross-folding of origami structures (defined as a folding structure with at least two overlapping folds) has not been reported. This research focuses on the investigation of cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thickness with single homogeneous material. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the impact of multi-material components and horizontal hinge thickness. In the case of multi-material structures, the hybrid material composition has a significant impact on the overall maximum strain and Young's modulus properties. In the case of single material structures, the shape recovery speed is inversely proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness, while the flexural or bending strength is proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness. A hinge with a thickness of 0.5 mm could be folded three times prior to fracture whilst a hinge with a thickness of 0.3 mm could be folded only once prior to fracture. A hinge with a thickness of 0.1 mm could not even be folded without cracking. The introduction of a physical hole in the center of the folding/unfolding line provided stress relief and prevented fracture. A complex flower petal shape was used to successfully demonstrate the implementation of overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines using both single material segments and multi-material segments. Design guidelines for establishing cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thicknesses with single or homogeneous material were established. These guidelines can be used to design and implement complex origami structures with overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines. Combined overlapping folding structures could be implemented and allocating specific hole locations in the overall designs could be

  9. Design and 4D Printing of Cross-Folded Origami Structures: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Joanne Ee Mei; Feng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    In 4D printing research, different types of complex structure folding and unfolding have been investigated. However, research on cross-folding of origami structures (defined as a folding structure with at least two overlapping folds) has not been reported. This research focuses on the investigation of cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thickness with single homogeneous material. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the impact of multi-material components and horizontal hinge thickness. In the case of multi-material structures, the hybrid material composition has a significant impact on the overall maximum strain and Young’s modulus properties. In the case of single material structures, the shape recovery speed is inversely proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness, while the flexural or bending strength is proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness. A hinge with a thickness of 0.5 mm could be folded three times prior to fracture whilst a hinge with a thickness of 0.3 mm could be folded only once prior to fracture. A hinge with a thickness of 0.1 mm could not even be folded without cracking. The introduction of a physical hole in the center of the folding/unfolding line provided stress relief and prevented fracture. A complex flower petal shape was used to successfully demonstrate the implementation of overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines using both single material segments and multi-material segments. Design guidelines for establishing cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thicknesses with single or homogeneous material were established. These guidelines can be used to design and implement complex origami structures with overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines. Combined overlapping folding structures could be implemented and allocating specific hole locations in the overall designs could be

  10. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (pmiddle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles.

  11. Academic status of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in public schools: student, home, and service facilitators and detractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susanne; Antia, Shirin D; Kreimeyer, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    We examined facilitators and detractors of academic success of 25 deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) students selected from a pool of 187 students attending general education classes and enrolled in a study of academic progress. Interviews with their teachers of DHH, general education teachers, principals, parents, interpreters, and students themselves were analyzed for child, family, and school facilitators and detractors of academic status. Facilitators included student self-advocacy and motivation, high family and school expectations, families' ability to help with homework, and good communication between professionals. Detractors included additional disabilities and poor family-school communication. A comparison of above- and below-average students revealed no single distinguishing facilitator or detractor. Each above-average student had many facilitators, whereas each below-average student had several significant detractors.

  12. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence for increased glutamatergic cortical facilitation in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croarkin, Paul E; Nakonezny, Paul A; Husain, Mustafa M; Melton, Tabatha; Buyukdura, Jeylan S; Kennard, Betsy D; Emslie, Graham J; Kozel, F Andrew; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2013-03-01

    Converging lines of evidence implicate the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Transcranial magnetic stimulation cortical excitability and inhibition paradigms have been used to assess cortical glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated tone in adults with major depressive disorder, but not in children and adolescents. To compare measures of cortical excitability and inhibition with 4 different paradigms in a group of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder vs healthy controls. Cross-sectional study examining medication-free children and adolescents (aged 9-17 years) with major depressive disorder compared with healthy controls. Cortical excitability was assessed with motor threshold and intracortical facilitation measures. Cortical inhibition was measured with cortical silent period and intracortical inhibition paradigms. University-based child and adolescent psychiatry clinic and neurostimulation laboratory. Twenty-four participants with major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Patients with major depressive disorder were medication naive and had moderate to severe symptoms based on an evaluation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and scores on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Motor threshold, intracortical facilitation, cortical silent period, and intracortical inhibition. Compared with healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly increased intracortical facilitation at interstimulus intervals of 10 and 15 milliseconds bilaterally. There were no significant group differences in cortical inhibition measures. These findings suggest that major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is associated with increased intracortical facilitation and excessive glutamatergic activity.

  14. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P

    1991-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have been implicated in cell adhesion in two ways. In addition to the well-established role of class II antigens in low-affinity adhesion provided by interactions between class II and CD4, recent data indicated that class II may also induce...... adhesion between T and B cells by activating the CD18/CD11a (LFA-1) adhesion pathway. Here we report that monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against HLA-DR (L243, p4.1, HB10a, VI15) and certain broad class II reacting mAb (TU35, TU39), but not anti-DQ (TU22, Leu-10) mAb, induced homotypic aggregation of human...... class II-positive monocytic (I937) and T leukemic (HUT78) tumor cell lines and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B-lymphoid cell lines (EBV-LCL). Class II-negative cell lines (U-937 and the EBV-LCL mutant line 616) were not induced to aggregate. An HLA-G-transfected EBV-LCL, 221-AGN...

  15. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed on...

  16. Concurrent Development of Endurance Capacity and Explosiveness: Training Characteristics of World-Class Nordic-Combined Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnessen, Espen; Rasdal, Vegard; Svendsen, Ida S; Haugen, Thomas A; Hem, Erlend; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2016-07-01

    Performing at an elite level in Nordic combined (NC) requires both the explosiveness required for ski jumping performance and the endurance capacity required for cross-country skiing. To describe the characteristics of world-class NC athletes' training and determine how endurance and non-endurance (ie, strength, power, and ski jumping) training is periodized. Annual training characteristics and the periodization of endurance and non-endurance training were determined by analyzing the training diaries of 6 world-class NC athletes. Of 846 ± 72 annual training hours, 540 ± 37 h were endurance training, with 88.6% being low-, 5.9% moderate-, and 5.5% high-intensity training. While training frequency remained relatively constant, the total training volume was reduced from the general preparatory to the competition phase, primarily due to less low- and moderate-intensity training (P ski-jump-specific training (908 ± 165 ski jumps and ski-jump imitations). The proportion of non-endurance training increased significantly toward the competition phase (P ski-jump training. These data provide novel insight on how successful athletes execute their training and may facilitate more-precise coaching of future athletes in this sport. In addition, this information is of high relevance for the training organization of other sports that require optimization of 2 fundamentally different physical capacities.

  17. A case study of blended learning in a secondary biotechnology class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jacqueline

    An increase in the use of technology in high schools, coupled with the need to facilitate the development of 21st century skills in our students, give us opportunity and impetus to examine the use of blended learning. This study provides important insight into how blended learning translates into the secondary school environment. For the purpose of this study, blended learning is defined by Staker & Horn (2012) as a formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through online delivery of content and instruction with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace and at least in part at a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home. (p. 4) This descriptive single case study used qualitative analyses in an effort to answer the research questions, What are the experiences of secondary students when blended learning methods are introduced in a Biotechnology I class and how might these impact (a) the cognitive complexity of the course, (b) the level of choice students perceive they have, (c) the amount of time spent on working with the content, (d) student and teacher perceptions of blended learning, and (e) overall student achievement. Additionally, the impact of a learning-centered approach was explored. Data was gathered through teacher interviews, student interviews, classroom observations, student work, including formative and summative assignments, exit slips, surveys, and grades. Keywords: blended learning, cognitive complexity, learning-centered

  18. A Touch of...Class!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Joan W., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of ideas for class activities in elementary and secondary language classes includes a vocabulary review exercise and games of memory, counting, vocabulary, flashcard tic-tac-toe, dice, trashcans, questioning, and spelling. Some are designed specifically for French. (MSE)

  19. The Lyssavirus glycoprotein: A key to cross-immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buthelezi, Sindisiwe G; Dirr, Heini W; Chakauya, Ereck; Chikwamba, Rachel; Martens, Lennart; Tsekoa, Tsepo L; Stoychev, Stoyan H; Vandermarliere, Elien

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation. This information was mapped on the structure of a representative G protein. We proposed several possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes (GUVTTTF, WLRTV, REECLD and EHLVVEEL) in complement to the already well-characterized antigenic sites. The research could facilitate development of novel cross-reactive mAbs against RABV and even more broad, against possibly all Lyssavirus members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-02-27

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation.

  1. Statistical Model Analysis of (n, α Cross Sections for 4.0-6.5 MeV Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuukhenkhuu G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical model based on the Weisskopf-Ewing theory and constant nuclear temperature approximation is used for systematical analysis of the 4.0-6.5 MeV neutron induced (n, α reaction cross sections. The α-clusterization effect was considered in the (n, α cross sections. A certain dependence of the (n, α cross sections on the relative neutron excess parameter of the target nuclei was observed. The systematic regularity of the (n, α cross sections behaviour is useful to estimate the same reaction cross sections for unstable isotopes. The results of our analysis can be used for nuclear astrophysical calculations such as helium burning and possible branching in the s-process.

  2. Aquaporin-4 facilitator TGN-073 promotes interstitial fluid circulation within the blood-brain barrier: [17O]H2O JJVCPE MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Vincent J; Igarashi, Hironaka; Ueki, Satoshi; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2018-06-13

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which imposes significant water permeability restriction, effectively isolates the brain from the systemic circulation. Seemingly paradoxical, the abundance of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) on the inside of the BBB strongly indicates the presence of unique water dynamics essential for brain function. On the basis of the highly specific localization of AQP-4, namely, astrocyte end feet at the glia limitans externa and pericapillary Virchow-Robin space, we hypothesized that the AQP-4 system serves as an interstitial fluid circulator, moving interstitial fluid from the glia limitans externa to pericapillary Virchow-Robin space to ensure proper glymphatic flow draining into the cerebrospinal fluid. The hypothesis was tested directly using the AQP-4 facilitator TGN-073 developed in our laboratory, and [O]H2O JJ vicinal coupling proton exchange MRI, a method capable of tracing water molecules delivered into the blood circulation. The results unambiguously showed that facilitation of AQP-4 by TGN-073 increased turnover of interstitial fluid through the system, resulting in a significant reduction in [O]H2O contents of cortex with normal flux into the cerebrospinal fluid. The study further suggested that in addition to providing the necessary water for proper glymphatic flow, the AQP-4 system produces a water gradient within the interstitial space promoting circulation of interstitial fluid within the BBB.

  3. Molecule@MOF: A New Class of Opto-electronic Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talin, Albert Alec [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Reese E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spataru, Dan Catalin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leonard, Francois Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); He, Yuping [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foster, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allendorf, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavila, Vitalie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hopkins, Patrick E. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are extended, nanoporous crystalline compounds consisting of metal ions interconnected by organic ligands. Their synthetic versatility suggest a disruptive class of opto - electronic materials with a high degree of electrical tunability and without the property - degrading disorder of organic conductors. In this project we determined the factors controlling charge and energy transport in MOFs and evaluated their potential for thermoelectric energy conversion. Two strategies for a chieving electronic conductivity in MOFs were explored: 1) using redox active 'guest' molecules introduced into the pores to dope the framework via charge - transfer coupling (Guest@MOF), 2) metal organic graphene analogs (MOGs) with dispersive band structur es arising from strong electronic overlap between the MOG metal ions and its coordinating linker groups. Inkjet deposition methods were developed to facilitate integration of the guest@MOF and MOG materials into practical devices.

  4. Calculation of the photoionization cross section of the 4d10 subshell of the La atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Sheftel, S.I.

    1976-01-01

    The photoionization cross section of 4d 10 subshell of La atom is calculated. The cross section curve near its threshold is strongly modified by rearrangement of outer shells in the process of photoionization. (Auth.)

  5. Policy reconciliation for access control in dynamic cross-enterprise collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuveneers, D.; Joosen, W.; Ilie-Zudor, E.

    2018-03-01

    In dynamic cross-enterprise collaborations, different enterprises form a - possibly temporary - business relationship. To integrate their business processes, enterprises may need to grant each other limited access to their information systems. Authentication and authorization are key to secure information handling. However, access control policies often rely on non-standardized attributes to describe the roles and permissions of their employees which convolutes cross-organizational authorization when business relationships evolve quickly. Our framework addresses the managerial overhead of continuous updates to access control policies for enterprise information systems to accommodate disparate attribute usage. By inferring attribute relationships, our framework facilitates attribute and policy reconciliation, and automatically aligns dynamic entitlements during the evaluation of authorization decisions. We validate our framework with a Industry 4.0 motivating scenario on networked production where such dynamic cross-enterprise collaborations are quintessential. The evaluation reveals the capabilities and performance of our framework, and illustrates the feasibility of liberating the security administrator from manually provisioning and aligning attributes, and verifying the consistency of access control policies for cross-enterprise collaborations.

  6. The Positive Effect of Realia in EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways generated by the linguists to teach the language items in EFL classroom; however, bringing ̳realia‘ into the classroom is one of the most effective ways to create an enjoyable class atmosphere and acquire the target language efficiently. Especially, low-level students may suffer from obtaining what teacher presents because they have no chance to synthesize what they learn in the class with real life situations. Using real objects and materials gives students opportunity to experience real life in the class atmosphere and this may facilitate and accelerate their learning process. Accordingly, using visuals stimulates students to maintain studying on the language because practicing the topic with visuals assists students to get involved in more powerful learning. This study illustrates an investigation based on a 20-question exam paper whether getting support from realia augments the students‘ success in the examination or not. Two elementary-level EFL classes took part in this project. Looking at the results, the students who were taught with realia showed more success compared to the others who were not taught with visuals during teaching.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance and Carriage Integron Classes in Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter Baumannii from Isfahan Hospitals, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Nourbakhsh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant nosocomial pathogen around the world, especially in the intensive care unit that most A. baumannii infections are caused by the outbreak strains. Objectives This study has been performed in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, aimed to detect integron classes I, II, III and molecular typing of A. baumannii genes. Methods In this Cross-sectional study, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from 150 patients in Isfahan hospitals then antibiotic resistance pattern was determined by disk diffusion method (Kirby Bauer. The presence of genes coding in antibiotic resistance and integrons class I, II, III were analyzed by using of M-PCR method. The data were analyzed by Chi-square, Fischer’s test and SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Antibiotic resistance pattern for Acinetobacter baumannii show that the high resistance was for ciprofloxacin with frequency of 98.3%, ceftazidime with 89.4%, and tetracycline with frequency of 87.3%. The most sensitive antibiotics were chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin with frequency of 3.5% and 3.2% resistance. The detection of dfrA1 (63.7%, sul1 (68.6%, aac (3-IV (54.4%, tet (B (22.4%, tet (A (78.3%, aadA1 (15.4%, CITM (17. %, vim (12.2%, Qnr (17.1%, blaSHV (19.8%, sim (7.8%, Oxa-24-like (13.2%, Oxa-51-like (11.9%, Oxa-58-like (39.4%, Oxa-23-like (12.6%, imp (9.2%, cmlA (19% and cat1 (8.6% were respectively reported too. Also in this study Frequency of integrons class 1, 2, 3 were (100%, (28%, (6.6% respectively. Conclusions High prevalence of integrons among Acinetobater baumannii isolated from Isfahan hospitals indicate the importance role of integron classes in multidrug resistance. Considering the increasing pattern of MDR infections is one of the important issues of treatment which can be effective strategy for curing.

  8. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  9. Academic Globalization: Universality of Cross-Cultural And Cross-Disciplinary LMR Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szabo White

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper suggests that previous research underscoring cross-cultural differences may be misleading, when in fact it is cross-professional rather than cross-cultural differences that should be emphasized. Employing the LMR framework, this paper concludes that business or non-business predisposition has a more direct impact on one's individual cultural profile than does nationality. Regardless of culture, persons involved in business are characterized primarily by linear-active modes of communication, and persons not involved in business typically employ less linear and more multi-active/hybrid modes of communication. The linkages among individual characteristics, communication styles, work behaviors, and the extent to which the LMR constructs can facilitate and predict leadership, negotiating styles, individual behaviors, etc. are central to academic globalization and preparing global business leaders.

  10. A combined crossed molecular beams and theoretical study of the reaction CN + C{sub 2}H{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balucani, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.balucani@unipg.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Leonori, Francesca; Petrucci, Raffaele [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Wang, Xingan [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Casavecchia, Piergiorgio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Skouteris, Dimitrios [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Albernaz, Alessandra F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília (Brazil); Gargano, Ricardo [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília (Brazil); Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Quantum Theory Project, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • The CN + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} reaction was investigated in crossed beam experiments. • Electronic structure calculations of the potential energy surface were performed. • RRKM estimates qualitatively reproduce the experimental C{sub 2}H{sub 3}NC yield. - Abstract: The CN + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} reaction has been investigated experimentally, in crossed molecular beam (CMB) experiments at the collision energy of 33.4 kJ/mol, and theoretically, by electronic structure calculations of the relevant potential energy surface and Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) estimates of the product branching ratio. Differently from previous CMB experiments at lower collision energies, but similarly to a high energy study, we have some indication that a second reaction channel is open at this collision energy, the characteristics of which are consistent with the channel leading to CH{sub 2}CHNC + H. The RRKM estimates using M06L electronic structure calculations qualitatively support the experimental observation of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}NC formation at this and at the higher collision energy of 42.7 kJ/mol of previous experiments.

  11. A large class of new gravitational and axionic backgrounds for four-dimensional superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, Elias B; Lüst, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    A large class of new 4-D superstring vacua with non-trivial/singular geometries, spacetime supersymmetry and other background fields (axion, dilaton) are found. Killing symmetries are generic and are associated with non-trivial dilaton and antisymmetric tensor fields. Duality symmetries preserving N=2 superconformal invariance are employed to generate a large class of explicit metrics for non-compact 4-D Calabi-Yau manifolds with Killing symmetries.

  12. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  13. Role of TiF4 in Microleakage of Silorane and Methacrylate-based Composite Resins in Class V Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohpeima, Fatemeh; Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Jowkar, Zahra; Ahmadzadeh, Samaneh; Mokhtari, Mohammad Javad; Azarian, Babak

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of TiF4 solution pretreat-ment on microleakage of silorane and nanofilled methacrylate-based composites in class V cavities. Forty-eight intact premolar teeth were randomly allocated to four groups of 12 teeth. Restorative techniques after standard class V tooth preparations were as follows: Group 1, Filtek P90 composite; group 2, Filtek Z350 XT; group 3, TiF4 solution pretreatment and Filtek P90 composite; group 4, TiF4 solution pretreatment and Filtek Z350 XT. After storing the specimens in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and followed by immersion of the specimens in a 0.5% basic-fuchsin solution for 24 hours, they were sectioned buccolingually to obtain four surfaces for each specimen for analysis of microleakage using a stereomicroscope. Data analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the four groups and the Mann-Whitney test for paired comparisons with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 software. At the enamel margins, microleakage score of the Filtek Z350 XT group was lower than those of the Filtek P90 with and without the application of the TiF4 (p = 0.009 and p = 0.031 respectively). At the dentin margins, groups 3 and 4 (TiF4+Filtek P90 and TiF4+Filtek z350 XT respectively) showed significantly lower microleakage than group 1 (Filtek P90). However, there was no significant difference between other groups (p > 0.05). At the enamel margins, microleakage score of the silorane-based composite was more than that of the nanofilled composite. No significant differences were observed between the other groups. At the dentin margins, for the silorane-based composite restorations, TiF4 solution pretreatment resulted in significantly lower microleakage. However, the similar result was not observed for Filtek Z350 XT. Also, no significant difference was observed between microleakage scores of Filtek P90 and Filtek Z350 XT with or without TiF4 pretreatment. In spite of better mechanical

  14. Cross-modal priming facilitates production of low imageability word strings in a case of deep-phonological dysphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mary Mccarthy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Characteristics of repetition in deep-phonological dysphasia include an inability to repeat nonwords, semantic errors in single word repetition (deep dysphasia and in multiple word repetition (phonological dysphasia and better repetition of highly imageable words (Wilshire & Fisher, 2004; Ablinger et al., 2008. Additionally, visual processing of words is often more accurate than auditory processing of words (Howard & Franklin, 1988. We report a case study of LT who incurred a LCVA on 10/3/2009. She initially presented with deep dysphasia and near normal word reading. When enrolled in this study, approximately 24 months post-onset, she presented with phonological dysphasia. We investigated the hypothesis that (1 reproduction of a word string would be more accurate when preceded by a visual presentation of the word string compared to two auditory presentations of the word string, and (2 that this facilitative boost would be observed only for strings of low image words, consistent with the imageability effect in repetition. Method. Three-word strings were created in four conditions which varied the frequency (F and imageability (I of words within a string: HiF-HiI, LoF-HiI, HiF-LoI, LoF-LoI. All strings were balanced for total syllable length and were unrelated semantically and phonologically. The dependent variable was as accuracy of repetition of each word within a string. We created six modality prime conditions each with 24 strings drawn equally from the four frequency-imageability types, randomized within modality condition: Auditory Once (AudOnce – string presented auditorily one time; Auditory Twice (AudAud – string presented auditorily two consecutive times; Visual Once (VisOnce – string presented visually one time; Visual Twice (VisVis – string presented visually two consecutive times; Auditory then Visual (AudVis – string presented once auditorily, then a second time visually; Visual then Auditory (VisAud

  15. Facilitators and barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankrah DNA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel NA Ankrah,1,2 Ellen S Koster,2 Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse,2 Daniel K Arhinful,3 Irene A Agyepong,4 Margaret Lartey5,6 1Pharmacy Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana; 2Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana (Legon, 4Health Policy, Planning and Management, University of Ghana School of Public Health, 5Department of Medicine, University of Ghana Medical School, 6Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART is known to be challenging among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, notwithstanding the life-saving importance of this therapy. Of the global total number of adolescents living with HIV in 2013, 83% reside in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed to identify facilitators of and barriers to antiretroviral treatment adherence among adolescents in Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional qualitative study using semi-structured interviews for data collection was carried out among adolescents (aged 12–19 years at the adolescents HIV clinic at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Predominantly open-ended questions relating to ART were used. Interviews were done until saturation. In total, 19 interviews were conducted. Analysis was done manually to maintain proximity with the text. Findings: The main facilitators were support from health care providers, parental support, patient’s knowledge of disease and self-motivation, patient’s perceived positive outcomes, and dispensed formulation. The identified barriers were patient’s forgetfulness to take medicines, perceived stigmatization due to disclosure, financial barriers, and adverse effects of ART. Support from health care workers was the most frequently mentioned facilitator, and patient’s forgetfulness and perceived

  16. A modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) class I molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandya, Mital; Rasmussen, Michael; Hansen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules regulate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells. Polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class I molecules determine peptide binding affinity and stability during antigen presentation......, and different antigen peptide motifs are associated with specific genetic sequences of class I molecules. Understanding bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA), peptide-MHC class I binding specificities may facilitate development of vaccines or reagents for quantifying the adaptive immune response to intracellular...... pathogens, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Six synthetic BoLA class I (BoLA-I) molecules were produced, and the peptide binding motif was generated for five of the six molecules using a combined approach of positional scanning combinatorial peptide libraries (PSCPLs) and neural network...

  17. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    Given a class of linear order types C, we identify and study several different classes of trees, naturally associated with C in terms of how the paths in those trees are related to the order types belonging to C. We investigate and completely determine the set-theoretic relationships between...... these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general...... results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees....

  18. Using LectureTools to enhance student–instructor relations and student engagement in the large class

    OpenAIRE

    Jerie Shaw; Sofiya Kominko; Jenepher Lennox Terrion

    2015-01-01

    Positive student–instructor relationships are important for student engagement, motivation, retention and achievement. Yet, as class sizes grow, these relationships can be increasingly difficult to develop. This study explores LectureTools – a web-based student response and learning platform that facilitates communication between instructors and students – as a possible solution to this issue by analysing survey data collected from students in a second-year communication class at a large Cana...

  19. The Lyssavirus glycoprotein: A key to cross-immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buthelezi, Sindisiwe G.; Dirr, Heini W.; Chakauya, Ereck; Chikwamba, Rachel; Martens, Lennart; Tsekoa, Tsepo L.; Stoychev, Stoyan H.; Vandermarliere, Elien

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation. This information was mapped on the structure of a representative G protein. We proposed several possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes (GUVTTTF, WLRTV, REECLD and EHLVVEEL) in complement to the already well-characterized antigenic sites. The research could facilitate development of novel cross-reactive mAbs against RABV and even more broad, against possibly all Lyssavirus members. -- Highlights: •The current PEP has raised safety and availability concerns. •Cocktails of mAbs have been proposed as alternative treatment. •Amino acid conservation amongst Lyssavirus G proteins was studied. •Possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes were proposed.

  20. The Lyssavirus glycoprotein: A key to cross-immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buthelezi, Sindisiwe G. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Biosciences Unit, Pretoria (South Africa); Protein Structure-Function Research Unit, School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Dirr, Heini W. [Protein Structure-Function Research Unit, School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Chakauya, Ereck; Chikwamba, Rachel [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Biosciences Unit, Pretoria (South Africa); Martens, Lennart [Unit for Computational Omics and Systems Biology, Medical Biotechnology Center, VIB, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Tsekoa, Tsepo L. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Biosciences Unit, Pretoria (South Africa); Stoychev, Stoyan H., E-mail: Sstoychev@csir.co.za [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Biosciences Unit, Pretoria (South Africa); Vandermarliere, Elien [Unit for Computational Omics and Systems Biology, Medical Biotechnology Center, VIB, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Bioinformatics Institute Gent, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation. This information was mapped on the structure of a representative G protein. We proposed several possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes (GUVTTTF, WLRTV, REECLD and EHLVVEEL) in complement to the already well-characterized antigenic sites. The research could facilitate development of novel cross-reactive mAbs against RABV and even more broad, against possibly all Lyssavirus members. -- Highlights: •The current PEP has raised safety and availability concerns. •Cocktails of mAbs have been proposed as alternative treatment. •Amino acid conservation amongst Lyssavirus G proteins was studied. •Possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes were proposed.

  1. Thioesterase activity and acyl-CoA/fatty acid cross-talk of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Rachel; Kalderon, Bella; Byk, Tamara; Berman, Ina; Za'tara, Ghadeer; Mayer, Raphael; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2005-07-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) activity is modulated by natural and xenobiotic fatty acid and fatty acyl-CoA ligands as a function of their chain length, unsaturation, and substitutions. The acyl-CoA site of HNF-4alpha is reported here to consist of the E-F domain, to bind long-chain acyl-CoAs but not the respective free acids, and to catalyze the hydrolysis of bound fatty acyl-CoAs. The free acid pocket, previously reported in the x-ray structure of HNF-4alpha E-domain, entraps fatty acids but excludes acyl-CoAs. The acyl-CoA and free acid sites are distinctive and noncongruent. Free fatty acid products of HNF-4alpha thioesterase may exchange with free acids entrapped in the fatty acid pocket of HNF-4alpha. Cross-talk between the acyl-CoA and free fatty acid binding sites is abrogated by high affinity, nonhydrolyzable acyl-CoA ligands of HNF-4alpha that inhibit its thioesterase activity. Hence, HNF-4alpha transcriptional activity is controlled by its two interrelated acyl ligands and two binding sites interphased in tandem by the thioesterase activity. The acyl-CoA/free-acid and receptor/enzyme duality of HNF-4alpha extends the paradigm of nuclear receptors.

  2. Integrating cross-cultural psychology research methods into ethnic minority psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Leung, Kwok; Cheung, Fanny M

    2010-10-01

    Multicultural psychology has 2 related but often disconnected streams, namely cross-cultural psychology and racial and ethnic minority psychology (Hall & Maramba, 2001). We propose that advances in both fields will be facilitated if there is greater cross-fertilization, especially in methodological approaches given that proponents in both fields are interested in studying and understanding the role and impact of culture on human behavior. To facilitate this cross-fertilization, we present 3 methodological approaches that would be of value in racial and ethnic minority psychology. First, we present an overview of the importance of and the approaches to evaluating and establishing measurement equivalence. Second, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of conceptual equivalence in light of indigenous approaches, cultural manipulation, and multilevel analysis. Third, we present a combined etic-emic approach to cross-cultural personality research as illustrated by the Cross-Cultural Personality Assessment Inventory developed by Fanny Cheung and her colleagues. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. What Leads Children to Adopt New Strategies?: A Microgenetic/Cross-Sectional Study of Class Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Svetina, Matija

    2006-01-01

    Learning of class inclusion by 5-year-olds in response to empirical and logical explanations of an adult's answers was examined. Contrary to the view that young children possess an empirical bias, 5-year-olds learned more, and continued learning for longer, when given logical explanations of correct answers than when given empirical explanations.…

  4. Total and differential charge transfer cross sections in He{sup 2+}+N{sup 4+} collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diemar, K. von; Melchert, F.; Huber, K.; Salzborn, E. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Trassl, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: Roland.H.Trassl@strz.uni-giessen.de; Opradolce, L. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Piacentini, R.D. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR), 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2001-02-28

    Charge transfer in the collision system He{sup 2+}+N{sup 4+} has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally for centre-of-mass energies between 8 and 200 keV. The theoretical calculations of the collision process have been carried out in the semi-classical impact parameter eikonal approach expanding the electronic wavefunction in a multi-state molecular-orbital basis with translation factors. The measurements of the charge-transfer cross sections were performed at an ion-ion crossed-beams experiment. Good agreement between the calculations and the experimental results for both total and differential cross sections is obtained. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  5. A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James; Sales, Adele; Carlson, Luke; Steele, James

    2017-09-01

    Understanding resistance exercise motives and participation is essential in increasing exercise adherence and reducing comorbidities. CrossFit is a fitness movement that has seen an explosive growth in popularity worldwide; however, little research has investigated the motivational factors within this "niche" resistance exercise environment. The aim of this study was to explore the motivational factors of CrossFit participants in comparison to other resistance exercise participants. Using an independent-group design, quantitative data was collected using exercise motivations inventory-2 (EMI-2) questionnaire, for a total of 314 male and female participants (CrossFit: N.=68, group resistance exercise: N.=55, alone: N.=125, personal trainer: N.=66). The present study suggest that CrossFit participants were more likely to report higher levels of intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment, challenge and affiliation, whereas personal training clients reported higher values for health related motives such as positive health, ill-health avoidance and weight management. The findings suggest that the motivations for engaging in CrossFit may be similar to those seen in sport participation, and therefore may have an influence on facilitating long-term adherence in comparison with other resistance exercise modalities. This article also discusses health related motives as being extrinsic in nature but reflecting intrinsic characteristics, potentially also facilitating long term adherence. The present research helps develop further understanding of motivational variables within differing resistance exercise modalities.

  6. Highly efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on a cross-linkable water-/alcohol-soluble conjugated polymer interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhong, Chengmei; Liu, Shengjian; Mu, Cheng; Li, Zhengke; Yan, He; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2014-07-09

    A cross-linkable water/alcohol soluble conjugated polymer (WSCP) material poly[9,9-bis(6'-(N,N-diethylamino)propyl)-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(3-ethyl(oxetane-3-ethyloxy)-hexyl) fluorene] (PFN-OX) was designed. The cross-linkable nature of PFN-OX is good for fabricating inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with well-defined interface and investigating the detailed working mechanism of high-efficiency inverted PSCs based on poly[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexyloxyl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithio-phene-2,6-diyl-alt-ethylhexyl-3-fluorothithieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate-4,6-diyl] (PTB7) and (6,6)-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blend active layer. The detailed working mechanism of WSCP materials in high-efficiency PSCs were studied and can be summarized into the following three effects: a) PFN-OX tunes cathode work function to enhance open-circuit voltage (Voc); b) PFN-OX dopes PC71BM at interface to facilitate electron extraction; and c) PFN-OX extracts electrons and blocks holes to enhance fill factor (FF). On the basis of this understanding, the hole-blocking function of the PFN-OX interlayer was further improved with addition of a ZnO layer between ITO and PFN-OX, which led to inverted PSCs with a power conversion efficiency of 9.28% and fill factor high up to 74.4%.

  7. A dichotomy for upper domination in monogenic classes

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality. The problem of finding an upper dominating set is NP-hard for general graphs and in many restricted graph families. In the present paper, we study the computational complexity of this problem in monogenic classes of graphs (i.e. classes defined by a single forbidden induced subgraph) and show that the problem admits a dichotomy in this family. In particular, we prove that if the only forbidden induced subgraph is a P4 or a 2K2 (or any induced subgraph of these graphs), then the problem can be solved in polynomial time. Otherwise, it is NP-hard.

  8. Economic Feasibility of Staffing the Intensive Care Unit with a Communication Facilitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Nita; Benkeser, David; Coe, Norma B; Engelberg, Ruth A; Curtis, J Randall

    2016-12-01

    In the intensive care unit (ICU), complex decision making by clinicians and families requires good communication to ensure that care is consistent with the patients' values and goals. To assess the economic feasibility of staffing ICUs with a communication facilitator. Data were from a randomized trial of an "ICU communication facilitator" linked to hospital financial records; eligible patients (n = 135) were admitted to the ICU at a single hospital with predicted mortality ≥30% and a surrogate decision maker. Adjusted regression analyses assessed differences in ICU total and direct variable costs between intervention and control patients. A bootstrap-based simulation assessed the cost efficiency of a facilitator while varying the full-time equivalent of the facilitator and the ICU mortality risk. Total ICU costs (mean 22.8k; 95% CI, -42.0k to -3.6k; P = 0.02) and average daily ICU costs (mean, -0.38k; 95% CI, -0.65k to -0.11k; P = 0.006)] were reduced significantly with the intervention. Despite more contacts, families of survivors spent less time per encounter with facilitators than did families of decedents (mean, 25 [SD, 11] min vs. 36 [SD, 14] min). Simulation demonstrated maximal weekly savings with a 1.0 full-time equivalent facilitator and a predicted ICU mortality of 15% (total weekly ICU cost savings, $58.4k [95% CI, $57.7k-59.2k]; weekly direct variable savings, $5.7k [95% CI, $5.5k-5.8k]) after incorporating facilitator costs. Adding a full-time trained communication facilitator in the ICU may improve the quality of care while simultaneously reducing short-term (direct variable) and long-term (total) health care costs. This intervention is likely to be more cost effective in a lower-mortality population.

  9. What are lay theories of social class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.

  10. Facilitators and Barriers of Implementing a Measurement Feedback System in Public Youth Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Amelia; Hill, Kaitlin A; Mah, Albert C; Korathu-Larson, Priya A; Au, Janelle R; Izmirian, Sonia; Keir, Scott S; Nakamura, Brad J; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K

    2016-11-01

    This study examines implementation facilitators and barriers of a statewide roll-out of a measurement feedback system (MFS) in a youth public mental health system. 76 % of all state care coordinators (N = 47) completed interviews, which were coded via content analysis until saturation. Facilitators (e.g., recognition of the MFS's clinical utility) and barriers (e.g., MFS's reliability and validity) emerged paralleling the Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment framework outlined by Aarons et al. (Adm Policy Mental Health Mental Health Serv Res, 38:4-23, 2011). Sustainment efforts may leverage innovation fit, individual adopter, and system related facilitators.

  11. MHC Class II and CD9 in Human Eosinophils Localize to Detergent-Resistant Membrane Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Spencer, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor–stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR–containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4+ T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils. PMID:21885678

  12. MHC Class II and CD9 in human eosinophils localize to detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C N; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR-containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils.

  13. Disability Prevalence According to a Class, Race, and Sex (CSR) Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Disability has been shown to be related in definite ways to social class. In modern industrial societies, disability is influenced by and has the potential to contribute to the production and reproduction of social inequality. However, markers of social stratification processes are sometimes ignored determinants of health. A Class, Race, Sex (CRS) hypothesis is presented to argue that a "low-education disadvantage"; "racial-minority disadvantage"; and "female disadvantage" will compound to affect the risks for being disable. In particular, the CRS hypothesis posits that class is more important than race and the latter more than sex when predicting presence or severity of disability. The cross-sectional study of community-dwelling adults between the ages of 45 and 64 uses data from the American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2008-2012 file. By using 3,429,523 individuals-which weighted equal to 61,726,420-the results of the study suggest the CRS hypothesis applies to both Non-Latino-Blacks and Non-Latino-Whites. There is a "male disadvantage" exception for Non-Latino-Whites. Decreasing between-group differences in health may be achieved by making the age-health association at lower socioeconomic stratum similar to that of the upper socioeconomic strata.

  14. A vaccine of L2 epitope repeats fused with a modified IgG1 Fc induced cross-neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against divergent human papillomavirus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Liu, Hongyang; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yanchun; Xie, Xixiu; Wang, Zhirong; Xu, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Current human papillomavirus (HPV) major capsid protein L1 virus-like particles (VLPs)-based vaccines in clinic induce strong HPV type-specific neutralizing antibody responses. To develop pan-HPV vaccines, here, we show that the fusion protein E3R4 consisting of three repeats of HPV16 L2 aa 17-36 epitope (E3) and a modified human IgG1 Fc scaffold (R4) induces cross-neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against divergent HPV types. E3R4 was expressed as a secreted protein in baculovirus expression system and could be simply purified by one step Protein A affinity chromatography with the purity above 90%. Vaccination of E3R4 formulated with Freunds adjuvant not only induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against HPV pseudovirus types 16, 18, 45, 52, 58, 6, 11 and 5 in mice, but also protected mice against vaginal challenges with HPV pseudovirus types 16, 45, 52, 58, 11 and 5 for at least eleven months after the first immunization. Moreover, vaccination of E3R4 formulated with FDA approved adjuvant alum plus monophosphoryl lipid A also induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against HPV types 16, 18 and 6 in rabbits. Thus, our results demonstrate that delivery of L2 antigen as a modified Fc-fusion protein may facilitate pan-HPV vaccine development.

  15. The use of cross-linked chitosan beads for nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphate) removal from a mixture of P-PO4, N-NO2 and N-NO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Tomasz; Filipkowska, Urszula; Szymczyk, Paula; Kuczajowska-Zadrożna, Małgorzata; Mielcarek, Artur

    2017-11-01

    A hydrogel chitosan sorbent ionically cross-linked with sodium citrate and covalently cross-linked with epichlorohydrin was used to remove nutrients from an equimolar mixture of P-PO 4 , N-NO 2 and N-NO 3 . The scope of the study included, among other things, determination of the influence of pH on nutrient sorption effectiveness, nutrient sorption kinetics as well as determination of the maximum sorption capacity of cross-linked chitosan sorbents regarding P-PO 4 (H 2 PO 4 - , HPO 4 2- ), N-NO 2 (HNO 2 , NO 2 - ), and N-NO 3 (NO 3 - ). The effect of the type of the cross-linking agent on the affinity of the modified chitosan to each nutrient was studied as well. The kinetics of nutrient sorption on the tested chitosan sorbents was best described with the pseudo-second order model. The model of intramolecular diffusion showed that P-PO 4 , N-NO 2 and N-NO3 sorption on cross-linked hydrogel chitosan beads proceeded in two phases. The best sorbent of nutrients turned out to be chitosan cross-linked covalently with epichlorohydrin; with P-PO 4 , N-NO 2 and N-NO 3 sorption capacity reaching: 1.23, 0.94 and 0.76mmol/g, respectively (total of 2.92mmol/g). For comparison, the sorption capacity of chitosan cross-linked ionically with sodium citrate was: 0.43, 0.39 and 0.39mmol/g for P-PO 4 , N-NO 2 and N-NO 3 , respectively (total of 1.21mmol/g). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Experiences in Broker-Facilitated Participatory Cross-Cultural Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie P. Kowal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Health researchers are increasingly using community-based participatory research approaches because of the benefits accrued through ongoing community engagement. The documentation of our research partnership highlights key ethical and analytical challenges researchers face in participatory research, particularly in projects partnering with service providers or cultural brokers in cross-cultural settings. In this article, we describe how choices made to accommodate a participatory research approach in the examination of vaccination behavior impacted the process and outcomes of our qualitative inquiries. First, we found that employing multiple interviewers influenced the breadth of discussion topics, thus reducing the ability to achieve saturation in small study populations. This was mitigated by (a having two people at each interview and (b using convergent interviewing, a technique in which multiple interviewers discuss and include concepts raised in interviews in subsequent interviews to test the validity of interview topics. Second, participants were less engaged during the informed consent process if they knew the interviewer before the interview commenced. Finally, exposing identity traits, such as age or immigration status, before the interview affected knowledge cocreation, as the focus of the conversation then mirrored those traits. For future research, we provide recommendations to reduce ethical and analytical concerns that arise with qualitative interview methods in participatory research. Specifically, we provide guidance to ensure ethical informed consent processes and rigorous interview techniques.

  17. Barriers and facilitators of mental health screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Austin, Marie-Paule; Heaman, Maureen; McDonald, Sheila; Lasiuk, Gerri; Sword, Wendy; Giallo, Rebecca; Hegadoren, Kathy; Vermeyden, Lydia; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Kingston, Joshua; Jarema, Karly; Biringer, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Access to mental health services during pregnancy is most commonly mobilized through formal mental health screening. However, few studies to date have identified barriers and facilitators that affect pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. The objective was to identify barriers and facilitators that influence pregnant women's responses to the screening process and factors associated with their identification. This multi-site, cross-sectional survey recruited pregnant women >16 years of age who spoke/read English in Alberta, Canada. Main outcomes were barriers and facilitators of mental health screening. Descriptive statistics were generated to identify the most common barriers and facilitators and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to determine factors associated with barriers and facilitators. Study participation rate was 92% (460/500). Women's most common barriers were: significant others normalizing their emotional difficulties; desiring to handle mental health problems on their own; preferring to discuss feelings with significant others; and not knowing what emotions were 'normal'. Women who identified these barriers were more likely not to have been treated previously for mental illness, were primiparous, and could not be completely honest with their provider. Main facilitators were provider characteristics (sensitive, interested), reassurance that mental healthcare is a part of routine prenatal care, hearing that other women have emotional problems during pregnancy and knowing that help was available. The sample comprised largely Caucasian, well-educated, and partnered women, which limits generalizability of the findings. Personal and stigma-related barriers influence pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. Efforts to minimize barriers and enhance facilitators should be explored as potential strategies for optimizing prenatal mental health screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Methods for performing crosses in Setaria viridis, a new model system for the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Barbier, Hugues; Brutnell, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Setaria viridis is an emerging model system for C4 grasses. It is closely related to the bioenergy feed stock switchgrass and the grain crop foxtail millet. Recently, the 510 Mb genome of foxtail millet, S. italica, has been sequenced (1,2) and a 25x coverage genome sequence of the weedy relative S. viridis is in progress. S. viridis has a number of characteristics that make it a potentially excellent model genetic system including a rapid generation time, small stature, simple growth requirements, prolific seed production (3) and developed systems for both transient and stable transformation (4). However, the genetics of S. viridis is largely unexplored, in part, due to the lack of detailed methods for performing crosses. To date, no standard protocol has been adopted that will permit rapid production of seeds from controlled crosses. The protocol presented here is optimized for performing genetic crosses in S. viridis, accession A10.1. We have employed a simple heat treatment with warm water for emasculation after pruning the panicle to retain 20-30 florets and labeling of flowers to eliminate seeds resulting from newly developed flowers after emasculation. After testing a series of heat treatments at permissive temperatures and varying the duration of dipping, we have established an optimum temperature and time range of 48 °C for 3-6 min. By using this method, a minimum of 15 crosses can be performed by a single worker per day and an average of 3-5 outcross progeny per panicle can be recovered. Therefore, an average of 45-75 outcross progeny can be produced by one person in a single day. Broad implementation of this technique will facilitate the development of recombinant inbred line populations of S. viridis X S. viridis or S. viridis X S. italica, mapping mutations through bulk segregant analysis and creating higher order mutants for genetic analysis.

  19. [Positive inotropic and lusitropic effect of RP 62719, a new class III antiarrhythmia agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregi, J P; Escande, D; Coudray, N; Chemla, D; Mestre, M; Péry, N; Lecarpentier, Y

    1994-02-01

    Antiarrhythmic drugs, especially the Class I family, exert a negative inotropic effect on the myocardium which is particularly undesirable in patients with depressed left ventricular function. Therefore, research has been directed to the development of new, more specific molecules of the Class III family. The authors studies the mechanical effects of RP 62719 on guinea pig left ventricular papillary muscle. This new molecule is a pure Class III antiarrhythmic, known to lengthen the duration of the cardiac action potential by selectively blocking the potassium current iK1 (inward rectifier K+ current). The mechanical parameters were determined during the phases of contraction and relaxation under isotonic and isometric conditions. At 0.2 and 2 microM concentrations, RP 62719 improved cardiac contraction under both isotonic and isometric conditions with an increase of about 30% of Vmax (p delta 1 (p force normalized per cross-sectional area [AF/S (p actions could provide significant therapeutic advantages especially in patients cardiac failure.

  20. Does socioeconomic status in adolescence predict low back pain in adulthood? A repeated cross-sectional study of 4,771 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Korsholm, Lars; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing LBP......Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages...... years later. Socioeconomic data of the parents (education, income, social class and long-term illness, all for both mother and father) were collected in 1994. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between each parameter of parental SES in adolescence and LBP at baseline...

  1. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range... Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed before February 1, 1972... tax return in accordance with § 1.167(a)-11 of this chapter (relating to depreciation allowances using...

  2. Differential cross section measurement for the {sup 6}Li(n,t){sup 4}He Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guohui, Zhang; Guoyou, Tang; Jinxiang, Chen; Zhaomin, Shi [Beijing Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Heavy Ion Physics and MOE Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics; Zemin, Chen [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Physics; Gledenov, Yu M; Sedysheva, M; Khuukhenkhuu, G [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2002-06-01

    The differential cross sections and integrated cross sections of the {sup 6}Li(n,t){sup 4}He reaction were measured at 1.85 and 2.67 MeV by using a gridded ionization chamber. Neutrons were produced through the T(p, n){sup 3}He reaction. The absolute neutron flux was determined through the {sup 238}U(n, f) reaction. Present results are compared with existing data.

  3. A new class of nontopological solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinzhou; Ni Zhixiang; Zhang Jianzu

    1992-09-01

    We construct a new class of nontopological solitons with scalar self-interaction term κφ 4 . Because of the scalar self-interaction, there is a maximum size for these objects. There exists a critical value κ crit for the coupling κ. For κ > κ crit there are no stable nontopological solitons. In thin-walled limit, we show the explicit solutions of NTS with scalar self-interaction and/or gauge interaction. In the case of gauged NTS, soliton becomes a superconductor. (author). 11 refs

  4. Sartorial symbols of social class elicit class-consistent behavioral and physiological responses: a dyadic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2014-12-01

    Social rank in human and nonhuman animals is signaled by a variety of behaviors and phenotypes. In this research, we examined whether a sartorial manipulation of social class would engender class-consistent behavior and physiology during dyadic interactions. Male participants donned clothing that signaled either upper-class (business-suit) or lower-class (sweatpants) rank prior to engaging in a modified negotiation task with another participant unaware of the clothing manipulation. Wearing upper-class, compared to lower-class, clothing induced dominance--measured in terms of negotiation profits and concessions, and testosterone levels--in participants. Upper-class clothing also elicited increased vigilance in perceivers of these symbols: Relative to perceiving lower-class symbols, perceiving upper-class symbols increased vagal withdrawal, reduced perceptions of social power, and catalyzed physiological contagion such that perceivers' sympathetic nervous system activation followed that of the upper-class target. Discussion focuses on the dyadic process of social class signaling within social interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. [Crossed renal ectopia in a patient with a complicated sigma neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Luis Eduardo; Burneo-Esteves, Mauricio; Rosat-Rodrigo, Adriá; Baz-Figueroa, Caleb; Pérez-Álvarez, Antonio Dámaso; Barrera-Gómez, Manuel Ángel

    2017-12-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is a rare pathology that is often asymptomatic. Intraoperative detection with a sigma complicated neoplasia is more infrequent and requires correct management to avoid a renal ureteral injury. To present a case report of a patient with a sigma complicated neoplasia and a crossed renal ectopia detected incidentally. We present the case of a 62-year-old man that was submitted for emergency surgery for a sigma perforated neoplasm, and who presented with a previously undiagnosed left-side CRE. During surgery there was a need to insert 2-double-J stents as a guide to both ureters and to avoid any injury to them. Crossed renal ectopia is a rare, often asymptomatic entity, the diagnosis of which is usually incidental. In our case, the detection of a concomitant complicated neoplasm, required identification of both ureters due the anatomic doubt of its localization and to avoid them being injured. In conclusion, upon finding a casual crossed renal ectopia during an emergency surgery of sigma, we recommend the identification of the ureters to facilitate its location and to avoid any injury to the ureters. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Teaching micro skills Through Communicative Activities in EFL Classes in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela HARIZAJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In English language teaching and learning, an essential role is played by grammar and vocabulary. The main question stated in the study lays on how grammar is taught in our English classes, inductively or deductively? In EFL classes, it is thought that grammar is not particularly special, but studies show that teaching it communicatively enables student to improve communicative ability in foreign language. This paper focuses on: How grammar and vocabulary are taught? What is their importance in language learning? What kind of strategies and activities may be used to facilitate teaching in English classes? What is the perception of students about communicative activities used in class? This paper is based on theoretical analysis and practical analyses. When the purpose of learning is to achieve communication, skills and microskills are learned in meaningful contexts.

  7. Teamwork in a coronary care unit: facilitating and hindering aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethania Ferreira Goulart

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, within a multidisciplinary team, the facilitating and hindering aspects for teamwork in a coronary care unit. METHOD A descriptive study, with qualitative and quantitative data, was carried out in the coronary care unit of a public hospital. The study population consisted of professionals working in the unit for at least one year. Those who were on leave or who were not located were excluded. The critical incident technique was used for data collection, by means of semi-structured interviews. For data analysis, content analysis and the critical incident technique were applied. RESULTS Participants were 45 professionals: 29 nursing professionals; 11 physicians; 4 physical therapists; and 1 psychologist. A total of 49 situations (77.6% with negative references; 385 behaviors (54.2% with positive references; and 182 consequences emerged (71.9% with negative references. Positive references facilitate teamwork, whereas negative references hinder it. A collaborative/communicative interprofessional relationship was evidenced as a facilitator; whereas poor collaboration among agents/inadequate management was a hindering aspect. CONCLUSION Despite the prevalence of negative situations and consequences, the emphasis on positive behaviors reveals the efforts the agents make in order to overcome obstacles and carry out teamwork.

  8. On a General Class of Trigonometric Functions and Fourier Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, H. Germano; Capelas de Oliveira, E.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a general class of trigonometric functions whose corresponding Fourier series can be used to calculate several interesting numerical series. Particular cases are presented. (Contains 4 notes.)

  9. Aesthetic and functional outcomes using a multiloop edgewise archwire for camouflage orthodontic treatment of a severe Class III open bite malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Vásquez, Guido Artemio; Soldevilla Galarza, Luciano Carlos; Tolentino Solis, Freddy Antonio; Wilson, Cliff; Romano, Fábio Lourenço

    2017-09-01

    Occasionally, orthodontists will be challenged to treat malocclusions and skeletal disharmonies, which by their complexity one might think that the only treatment alternative is the surgical-orthodontic approach. A male patient, aged 17 years old, was diagnosed with a skeletal Class III malocclusion, anterior open bite and negative overjet. An unpleasant profile was the patient's 'chief complaint' showing interest in facial aesthetics improvement. Nevertheless, the patient and his parents strongly preferred a non-surgical treatment approach. He was treated with a multiloop edgewise archwire to facilitate uprighting and distal en-masse movement of lower teeth, correct the Class III open bite malocclusion, change the inclination of the occlusal plane and obtain the consequent morphological-functional adaptation of the mandible. The Class III malocclusion was corrected and satisfactory changes in the patient's profile were obtained. Active treatment was completed in 2 years, and facial result remained stable at 2 years 6 months after debonding.

  10. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting...

  11. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, H. C.; Monrad, Henrik; Gebuhr, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis (LS) has been the subject of several studies focusing on adolescent athletes. Few, if any, studies have examined LS in the general population. Lysis of the pars interarticularis of the vertebra may be associated with slipping (olisthesis), or it may be stable. In the present survey of lumbar radiographs and general epidemiological data recorded from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study cohort of 4.151 subjects (age range, 22–93 years), we identified the distribution and individual risk factors for LS-development. Men were significantly more at risk of L5 spondylolysis (P = 0.002). There were no sex-specific significant differences regarding LS-incidence at the L4 level. We found no significant differences of risk of LS between nulliparous or multiparous women (L4 P = 0.54/L5 P = 0.35). Furthermore, we found no significant relationship between age at menopause and LS-development. Increased lumbar lordosis was associated to L4/L5 spondylolysis in men (L4 P spondylolysis (P spondylolysis in both men and women (P spondylolysis. The prevalence of LS increases throughout life and is apparently not a condition restricted to adolescence. Although the cross-sectional nature of the present study prevents an exact estimate of the age at onset; future, sequential studies of the cohort may provide us with some important answers on this topic. Apart from aging–obesity, lordotic angle and pelvic inclination were found to be individual risk factors for LS. PMID:17120072

  12. Miracle: The Multi-Interface Cross-Layer Extension of ns2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present Miracle, a novel framework which extends ns2 to facilitate the simulation and the design of beyond 4G networks. Miracle enhances ns2 by providing an efficient and embedded engine for handling cross-layer messages and, at the same time, enabling the coexistence of multiple modules within each layer of the protocol stack. We also present a novel framework developed as an extension of Miracle called Miracle PHY and MAC. This framework facilitates the development of more realistic Channel, PHY and MAC modules, considering features currently lacking in most state-of-the-art simulators, while at the same time giving a strong emphasis on code modularity, interoperability and reusability. Finally, we provide an overview of the wireless technologies implemented in Miracle, discussing in particular the models for the IEEE 802.11, UMTS and WiMAX standards and for Underwater Acoustic Networks. We observe that, thanks to Miracle and its extensions, it is possible to carefully simulate complex network architectures at all the OSI layers, from the physical reception model to standard applications and system management schemes. This allows to have a comprehensive view of all the interactions among network components, which play an important role in many research areas, such as cognitive networking and cross-layer design.

  13. Humidity control as a strategy for lattice optimization applied to crystals of HLA-A*1101 complexed with variant peptides from dengue virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B.; Tarry, Michael J.; Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Siebold, Christian; Koch, Michael; Stuart, David I.; Harlos, Karl; Malasit, Prida; Screaton, Gavin; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Jones, E. Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    Crystals of an MHC class I molecule bound to naturally occurring peptide variants from the dengue virus NS3 protein contained high levels of solvent and required optimization of cryoprotectant and dehydration protocols for each complex to yield well ordered diffraction, a process facilitated by the use of a free-mounting system. T-cell recognition of the antigenic peptides presented by MHC class I molecules normally triggers protective immune responses, but can result in immune enhancement of disease. Cross-reactive T-cell responses may underlie immunopathology in dengue haemorrhagic fever. To analyze these effects at the molecular level, the functional MHC class I molecule HLA-A*1101 was crystallized bound to six naturally occurring peptide variants from the dengue virus NS3 protein. The crystals contained high levels of solvent and required optimization of the cryoprotectant and dehydration protocols for each complex to yield well ordered diffraction, a process that was facilitated by the use of a free-mounting system

  14. Humidity control as a strategy for lattice optimization applied to crystals of HLA-A*1101 complexed with variant peptides from dengue virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong [Department of Immunology, Division of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University (Thailand); Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B.; Tarry, Michael J. [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility (OPPF), The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa [Department of Immunology, Division of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University (Thailand); Siebold, Christian; Koch, Michael; Stuart, David I.; Harlos, Karl [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility (OPPF), The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Malasit, Prida [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University (Thailand); Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani, Bangkok (Thailand); Screaton, Gavin [Department of Immunology, Division of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip, E-mail: j.mongkolsapaya@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Immunology, Division of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University (Thailand); Jones, E. Yvonne, E-mail: j.mongkolsapaya@imperial.ac.uk [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility (OPPF), The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Department of Immunology, Division of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-01

    Crystals of an MHC class I molecule bound to naturally occurring peptide variants from the dengue virus NS3 protein contained high levels of solvent and required optimization of cryoprotectant and dehydration protocols for each complex to yield well ordered diffraction, a process facilitated by the use of a free-mounting system. T-cell recognition of the antigenic peptides presented by MHC class I molecules normally triggers protective immune responses, but can result in immune enhancement of disease. Cross-reactive T-cell responses may underlie immunopathology in dengue haemorrhagic fever. To analyze these effects at the molecular level, the functional MHC class I molecule HLA-A*1101 was crystallized bound to six naturally occurring peptide variants from the dengue virus NS3 protein. The crystals contained high levels of solvent and required optimization of the cryoprotectant and dehydration protocols for each complex to yield well ordered diffraction, a process that was facilitated by the use of a free-mounting system.

  15. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  16. Th{sup 232} (n,2n) Th{sup 231} cross section from threshold to 20.4 Mev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J P; Santry, D C

    1961-07-01

    The excitation curve for the reaction Th{sup 232} (n,2n) Th{sup 231} has been measured by the activation method from the threshold energy, 6.34 Mev, to 20.4 Mev, relative to the known cross section for the S{sup 32} (n, p) P{sup 32} reaction. Monoenergetic neutrons were obtained from the D (d,n) He{sup 3} and T (d,n) He{sup 4} reactions employing a Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. From threshold to 9.0 Mev, the (n,2n) cross section rises rapidly, reaching its maximum value of 1.88 {+-} 0.09 barns in the region of 9.5 to 11.0 Mev. Above 11.5 Mev the (n,2n) cross section decreases due to competition of the (n,3n) and (n,2nf) reactions and at 20.4 Mev it has a value of 0.22{sub 5} {+-} 0.01{sub 5} barns. (author)

  17. The Effectiveness of Remote Facilitation in Simulation-Based Pediatric Resuscitation Training for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kunio; Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Shiima, Yuko; Ikeyama, Takanari; Scott, James; Hayes, Scott; Gould, Michael; Buchanan, Newton; Nadkarni, Vinay; Nishisaki, Akira

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of pediatric simulation by remote facilitation. We hypothesized that simulation by remote facilitation is more effective compared to simulation by an on-site facilitator. We defined remote facilitation as a facilitator remotely (1) introduces simulation-based learning and simulation environment, (2) runs scenarios, and (3) performs debriefing with an on-site facilitator. A remote simulation program for medical students during pediatric rotation was implemented. Groups were allocated to either remote or on-site facilitation depending on the availability of telemedicine technology. Both groups had identical 1-hour simulation sessions with 2 scenarios and debriefing. Their team performance was assessed with behavioral assessment tool by a trained rater. Perception by students was evaluated with Likert scale (1-7). Fifteen groups with 89 students participated in a simulation by remote facilitation, and 8 groups with 47 students participated in a simulation by on-site facilitation. Participant demographics and previous simulation experience were similar. Both groups improved their performance from first to second scenario: groups by remote simulation (first [8.5 ± 4.2] vs second [13.2 ± 6.2], P = 0.003), and groups by on-site simulation (first [6.9 ± 4.1] vs second [12.4 ± 6.4], P = 0.056). The performance improvement was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.94). Faculty evaluation by students was equally high in both groups (7 vs 7; P = 0.65). A pediatric acute care simulation by remote facilitation significantly improved students' performance. In this pilot study, remote facilitation seems as effective as a traditional, locally facilitated simulation. The remote simulation can be a strong alternative method, especially where experienced facilitators are limited.

  18. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of combretabenzodiazepines: a novel class of anti-tubulin agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Ubaldina; Travelli, Cristina; Aprile, Silvio; Arrigoni, Elena; Torretta, Simone; Grosa, Giorgio; Massarotti, Alberto; Sorba, Giovanni; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Genazzani, Armando A; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2015-02-12

    In the present manuscript, starting from the 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one nucleus, a privileged structure in medicinal chemistry, we have synthesized a novel class of cis-locked combretastatins named combreatabenzodiazepines. They show similar cytotoxic and antitubulin activity compared to combretastatin A-4 in neuroblastoma cells, showing a better pharmacokinetic profile. This class of compounds has therefore the potential for further development as antitubulin agents.

  19. Differential cross sections of fine-structure transitions in K(4P)-He and -Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestdagh, J.M.; de Pujo, P.; Pascale, J.; Cuvellier, J.; Berlande, J.

    1987-01-01

    Differential cross sections for the transition K(4P/sub 3/2/→4P/sub 1/2/) induced by He and Ar have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Calculations were performed using a full quantal close-coupling formalism. The angular distribution of the scattered atoms is measured by Doppler shift (ADDS method). The comparison with the theoretical calculations is performed on the basis of thorough kinematic analysis. In addition, the polarization effects corresponding to the experimental conditions are taken into account carefully. This allows one to test the accuracy of various interaction potentials available for the K-He and -Ar systems. The most interesting result concerns the K-He l-dependent pseudopotentials, which are found accurate to a sufficiently high level to allow good predictions of the observed differential cross-section patterns. In particular the positions and amplitudes of the cross-section oscillations at large center-of-mass scattering angles are well reproduced. The results for Ar show that the K-Ar potentials must be improved. Finally, taking the K(4P)-He fine-structure transition as an example, it has been shown how polarization effects may be used in ADDS measurements to obtain information on the dynamics of the collision process

  20. Integrating Global Learning into a Psychology Course Using an Online Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Carie L.; Carrillo, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a demand for the integration of global learning/diversity across the curriculum. A series of cross-cultural assignments was created to facilitate global learning in two social psychology classes, one in Egypt, and one in the USA. In these assignments, students collected data and applied course concepts to real-life problems, then…

  1. A cw 4-rod RFQ linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    A cw 4-rod RFQ linac system has been designed, constructed, and tested as an accelerator section of a MeV-class ion implanter system. The tank diameter is only 60 cm for 34 MHz operating frequency. An equally spaced arrangement of the RFQ electrode supporting plates is proved to be suitable for a low resonant frequency 4-rod RFQ structure. The RFQ electrode cross section is not circular but rectangular to make the handling and maintenance of the electrodes easier. The machining of the electrode is done three dimensionally. Second order corrections in the analyzing magnet of the LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) section assure a better transmission through and the matching to the RFQ. A new approach is introduced to measure the rf characteristics of the 4-rod RFQ. This method requires only a few capacitors and a network analyzer. Both the rf and thermal stability of the 4-rod RFQ are tested up to cw 50 kW. Beam experiments with several ions confirm the acceleration of beams to the goal energy of 83 keV/u. The ion beam intensities obtained at the RFQ output for He + , N 2+ , and C + are 32, 13, and 220 pμA, respectively. The measured beam transmissions of >80% agree with the PARMTEQ calculations. The ion implantation method also gives definitive information on the energies of an RFQ output beam. ((orig.))

  2. Teaching Cross-Cultural Psychology: Providing the Missing Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushner, Kenneth H.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of materials designed to facilitate the teaching of cross-cultural psychology to students who are internationally and interculturally naive. The materials consist of 100 cross-cultural incidents contained in 18 essays. Two incidents are described and evaluative evidence is presented.…

  3. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic camouflage in a class III adult patient with a severe transverse discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracco, Antonio; Finotti, Marco; Bruno, Giovanni; de Stefani, Alberto

    2018-04-06

    A 25-year-old man presented with a maxillary transverse discrepancy, posterior cross bite, anterior open bite, molar and canine class III. Treatment included a corticotomy in the upper lateral and posterior teeth, a palatal expansor and a sectional archwire to assist the expansion. The following treatment phase included bonding with Incognito System lingual appliance, interproximal reduction to solve the crowding and bite blocks to control the verticality. Two months after the bonding intermaxillary class III elastics were used to solve the sagittal discrepancy and eight months after the bonding vertical elastics were used in order to solve the anterior open bite until the end of the treatment. A Boston splint was applied for the upper arch, an essix splint was applied for the lower arch. The patient compliance was an essential aspect in the success of the orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Social class and policy preferences: implications for economic inequality and interclass relations.

    Science.gov (United Sta