WorldWideScience

Sample records for a318 a319 a320

  1. 75 FR 16689 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... loss of the rudder leads to degradation of the handling qualities and reduces the controllability of... structural integrity of the rudder. The loss of the rudder leads to degradation of the handling qualities and... category, all manufacturer serial numbers (S/Ns), if equipped with carbon fiber reinforced plastic rudders...

  2. 75 FR 68181 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... structural integrity of the rudder. The loss of the rudder leads to degradation of the handling qualities and... the rudder leads to degradation of the handling qualities and reduces the controllability of the... plastic rudders having part numbers (P/Ns) and S/Ns as listed in Table 1 of this AD. Table 1--Rudder Part...

  3. 75 FR 52246 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... required by paragraphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) of this AD, as applicable. A review of airplane maintenance..., notify your principal maintenance inspector (PMI) or principal avionics inspector (PAI), as appropriate... 2006. Table of Contents 1-TOC 9 November 2006. Section 1--Introduction 1--7 9 November 2006. Section 2...

  4. 76 FR 37241 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... Aircraft Monitoring] warnings during the landing gear retraction or extension sequence. * * * * * This... occupants. * * * * * After in-service introduction of the new MLG door actuator, P/N 114122012, several operators reported failures of internal parts of the MLG door actuator. Investigations confirmed that these...

  5. 77 FR 64025 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Interaction of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... airplane flight conditions following an in-flight occurrence and that are included in the flight manual (e... be required by other sections of 14 CFR part 25 regardless of calculated system reliability. Where... structural capability below the level required by part 25 or significantly reduce the reliability of the...

  6. 75 FR 12965 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Seats With Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... being mostly fabric and metal, the contribution to a fire in the cabin had been minimized and was not...-metallic panels that would affect survivability during a post-crash fire event. The applicable..., seats were designed with a metal frame covered by fabric, not with large, non-metallic panels. Seats...

  7. 77 FR 64029 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Design Dive Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... after operation of high-speed warning system by application of a load of 1.5g (0.5 acceleration... Series Airplanes; Design Dive Speed AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... airplanes. These design features include a high-speed protection system. The applicable airworthiness...

  8. 76 FR 67625 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A319 and A320 Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... exits being unserviceable which, during an emergency, would impair the safe evacuation of occupants... comments. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West.... Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New...

  9. 75 FR 11439 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... the needle colour and thickness and an increase in width of the TCAS green band. For the reasons... the erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM) (for certain configurations) in addition to... the case of TCAS Resolution Advisory. This modification consists of a change in the needle colour and...

  10. 78 FR 37437 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. That AD currently requires one-time and... affected by AOT A320-55-1039 and Airbus SB A320-55-1035, A320-55- 1036 and A320-55-1037 which were not...

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thixoformed A319 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, M.S.; Omar, M.Z.; Syarif, J.; Alhawari, K.S.; Mohammed, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A319 was successfully thixoformed at 50% liquid, i.e. at 571 °C. • T6 heat treatment has increased the strength and hardness of the thixoformed alloy. • The elongation after T6 heat treatment is even significantly improved. • The iron-rich intermetallic phase reduces the strength of the thixoformed alloy. - Abstract: Thixoforming is a viable technology for forming alloys in a semisolid state into near net-shaped products. In the present study, the effect of a thixoforming process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A319 aluminium alloy was investigated. The ingots obtained from the cooling slope were thixoformed in a press after they remained at 571 °C for 5 min, yielding a microstructure predominantly composed of α-Al globules and inter-globular Si particles. Some of the thixoformed samples were treated with an ageing process (T6) and then, hardness and tensile samples were prepared from the as-cast, as-thixoformed and thixoformed T6. All the thixoformed samples were characterised using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as hardness measurements and tensile tests. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of the thixoformed A319 alloy increased after the T6 heat treatment (hardness of 124.2 ± 3.2 HV, tensile strength of 298 ± 3.0 MPa, yield strength of 201 ± 2.6 MPa and elongation to fracture of 4.5 ± 0.3%). The fracture samples from the tensile test were analysed, revealing that the iron-rich intermetallic observed in the samples reduced the tensile strength and ductility of the thixoformed A319 alloys

  12. Airbus A320 NEO Base Maintenance Concept SAS Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dafgård, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Detta arbete har utförts tillsammans med SAS, för att undersöka om ett base maintenance koncept med ett intervall på 36 månader skulle vara mer kostnadseffektivt än 24 månader för deras nya Airbus A320 NEO flotta. SAS, precis som alla andra flygbolag utnyttjar sina flygplan på sina egna och specifika vis. Eftersom inga flygbolag opererar på samma sätt kan inte heller underhållet skötas på samma sätt för en specifik flygplanstyp. Underhållsprogrammet behövde därför ses över för att optimeras g...

  13. Relationships Between Solidification Parameters in A319 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersluis, E.; Ravindran, C.

    2018-03-01

    The design of high-performance materials depends on a comprehensive understanding of the alloy-specific relationships between solidification and properties. However, the inconsistent use of a particular solidification parameter for presenting materials characterization in the literature impedes inter-study comparability and the interpretation of findings. Therefore, there is a need for accurate expressions relating the solidification parameters for each alloy. In this study, A319 aluminum alloy castings were produced in a permanent mold with various preheating temperatures in order to control metal cooling. Analysis of the cooling curve for each casting enabled the identification of its liquidus, Al-Si eutectic, and solidus temperatures and times. These values led to the calculation of the primary solidification rate, total solidification rate, primary solidification time, and local solidification time for each casting, which were related to each other as well as to the average casting SDAS and material hardness. Expressions for each of their correlations have been presented with high coefficients of determination, which will aid in microstructural prediction and casting design.

  14. 78 FR 54377 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports that certain... accordance with the Accomplishment Instructions of Airbus Service Bulletin A320-27- 1214, including Appendix...

  15. 78 FR 71992 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... certain Airbus Model A318-100 and A319-100 series airplanes, A320-111 airplanes, A320-200 series airplanes... identified in this AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EIAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  16. Influence of scandium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A319 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emadi, Daryoush; Rao, A.K. Prasada; Mahfoud, Musbah

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of aluminum scrap alloys by melting is gaining its importance in foundry sector. During recycling, some of the alloying elements present in scrap alloys eventually become trace/tramp impurities in the recycled alloy. These elements could potentially affect the alloy's microstructure and hence its mechanical properties. In the present work, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of one of such trace elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A319 alloy. The element chosen for the present investigation is scandium (Sc). This paper discusses the effects of the additions of trace amount of Sc on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A319 alloy in as-cast, T6 and T7 heat treated conditions.

  17. New possibilities of using A-319CJ aircraft at the Czech Air Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav JANOŠEK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses remarkable changes in activities of the transport airbase in terms of substitution of obsolete aircraft by modern transport airplanes. Further, differences between transport airbase’s aircraft and Czech Airlines’ airplanes are introduced, as well as fundamental tactical and operating specifications, time and space factors regarding personnel transport, supplies transport and possibilities of Airbus A319CJ’s freight hold adjustment in dependence on the nature of transport.

  18. 75 FR 35 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318-112 Airplane (S/N 3886); Certification of a Cooktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Recommended Practice 85, Rev. E, article titled, ``Air Conditioning Systems for Subsonic Airplanes,'' August 1...; Special Conditions No. 25-398-SC] Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318-112 Airplane (S/N 3886... airplane, as modified by Bizjet, a Lufthansa Technik Company, will have a novel or unusual design feature...

  19. Optimization of Coolant Technique Conditions for Machining A319 Aluminium Alloy Using Response Surface Method (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Ariffin, S.; Razlan, A.; Ali, M. Mohd; Efendee, A. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Background/Objectives: The paper discusses about the optimum cutting parameters with coolant techniques condition (1.0 mm nozzle orifice, wet and dry) to optimize surface roughness, temperature and tool wear in the machining process based on the selected setting parameters. The selected cutting parameters for this study were the cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and coolant techniques condition. Methods/Statistical Analysis Experiments were conducted and investigated based on Design of Experiment (DOE) with Response Surface Method. The research of the aggressive machining process on aluminum alloy (A319) for automotive applications is an effort to understand the machining concept, which widely used in a variety of manufacturing industries especially in the automotive industry. Findings: The results show that the dominant failure mode is the surface roughness, temperature and tool wear when using 1.0 mm nozzle orifice, increases during machining and also can be alternative minimize built up edge of the A319. The exploration for surface roughness, productivity and the optimization of cutting speed in the technical and commercial aspects of the manufacturing processes of A319 are discussed in automotive components industries for further work Applications/Improvements: The research result also beneficial in minimizing the costs incurred and improving productivity of manufacturing firms. According to the mathematical model and equations, generated by CCD based RSM, experiments were performed and cutting coolant condition technique using size nozzle can reduces tool wear, surface roughness and temperature was obtained. Results have been analyzed and optimization has been carried out for selecting cutting parameters, shows that the effectiveness and efficiency of the system can be identified and helps to solve potential problems.

  20. Suicide with One Cranial Gunshot by a .320 Caliber Pocket Revolver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tattoli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Suicide using a firearm is the most commonly used method of committing suicide for men and women. In this paper, we present and discuss a suicide case in which an 86-year-old man shot himself using a .320 caliber pocket revolver. Proper crime scene investigation, recovery of the weapon used, and precise interpretation of autopsy findings play a fundamental role in determining the exact cause and manner of death. Accurate analysis of the injuries and a thorough knowledge of weapons and ballistics are essential for an adequate investigation in these unusual cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cranial gunshot inflicted by a .320 caliber pocket revolver.

  1. 78 FR 39190 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...-0543; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-202-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  2. 77 FR 73340 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... earlier proposed airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series..., contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France...

  3. 77 FR 57003 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of a torn out.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-18-12 Airbus: Amendment 39-17189...

  4. 77 FR 60325 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...-1253; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-079-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... directive (AD) that would supersede an existing AD for certain Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  5. 78 FR 64162 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a determination that...., Washington, DC. For service information identified in this AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EIAS, 1...

  6. 78 FR 60667 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. AD 2012- 26-51 required revising the...''), to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: Recently, an Airbus A330...

  7. 77 FR 64765 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...-1105; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-137-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  8. 78 FR 21230 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by fuel system reviews conducted..., Airbus developed a modification which includes installing Ground Fault Interrupters (GFI) into the centre...

  9. 78 FR 19085 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of oil residue... (MCAI) states: During Airbus Final Assembly Line flight tests, AoA [angle of attack] data from two...

  10. 77 FR 39186 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte... 200, Suite 400, College Park, Georgia 30337; telephone 678-228-8153; fax 404-599-0041; email techpubs...

  11. 78 FR 65173 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a determination that... Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on the availability of this...

  12. 78 FR 28152 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...-0416; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-144-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A318-111 and -112 airplanes, Model A319 series airplanes, Model A320 series airplanes, and Model A321 series airplanes. The existing AD currently requires repetitive inspections of the 80VU rack lower...

  13. 78 FR 78705 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A318 series airplanes, Model A319 series airplanes, Model A320 series airplanes, and Model A321 series airplanes. AD 2010- 24-07 required repetitive inspections of the 80VU rack lower...

  14. Energy efficiency improvements in air traffic: The case of Airbus A320 in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansino, José M.; Román, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    Structural improvements in aircraft design, seeking to improve energy efficiency, can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by reducing reduced fuel consumption. This research reviews improvements with the introduction of a structural component known as 'winglet;' these are positioned at the top of the aircraft wing, and increased Airbus Group A320 sales. Data used are taken from air traffic in Spain for the 2010–2014 period with projections being made for 2020. The results show that winglets reduce CO_2 equivalent emissions associated with Spain's air transport for the 2015–2020 period between 66.29 and 59.56 Gg. depending on the scenario considered in 2020. - Highlights: • Spanish air traffic is considered a key-GHG emission sector. • The aviation industry has drastically reduced its emissions. • To what extent could improved model to reduce fuel consumption and polluting emissions? • A320 Neo, A330 Neo and A380 Neo models are in the process of industrialisation. • Objectives fixed by Air Transport Action Group for 2020 are relevant.

  15. Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, R.; Russier, V.; Couzinié, J.P.; Guillot, I.; Cailletaud, G.

    2013-01-01

    Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al 2 Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 °C to 300 °C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per μm 3 in a α-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  16. A 320 Year Ice-Core Record of Atmospheric Hg Pollution in the Altai, Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrikh, Stella; Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

    2017-10-17

    Anthropogenic emissions of the toxic heavy metal mercury (Hg) have substantially increased atmospheric Hg levels during the 20th century compared to preindustrial times. However, on a regional scale, atmospheric Hg concentration or deposition trends vary to such an extent during the industrial period that the consequences of recent Asian emissions on atmospheric Hg levels are still unclear. Here we present a 320 year Hg deposition history for Central Asia, based on a continuous high-resolution ice-core Hg record from the Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai, covering the time period 1680-2001. Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes start rising above background levels at the beginning of the 19th century due to emissions from gold/silver mining and Hg production. A steep increase occurs after the 1940s culminating during the 1970s, at the same time as the maximum Hg use in consumer products in Europe and North America. After a distinct decrease in the 1980s, Hg levels in the 1990s and beginning of the 2000s return to their maximum values, which we attribute to increased Hg emissions from Asia. Thus, rising Hg emissions from coal combustion and artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Asian countries determine recent atmospheric Hg levels in Central Asia, counteracting emission reductions due to control measures in Europe and North America.

  17. Inductive sensor for lightning current measurement, fitted in aircraft windows, part II: Measurements on an A320 aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van A.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    A novel sensor for the detection of the lightning current through the fuselage of an aircraft has been tested on an A320 aircraft. An accurate method-of-moment model of the window edge provided reliable calibration of the sensor for external fields. The data have been analyzed and the good

  18. Microstructural features associated with the effect of temperature on the dimensional stability of an automotive Al-A319 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Lopez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an automotive Al-A319 was given a solid solution heat treatment (T4 at 753 K (480 °C for 4.5 hours and an ageing treatment (T7 at 513 K (240 °C for various times up to 3.0 h. The alloy in the T4 condition was dilatometrically tested at various temperatures in order to measure its relative dimensional changes. It was found that the dimensional changes are due to both, alloy thermal expansion and nucleation and growth of second phases. In addition, in the T7 condition the alloy strength and ductility were determined as a function of ageing times. Ageing promoted alloy strength but at the expenses of a rather poor alloy ductility (down to 1%. Apparently, Cu rich intermetallic phases and regions provided a brittle path for fracturing. In particular, microstructural characterization using high resolution transmission electron microscopy indicated that not all the Cu in the matrix was dissolved during the T4 treatment. Hence, after ageing (T7 these Cu-rich regions seemed to coarsen into spherical particles.

  19. Processing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Aluminum (A319)—SiCp Metallic Composites by Centrifugal Casting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, E.; Jacob, Jibin C.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Joseph, M. A.; Pai, B. C.

    2016-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) are successfully adopted for the design and fabrication of engineering components with location-specific properties. The present study describes the processing and characterization of A319 Aluminum functionally graded metal matrix composites (FGMMC) with 10 and 15 wt pct SiCp reinforcements. The liquid stir casting method is used for composite melt preparation followed by FGMMC formation by vertical centrifugal casting method. The process parameters used are the mold preheating temperature of 523 K (250 °C), melt pouring temperature of 1013 K (740 °C), and mold rotation speed of 1300 rpm. The study analyzes the distribution and concentration of reinforcement particles in the radial direction of the FGMMC disk along with the effects of gradation on density, hardness, mechanical strength, the variation in coefficient of thermal expansion and the wear resistance properties at different zones. Microstructures of FGMMC reveal an outward radial gradient distribution of reinforcements forming different zones. Namely, matrix-rich inner, transition, particles-rich outer, and chill zone of a few millimeters thick at the outer most periphery of the casting are formed. From 10-FGM, a radial shift in the position of SiCp maxima is observed in 15-FGM casting. The mechanical characterization depicts enhanced properties for the particle-rich zone. The hardness shows a graded nature in correlation with particle concentration and a maximum of 94.4 HRB has been obtained at the particle-rich region of 15-FGM. In the particle-rich zone, the lowest CTE value of 20.1 µm/mK is also observed with a compressive strength of 650 MPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 279 MPa. The wear resistance is higher at the particle-rich zone of the FGMMC.

  20. Team play with a powerful and independent agent: operational experiences and automation surprises on the Airbus A-320

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, N. B.; Woods, D. D.

    1997-01-01

    Research and operational experience have shown that one of the major problems with pilot-automation interaction is a lack of mode awareness (i.e., the current and future status and behavior of the automation). As a result, pilots sometimes experience so-called automation surprises when the automation takes an unexpected action or fails to behave as anticipated. A lack of mode awareness and automation surprises can he viewed as symptoms of a mismatch between human and machine properties and capabilities. Changes in automation design can therefore he expected to affect the likelihood and nature of problems encountered by pilots. Previous studies have focused exclusively on early generation "glass cockpit" aircraft that were designed based on a similar automation philosophy. To find out whether similar difficulties with maintaining mode awareness are encountered on more advanced aircraft, a corpus of automation surprises was gathered from pilots of the Airbus A-320, an aircraft characterized by high levels of autonomy, authority, and complexity. To understand the underlying reasons for reported breakdowns in human-automation coordination, we also asked pilots about their monitoring strategies and their experiences with and attitude toward the unique design of flight controls on this aircraft.

  1. 3D CT cerebral angiography technique using a 320-detector machine with a time–density curve and low contrast medium volume: Comparison with fixed time delay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.; Biswas, S.; Roughley, S.; Bhojak, M.; Niven, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To describe a cerebral computed tomography angiography (CTA) technique using a 320-detector CT machine and a small contrast medium volume (35 ml, 15 ml for test bolus). Also, to compare the quality of these images with that of the images acquired using a larger contrast medium volume (90 or 120 ml) and a fixed time delay (FTD) of 18 s using a 16-detector CT machine. Materials and methods: Cerebral CTA images were acquired using a 320-detector machine by synchronizing the scanning time with the time of peak enhancement as determined from the time–density curve (TDC) using a test bolus dose. The quality of CTA images acquired using this technique was compared with that obtained using a FTD of 18 s (by 16-detector CT), retrospectively. Average densities in four different intracranial arteries, overall opacification of arteries, and the degree of venous contamination were graded and compared. Results: Thirty-eight patients were scanned using the TDC technique and 40 patients using the FTD technique. The arterial densities achieved by the TDC technique were higher (significant for supraclinoid and basilar arteries, p < 0.05). The proportion of images deemed as having “good” arterial opacification was 95% for TDC and 90% for FTD. The degree of venous contamination was significantly higher in images produced by the FTD technique (p < 0.001%). Conclusion: Good diagnostic quality CTA images with significant reduction of venous contamination can be achieved with a low contrast medium dose using a 320-detector machine by coupling the time of data acquisition with the time of peak enhancement

  2. 78 FR 71996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318-112, A319-111, A319-112, A319-115, A319-132, and A319-133 airplanes. This AD was... developing this AD. We have considered the comments received. Request To Refer to Revised EASA AD Airbus...

  3. SimDoseCT: dose reporting software based on Monte Carlo simulation for a 320 detector-row cone-beam CT scanner and ICRP computational adult phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Maria; Joemai, Raoul M. S.; Geleijns, Jacob; Molina, Diego; Salvadó, Marçal

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to develop and test software for assessing and reporting doses for standard patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations in a 320 detector-row cone-beam scanner. The software, called SimDoseCT, is based on the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code, which was developed to calculate organ doses and effective doses in ICRP anthropomorphic adult reference computational phantoms for acquisitions with the Aquilion ONE CT scanner (Toshiba). MC simulation was validated by comparing CTDI measurements within standard CT dose phantoms with results from simulation under the same conditions. SimDoseCT consists of a graphical user interface connected to a MySQL database, which contains the look-up-tables that were generated with MC simulations for volumetric acquisitions at different scan positions along the phantom using any tube voltage, bow tie filter, focal spot and nine different beam widths. Two different methods were developed to estimate organ doses and effective doses from acquisitions using other available beam widths in the scanner. A correction factor was used to estimate doses in helical acquisitions. Hence, the user can select any available protocol in the Aquilion ONE scanner for a standard adult male or female and obtain the dose results through the software interface. Agreement within 9% between CTDI measurements and simulations allowed the validation of the MC program. Additionally, the algorithm for dose reporting in SimDoseCT was validated by comparing dose results from this tool with those obtained from MC simulations for three volumetric acquisitions (head, thorax and abdomen). The comparison was repeated using eight different collimations and also for another collimation in a helical abdomen examination. The results showed differences of 0.1 mSv or less for absolute dose in most organs and also in the effective dose calculation. The software provides a suitable tool for dose assessment in standard adult patients undergoing CT

  4. Simulation of the concomitant process of nucleation-growth-coarsening of Al2Cu particles in a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, R; Larouche, D; Cailletaud, G; Guillot, I; Massinon, D

    2015-01-01

    The precipitation of Al 2 Cu particles in a 319 T7 aluminum alloy has been modeled. A theoretical approach enables the concomitant computation of nucleation, growth and coarsening. The framework is based on an implicit scheme using the finite differences. The equation of continuity is discretized in time and space in order to obtain a matricial form. The inversion of a tridiagonal matrix gives way to determining the evolution of the size distribution of Al 2 Cu particles at t  +Δt. The fluxes of in-between the boundaries are computed in order to respect the conservation of the mass of the system, as well as the fluxes at the boundaries. The essential results of the model are compared to TEM measurements. Simulations provide quantitative features on the impact of the cooling rate on the size distribution of particles. They also provide results in agreement with the TEM measurements. This kind of multiscale approach allows new perspectives to be examined in the process of designing highly loaded components such as cylinder heads. It enables a more precise prediction of the microstructure and its evolution as a function of continuous cooling rates. (paper)

  5. Left ventricular functional parameters and geometric patterns in Korean adults on coronary CT angiography with a 320-detector-row CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ki Nam; Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Young Dae [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Min; Lim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To assess the normal reference values of left ventricle (LV) functional parameters in Korean adults on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with a 320-detector-row CT scanner, and to analyze sex-related differences and correlations with various clinical characteristics. This study retrospectively enrolled 172 subjects (107 men and 65 women; age, 58 ± 10.9 years; body surface area [BSA], 1.75 ± 0.2 m{sup 2}) who underwent CCTA without any prior history of cardiac disease. The following parameters were measured by post-processing the CT data: LV volume, LV functional parameters (ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output, etc.), LV myocardial mass, LV inner diameter, and LV myocardial thickness (including septal wall thickness [SWT], posterior wall thickness [PWT], and relative wall thickness [RWT = 2 × PWT / LV inner diameter]). All of the functional or volumetric parameters were normalized using the BSA. The general characteristics and co-morbidities for the enrolled subjects were recorded, and the correlations between these factors and the LV parameters were then evaluated. The LV myocardial thickness (SWT, 1.08 ± 0.18 cm vs. 0.90 ± 0.17 cm, p < 0.001; PWT, 0.91 ± 0.15 cm vs. 0.78 ± 0.10 cm, p < 0.001; RWT, 0.38 ± 0.08 cm vs. 0.33 ± 0.05 cm, p < 0.001), LV volume (LV end-diastolic volume, 112.9 ± 26.1 mL vs. 98.2 ± 21.0 mL, p < 0.001; LV end-systolic volume, 41.7 ± 14.7 mL vs. 33.7 ± 12.2 mL, p = 0.001) and mass (145.0 ± 29.1 g vs. 107.9 ± 20.0 g, p < 0.001) were significantly greater in men than in women. However, these differences were not significant after normalization using BSA, except for the LV mass (LV mass index, 79.6 ± 14.0 g/m{sup 2} vs. 66.2 ± 11.0 g/m{sup 2},p < 0.001). The cardiac output and ejection fraction were not significantly different between the men and women (cardiac output, 4.3 ± 1.0 L/min vs. 4.2 ± 0.9 L/min, p = 0.452; ejection fraction, 63.4 ± 7.7% vs. 66.4 ± 7.6%, p = 0.079). Most of the LV parameters were

  6. Using 80 kVp on a 320-row scanner for hepatic multiphasic CT reduces the contrast dose by 50 % in patients at risk for contrast-induced nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Narumi; Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Nakaura, Takeshi; Imuta, Masanori; Yamamura, Sadahiro; Yuki, Hideaki; Kidoh, Masafumi; Hirata, Kenichiro; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Funama, Yoshinori [Kumamoto University, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Hatemura, Masahiro; Kai, Noriyuki [Kumamoto University Hospital, Department of Central Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    We evaluated the effects of a low contrast material (CM) dose protocol using 80-kVp on the image quality of hepatic multiphasic CT scans acquired on a 320-row CT scanner. We scanned 30 patients with renal insufficiency (eGFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}) using 80-kVp and a CM dose of 300mgI/kg. Another 30 patients without renal insufficiency (eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}) were scanned with the conventional 120-kVp protocol and the standard CM dose of 600mgI/kg. Quantitative image quality parameters, i.e. CT attenuation, image noise, and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared and the visual image quality was scored on a four-point scale. The volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) recorded with the 80- and the 120-kVp protocols were also compared. Image noise and contrast enhancement were equivalent for the two protocols. There was no significant difference in the CNR of all anatomic sites and in the visual scores for overall image quality. The CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE were approximately 25-30 % lower under the 80-kVp protocol. Hepatic multiphase CT using 80-kVp on a 320-row CT scanner allowed for a decrease in the CM dose and a reduction in the radiation dose without image quality degradation in patients with renal insufficiency. (orig.)

  7. 78 FR 41280 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A319-112, -113, and -132 airplanes; Model A320-211, -212, -214, -231, and -232 airplanes... A319 aeroplane on which Airbus modification (mod.) 22058 had been embodied in production. Airbus mod...

  8. 77 FR 42952 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318-112 and -121 airplanes; Model A319-111, -112, -115, - 132, and -133 airplanes; Model... MCAI states: During structural part assembly in Airbus production line, some nuts Part Number (P/N...

  9. 78 FR 14029 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...-0096; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-143-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A318-112, A319-111... Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France; telephone...

  10. 75 FR 3983 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318 Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ..., German, or EASA airworthiness certificate or the date of issuance of the original French, German, or EASA..., under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), the Office of Management...

  11. 78 FR 51058 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... certain Airbus Model A319 and A320 series airplanes. AD 2004-13-06 required repetitive detailed... and to allow extension of the interval between two consecutive inspections, Airbus validated an Eddy...

  12. 76 FR 72350 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-1253; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-079-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A319, A320, and A321... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  13. 78 FR 69318 - Airworthiness Directives; Rockwell Collins, Inc. Transponders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... We invite you to send any written relevant data, views, or arguments about this proposal. Send your... with the transponders that could lead to increased pilot and air traffic controller workload as well as..., certificated in any category: (i) Airbus Models A319, A320, A330, A340; and (ii) Boeing Models B777, B747, MD...

  14. Modeling with Robotran the autonomous electrical taxi and pushback operations of an Airbus A320

    OpenAIRE

    Quinet, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, commercial flights are very close to a full automation while several means of transport already made the move. Civilian transport airplanes offer the possibility to fly in a fully automated mode from a few seconds after take-off to the exit of the runway - down to 60 knots- after landing. However, three flight sequences are not covered yet by an automated solution : the take-off, the taxi and the pushback. This work is a global approach of an autonomous taxi and pushback system impl...

  15. Radiation dose assessment in a 320-detector-row CT scanner used in cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goma, Carles; Ruiz, Agustin; Jornet, Nuria; Latorre, Artur; Pallerol, Rosa M.; Carrasco, Pablo; Eudaldo, Teresa; Ribas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In the present era of cone-beam CT scanners, the use of the standardized CTDI 100 as a surrogate of the idealized CTDI is strongly discouraged and, consequently, so should be the use of the dose-length product (DLP) as an estimate of the total energy imparted to the patient. However, the DLP is still widely used as a reference quantity to normalize the effective dose for a given scan protocol mainly because the CTDI 100 is an easy-to-measure quantity. The aim of this article is therefore to describe a method for radiation dose assessment in large cone-beam single axial scans, which leads to a straightforward estimation of the total energy imparted to the patient. The authors developed a method accessible to all medical physicists and easy to implement in clinical practice in an attempt to update the bridge between CT dosimetry and the estimation of the effective dose. Methods: The authors used commercially available material and a simple mathematical model. The method described herein is based on the dosimetry paradigm introduced by the AAPM Task Group 111. It consists of measuring the dose profiles at the center and the periphery of a long body phantom with a commercial solid-state detector. A weighted dose profile is then calculated from these measurements. To calculate the CT dosimetric quantities analytically, a Gaussian function was fitted to the dose profile data. Furthermore, the Gaussian model has the power to condense the z-axis information of the dose profile in two parameters: The single-scan central dose, f(0), and the width of the profile, σ. To check the energy dependence of the solid-state detector, the authors compared the dose profiles to measurements made with a small volume ion chamber. To validate the overall method, the authors compared the CTDI 100 calculated analytically to the measurement made with a 100 mm pencil ion chamber. Results: For the central and weighted dose profiles, the authors found a good agreement between the measured dose profile data and the fitted Gaussian functions. The solid-state detector had no energy dependence--within the energy range of interest--and the analytical model succeeded in reproducing the absolute dose values obtained with the pencil ion chamber. For the case of large cone-beam single axial scans, the quantity that better characterizes the total energy imparted to the patient is the weighted dose profile integral (DPI w ). The DPI w can be easily determined from the two parameters that define the Gaussian functions: f(0) and σ. The authors found that the DLP underestimated the total energy imparted to the patient by more than 20%. The authors also found that the calculated CT dosimetric quantities were higher than those displayed on the scanner console. Conclusions: The authors described and validated a method to assess radiation dose in large cone-beam single axial scans. This method offers a simple and more accurate estimation of the total energy imparted to the patient, thus offering the possibility to update the bridge between CT dosimetry and the estimation of the effective dose for cone-beam CT examinations in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy.

  16. Animal model for evaluation of topical photoprotection against ultraviolet A (320-380 nm) radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, S.; DeLeo, V.A.; Harber, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies reporting UVA (ultraviolet A radiation 320-380 nm) as an integral part of the cumulative sun-induced damage in human skin have prompted an interest in developing effective UVA photoprotective agents. The development of such compounds has been impeded by the absence of a clinically relevant animal model for evaluating their efficacy. This report describes the development and use of such a laboratory animal system. Selected concentrations of oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone) in vehicle (0.1% to 6%) or vehicle alone were applied to the depilated dorsal skin of 30 Hartley strain female albino guinea pigs. The skin was irradiated with solar simulated UVA from a xenon light source. Acute radiation-induced damage was assayed by erythema grading and inhibition of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into epidermal DNA. Data from erythema grading studies indicated that a significant degree of photoprotection was achieved with 6%, 3%, and 1% solutions of benzophenone compared with the control vehicle; the 6% solution was significantly more photoprotective than the 3% and 1% solutions. A 6% solution afforded significant photoprotection when assayed by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation

  17. Radiation dose assessment in a 320-detector-row CT scanner used in cardiac imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goma, Carles; Ruiz, Agustin; Jornet, Nuria; Latorre, Artur; Pallerol, Rosa M.; Carrasco, Pablo; Eudaldo, Teresa; Ribas, Montserrat [Servei de Radiofisica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: In the present era of cone-beam CT scanners, the use of the standardized CTDI{sub 100} as a surrogate of the idealized CTDI is strongly discouraged and, consequently, so should be the use of the dose-length product (DLP) as an estimate of the total energy imparted to the patient. However, the DLP is still widely used as a reference quantity to normalize the effective dose for a given scan protocol mainly because the CTDI{sub 100} is an easy-to-measure quantity. The aim of this article is therefore to describe a method for radiation dose assessment in large cone-beam single axial scans, which leads to a straightforward estimation of the total energy imparted to the patient. The authors developed a method accessible to all medical physicists and easy to implement in clinical practice in an attempt to update the bridge between CT dosimetry and the estimation of the effective dose. Methods: The authors used commercially available material and a simple mathematical model. The method described herein is based on the dosimetry paradigm introduced by the AAPM Task Group 111. It consists of measuring the dose profiles at the center and the periphery of a long body phantom with a commercial solid-state detector. A weighted dose profile is then calculated from these measurements. To calculate the CT dosimetric quantities analytically, a Gaussian function was fitted to the dose profile data. Furthermore, the Gaussian model has the power to condense the z-axis information of the dose profile in two parameters: The single-scan central dose, f(0), and the width of the profile, {sigma}. To check the energy dependence of the solid-state detector, the authors compared the dose profiles to measurements made with a small volume ion chamber. To validate the overall method, the authors compared the CTDI{sub 100} calculated analytically to the measurement made with a 100 mm pencil ion chamber. Results: For the central and weighted dose profiles, the authors found a good agreement between the measured dose profile data and the fitted Gaussian functions. The solid-state detector had no energy dependence--within the energy range of interest--and the analytical model succeeded in reproducing the absolute dose values obtained with the pencil ion chamber. For the case of large cone-beam single axial scans, the quantity that better characterizes the total energy imparted to the patient is the weighted dose profile integral (DPI{sub w}). The DPI{sub w} can be easily determined from the two parameters that define the Gaussian functions: f(0) and {sigma}. The authors found that the DLP underestimated the total energy imparted to the patient by more than 20%. The authors also found that the calculated CT dosimetric quantities were higher than those displayed on the scanner console. Conclusions: The authors described and validated a method to assess radiation dose in large cone-beam single axial scans. This method offers a simple and more accurate estimation of the total energy imparted to the patient, thus offering the possibility to update the bridge between CT dosimetry and the estimation of the effective dose for cone-beam CT examinations in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy.

  18. A 320 mV, 6 kb subthreshold 10T SRAM employing voltage lowering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jiangzheng; Zhang Sumin; Yuan Jia; Shang Xinchao; Chen Liming; Hei Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a 6 kb SRAM that uses a novel 10T cell to achieve a minimum operating voltage of 320 mV in a 130 nm CMOS process. A number of low power circuit techniques are included to enable the proposed SRAM to operate in the subthreshold region. The reverse short channel effect and the reverse narrow channel effect are utilized to improve the performance of the SRAM. A novel subthreshold pulse generation circuit produces an ideal pulse to make read operation stable. A floating write bit-line effectively reduces the standby leakage consumption. Finally, a short read bit-line makes the read operation fast and energy-saving. Measurements indicate that these techniques are effective, the SRAM can operate at 800 kHz and consume 1.94 μW at its lowest voltage (320 mV). (paper)

  19. 77 FR 51944 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A318-112 Airplane (S/N 3238); Certification of Cooktops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ...: Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/ and follow the online instructions for... way, executive lounge, two private lounges, and a private bathroom. The entry will include the.... If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do...

  20. 78 FR 6198 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A318-112 Airplane (S/N 3238); Certification of Cooktops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... large, transport-category airplane powered by two CFM56-5B9/P engines, with a basic maximum takeoff..., electrical resistance, and fire extinguishing including cooking oil fires for light duty and heavy duty.... [Note: The applicant may find additional useful information in the Society of Automotive Engineers...

  1. Exploring the atomic structure and conformational flexibility of a 320 Å long engineered viral fiber using X-ray crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Anshul [Thomas Jefferson University, 233 South 10th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Casjens, Sherwood R. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cingolani, Gino, E-mail: gino.cingolani@jefferson.edu [Thomas Jefferson University, 233 South 10th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the crystal structure of a ∼320 Å long protein fiber generated by in-frame extension of its repeated helical coiled-coil core. Protein fibers are widespread in nature, but only a limited number of high-resolution structures have been determined experimentally. Unlike globular proteins, fibers are usually recalcitrant to form three-dimensional crystals, preventing single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the absence of three-dimensional crystals, X-ray fiber diffraction is a powerful tool to determine the internal symmetry of a fiber, but it rarely yields atomic resolution structural information on complex protein fibers. An 85-residue-long minimal coiled-coil repeat unit (MiCRU) was previously identified in the trimeric helical core of tail needle gp26, a fibrous protein emanating from the tail apparatus of the bacteriophage P22 virion. Here, evidence is provided that an MiCRU can be inserted in frame inside the gp26 helical core to generate a rationally extended fiber (gp26-2M) which, like gp26, retains a trimeric quaternary structure in solution. The 2.7 Å resolution crystal structure of this engineered fiber, which measures ∼320 Å in length and is only 20–35 Å wide, was determined. This structure, the longest for a trimeric protein fiber to be determined to such a high resolution, reveals the architecture of 22 consecutive trimerization heptads and provides a framework to decipher the structural determinants for protein fiber assembly, stability and flexibility.

  2. Exploring the atomic structure and conformational flexibility of a 320 Å long engineered viral fiber using X-ray crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, Anshul; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Cingolani, Gino

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the crystal structure of a ∼320 Å long protein fiber generated by in-frame extension of its repeated helical coiled-coil core. Protein fibers are widespread in nature, but only a limited number of high-resolution structures have been determined experimentally. Unlike globular proteins, fibers are usually recalcitrant to form three-dimensional crystals, preventing single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the absence of three-dimensional crystals, X-ray fiber diffraction is a powerful tool to determine the internal symmetry of a fiber, but it rarely yields atomic resolution structural information on complex protein fibers. An 85-residue-long minimal coiled-coil repeat unit (MiCRU) was previously identified in the trimeric helical core of tail needle gp26, a fibrous protein emanating from the tail apparatus of the bacteriophage P22 virion. Here, evidence is provided that an MiCRU can be inserted in frame inside the gp26 helical core to generate a rationally extended fiber (gp26-2M) which, like gp26, retains a trimeric quaternary structure in solution. The 2.7 Å resolution crystal structure of this engineered fiber, which measures ∼320 Å in length and is only 20–35 Å wide, was determined. This structure, the longest for a trimeric protein fiber to be determined to such a high resolution, reveals the architecture of 22 consecutive trimerization heptads and provides a framework to decipher the structural determinants for protein fiber assembly, stability and flexibility

  3. Chronic exposure of Sk-1 hairless mice to narrow-band ultraviolet A (320-355 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menter, J.M.; Sayre, R.M.; Etemadi, A.A.; Agin, P.P.; Wills, I.

    1996-01-01

    Several recent investigations collectively suggest that the role of ultraviolet A (UVA) in chronic actinic skin damage may be greater than originally thought. In the present work, the output of a xenon-arc solar-simulator passed through a Bausch and Lomb monochromator in conjunction with a 2-mm Schott WG-320 filter produced narrow-band UVA centered at 338 nm, half-band width 24 nm, I 0 =3.4±0.3 mW/cm 2 . We chronically irradiated 10 SK-1 albino hairless mice 5 times per week for 18 weeks, starting with 1.25 J/cm 2 , for 33 irradiation days, sequentially followed by 1.50 J/cm 2 (34 days), 1.8 J/cm 2 (10 days), 2.0 J/cm 2 (22 days) to afford a total UVA dose of 154.3 J/cm 2 over 99 irradiation days. Erythema was noted clinically by day 6, which persisted throughout the irradiation. During the irradiation period, some scaling, consistent with mild epidermal hyperplasia was noted during irradiation days 37-56. This response later regressed despite continued chronic irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin examination immediately after the final irradiation revealed a mild inflammatory response, with some dermal restructuring. At the end of the experiment, no significant signs of epidermal hyperplasia or (pre)malignant lesions were seen, although some stratum corneum thickening was noted. Marked dermal collagen damage and moderate elastosis was also evident. We believe that the observed differences in results reported in previous studies are in large part due to differences in light sources and irradiation protocols. (au)

  4. MT3250BA: a 320×256-50µm snapshot microbolometer ROIC for high-resistance detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Akin, Tayfun

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new microbolometer readout integrated circuit (MT3250BA) designed for high-resistance detector arrays. MT3250BA is the first microbolometer readout integrated circuit (ROIC) product from Mikro-Tasarim Ltd., which is a fabless IC design house specialized in the development of monolithic CMOS imaging sensors and ROICs for hybrid photonic imaging sensors and microbolometers. MT3250BA has a format of 320 × 256 and a pixel pitch of 50 µm, developed with a system-on-chip architecture in mind, where all the timing and biasing for this ROIC are generated on-chip without requiring any external inputs. MT3250BA is a highly configurable ROIC, where many of its features can be programmed through a 3-wire serial interface allowing on-the-fly configuration of many ROIC features. MT3250BA has 2 analog video outputs and 1 analog reference output for pseudo-differential operation, and the ROIC can be programmed to operate in the 1 or 2-output modes. A unique feature of MT3250BA is that it performs snapshot readout operation; therefore, the image quality will only be limited by the thermal time constant of the detector pixels, but not by the scanning speed of the ROIC, as commonly found in the conventional microbolometer ROICs performing line-by-line (rolling-line) readout operation. The signal integration is performed at the pixel level in parallel for the whole array, and signal integration time can be programmed from 0.1 µs up to 100 ms in steps of 0.1 µs. The ROIC is designed to work with high-resistance detector arrays with pixel resistance values higher than 250 kΩ. The detector bias voltage can be programmed on-chip over a 2 V range with a resolution of 1 mV. The ROIC has a measured input referred noise of 260 µV rms at 300 K. The ROIC can be used to build a microbolometer infrared sensor with an NETD value below 100 mK using a microbolometer detector array fabrication technology with a high detector resistance value (≥ 250 KΩ), a high TCR value (≥ 2.5 % / K), and a sufficiently low pixel thermal conductance (Gth ≤ 20 nW / K). The ROIC uses a single 3.3 V supply voltage and dissipates less than 75 mW in the 1-output mode at 60 fps. MT3250BA is fabricated using a mixed-signal CMOS process on 200 mm CMOS wafers, and tested wafers are available with test data and wafer map. A USB based compact test electronics and software are available for quick evaluation of this new microbolometer ROIC.

  5. Evaluation of the CT dose index for scans with an ECG using a 320-row multiple-detector CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Suzuki, Shouichi; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Katada, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between heart rate (HR) and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was evaluated using an electrocardiogram (ECG) gate scan for scan applications such as prospective triggering, Ca scoring, target computed tomography angiography (CTA), prospective CTA and retrospective gating, continuous CTA/CFA (cardiac functional analysis) and CTA/CFA modulation. Even in the case of a volume scan, doses for the multiple scan average dose were similar to those for CTDI. Moreover, it was found that the ECG gate scan yields significantly different doses. When selecting the optimum scan, the doses were dependent on many factors such as HR, scan rotation time, active time, pre-specified cardiac phase and modulation rate. Therefore, it is necessary to take these results into consideration when selecting the scanning parameters. (authors)

  6. Influence of pores on crack initiation in monotonic tensile and cyclic loadings in lost foam casting A319 alloy by using 3D in-situ analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Long, E-mail: longwang_calt@163.com [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, Arts et Metiers Paris tech, FRE 3723 – LML – Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, F-59000 Lille (France); Limodin, Nathalie; El Bartali, Ahmed; Witz, Jean-François; Seghir, Rian [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, Arts et Metiers Paris tech, FRE 3723 – LML – Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, F-59000 Lille (France); Buffiere, Jean-Yves [Laboratoire Matériaux, Ingénierie et Sciences (MATEIS), CNRS UMR5510, INSA-Lyon, 20 Av. Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Charkaluk, Eric [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, Arts et Metiers Paris tech, FRE 3723 – LML – Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2016-09-15

    Lost Foam Casting (LFC) process is replacing the conventional gravity Die Casting (DC) process in automotive industry for the purpose of geometry optimization, cost reduction and consumption control. However, due to lower cooling rate, LFC produces in a coarser microstructure that reduces fatigue life. In order to study the influence of the casting microstructure of LFC Al-Si alloy on damage micromechanisms under monotonic tensile loading and Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) at room temperature, an experimental protocol based on the three dimensional (3D) in-situ analysis has been set up and validated. This paper focuses on the influence of pores on crack initiation in monotonic and cyclic tensile loadings. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allowed the microstructure of material being characterized in 3D and damage evolution being followed in-situ also in 3D. Experimental and numerical mechanical fields were obtained by using Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) technique and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation respectively. Pores were shown to have an important influence on strain localization as large pores generate enough strain localization zones for crack initiation both in monotonic tensile and cyclic loadings.

  7. Coupling of experimental measurements to study the influence of microscopic defects on the fatigue damage in A319 Al-Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Long

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental protocol based on the coupling of kinematic field measurements on the surface and in volume at the microstructure scale has been set up in order to study the influence of the casting microstructure upon the initiation and propagation of cracks in low cycle fatigue. Preliminary applications of this protocol on tensile tests were successful as it allowed tracking the development and localization of plastic deformation and identifying the initiation sites of microcracks during tests in relation with the observed surface and volume microstructures. Application of the proposed protocol to low cycle fatigue is an on-going work.

  8. Influence of pores on crack initiation in monotonic tensile and cyclic loadings in lost foam casting A319 alloy by using 3D in-situ analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Limodin, Nathalie; El Bartali, Ahmed; Witz, Jean-François; Seghir, Rian; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Charkaluk, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Lost Foam Casting (LFC) process is replacing the conventional gravity Die Casting (DC) process in automotive industry for the purpose of geometry optimization, cost reduction and consumption control. However, due to lower cooling rate, LFC produces in a coarser microstructure that reduces fatigue life. In order to study the influence of the casting microstructure of LFC Al-Si alloy on damage micromechanisms under monotonic tensile loading and Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) at room temperature, an experimental protocol based on the three dimensional (3D) in-situ analysis has been set up and validated. This paper focuses on the influence of pores on crack initiation in monotonic and cyclic tensile loadings. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allowed the microstructure of material being characterized in 3D and damage evolution being followed in-situ also in 3D. Experimental and numerical mechanical fields were obtained by using Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) technique and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation respectively. Pores were shown to have an important influence on strain localization as large pores generate enough strain localization zones for crack initiation both in monotonic tensile and cyclic loadings.

  9. A 320-year long series of Danube floods in Central Hungary (Budapest and Pest County): a frequency-magnitude-seasonality overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea; Salinas, Jose; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2015-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred in the town of Budapest (historical towns of Pest, Buda) and Central Hungary (historical Pest-Pilis-Solt County). As for the archival evidence, main bases of investigation are the administrative sources such as town council protocols and county meeting protocols of Budapest and historical Pest-Pilis-Solt County: in these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers; however, other published sources (e.g. narratives, fund raising circulars etc.; both published and unpublished) also contained useful flood-related information. Beyond providing information on the strength and weaknesses of different sources types and the temporal and spatial distribution of evidence, a general background on the contemporary environmental and hydrological/hydromorphological conditions of the study area (and its changes during and after river regulations) are also provided. However, in the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood rich flood poor periods of the last more than 300 years; furthermore, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Danube flood events - and their spatial differences are discussed. In case of Budapest and Central Hungary, with respect to the greatest flood events, ice jam floods played a rather significant role before river regulation works. Due to this fact the main types of flood events (including their main causes), with special emphasis on ice jam floods, are discussed separate.

  10. Left atrial passive emptying function is preserved in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation--a 320-slice multidetector computed tomography study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, Bue Fridolin Ross; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Left atrial (LA) mechanical function is thought to be virtually inexistent in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Due to recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technology, it is now possible to acquire images of the entire heart in a single heartbeat....... The objective of this study was to compare individual components of LA function assessed by MDCT in patients with permanent AF and patients in sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: 320-slice MDCT was performed in 30 patients with permanent AF. Measurements of LA volumes during the cardiac cycle were compared to 30......; 71 vs. 30 ml/m(2), p permanent AF have significantly increased LA volumes throughout the cardiac...

  11. Exploring the atomic structure and conformational flexibility of a 320 Å long engineered viral fiber using X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshul; Casjens, Sherwood R; Cingolani, Gino

    2014-02-01

    Protein fibers are widespread in nature, but only a limited number of high-resolution structures have been determined experimentally. Unlike globular proteins, fibers are usually recalcitrant to form three-dimensional crystals, preventing single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the absence of three-dimensional crystals, X-ray fiber diffraction is a powerful tool to determine the internal symmetry of a fiber, but it rarely yields atomic resolution structural information on complex protein fibers. An 85-residue-long minimal coiled-coil repeat unit (MiCRU) was previously identified in the trimeric helical core of tail needle gp26, a fibrous protein emanating from the tail apparatus of the bacteriophage P22 virion. Here, evidence is provided that an MiCRU can be inserted in frame inside the gp26 helical core to generate a rationally extended fiber (gp26-2M) which, like gp26, retains a trimeric quaternary structure in solution. The 2.7 Å resolution crystal structure of this engineered fiber, which measures ∼320 Å in length and is only 20-35 Å wide, was determined. This structure, the longest for a trimeric protein fiber to be determined to such a high resolution, reveals the architecture of 22 consecutive trimerization heptads and provides a framework to decipher the structural determinants for protein fiber assembly, stability and flexibility.

  12. The value of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging and CT angiography using a 320-slice CT scanner in the diagnosis of MCI and AD patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Gu, Guo-jun; Jiang, Hong; Guo, Yi; Shen, Xing; Li, Bo; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    To validate the value of whole-brain computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and CT angiography (CTA) in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whole-brain CTP and four-dimensional CT angiography (4D-CTA) images were acquired in 30 MCI, 35 mild AD patients, 35 moderate AD patients, 30 severe AD patients and 50 normal controls (NC). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP), and correlation between CTP and 4D-CTA were analysed. Elevated CBF in the left frontal and temporal cortex was found in MCI compared with the NC group. However, TTP was increased in the left hippocampus in mild AD patients compared with NC. In moderate and severe AD patients, hypoperfusion was found in multiple brain areas compared with NC. Finally, we found that the extent of arterial stenosis was negatively correlated with CBF in partial cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and positively correlated with TTP in these areas of AD and MCI patients. Our findings suggest that whole-brain CTP and 4D-CTA could serve as a diagnostic modality in distinguishing MCI and AD, and predicting conversion from MCI based on TTP of left hippocampus. (orig.)

  13. The value of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging and CT angiography using a 320-slice CT scanner in the diagnosis of MCI and AD patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Gu, Guo-jun; Jiang, Hong; Guo, Yi [Medical School of Tongji University, Department of Medical Imaging, Tongji Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shen, Xing [Traditional Chinese Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kun Shan, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Bo; Zhang, Wei [Medical School of Jiaotong University, Department of Medical Imaging, Renji Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2017-11-15

    To validate the value of whole-brain computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and CT angiography (CTA) in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whole-brain CTP and four-dimensional CT angiography (4D-CTA) images were acquired in 30 MCI, 35 mild AD patients, 35 moderate AD patients, 30 severe AD patients and 50 normal controls (NC). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP), and correlation between CTP and 4D-CTA were analysed. Elevated CBF in the left frontal and temporal cortex was found in MCI compared with the NC group. However, TTP was increased in the left hippocampus in mild AD patients compared with NC. In moderate and severe AD patients, hypoperfusion was found in multiple brain areas compared with NC. Finally, we found that the extent of arterial stenosis was negatively correlated with CBF in partial cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and positively correlated with TTP in these areas of AD and MCI patients. Our findings suggest that whole-brain CTP and 4D-CTA could serve as a diagnostic modality in distinguishing MCI and AD, and predicting conversion from MCI based on TTP of left hippocampus. (orig.)

  14. Automatic exposure control at single- and dual-heartbeat CTCA on a 320-MDCT volume scanner: effect of heart rate, exposure phase window setting, and reconstruction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funama, Yoshinori; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Oda, Seitaro; Shimonobo, Toshiaki; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated single- and dual-heartbeat computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) with automatic exposure control (AEC) yields images with uniform image noise at reduced radiation doses. Using an anthropomorphic chest CT phantom we performed prospectively ECG-gated single- and dual-heartbeat CTCA on a second-generation 320-multidetector CT volume scanner. The exposure phase window was set at 75%, 70-80%, 40-80%, and 0-100% and the heart rate at 60 or 80 or corr80 bpm; images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) or iterative reconstruction (IR, adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D). We applied AEC and set the image noise level to 20 or 25 HU. For each technique we determined the image noise and the radiation dose to the phantom center. With half-scan reconstruction at 60 bpm, a 70-80% phase window- and a 20-HU standard deviation (SD) setting, the imagenoise level and -variation along the z axis manifested similar curves with FBP and IR. With half-scan reconstruction, the radiation dose to the phantom center with 70-80% phase window was 18.89 and 12.34 mGy for FBP and 4.61 and 3.10 mGy for IR at an SD setting SD of 20 and 25 HU, respectively. At 80 bpm with two-segment reconstruction the dose was approximately twice that of 60 bpm at both SD settings. However, increasing radiation dose at corr80 bpm was suppressed to 1.39 times compared to 60 bpm. AEC at ECG-gated single- and dual-heartbeat CTCA controls the image noise at different radiation dose. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. General temperature field measurement by digital holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít; Vít, Tomáš; Václavík, Jan; Kopecký, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2013), A319-A325 ISSN 1559-128X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : digital holography * temperature field measurement * tomography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2013

  16. 77 FR 65808 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A320-214 and -232 airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports that medium-head fasteners were... installation of upper panels on Frame 35 in Airbus A320 final assembly line. Investigations revealed that...

  17. Temperature Effects on the Tensile Properties of Precipitation-Hardened Al-Mg-Cu-Si Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Ferguson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Because the mechanical performance of precipitation-hardened alloys can be significantly altered with temperature changes, understanding and predicting the effects of temperatures on various mechanical properties for these alloys are important. In the present work, an analytical model has been developed to predict the elastic modulus, the yield stress, the failure stress, and the failure strain taking into consideration the effect of temperatures for precipitation-hardenable Al-Mg-Cu-Si Alloys (Al-A319 alloys. In addition, other important mechanical properties of Al-A319 alloys including the strain hardening exponent, the strength coefficient, and the ductility parameter can be estimated using the current model. It is demonstrated that the prediction results based on the proposed model are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally in Al-A319 alloys in the as-cast condition and after W and T7 heat treatments.

  18. Protective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Photo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: HSF cells were incubated in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium ... solar UV can be divided into UV A (320–400 nm), .... underlying mechanism of UV radiation damage is ... This work was supported by National Key.

  19. Pulse shaping using the optical Fourier transform technique - for ultra-high-speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment.......This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment....

  20. 42 CFR 56.701 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... grants awarded pursuant to section 319(g) of the Act for the provision of technical and other non-financial assistance to grantees under sections 319(c)(1)(A), 319(d)(1)(A) and 319(d)(1)(B) of the Act. ...

  1. 78 FR 77115 - Lock 14 Hydro Partners; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ...: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: David Brown Kinloch, Lock 14 Hydro... of: (1) An existing 248-foot- long, 17-foot-high concrete lock and dam with a 319-foot-long stone...

  2. 77 FR 16492 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...-0291; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-168-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A318-112, and -121... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  3. All-Optical Wavelength Conversion of a High-Speed RZ-OOK Signal in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion of a 320 Gb/s line-rate RZ-OOK signal is demonstrated based on four-wave mixing in a 3.6 mm long silicon nanowire. Bit error rate measurements validate the performance within FEC limits.......All-optical wavelength conversion of a 320 Gb/s line-rate RZ-OOK signal is demonstrated based on four-wave mixing in a 3.6 mm long silicon nanowire. Bit error rate measurements validate the performance within FEC limits....

  4. Experimental Demonstration of 32 Gbaud 4-PAM for Data Center Interconnections of up to 320 km

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Clausen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results demonstrating a 64 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over a 320 km SSMF span employing standard 80 km fiber spans for metro links. The receiver consists of a LPF and a DFE utilizing the DD-LMS algorithm.......This paper presents experimental results demonstrating a 64 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over a 320 km SSMF span employing standard 80 km fiber spans for metro links. The receiver consists of a LPF and a DFE utilizing the DD-LMS algorithm....

  5. 320-to-40-Gb/s optical demultiplexing using four-wave mixing in a quantum-dot soa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsuura, M.; Gomez-Agis, F.; Calabretta, N.; Raz, O.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2012-01-01

    We report, for the first time, the optical demultiplexing of a 320-Gb/s intensity-modulated signal using four-wave mixing in a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier. Error-free operations were successfully achieved for all the 40-Gb/s channels extracted by the optical demultiplexer.

  6. Light interaction with nano-structured diatom frustule, from UV-A to NIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibohm, Christian; Nielsen, Josefine Holm; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    symmetry where morphological parameters vary between the different investigated species. We report how light interacts with the frustule in the wavelength range from UV-A (320-380 nm) to NIR (900 nm). High resolution spectroscopy and CCD images are used to identify photoluminescence (PL) and variations...

  7. Life-critical digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcwha, James

    1990-01-01

    Digital autopilot systems were first used on commercial airplanes in the late 1970s. The A-320 airplane was the first air transport airplane with a fly-by-wire primary flight control system. On the 767-X (777) airplane Boeing will install all fly-by-wire flight controls. Activities related to safety, industry status and program phases are discussed.

  8. 77 FR 26996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ...-0427; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-202-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A320-214 and-232... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  9. 77 FR 19067 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A321-131, -211, -212, and -231 airplanes. This AD requires a.... Relevant Service Information Airbus has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin A320-57-1120, Revision 01...

  10. 78 FR 52414 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A320-214, -232 and -233 airplanes; and Model A321-211, - 213, and -231 airplanes. This AD... Service Information Airbus requested that we revise the NPRM (77 FR 63270, October 16, 2012) to reflect...

  11. ORF Alignment: cds [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cds gnl|CMER >1a320 1 85 35 119 3e-17 ... gb|AAK39926.1| plastidal 30S ribosomal prot...ein S15 [Guillardia theta] pir||G90099 ... plastidal 30S ribosomal protein S15 [imported] - ... ... ... Guillardia theta nucleomorph ref|NP_113370.1| plastidal ... 30S ribosomal protein S15 [Guillardia t

  12. Ultraviolet-A LED Based on Quantum-disks-in-AlGaN-nanowires - Optimization and Device Reliability

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Priante, Davide; Prabaswara, Aditya; Alanazi, Lafi M.; Zhao, Chao; Alhamoud, Abdullah; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Rahman, Abdul; Alyamani, Ahmed; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-01-01

    simulation, and device reliability. To optimize a UV-A (320-400 nm) device structure we utilize the self-assembled quantum-disk-NWs with varying quantum-disks thickness to study carrier separation in active-region and implement an improved p

  13. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves,

  14. 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM received by polarization-insensitive time-domain OFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated the generation of a 320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM signal by rectangular filtering on an RZ-OTDM signal with the filter bandwidth (320 GHz) equal to the baud rate (320 Gbaud) and the reception of such a Nyquist-OTDM signal using polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier tra...

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THERMOGRAPHIC CAMERAS FOR PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yastikli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was

  16. Performance Evaluation of Thermographic Cameras for Photogrammetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastikli, N.; Guler, E.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was modelled efficiently

  17. Flat-top pulse generation by the optical Fourier transform technique for ultrahigh speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super-Gaussian sp......This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super...

  18. Cosmic radiation and air crew exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Lisjak, I.; Vekic, B.; Planinic, J.

    2005-01-01

    When the primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they interact with the air nuclei and induce cosmic-ray shower. When an aircraft is in the air, the radiation field within includes many types of radiation of large energy range; the field comprises mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons. Cosmic radiation dose for crews of air crafts A 320 and ATR 42 was measured using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; radon concentration in the atmosphere was measured using the Alpha Guard radon detector. The total annual dose estimated for the A 320 aircraft crew, at altitudes up to 12000 meters, was 5.3 mSv (including natural radon radiation dose of 1.1 mSv).(author)

  19. Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-09-18

    A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods.

  20. Influences of nuclear containment radius on the aircraft impact force based on the Riera function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Wu, H., E-mail: abrahamhao@126.com; Fang, Q.; Gong, Z.M.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A fine aircraft model of A320 was built and verified by available limited prototype impacting tests. • The influences of aircraft longitudinal crushing strength on the impact process were analyzed. • The influences of NPP containment radius on the impact force were numerically studied. • The Riera function was modified by considering the radius effect of NPP containment. - Abstract: The aircraft impact force directly influences the local failure and global response of the nuclear power plant (NPP) containment, while the existing theoretical models and the field tests were almost based on the flat target. In order to analyze the radius effect of the circular sectional containment on the impact force, a fine FE model of the commercial aircraft A320 was established and validated by the available limited full-scale F-4 Phantom impact experiment. In order to determine the force to crush the A320 FE model, the influences of aircraft longitudinal crushing strength on the impact process were analyzed based on the Riera function. Considering the containment decaying effect to aircraft impact velocity, the impact impulse was theoretically calculated, while the influences of the losses of mass and energy were not included. The numerical simulations of A320 aircrafts impacting on simplified NPP containments with different radii were conducted, which could well reproduce the airframe crushing and debris scattering. By comparison of the simulated impact impulses and the calculation values by the Riera function, the coefficients corresponding to different containment radii are derived and a fitting formula is obtained. Finally, an improved Riera function dependent on the dimensionless ratio of nuclear containment radius and aircraft wingspan is proposed.

  1. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  2. RISK CONNECTED WITH AIRCRAFT PRODUCTION IN ACCORDANCE WITH MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Enikeev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of understanding of risk assessment necessity connected with aircraft production in accordance with Minimum Equipment List (MEL. The article presents calculation of fail-safe performance probability of Airbus A320 Family fuel system in the event of defect which rectification is postponed in accordance with MEL. The article also presents the results of risk assessment connected with aircraft production in accordance with MEL.

  3. Application of image based measurement techniques for the investigation of aeroengine performance on a commercial aircraft in ground operation

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Andreas; Geisler, Reinhard; Schanz, Daniel; Agocs, Janos; Pallek, Dieter; Schroll, Michael; Klinner, Joachim; Beversdorff, Manfred; Voges, Melanie; Willert, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of the flow and sound field upstream and downstream of a full scale aeroengine is aimed at providing important reference data required for reliable modeling and prediction. In this regard a wide variety of contactless and non-invasive laser optical and acoustic measurement techniques have matured in recent years to allow their application on full scale aircraft. Within a measurement campaign involving an Airbus A320 DLR research aircraft inside a sound-attenuating hangar at ...

  4. Molecular and Biological Characterization of Chinese Sacbrood Virus LN Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Mingxiao, Ma; Ming, Li; Jian, Cheng; Song, Yang; Shude, Wang; Pengfei, Li

    2011-01-01

    Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) was purified from diseased insects, and its genome was cloned and sequenced. The genomic RNA of CSBV is 8863 nucleotides in length and contains a single large open reading frame encoding a 319.614 kDa polyprotein. The coding sequence is flanked by a 178-nucleotide 5′ nontranslated leader sequence and a 142-nucleotide 3′ nontranslated region, followed a poly(A) tail. Four major structural proteins, VP1,VP2, VP3 and VP4, were predicted in the N-teminal of the poly...

  5. Effect of varying temperature on growth, morphology and soluble protein content of div I and div II mutant strains of bacillus sub tills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Sabri, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    In B.subtilis, cell division is controlled by div-genes which have been mapped on its circular chromosome. In the present work, div-mutant strains 1A316(div II), 1A317 and 1A318 (div I) were studied. These strains exhibited temperature sensitive cell division mutations. Colony morphology, cell morphology, staining behavior, growth rate and protein content of PY79 (wild type) and div-mutant strains (1A316, 1A317, 1A318) was studied at different temperatures ( 25 deg. Centi grade and 42 deg. with varying incubation periods(4, 16, 24, 48, 72,96 hrs). div-mutants differ from wild type (PY79) in colony morphology. Colony margin in PY79 was entire while in the div strains it is undulate. Staining behavior of cells as well as cell morphology i.e., cell size, cell types, formation of filaments/minicells were affected by high temperature. At higher temperature (42 deg. Centi grade), div-mutants undergo more severe lysis and degeneration as compare to wild type (PY79). Defective spores were produced by div-mutants at 25 deg. Centi grade and 42 deg. Centi grade. Tetrazolium overlay test was performed at 37 deg. Centi grade and 42 deg. Centi grade to check the spore germination ability of wild type and div-mutants. In 1A318, defective spores were produced at 37 deg. Centi grade, div-mutant was checked after 24 and 96 hrs at different temperatures (25, 37 and 42 deg. Centi grade). At all temperatures protein content were more in PY79 as compare to div-mutants. Also at 25 and 42 deg. Centi grade, protein content was more as compare to 37 deg. Centi grade. Protein contents was reduced at sporulation stages. Thus cell division mutations affect cell morphology, sporulation and germination processes in B.subtilis and thus are multifaceted mutations. (author)

  6. The management-retrieval code of the sub-library of atomic mass and characteristic constants for nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zongdi; Ma Lizhen

    1994-01-01

    The management code of the sub-library of atomic mass and characteristic constants for nuclear ground state (MCC) is used for displaying the basic information on the MCC sub-library on the screen, and retrieving the required data. The MCC data file contains the data of 4800 nuclides ranging from Z 0, A = 1 to Z = 122, A = 318. The MCC sub-library has been set up at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC), and has been used to provide the atomic masses and characteristic constants of nuclear ground states for the nuclear model calculation, nuclear data evaluations and other fields

  7. Comment on "On the security of a spatiotemporal chaotic cryptosystem" [Chaos 17, 033117 (2007)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2008-09-01

    This paper comments on a recent paper by R. Rhouma and B. Safya [Chaos 17, 033117 (2007)]. They claimed to find some security weakness of the spatiotemporal chaotic cryptosystem suggested by G. Tang et al. [Phys. Lett. A 318, 388 (2003)] and proposed a chosen-plaintext attack to analyze this system. We find that in their analysis, called a "chosen-plaintext attack," they actually act as a legal receiver (with a machine in their hands during the entire decryption process) rather than an attacker and, therefore, the whole reasoning is not valid. (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Determination of the activation energy in a cast aluminium alloy by TEM and DSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovono Ovono, D.; Guillot, I.; Massinon, D.

    2007-01-01

    The precipitation behaviour and microstructure development of the A319 alloy during ageing were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and STEM). During T5 treatment, θ' precipitates with an average size of about 18 nm were observed by TEM. The precipitate sizes increased with ageing temperature and attained an average size of 107 nm. In addition, there was a linear relationship between precipitate growth temperature and the cube of the precipitate size. This indicates that precipitate growth of the A319 alloy belongs to a thermal activated process of the Arrhenius type. The activation energy for the precipitate growth was calculated to be 140.4 ± 13.3 kJ/mol. However, under continuous heating conditions, the activation energy for the precipitate growth obtained by Kissinger plot was determined to be 119.5 ± 8.3 kJ/mol. Allowing for experimental error, both values are comparable and are related to the diffusion of Cu and/or Si in Al

  9. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadique, M.R.; Iqbal, M.A.; Bhargava, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment

  10. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadique, M.R., E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in; Bhargava, P., E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment.

  11. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

  12. Genetic structure of Antioquia Holstein from two SNPs and association with dairy traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephania Madrid G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Analyze the structure and genetic differentiation of a population of Antioquia Holstein cows from the polymorphisms A192G of INHA and A-320T of FSHR, and explore the association of the genotypic combinations with milk traits. Materials and methods. 1240 lactations of 356 animals from 9 herds in 6 municipalities of Antioquia were analyzed. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Structure and genetic diversity parameters were determined using GenAlex software. The association of genotypes combinations with productive and reproductive traits was explored through a linear mixed model. Results. SNP A192G showed a frequency of 0.534 and 0.466 for A and G alleles respectively and SNP A-320T had a frequency of 0.660 far A allele and 0.339 for T allele, this way the population is in HWE. The FST, FIS and FIT values were 0.059, 0.285 and 0.328 respectively indicating a moderate genetic differentiation between subpopulations. The A-320T SNP showed significant effect on milk yield. Fat and protein percentage, calving interval and services per conception were not affected by these polymorphisms or their interaction. Conclusions. Phenotypic selection made on this population has not been strong enough to generate noticeable changes in allele frequencies of these polymorphisms or deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The interaction of these polymorphisms has no significant effect on the characteristics of zootechnical interest, so its use in programs of molecular marker assisted selection is not recommended.

  13. Cytogenetic effects of near ultraviolet radiation in normal and systemic lupus erythematosus lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporossi, D.; Sebastiani, G.; Nicoletti, B. (Rome 2 University (Italy). Department of Public Health and Cellular Biology); Masala, C. (' La Sapienza' University, rome (Italy). Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases)

    1990-03-01

    The authors conducted a study on the spontaneous and UV-A induced frequency of chromosomal breaks and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in purified lymphocytes from normal donors and from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who were in clinical remission at the time of the study. Our results show that although SLE lymphocytes exhibit a higher frequency of spontaneous SCEs than controls, the rate of chromosomal breakage is comparable in the 2-groups. In both controls and patients, irradiation with UV-A (320-400 nm) increases the SCE values but does not significantly affect the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. (author). 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs.

  14. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  15. Development and Synthesis of DNA-Encoded Benzimidazole Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yun; Chai, Jing; Centrella, Paolo A; Gondo, Chenaimwoyo; DeLorey, Jennifer L; Clark, Matthew A

    2018-04-25

    Encoded library technology (ELT) is an effective approach to the discovery of novel small-molecule ligands for biological targets. A key factor for the success of the technology is the chemical diversity of the libraries. Here we report the development of DNA-conjugated benzimidazoles. Using 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid as a key synthon, we synthesized a 320 million-member DNA-encoded benzimidazole library using Fmoc-protected amino acids, amines and aldehydes as diversity elements. Affinity selection of the library led to the discovery of a novel, potent and specific antagonist of the NK3 receptor.

  16. Cytogenetic effects of near ultraviolet radiation in normal and systemic lupus erythematosus lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporossi, D.; Sebastiani, G.; Nicoletti, B.; Masala, C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors conducted a study on the spontaneous and UV-A induced frequency of chromosomal breaks and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in purified lymphocytes from normal donors and from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who were in clinical remission at the time of the study. Our results show that although SLE lymphocytes exhibit a higher frequency of spontaneous SCEs than controls, the rate of chromosomal breakage is comparable in the 2-groups. In both controls and patients, irradiation with UV-A (320-400 nm) increases the SCE values but does not significantly affect the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. (author). 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  17. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on prostaglandin-E2 production by cultured corneal stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinreb, R.N.; Yue, B.Y.J.T.; Peyman, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the release of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) by rabbit corneal stromal cells in culture. Considerable amounts of PGE 2 were present in the media of control corneal cultures following 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hr of incubation. Irradiation with UV-A (320-400 nm) for 30 min resulted in more than a 50% increase in PGE 2 release. Dexamethasone inhibited PGE 2 release by corneal stromal cells. It was, however, ineffective in protecting the cells from the UV-induced release of PGE 2 . (author)

  18. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  19. CO{sub 2} laser coating of nanodiamond on aluminum using an annular beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Rodger; Molian, Pal, E-mail: molian@iastate.edu

    2014-01-01

    Laser coating of nanodiamond (ND) on aluminum alloy A319 substrate was investigated using a diffraction-free ring beam. A 1000 W continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser in the ring beam configuration heated the 25–35 μm thick electrostatically sprayed ND powder layers on aluminum surface, melted a very thin layer (10 μm) of aluminum in a controlled fashion and caused phase transition of ND to form 50–60 μm thick ND/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. Significant improvements in friction, wear resistance and surface finish were observed in the ring beam method over the traditional Gaussian beam method suggesting that these thick (50–60 μm) ND/DLC laser coatings can outperform the currently used thin (<4 μm) chemically vapor deposited DLC coatings for aluminum parts in automobiles.

  20. CO2 laser coating of nanodiamond on aluminum using an annular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Rodger; Molian, Pal

    2014-01-01

    Laser coating of nanodiamond (ND) on aluminum alloy A319 substrate was investigated using a diffraction-free ring beam. A 1000 W continuous wave CO 2 laser in the ring beam configuration heated the 25–35 μm thick electrostatically sprayed ND powder layers on aluminum surface, melted a very thin layer (10 μm) of aluminum in a controlled fashion and caused phase transition of ND to form 50–60 μm thick ND/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. Significant improvements in friction, wear resistance and surface finish were observed in the ring beam method over the traditional Gaussian beam method suggesting that these thick (50–60 μm) ND/DLC laser coatings can outperform the currently used thin (<4 μm) chemically vapor deposited DLC coatings for aluminum parts in automobiles.

  1. Effect of load and reciprocating velocity on the transition from mild to severe wear behavior of Al-Si-SiCp composites in reciprocating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeev, V.R.; Dwivedi, D.K.; Jain, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the effect of normal load and reciprocating velocity on transition from mild to severe wear of A319/15%SiC p , A336/15%SiC p , and A390/15%SiC p composites have been reported. Composites were produced through liquid metal metallurgy route. Adhesive wear behavior of composites was studied under dry reciprocating conditions using indigenously developed reciprocating friction wear test rig conforming to ASTM Standard G133-05. It was found that increase in normal load increases wear rate and depending upon the reciprocating velocity and type of composites, mode of wear changes from mild oxidative to severe metallic wear was noticed. The load corresponding to the transition from mild to severe wear usually termed as transition load was found to decrease with increase in reciprocating velocity and reduction in silicon content in the alloys used for the development of Al-Si-SiC p composites. At 1 m/s reciprocating velocity, the transition load for A319/15%SiC p , A336/15%SiC p and A390/15%SiC p composites were found to be in the range of 60-90 N, 60-105 N and 60-120 N respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of wear surface and wear debris were conducted to analyze the mode of wear and operating wear mechanism. Severe wear was characterized by massive plastic deformation and gross material removal while the mild wear was found to be associated with delamination and scoring as main wear mechanisms responsible for material loss. Wear mechanism maps for different Al-(6-18)%Si-15%SiC p composites were proposed in reciprocating contacts.

  2. Precision top-quark mass measurement in the lepton+jets topology in p p collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Currat, C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lee, Y J; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Papikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-01-20

    We report two measurements of the top-quark mass M(top) using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron in a 318 pb(-1) data sample of tt events in the lepton+jets final state. One method uses an event-based likelihood technique resulting in M(top) = 173.2(-2.4)(+2.6)(stat) +/- 3.2(syst) GeV/c2 or 173.2(-4.0)(+4.1) GeV/c2. The second method reconstructs a top-quark mass in each event using the measured invariant mass of the hadronically decaying W boson to constrain the jet energy scale to obtain a value for M(top)of 173.5(-3.6)(+3.7)(stat) +/- 1.3(syst) GeV/c2 or 173.5(-3.8)(+3.9) GeV/c2 . We take the latter, which is more precise, as our result.

  3. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard; Bloch, Ingo; Diez, Sergio; Fernandez-Tejero, Javier; Fleta, Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Hara, Kazuhiko; Ikegami, Yoichi; Lacasta, Carlos; Lohwasser, Kristin; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Nagorski, Sebastian; Pape, Ian; Phillips, Peter W.; Sperlich, Dennis; Sawhney, Kawal; Soldevila, Urmila; Ullan, Miguel; Unno, Yoshinobu; Warren, Matt

    2016-07-29

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1x10^35 cm^-2 s^-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb^-1, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x10^16 1 MeV neutrons per cm^2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 micron FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 micron thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 micron thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout...

  4. Cosmic radiation dose in aircraft - a neutron track etch detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Poje, M.; Varga, M. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, P.O. Box 125, Gajev trg 6 (Croatia); Planinic, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, P.O. Box 125, Gajev trg 6 (Croatia)], E-mail: planinic@ffos.hr

    2007-12-15

    Cosmic radiation bombards us at high altitude by ionizing particles. The radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles produced in interaction of the galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of atmosphere of the Earth. The radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard ATR 42 and A 320 aircrafts (flight level of 8 and 11 km, respectively) was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A 320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Other experiments, or dose rate measurements with the neutron dosimeter, consisting of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter, were performed on five intercontinental flights. Comparison of the dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level showed that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose. The dose rate measurements on the flights from the Middle Europe to the South and Middle America, then to Korea and Japan, showed that the flights over or near the equator region carried less dose rate; this was in accordance with the known geomagnetic latitude effect.

  5. Measurements of the dose due to cosmic rays in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Lisjak, I.; Radolic, V.; Vekic, B.; Planinic, J.

    2006-01-01

    When the primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR 42 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; radon concentration in the atmosphere was measured with the Alpha Guard radon detector. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed by the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the TLD dosimeter registered the total dose of 75 μSv and the average dose rate was 2.7 μSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24 h flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h

  6. Measurements of the dose due to cosmic rays in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, B. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Lisjak, I. [Croatia Airlines, Zagreb (Croatia); Radolic, V. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Vekic, B. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Planinic, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia)]. E-mail: planinic@ffos.hr

    2006-06-15

    When the primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR 42 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; radon concentration in the atmosphere was measured with the Alpha Guard radon detector. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed by the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the TLD dosimeter registered the total dose of 75 {mu}Sv and the average dose rate was 2.7 {mu}Sv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24 h flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 {mu}Sv/h.

  7. Cosmic radiation dose in aircraft - a neutron track etch detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Planinic, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic radiation bombards us at high altitude by ionizing particles. The radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles produced in interaction of the galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of atmosphere of the Earth. The radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard ATR 42 and A 320 aircrafts (flight level of 8 and 11 km, respectively) was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A 320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Other experiments, or dose rate measurements with the neutron dosimeter, consisting of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter, were performed on five intercontinental flights. Comparison of the dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level showed that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose. The dose rate measurements on the flights from the Middle Europe to the South and Middle America, then to Korea and Japan, showed that the flights over or near the equator region carried less dose rate; this was in accordance with the known geomagnetic latitude effect

  8. A Formal Methods Approach to the Analysis of Mode Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Miller, Steven P.; Potts, James N.; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the new NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to reduce the civil aviation fatal accident rate by 80% in ten years and 90% in twenty years. This program is being driven by the accident data with a focus on the most recent history. Pilot error is the most commonly cited cause for fatal accidents (up to 70%) and obviously must be given major consideration in this program. While the greatest source of pilot error is the loss of situation awareness , mode confusion is increasingly becoming a major contributor as well. The January 30, 1995 issue of Aviation Week lists 184 incidents and accidents involving mode awareness including the Bangalore A320 crash 2/14/90, the Strasbourg A320 crash 1/20/92, the Mulhouse-Habsheim A320 crash 6/26/88, and the Toulouse A330 crash 6/30/94. These incidents and accidents reveal that pilots sometimes become confused about what the cockpit automation is doing. Consequently, human factors research is an obvious investment area. However, even a cursory look at the accident data reveals that the mode confusion problem is much deeper than just training deficiencies and a lack of human-oriented design. This is readily acknowledged by human factors experts. It seems that further progress in human factors must come through a deeper scrutiny of the internals of the automation. It is in this arena that formal methods can contribute. Formal methods refers to the use of techniques from logic and discrete mathematics in the specification, design, and verification of computer systems, both hardware and software. The fundamental goal of formal methods is to capture requirements, designs and implementations in a mathematically based model that can be analyzed in a rigorous manner. Research in formal methods is aimed at automating this analysis as much as possible. By capturing the internal behavior of a flight deck in a rigorous and detailed formal model, the dark corners of a design can be analyzed. This paper will explore how formal

  9. A modified Galam’s model for word-of-mouth information exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellero, Andrea; Fasano, Giovanni; Sorato, Annamaria

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the stochastic model proposed by Galam in [S. Galam, Modelling rumors: The no plane Pentagon French hoax case, Physica A 320 (2003), 571-580], for information spreading in a ‘word-of-mouth’ process among agents, based on a majority rule. Using the communications rules among agents defined in the above reference, we first perform simulations of the ‘word-of-mouth’ process and compare the results with the theoretical values predicted by Galam’s model. Some dissimilarities arise in particular when a small number of agents is considered. We find motivations for these dissimilarities and suggest some enhancements by introducing a new parameter dependent model. We propose a modified Galam’s scheme which is asymptotically coincident with the original model in the above reference. Furthermore, for relatively small values of the parameter, we provide a numerical experience proving that the modified model often outperforms the original one.

  10. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz.

  11. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastelev, E. G.; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz

  12. Advanced uncooled infrared focal plane development at CEA/LETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Jean-Luc; Mottin, Eric; Martin, Jean-Luc; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Vilain, Michel

    2017-11-01

    LETI/LIR has been involved for a few year in the field of uncooled detectors and has chosen amorphous silicon for its microbolometer technology development. Uncooled IR detectors pave the way to reduced weight systems aboard satellites. The silicon compatibility of our thermometer is a key parameter which has enabled a very fast technology development and transfer to industry. This competitive technology is now able to provide a new approach for IR detectors for space applications. This paper presents the main characteristics of the CEA / LETI technology which is based on a monolithically integrated structure over a fully completed readout circuit from a commercially available 0.5 μm design rules CMOS line. The technology maturity will be illustrated by the results obtained at LETI/LIR and SOFRADIR on a 320 x 240 with a pitch of 45 μm. First improvement on device reliability and characterization results will be presented.

  13. Measuring propagation delay over a coded serial communication channel using FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Peek, H.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement and control applications are increasingly using distributed system technologies. In such applications, which may be spread over large distances, it is often necessary to synchronize system timing and know with great precision the time offsets between parts of the system. Measuring the propagation delay over a coded serial communication channel using serializer/deserializer (SerDes) functionality in FPGAs is described. The propagation delay between transmitter and receiver is measured with a resolution of a single unit interval (i.e. a serial link running at 3.125 Gbps provides a 320 ps resolution). The technique has been demonstrated to work over 100 km fibre to verify the feasibility for application in the future KM3NeT telescope.

  14. Airbus windshear warning and guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafe, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    From its first designed airplane, Airbus considered mandatory a help in the crew's decision-making process to initiate an escape maneuver and help to successfully realize it. All the Airbus airplanes designed since 1975 included an alpha-floor function and a speed reference control law imbedded in the speed reference system (SRS) box for A 300 and FAC and FCC for A 310, A300/600 and the A 320. Alpha-Floor function takes into account the airplane energy situation considering angle of attack and observed longitudinal situation in order to apply immediately the full power without any pilot action. Speed reference managers control airspeed and/or ground speed in order to survive a maximum in shear situation. In order to comply with the new FAA regulation: Aerospatiale and Airbus developed more efficient systems. A comparison between 1975 and a newly developed system is given. It is explained how the new system improves the situation.

  15. Performance analysis of a thermosize micro/nano heat engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Wenjie; He Jizhou

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper [A. Sisman, I. Muller, Phys. Lett. A 320 (2004) 360] the thermodynamic properties of ideal gases confined in a narrow box were examined theoretically. The so-called 'thermosize effects' similar to thermoelectric effects, such as Seebeck-like thermosize effect, Peltier-like thermosize effect and Thomson-like thermosize effect, were analyzed. Like the thermoelectric generator, based on the thermosize effects we have established a model of micro/nano scaled ideal gas heat engine cycle which includes two isothermal and two isobaric processes. The expressions of power output and efficiency of this cycle in the two cases of reversible and irreversible heat exchange are derived and the optimal performance characteristics of the heat engine is discussed by some numerical example. The results obtained here will provide theoretical guidance for the design of micro/nano scaled device

  16. Design of transmission-type phase holograms for a compact radar-cross-section measurement range at 650 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noponen, Eero; Tamminen, Aleksi; Vaaja, Matti

    2007-07-10

    A design formalism is presented for transmission-type phase holograms for use in a submillimeter-wave compact radar-cross-section (RCS) measurement range. The design method is based on rigorous electromagnetic grating theory combined with conventional hologram synthesis. Hologram structures consisting of a curved groove pattern on a 320 mmx280 mm Teflon plate are designed to transform an incoming spherical wave at 650 GHz into an output wave generating a 100 mm diameter planar field region (quiet zone) at a distance of 1 m. The reconstructed quiet-zone field is evaluated by a numerical simulation method. The uniformity of the quiet-zone field is further improved by reoptimizing the goal field. Measurement results are given for a test hologram fabricated on Teflon.

  17. Carotenoids quench evolution of excited species in epidermis exposed to UV-B (290-320 nm) light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews-Roth, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Reactions involving singlet oxygen and other free radicals have been identified in epidermis containing either exogenous or endogenous photosensitizers, soaked in a singlet oxygen/free radical trap, and then exposed to visible or UV-A (320-400 nm) light. Such reactions can be quenched by the presence of the carotenoid pigments β-carotene and canthaxanthin which accumulate in epidermis after oral administration. It is reported that the carotenoid pigments β-carotene, canthaxanthin and phytoene accumulating in epidermis can also quench to some degree those photochemical reactions involving singlet oxygen and free radicals that occur when epidermis is exposed to the sunburn spectrum of light (UV-B, 290-320 nm). (author)

  18. Fast photoacoustic imaging system based on 320-element linear transducer array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Bangzheng; Xing Da; Wang Yi; Zeng Yaguang; Tan Yi; Chen Qun

    2004-01-01

    A fast photoacoustic (PA) imaging system, based on a 320-transducer linear array, was developed and tested on a tissue phantom. To reconstruct a test tomographic image, 64 time-domain PA signals were acquired from a tissue phantom with embedded light-absorption targets. A signal acquisition was accomplished by utilizing 11 phase-controlled sub-arrays, each consisting of four transducers. The results show that the system can rapidly map the optical absorption of a tissue phantom and effectively detect the embedded light-absorbing target. By utilizing the multi-element linear transducer array and phase-controlled imaging algorithm, we thus can acquire PA tomography more efficiently, compared to other existing technology and algorithms. The methodology and equipment thus provide a rapid and reliable approach to PA imaging that may have potential applications in noninvasive imaging and clinic diagnosis

  19. Comparing statistical and machine learning classifiers: alternatives for predictive modeling in human factors research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Brian; Meyer, Gérard; Kuntz, Lois-Ann

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate classification models play an increasingly important role in human factors research. In the past, these models have been based primarily on discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Models developed from machine learning research offer the human factors professional a viable alternative to these traditional statistical classification methods. To illustrate this point, two machine learning approaches--genetic programming and decision tree induction--were used to construct classification models designed to predict whether or not a student truck driver would pass his or her commercial driver license (CDL) examination. The models were developed and validated using the curriculum scores and CDL exam performances of 37 student truck drivers who had completed a 320-hr driver training course. Results indicated that the machine learning classification models were superior to discriminant analysis and logistic regression in terms of predictive accuracy. Actual or potential applications of this research include the creation of models that more accurately predict human performance outcomes.

  20. The use of PEANO for on-line monitoring of fossil power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, Paolo F.; Zanetta, Gian Antonio; Gregori, Luca

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the use of a combined approach of artificial neural network and fuzzy logic, implemented in the computer code PEANO, to the on-line monitoring of the steam-water cycle of a 320 MW fossil plant in Italy. First, a short review of the underlying theory is reported. Then some results are illustrated of data pre-processing, aimed at selecting the appropriate data and to address the neural networks architecture. Finally the simulation of continuous monitoring is documented and data reconciliation capability of the code is discussed in some detail. These results demonstrate that the approach provided by PEANO is very effective to validate measured signals and to track a process on-line, giving the plant operator an immediate insight of the evolution of a possible fault in sensors or system components. (Author)

  1. Pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutic aspects of some psoralen derivatives used in dermatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolk, L.M.L.

    1982-01-01

    In the present thesis the pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutic properties of some psoralen derivatives, that are used in photochemotherapy of dermatological diseases like vitiligo and psoriasis, are studied. Photochemotherapy is a combination of oral administration of one of the psoralen derivatives, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) or 4, 5', 8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP), and irradiation with long wave ultraviolet light, U.V.-A (320-400 nm), two hours later. This treatment is commonly called PUVA (Psoralen-UV-A). The purpose of the investigation was to develop an 8-MOP dosage form with a fast and reproducible absorption. Various dosage forms of 8-MOP were administered to volunteers and patients and 8-MOP concentrations in body fluids determined. Also the pharmacokinetic properties of 5-MOP and TMP were investigated in a pilot study. (Auth.)

  2. Silicon based ultrafast optical waveform sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao

    2010-01-01

    A 300 nmx450 nmx5 mm silicon nanowire is designed and fabricated for a four wave mixing based non-linear optical gate. Based on this silicon nanowire, an ultra-fast optical sampling system is successfully demonstrated using a free-running fiber laser with a carbon nanotube-based mode-locker as th......A 300 nmx450 nmx5 mm silicon nanowire is designed and fabricated for a four wave mixing based non-linear optical gate. Based on this silicon nanowire, an ultra-fast optical sampling system is successfully demonstrated using a free-running fiber laser with a carbon nanotube-based mode......-locker as the sampling source. A clear eye-diagram of a 320 Gbit/s data signal is obtained. The temporal resolution of the sampling system is estimated to 360 fs....

  3. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, Luise; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10 35 cm -2 s -1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb -1 , requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10 16 1 MeV neutrons per cm 2 . With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  4. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm-2s-1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb-1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  5. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Lisjak, I.; Vekic, B.; Poje, M.; Planinic, J.

    2008-01-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10 B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 μSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 μSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 μSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 μSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data

  6. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Lisjak, I. [Croatia Airlines, Zagreb (Croatia); Vekic, B. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Poje, M. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Planinic, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia)], E-mail: planinic@ffos.hr

    2008-02-15

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or {sup 10}B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 {mu}Sv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 {mu}Sv or the average dose rate of 2.7 {mu}Sv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 {mu}Sv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 {mu}Sv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 {mu}Sv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data.

  7. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-03-15

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb{sup -1}, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10{sup 16} 1 MeV neutrons per cm{sup 2}. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  8. Cosmic radiation dose in the aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Varga, M.; Planinic, J.; Vekic, B.

    2006-01-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A 320 and ATR 42 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb - Paris - Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 μSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the total dose of 75 μSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 μSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to the Japan (24 hours-flight: Zagreb - Frankfurt - Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 μSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude the neutron component curried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data. (author)

  9. Application of computational thermodynamics to the determination of thermophysical properties as a function of temperature for multicomponent Al-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Fabiana C. [Fluminense Federal University, Graduate Program in Metallurgical Engineering, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420-27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Paresque, Mara C.C. [Fluminense Federal University, Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420-27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Castro, José A. de [Fluminense Federal University, Graduate Program in Metallurgical Engineering, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420-27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Jácome, Paulo A.D. [Fluminense Federal University, Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420-27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri, E-mail: amaurig@fem.unicamp.br [University of Campinas – UNICAMP, Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Ivaldo L. [Fluminense Federal University, Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420-27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-11-10

    Highlights: • A model coupled to a computational thermodynamics software is proposed to compute thermophysical properties. • The model applies to multicomponent alloys and has been validated against experimental results. • Density and specific heat as a function of temperature are computed for Al–Si–Cu alloys. - Abstract: Despite the technological importance of Al–Si–Cu alloys in manufacturing processes involving heat transfer, such as welding, casting and heat treatment, thermophysical properties of this system of alloys are very scarce in the literature. In this paper, a model connected to a computational thermodynamics software is proposed permitting density and specific heats as a function of temperature and enthalpy of transformations to be numerically determined. The model is pre-validated against experimental density as a function of temperature for liquid and solid phases of A319 and 7075 alloys found in the literature and validated against experimental density values for the solid phase of an Al-6 wt%Cu-1 wt%Si alloy determined in the present study. In both cases the numerical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results. Specific heat and temperatures and heats of transformation are also numerically determined for this ternary Al-based alloy.

  10. LCX: Proposal for a low-cost commercial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Troy; Hayatdavoudi, Maziar; Hettinga, Joel; Hooper, Matt; Nguyen, Phong

    1994-01-01

    The LCX has been developed in response to a request for proposal for an aircraft with 153 passenger capacity and a range of 3000 nautical miles. The goals of the LCX are to provide an aircraft which will achieve the stated mission requirements at the lowest cost possible, both for the manufacturer and the operator. Low cost in this request is defined as short and long term profitability. To achieve this objective, modern technologies attributing to low-cost operation without greatly increasing the cost of manufacturing were employed. These technologies include hybrid laminar flow control and the use of developing new manufacturing processes and philosophies. The LCX will provide a competitive alternative to the use of the Airbus A319/320/321 and the Boeing 737 series of aircraft. The LCX has a maximum weight of 150,000 lb. carried by a wing of 1140 ft(exp 2) and an aspect ratio of 10. The selling price of the LCX is 31 million in 1994 US dollars.

  11. ADOLESCENT QUALITY OF LIFE AND HEALTH BEHAVIORS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS FROM THE SOUTH OF PORTUGAL AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lima-Serrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal para examinar diferencias en calidad de vida percibida y estilos de vida de adolescentes del sur de Portugal y del sur de España. A 319 adolescentes, se les administró el Kidscreen-27, una versión corta del cuestionario “Health Behavior in School-aged Children”, y un cuestionario sociodemográfico. Se observaron diferencias estadísticas entre adolescentes portugueses y españoles. Los portugueses experimentan más drogas legales, y consumen más vino y cerveza. Los españoles consumen más tabaco. No se encontraron diferencias entre países en el uso de hachís, bebidas destiladas, embriaguez y edad de la primera relación sexual. Los españoles se perciben con mayor calidad de vida. Se encontraron diferencias de género en varias dimensiones de la calidad de vida, principalmente entre adolescentes españoles. Se discuten los resultados con investigaciones previas sobre estos tópicos, y pueden ser considerados por las enfermeras en la promoción de salud adolescente.

  12. Application of computational thermodynamics to the determination of thermophysical properties as a function of temperature for multicomponent Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Fabiana C.; Paresque, Mara C.C.; Castro, José A. de; Jácome, Paulo A.D.; Garcia, Amauri; Ferreira, Ivaldo L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model coupled to a computational thermodynamics software is proposed to compute thermophysical properties. • The model applies to multicomponent alloys and has been validated against experimental results. • Density and specific heat as a function of temperature are computed for Al–Si–Cu alloys. - Abstract: Despite the technological importance of Al–Si–Cu alloys in manufacturing processes involving heat transfer, such as welding, casting and heat treatment, thermophysical properties of this system of alloys are very scarce in the literature. In this paper, a model connected to a computational thermodynamics software is proposed permitting density and specific heats as a function of temperature and enthalpy of transformations to be numerically determined. The model is pre-validated against experimental density as a function of temperature for liquid and solid phases of A319 and 7075 alloys found in the literature and validated against experimental density values for the solid phase of an Al-6 wt%Cu-1 wt%Si alloy determined in the present study. In both cases the numerical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results. Specific heat and temperatures and heats of transformation are also numerically determined for this ternary Al-based alloy.

  13. Extracellular matrix-derived hydrogels for dental stem cell delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Aiswarya; Vanacker, Julie; Germain, Loïc; Leprince, Julian G; Diogenes, Anibal; Shakesheff, Kevin M; White, Lisa J; des Rieux, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Decellularized mammalian extracellular matrices (ECM) have been widely accepted as an ideal substrate for repair and remodelling of numerous tissues in clinical and pre-clinical studies. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of ECM scaffolds derived from site-specific homologous tissues to direct cell differentiation. The present study investigated the suitability of hydrogels derived from different source tissues: bone, spinal cord and dentine, as suitable carriers to deliver human apical papilla derived mesenchymal stem cells (SCAP) for spinal cord regeneration. Bone, spinal cord, and dentine ECM hydrogels exhibited distinct structural, mechanical, and biological characteristics. All three hydrogels supported SCAP viability and proliferation. However, only spinal cord and bone derived hydrogels promoted the expression of neural lineage markers. The specific environment of ECM scaffolds significantly affected the differentiation of SCAP to a neural lineage, with stronger responses observed with spinal cord ECM hydrogels, suggesting that site-specific tissues are more likely to facilitate optimal stem cell behavior for constructive spinal cord regeneration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 319-328, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 3D characterization and modeling of low cycle fatigue damage mechanisms at high temperature in a cast aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezecot, Sebastien; Maurel, Vincent; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Szmytka, Fabien; Koster, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography was used to monitor damage evolution in three dimensions during in situ Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) tests at high temperature (250 °C) for an industrial material. The studied material is an AlSi7Cu3Mg aluminum alloy (close to ASTM A319) produced by Lost Foam Casting (LFC), a process which generates coarse microstructures but is nevertheless used for engine parts by the automotive industry. The volume analysis (3D images) has shown that cracks are extremely sensitive to microstructural features: coarse pores and hard particles of the eutectic regions are critical regarding respectively the main crack initiation and the crack growth. Finite Elements (FE) simulations, performed on meshes directly generated from 3D volumes and containing only pores, have revealed that mechanical fields also play a major role on the crack behavior. Initiation sites corresponded to areas of maximum inelastic strain while the crack path was globally correlated to high stress triaxiality and inelastic strain fields.

  15. The first direct limit on the $t$ quark lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Ayana Tamu [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the first direct limit on the t quark lifetime, measured in $t\\bar{t}$ pair production candidate events from a 318 pb-1 sample of $p +\\bar{p}$ collisions recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). Candidate events are identified by a leptonically decaying W± boson and three or more jets, at least one of which contains a secondary vertex. In each event we measure the transverse track-to-beam displacement (impact parameter) of the lepton from the W± decay, and compare the distribution to templates constructed from $t\\bar{t}$ event simulations with a variable t lifetime. Anticipated background distributions are measured with a combination of Monte Carlo event simulation and control samples, and included in the templates. We determine the following limits: cτt < 52.5µm @ 95% C.L. cτt < 43.5µm @ 90% C.L. We thus conclude that the top mean lifetime is less than 145 fs (175 fs) at 90% (95%) C.L.

  16. Increased fitness and realized heritability in emamectin benzoate-resistant Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Razaq, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. A field collected population of C. carnea was selected for emamectin benzoate resistance in the laboratory and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After five generations of selection with emamectin benzoate, C. carnea developed a 318-fold resistance to the insecticide. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.49, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time compared to the susceptible population. Mean population growth rates; such as the intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential were higher for the emamectin benzoate selected population compared to the susceptible population. The realized heritability (h(2)) value of emamectin benzoate resistance was 0.34 in emamectin benzoate selected population of C. carnea. Chrysoperla species which show resistance to insecticides makes them compatible with those IPM systems where emamectin benzoate is employed.

  17. A measurement of the top quark mass with a matrix element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Adam Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a measurement of the mass of the top quark. The event sample is selected from proton-antiproton collisions, at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy, observed with the CDF detector at Fermilab's Tevatron. They consider a 318 pb-1 dataset collected between March 2002 and August 2004. They select events that contain one energetic lepton, large missing transverse energy, exactly four energetic jets, and at least one displaced vertex b tag. The analysis uses leading-order t$\\bar{t}$ and background matrix elements along with parameterized parton showering to construct event-by-event likelihoods as a function of top quark mass. From the 63 events observed with the 318 pb-1 dataset they extract a top quark mass of 172.0 ± 2.6(stat) ± 3.3(syst) GeV/c2 from the joint likelihood. The mean expected statistical uncertainty is 3.2 GeV/c2 for m $\\bar{t}$ = 178 GTeV/c2 and 3.1 GeV/c2 for m $\\bar{t}$ = 172.5 GeV/c2. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty of the jet energy scale.

  18. Single-photon cesium Rydberg excitation spectroscopy using 318.6-nm UV laser and room-temperature vapor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieying; Bai, Jiandong; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2017-09-18

    We demonstrate a single-photon Rydberg excitation spectroscopy of cesium (Cs) atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell. Cs atoms are excited directly from 6S 1/2 ground state to nP 3/2 (n = 70 - 100) Rydberg states with a 318.6 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser, and Rydberg excitation spectra are obtained by transmission enhancement of a probe beam resonant to Cs 6S 1/2 , F = 4 - 6P 3/2 , F' = 5 transition as partial population on F = 4 ground state are transferred to Rydberg state. Analysis reveals that the observed spectra are velocity-selective spectroscopy of Rydberg state, from which the amplitude and linewidth influenced by lasers' Rabi frequency have been investigated. Fitting to energies of Cs nP 3/2 (n = 70 -100) states, the determined quantum defect is 3.56671(42). The demodulated spectra can also be employed as frequency references to stabilize the UV laser frequency to specific Cs Rydberg transition.

  19. Transport Deficiency Is the Molecular Basis of Candida albicans Resistance to Antifungal Oligopeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Schielmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oligopeptides incorporating N3-(4-methoxyfumaroyl-L-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid (FMDP, an inhibitor of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase, exhibited growth inhibitory activity against Candida albicans, with minimal inhibitory concentration values in the 0.05–50 μg mL-1 range. Uptake by the peptide permeases was found to be the main factor limiting an anticandidal activity of these compounds. Di- and tripeptide containing FMDP (F2 and F3 were transported by Ptr2p/Ptr22p peptide transporters (PTR and FMDP-containing hexa-, hepta-, and undecapeptide (F6, F7, and F11 were taken up by the oligopeptide transporters (OPT oligopeptide permeases, preferably by Opt2p/Opt3p. A phenotypic, apparent resistance of C. albicans to FMDP-oligopeptides transported by OPT permeases was triggered by the environmental factors, whereas resistance to those taken up by the PTR system had a genetic basis. Anticandidal activity of longer FMDP-oligopeptides was strongly diminished in minimal media containing easily assimilated ammonium sulfate or L-glutamine as the nitrogen source, both known to downregulate expression of the OPT genes. All FMDP-oligopeptides tested were more active at lower pH and this effect was slightly more remarkable for peptides F6, F7, and F11, compared to F2 and F3. Formation of isolated colonies was observed inside the growth inhibitory zones induced by F2 and F3 but not inside those induced by F6, F7, and F11. The vast majority (98% of those colonies did not originate from truly resistant cells. The true resistance of 2% of isolates was due to the impaired transport of di- and to a lower extent, tripeptides. The resistant cells did not exhibit a lower expression of PTR2, PTR22, or OPT1–3 genes, but mutations in the PTR2 gene resulting in T422H, A320S, D119V, and A320S substitutions in the amino acid sequence of Ptr2p were found.

  20. Development of the analytic methodology for the consideration of complex load assumptions in case of high-dynamical impact on reinforced concrete structures. Final report; Weiterentwicklung der Analysemethodik zur Beruecksichtigung komplexer Lastannahmen bei hochdynamischen Einwirkungen auf Stahlbetonstrukturen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckoetter, Christian; Sievers, Juergen

    2016-08-15

    Within the framework of project RS1509 sponsored by the German Ministry BMWi GRS investigated different phenomena which might occur during the impact of deformable, liquid-filled, rigid or partially deformable missiles as well as during the detonation of high-explosives on reinforced concrete structures. The safety-related significance of the research work lies in the evaluation of analysis methods utilized for the assessment of the load-bearing capacity of nuclear building structures subjected to targeted external hazards. In this context participation in Phase III of the VTT IMPACT project and the CSNI activity IRIS2012 contributed to achievement of the objectives. Within the framework of the IMPACT project participation a test series dealing with partially liquid-filled missiles was specified, from which first experiments have already been performed. One focus of the research work was the examination of impact and blast tests with reinforced concrete target structures. Failure modes of the reinforced concrete slabs in impact tests include bending failure, punching failure, cracking, spalling, scabbing, penetration and perforation. The focus of the selected blast tests was related to the local damage modes of scabbing and perforation. The numerical simulations on the tests have been performed by using the analysis codes AUTODYN /ANS 10/ and LSDYNA /LST 14/. Regarding application of findings from test analyses to real structures the impact of missiles with more complex geometries on reinforced concrete structures was examined. Beside simulation of the full-scale test carried out at SNL with a military aircraft of type F4-Phantom, numerical studies with simplified impactor models of a civilian aircraft of type Airbus A320 and jet-engines of type CFM56, used e.g. in the A320 were carried out. Exemplarily, the impact of these models on a generic reactor building structure was examined. Future research work will address the simulation of induced vibrations of

  1. Predicting Minimum Control Speed on the Ground (VMCG) and Minimum Control Airspeed (VMCA) of Engine Inoperative Flight Using Aerodynamic Database and Propulsion Database Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadder, Eric Michael

    There are many computer aided engineering tools and software used by aerospace engineers to design and predict specific parameters of an airplane. These tools help a design engineer predict and calculate such parameters such as lift, drag, pitching moment, takeoff range, maximum takeoff weight, maximum flight range and much more. However, there are very limited ways to predict and calculate the minimum control speeds of an airplane in engine inoperative flight. There are simple solutions, as well as complicated solutions, yet there is neither standard technique nor consistency throughout the aerospace industry. To further complicate this subject, airplane designers have the option of using an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS), which directly alters the minimum control speeds of an airplane. This work addresses this issue with a tool used to predict and calculate the Minimum Control Speed on the Ground (VMCG) as well as the Minimum Control Airspeed (VMCA) of any existing or design-stage airplane. With simple line art of an airplane, a program called VORLAX is used to generate an aerodynamic database used to calculate the stability derivatives of an airplane. Using another program called Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), a propulsion database is generated to use with the aerodynamic database to calculate both VMCG and VMCA. This tool was tested using two airplanes, the Airbus A320 and the Lockheed Martin C130J-30 Super Hercules. The A320 does not use an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS), whereas the C130J-30 does use an ATCS. The tool was able to properly calculate and match known values of VMCG and VMCA for both of the airplanes. The fact that this tool was able to calculate the known values of VMCG and VMCA for both airplanes means that this tool would be able to predict the VMCG and VMCA of an airplane in the preliminary stages of design. This would allow design engineers the ability to use an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS) as part

  2. Somatic mosaicism of an intragenic FANCB duplication in both fibroblast and peripheral blood cells observed in a Fanconi anemia patient leads to milder phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asur, Rajalakshmi S; Kimble, Danielle C; Lach, Francis P; Jung, Moonjung; Donovan, Frank X; Kamat, Aparna; Noonan, Raymond J; Thomas, James W; Park, Morgan; Chines, Peter; Vlachos, Adrianna; Auerbach, Arleen D; Smogorzewska, Agata; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C

    2018-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disorder characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to cancer. Patients harboring X-linked FANCB pathogenic variants usually present with severe congenital malformations resembling VACTERL syndrome with hydrocephalus. We employed the diepoxybutane (DEB) test for FA diagnosis, arrayCGH for detection of duplication, targeted capture and next-gen sequencing for defining the duplication breakpoint, PacBio sequencing of full-length FANCB aberrant transcript, FANCD2 ubiquitination and foci formation assays for the evaluation of FANCB protein function by viral transduction of FANCB-null cells with lentiviral FANCB WT and mutant expression constructs, and droplet digital PCR for quantitation of the duplication in the genomic DNA and cDNA. We describe here an FA-B patient with a mild phenotype. The DEB diagnostic test for FA revealed somatic mosaicism. We identified a 9154 bp intragenic duplication in FANCB, covering the first coding exon 3 and the flanking regions. A four bp homology (GTAG) present at both ends of the breakpoint is consistent with microhomology-mediated duplication mechanism. The duplicated allele gives rise to an aberrant transcript containing exon 3 duplication, predicted to introduce a stop codon in FANCB protein (p.A319*). Duplication levels in the peripheral blood DNA declined from 93% to 7.9% in the span of eleven years. Moreover, the patient fibroblasts have shown 8% of wild-type (WT) allele and his carrier mother showed higher than expected levels of WT allele (79% vs. 50%) in peripheral blood, suggesting that the duplication was highly unstable. Unlike sequence point variants, intragenic duplications are difficult to precisely define, accurately quantify, and may be very unstable, challenging the proper diagnosis. The reversion of genomic duplication to the WT allele results in somatic mosaicism and may explain the relatively milder phenotype displayed by the FA

  3. Subtotal Colectomy for Colon Cancer Reduces the Need for Subsequent Surgery in Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Seppälä, Toni T; Järvinen, Heikki J; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2017-08-01

    resection. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A319.

  4. A correlation linking the predicted mean vote and the mean thermal vote based on an investigation on the human thermal comfort in short-haul domestic flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaconia, Carlo; Orioli, Aldo; Di Gangi, Alessandra

    2015-05-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on the human thermal comfort inside the cabin of some Airbus A319 aircrafts during 14 short-haul domestic flights, linking various Italian cities, are presented and used to define a correlation among the predicted mean vote (PMV), a procedure which is commonly used to assess the thermal comfort in inhabited environments, and the equivalent temperature and mean thermal vote (MTV), which are the parameters suggested by the European Standard EN ISO 14505-2 for the evaluation of the thermal environment in vehicles. The measurements of the radiant temperature, air temperature and relative humidity during flights were performed. The air temperature varied between 22.2 °C and 26.0 °C; the relative humidity ranged from 8.7% to 59.2%. The calculated values of the PMV varied from -0.16 to 0.90 and were confirmed by the answers of the passengers. The equivalent temperature was evaluated using the equations of Fanger or on the basis of the values of the skin temperature measured on some volunteers. The correlation linking the thermal sensation scales and zones used by the PMV and the MTV resulted quite accurate because the minimum value of the absolute difference between such environmental indexes equalled 0.0073 and the maximum difference did not exceed the value of 0.0589. Even though the equivalent temperature and the MTV were specifically proposed to evaluate the thermal sensation in vehicles, their use may be effectively extended to the assessment of the thermal comfort in airplanes or other occupied places. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. High temperature tribological behaviour of carbon based (B{sub 4}C and DLC) coatings in sliding contact with aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharam, A. Abou, E-mail: abougha@uwindsor.c [Mechanical Automotive and Materials Engineering Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B3P4 (Canada); Lukitsch, M.J.; Balogh, M.P. [Chemical Sciences and Materials Systems Laboratory, General Motors R and D Center, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States); Alpas, A.T. [Mechanical Automotive and Materials Engineering Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B3P4 (Canada)

    2010-12-30

    Carbon based coatings, particularly diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are known to resist aluminum adhesion and reduce friction at room temperature. This attractive tribological behaviour is useful for applications such as tool coatings used for aluminum forming and machining. However, for those operations that are performed at elevated temperatures (e.g. hot forming) or that generate frictional heat during contact (e.g. dry machining) the suitable coatings are required to maintain their tribological properties at high temperatures. Candidates for these demanding applications include boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) and DLC coatings. An understanding of the mechanisms of friction, wear and adhesion of carbon based coatings against aluminum alloys at high temperatures will help in designing coatings with improved high temperature tribological properties. With this goal in mind, this study focused on B{sub 4}C and a hydrogenated DLC coatings sliding against a 319 grade cast aluminum alloy by performing pin-on-disk experiments at temperatures up to 400 {sup o}C. Experimental results have shown that the 319 Al/B{sub 4}C tribosystem generated coefficient of friction (COF) values ranging between 0.42 and 0.65, in this temperature range. However, increased amounts of aluminum adhesion were detected in the B{sub 4}C wear tracks at elevated temperatures. Focused ion beam (FIB) milled cross sections of the wear tracks revealed that the coating failed due to shearing along the columnar grain boundaries of the coating. The 319 Al/DLC tribosystem maintained a low COF (0.15-0.06) from room temperature up to 200 {sup o}C. This was followed by an abrupt increase to 0.6 at 400 {sup o}C. The deterioration of friction behaviour at T > 200 {sup o}C was attributed to the exhaustion of hydrogen and hydroxyl passivants on the carbon transfer layer formed on the Al pin.

  6. High-Risk Premenopausal Luminal A Breast Cancer Patients Derive no Benefit from Adjuvant Cyclophosphamide-based Chemotherapy: Results from the DBCG77B Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Torsten O; Jensen, Maj-Brit; Burugu, Samantha; Gao, Dongxia; Jørgensen, Charlotte L Tykjaer; Balslev, Eva; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2017-02-15

    Purpose: Luminal A breast cancers have better prognosis than other molecular subtypes. Luminal A cancers may also be insensitive to adjuvant chemotherapy, although there is little high-level evidence to confirm this concept. The primary hypothesis in this formal prospective-retrospective analysis was to assess interaction between subtype (Luminal A vs. other) and treatment (chemotherapy vs. not) for the primary endpoint (10-year invasive disease-free survival) of a breast cancer trial randomizing women to adjuvant chemotherapy, analyzed in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models using the Wald interaction test. Experimental Design: The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 77B clinical trial randomized 1,072 premenopausal women to no systematic treatment (control), levamisole, cyclophosphamide, or cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-fluorouracil arms. All arms included radiotherapy but no endocrine therapy. Researchers with no access to clinical data performed intrinsic subtype analysis on tissue microarrays using published immunohistochemical methods based on estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67, and basal markers. Results: Patients ( n = 709) had tissue available; chemotherapy benefit in these patients was similar to the original trial (HR, 0.56). Immunohistochemistry classified 165 as Luminal A, 319 Luminal B, 58 HER2-enriched, and 82 core basal (among 91 triple-negative). Patients with Luminal A breast tumors did not benefit from chemotherapy [HR, 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53-2.14; P = 0.86], whereas patients with non-luminal A subtypes did (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38-0.66; P benefit from adjuvant cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(4); 946-53. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. A new experimental setup established for low-energy nuclear astrophysics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Z.; Xu, S.W.; He, J.J.; Hu, J.; Rolfs, C.E.; Zhang, N.T.; Ma, S.B.; Zhang, L.Y.; Hou, S.Q.; Yu, X.Q.; Ma, X.W.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental setup for low-energy nuclear astrophysics studies has been recently established at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Lanzhou, China. The driver machine is a 320 kV high voltage platform, which can provide intense currents of proton, alpha and many heavy ion beams. The energy of a proton beam was calibrated against the nominal platform high voltage by using a well-known resonant reaction of 11 B(p,γ) 12 C and a non-resonant reaction 12 C(p,γ) 13 N. The accuracy was achieved to be better than ±0.5 keV. The detection system consists of a Clover-type high-purity germanium detector, a silicon detector and a plastic scintillator. The performance of the detectors was tested by several experiments. The astrophysical S-factors of the 7 Li(p,γ) 8 Be and 7 Li(p,α) 3 He reactions were measured with this new setup, and our data agree with the values found in the literature. In addition, the upgrade of our driver machine and experimental setup has been discussed. As a future goal, a fascinating National Deep Underground Laboratory in China, the deepest underground laboratory all over the world, is prospected

  8. Characterisation of the NA62 GigaTracker end of column readout ASIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, M; Rinella, G Aglieri; Fiorini, M; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Kluge, A; Morel, M; Perktold, L; Riedler, P; Martin, E

    2011-01-01

    The architecture and characterisation of the End Of Column demonstrator readout ASIC for the NA62 GigaTracker hybrid pixel detector is presented. This ASIC serves as a proof of principle for a pixel chip with 1800 pixels which must perform time stamping to better than 200 ps (RMS), provide 300 μm pitch position information and operate with a dead-time of 1% or less for 800 MHz-1 GHz beam rate. The demonstrator ASIC comprises a full test column with 45 pixels alongside other test structures. The timewalk correction mechanism employed is measurement of the time-over-threshold, coupled with an off-detector look-up table. The time to digital converter is a delay locked loop with 32 contributing delay cells fed with a 320 MHz to yield a nominal bin size of 97 ps. Recently, P-in-N sensors have been bump-bonded to the ASIC and characterisation of these assemblies has begun.

  9. User type certification for advanced flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Richard D.; Abbott, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced avionics through flight management systems (FMS) coupled with autopilots can now precisely control aircraft from takeoff to landing. Clearly, this has been the most important improvement in aircraft since the jet engine. Regardless of the eventual capabilities of this technology, it is doubtful that society will soon accept pilotless airliners with the same aplomb they accept driverless passenger trains. Flight crews are still needed to deal with inputing clearances, taxiing, in-flight rerouting, unexpected weather decisions, and emergencies; yet it is well known that the contribution of human errors far exceed those of current hardware or software systems. Thus human errors remain, and are even increasing in percentage as the largest contributor to total system error. Currently, the flight crew is regulated by a layered system of certification: by operation, e.g., airline transport pilot versus private pilot; by category, e.g., airplane versus helicopter; by class, e.g., single engine land versus multi-engine land; and by type (for larger aircraft and jet powered aircraft), e.g., Boeing 767 or Airbus A320. Nothing in the certification process now requires an in-depth proficiency with specific types of avionics systems despite their prominent role in aircraft control and guidance.

  10. Determination of the 51Cr source strength at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boger, J.; Hahn, R.L.; Chu, Y.Y.

    1995-11-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and γ-ray counting have been used to measure the activity of 24 samples removed from the GALLEX radioactive Cr neutrino source. In 9.86% of the disintegrations, 51 Cr decays with the emission of a 320-keV γ-ray. Counting this γ-ray provides a direct means to obtain the disintegration rates of the Cr samples. Based upon these disintegration rates, the authors obtain a strength of 63.1 ± 1.0 PBq for the entire Cr source. The Cr source activity has also been obtained through measuring the 51 V content of each sample by means of NAA. 51 V is the decay daughter for all decay modes of 51 Cr. Through neutron bombardment, radioactive 52 V is produced, which decays with the emission of a 1,434-keV γ-ray. By counting this γ-ray from NAA, they obtain a disintegration rate of 62.1 ± 1.0 PBq for the entire source. These values are consistent with all other measurements of the source strength done at other GALLEX Laboratories

  11. Whole-organ perfusion of the pancreas using dynamic volume CT in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma: acquisition technique, post-processing and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandel, Sonja; Kloeters, Christian; Meyer, Henning; Hein, Patrick; Rogalla, Patrik; Hilbig, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a whole-organ perfusion protocol of the pancreas in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma and to analyse perfusion differences between normal and diseased pancreatic tissue. Thirty patients with primary pancreatic malignancy were imaged on a 320-slice CT unit. Twenty-nine cancers were histologically proven. CT data acquisition was started manually after contrast-material injection (8 ml/s, 350 mg iodine/ml) and dynamic density measurements in the right ventricle. After image registration, perfusion was determined with the gradient-relationship technique and volume regions-of-interest were defined for perfusion measurements. Contrast time-density curves and perfusion maps were generated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for analysis of normal distribution and Kruskal-Wallis test (nonparametric ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction for multiple stacked comparisons. In all 30 patients the entire pancreas was imaged, and registration could be completed in all cases. Perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas was significantly lower than of normal pancreatic tissue (P < 0.001) and could be visualized on colored perfusion maps. The 320-slice CT allows complete dynamic visualization of the pancreas and enables calculation of whole-organ perfusion maps. Perfusion imaging carries the potential to improve detection of pancreatic cancers due to the perfusion differences. (orig.)

  12. UV-induced cross-linking of abscisic acid to binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelussen, M.H.M.; Karssen, C.M.; Loon, L.C. van

    1995-01-01

    Conditions for UV-induced cross-linking of abscisic acid (ABA) through its enone chromophore to binding proteins were evaluated. The effects of a UV-light band between 260 and 530 nm on both unconjugated and protein-conjugated ABA, as well as on anti-ABA antibodies as models of ABA-binding proteins were determined. UV irradiation caused both isomerization and photolysis of ABA, but increasing the lower irradiation boundary to 345 nm strongly reduced photolysis and largely prevented isomerization. When conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (AP), ABA remained stable when using either a 320 or a 345 nm filter. At these wavelengths both binding of ABA to antibodies as well as AP enzymatic activity were maintained. UV-induced cross-linking of monoclonal anti-ABA antibodies to immobilized ABA was analysed by immunoassays. Optimal cross-linking was achieved after a 5 min irradiation period at 0°, using a long pass, cut-on filter to quench wavelengths below 290 nm. This cross-linking faithfully reflected cognate binding activity. (author)

  13. Evaluation of InGaAS array detector suitability to space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauziede, L.; Beulé, K.; Boutillier, M.; Bernard, F.; Reverchon, J.-L.; Buffaz, A.

    2017-11-01

    InGaAs material has a natural cutoff wavelength of 1.65µm so it is naturally suitable for detection in Short Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectral range. Regarding Earth Observation Spacecraft missions this spectral range can be used for the CO2 concentration measurements in the atmosphere. CNES (French Space agency) is studying a new mission, Microcarb with a spectral band centered on 1.6µm wavelength. InGaAs detector looks attractive for space application because its low dark current allows high temperature operation, reducing by the way the needed instrument resources. The Alcatel Thales III-VLab group has developed InGaAs arrays technology (320x256 & 640x512) that has been studied by CNES, using internal facilities. Performance tests and technological evaluation were performed on a 320x256 pixels array with a pitch of 30µm. The aim of this evaluation was to assess this new technology suitability for space applications. The carried out test plan includes proton radiations with Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) study, operating lifetest and evolution of performances as a function of the operating temperature.

  14. Evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT studies using wide area-detector scanners: a phantom study with cadaveric correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Formery, Anne-Sophie; Blum, Alain [CHRU-Nancy Hopital Central, Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Hossu, Gabriela [Universite de Lorraine, IADI U947, Nancy (France); INSERM, CIC-IT 1433, Nancy (France); Winninger, Daniel [IDCmem, Nancy (France); Batch, Toufik [Hopital de Mercy, Service de Radiologie, Metz (France); Gervaise, Alban [Legouest Military Instruction Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Metz (France)

    2017-02-15

    To establish evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT on wide area-detector CT. In order to assess factors influencing image quality in kinematic CT studies, a phantom consisting of a polymethylmethacrylate rotating disk with round wells of different sizes was imaged with various acquisition protocols. Cadaveric acquisitions were performed on the ankle joint during motion in two different axes and at different speeds to allow validation of phantom data. Images were acquired with a 320 detector-row CT scanner and were evaluated by two readers. Motion artefacts were significantly correlated with various parameters (movement axis, distance to centre, rotation speed and volume acquisition speed) (p < 0.0001). The relation between motion artefacts and distance to motion fulcrum was exponential (R{sup 2} 0.99). Half reconstruction led to a 23 % increase in image noise and a 40 % decrease in motion artefacts. Cadaveric acquisitions confirmed phantom data. Based on these findings, high tube rotation speed and half reconstruction are recommended for kinematic CT. The axis of motion significantly influences image artefacts and should be considered in patient training and evaluation of acquisition protocol suitability. This study provides evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT. (orig.)

  15. Physics properties of non-helical scan using 320-row multi detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urikura, Atsushi; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Kawatani, Keisuke; Kawashima, Ippei; Goto, Hironori; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Recently, clinical applications utilizing 320-row multi detector computed tomography (320MDCT) have increased, and the physical image properties of 320MDCT have been more concerned. We evaluated the spatial resolution in scan plane and z-direction, image noise and low-contrast sensitivity of non-helical mode (320NH), 640 slices mode by a double slice reconstruction technology (640DS), and 64-row helical mode (64HE) by using a 320MDCT. The spatial resolution in z-direction was evaluated by the section sensitivity profile (SSP) measurement with the micro coin phantom and the contrast transfer ratio (CTR) with the 0.5-mm comb phantom. The in-plane spatial resolution of 320NH was uniform over all the slice positions. The spatial resolution in z-direction decreased from the cathode side toward the anode side. The image noise of the anode side was higher than that of the cathode side. The contrast to noise ratio as index of the low contrast sensitivity was uniform over all the slice position. The CTR of 320NH fluctuated in the z-position, and the fluctuation was improved by 640DS except for the center of rotation. (author)

  16. CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talakic, Emina; Schoellnast, Helmut; Schaffellner, Silvia; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Mueller, Helmut; Stauber, Rudolf; Quehenberger, Franz

    2017-01-01

    To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT perfusion algorithms (maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to measure hepatic arterial flow (HAF), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic perfusion index (HPI), splenic arterial flow (SAF), splenic blood volume (SBV) and splenic clearance (SCL). Hepatic and splenic perfusion parameters were correlated with HVPG, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe portal hypertension (≥12 mmHg) were calculated. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.53 (p < 0.05) between SAF and HVPG, and -0.68 (p < 0.01) between HVPG and SCL. Using a cut-off value of 125 ml/min/100 ml for SCL, sensitivity for detection of a HVPG of ≥12 mmHg was 94%, and specificity 100%. There was no significant correlation between hepatic perfusion parameters and HVPG. CT perfusion in patients with cirrhosis showed a strong correlation between SCL and HVPG and may be used for detection of severe portal hypertension. (orig.)

  17. CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talakić, Emina; Schaffellner, Silvia; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Mueller, Helmut; Stauber, Rudolf; Quehenberger, Franz; Schoellnast, Helmut

    2017-10-01

    To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT perfusion algorithms (maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to measure hepatic arterial flow (HAF), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic perfusion index (HPI), splenic arterial flow (SAF), splenic blood volume (SBV) and splenic clearance (SCL). Hepatic and splenic perfusion parameters were correlated with HVPG, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe portal hypertension (≥12 mmHg) were calculated. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.53 (p portal hypertension. • SAF and SCL are statistically significantly correlated with HVPG • SCL showed stronger correlation with HVPG than SAF • 125 ml/min/100 ml SCL-cut-off yielded 94 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity for severe PH • HAF, PVF and HPI showed no statistically significant correlation with HVPG.

  18. Prophage induction, mutagenesis, and cell survival of Ames' mutagen tester strains after 8-methoxypsoralen plus ultraviolet light-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, L.A.; DeMeo, M. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)); Lowe, N. (Combined UCLA-WADSWORTH Dermatology Program, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1983-10-01

    8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is not detected as a mutagen in the standard Ames test either in the presence or absence of S9-mix and/or ultraviolet light-A (320-400 nm). The Ames strains have been shown to harbor bacteriophages that are inducible by carcinogens and mutagens. Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) was found to be a potent prophage inducing treatment. Induction was observed in TA1535, TA1538, TA98, TA100, TA1978 and TA1975 with 8-MOP and UVA. PUVA is a potent bactericidal treatment at concentrations of 8-MOP above 0.5 ..mu..g/ml and 2.5 kJ/m/sup 2/ in tester strains TA1535, TA1538, TA98 and TA100. PUVA is known to be bactericidal, but the cytotoxicity observed in the present study was unique in that the frameshift tester strains (TA1538 and TA98) were more sensitive to the lethal effects of PUVA than the base pair tester strains (TA1535 and TA100). The differential cytotoxicity in such closely related strains led to the examination of some of the strains from which the Ames strains were derived. It is postulated that TA1535 retains a DNA repair function that is lost by TA1538 during the selection for uvrB deficient strains.

  19. Use of frozen-thawed semen in equine artificial insemination programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of equine frozen semen has variable results. Pregnancy rates per cycle may be between 10 to 70%. Although an inseminating dose of 280 a 320 millones progressive motile sperm (PMS has been recommended, under experimental conditions it is posible to obtain acceptable results with doses of 50 to 100 millones PMS. Deep intrauterine insemination is prefered when using frozen thawed semen, which consists in depositing the dose at the tip of the horn, ipsiltateral to ovulation. Young mares usually have better uterine condition and that increase their chance of become pregnant. It is important to make a correct follicular monitoring, in order to determine the right time to induce ovulation. Ovulation may be induced with Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG or deslorelin. It posible to perform a fixed time insemination or to choose an ultrasound follicular following protocol, inseminating within 6 h of ovulation. This option offers the best prenancy rates. Our laboratory manages a protocol which includes ultrasound monitoring every 6 hours, beginning 24 hous after induction of ovulation; this protocol had a first insemination pregnancy rate of 73%. If we consider that one of the main disadvantages of frozen-thawed semen is decreased fertility, these results are encouraging, since they are similar to those obtained with fresh or cooled semen, so it may represent an advantage when having stored semen of stallions that are dead, or have been sold or even castrated.

  20. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on photosynthetic performance and N2 fixation in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoni; Hutchins, David A.; Fu, Feixue; Gao, Kunshan

    2017-10-01

    Biological effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) on marine primary producers are of general concern, as oceanic carbon fixers that contribute to the marine biological CO2 pump are being exposed to increasing UV irradiance due to global change and ozone depletion. We investigated the effects of UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-400 nm) on the biogeochemically critical filamentous marine N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium (strain IMS101) using a solar simulator as well as under natural solar radiation. Short exposure to UV-B, UV-A, or integrated total UVR significantly reduced the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and photosynthetic carbon and N2 fixation rates. Cells acclimated to low light were more sensitive to UV exposure compared to high-light-grown ones, which had more UV-absorbing compounds, most likely mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). After acclimation under natural sunlight, the specific growth rate was lower (by up to 44 %), MAA content was higher, and average trichome length was shorter (by up to 22 %) in the full spectrum of solar radiation with UVR, than under a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) alone treatment (400-700 nm). These results suggest that prior shipboard experiments in UV-opaque containers may have substantially overestimated in situ nitrogen fixation rates by Trichodesmium, and that natural and anthropogenic elevation of UV radiation intensity could significantly inhibit this vital source of new nitrogen to the current and future oligotrophic oceans.

  1. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium activity in its 3rd year (Research and development of technologies for creating novel organic electroluminescent devices); 1999 nendo shin'yuki electroluminescence device no sosei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Development is reported of an autoluminescent planar display and a free shape novel light source based on the technology of creating organic electroluminescent (EL) devices. A small dose of desiccant is added to an inorganic amorphous protecting film, and then high reliability is attained with the film staying in service for 30,000 hours or more. Technologies of ensuring uniform luminescence on a 100 times 100mm large screen and forming a 0.2mm pitch electrode pattern are established, and a 320 times 240 dot simple matrix display is developed. Novel red luminescent materials are developed, which are luminescent materials which incorporate Eu ions as luminescent seeds and exhibit a sharp luminescent spectrum, and novel organic materials. Novel blue luminescent materials are also developed. As for white luminescent materials, two types of novel pigments are developed. Studies are under way to apply amphoteric carrier transport materials to EL devices. A novel sealing technology is established which uses a composite material made of fine glass powder and UV setting resin. A SiON-based protecting film is successfully fabricated by which the internal stress is minimized. A technology is established of fabricating a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film for the protection of electrodes and wiring circuits. (NEDO)

  2. Development of HgCdTe large format MBE arrays and noise-free high speed MOVPE EAPD arrays for ground based NIR astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, G.; Baker, I.; Downing, M.; Alvarez, D.; Ives, D.; Mehrgan, L.; Meyer, M.; Stegmeier, J.; Weller, H. J.

    2017-11-01

    Large format near infrared HgCdTe 2Kx2K and 4Kx4K MBE arrays have reached a level of maturity which meets most of the specifications required for near infrared (NIR) astronomy. The only remaining problem is the persistence effect which is device specific and not yet fully under control. For ground based multi-object spectroscopy on 40 meter class telescopes larger pixels would be advantageous. For high speed near infrared fringe tracking and wavefront sensing the only way to overcome the CMOS noise barrier is the amplification of the photoelectron signal inside the infrared pixel by means of the avalanche gain. A readout chip for a 320x256 pixel HgCdTe eAPD array will be presented which has 32 parallel video outputs being arranged in such a way that the full multiplex advantage is also available for small sub-windows. In combination with the high APD gain this allows reducing the readout noise to the subelectron level by applying nondestructive readout schemes with subpixel sampling. Arrays grown by MOVPE achieve subelectron readout noise and operate with superb cosmetic quality at high APD gain. Efforts are made to reduce the dark current of those arrays to make this technology also available for large format focal planes of NIR instruments offering noise free detectors for deep exposures. The dark current of the latest MOVPE eAPD arrays is already at a level adequate for noiseless broad and narrow band imaging in scientific instruments.

  3. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  4. Exploring Civil Drone Accidents and Incidents to Help Prevent Potential Air Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Wild

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A recent alleged “drone” collision with a British Airways Airbus A320 at Heathrow Airport highlighted the need to understand civil Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS accidents and incidents (events. This understanding will facilitate improvements in safety by ensuring efforts are focused to reduce the greatest risks. One hundred and fifty two RPAS events were analyzed. The data was collected from a 10-year period (2006 to 2015. Results show that, in contrast to commercial air transportation (CAT, RPAS events have a significantly different distribution when categorized by occurrence type, phase of flight, and safety issue. Specifically, it was found that RPAS operations are more likely to experience (1 loss of control in-flight, (2 events during takeoff and in cruise, and (3 equipment problems. It was shown that technology issues, not human factors, are the key contributor in RPAS events. This is a significant finding, as it is contrary to the industry view which has held for the past quarter of a century that human factors are the key contributor (which is still the case for CAT. Regulators should therefore look at technologies and not focus solely on operators.

  5. Damage assessment of nuclear containment against aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Mohd Ashraf, E-mail: iqbal_ashraf@rediffmail.com; Sadique, Md. Rehan, E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Bhargava, Pradeep, E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ac.in; Bhandari, N.M., E-mail: nmbcefce@iitr.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Damage assessment of nuclear containment is studied against aircraft crash. • Four impact locations have been identified at the outer containment shell. • The mid of the total height has been found to be most vulnerable location. • The crown of dome has been found to be the strongest location. • Phantom F4 caused more localized and severe damage compared to other aircrafts. - Abstract: The behavior of nuclear containment structure has been studied against aircraft crash with an emphasis on the influence of strike location. The impact locations identified on the BWR Mark III type nuclear containment structure are mid-height, junction of dome and cylinder, crown of dome and arc of dome. The containment at each of the above locations has been impacted normally by Phantom F-4, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A320 aircrafts. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The concrete damaged plasticity model was used to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model. The mid-height of containment has been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft. Phantom F4 has been found to be most disastrous at each location. The results have been compared with those of the available studies with respect to the containment deformation.

  6. Quantitative measurement of exchange dynamics in proteins via {sup 13}C relaxation dispersion of {sup 13}CHD{sub 2}-labeled samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennella, Enrico; Schuetz, Anne K.; Kay, Lewis E., E-mail: kay@pound.med.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Methyl groups have emerged as powerful probes of protein dynamics with timescales from picoseconds to seconds. Typically, studies involving high molecular weight complexes exploit {sup 13}CH{sub 3}- or {sup 13}CHD{sub 2}-labeling in otherwise highly deuterated proteins. The {sup 13}CHD{sub 2} label offers the unique advantage of providing {sup 13}C, {sup 1}H and {sup 2}H spin probes, however a disadvantage has been the lack of an experiment to record {sup 13}C Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill relaxation dispersion that monitors millisecond time-scale dynamics, implicated in a wide range of biological processes. Herein we develop an experiment that eliminates artifacts that would normally result from the scalar coupling between {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H spins that has limited applications in the past. The utility of the approach is established with a number of applications, including measurement of ms dynamics of a disease mutant of a 320 kDa p97 complex.

  7. The NH2-terminal php domain of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli replicase binds the epsilon proofreading subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Anna; McHenry, Charles S

    2006-05-05

    The alpha subunit of the replicase of all bacteria contains a php domain, initially identified by its similarity to histidinol phosphatase but of otherwise unknown function (Aravind, L., and Koonin, E. V. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 3746-3752). Deletion of 60 residues from the NH2 terminus of the alpha php domain destroys epsilon binding. The minimal 255-residue php domain, estimated by sequence alignment with homolog YcdX, is insufficient for epsilon binding. However, a 320-residue segment including sequences that immediately precede the polymerase domain binds epsilon with the same affinity as the 1160-residue full-length alpha subunit. A subset of mutations of a conserved acidic residue (Asp43 in Escherichia coli alpha) present in the php domain of all bacterial replicases resulted in defects in epsilon binding. Using sequence alignments, we show that the prototypical gram+ Pol C, which contains the polymerase and proofreading activities within the same polypeptide chain, has an epsilon-like sequence inserted in a surface loop near the center of the homologous YcdX protein. These findings suggest that the php domain serves as a platform to enable coordination of proofreading and polymerase activities during chromosomal replication.

  8. UV-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, M.; Ueda, M.; Budiyanto, A.; Bito, T.; Oka, M.; Fukunaga, M.; Tsuru, K.; Horikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed

  9. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects on TiO2-anatase upon UV-A and UV-A/VIS threshold irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyun; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Scheideler, Lutz; Rupp, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalysis mediated by the anatase modification of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has shown antibacterial effects in medical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of expanding the excitation wavelengths for photocatalytic antibacterial effects from ultraviolet (UV) into the visible light range. After deposition of salivary pellicle and adhesion of Streptococcus gordonii on anatase, different irradiation protocols were applied to induce photocatalysis: ultraviolet A (UV-A) > 320 nm; ultraviolet/visible (UV-A/VIS) light > 380 nm and > 390 nm; and VIS light 400-410 nm. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) tests and microscopic examination were used to observe the photoinduced antibacterial effects. Salivary pellicle could be photocatalytically decomposed under all irradiation protocols. In contrast, effective photocatalytic attack of bacteria could be observed by UV-A as well as by UV-A/VIS at 380 nm < λ < 390 nm only. Wavelengths above 380 nm show promise for in situ therapeutic antifouling applications.

  10. Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, W. A.; Stickel, R. B.; May, G. J.

    Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of research laboratories and onto the streets, in daily side-by-side operation with vehicles powered by conventional gasoline and alternative fuels. This commercially available battery technology can provide traffic-compatible performance in a reliable and affordable manner, and can be used for either pure EVs or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Independent results obtained when applying lead-tin batteries in highly abusive conditions, both electrically and environmentally, are presented. The test fleet of EVs is owned and operated by Arizona Public Service (APS), an electric utility in Phoenix, AZ, USA. System, charger and battery development will be described. This gives a single charge range of up to 184 km at a constant speed of 72 km h -1, and with suitable opportunity charging, a 320 km range in a normal 8 h working day.

  11. Diagnostic performance of reduced-dose CT with a hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithm for the detection of hypervascular liver lesions: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Juri, Hiroshi; Nakai, Go; Narumi, Yoshifumi [Osaka Medical College, Department of Radiology, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Yoshikawa, Shushi [Osaka Medical College Hospital, Central Radiology Department, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of reduced-dose CT with a hybrid iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm for the detection of hypervascular liver lesions. Thirty liver phantoms with or without simulated hypervascular lesions were scanned with a 320-slice CT scanner with control-dose (40 mAs) and reduced-dose (30 and 20 mAs) settings. Control-dose images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), and reduced-dose images were reconstructed with FBP and a hybrid IR algorithm. Objective image noise and the lesion to liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were evaluated quantitatively. Images were interpreted independently by 2 blinded radiologists, and jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Hybrid IR images with reduced-dose settings (both 30 and 20 mAs) yielded significantly lower objective image noise and higher CNR than control-dose FBP images (P <.05). However, hybrid IR images with reduced-dose settings had lower JAFROC1 figure of merit than control-dose FBP images, although only the difference between 20 mAs images and control-dose FBP images was significant for both readers (P <.01). An aggressive reduction of the radiation dose would impair the detectability of hypervascular liver lesions, although objective image noise and CNR would be preserved by a hybrid IR algorithm. (orig.)

  12. Optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukcelebi, Doruk

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR (3.7μm - 4.8μm) is described. The dual field of view infrared optical system is designed based on the principle of passive athermalization method not only to achieve athermal optical system but also to keep the high image quality within the working temperature between -40°C and +60°C. The infrared optical system used in this study had a 320 pixel x 256 pixel resolution, 20μm pixel pitch size cooled MWIR focal plane array detector. In this study, the step zoom mechanism, which has the axial motion due to consisting of a lens group, is considered to simplify mechanical structure. The optical design was based on moving a single lens along the optical axis for changing the optical system's field of view not only to reduce the number of moving parts but also to athermalize for the optical system. The optical design began with an optimization process using paraxial optics when first-order optics parameters are determined. During the optimization process, in order to reduce aberrations, such as coma, astigmatism, spherical and chromatic aberrations, aspherical surfaces were used. As a result, athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical design is proposed and the performance of the design using proposed method was verified by providing the focus shifts, spot diagrams and MTF analyzes' plots.

  13. Low-tube-voltage (80 kVp) CT aortography using 320-row volume CT with adaptive iterative reconstruction: lower contrast medium and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Chu, Sung-Yu; Hsu, Ming-Yi [Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou, College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Liao, Ying-Lan [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Tsai, Hui-Yu [Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Healthy Aging Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taoyuan (China)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate CT aortography at reduced tube voltage and contrast medium dose while maintaining image quality through iterative reconstruction (IR). The Institutional Review Board approved a prospective study of 48 patients who underwent follow-up CT aortography. We performed intra-individual comparisons of arterial phase images using 120 kVp (standard tube voltage) and 80 kVp (low tube voltage). Low-tube-voltage imaging was performed on a 320-detector CT with IR following injection of 40 ml of contrast medium. We assessed aortic attenuation, aortic attenuation gradient, image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}), and figure of merit (FOM) of image noise and CNR. Two readers assessed images for diagnostic quality, image noise, and artefacts. The low-tube-voltage protocol showed 23-31 % higher mean aortic attenuation and image noise (both P < 0.01) than the standard-tube-voltage protocol, but no significant difference in the CNR and aortic attenuation gradients. The low-tube-voltage protocol showed a 48 % reduction in CTDI{sub vol} and an 80 % increase in FOM of CNR. Subjective diagnostic quality was similar for both protocols, but low-tube-voltage images showed greater image noise (P = 0.01). Application of IR to an 80-kVp CT aortography protocol allows radiation dose and contrast medium reduction without affecting image quality. (orig.)

  14. Developmental venous anomalies: appearance on whole-brain CT digital subtraction angiography and CT perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Eric H.; Roach, Cayce J.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Wynn, Brad L.; DeChancie, Sean M.; Mann, Nathan D.; Diamond, Alan S.; Orrison, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) consist of dilated intramedullary veins that converge into a large collecting vein. The appearance of these anomalies was evaluated on whole-brain computed tomography (CT) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT perfusion (CTP) studies. CT data sets of ten anonymized patients were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients had evidence of DVA and five age- and sex-matched controls were without known neurovascular abnormalities. CT angiograms, CT arterial-venous views, 4-D CT DSA and CTP maps were acquired on a dynamic volume imaging protocol on a 320-detector row CT scanner. Whole-brain CTP parameters were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), and delay. DSA was utilized to visualize DVA anatomy. Radiation dose was recorded from the scanner console. Increased CTP values were present in the DVA relative to the unaffected contralateral hemisphere of 48%, 32%, and 26%; and for the control group with matched hemispheric comparisons of 2%, -10%, and 9% for CBF, CBV, and MTT, respectively. Average effective radiation dose was 4.4 mSv. Whole-brain DSA and CTP imaging can demonstrate a characteristic appearance of altered DVA hemodynamic parameters and capture the anomalies in superior cortices of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Future research may identify the rare subsets of patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes secondary to the altered hemodynamics to facilitate tailored imaging surveillance and application of appropriate preventive therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  15. Molecular screening in galactosemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsas, L.J.; Singh, R.; Fernhoff, P.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Classical galactosemia (G/G) is caused by the absence of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) activity while the Duarte allele produces partial impairment and a specific biochemical phenotype. Cloning and sequencing of the human GALT gene has enabled the identification of prevalent mutations for both Classical and Duarte alleles. The G allele is caused by a Q188R codon mutation in exon 6 in 70% of a Caucasian population while the D allele is caused by an N134D codon mutation in exon 10. Since the Q188R sequence creates a new Hpa II site and the N314D sequence creates a new Sin I site, it is relatively easy to screen for both mutations by multiplex PCR and restriction digest. Here we describe a method for detection of new mutations producing impaired GALT. Patient DNAs are subjected to SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) analysis of their 11 GALT exons. Direct sequencing of the exons targeted by SSCP has revealed many codon changes: IVSC 956 (a splice acceptor site loss), S135L, V151A, E203K, A320T, and Y323D. Two of these codon changes, V151A and S135L, have been confirmed as mutations by finding impaired GALT activity in a yeast expression system. We conclude that molecular screening of GALT DNA will clarify the structural biology of GALT and the pathophysiology of galactosemia.

  16. Natural organic matter and sunlight accelerate the degradation of 17ss-estradiol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, Dina M.; Snyder, Matthew T.; Wetzel, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomolar concentrations of steroid hormones such as 17β-estradiol can influence the reproductive development and sex ratios of invertebrate and vertebrate populations. Thus their release into surface and ground waters from wastewater facilities and agricultural applications of animal waste is of environmental concern. Many of these compounds are chromophoric and susceptible to photolytic degradation. High intensity UV-C radiation has been demonstrated to degrade some of these compounds in engineered systems. However, the degradation efficacy of natural solar radiation in shallow fresh waters is less understood. Here photolytic experiments with 17β-estradiol demonstrated modest photodegradation (∼ 26%) when exposed to simulated sunlight between 290 and 720 nm. Photodegradation significantly increased (∼ 40-50%) in the presence of 2.0-15.0 mg/l of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from humic acids of the Suwannee River, GA. However, rates of photodegradation reached a threshold at approximately 5.0 mg/l DOC. Observed suppression of photolysis in the presence of a radical inhibitor (i.e. 2-propanol) indicated that a significant proportion of the degradation was due to radicals formed from the photolysis of DOC. Although photodegradation was greatest in full sunlight containing UV-B (290-320 nm), degradation was also detected with UV-A (320-400 nm) and visible light (400-720 nm) alone

  17. Analysis of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. It is possible that future designs will continue this trend, leading to very-high or ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) engines. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. Regardless of the engine architecture chosen, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  18. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Turbofan for an Advanced, Single-Aisle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable interest surrounds the design of the next generation of single-aisle commercial transports in the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 class. Aircraft designers will depend on advanced, next-generation turbofan engines to power these airplanes. The focus of this study is to apply single- and multi-objective optimization algorithms to the conceptual design of ultrahigh bypass turbofan engines for this class of aircraft, using NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project metrics as multidisciplinary objectives for optimization. The independent design variables investigated include three continuous variables: sea level static thrust, wing reference area, and aerodynamic design point fan pressure ratio, and four discrete variables: overall pressure ratio, fan drive system architecture (i.e., direct- or gear-driven), bypass nozzle architecture (i.e., fixed- or variable geometry), and the high- and low-pressure compressor work split. Ramp weight, fuel burn, noise, and emissions are the parameters treated as dependent objective functions. These optimized solutions provide insight to the ultrahigh bypass engine design process and provide information to NASA program management to help guide its technology development efforts.

  19. Refined Exploration of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive exploration of the turbofan engine design space for an advanced technology single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) was conducted previously by the authors and is documented in a prior report. Through the course of that study and in a subsequent evaluation of the approach and results, a number of enhancements to the engine design ground rules and assumptions were identified. A follow-on effort was initiated to investigate the impacts of these changes on the original study results. The fundamental conclusions of the prior study were found to still be valid with the revised engine designs. The most significant impact of the design changes was a reduction in the aircraft weight and block fuel penalties incurred with low fan pressure ratio, ultra-high bypass ratio designs. This enables lower noise levels to be pursued (through lower fan pressure ratio) with minor negative impacts on aircraft weight and fuel efficiency. Regardless of the engine design selected, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  20. Steam generators and fuel engineering utilizing solid, liquid, gaseous and special fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, G

    1983-01-01

    Provided were technological specifications and details in the design of brown coal fired steam generators, produced in the German Democratic Republic. These steam generators range in their capacity between 1.6 and more than 1,000 t/h. The appropriate coal feeding systems, water supply and cleaning equipment, coal pulverizers and ash removal units are also manufactured. Various schemes show the design of a 25 to 64 t/h, a 320 t/h and an 815 t/h brown coal steam generator. Specifications are given for series of fuel pulverizers available, for the water circulation system and steam evaporators. The VEB Dampferzeugerbau Berlin also offers steam generators for saliniferous brown coal with a steam capacity up to 125 t/h, steam generators for pulverized black coal with a capacity up to 350 t/h and oil and gas fired generators up to 250 t/h. The company has experience in combustion of biomass (sugar cane waste) with oil in steam generators of more than 100 t/h capacity, and in projecting firing systems for other biofuels including rice, peanut and coconut hulls, wood and bark. Multi-biofuel firing in combination with coal for steam generation is also regarded as possible. (In English)

  1. QWIP technology for both military and civilian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Kukkonen, Carl A.; Sirangelo, Mark N.; McQuiston, Barbara K.; Chehayeb, Riad; Kaufmann, M.

    2001-10-01

    Advanced thermal imaging infrared cameras have been a cost effective and reliable method to obtain the temperature of objects. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) based thermal imaging systems have advanced the state-of-the-art and are the most sensitive commercially available thermal systems. QWIP Technologies LLC, under exclusive agreement with Caltech University, is currently manufacturing the QWIP-ChipTM, a 320 X 256 element, bound-to-quasibound QWIP FPA. The camera performance falls within the long-wave IR band, spectrally peaked at 8.5 μm. The camera is equipped with a 32-bit floating-point digital signal processor combined with multi- tasking software, delivering a digital acquisition resolution of 12-bits using nominal power consumption of less than 50 Watts. With a variety of video interface options, remote control capability via an RS-232 connection, and an integrated control driver circuit to support motorized zoom and focus- compatible lenses, this camera design has excellent application in both the military and commercial sector. In the area of remote sensing, high-performance QWIP systems can be used for high-resolution, target recognition as part of a new system of airborne platforms (including UAVs). Such systems also have direct application in law enforcement, surveillance, industrial monitoring and road hazard detection systems. This presentation will cover the current performance of the commercial QWIP cameras, conceptual platform systems and advanced image processing for use in both military remote sensing and civilian applications currently being developed in road hazard monitoring.

  2. Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity by Diode Laser: A Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dentine hypersensitivity (DH is characterized by pain after stimuli that usually provoke no symptoms. This study compared the effectiveness of GaAlAs diode laser alone and with topical sodium fluoride gel (NaF. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on 10 patients (8 F/2 M, age 25–60 and 115 teeth with DH assessed by air and tactile stimuli measured by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS. Teeth were randomly divided into G1 (34 teeth treated by 1.25% NaF; G2 (33 teeth lased at 0.5 W PW (T on 100 m and T off 100 ms, fluence 62.2 J/cm2 in defocused mode with a 320 μ fiber. Each tooth received three 1′ applications; G3 (48 teeth received NaF gel plus laser at same G2 parameters. NRS was checked at each control. Results. Significant pain reduction was showed. The NRS reduction percentages were calculated, and there was a concrete decrease of DH above all in G3 than G2 and G1. Conclusion. Diode laser is a useful device for DH treatment if used alone and mainly if used with NaF gel.

  3. Effect of Matrix Size on the Image Quality of Ultra-high-resolution CT of the Lung: Comparison of 512 × 512, 1024 × 1024, and 2048 × 2048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akinori; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Honda, Osamu; Kikuchi, Noriko; Miyata, Tomo; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Uranishi, Ayumi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2018-01-16

    This study aimed to assess the effect of matrix size on the spatial resolution and image quality of ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT). Slit phantoms and 11 cadaveric lungs were scanned on U-HRCT. Slit phantom scans were reconstructed using a 20-mm field of view (FOV) with 1024 matrix size and a 320-mm FOV with 512, 1024, and 2048 matrix sizes. Cadaveric lung scans were reconstructed using 512, 1024, and 2048 matrix sizes. Three observers subjectively scored the images on a three-point scale (1 = worst, 3 = best), in terms of overall image quality, noise, streak artifact, vessel, bronchi, and image findings. The median score of the three observers was evaluated by Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction. Noise was measured quantitatively and evaluated with the Tukey test. A P value of matrix had the highest resolution and was significantly better than the 1024 matrix in terms of overall quality, solid nodule, ground-glass opacity, emphysema, intralobular reticulation, honeycombing, and clarity of vessels (P matrix (P matrix size maintained the spatial resolution and improved the image quality and assessment of lung diseases, despite an increase in image noise, when compared to a 512 matrix size. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Triple pulse shape discrimination and capture-gated spectroscopy in a composite heterogeneous scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, M., E-mail: mksharma@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Nattress, J. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wilhelm, K. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jovanovic, I. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-06-11

    We demonstrate an all-solid-state design for a composite heterogeneous scintillation detector sensitive to interactions with high-energy photons (gammas), fast neutrons, and thermal neutrons. The scintillator exhibits triple pulse shape discrimination, effectively separating electron recoils, fast neutron recoils, and neutron captures. This is accomplished by combining the properties of two distinct scintillators, whereby a 51-mm diameter, 51-mm tall cylinder of pulse shape discriminating plastic is wrapped by a 320-µm thick sheet of {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag), optically coupling the scintillators to each other and to the photomultiplier tube. In this way, the sensitivity to neutron captures is achieved without the need to load the plastic scintillator with a capture agent. We demonstrate a figure of merit of up to 1.2 for fast neutrons/gammas and 5.7 for thermal neutrons/gammas. Intrinsic capture efficiency is found to be 0.46±0.05% and is in good agreement with simulation, while gamma rejection was 10{sup −6} with respect to the capture region and 10{sup −4} with respect to the recoil region using a 300 keVee threshold. Finally, we show an improvement in capture-gated neutron spectroscopy by rejecting accidental gamma coincidences using pulse shape discrimination in the plastic scintillator.

  5. Ultraviolet-A LED Based on Quantum-disks-in-AlGaN-nanowires - Optimization and Device Reliability

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2018-03-16

    Group-III nitride-based ultraviolet (UV) quantum-disks (Qdisks) nanowires (NWs) light-emitting diodes grown on silicon substrates offer a scalable, environment-friendly, compact, and low-cost solution for numerous applications such as solid-state lighting, spectroscopy, and biomedical. However, the internal quantum efficiency, injection efficiency, and extraction efficiency need to be further improved. The focus of this paper encompasses investigations based on structural optimization, device simulation, and device reliability. To optimize a UV-A (320-400 nm) device structure we utilize the self-assembled quantum-disk-NWs with varying quantum-disks thickness to study carrier separation in active-region and implement an improved p-contact-layer to increase output power. By simulation, we found a 100° improvement in the direct recombination rate for samples with thicker Qdisks thickness of 1.2 nm compared to the sample with 0.6 nm-thick Qdisks. Moreover, the sample with graded top Mg-doped AlGaN layer in conjunction with thin Mg-doped GaN layer shows 10° improvement in the output power compared to the samples with thicker top Mg-doped GaN absorbing contact layer. A fitting with ABC model revealed the increase in non-radiative recombination centers in the active region after a soft stress-test. This work aims to shed light on the research efforts required for furthering the UV NWs LED research for practical applications.

  6. Data indicating temperature response of Ti–6Al–4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett J. Marshall

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™ 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti–6Al–4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  7. A new method for measuring temporal resolution in electrocardiogram-gated reconstruction image with area-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Takeshi; Takagi, Masachika; Kato, Ryohei; Anno, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Masanao; Yoshimi, Satoshi; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Katada, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and construct a phantom for using motion artifact in the electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated reconstruction image. In addition, the temporal resolution under various conditions was estimated. A stepping motor was used to move the phantom over an arc in a reciprocating manner. The program for controlling the stepping motor permitted the stationary period and the heart rate to be adjusted as desired. Images of the phantom were obtained using a 320-row area-detector computed tomography (ADCT) system under various conditions using the ECG-gated reconstruction method. For estimation, the reconstruction phase was continuously changed and the motion artifacts were quantitatively assessed. The temporal resolution was calculated from the number of motion-free images. Changes in the temporal resolution according to heart rate, rotation time, the number of reconstruction segments and acquisition position in z-axis were also investigated. The measured temporal resolution of ECG-gated half reconstruction is 180 ms, which is in good agreement with the nominal temporal resolution of 175 ms. The measured temporal resolution of ECG-gated segmental reconstruction is in good agreement with the nominal temporal resolution in most cases. The estimated temporal resolution improved to approach the nominal temporal resolution as the number of reconstruction segments was increased. Temporal resolution in changing acquisition position is equal. This study shows that we could design a new phantom for estimating temporal resolution. (author)

  8. Doublet III neutral beam injector test tank cryopanel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.W.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Arend, P.V.

    1980-03-01

    A simple condensing cryopanel has been designed for the Doublet III neutral beam test tank with a 320,000 liters per second pumping capacity for hydrogen. This maintains a vacuum in the test tank which simulates the Doublet III vessel, 1.3 x 10 -3 Pa (approx.10 -5 torr). The hydrogen gas load comes from the beam striking the test tank calorimeter and amounts to about 7.2 torr liters per second. The cryopanel is cylindrical shaped with a liquid helium (LHe) surface that pumps through liquid nitrogen (LN) cooled aluminum chevrons located in squirrel-cage fashion around the inside surface of the cylinder. The LHe cooled surface is a smooth cylinder 2.09m in diameter by .69m long with LHe flowing in a approx. 1mm annular space between concentric cylinders. The chevrons which are not blackened are cooled from each end with LN flowing in ring manifolds that serve as the primary cryopanel structure. The LHe is force fed at 55.2 kPa remaining in the liquid phase through the panel. External heat exchanger capability permits use of helium at 3.8 to 4.2 0 K. Normal operating flow rate is 1.4 g/sec for a heat load expected to be 12.2 W total

  9. Portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system for detection of biofilms on stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won; Lee, Kangjin; Millner, Patricia; Sharma, Manan; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2008-04-01

    A rapid nondestructive technology is needed to detect bacterial contamination on the surfaces of food processing equipment to reduce public health risks. A portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system was used to evaluate potential detection of microbial biofilm on stainless steel typically used in the manufacture of food processing equipment. Stainless steel coupons were immersed in bacterium cultures, such as E. coli, Pseudomonas pertucinogena, Erwinia chrysanthemi, and Listeria innocula. Following a 1-week exposure, biofilm formations were assessed using fluorescence imaging. In addition, the effects on biofilm formation from both tryptic soy broth (TSB) and M9 medium with casamino acids (M9C) were examined. TSB grown cells enhance biofilm production compared with M9C-grown cells. Hyperspectral fluorescence images of the biofilm samples, in response to ultraviolet-A (320 to 400 nm) excitation, were acquired from approximately 416 to 700 nm. Visual evaluation of individual images at emission peak wavelengths in the blue revealed the most contrast between biofilms and stainless steel coupons. Two-band ratios compared with the single-band images increased the contrast between the biofilm forming area and stainless steel coupon surfaces. The 444/588 nm ratio images exhibited the greatest contrast between the biofilm formations and stainless coupon surfaces.

  10. Control in the cockpit: crews vs. computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropelewski, R

    1996-08-01

    In the no-holds-barred competition between Boeing and Europe's Airbus Industrie for dominance in the world's commercial jet airliner markets, the question of who--or what--is in charge in the cockpit has been a significant selling point. Airbus, which pioneered highly automated flight controls with its A320 narrow-body transport in the late 1980s, likes to emphasize the "protection" features built into the aircraft through those automated systems. Boeing, which employs many of the same concepts in its new 777 twin-engine widebody transport, tends to put more emphasis on crew involvement in the operation of that aircraft. Is there a difference? In fact, the question has broader implications than those involving the marketing battle between Boeing and Airbus. Airlines, aircraft manufacturers, flight training specialists, human factors gurus, and aviation authorities in various countries are struggling with the isse as automation becomes more and more prevalent on passenger and cargo-carrying aircraft around the world.

  11. A Wavelet-Enhanced PWTD-Accelerated Time-Domain Integral Equation Solver for Analysis of Transient Scattering from Electrically Large Conducting Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2018-02-26

    A wavelet-enhanced plane-wave time-domain (PWTD) algorithm for efficiently and accurately solving time-domain surface integral equations (TD-SIEs) on electrically large conducting objects is presented. The proposed scheme reduces the memory requirement and computational cost of the PWTD algorithm by representing the PWTD ray data using local cosine wavelet bases (LCBs) and performing PWTD operations in the wavelet domain. The memory requirement and computational cost of the LCB-enhanced PWTD-accelerated TD-SIE solver, when applied to the analysis of transient scattering from smooth quasi-planar objects with near-normal incident pulses, scale nearly as O(Ns log Ns) and O(Ns 1.5 ), respectively. Here, Ns denotes the number of spatial unknowns. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed scheme are demonstrated through its applications to the analysis of transient scattering from a 185 wave-length-long NASA almond and a 123-wavelength long Air-bus-A320 model.

  12. Developmental venous anomalies: appearance on whole-brain CT digital subtraction angiography and CT perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Eric H. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Amigenics, Inc, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Roach, Cayce J. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, School of Life Sciences, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, Erik N. [University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Psychology, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wynn, Brad L. [Family Medicine Spokane, Spokane, WA (United States); DeChancie, Sean M.; Mann, Nathan D. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); Diamond, Alan S. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Orrison, William W. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Reno, NV (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) consist of dilated intramedullary veins that converge into a large collecting vein. The appearance of these anomalies was evaluated on whole-brain computed tomography (CT) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT perfusion (CTP) studies. CT data sets of ten anonymized patients were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients had evidence of DVA and five age- and sex-matched controls were without known neurovascular abnormalities. CT angiograms, CT arterial-venous views, 4-D CT DSA and CTP maps were acquired on a dynamic volume imaging protocol on a 320-detector row CT scanner. Whole-brain CTP parameters were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), and delay. DSA was utilized to visualize DVA anatomy. Radiation dose was recorded from the scanner console. Increased CTP values were present in the DVA relative to the unaffected contralateral hemisphere of 48%, 32%, and 26%; and for the control group with matched hemispheric comparisons of 2%, -10%, and 9% for CBF, CBV, and MTT, respectively. Average effective radiation dose was 4.4 mSv. Whole-brain DSA and CTP imaging can demonstrate a characteristic appearance of altered DVA hemodynamic parameters and capture the anomalies in superior cortices of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Future research may identify the rare subsets of patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes secondary to the altered hemodynamics to facilitate tailored imaging surveillance and application of appropriate preventive therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  13. Development of Custom 465® Corrosion-Resisting Steel for Landing Gear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymond, Benjamin T.; Binot, Nicolas; Schmidt, Michael L.; Preston, Steve; Collins, Richard; Shepherd, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Existing high-strength low-alloy steels have been in place on landing gear for many years owing to their superior strength and cost performance. However, there have been major advances in improving the strength of high-performance corrosion-resisting steels. These materials have superior environmental robustness and remove the need for harmful protective coatings such as chromates and cadmium now on the list for removal under REACH legislation. A UK government-funded collaborative project is underway targeting a refined specification Custom 465® precipitation hardened stainless steel to replace the current material on Airbus A320 family aircraft main landing gear, a main fitting component developed by Messier-Bugatti-Dowty. This is a collaborative project between Airbus, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty, and Carpenter Technology Corporation. An extensive series of coupon tests on four production Heats of the material have been conducted, to obtain a full range of mechanical, fatigue, and corrosion properties. Custom 465® is an excellent replacement to the current material, with comparable tensile strength and fracture toughness, better ductility, and very good general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Fatigue performance is the only significant area of deficit with respect to incumbent materials, fatigue initiation being often related to carbo-titanium-nitride particles and cleavage zones.

  14. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Radiation Dose-Equivalent Radiography, Multidetector Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Fractures of Adult Cadaveric Wrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jakob; Benndorf, Matthias; Reidelbach, Carolin; Krauß, Tobias; Lampert, Florian; Zajonc, Horst; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Fiebich, Martin; Goerke, Sebastian M

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of radiography, to radiography equivalent dose multidetector computed tomography (RED-MDCT) and to radiography equivalent dose cone beam computed tomography (RED-CBCT) for wrist fractures. As study subjects we obtained 10 cadaveric human hands from body donors. Distal radius, distal ulna and carpal bones (n = 100) were artificially fractured in random order in a controlled experimental setting. We performed radiation dose equivalent radiography (settings as in standard clinical care), RED-MDCT in a 320 row MDCT with single shot mode and RED-CBCT in a device dedicated to musculoskeletal imaging. Three raters independently evaluated the resulting images for fractures and the level of confidence for each finding. Gold standard was evaluated by consensus reading of a high-dose MDCT. Pooled sensitivity was higher in RED-MDCT with 0.89 and RED-MDCT with 0.81 compared to radiography with 0.54 (P = radiography (P radiography. Readers are more confident in their reporting with the cross sectional modalities. Dose equivalent cross sectional computed tomography of the wrist could replace plain radiography for fracture diagnosis in the long run.

  15. CT image quality improvement using adaptive iterative dose reduction with wide-volume acquisition on 320-detector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervaise, Alban; Osemont, Benoit; Lecocq, Sophie; Blum, Alain; Noel, Alain; Micard, Emilien; Felblinger, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction (AIDR) on image quality and radiation dose in phantom and patient studies. A phantom was examined in volumetric mode on a 320-detector CT at different tube currents from 25 to 550 mAs. CT images were reconstructed with AIDR and with Filtered Back Projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Image noise, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and spatial resolution were compared between FBP and AIDR images. AIDR was then tested on 15 CT examinations of the lumbar spine in a prospective study. Again, FBP and AIDR images were compared. Image noise and SNR were analysed using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In the phantom, spatial resolution assessment showed no significant difference between FBP and AIDR reconstructions. Image noise was lower with AIDR than with FBP images with a mean reduction of 40%. CNR and SNR were also improved with AIDR. In patients, quantitative and subjective evaluation showed that image noise was significantly lower with AIDR than with FBP. SNR was also greater with AIDR than with FBP. Compared to traditional FBP reconstruction techniques, AIDR significantly improves image quality and has the potential to decrease radiation dose. (orig.)

  16. Computation of load functions for different types of aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefert, Alexander; Henkel, Fritz-Otto

    2013-01-01

    In the presentation the influence of different parameters on the Ft-function were shown. The increase of the impact velocity shows for all aircraft a higher maximal load value and a reduced impact time. Due to the structural setup of the aircraft's the intensity is of these effects different. Comparing the Ft-function of A320, A340 and A380 for an impact velocity of 100 and 175 m/s no constant relation between them can be determined. • The variation of the flight direction with respect to the vertical axis shows a great influence on the Ft-function. A approximation by the cosine is especially for bigger rotations not correct. The influence of the rotation about the horizontal axis can be neglected. Finally the SPH-method was applied for the modelling of the fuel. The comparison to the discrete modelling approach was carried out for the Phantom F4. Thereby no big influence on the Ft-function is observed. For the evaluation of this modelling approach on the local damage the loaded area must be determined in further investigations

  17. Can the critical temperature for photochemical damage in common bean plants be changed after a drought event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Low water availability and high temperatures occur under field conditions and we hypothesize that the critical temperature for photochemical damage (TC in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants is increased by the occurrence of previous water deficit in a genotype-dependent manner. Five common bean cultivars A320, A222, Carioca, BAT477 and Ouro Negro were evaluated. Thirty days after seedlings emergence, one group of plants was exposed to water deficit for ten days and rehydrated and another one was maintained well hydrated during the experimental period. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (FO was monitored in leaf discs exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 45 oC and the TC values estimated. The previous water deficit did not affect TC, which varied between 38.8 and 43.8 oC when considering all cultivars and water regimes. Under well-watered conditions, BAT477 (41.9 oC and Carioca (43.8 oC presented higher TCthan Ouro Negro (38.8 oC. Our findings indicate a significant genotypic variation in thermal tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris, an important crop trait to be considered in breeding programs.

  18. Automatic Generation of Minimal Cut Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Kromodimoeljo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cut set is a collection of component failure modes that could lead to a system failure. Cut Set Analysis (CSA is applied to critical systems to identify and rank system vulnerabilities at design time. Model checking tools have been used to automate the generation of minimal cut sets but are generally based on checking reachability of system failure states. This paper describes a new approach to CSA using a Linear Temporal Logic (LTL model checker called BT Analyser that supports the generation of multiple counterexamples. The approach enables a broader class of system failures to be analysed, by generalising from failure state formulae to failure behaviours expressed in LTL. The traditional approach to CSA using model checking requires the model or system failure to be modified, usually by hand, to eliminate already-discovered cut sets, and the model checker to be rerun, at each step. By contrast, the new approach works incrementally and fully automatically, thereby removing the tedious and error-prone manual process and resulting in significantly reduced computation time. This in turn enables larger models to be checked. Two different strategies for using BT Analyser for CSA are presented. There is generally no single best strategy for model checking: their relative efficiency depends on the model and property being analysed. Comparative results are given for the A320 hydraulics case study in the Behavior Tree modelling language.

  19. CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talakic, Emina; Schoellnast, Helmut [Medical University of Graz, Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Schaffellner, Silvia; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Mueller, Helmut [Medical University of Graz, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation Surgery, Graz (Austria); Stauber, Rudolf [Medical University of Graz, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastoenterology and Hepatology, Graz (Austria); Quehenberger, Franz [Medical University of Graz, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Graz (Austria)

    2017-10-15

    To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT perfusion algorithms (maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to measure hepatic arterial flow (HAF), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic perfusion index (HPI), splenic arterial flow (SAF), splenic blood volume (SBV) and splenic clearance (SCL). Hepatic and splenic perfusion parameters were correlated with HVPG, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe portal hypertension (≥12 mmHg) were calculated. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.53 (p < 0.05) between SAF and HVPG, and -0.68 (p < 0.01) between HVPG and SCL. Using a cut-off value of 125 ml/min/100 ml for SCL, sensitivity for detection of a HVPG of ≥12 mmHg was 94%, and specificity 100%. There was no significant correlation between hepatic perfusion parameters and HVPG. CT perfusion in patients with cirrhosis showed a strong correlation between SCL and HVPG and may be used for detection of severe portal hypertension. (orig.)

  20. Preliminary application of 320-detector spiral CT with ECG editing for assessing coronary artery in-stent restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiming; Tan Lilian; Li Shuxin; Fu Xi; He Weihong; Liu Ke; Huang Yong; Yu Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of 320-detector spiral CT with retrospective ECG gating and editing software for detecting coronary artery in-stent restenosis. Methods: CT scans of 14 patients with coronary artery stnets were retrospectively analyzed. The examinations were performed using a 320-detector spiral CT scanner and retrospective ECG gating combined with ECG editing software. The image quality of reconstructed coronary artery in-stents was compared before and after the editing of synchronously recorded ECG. The paired-sample t test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Before ECG editing, arrhythmia and in-stent artifact resulted in image blurring, missing arterial segments, significant stepladder artifacts or non-visualization of the interior of stents. Of 14 cases before ECG editing, in-stent restenosis was detected in 10 and patency in 3. The coronary artery stent and distal bifurcation were delineated in one patient. After ECG editing, the image quality of coronary artery stents was improved with detection of in-stent restenosis (4 cases) including the one case that not evaluable before ECG editing. The average image quality score before ECG editing (2.14±0.86) was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that after ECG editing (3.07±0.73). Conclusion: Retrospective ECG gating combined with ECG editing of 320-detector spiral CT can reduce the artifacts produced by arrhythmia or in-stent swings and improve the imaging quality of coronary artery stents. (authors)

  1. HOTLink rack monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al R Franck et al.

    2001-01-01

    A remote data acquisition chassis, called a HOTLink Rack Monitor, HRM, has been developed for use in the Fermilab control system. This chassis provides for 64 analog input channels, 8 analog output channels, and 8 bytes of digital I/O. The interface to the host VMEbus crate is by way of a 320 MHz HOTLink serial connection to a PMC mezzanine module. With no processor intervention, all data sources in the remote chassis are read at 100 sec intervals, time stamped, and stored in a 2 MB circular buffer on the PMC module. In operation, the memory always contains the most recent 16 k samples of 10 kHz data from all 64 analog input channels. An expansion module that resides in the HRM chassis records snapshot data for 8 analog channels, each channel consisting of up to 16 k readings, digitized at rates up to 10 MHz. Snapshot data is also returned and stored in buffers on the PMC module. Because the HRM presents a memory-mapped interface to the host, it is independent of the operating system and may be used in any system that supports PMC mezzanine modules

  2. Zinc Selenide-Based Schottky Barrier Detectors for Ultraviolet-A and Ultraviolet-B Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naval

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide-bandgap semiconductors such as zinc selenide (ZnSe have become popular for ultraviolet (UV photodetectors due to their broad UV spectral response. Schottky barrier detectors made of ZnSe in particular have been shown to have both low dark current and high responsivity. This paper presents the results of electrical and optical characterization of UV sensors based on ZnSe/Ni Schottky diodes fabricated using single-crystal ZnSe substrate with integrated UV-A (320–400 nm and UV-B (280–320 nm filters. For comparison, characteristics characterization of an unfiltered detector is also included. The measured photoresponse showed good discrimination between the two spectral bands. The measured responsivities of the UV-A and UV-B detectors were 50 mA/W and 10 mA/W, respectively. A detector without a UV filter showed a maximum responsivity of about 110 mA/W at 375 nm wavelength. The speed of the unfiltered detector was found to be about 300 kHz primarily limited by the RC time constant determined largely by the detector area.

  3. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a marsupial DNA photolyase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, C.L.K.; Ley, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Post UV-B (280-320 nm) exposure to UV-A (320-400 nm) reverses pyrimidine dimers in the epidermal DNA of the South American opossum Monodelphis domestica. To demonstrate that the observed photorepair is mediated by an enzyme, we have isolated a DNA photolyase from the opossum. DNA photolyase from liver was purified 3000-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation and phenylsepharose, hydroxylapatite, DEAE-cellulose and DNA-cellulose column chromatography. Heat denaturation completely eliminated the photoreactivating activity. The enzyme was active in the pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 with a pH optimum of 7.5. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 32 000 under nondenaturing conditions. The activity of the enzyme was not affected by sodium chloride up to 250 mM. The action spectrum for the purified DNA photolyase showed activity in the range of 325-475 nm with peak activity at 375 nm. (author)

  5. Isolation and characterization of a marsupial DNA photolyase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, C.L.K.; Ley, R.D.

    1988-05-01

    Post UV-B (280-320 nm) exposure to UV-A (320-400 nm) reverses pyrimidine dimers in the epidermal DNA of the South American opossum Monodelphis domestica. To demonstrate that the observed photorepair is mediated by an enzyme, we have isolated a DNA photolyase from the opossum. DNA photolyase from liver was purified 3000-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation and phenylsepharose, hydroxylapatite, DEAE-cellulose and DNA-cellulose column chromatography. Heat denaturation completely eliminated the photoreactivating activity. The enzyme was active in the pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 with a pH optimum of 7.5. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 32 000 under nondenaturing conditions. The activity of the enzyme was not affected by sodium chloride up to 250 mM. The action spectrum for the purified DNA photolyase showed activity in the range of 325-475 nm with peak activity at 375 nm.

  6. Wood pyrolysis oil for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, D.; Gros, S.; Hellen, G.; Jay, D.; Maekelae, T.; Rantanen, O.; Tanska, T. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Wood Pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been identified by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) as the most competitive biofuel product which can be produced from biomass. The fuel is produced by a fast pyrolysis technique, using wood chipping`s or sawdust. The process can be applied to other recycling products such as straw etc. The use of WPO as a Diesel power plant fuel has been studied, and a fuel specification has been developed. The fuel characteristics have been analysed. There are several fuel properties addressed in the paper which have had to be overcome. New materials have been used in the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system development has progressed from a pump-line-pipe system to a common rail system. The fuel requires a pilot fuel oil injection to initiate combustion. The targets for the fuel injection system have been 1500 bar and 30 deg C injection period with a fuel of 15 MJ/kg lower heating value and 1220 Kg/m{sup 3} density. The combustion characteristics from both a small 80 mm bore engine initially, and then later with a single cylinder test of a 320 mm bore Waertsilae engine, have been evaluated. (author)

  7. Impact of Alternative Jet Fuels on Engine Exhaust Composition During the 2015 ECLIF Ground-Based Measurements Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripp, Tobias; Anderson, Bruce; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Herrmann, Friederike; Oßwald, Patrick; Wahl, Claus; Kapernaum, Manfred; Köhler, Markus; Le Clercq, Patrick; Rauch, Bastian; Eichler, Philipp; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2018-04-17

    The application of fuels from renewable sources ("alternative fuels") in aviation is important for the reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, but may also attribute to reduced release of particles from jet engines. The present experiment describes ground-based measurements in the framework of the ECLIF (Emission and Climate Impact of Alternative Fuels) campaign using an Airbus A320 (V2527-A5 engines) burning six fuels of chemically different composition. Two reference Jet A-1 with slightly different chemical parameters were applied and further used in combination with a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene (FT-SPK) to prepare three semi synthetic jet fuels (SSJF) of different aromatic content. In addition, one commercially available fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF) featured the lowest aromatic content of the fuel selection. Neither the release of nitrogen oxide or carbon monoxide was significantly affected by the different fuel composition. The measured particle emission indices showed a reduction up to 50% (number) and 70% (mass) for two alternative jet fuels (FSJF, SSJF2) at low power settings in comparison to the reference fuels. The reduction is less pronounced at higher operating conditions but the release of particle number and particle mass is still significantly lower for the alternative fuels than for both reference fuels. The observed correlation between emitted particle mass and fuel aromatics is not strict. Here, the H/C ratio is a better indicator for soot emission.

  8. A study of two unsupervised data driven statistical methodologies for detecting and classifying damages in structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaduiza, D.-A.; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Mujica, L. E.; Rodellar, J.; Fritzen, C.-P.

    2013-12-01

    This article is concerned with the practical use of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Squared Prediction Error (SPE) measures and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to detect and classify damages in mechanical structures. The formalism is based on a distributed piezoelectric active sensor network for the excitation and detection of structural dynamic responses. Statistical models are built using PCA when the structure is known to be healthy either directly from the dynamic responses or from wavelet coefficients at different scales representing Time-frequency information. Different damages on the tested structures are simulated by adding masses at different positions. The data from the structure in different states (damaged or not) are then projected into the different principal component models by each actuator in order to obtain the input feature vectors for a SOM from the scores and the SPE measures. An aircraft fuselage from an Airbus A320 and a multi-layered carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate are used as examples to test the approaches. Results are presented, compared and discussed in order to determine their potential in structural health monitoring. These results showed that all the simulated damages were detectable and the selected features proved capable of separating all damage conditions from the undamaged state for both approaches.

  9. Evidence of natural selection acting on a polymorphic hybrid incompatibility locus in Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Flagel, Lex E

    2015-02-01

    As a common cause of reproductive isolation in diverse taxa, hybrid incompatibilities are fundamentally important to speciation. A key question is which evolutionary forces drive the initial substitutions within species that lead to hybrid dysfunction. Previously, we discovered a simple genetic incompatibility that causes nearly complete male sterility and partial female sterility in hybrids between the two closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In this report, we fine map the two major incompatibility loci-hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) and hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2)-to small nuclear genomic regions (each <70 kb) that include strong candidate genes. With this improved genetic resolution, we also investigate the evolutionary dynamics of hms1 in a natural population of M. guttatus known to be polymorphic at this locus. Using classical genetic crosses and population genomics, we show that a 320-kb region containing the hms1 incompatibility allele has risen to intermediate frequency in this population by strong natural selection. This finding provides direct evidence that natural selection within plant species can lead to hybrid dysfunction between species. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Appearance and impact of post-operative intracranial clips and coils on whole-brain CT angiography and perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Cayce J.; Russell, Cheryl L.; Hanson, Eric H.; Bluett, Brent; Orrison, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the effect of vascular clips and endovascular coils placed for intracranial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations on whole-brain computed tomography (CT) angiography and perfusion. Methods: A 320-detector row dynamic volume CT system imaged 11 patients following surgical placement of vascular clips or endovascular coils. The extent of clip and coil subtraction by automated software was evaluated using CT digital subtraction angiography and CT perfusion. Impact on CT perfusion values by retained intracranial devices was compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Results: Clip and coil subtraction on CT angiography was graded as good in 8 and moderate in 3 cases. A residual neck and additional aneurysm were noted in 1 of 11 patients. Post-procedural axial slice level CT perfusion values decreased in reliability with increasing proximity to the metallic devices secondary to beam hardening. However, the intracranial devices did not affect axial slice level CTP values of cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow and mean transit time outside of the level of the device. Time to peak values was globally decreased outside of the immediate vascular intervention region. Conclusions: Advances in CT technology have provided clinically useful subtraction of intracranial clips and coils. While CT perfusion values were altered in device subtraction areas and within beam hardening artifact areas; they can provide valuable postoperative information on whole-brain hemodynamics. In selected cases, the combination of CT angiography and whole-brain CT perfusion can offer an alternative to conventional angiography that is a more invasive option.

  11. Comparing in situ removal strategies for improving styrene bioproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Rebekah; Moya, Luis; McDaniel, Matthew; Nielsen, David R

    2015-01-01

    As an important conventional monomer compound, the biological production of styrene carries significant promise with respect to creating novel sustainable materials. Since end-product toxicity presently limits styrene production by previously engineered Escherichia coli, in situ product removal by both solvent extraction and gas stripping were explored as process-based strategies for circumventing its inhibitory effects. In solvent extraction, the addition of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate offered the greatest productivity enhancement, allowing net volumetric production of 836 ± 64 mg/L to be reached, representing a 320 % improvement over single-phase cultures. Gas stripping rates, meanwhile, were controlled by rates of bioreactor agitation and, to a greater extent, aeration. A periodic gas stripping protocol ultimately enabled up to 561 ± 15 mg/L styrene to be attained. Lastly, by relieving the effects of styrene toxicity, new insight was gained regarding subsequent factors limiting its biosynthesis in E. coli and strategies for future strain improvement are discussed.

  12. Development of a nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of a sequence of the p57 gene of Renibacterium salmoninarum that provides a highly sensitive method for detection of the bacterium in salmonid kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, D.M.; Pascho, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based assays have shown promise for diagnosing Renibacterium salmoninarum in tissues and body fluids of salmonids. DeVelopment of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect a 320 bp DNA segment of the gene encoding the p57 protein of R. salmoninarum is described. Whereas a conventional PCR for a 383 bp segment of the p57 gene reliably detected 1000 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue, the nested PCR detected as few as 10 R. salmoninarum per reaction in kidney tissue. Two DNA extraction methods for the nested PCR were compared and the correlation between replicate samples was generally higher in samples extracted by the QIAamp system compared with those extracted by the phenol/chloroform method. The specificity of the nested PCR was confirmed by testing DNA extracts of common bacterial fish pathogens and a panel of bacterial species reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for R. salmoninarum. Kidney samples from 74 naturally infected chinook Salmon were examined by the nested PCR, the ELISA, and the FAT, and the detected prevalences of R. salmoninarum were 61, 47, and 43%, respectively.

  13. Comparison of the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the polymerase chain reaction to detect Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmon ovarian fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascho, Ronald J.; Chase, Dorothy M.; McKibben, Constance L.

    1998-01-01

    Ovarian fluid samples from naturally infected chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum by the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT), an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the MF-FAT, 64% (66/103) samples contained detectable levels of R. salmoninarum cells. Among the positive fish, the R. salmoninarum concentrations ranged from 25 cells/ml to 4.3 × 109cells/ml. A soluble antigenic fraction of R. salmoninarum was detected in 39% of the fish (40/103) by the ELISA. The ELISA is considered one of the most sensitive detection methods for bacterial kidney disease in tissues, yet it did not detect R. salmoninarum antigen consistently at bacterial cell concentrations below about 1.3 × 104cells/ml according to the MF-FAT counts. When total DNA was extracted and tested in a nested PCR designed to amplify a 320-base-pair region of the gene encoding a soluble 57-kD protein of R. salmoninarum, 100% of the 100 samples tested were positive. The results provided strong evidence that R. salmoninarum may be present in ovarian fluids thought to be free of the bacterium on the basis of standard diagnostic methods.

  14. Natural organic matter and sunlight accelerate the degradation of 17ss-estradiol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leech, Dina M. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3431 Arendell Street, Morehead City, NC 28557 (United States)], E-mail: dmleech@email.unc.edu; Snyder, Matthew T.; Wetzel, Robert G. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Nanomolar concentrations of steroid hormones such as 17{beta}-estradiol can influence the reproductive development and sex ratios of invertebrate and vertebrate populations. Thus their release into surface and ground waters from wastewater facilities and agricultural applications of animal waste is of environmental concern. Many of these compounds are chromophoric and susceptible to photolytic degradation. High intensity UV-C radiation has been demonstrated to degrade some of these compounds in engineered systems. However, the degradation efficacy of natural solar radiation in shallow fresh waters is less understood. Here photolytic experiments with 17{beta}-estradiol demonstrated modest photodegradation ({approx} 26%) when exposed to simulated sunlight between 290 and 720 nm. Photodegradation significantly increased ({approx} 40-50%) in the presence of 2.0-15.0 mg/l of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from humic acids of the Suwannee River, GA. However, rates of photodegradation reached a threshold at approximately 5.0 mg/l DOC. Observed suppression of photolysis in the presence of a radical inhibitor (i.e. 2-propanol) indicated that a significant proportion of the degradation was due to radicals formed from the photolysis of DOC. Although photodegradation was greatest in full sunlight containing UV-B (290-320 nm), degradation was also detected with UV-A (320-400 nm) and visible light (400-720 nm) alone.

  15. Myocardial perfusion 320-row multidetector computed tomography-guided treatment strategy for the clinical management of patients with recent acute-onset chest pain: Design of the CArdiac cT in the treatment of acute CHest pain (CATCH)-2 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørgaard, Mathias; Linde, Jesper J; Hove, Jens D; Petersen, Jan R; Jørgensen, Tem B S; Abdulla, Jawdat; Heitmann, Merete; Kragelund, Charlotte; Hansen, Thomas Fritz; Udholm, Patricia M; Pihl, Christian; Kühl, J Tobias; Engstrøm, Thomas; Jensen, Jan Skov; Høfsten, Dan E; Kelbæk, Henning; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2016-09-01

    Patients admitted with chest pain are a diagnostic challenge because the majority does not have coronary artery disease (CAD). Assessment of CAD with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is safe, cost-effective, and accurate, albeit with a modest specificity. Stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) has been shown to increase the specificity when added to CCTA, without lowering the sensitivity. This article describes the design of a randomized controlled trial, CATCH-2, comparing a clinical diagnostic management strategy of CCTA alone against CCTA in combination with CTP. Patients with acute-onset chest pain older than 50 years and with at least one cardiovascular risk factor for CAD are being prospectively enrolled to this study from 6 different clinical sites since October 2013. A total of 600 patients will be included. Patients are randomized 1:1 to clinical management based on CCTA or on CCTA in combination with CTP, determining the need for further testing with invasive coronary angiography including measurement of the fractional flow reserve in vessels with coronary artery lesions. Patients are scanned with a 320-row multidetector computed tomography scanner. Decisions to revascularize the patients are taken by the invasive cardiologist independently of the study allocation. The primary end point is the frequency of revascularization. Secondary end points of clinical outcome are also recorded. The CATCH-2 will determine whether CCTA in combination with CTP is diagnostically superior to CCTA alone in the management of patients with acute-onset chest pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  17. Optimization of coal recovery from open pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C; Wolff, S F; Baafi, E Y; Cervantes, J A; Coates, D F

    1979-02-01

    The design techniques of the Pit Slope Manual were successfully applied in a case study concerned with optimizing the design of coal mines. A steeply dipping multiple seam deposit, being mined by the truck-shovel combination, was selected for the study. The criterion for optimum slopes was based on the financial consequences of each design, i.e., the resultant benefits and costs. Three alternative designs were analyzed. The first had an average highwall slope angle of 28 degrees and a final height of 290 m. The second had a 35 degrees slope angle and a 305-m wall height. The third had a 45 degrees slope angle and a 320-m wall height. Trade-off between benefits and increased cost of slope instability inherent in steeper slope angles was analyzed for the entire mine life through computer simulation of actual mining operations. The cost models developed were (1) No Cost, (2) Clean-up, (3) Lost Coal, (4) Early Mining, (5) Mine Abandonment, (6) Increased Haulage, and (7) Haul Road Re-establishment. (8 refs.)

  18. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium activity in its 3rd year (Research and development of technologies for creating novel organic electroluminescent devices); 1999 nendo shin'yuki electroluminescence device no sosei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Development is reported of an autoluminescent planar display and a free shape novel light source based on the technology of creating organic electroluminescent (EL) devices. A small dose of desiccant is added to an inorganic amorphous protecting film, and then high reliability is attained with the film staying in service for 30,000 hours or more. Technologies of ensuring uniform luminescence on a 100 times 100mm large screen and forming a 0.2mm pitch electrode pattern are established, and a 320 times 240 dot simple matrix display is developed. Novel red luminescent materials are developed, which are luminescent materials which incorporate Eu ions as luminescent seeds and exhibit a sharp luminescent spectrum, and novel organic materials. Novel blue luminescent materials are also developed. As for white luminescent materials, two types of novel pigments are developed. Studies are under way to apply amphoteric carrier transport materials to EL devices. A novel sealing technology is established which uses a composite material made of fine glass powder and UV setting resin. A SiON-based protecting film is successfully fabricated by which the internal stress is minimized. A technology is established of fabricating a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film for the protection of electrodes and wiring circuits. (NEDO)

  19. Phylogeography and post-glacial recolonization in wolverines (Gulo gulo from across their circumpolar distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Zigouris

    Full Text Available Interglacial-glacial cycles of the Quaternary are widely recognized in shaping phylogeographic structure. Patterns from cold adapted species can be especially informative - in particular, uncovering additional glacial refugia, identifying likely recolonization patterns, and increasing our understanding of species' responses to climate change. We investigated phylogenetic structure of the wolverine, a wide-ranging cold adapted carnivore, using a 318 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region for 983 wolverines (n=209 this study, n=774 from GenBank from across their full Holarctic distribution. Bayesian phylogenetic tree reconstruction and the distribution of observed pairwise haplotype differences (mismatch distribution provided evidence of a single rapid population expansion across the wolverine's Holarctic range. Even though molecular evidence corroborated a single refugium, significant subdivisions of population genetic structure (0.01< ΦST <0.99, P<0.05 were detected. Pairwise ΦST estimates separated Scandinavia from Russia and Mongolia, and identified five main divisions within North America - the Central Arctic, a western region, an eastern region consisting of Ontario and Quebec/Labrador, Manitoba, and California. These data are in contrast to the nearly panmictic structure observed in northwestern North America using nuclear microsatellites, but largely support the nuclear DNA separation of contemporary Manitoba and Ontario wolverines from northern populations. Historic samples (c. 1900 from the functionally extirpated eastern population of Quebec/Labrador displayed genetic similarities to contemporary Ontario wolverines. To understand these divergence patterns, four hypotheses were tested using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC. The most supported hypothesis was a single Beringia incursion during the last glacial maximum that established the northwestern population, followed by a west-to-east colonization during the Holocene. This

  20. Contribution of the NADH-oxidase (Nox) to the aerobic life of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, André; Freiding, Simone; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is the key bacterium in traditional sourdough fermentation. The molecular background of its oxygen tolerance was investigated by comparison of wild type and NADH-oxidase (Nox) knock out mutants. The nox gene of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) coding for a NADH-oxidase (Nox) was inactivated by single crossover integration to yield strain L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451Δnox. By inactivation of the native NADH-oxidase gene, it was ensured that besides fructose, O(2) can react as an electron acceptor. In aerated cultures the mutant strain was only able to grow in MRS media supplemented with fructose as electron acceptor, whereas the wild type strain showed a fructose independent growth response. The use of oxygen as an external electron acceptor enables L. sanfranciscensis to shift from acetyl-phosphate into the acetate branch and gain an additionally ATP, while the reduced cofactors were regenerated by Nox-activity. In aerated cultures the wild type strain formed a fermentation ratio of lactate to acetate of 1.09 in MRS supplemented with fructose after 24 h of fermentation, while the mutant strain formed a fermentation ratio of 3.05. Additionally, L. sanfranciscensis showed manganese-dependent growth response in aerated cultures, the final OD and growth velocity was increased in media supplemented with manganese. The expression of two predicted Mn(2+)/Fe(2+) transporters MntH1 and MntH2 in L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) was verified by amplification of a 318 bp fragment of MntH1 and a 239 bp fragment of MntH2 from cDNA library obtained from aerobically, exponentially growing cells of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) in MRS. Moreover, the mutant strain DSM20451Δnox was more sensitive to the superoxide generating agent paraquat and showed inhibition of growth on diamide-treated MRS-plates without fructose supplementation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogeography and post-glacial recolonization in wolverines (Gulo gulo) from across their circumpolar distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigouris, Joanna; Schaefer, James A; Fortin, Clément; Kyle, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Interglacial-glacial cycles of the Quaternary are widely recognized in shaping phylogeographic structure. Patterns from cold adapted species can be especially informative - in particular, uncovering additional glacial refugia, identifying likely recolonization patterns, and increasing our understanding of species' responses to climate change. We investigated phylogenetic structure of the wolverine, a wide-ranging cold adapted carnivore, using a 318 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region for 983 wolverines (n=209 this study, n=774 from GenBank) from across their full Holarctic distribution. Bayesian phylogenetic tree reconstruction and the distribution of observed pairwise haplotype differences (mismatch distribution) provided evidence of a single rapid population expansion across the wolverine's Holarctic range. Even though molecular evidence corroborated a single refugium, significant subdivisions of population genetic structure (0.01< ΦST <0.99, P<0.05) were detected. Pairwise ΦST estimates separated Scandinavia from Russia and Mongolia, and identified five main divisions within North America - the Central Arctic, a western region, an eastern region consisting of Ontario and Quebec/Labrador, Manitoba, and California. These data are in contrast to the nearly panmictic structure observed in northwestern North America using nuclear microsatellites, but largely support the nuclear DNA separation of contemporary Manitoba and Ontario wolverines from northern populations. Historic samples (c. 1900) from the functionally extirpated eastern population of Quebec/Labrador displayed genetic similarities to contemporary Ontario wolverines. To understand these divergence patterns, four hypotheses were tested using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). The most supported hypothesis was a single Beringia incursion during the last glacial maximum that established the northwestern population, followed by a west-to-east colonization during the Holocene. This pattern is

  2. Efeito do filtro de ultravioleta em lentes de contato hidrofílicas de alta hidratação Ultraviolet filter effect on hydrophilic high hydrated contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo José Freire Portes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A exposição à radiação ultravioleta está relacionada ao aparecimento de patologias oculares como ceratites, cataratas, degenerações maculares ou pterígio. Esta radiação está dividida em 3 tipos de acordo com o seu comprimento de onda: Uv-A (320-400nm, Uv-B (290-320nm e Uv-C (100-290nm. A indústria óptica desenvolveu filtros de ultravioleta para lentes intra-oculares, lentes de contato e lentes de óculos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do filtro de ultravioleta em lentes de contato de alta hidratação. MÉTODOS: Seis grupos de lentes de contato de alta hidratação e de marcas diferentes, contendo 3 unidades novas e iguais foram estudadas, observando-se o percentual de transmissão da energia luminosa de 200 a 400 nm através de um espectofotômetro. RESULTADOS: Os 3 grupos que apresentavam filtro de ultravioleta causaram uma queda abrupta na transmissão da radiação ultravioleta de 400 nm até 340 nm, ocorrendo um aumento na transmissão entre 240 a 300 nm até um nível máximo de 45%. Abaixo de 240 nm e entre 300 e 340 nm, houve um completo bloqueio da transmissão da radiação ultravioleta. Os 3 grupos que não apresentavam filtros de ultravioleta causaram uma queda abrupta na transmissão da radiação ultravioleta abaixo de 240 nm, ocorrendo um bloqueio completo de transmissão abaixo de 220 nm. CONCLUSÃO: As lentes de contato sem filtro Uv testadas não bloquearam com eficácia a radiação Uv-A, B ou C, e as com filtro bloquearam quase totalmente a radiação Uv-B e parcialmente a radiação Uv-A e Uv-C.The exposure to ultraviolet radiation is associated with the beginning of ocular pathologies like keratites, cataract, age-related macular degeneration and pterygium. This radiation is divided in 3 bands according to the wave length: Uv-A (320-400, Uv-B (290-320, Uv-C (100-290. The optic industry developed ultraviolet filters to intraocular lenses, contact lenses and spectacle lenses. PURPOSE: The issue of this work is

  3. Seletividade de acaricidas e inseticidas a ácaros predadores (Acari: Phytoseiidae encontrados em seringueira no centro-oeste do Brasil Side-effect of acaricides and insecticides to predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae found in rubber-trees in mid-west Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker são ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae comumente encontrados em seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. em Mato Grosso, região centro-oeste do Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado para verificar o efeito de acaricidas e inseticidas-acaricidas empregados em plantações de seringueira, e outros que teriam potencial para serem empregados contra insetos e ácaros considerados pragas dessa cultura, sobre E. concordis e N. anonymus. Utilizou-se o método residual de pulverização em superfície, recomendado como padrão pelo Grupo de Trabalho "Pesticidas e Artrópodes Benéficos", da Organização Internacional de Controle Biológico e Integrado de Plantas e Animais Nocivos/Seção Regional do Paleártico Oeste. Duas concentrações de cada um dos seguintes ingredientes ativos foram utilizadas: acefato, dicofol, endosulfan, formetanate, metomil, monocrotofós, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite. Uma das concentrações utilizadas foi uma média daquelas sugeridas pelos fabricantes para o controle de ácaros e insetos fitófagos presentes em outras culturas, uma vez que nenhum dos produtos testados tem registro para o uso em seringueira e a outra correspondeu à cerca de um terço da primeira. Endosulfan a 320ppm, dicofol a 100ppm e óxido de fenbutatin a 100 e 320ppm foram inócuos a E. concordis, enquanto que endosulfan a 320ppm e dicofol a 100ppm foram inócuos a N. anonymus. Acefato, formetanate e monocrotofós, nas concentrações testadas, foram nocivos às duas espécies.Euseius concordis (Chant and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker are predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae commonly found on rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in the State of Mato Grosso, in the mid-west Brazil. This work was conducted to verify the effect of acaricides and insecticides-acaricides occasionally used in rubber tree plantations, and other products that could be used against

  4. Optimization of the Reconstruction Interval in Neurovascular 4D-CTA Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.C.H.; van Beurden, R.M.J.; van Teylingen, B.; Schenk, B.; Willems, P.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Time resolved whole brain CT angiography (4D-CTA) is a novel imaging technology providing information regarding blood flow. One of the factors that influence the diagnostic value of this examination is the temporal resolution, which is affected by the gantry rotation speed during acquisition and the reconstruction interval during post-processing. Post-processing determines the time spacing between two reconstructed volumes and, unlike rotation speed, does not affect radiation burden. The data sets of six patients who underwent a cranial 4D-CTA were used for this study. Raw data was acquired using a 320-slice scanner with a rotation speed of 2 Hz. The arterial to venous passage of an intravenous contrast bolus was captured during a 15 s continuous scan. The raw data was reconstructed using four different reconstruction-intervals: 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 s. The results were rated by two observers using a standardized score sheet. The appearance of each lesion was rated correctly in all readings. Scoring for quality of temporal resolution revealed a stepwise improvement from the 1.0 s interval to the 0.3 s interval, while no discernable improvement was noted between the 0.3 s and 0.2 s interval. An increase in temporal resolution may improve the diagnostic quality of cranial 4D-CTA. Using a rotation speed of 0.5 s, the optimal reconstruction interval appears to be 0.3 s, beyond which, changes can no longer be discerned. PMID:23217631

  5. Physics design of experimental metal fuelled fast reactor cores for full scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Bachchan, Abhitab; Riyas, A.; Sathiyasheela, T.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study we made physics designs of experimental metal fast reactor cores. → Aim is for full-scale demonstration of fuel assemblies in a commercial power reactor. → Minimum power with adequate safety is considered. → In addition, fuel sustainability is also considered in the design. → Sodium bonded U-Pu-6%Zr and mechanically bonded U-Pu alloys are used. - Abstract: Fast breeder reactors based on metal fuel are planned to be in operation for the year beyond 2025 to meet the growing energy demand in India. A road map is laid towards the development of technologies required for launching 1000 MWe commercial metal breeder reactors with closed fuel cycle. Construction of a test reactor with metallic fuel is also envisaged to provide full-scale testing of fuel sub-assemblies planned for a commercial power reactor. Physics design studies have been carried out to arrive at a core configuration for this experimental facility. The aim of this study is to find out minimum power of the core to meet the requirements of safety as well as full-scale demonstration. In addition, fuel sustainability is also a consideration in the design. Two types of metallic fuel pins, viz. a sodium bonded ternary (U-Pu-6% Zr) alloy and a mechanically bonded binary (U-Pu) alloy with 125 μm thickness zirconium liner, are considered for this study. Using the European fast reactor neutronics code system, ERANOS 2.1, four metallic fast reactor cores are optimized and estimated their important steady state parameters. The ABBN-93 system is also used for estimating the important safety parameters. Minimum achievable power from the converter metallic core is 220 MWt. A 320 MWt self-sustaining breeder metal core is recommended for the test facility.

  6. InGaAs focal plane array developments at III-V Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvié, Anne; Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Huet, Odile; Djedidi, Anis; Robo, Jean-Alexandre; Truffer, Jean-Patrick; Bria, Toufiq; Pires, Mauricio; Decobert, Jean; Costard, Eric

    2012-06-01

    SWIR detection band benefits from natural (sun, night glow, thermal radiation) or artificial (eye safe lasers) photons sources combined to low atmospheric absorption and specific contrast compared to visible wavelengths. It gives the opportunity to address a large spectrum of applications such as defense and security (night vision, active imaging), space (earth observation), transport (automotive safety) or industry (non destructive process control). InGaAs material appears as a good candidate to satisfy SWIR detection needs. The lattice matching with InP constitutes a double advantage to this material: attractive production capacity and uncooled operation thanks to low dark current level induced by high quality material. For few years, III-VLab has been studying InGaAs imagery, gathering expertise in InGaAs material growth and imaging technology respectively from Alcatel-Lucent and Thales, its two mother companies. This work has lead to put quickly on the market a 320x256 InGaAs module, exhibiting high performances in terms of dark current, uniformity and quantum efficiency. In this paper, we present the last developments achieved in our laboratory, mainly focused on increasing the pixels number to VGA format associated to pixel pitch decrease (15μm) and broadening detection spectrum toward visible wavelengths. Depending on targeted applications, different Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROIC) have been used. Low noise ROIC have been developed by CEA LETI to fit the requirements of low light level imaging whereas logarithmic ROIC designed by NIT allows high dynamic imaging adapted for automotive safety.

  7. Diode laser to treat small oral vascular malformations: A prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Christian; Sacchetto, Luca; Zanette, Gastone; Sivolella, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    The current work examined a consecutive series of patients presenting vascular malformations (VMs) and venous lakes (VLs) of the lip and oral mucosa who were treated with transmucosal diode laser applications and assessed over a 1 year period. Fifty-nine patients (31 males and 28 females) presenting low-flow VMs or VLs of the oral cavity were treated transmucosally using a diode laser (with an 830 nm operating wavelength and 1.6 W output power) with a 320 µm diameter flexible fiber. All the lesions were assessed 7 days, 30 days, and 1 year after the laser treatment, and the lesion reduction percentage was scored on a one to five scale. The patients were also asked to assess their pain perception daily during the 7 days following the treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS). There were no procedure-related intra- or post-operative complications; only modest pain intensity was reported. Thirty days after the treatment, lesion reduction was described as excellent or good in 52 cases; it was fair or poor in 7. Six patients (F:M ratio 2:4) required a second diode laser application. At the 1 year follow-up, volume reduction was complete in 48 out of 59 patients; there were five recurrences (F:M ratio 3:2). No relevant gender-related differences were noted. The use of diode laser application to treat small oral VMs and VLs was associated to shorter operating times and fewer postoperative complications with respect to the scapel surgery approach. More than one session may nevertheless be required if the anomaly is larger than 10 mm. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:111-116, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Temporal resolution measurement of 128-slice dual source and 320-row area detector computed tomography scanners in helical acquisition mode using the impulse method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takanori; Urikura, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hoshino, Takashi; Nishimaru, Eiji; Niwa, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    To analyse the temporal resolution (TR) of modern computed tomography (CT) scanners using the impulse method, and assess the actual maximum TR at respective helical acquisition modes. To assess the actual TR of helical acquisition modes of a 128-slice dual source CT (DSCT) scanner and a 320-row area detector CT (ADCT) scanner, we assessed the TRs of various acquisition combinations of a pitch factor (P) and gantry rotation time (R). The TR of the helical acquisition modes for the 128-slice DSCT scanner continuously improved with a shorter gantry rotation time and greater pitch factor. However, for the 320-row ADCT scanner, the TR with a pitch factor of pitch factor of >1.0, it was approximately one half of the gantry rotation time. The maximum TR values of single- and dual-source helical acquisition modes for the 128-slice DSCT scanner were 0.138 (R/P=0.285/1.5) and 0.074s (R/P=0.285/3.2), and the maximum TR values of the 64×0.5- and 160×0.5-mm detector configurations of the helical acquisition modes for the 320-row ADCT scanner were 0.120 (R/P=0.275/1.375) and 0.195s (R/P=0.3/0.6), respectively. Because the TR of a CT scanner is not accurately depicted in the specifications of the individual scanner, appropriate acquisition conditions should be determined based on the actual TR measurement. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perfusion CT of the Brain and Liver and of Lung Tumors: Use of Monte Carlo Simulation for Patient Dose Estimation for Examinations With a Cone-Beam 320-MDCT Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Maria; Geleijns, Jacob; Joemai, Raoul M S; Salvadó, Marçal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the patient dose from perfusion CT examinations of the brain, lung tumors, and the liver on a cone-beam 320-MDCT scanner using a Monte Carlo simulation and the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). A Monte Carlo simulation based on the Electron Gamma Shower Version 4 package code was used to calculate organ doses and the effective dose in the reference computational phantoms for an adult man and adult woman as published by the ICRP. Three perfusion CT acquisition protocols--brain, lung tumor, and liver perfusion--were evaluated. Additionally, dose assessments were performed for the skin and for the eye lens. Conversion factors were obtained to estimate effective doses and organ doses from the volume CT dose index and dose-length product. The sex-averaged effective doses were approximately 4 mSv for perfusion CT of the brain and were between 23 and 26 mSv for the perfusion CT body protocols. The eye lens dose from the brain perfusion CT examination was approximately 153 mGy. The sex-averaged peak entrance skin dose (ESD) was 255 mGy for the brain perfusion CT studies, 157 mGy for the lung tumor perfusion CT studies, and 172 mGy for the liver perfusion CT studies. The perfusion CT protocols for imaging the brain, lung tumors, and the liver performed on a 320-MDCT scanner yielded patient doses that are safely below the threshold doses for deterministic effects. The eye lens dose, peak ESD, and effective doses can be estimated for other clinical perfusion CT examinations from the conversion factors that were derived in this study.

  10. Search for non-baryonic dark matter with cryogenic detectors based on ionisation and heat detection. Analysis of experimental data from the Edelweiss-I experiment; Recherche de la matiere noire non-baryonique a l'aide de detecteurs cryogeniques a double composante ionisation et chaleur: Analyse et Interpretation des donnees de l'experience EDELWEISS-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanglard, V

    2005-11-15

    The method of direct detection of WIMPs (weakly interactive massive particles) that are present in the halo of our galaxy rests on the detection of their interaction with a target nucleus. The Edelweiss experiment uses this technique with 3 cryogenic detectors operating on 2 modes ionization and heat. Each detector is made of a 320 g germanium crystal with 2 faces equipped with electrodes. In order to improve the collection of charges, an amorphous layer of Ge or Si is laid between the crystal surface and the electrodes. The validation of the detector system has been made with Co{sup 57} and Cs{sup 137} gamma sources and a Cf{sup 252} neutron source. We present a comparison with simulation results and experimental data for the validation of the response to nuclear recoils. The whole experimental data collected by Edelweiss-I from 2000 till 2003 has been analysed. 40 events have been selected, 6 among them with an energy over 30 keV. Limits for the interaction cross-section between a WIMP and a nucleon have been deduced from the experimental data. The Yellin method has enabled us to determine a limit without knowing the background noise. The best sensitivity appears to be 1.5*10{sup -6} pb for a WIMP's mass of 80 GeV/c{sup 2} and a confidence level of 90 per cent. In terms of events, the limit for an energy range of 30 - 100 keV is 0.12 events per kg and per day. (A.C.)

  11. The use of 4D-CTA in the diagnostic work-up of brain arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, Peter W.A. [Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Taeshineetanakul, Patamintita; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Krings, Timo [Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Schenk, Barry; Brouwer, Patrick A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    We aimed to evaluate the use of time-resolved whole-head CT angiography (4D-CTA) in patients with an untreated arteriovenous malformation of the brain (bAVM), as demonstrated by catheter angiography (DSA). Seventeen patients with a DSA-proven bAVM were enrolled. These were subjected to 4D-CTA imaging using a 320 detector row CT scanner. Using a standardized scoring sheet, all studies were analyzed by a panel of three readers. This panel was blind to the DSA results at the time of reading the 4D-CTA. 4D-CTA detected all bAVMs. With regard to the Spetzler-Martin grade, 4D-CTA disagreed with DSA in only one case, where deep venous drainage was missed. Further discrepancies between 4D-CTA and DSA analyses included underestimation of the nidus size in small lesions (four cases), misinterpretation of a feeding vessel (one case), misinterpretation of indirect feeding through pial collaterals (three cases) and oversight of mild arterial enlargement (two cases). 4D-CTA correctly distinguished low-flow from high-flow lesions and detected dural/transosseous feeding (one case), venous narrowing (one case) and venous pouches (nine cases). In this series, 4D-CTA was able to detect all bAVMs. Although some angioarchitectural details were missed or misinterpreted when compared to DSA, 4D-CTA evaluation was sufficiently accurate to diagnose the shunt and classify it. Moreover, 4D-CTA adds cross-sectional imaging and perfusion maps, helpful in treatment planning. 4D-CTA appears to be a valuable new adjunct in the non-invasive diagnostic work-up of bAVMs and their follow-up when managed conservatively. (orig.)

  12. The use of 4D-CTA in the diagnostic work-up of brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, Peter W.A.; Taeshineetanakul, Patamintita; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Krings, Timo; Schenk, Barry; Brouwer, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the use of time-resolved whole-head CT angiography (4D-CTA) in patients with an untreated arteriovenous malformation of the brain (bAVM), as demonstrated by catheter angiography (DSA). Seventeen patients with a DSA-proven bAVM were enrolled. These were subjected to 4D-CTA imaging using a 320 detector row CT scanner. Using a standardized scoring sheet, all studies were analyzed by a panel of three readers. This panel was blind to the DSA results at the time of reading the 4D-CTA. 4D-CTA detected all bAVMs. With regard to the Spetzler-Martin grade, 4D-CTA disagreed with DSA in only one case, where deep venous drainage was missed. Further discrepancies between 4D-CTA and DSA analyses included underestimation of the nidus size in small lesions (four cases), misinterpretation of a feeding vessel (one case), misinterpretation of indirect feeding through pial collaterals (three cases) and oversight of mild arterial enlargement (two cases). 4D-CTA correctly distinguished low-flow from high-flow lesions and detected dural/transosseous feeding (one case), venous narrowing (one case) and venous pouches (nine cases). In this series, 4D-CTA was able to detect all bAVMs. Although some angioarchitectural details were missed or misinterpreted when compared to DSA, 4D-CTA evaluation was sufficiently accurate to diagnose the shunt and classify it. Moreover, 4D-CTA adds cross-sectional imaging and perfusion maps, helpful in treatment planning. 4D-CTA appears to be a valuable new adjunct in the non-invasive diagnostic work-up of bAVMs and their follow-up when managed conservatively. (orig.)

  13. Whole brain CT perfusion in acute anterior circulation ischemia: coverage size matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmer, B.J.; Rijkee, M.; Walderveen, M.A.A. van; Niesten, J.M.; Velthuis, B.K.; Wermer, M.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare infarct core volume on whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) with several limited coverage sizes (i.e., 3, 4, 6, and 8 cm), as currently used in routine clinical practice. In total, 40 acute ischemic stroke patients with non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTP imaging of anterior circulation ischemia were included. Imaging was performed using a 320-multislice CT. Average volumes of infarct core of all simulated partial coverage sizes were calculated. Infarct core volume of each partial brain coverage was compared with infarct core volume of whole brain coverage and expressed using a percentage. To determine the optimal starting position for each simulated CTP coverage, the percentage of infarct coverage was calculated for every possible starting position of the simulated partial coverage in relation to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage (ASPECTS 1) level. Whole brain CTP coverage further increased the percentage of infarct core volume depicted by 10 % as compared to the 8-cm coverage when the bottom slice was positioned at the ASPECTS 1 level. Optimization of the position of the region of interest (ROI) in 3 cm, 4 cm, and 8 cm improved the percentage of infarct depicted by 4 % for the 8-cm, 7 % for the 4-cm, and 13 % for the 3-cm coverage size. This study shows that whole brain CTP is the optimal coverage for CTP with a substantial improvement in accuracy in quantifying infarct core size. In addition, our results suggest that the optimal position of the ROI in limited coverage depends on the size of the coverage. (orig.)

  14. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on photosynthetic performance and N2 fixation in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280–400 nm on marine primary producers are of general concern, as oceanic carbon fixers that contribute to the marine biological CO2 pump are being exposed to increasing UV irradiance due to global change and ozone depletion. We investigated the effects of UV-B (280–320 nm and UV-A (320–400 nm on the biogeochemically critical filamentous marine N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium (strain IMS101 using a solar simulator as well as under natural solar radiation. Short exposure to UV-B, UV-A, or integrated total UVR significantly reduced the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII and photosynthetic carbon and N2 fixation rates. Cells acclimated to low light were more sensitive to UV exposure compared to high-light-grown ones, which had more UV-absorbing compounds, most likely mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs. After acclimation under natural sunlight, the specific growth rate was lower (by up to 44 %, MAA content was higher, and average trichome length was shorter (by up to 22 % in the full spectrum of solar radiation with UVR, than under a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR alone treatment (400–700 nm. These results suggest that prior shipboard experiments in UV-opaque containers may have substantially overestimated in situ nitrogen fixation rates by Trichodesmium, and that natural and anthropogenic elevation of UV radiation intensity could significantly inhibit this vital source of new nitrogen to the current and future oligotrophic oceans.

  15. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FSHR POLYMORPHISM WITH PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN ANTIOQUIA HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephania Madrid Gaviria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because FSH and its receptor play a fundamental role in reproduction, the objective of this research was determining the effect of the A-320T polymorphism in productive and reproductive traits in Antioquia Holstein cows. The PCR-RFLP was used to amplify a segment of 970 bp of the bovine follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene (FSHR which was digested with the restriction enzyme TaqI. The effect of the FSHR genotypes on productive and reproductive traits was determinate by a Mixed Linear Model and Tukey Test was used to establish significant differences between means for the three genotypes. The effect of allelic substitution was studied through a linear regression model where the genotypes AA, AT and TT were transformed into a quantitative scale of 0, 1 and 2, respectively according to the number of possessed T alleles. In Antioquia Holstein cattle the most common genotype was the AT (0.485 followed by TT (0.417 and AA (0.096 genotypes. Allele frequencies were 0.339 for A and 0.660 for T, respectively. The FSHR genotypes did not exert a significant effect on the principal productive parameters, except for fat percentage (P<0.01 where the TT individuals presented the highest percent. Results showed that T allele seems to improve the solids in milk while A allele improves dairy yield. The reproductive parameters were not affected by this SNP but AT animals showed a higher number of services per conception. Further studies are required to determine whether this SNP may be used as a molecular marker

  16. Bacterial Production, Characterization and Protein Modeling of a Novel Monofuctional Isoform of FAD Synthase in Humans: An Emergency Protein?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Leone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2 is the last essential enzyme involved in the pathway of biosynthesis of Flavin cofactors starting from Riboflavin (Rf. Alternative splicing of the human FLAD1 gene generates different isoforms of the enzyme FAD synthase. Besides the well characterized isoform 1 and 2, other FADS isoforms with different catalytic domains have been detected, which are splice variants. We report the characterization of one of these novel isoforms, a 320 amino acid protein, consisting of the sole C-terminal 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS reductase domain (named FADS6. This isoform has been previously detected in Riboflavin-Responsive (RR-MADD and Non-responsive Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD patients with frameshift mutations of FLAD1 gene. To functionally characterize the hFADS6, it has been over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified with a yield of 25 mg·L−1 of cell culture. The protein has a monomeric form, it binds FAD and is able to catalyze FAD synthesis (kcat about 2.8 min−1, as well as FAD pyrophosphorolysis in a strictly Mg2+-dependent manner. The synthesis of FAD is inhibited by HgCl2. The enzyme lacks the ability to hydrolyze FAD. It behaves similarly to PAPS. Combining threading and ab-initio strategy a 3D structural model for such isoform has been built. The relevance to human physio-pathology of this FADS isoform is discussed.

  17. Paleoceanographic history of the Lower Bengal Fan during the last glacial cycle - IODP Expedition 354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, P. S.; Weber, M. E.; Lantzsch, H.; Das, S. K.; Williams, T.; Adhikari, R. R.; Jia, G.; Fox, L. R.; Ge, J.; Manoj, M. C.; Savian, J. F.; Reilly, B. T.; Selkin, P. A.; Meynadier, L.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Sharma, B.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 354 drilled a ~320 km long transect of seven sites on the Lower Bengal Fan at 8o N in the Northern Indian Ocean. The sediments cores recovered record a complex relationship between turbiditic and hemipelagic environments. This variability offers a unique opportunity to link our understanding of tectonic and terrestrial processes with climate and oceanography. With the exception the westernmost Site U1454, all sites show a several meter thick, hemipelagic top layer, usually representing Late Quaternary sediment. We present physical, geochemical and stable isotopic properties of this interval to establish a time frame and assess the paleoceanographic development of the region during the last glacial cycle. We sampled Site U1452C-1H continuously for the uppermost 480 cm of hemipelagic sediment in 2-cm increments. Preliminary results indicate the Toba Ash 1 (0.74 ka) is a distinct time marker in all physical properties. Furthermore, wet-bulk density as well as color reflectance b* (the red-green component) and L* (the lightness) show a dominant precession cyclicity. Hence, we are able to provide an insolation-tuned chronology for the last 200 ka (MIS1 - 7) as a preliminary age model. These records agree well with d18O records retrieved from Chinese caves. We will present a preliminary paleoceanographic proxy data to reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST), sea-surface salinity (SSS), ice volume, marine biological productivity, nutrient supply, and deep-water circulation. These oceanographic and climate conditions are linked to changes in monsoonal strength and terrestrial input using sedimentary proxies to reconstruct chemical weathering and sediment sources and transport time. This work addresses one of the primary cruise objectives - linking monsoon variability, regional and global climate, and Bay of Bengal sediment deposition.

  18. SU-F-I-36: In-Utero Dose Measurements Within Postmortem Subjects for Estimating Fetal Doses in Pregnant Patients Examined with Pulmonary Embolism, Trauma, and Appendicitis CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnharski, I; Quails, N; Carranza, C; Correa, N; Bidari, S; Bickelhaup, M; Rill, L; Arreola, M [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The imaging of pregnant patients is medically necessary in certain clinical situations. The purpose of this work was to directly measure uterine doses in a cadaver scanned with CT protocols commonly performed on pregnant patients in order to estimate fetal dose and assess potential risk. Method: One postmortem subject was scanned on a 320-slice CT scanner with standard pulmonary embolism, trauma, and appendicitis protocols. All protocols were performed with the scan parameters and ranges currently used in clinical practice. Exams were performed both with and without iterative reconstruction to highlight the dose savings potential. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) were inserted into the uterus in order to approximate fetal doses. Results: In the pulmonary embolism CT protocol, the uterus is outside of the primary beam, and the dose to the uterus was under 1 mGy. In the trauma and appendicitis protocols, the uterus is in the primary beam, the fetal dose estimates were 30.5 mGy for the trauma protocol, and 20.6 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Iterative reconstruction reduced fetal doses by 30%, with uterine doses at 21.3 for the trauma and 14.3 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Conclusion: Fetal doses were under 1 mGy when exposed to scatter radiation, and under 50 mGy when exposed to primary radiation with the trauma and appendicitis protocols. Consistent with the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these doses exhibit a negligible risk to the fetus, with only a small increased risk of cancer. Still, CT scans are not recommended during pregnancy unless the benefits of the exam clearly outweigh the potential risk. Furthermore, when possible, pregnant patients should be examined on CT scanners equipped with iterative reconstruction in order to keep patient doses as low as reasonable achievable.

  19. A novel readout integrated circuit for ferroelectric FPA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Piji; Li, Lihua; Ji, Yulong; Zhang, Jia; Li, Min; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yanbo; Li, Songying

    2017-11-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors haves some advantages such as low cost light weight low power consumption, and superior reliability, compared with cryogenically cooled ones Ferroelectric uncooled focal plane array(FPA) are being developed for its AC response and its high reliability As a key part of the ferroelectric assembly the ROIC determines the performance of the assembly. A top-down design model for uncooled ferroelectric readout integrated circuit(ROIC) has been developed. Based on the optical thermal and electrical properties of the ferroelectric detector the RTIA readout integrated circuit is designed. The noise bandwidth of RTIA readout circuit has been developed and analyzed. A novel high gain amplifier, a high pass filter and a low pass filter circuits are designed on the ROIC. In order to improve the ferroelectric FPA package performance and decrease of package cost a temperature sensor is designed on the ROIC chip At last the novel RTIA ROIC is implemented on 0.6μm 2P3M CMOS silicon techniques. According to the experimental chip test results the temporal root mean square(RMS)noise voltage is about 1.4mV the sensitivity of the on chip temperature sensor is 0.6 mV/K from -40°C to 60°C the linearity performance of the ROIC chip is better than 99% Based on the 320×240 RTIA ROIC, a 320×240 infrared ferroelectric FPA is fabricated and tested. Test results shows that the 320×240 RTIA ROIC meets the demand of infrared ferroelectric FPA.

  20. Whole brain CT perfusion in acute anterior circulation ischemia: coverage size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmer, B.J. [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Postbus 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijkee, M.; Walderveen, M.A.A. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Niesten, J.M.; Velthuis, B.K. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wermer, M.J.H. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Our aim was to compare infarct core volume on whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) with several limited coverage sizes (i.e., 3, 4, 6, and 8 cm), as currently used in routine clinical practice. In total, 40 acute ischemic stroke patients with non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTP imaging of anterior circulation ischemia were included. Imaging was performed using a 320-multislice CT. Average volumes of infarct core of all simulated partial coverage sizes were calculated. Infarct core volume of each partial brain coverage was compared with infarct core volume of whole brain coverage and expressed using a percentage. To determine the optimal starting position for each simulated CTP coverage, the percentage of infarct coverage was calculated for every possible starting position of the simulated partial coverage in relation to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage (ASPECTS 1) level. Whole brain CTP coverage further increased the percentage of infarct core volume depicted by 10 % as compared to the 8-cm coverage when the bottom slice was positioned at the ASPECTS 1 level. Optimization of the position of the region of interest (ROI) in 3 cm, 4 cm, and 8 cm improved the percentage of infarct depicted by 4 % for the 8-cm, 7 % for the 4-cm, and 13 % for the 3-cm coverage size. This study shows that whole brain CTP is the optimal coverage for CTP with a substantial improvement in accuracy in quantifying infarct core size. In addition, our results suggest that the optimal position of the ROI in limited coverage depends on the size of the coverage. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of the radiation dose from cone beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography in examinations of the hand; Vergleich der Strahlendosis von Cone-Beam Computertomografie und Multidetektor Computertomografie in Untersuchungen der Hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Neubauer, C.; Gerstmair, A.; Krauss, T.; Kotter, E.; Langer, M. [University Medical Center Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Reising, K. [University Medical Center Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery; Zajonc, H. [University Medical Center Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Plastic and Hand Surgery; Fiebich, M.; Voigt, J. [University of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection

    2016-05-15

    Comparison of radiation dose of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in examinations of the hand. Dose calculations were carried out by means of Monte Carlo simulations in MDCT and CBCT. A corpse hand was examined in a 320-row MDCT scanner and a dedicated extremities CBCT scanner with standard protocols and multiple low-dose protocols. The image quality of the examinations was evaluated by 5 investigators using a Likert scale from 1 (very good) to 5 (very poor) regarding depiction of cortical bone, cancellous bone, joint surfaces, soft tissues and artifacts. For a sum of ratings of all structures < 50 a good overall image quality was expected. The studies with at least good overall image quality were compared with respect to the dose. The dose of the standard examination was 13.21 (12.96 to 13.46 CI) mGy in MDCT and 7.15 (6.99 to 7.30 CI) mGy in CBCT. The lowest dose in a study with good overall image quality was 4.54 (4.43 to 4.64 CI) mGy in MDCT and 5.72 (5.59 to 5.85 CI) mGy in CBCT. Although the dose of the standard protocols in the CBCT is lower than in the MDCT, the MDCT can realize a good overall image quality at a lower dose than the CBCT. Dose optimization of CT examination protocols for the hand is useful in both modalities, the MDCT has an even greater potential for optimization.

  2. Parietal pleural invasion/adhesion of subpleural lung cancer: Quantitative 4-dimensional CT analysis using dynamic-ventilatory scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Kotaro, E-mail: ksakuma@ohara-hp.or.jp [Department of Radiology, Ohara General Hospital, 6-11 Omachi, Fukushima City, Fukushima 960-8611 (Japan); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka, Fukushima City, Fukushima 960-1295 (Japan); Yamashiro, Tsuneo, E-mail: clatsune@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Moriya, Hiroshi, E-mail: hrshmoriya@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ohara General Hospital, 6-11 Omachi, Fukushima City, Fukushima 960-8611 (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki, E-mail: sadayuki@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Ito, Hiroshi, E-mail: h-ito@fmu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka, Fukushima City, Fukushima 960-1295 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • 4DCT can be used for assessment of pleural invasion/adhesion by lung cancer. • Quantitative 4DCT indices of lung cancer and adjacent structures are described. • An automatic analysis of pleural invasion/adhesion would be developed in the future. - Abstract: Purpose: Using 4-dimensional dynamic-ventilatory scanning by a 320-row computed tomography (CT) scanner, we performed a quantitative assessment of parietal pleural invasion and adhesion by peripheral (subpleural) lung cancers. Methods: Sixteen patients with subpleural lung cancer underwent dynamic-ventilation CT during free breathing. Neither parietal pleural invasion nor adhesion was subsequently confirmed by surgery in 10 patients, whereas the other 6 patients were judged to have parietal pleural invasion or adhesion. Using research software, we tracked the movements of the cancer and of an adjacent structure such as the rib or aorta, and converted the data to 3-dimensional loci. The following quantitative indices were compared by the Mann-Whitney test: cross-correlation coefficient between time curves for the distances moved from the inspiratory frame by the cancer and the adjacent structure, the ratio of the total movement distances (cancer/adjacent structure), and the cosine similarities between the inspiratory and expiratory vectors (from the cancer to the adjacent structure) and between vectors of the cancer and of the adjacent structure (from inspiratory to expiratory frames). Results: Generally, the movements of the loci of the lung cancer and the adjacent structure were similar in patients with parietal pleural invasion/adhesion, while they were independent in patients without. There were significant differences in all the parameters between the two patient groups (cross-correlation coefficient and the movement distance ratio, P < 0.01; cosine similarities, P < 0.05). Conclusion: These observations suggest that quantitative indices by dynamic-ventilation CT can be utilized as a

  3. Activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway contributes to inflammation-induced osteoporosis by suppressing bone formation and causing osteoblast apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; Armour, K E; van't Hof, R J; Reid, D M; Wei, X Q; Liew, F Y; Ralston, S H

    2001-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major clinical problem in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism of bone loss in this condition remains unclear, but previous studies have indicated that depressed bone formation plays a causal role. Since cytokine-induced nitric oxide (NO) production has been shown to inhibit osteoblast growth and differentiation in vitro, this study was undertaken to investigate the role of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) pathway in the pathogenesis of inflammation-mediated osteoporosis (IMO) by studying mice with targeted inactivation of the iNOS gene (iNOS knockout [iNOS KO] mice). IMO was induced in wild-type (WT) and iNOS KO mice by subcutaneous injections of magnesium silicate. The skeletal response was assessed at the tibial metaphysis by measurements of bone mineral density (BMD), using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, by bone histomorphometry, and by measurements of bone cell apoptosis. NO production increased 2.5-fold (P < 0.005) in WT mice with IMO, but did not change significantly in iNOS KO mice. Total BMD values decreased by a mean +/- SEM of 14.4+/-2.0% in WT mice with IMO, compared with a decrease of 8.6+/-1.2% in iNOS KO mice with IMO (P < 0.01). Histomorphometric analysis confirmed that trabecular bone volume was lower in WT mice with IMO compared with iNOS KO mice with IMO (16.2+/-1.5% versus 23.4+/-2.6%; P < 0.05) and showed that IMO was associated with reduced bone formation and a 320% increase in osteoblast apoptosis (P < 0.005) in WT mice. In contrast, iNOS KO mice with IMO showed less inhibition of bone formation than WT mice and showed no significant increase in osteoblast apoptosis. Inducible NOS-mediated osteoblast apoptosis and depressed bone formation play important roles in the pathogenesis of IMO.

  4. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  5. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawkar, Ganesh M.; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-A (320–390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  6. Anatomy of right superior septal artery demonstrated on the coronary CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeguchi, Takaya; Ibukuro, Kenji; Fukuda, Hozumi; Tobe, Kimiko; Abe, Shoko

    2012-01-01

    Background. A coronary CT scan allows for non-invasive visualization of the anatomy of a coronary artery in three dimensions compared to the two dimensions afforded by conventional angiography. The septal artery, the main blood source of the interventricular septum, is usually derived from the left anterior descending artery; however, it is occasionally derived from the right coronary artery. Purpose. To analyze the prevalence, origin, diameter, and length of the right superior septal artery (RSSA) demonstrated on a coronary CT scan. Material and Methods. The right superior septal artery was retrospectively reviewed on the reconstructed axial scan images (0.5-mm thickness, 0.25-mm interval) in 1290 consecutive patients who underwent coronary CT scans. All patients were scanned on a 320-row CT scanner. The images were transferred to a workstation to trace the vessel to analyze the origin, diameter, and length. We also compared the length of the RSSA between patients with and without coronary artery stenosis. Results. The RSSA was identified in 51 (3.9%) of 1290 patients. The origin was the proximal portion of the right coronary artery (n = 40) or the right sinus of Valsalva (n 11). The artery co-existed with the conus artery in 15 (29%) of 51 patients. The length was 16-62 mm (mean 31.2 mm ± 10.5), and the diameter was 0.8-2.0 mm (mean 1.3 mm ± 0.2). Longer RSSAs tended to be demonstrated in the patients with coronary artery stenosis rather than with normal coronary arteries (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The right superior septal artery and its anatomical variant could be analyzed with a coronary CT scan. The ability to demonstrate this artery on the coronary CT scan was the same as with coronary angiography. The recognition of this vessel is useful for physicians managing with the diagnosis and treatment of the coronary artery disease

  7. Search for non-baryonic dark matter with cryogenic detectors based on ionisation and heat detection. Analysis of experimental data from the Edelweiss-I experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanglard, V.

    2005-11-01

    The method of direct detection of WIMPs (weakly interactive massive particles) that are present in the halo of our galaxy rests on the detection of their interaction with a target nucleus. The Edelweiss experiment uses this technique with 3 cryogenic detectors operating on 2 modes ionization and heat. Each detector is made of a 320 g germanium crystal with 2 faces equipped with electrodes. In order to improve the collection of charges, an amorphous layer of Ge or Si is laid between the crystal surface and the electrodes. The validation of the detector system has been made with Co 57 and Cs 137 gamma sources and a Cf 252 neutron source. We present a comparison with simulation results and experimental data for the validation of the response to nuclear recoils. The whole experimental data collected by Edelweiss-I from 2000 till 2003 has been analysed. 40 events have been selected, 6 among them with an energy over 30 keV. Limits for the interaction cross-section between a WIMP and a nucleon have been deduced from the experimental data. The Yellin method has enabled us to determine a limit without knowing the background noise. The best sensitivity appears to be 1.5*10 -6 pb for a WIMP's mass of 80 GeV/c 2 and a confidence level of 90 per cent. In terms of events, the limit for an energy range of 30 - 100 keV is 0.12 events per kg and per day. (A.C.)

  8. Mid-cervical flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion: diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial internal carotid artery sign on computed tomographic angiography in hyperacute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Pitakvej, Nantaporn [King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital the Thai Red Cross Society, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Dumrongpisutikul, Netsiri; Lerdlum, Sukalaya [King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital the Thai Red Cross Society, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulalongkorn University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-10-15

    Flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is a flow-related phenomenon that creates computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings that mimic tandem intracranial-extracranial ICA occlusion or dissection. We aim to determine the diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign on CTA in hyperacute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively included consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients presenting within 6 h of symptom onset who underwent 4D brain CTA and arterial-phase neck CTA using a 320-detector CT scanner during August 2012 to July 2015. Two blinded readers independently reviewed arterial-phase neck CTA and characterized the extracranial ICA configurations into mid-cervical flame-shaped, proximal blunt/beak-shaped, and tubular-shaped groups. 4D whole brain CTA was used as a reference standard for intracranial ICA occlusion detection. Diagnostic performance of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign and interobserver reliability were calculated. Of the 81 cases, 11 had isolated intracranial ICA occlusion, and 6 had true extracranial ICA occlusion. Mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign was found in 45.5% (5/11) of isolated intracranial ICA occlusions but none in the true extracranial ICA occlusion group. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign for the detection of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion were 45.5, 100, 100, 92.1, and 92.6%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was 0.90. The mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign may suggest the presence of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion and allow reliable exclusion of tandem extracranial-intracranial ICA occlusion in hyperacute ischemic stroke setting. (orig.)

  9. Influence of swirl ratio on fuel distribution and cyclic variation under flash boiling conditions in a spark ignition direct injection gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Xu, Min; Hung, David L.S.; Wu, Qiang; Dong, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of swirl on fuel distribution studied using laser induced fluorescence. • Gradient is sufficient for fuel spatial distribution variation analysis. • Close relation between fuel distribution and flame initiation/development. • Quantitative analysis shows high swirl suppresses variation of fuel distribution. • High order modes capable of identifying the distribution fluctuation patterns. - Abstract: One effective way of suppressing the cycle-to-cycle variation in engine is to design a combustion system that is robust to the root causes of engine variation over the entire engine working process. Flash boiling has been demonstrated as an ideal technique to produce stable fuel spray. But the generation of stable intake flow and fuel mixture remains challenging. In this study, to evaluate the capability of enhanced swirl flow to produce repeatable fuel mixture formation, the fuel distribution inside a single cylinder optical engine under two swirl ratios were measured using laser induced fluorescence technique. The swirl ratio was regulated by a swirl control valve installed in one of the intake ports. A 266 nm wavelength laser sheet from a frequency-quadrupled laser was directed into the optical engine through the quartz liner 15 mm below the tip of the spark plug. The fluorescence signal from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in gasoline was collected by applying a 320–420 nm band pass filter mounted in front of an intensified charge coupled device camera. Test results show that the in-cylinder fuel distribution is strongly influenced by the swirl ratio. Specifically, under high swirl condition, the fuel is mainly concentrated on the left side of the combustion chamber. While under the low swirl flow, fuel is distributed more randomly over the observing plane. This agrees well with the measurements of the stable flame location. Additionally, the cycle-to-cycle variation of the fuel distribution were analyzed. Results show that well

  10. The pectin lyase-encoding gene (pnl) family from Glomerella cingulata: characterization of pnlA and its expression in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, M D; Sharrock, K R; Bowen, J K; Crowhurst, R N; Rikkerink, E H

    1994-05-03

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers were designed from conserved amino acid (aa) sequences between pectin lyase D (PNLD) from Aspergillus niger and pectate lyases A and E (PELA/E) from Erwinia chrysanthemi. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used with these primers to amplify genomic DNA from the plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata. Three different 220-bp fragments with homology to PNL-encoding genes from A. niger, and a 320-bp fragment with homology to PEL-encoding genes from Nicotiana tabacum and E. carotovora were cloned. One of the 220-bp PCR products (designated pnlA) was used as a probe to isolate a PNL-encoding gene from a lambda genomic DNA library prepared from G. cingulata. Nucleotide (nt) sequence data revealed that this gene has seven exons and codes for a putative 380-aa protein. The nt sequence of a cDNA clone, prepared using PCR, confirmed the presence of the six introns. The positions of the introns were different from the sites of the five introns present in the three PNL-encoding genes previously sequenced from A. niger. PNLA was synthesised in yeast by cloning the cDNA into the expression vector, pEMBLYex-4, and enzymatically active protein was secreted into the culture medium. Significantly higher expression was achieved when the context of the start codon, CACCATG, was mutated to CAAAATG, a consensus sequence commonly found in highly expressed yeast genes. The produced protein had an isoelectric point (pI) of 9.4, the same as that for the G. cingulata pnlA product.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on leaf fluorescence characteristics in cultivars of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, D.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280–320 nm)–emitting lamps unavoidably emit ultraviolet-A (UV-A; 320–400 nm) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C; <280 nm) radiation. Short-wavelength–blocking filters are generally used to limit the wave bands of UV under investigation. The widespread use of such filters means that all exposures to UV-B radiation will have a significant UV-A component. Therefore, the physiological effects unique to UV-B exposure are difficult to clearly isolate. This study presents a method to remove the UV-A and UV-C “contamination” using a liquid potassium chromate (K 2 CrO 4 ) filter, thus allowing more direct assessment of the effects of UV-B exposure. Cultures of the green marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta were grown in the absence of UV radiation. Sunlamps supplied the UV radiation for a 24 h exposure (solar radiation was not used in this study). The UV radiation was filtered either by the standard method (i.e. cellulose acetate (CA) with polyester = Mylar controls) or by a liquid filter of potassium chromate. Photosynthetic responses were compared. Major decreases in the ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence in dark-adapted cells and photosynthetic capacity were observed in CA-filtered cultures, whereas no change was observed in cells exposed to the same UV-B flux with the UV-A removed by K 2 CrO 4 . The use of a CA filter with a Mylar control does not link results unequivocally to UV-B radiation. Such results should be interpreted with caution. (author)

  12. Growth and characterization of In1-xGaxAs/InAs0.65Sb0.35 strained layer superlattice infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyawansa, G.; Duran, J. M.; Reyner, C. J.; Steenbergen, E. H.; Yoon, N.; Wasserman, D.; Scheihing, J. E.

    2017-02-01

    Type-II strained layer superlattices (SLS) are an active research topic in the infrared detector community and applications for SLS detectors continue to grow. SLS detector technology has already reached the commercial market due to improvements in material quality, device design, and device fabrication. Despite this progress, the optimal superlattice design has not been established, and at various times has been believed to be InAs/GaSb, InAs/InGaSb, or InAs/InAsSb. Building on these, we investigate the properties of a new mid-wave infrared SLS material: InGaAs/InAsSb SLS. The ternary InGaAs/InAsSb SLS has three main advantages over other SLS designs: greater support for strain compensation, enhanced absorption due to increased electron-hole wavefunction overlap, and improved vertical hole mobility due to reduced hole effective mass. Here, we compare three ternary SLSs, with approximately the same bandgap (0.240 eV at 150 K), comprised of Ga fractions of 5%, 10%, and 20% to a reference sample with 0% Ga. Enhanced absorption is both theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. Furthermore, the characteristics of ternary SLS infrared detectors based on an nBn architecture are reported and exhibit nearly state-of-the-art dark current performance with minimal growth optimization. We report standard material and device characterization information, including dark current and external quantum efficiency, and provide further analysis that indicates improved quantum efficiency and vertical hole mobility. Finally, a 320×256 focal plane array built based on the In0.8Ga0.2As/InAs0.65Sb0.35 SLS design is demonstrated with promising performance.

  13. Ultraviolet-B irradiation of seeds affects photochemical and reproductive performance of the arid-environment ephemeral Dimorphotheca pluvialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musil, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    A higher polyphenolic content and thicker sclerenchymatous cylinder in the pericarp of ray than of disc seed morphs (diaspores) of Dimorphotheca pluvialis (L.) Moench (Asteraceae) could limit possible damage to the embryo during long-term seed exposure to solar UV-B radiation. This hypothesis was tested by irradiating sun-dried disc and ray diaspores continuously for 6 weeks with four different doses of biologically effective UV radiation, viz 0.0, 0.2, 9.46 and 11.97 kj m −2 8 hr −1 of visible (> 400 nm), UV-A (320–400 nm), ambient and enhanced UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation, respectively. Total effective UV-B doses approximated those received over an 18-week period following seed dispersal at this species' northerly distribution limit (26° 38′ S), at normal ozone levels (ambient UV-B) and anticipated 20% ozone depletion (enhanced UV-B). Irradiation of diaspores with enhanced UV-B improved germination in both seed morphs. However, disc diaspores exhibited a greater fractional increase in germination than ray diaspores. Disc and ray plants grown from diaspores irradiated with enhanced UV-B exhibited decreased photochemical efficiency (reduced variable to maximal fluorescence, F v /F m ), but only disc plants showed decreased potential photosynthetic activity (reduced areas over fluorescence curves, A fd ). This was accompanied by increased diaspore production and reduced diaspore mass. Irradiation of diaspores with photoreactivating UV-A produced a contrasting response (increased F v /F m and A fd , accompanied by decreased diaspore production) in disc plants only. Altered photochemical and reproductive performance, and visibly diminished leaf pigmentation, in disc plants indicated increased sensitivity to photoinhibition, a possible consequence of UV-B induced cellular (membrane and DNA) damage in seeds. (author)

  14. Towards a high performing UV-A sensor based on Silicon Carbide and hydrogenated Silicon Nitride absorbing layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Renna, L.; Costa, N.; Badalà, P.; Sciuto, A.; Mannino, G.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. The sun is our primary natural source of UV radiation. The strength of the sun's ultraviolet radiation is expressed as Solar UV Index (UVI). UV-A (320–400 nm) and UV-B (290–320 nm) rays mostly contribute to UVI. UV-B is typically the most destructive form of UV radiation because it has enough energy to cause photochemical damage to cellular DNA. Also overexposure to UV-A rays, although these are less energetic than UV-B photons, has been associated with toughening of the skin, suppression of the immune system, and cataract formation. The use of preventive measures to decrease sunlight UV radiation absorption is fundamental to reduce acute and irreversible health diseases to skin, eyes and immune system. In this perspective UV sensors able to monitor in a monolithic and compact chip the UV Index and relative UV-A and UV-B components of solar spectrum can play a relevant role for prevention, especially in view of the integration of these detectors in close at hand portable devices. Here we present the preliminary results obtained on our UV-A sensor technology based on the use of hydrogenated Silicon Nitride (SiN:H) thin passivating layers deposited on the surface of thin continuous metal film Ni 2 Si/4H-SiC Schottky detectors, already used for UV-Index monitoring. The first UV-A detector prototypes exhibit a very low leakage current density of about 0.2 pA/mm 2 and a peak responsivity value of 0.027 A/W at 330 nm, both measured at 0V bias.

  15. Wide field of view CT and acromioclavicular joint instability: A technical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, David R; Troupis, John M; Kamali Moaveni, Afshin

    2015-06-01

    A 21-year-old female with a traumatic shoulder injury is investigated and managed for symptoms relating to this injury. Pathology at the acromioclavicular joint is detected clinically; however, clinical examination and multiple imaging modalities do not reach a unified diagnosis on the grading of this acromioclavicular joint injury. When management appropriate to that suggested injury grading fail to help the patient's symptoms, further investigation methods were utilised. Wide field of view, dynamic CT (4D CT) is conducted on the patient's affected shoulder using a 320 × 0.5 mm detector multislice CT. Scans were conducted with a static table as the patient completed three movements of the affected shoulder. Capturing multiple data sets per second over a z-axis of 16 cm, measurements of the acromioclavicular joint were made, to show dynamic changes at the joint. Acromioclavicular (AC) joint translations were witnessed in three planes (a previously unrecognised pathology in the grading of acromioclavicular joint injuries). Translation in multiple planes was also not evident on careful clinical examination of this patient. AC joint width, anterior-posterior translation, superior-inferior translation and coracoclavicular width were measured with planar reconstructions while volume-rendered images and dynamic sequences aiding visual understanding of the pathology. Wide field of view dynamic CT (4D CT) is an accurate and quick modality to diagnose complex acromioclavicular joint injury. It provides dynamic information that no other modality can; 4D CT shows future benefits for clinical approach to diagnosis and management of acromioclavicular joint injury, and other musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  16. Toward an organ based dose prescription method for the improved accuracy of murine dose in orthovoltage x-ray irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belley, Matthew D.; Wang, Chu; Nguyen, Giao; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetry is essential when irradiating mice to ensure that functional and molecular endpoints are well understood for the radiation dose delivered. Conventional methods of prescribing dose in mice involve the use of a single dose rate measurement and assume a uniform average dose throughout all organs of the entire mouse. Here, the authors report the individual average organ dose values for the irradiation of a 12, 23, and 33 g mouse on a 320 kVp x-ray irradiator and calculate the resulting error from using conventional dose prescription methods. Methods: Organ doses were simulated in the Geant4 application for tomographic emission toolkit using the MOBY mouse whole-body phantom. Dosimetry was performed for three beams utilizing filters A (1.65 mm Al), B (2.0 mm Al), and C (0.1 mm Cu + 2.5 mm Al), respectively. In addition, simulated x-ray spectra were validated with physical half-value layer measurements. Results: Average doses in soft-tissue organs were found to vary by as much as 23%–32% depending on the filter. Compared to filters A and B, filter C provided the hardest beam and had the lowest variation in soft-tissue average organ doses across all mouse sizes, with a difference of 23% for the median mouse size of 23 g. Conclusions: This work suggests a new dose prescription method in small animal dosimetry: it presents a departure from the conventional approach of assigninga single dose value for irradiation of mice to a more comprehensive approach of characterizing individual organ doses to minimize the error and uncertainty. In human radiation therapy, clinical treatment planning establishes the target dose as well as the dose distribution, however, this has generally not been done in small animal research. These results suggest that organ dose errors will be minimized by calibrating the dose rates for all filters, and using different dose rates for different organs

  17. Effects of computing parameters and measurement locations on the estimation of 3D NPS in non-stationary MDCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miéville, Frédéric A; Bolard, Gregory; Bulling, Shelley; Gudinchet, François; Bochud, François O; Verdun, François R

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of computing parameters and the location of volumes of interest (VOI) on the calculation of 3D noise power spectrum (NPS) in order to determine an optimal set of computing parameters and propose a robust method for evaluating the noise properties of imaging systems. Noise stationarity in noise volumes acquired with a water phantom on a 128-MDCT and a 320-MDCT scanner were analyzed in the spatial domain in order to define locally stationary VOIs. The influence of the computing parameters in the 3D NPS measurement: the sampling distances bx,y,z and the VOI lengths Lx,y,z, the number of VOIs NVOI and the structured noise were investigated to minimize measurement errors. The effect of the VOI locations on the NPS was also investigated. Results showed that the noise (standard deviation) varies more in the r-direction (phantom radius) than z-direction plane. A 25 × 25 × 40 mm(3) VOI associated with DFOV = 200 mm (Lx,y,z = 64, bx,y = 0.391 mm with 512 × 512 matrix) and a first-order detrending method to reduce structured noise led to an accurate NPS estimation. NPS estimated from off centered small VOIs had a directional dependency contrary to NPS obtained from large VOIs located in the center of the volume or from small VOIs located on a concentric circle. This showed that the VOI size and location play a major role in the determination of NPS when images are not stationary. This study emphasizes the need for consistent measurement methods to assess and compare image quality in CT. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MDCT in the Differentiation of Adrenal Masses: Comparison between Different Scan Delays for the Evaluation of Intralesional Washout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Angelelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the accuracy of the washout in the differential diagnosis between adenomas and nonadenomas and to compare the obtained results in delayed CT scans at 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Methods. Fifty patients with adrenal masses were prospectively evaluated. CT scans were performed by using a 320-row MDCT device, before and after injection of contrast material. In 25 cases, delayed scans were performed at 5′ and 10′ (group 1, while in the remaining 25, at 5′ and 15′ (group 2. Absolute and relative wash-out percentage values (APW and RPW were calculated. Results. Differential diagnosis between adenomas and nonadenomas was obtained in 48/50 (96% cases, with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 96%, 95%, and 96%, respectively. In group 1, APW and RPW values were, respectively, 69.8% and 67.2% at 5′ and 75.9% and 73.5% at 10′ for adenomas and 25.1% and 15.8% at 5′ and 33.5% and 20.5% at 10′ for nonadenomas. In group 2, APW and RPW values were 63% and 54.6% at 5′ and 73.8% and 65.5% at 15′ for adenomas and 22% and 12.5% at 5′ and 35.5% and 19.9% at 15′ for nonadenomas. Conclusions. The evaluation of the wash-out values in CT scans performed at 5′, 10′, and 15′ provides comparable diagnostic results. CT scans performed at 5′ are, therefore, to be preferred, since they reduce the examination time and patient discomfort.

  19. ESTADO NUTRIMENTAL Y PRODUCCIÓN DE FRUTO DE MANGO (Mangifera indica L., CV. TOMMY ATKINS, EN SUELOS LUVISOLES DEL ESTADO DE CAMPECHE, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Medina-Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el estado nutrimental en árboles de mango ( Mangifera indica L., en suelos Luvisoles del estado de Campeche, México, con fines de determinar posibles deficiencias y, en su caso, decidir acerca de la necesidad de realizar aplicaciones de fertilizantes. En huertos comerciales de mango se tomaron muestras de suelo, para determinar sus propiedades físicas y químicas, y de hoja, para especificar las concentraciones nutrimentales, a la vez que se obtuvo información sobre el manejo del huerto y del rendimiento de frutos. Se estimaron modelos de regresión del rendimiento como función de las concentraciones nutrimentales y propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo así como factores tecnológicos. Se establecieron los rangos de suficiencia nutrimental como expresión del estado nutrimental de los árboles. El rango de suficiencia ade - cuado fue, para N, de 0.90 a 1.35 %; P, de 0.07 a 0.11 %; K, de 0.5 a 0.8 %; Ca, de 3.5 a 3.75 %; Mg, de 0.16 a 0.25 %; Fe, de 75 ≥ 140 mg · kg -1 ; Mn, de 175 a 320 mg · kg -1 ; Cu, de 6 a 9 mg · kg -1 ; Zn, de 10 a 22 mg · kg -1 ; y, B de 85 a 210 mg · kg -1 . Con base en la distribución de los huertos en los rangos de suficiencia, se observó que hay huertos que requerirían aplicaciones de fertilizantes: P (48 %, K (52 %, Ca (62 %, Mg (56 %, Fe (73 %, Cu (65 %, y B (44 %. En cambio, las deficiencias son menores para Mn (17 % y Zn (21 %, y no se observaron para N.

  20. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND TECHNICAL LEVEL INDICATORS APPLICATION FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim V. Efimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties characterize the purpose of the aircraft and are described by its flight performance characteristics such as range and cruising speed, payload, runway characteristics, etc. Functional properties also characterize the aircraft efficiency that determines the objective need for their analysis by both aircraft designers and operators in conditions of permanent and systematic efficiency increase necessity. When choosing the aircraft, it is important for the operator to make sure that a selected aircraft type has a high level of functional properties, which will allow it to provide high operational efficiency without obsolescence in the long term. However, when choosing from several aircraft types the operator has to face the fact that some characteristics of considered aircraft variants are better and the others are worse that does not allow to definitely determine what aircraft type has a higher level of functional properties.The possibility of applying technical efficiency indicators and a generalized technical level indicator for analyzing the functional properties of civil aviation aircraft is explored in this article. Fuel, weight and target efficiency values as well as the previously improved technical level indicator value were calculated for the different generations and modifications of Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 families of medium-range airplanes, which was followed by the results interpretation within one airplane generation and when moving historically from one airplane generation to another. According to analysis results it is concluded that it is impossible to define the change of the aircraft functional properties level by the change in the values of separate technical efficiency indicators. Thus, it is proposed to use a generalized technical level indicator that determines the level of aircraft technical perfection for purpose and to use efficiency indicators to analyze the cost of providing this level of

  1. TU-G-204-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Measurement and Its Comparison to Fractional Flow Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemer, B; Hubbard, L; Groves, E; Sadeghi, B; Javan, H; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a first pass analysis (FPA) technique for CT perfusion measurement in a swine animal and its validation using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as a reference standard. Methods: Swine were placed under anesthesia and relevant physiologic parameters were continuously recorded. Intra-coronary adenosine was administered to induce maximum hyperemia. A pressure wire was advanced distal to the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery for FFR measurements and a balloon dilation catheter was inserted over the pressure wire into the proximal LAD to create varying levels of stenosis. Images were acquired with a 320-row wide volume CT scanner. Three main coronary perfusion beds were delineated in the myocardium using arteries extracted from CT angiography images using a minimum energy hypothesis. The integrated density in the perfusion bed was used to calculate perfusion using the FPA technique. The perfusion in the LAD bed over a range of stenosis severity was measured. The measured fractional perfusion was compared to FFR and linear regression was performed. Results: The measured fractional perfusion using the FPA technique (P-FPA) and FFR were related as P-FPA = 1.06FFR – 0.06 (r{sup 2} = 0.86). The perfusion measurements were calculated with only three to five total CT volume scans, which drastically reduces the radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques requiring 15–20 volume scans. Conclusion: The measured perfusion using the first pass analysis technique showed good correlation with FFR measurements as a reference standard. The technique for perfusion measurement can potentially make a substantial reduction in radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques.

  2. Ammonium production off central Chile (36°S by photodegradation of phytoplankton-derived and marine dissolved organic matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Rain-Franco

    Full Text Available We investigated the production of ammonium by the photodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM in the coastal upwelling system off central Chile (36°S. The mean penetration of solar radiation (Z1% between April 2011 and February 2012 was 9.4 m, 4.4 m and 3.2 m for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm, UV-A (320-400 nm and UV-B (280-320 nm, respectively. Ammonium photoproduction experiments were carried out using exudates of DOM obtained from cultured diatom species (Chaetoceros muelleri and Thalassiosira minuscule as well as natural marine DOM. Diatom exudates showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to UVR with a mean rate of 0.56±0.4 µmol L(-1 h(-1 and a maximum rate of 1.49 µmol L(-1 h(-1. Results from natural marine DOM showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to PAR+UVR ranging between 0.06 and 0.2 µmol L(-1 h(-1. We estimated the potential contribution of photochemical ammonium production for phytoplankton ammonium demand. Photoammonification of diatom exudates could support between 117 and 453% of spring-summer NH4(+ assimilation, while rates obtained from natural samples could contribute to 50-178% of spring-summer phytoplankton NH4(+ requirements. These results have implications for local N budgets, as photochemical ammonium production can occur year-round in the first meters of the euphotic zone that are impacted by full sunlight.

  3. The PROGINS polymorphism of the human progesterone receptor diminishes the response to progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Andrea; Delvoux, Bert; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Groothuis, Patrick

    2007-02-01

    The human progesterone receptor (PR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and two isoforms, (PRA and PRB), can be distinguished. PROGINS, a PR polymorphic variant, affects PRA and PRB and acts as a risk-modulating factor in several gynaecological disorders. Little is known about the functional consequences of this variant. Here, we characterise the properties of PROGINS with respect to transcription, mRNA maturation, protein activity and proliferation. PROGINS is characterised by a 320 bp PV/HS-1 Alu insertion in intron G and two point mutations, V660L in exon 4 and H770H (silent substitution) in exon 5. The Alu element contains a half oestrogen-response element/Sp1-binding site (Alu-ERE/Sp1), which acts as an in-cis intronic enhancer leading to increased transcription of the PROGINS allele in response to 17beta-oestradiol. Moreover, Alu insertions in the human genome are frequently methylated. Our data indicate that the PROGINS-Alu does not affect gene transcription due to DNA methylation. However, the Alu element reduced the stability of the PROGINS transcript compared with the CP allele and does not generate splice variants. The amino acid substitution (V600L) in exon 4 leads to differences in PR phosphorylation and degradation in the two PR variants upon ligand binding, most likely as a result of differences in the three-dimensional structures of the two PR variants. As a consequence, the PR-L660 (PROGINS) variant (1) displays decreased transactivation activity in a luciferase reporter system and (2) is less efficient in opposing cell proliferation in hamster ovarian cells expressing human PRA, when compared with the PR-V660 (most common variant). Taken together, our results indicate that the PROGINS variant of PR is less responsive to progestin compared with the most common PR because of (i) reduced amounts of gene transcript and (ii) decreased protein activity.

  4. Prospective study of the 532 nm laser (KTP) versus diode laser 980 nm in the resection of hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela-Pérez, Patricia; González-Merchán, Jorge; Díaz-Sánchez, Rosa; Serrera-Figallo, Maria-Angeles; Volland, Gerd; Joergens, Martin; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose-Luis

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the resection of hyperplastic lesions on the buccal mucosa comparing the 532nm laser (KTP), versus diode 980nm laser, considering pain, scarring, inflammation and drug consumption that occurred postoperatively with each lasers. Material and Methods A prospective study of consecutive series of 20 patients in two groups that presents hyperplastic lesions on the buccal mucosa. The choice of the KTP laser or diode 980nm laser for the surgery was made randomly. The power used was 1.5W in both groups in a continuous wave mode with a 320 μm optical fiber. Parameters of pain, scarring, inflammation and consumption of drugs were recorded by a Numerical Rating Scale and evaluated postoperatively. These recordings were made the day of the surgery, 24 hours after, 14 and 28 days after. Results Pain and inflammation was light - moderate. The consumption of paracetamol was somewhat higher in the diode 980nm laser versus the KTP laser after 24 hours, although data was not statistically significant; significant differences were found after 28 days in regards to pain (p = 0.023) and inflammation (p = 0.023), but always in the absence parameter so we find no pain in both lasers. Scarring in the two types of laser showed no differences along the visits, with not detected scar retractable. Conclusions Although there is a slight histological difference regarding the KTP laser in the oral soft tissues for clinical use, both wavelengths are very suitable for excision of oral fibroma. Key words:Laser surgery, Laser therapy, oral surgery, soft tissue, 980 nm diode laser, 532 nm KTP laser. PMID:29274158

  5. Mid-cervical flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion: diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial internal carotid artery sign on computed tomographic angiography in hyperacute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Pitakvej, Nantaporn; Dumrongpisutikul, Netsiri; Lerdlum, Sukalaya

    2017-01-01

    Flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is a flow-related phenomenon that creates computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings that mimic tandem intracranial-extracranial ICA occlusion or dissection. We aim to determine the diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign on CTA in hyperacute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively included consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients presenting within 6 h of symptom onset who underwent 4D brain CTA and arterial-phase neck CTA using a 320-detector CT scanner during August 2012 to July 2015. Two blinded readers independently reviewed arterial-phase neck CTA and characterized the extracranial ICA configurations into mid-cervical flame-shaped, proximal blunt/beak-shaped, and tubular-shaped groups. 4D whole brain CTA was used as a reference standard for intracranial ICA occlusion detection. Diagnostic performance of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign and interobserver reliability were calculated. Of the 81 cases, 11 had isolated intracranial ICA occlusion, and 6 had true extracranial ICA occlusion. Mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign was found in 45.5% (5/11) of isolated intracranial ICA occlusions but none in the true extracranial ICA occlusion group. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign for the detection of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion were 45.5, 100, 100, 92.1, and 92.6%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was 0.90. The mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign may suggest the presence of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion and allow reliable exclusion of tandem extracranial-intracranial ICA occlusion in hyperacute ischemic stroke setting. (orig.)

  6. TU-G-204-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Measurement and Its Comparison to Fractional Flow Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, B; Hubbard, L; Groves, E; Sadeghi, B; Javan, H; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a first pass analysis (FPA) technique for CT perfusion measurement in a swine animal and its validation using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as a reference standard. Methods: Swine were placed under anesthesia and relevant physiologic parameters were continuously recorded. Intra-coronary adenosine was administered to induce maximum hyperemia. A pressure wire was advanced distal to the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery for FFR measurements and a balloon dilation catheter was inserted over the pressure wire into the proximal LAD to create varying levels of stenosis. Images were acquired with a 320-row wide volume CT scanner. Three main coronary perfusion beds were delineated in the myocardium using arteries extracted from CT angiography images using a minimum energy hypothesis. The integrated density in the perfusion bed was used to calculate perfusion using the FPA technique. The perfusion in the LAD bed over a range of stenosis severity was measured. The measured fractional perfusion was compared to FFR and linear regression was performed. Results: The measured fractional perfusion using the FPA technique (P-FPA) and FFR were related as P-FPA = 1.06FFR – 0.06 (r 2 = 0.86). The perfusion measurements were calculated with only three to five total CT volume scans, which drastically reduces the radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques requiring 15–20 volume scans. Conclusion: The measured perfusion using the first pass analysis technique showed good correlation with FFR measurements as a reference standard. The technique for perfusion measurement can potentially make a substantial reduction in radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques

  7. Low-tube-voltage selection for non-contrast-enhanced CT: Comparison of the radiation dose in pediatric and adult phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonobo, Toshiaki; Funama, Yoshinori; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Nakaura, Takeshi; Oda, Seitaro; Kiguchi, Masao; Masuda, Takanori; Sakabe, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Awai, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    We used pediatric and adult anthropomorphic phantoms to compare the radiation dose of low- and standard tube voltage chest and abdominal non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans. We also discuss the optimal low tube voltage for non-contrast-enhanced CT. Using a female adult- and three differently-sized pediatric anthropomorphic phantoms we acquired chest and abdominal non-contrast-enhanced scans on a 320-multidetector CT volume scanner. The tube voltage was set at 80-, 100-, and 120 kVp. The tube current was automatically assigned on the CT scanner in response to the set image noise level. On each phantom and at each tube voltage we measured the surface and center dose using high-sensitivity metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. The mean surface dose of chest and abdominal CT scans in 5-year olds was 4.4 and 5.3 mGy at 80 kVp, 4.5 and 5.4 mGy at 100 kV, and 4.0 and 5.0 mGy at 120 kVp, respectively. These values were similar in our 3-pediatric phantoms (p > 0.05). The mean surface dose in the adult phantom increased from 14.7 to 19.4 mGy for chest- and from 18.7 to 24.8 mGy for abdominal CT as the tube voltage decreased from 120 to 80 kVp (p voltage and the low tube voltage technique can be used for non-contrast-enhanced chest- and abdominal scanning. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultraviolet Radiations: Skin Defense-Damage Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Chandel, Shikha; Kumar, Parveen; Verma, Vivek; Digvijay, Kumar; Tripathi, Deepika; Choudhury, Khushboo; Mitten, Sandeep Kumar; Shah, Dilip

    2017-01-01

    UV-radiations are the invisible part of light spectra having a wavelength between visible rays and X-rays. Based on wavelength, UV rays are subdivided into UV-A (320-400 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-C (200-280 nm). Ultraviolet rays can have both harmful and beneficial effects. UV-C has the property of ionization thus acting as a strong mutagen, which can cause immune-mediated disease and cancer in adverse cases. Numbers of genetic factors have been identified in human involved in inducing skin cancer from UV-radiations. Certain heredity diseases have been found susceptible to UV-induced skin cancer. UV radiations activate the cutaneous immune system, which led to an inflammatory response by different mechanisms. The first line of defense mechanism against UV radiation is melanin (an epidermal pigment), and UV absorbing pigment of skin, which dissipate UV radiation as heat. Cell surface death receptor (e.g. Fas) of keratinocytes responds to UV-induced injury and elicits apoptosis to avoid malignant transformation. In addition to the formation of photo-dimers in the genome, UV also can induce mutation by generating ROS and nucleotides are highly susceptible to these free radical injuries. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) has been known to be implicated in different UV-induced damages such as pigmentation, adaptive tanning, and skin cancer. UV-B induces the formation of pre-vitamin D3 in the epidermal layer of skin. UV-induced tans act as a photoprotection by providing a sun protection factor (SPF) of 3-4 and epidermal hyperplasia. There is a need to prevent the harmful effects and harness the useful effects of UV radiations.

  9. A thermographic study on eyes affected by Age-related Macular Degeneration: Comparison among various forms of the pathology and analysis of risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Biagini, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Sodi, Andrea; Corvi, Andrea; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the ocular thermographic profiles in eyes affected by Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities that could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, (2) whether any risk factors associated with the disease could affect the development of a form of AMD rather than another. Thirty-four eyes with Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM), 41 eyes with dry AMD, 60 eyes affected by wet AMD, and 74 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included in the study. The control group consisted of 48 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, systemic diseases and a body temperature higher than 37.5 °C. A total of 210 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The Ocular Surface Temperature (OST) of five ocular areas was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA test and multivariate analysis were used for statistical analyses. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P-value > 0.05), however, OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P-value < 0.0001). Smokers showed higher possibility (P-value = 0.012) of developing wet AMD instead of dry AMD. Infrared thermography may be a helpful, non-invasive and not time-consuming method to be used in the management of patients with this common degenerative maculopathy.

  10. SU-F-I-36: In-Utero Dose Measurements Within Postmortem Subjects for Estimating Fetal Doses in Pregnant Patients Examined with Pulmonary Embolism, Trauma, and Appendicitis CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipnharski, I; Quails, N; Carranza, C; Correa, N; Bidari, S; Bickelhaup, M; Rill, L; Arreola, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The imaging of pregnant patients is medically necessary in certain clinical situations. The purpose of this work was to directly measure uterine doses in a cadaver scanned with CT protocols commonly performed on pregnant patients in order to estimate fetal dose and assess potential risk. Method: One postmortem subject was scanned on a 320-slice CT scanner with standard pulmonary embolism, trauma, and appendicitis protocols. All protocols were performed with the scan parameters and ranges currently used in clinical practice. Exams were performed both with and without iterative reconstruction to highlight the dose savings potential. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) were inserted into the uterus in order to approximate fetal doses. Results: In the pulmonary embolism CT protocol, the uterus is outside of the primary beam, and the dose to the uterus was under 1 mGy. In the trauma and appendicitis protocols, the uterus is in the primary beam, the fetal dose estimates were 30.5 mGy for the trauma protocol, and 20.6 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Iterative reconstruction reduced fetal doses by 30%, with uterine doses at 21.3 for the trauma and 14.3 mGy for the appendicitis protocol. Conclusion: Fetal doses were under 1 mGy when exposed to scatter radiation, and under 50 mGy when exposed to primary radiation with the trauma and appendicitis protocols. Consistent with the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these doses exhibit a negligible risk to the fetus, with only a small increased risk of cancer. Still, CT scans are not recommended during pregnancy unless the benefits of the exam clearly outweigh the potential risk. Furthermore, when possible, pregnant patients should be examined on CT scanners equipped with iterative reconstruction in order to keep patient doses as low as reasonable achievable.

  11. Anatomy of right superior septal artery demonstrated on the coronary CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeguchi, Takaya (Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)); Ibukuro, Kenji; Fukuda, Hozumi; Tobe, Kimiko; Abe, Shoko (Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)), Email: kj-ibkr@qd6.so-net.ne.jp

    2012-02-15

    Background. A coronary CT scan allows for non-invasive visualization of the anatomy of a coronary artery in three dimensions compared to the two dimensions afforded by conventional angiography. The septal artery, the main blood source of the interventricular septum, is usually derived from the left anterior descending artery; however, it is occasionally derived from the right coronary artery. Purpose. To analyze the prevalence, origin, diameter, and length of the right superior septal artery (RSSA) demonstrated on a coronary CT scan. Material and Methods. The right superior septal artery was retrospectively reviewed on the reconstructed axial scan images (0.5-mm thickness, 0.25-mm interval) in 1290 consecutive patients who underwent coronary CT scans. All patients were scanned on a 320-row CT scanner. The images were transferred to a workstation to trace the vessel to analyze the origin, diameter, and length. We also compared the length of the RSSA between patients with and without coronary artery stenosis. Results. The RSSA was identified in 51 (3.9%) of 1290 patients. The origin was the proximal portion of the right coronary artery (n = 40) or the right sinus of Valsalva (n 11). The artery co-existed with the conus artery in 15 (29%) of 51 patients. The length was 16-62 mm (mean 31.2 mm +- 10.5), and the diameter was 0.8-2.0 mm (mean 1.3 mm +- 0.2). Longer RSSAs tended to be demonstrated in the patients with coronary artery stenosis rather than with normal coronary arteries (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The right superior septal artery and its anatomical variant could be analyzed with a coronary CT scan. The ability to demonstrate this artery on the coronary CT scan was the same as with coronary angiography. The recognition of this vessel is useful for physicians managing with the diagnosis and treatment of the coronary artery disease

  12. Caracterización de los datos de medición de armónicos variables en el tiempo; Characterization of Time Varying Harmonics Data Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sousa Santos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se hace una revisión de los problemas asociados a la medición de los niveles de armónicos presentes,en una onda distorsionada de tensión y corriente no estacionaria, y se efectúa la caracterización de los datosregistrados. Para ello se utiliza como ejemplo un grupo de mediciones recientes, realizadas en condiciones decampo a un motor asincrónico trifásico de 320 kW, 440 V, 820 A, 750 r/min, cuya velocidad se regula con unconvertidor de frecuencia, y se determina la distorsión de tensión y corriente. Estos datos son descritos en diferentesformas estadísticas. Las ventajas y desventajas de cada una de ellas son discutidas, así como la interpretación delos resultados. Se analizan, además, los factores que influyen en el factor de distorsión de tensión (FDT. Lasobservaciones realizadas en el trabajo son aplicables a cualquier armónico individual o al THD.  The purpose of this article is to review the problems associated to the measurement of the harmonic levelscorresponding to non-stationary distorted voltage and current waves and characterize the obtained data. For thatpurpose, recent in situ measurements made to a 320 kW, 440 V, 820 A, 750 r/min induction motor, controlled bya PWM frequency converter, is used as an example. The voltage and current distortion are determined. Thesedata are described with different statistical procedures. The advantages and disadvantages of these proceduresare discussed, as well as the results interpretation. Furthermore, the elements that affect the voltage distortionfactor (VDF are analyzed. The considerations made in this study are applicable to any individual harmonic or tothe total harmonic distortion factor (THD.

  13. SU-E-I-28: Introduction and Investigation of Effective Diameter Ratios as a New Patient Size Metric for Use in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamoureux, R [Gainesville, FL (United States); Sinclair, L [Portland, OR (United States); Mench, A [Salem Health, Tualatin, OR (United States); Lipnharski, I; Carranza, C; Bidari, S [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Cormack, B [UF Health, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rill, L [Univ Florida, Jacksonville Beach, FL (United States); Arreola, M [University of Florida Health Science Center, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To introduce and investigate effective diameter ratios as a new patient metric for use in computed tomography protocol selection as a supplement to patient-specific size parameter data. Methods: The metrics of outer effective diameter and inner effective diameter were measured for 7 post-mortem subjects scanned with a standardized chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP) protocol on a 320-slice MDCT scanner. The outer effective diameter was calculated by obtaining the anterior/posterior and lateral dimensions of the imaged anatomy at the middle of the scan range using Effective Diameter= SQRT(AP height*Lat Width). The inner effective diameter was calculated with the same equation using the AP and Lat dimensions of the anatomy excluding the adipose tissue. The ratio of outer to inner effective diameter was calculated for each subject. A relationship to BMI, weight, and CTDI conversion coefficients was investigated. Results: For the largest subject with BMI of 43.85 kg/m2 and weight of 255 lbs the diameter ratio was calculated as 1.33. For the second largest subject with BMI of 33.5 kg/m2 and weight of 192.4 lbs the diameter ratio was measured as 1.43, indicating a larger percentage of adipose tissue in the second largest subject’s anatomical composition. For the smallest subject at BMI of 17.4 kg/m2 and weight of 86 lbs a similar tissue composition was indicated as a subject with BMI of 24.2 kg/m2 and weight of 136 lbs as they had the same diameter ratios of 1.11. Conclusion: The diameter ratio proves to contain information about anatomical composition that the BMI and weight alone do not. The utility of this metric is still being examined but could prove useful for determining MDCT techniques and for giving a more in depth detail of the composition of a patient’s body habitus.

  14. Rapid Evolutionary Rates and Unique Genomic Signatures Discovered in the First Reference Genome for the Southern Ocean Salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Nathaniel K; Batta-Lona, Paola G; Trusiak, Sarah; Obergfell, Craig; Bucklin, Ann; O'Neill, Michael J; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2016-10-30

    A preliminary genome sequence has been assembled for the Southern Ocean salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea). Despite the ecological importance of this species in Antarctic pelagic food webs and its potential role as an indicator of changing Southern Ocean ecosystems in response to climate change, no genomic resources are available for S. thompsoni or any closely related urochordate species. Using a multiple-platform, multiple-individual approach, we have produced a 318,767,936-bp genome sequence, covering >50% of the estimated 602 Mb (±173 Mb) genome size for S. thompsoni Using a nonredundant set of predicted proteins, >50% (16,823) of sequences showed significant homology to known proteins and ∼38% (12,151) of the total protein predictions were associated with Gene Ontology functional information. We have generated 109,958 SNP variant and 9,782 indel predictions for this species, serving as a resource for future phylogenomic and population genetic studies. Comparing the salp genome to available assemblies for four other urochordates, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi and Oikopleura dioica, we found that S. thompsoni shares the previously estimated rapid rates of evolution for these species. High mutation rates are thus independent of genome size, suggesting that rates of evolution >1.5 times that observed for vertebrates are a broad taxonomic characteristic of urochordates. Tests for positive selection implemented in PAML revealed a small number of genes with sites undergoing rapid evolution, including genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and metabolic and immune process that may be reflective of both adaptation to polar, planktonic environments as well as the complex life history of the salps. Finally, we performed an initial survey of small RNAs, revealing the presence of known, conserved miRNAs, as well as novel miRNA genes; unique piRNAs; and mature miRNA signatures for varying developmental stages. Collectively, these

  15. Opresión internalizada y prácticas sexuales de riesgo en varones homo-y bi-sexuales de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Hernández Luis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la relación entre prácticas sexuales de riesgo para infección por VIH y la opresión que éstos han internalizado debido al prejuicio y discriminación que se enfrentan varones bisexuales y homosexuales. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, transversal, y analítico. Entre septiembre y noviembre del 2001 se aplicó un cuestionario a 318 hombres que acudieron a organizaciones e instituciones ubicadas en la Ciudad de México. Las variables indagadas fueron: homofobia internalizada, percepción del estigma, ocultamiento y prácticas sexuales en los seis meses previos a la encuesta. Mediante modelos de regresión logistica se estimó la relación (odds ratios de las formas de opresión internalizada con las prácticas sexuales de riesgo, ajustando por variables confusoras. RESULTADOS: De los entrevistados, 256 habían tenido por lo menos una relación sexual en los últimos seis meses, 50 respondieron no haberlas tenido y 12 no contestaron esta pregunta. Más del 30% de los varones no había utilizado preservativo cuando habían tenido sexo insertivo o receptivo. La homofobia internalizada se asoció con mayor riesgo de consumo de drogas antes o durante las relaciones sexuales, sexo insertivo sin condón, sexo receptivo sin condón y el tragar semen de otros hombres. CONCLUSIONES: Sigue siendo frecuente la adopción de prácticas sexuales de riesgo entre los varones bi y homosexuales. De las tres formas de opresión internalizada que se investigaron, la que se asoció con mayor probabilidad de prácticas sexuales de riesgo fue la homofobia internalizada. Esta información puede ser incorporada en el diseño de programas de promoción de uso de condón entre varones bi y homosexuales.

  16. Utilización del medio Mrs-s en el aislamiento de bacterias lácticas mesofilas en leche de cabra Utilización del medio Mrs-s en el aislamiento de bacterias lacticas mesofilas en leche de cabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes F. Celia L. de Luces

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el MRS-S (Sorbato al 0.10% en el aislamiento de bacterias lácticas se cultivaron muestras de leche de cabra cruda en MRS-S y PCA en profundidad y se incubaron en aerobiósis a 320C durante 48 horas. Los cocos gram positivos, catalasa negativos que crecieron en MRS-S se aislaron y sometieron a caracterización preliminar a través del crecimiento en agar MRS-S, MRS-T (tetraciclina 0.20 µg/ml, N-L (bacterias aromáticas, reducción de la leche tornasolada a 40 y 21oC y crecimiento a 45 y 10oC.Las cepas seleccionadas se sometieron a caracterización fisiológica y Bioquímica. El medio MRS-S mostró ser efectivo con un porcentaje de inhibición de la flora indeseable del 86.56%, y adecuado por el aislamiento de Lactococcus. De acuerdo con los perfiles taxonómicos se consiguió aislar de un total de 156 colonias dos Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis y un Lactococcus lactis biovar diacetilactis.With the objective of evaluating the MRS-S (0.10% of sorbate in the isolation of lactic bacteria samples of raw goat milk were cultivated in MRS-S and PCA in deep and incubated in aerobic conditions for 48 hours al 32oC. Gram positive coccus, negative catalase which grew in MRS-S were isolated and preliminarly characterized through the growing process in agar MRS-S, MRS-T (O.20ltg/ml tetracycline, N-L (aromatic bacteria, litmus milk reduction at 40 and 210C and growing at 45 and 10oC. Selected strains were subject to the physiological and biochemical characterization. MRS-S media showed to be effective with an 86.56% of inhibition for indesirable bacteria and adequated for Lactococcus isolation. Related to taxonomic profiles from 156 colonies were isolated two lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and one Lactococcus luctis biovar diacetilactis.

  17. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  18. Hepatocyte transplantation improves early survival after partial hepatic resection and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, C.; Sharma, A.; Alfieri, A.; Guha, U.; Sokhi, R.; Gagandeep, S.; Gupta, S.; Vikram, B.; RoyChowdhury, J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is limited in its role as an adjuvant therapy of intrahepatic malignancies because of lower tolerance of human liver to irradiation (TD (5(5)) -TD (50(5)) ∼ 30-40 Gy). Although, surgical resection of primary or metastatic hepatic tumors has been shown to prolong survival, it is often limited by the presence of residual disease. RT could potentially improve survival of patients with positive surgical margins. However, radiation damage to the liver may be enhanced by hepatocellular proliferation induced by partial hepatic (PH) resection. We hypothesize that hepatocyte transplantation would be able to provide metabolic support and modulate the development of radiation-induced liver disease post-resection. The present study was designed to test the potential of hepatocyte transplantation in modifying the outcome of hepatocellular damage induced by PH and RT. Methods: Adult male Fischer 344 rats (Charles River) received hepatic irradiation of 50 Gy in a single fraction, after surgical exposure and shielding of the stomach and intestine, using a 320 MGC Philips orthovoltage unit. Immediately following irradiation, a two-third partial hepatectomy was performed. Four days post-radiation, the treatment group was injected with 5 x 10 6 syngeneic hepatocytes into the splenic pulp after a left subcostal incision, which allows homogeneous liver engraftment of the transplanted hepatocytes. Hematoxylin and eosin stains of liver biopsies, performed at various time points (3 days, 1, 2, 3 weeks or, anytime when animals died) were used for histologic evaluation. Time-adjusted survival was calculated from the date of irradiation by the product-limit Kaplan-Meier method, adjusting the denominator at every time point for the number of rats at risk. Results: Eight weeks after RT, 30% (n = 11) of the control animals (PH + 50 Gy) were alive compared to 100% (n = 9) of the transplant recipients (p <0.05). The median survival of the control group was 15

  19. Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Nd-YAG Lased Dentin with and without Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kermanshah

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The achievement of a good and durable dentin/composite resin bond is an important task in restorative dentistry. The application of acid conditioners and dentin bonding agents is an accepted method to enhance this bond strength. Pretreating of dentin surface by laser irradiation seems to be a supplemental way to obtain better results,since lased dentin is more roughened and has a widest surface area to interact with acidconditioner.Purpose: In this study, the effect of dentin surface pretreating by Nd-YAG laser on dentin/composite shear bond strength was examined. Moreover, the effect of Chinese ink as a surface energy absorber on this value was investigated.Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine freshly extracted human teeth without dentinal caries were collected and their occlusal dentins were exposed using a diamond disk. The collected samples were divided into three identical groups. The dentin surface of the first group was lased by an Nd-YAG pulsed laser (100 mJ, 20 Hz through a 320 mm fiber optic in a swiping movement. In the second group, 10% solution of Chinese ink was applied on the dentinal surface before lasing. The samples of the third group were not lased at all. Thedentinal surface prepared by 35% phosphoric acid and Scotchbond MP primer and adhesive. Then, composite resin was cured on dentinal surface. After incubation, in water at 37°C for 24 hours, the samples were tested by Digital Tritest ELE machine.Results: The values of bond strength were 20.83±3.96 MPa, 17.83±3.63 MPa and 19.38±4.88 MPa for the lased, unlased and dye-enhanced groups, respectively. The results were not significant by ANOVA test (a=0.05. Although in the Weiboul modulus, the lased group offered better bond strength.Conclusion: Further studies are required to determine whether chemical as well as physical alterations to the dentin surface are induced by laser etching, and whether these influence the performance of the range of dentin

  20. Automated Voxel-Based Analysis of Volumetric Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT Data Improves Measurement of Serial Changes in Tumor Vascular Biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolens, Catherine; Driscoll, Brandon; Chung, Caroline; Shek, Tina; Gorjizadeh, Alborz; Ménard, Cynthia; Jaffray, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Development of perfusion imaging as a biomarker requires more robust methodologies for quantification of tumor physiology that allow assessment of volumetric tumor heterogeneity over time. This study proposes a parametric method for automatically analyzing perfused tissue from volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computed tomography (CT) scans and assesses whether this 4-dimensional (4D) DCE approach is more robust and accurate than conventional, region-of-interest (ROI)-based CT methods in quantifying tumor perfusion with preliminary evaluation in metastatic brain cancer. Methods and Materials: Functional parameter reproducibility and analysis of sensitivity to imaging resolution and arterial input function were evaluated in image sets acquired from a 320-slice CT with a controlled flow phantom and patients with brain metastases, whose treatments were planned for stereotactic radiation surgery and who consented to a research ethics board-approved prospective imaging biomarker study. A voxel-based temporal dynamic analysis (TDA) methodology was used at baseline, at day 7, and at day 20 after treatment. The ability to detect changes in kinetic parameter maps in clinical data sets was investigated for both 4D TDA and conventional 2D ROI-based analysis methods. Results: A total of 7 brain metastases in 3 patients were evaluated over the 3 time points. The 4D TDA method showed improved spatial efficacy and accuracy of perfusion parameters compared to ROI-based DCE analysis (P<.005), with a reproducibility error of less than 2% when tested with DCE phantom data. Clinically, changes in transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K trans ) were seen when using TDA, with substantially smaller errors than the 2D method on both day 7 post radiation surgery (±13%; P<.05) and by day 20 (±12%; P<.04). Standard methods showed a decrease in K trans but with large uncertainty (111.6 ± 150.5) %. Conclusions: Parametric

  1. Estimación de la oferta de médicos especialistas en Colombia con el método de captura-recaptura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosselli Diego

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Dado que no se sabe cuántos médicos hay en Colombia y que, sin ese dato, los estudios de demanda son simples ejercicios teóricos, nos propusimos estimar la oferta de 12 especialidades médicas en Colombia, utilizando para ello la técnica de captura-recaptura, desarrollada por los zoólogos para estimar la población de animales salvajes. Métodos. Se emplearon tres listas o "capturas": 1 egresados de los posgrados colombianos y títulos obtenidos en el extranjero; 2 afiliados a las sociedades médicas, y 3 especialistas de las principales empresas de salud. Se utilizó el programa CAPTURE® para estimar la población total. Resultados. Se obtuvieron 24 910 registros: sociedades científicas, 6 561; posgrados, 8 397, y empresas de salud, 9 952. Más de la mitad de los médicos han ingresado en el mercado laboral durante la última década. El estimado de médicos (con su intervalo de confianza del 95% para cada especialidad fue: anestesiología, 1 753 (1 727 a 1 789; cardiología, 607 (598 a 624; dermatología, 517 (514 a 525, ginecología y obstetricia, 2 338 (2 290 a 2 400; neumología, 304 (297 a 320; neurocirugía, 324 (319 a 334; neurología, 321 (296 a 369; oftalmología, 1 049 (1 042 a 1 061; ortopedia, 1 217 (1 212 a 1 227; otorrinolaringología, 634 (628 a 645; psiquiatría, 855 (838 a 879, y urología, 452 (452 a 458. Conclusiones. La técnica de captura-recaptura es útil en estudios de recursos humanos. En Colombia el número de especialistas se duplicó en menos de una década. Existen especialidades como la neurocirugía que ya están saturadas. Todas las demás presentan tasas de crecimiento que están por encima de la capacidad de vinculación al sistema de salud.

  2. Expedition 354 on the Bengal fan: a Neogene record of Himalayan erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    France-Lanord, C.; Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Klaus, A.; Galy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Drilling in the Bengal fan generated a comprehensive record of Himalayan erosion over the Neogene and Quaternary. It documents the interplay between Himalayan tectonic and the monsoon. The fan is predominantly composed of detrital turbiditic sediments originating from Himalayan rivers, and transported through the delta and shelf canyon, supplying turbidity currents loaded with a wide spectrum of grain sizes. Turbiditic deposition makes that record at a given site is discontinuous which was the reason for an E-W transect approach. Exp. 354 drilled seven sites along a 320 km E-W transect at 8°N allowing the restitution of an almost complete record of Himalayan erosion at the scale of the Neogene. In spite of the transect's extension, a long absence of deposition was observed between 0.6 to 1.2 Ma indicating that turbiditic depocenter was derived more to the West for ca. 600 kyr. Turbidites have clear Himalayan origin with close mineralogical and isotopic analogy with those of the modern Ganga-Brahmaputra river sediments. Geochemistry shows relatively stable compositions throughout the Neogene and Quaternary and reveal a very weak regime of chemical weathering with no significant variation through time. Concentrations in mobile elements such as Na and K relative to Al are significantly higher than in modern sediments suggesting that weathering is amplified in the modern time. Low weathering of the sediments at 8°N indicates that erosion was dominated by physical processes and that transport is rapid enough to prevent evolution of particles in the floodplain. In the modern Himalaya, low weathering is achieved primarily by landslides and rapid transfer through the floodplain, i.e. limited recycling of sediment deposited in the floodplain. Both processes are favoured by the seasonality and the intensity of the monsoon. Although relatively stable, source tracers such as Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, and detrital carbonate compositions show organised variations with time

  3. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-12-31

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 {mu}mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}) or high PAR (HL; 800 {mu}mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F{sub v}/F{sub max} and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  4. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]) or high PAR (HL; 800 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F[sub v]/F[sub max] and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  5. Nonlinear analysis of commercial aircraft impact on a reactor building—Comparison between integral and decoupled crash simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefert, A., E-mail: siefert@woelfel.de; Henkel, F.O.

    2014-04-01

    Airbus type A320 with different velocities (80, 120 and 160 m/s) on simplified reactor building. The final evaluation is carried out by the maximum displacement of the reinforced concrete reactor building wall being a criterion for the integrity of the building. With respect to the results it could be shown, that the procedure using load-time-functions has limitations for the investigation of some scenarios. This could finally lead to the decision that for the design process of new nuclear power plants the application of the integral method comprehends advantages that justify the additional efforts.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of commercial aircraft impact on a reactor building—Comparison between integral and decoupled crash simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefert, A.; Henkel, F.O.

    2014-01-01

    Airbus type A320 with different velocities (80, 120 and 160 m/s) on simplified reactor building. The final evaluation is carried out by the maximum displacement of the reinforced concrete reactor building wall being a criterion for the integrity of the building. With respect to the results it could be shown, that the procedure using load-time-functions has limitations for the investigation of some scenarios. This could finally lead to the decision that for the design process of new nuclear power plants the application of the integral method comprehends advantages that justify the additional efforts

  7. Automated Voxel-Based Analysis of Volumetric Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT Data Improves Measurement of Serial Changes in Tumor Vascular Biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coolens, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.coolens@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Driscoll, Brandon [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chung, Caroline [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Shek, Tina; Gorjizadeh, Alborz [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ménard, Cynthia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaffray, David [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Development of perfusion imaging as a biomarker requires more robust methodologies for quantification of tumor physiology that allow assessment of volumetric tumor heterogeneity over time. This study proposes a parametric method for automatically analyzing perfused tissue from volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computed tomography (CT) scans and assesses whether this 4-dimensional (4D) DCE approach is more robust and accurate than conventional, region-of-interest (ROI)-based CT methods in quantifying tumor perfusion with preliminary evaluation in metastatic brain cancer. Methods and Materials: Functional parameter reproducibility and analysis of sensitivity to imaging resolution and arterial input function were evaluated in image sets acquired from a 320-slice CT with a controlled flow phantom and patients with brain metastases, whose treatments were planned for stereotactic radiation surgery and who consented to a research ethics board-approved prospective imaging biomarker study. A voxel-based temporal dynamic analysis (TDA) methodology was used at baseline, at day 7, and at day 20 after treatment. The ability to detect changes in kinetic parameter maps in clinical data sets was investigated for both 4D TDA and conventional 2D ROI-based analysis methods. Results: A total of 7 brain metastases in 3 patients were evaluated over the 3 time points. The 4D TDA method showed improved spatial efficacy and accuracy of perfusion parameters compared to ROI-based DCE analysis (P<.005), with a reproducibility error of less than 2% when tested with DCE phantom data. Clinically, changes in transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K{sub trans}) were seen when using TDA, with substantially smaller errors than the 2D method on both day 7 post radiation surgery (±13%; P<.05) and by day 20 (±12%; P<.04). Standard methods showed a decrease in K{sub trans} but with large uncertainty (111.6 ± 150.5) %. Conclusions

  8. Dual-energy CT virtual non-calcium technique for detection of bone marrow edema in patients with vertebral fractures: A prospective feasibility study on a single- source volume CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekhoff, T., E-mail: torsten.diekhoff@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Hermann, K.G. [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Pumberger, M. [Department of Spine Surgery, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B. [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Putzier, M.; Fuchs, M. [Department of Spine Surgery, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Objectives: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a recent development for detecting bone marrow edema (BME) in patients with vertebral compression fractures. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the reliability of single-source DECT in detecting vertebral BME using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Materials and methods: Nine patients with radiographic thoracic or lumbar vertebral compression fractures underwent both, DECT on a 320-row single-source scanner and 1.5 T MRI. Virtual non-calcium (VNC) images were reconstructed from the DECT volume datasets. Three blinded readers independently scored images for the presence of BME. Only vertebrae with loss of height in radiography (target vertebrae) were included in the analysis. A vertebra was counted as positive if two readers agreed on the presence of BME. Cohen’s kappa was calculated for interrater comparison. Intervertebral ratios of target and the reference vertebra were compared for CT attenuation and MR signal intensity in a reference vertebra using Spearman correlation. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Results: Fourteen target vertebrae with a radiographic height loss were identified; eight of them showed BME on MRI, while DECT identified BME in 7 instances. There were no false positive virtual non-calcium images, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.88 (0.75–1.0 among all readers) and specificity of 1.0 (0.81–1.0). Interrater agreement was inferior for DECT (κ = 0.63–0.89) compared to MRI (κ = 0.9–1.0). Intervertebral ratio in VNC images strongly correlated with short-tau inversion recovery (r = 0.87) and inversely with T1 (-0.89). SNR (0.2 +/− 0.2 in VNC and 16.7 +/− 7.3 in STIR) and CNR (0.2 +/− 0.3 and 7.1 +/− 6.3) values were inferior in VNC. Conclusions: Detecting BME with single-source DECT is feasible and allows detection of vertebral compression fractures with reasonably high sensitivity and specificity

  9. Avaliação do impacto na infestação por Aedes aegypti em tanques de cimento do município de Canindé, Ceará, Brasil, após a utilização do peixe Betta splendens como alternativa de controle biológico Evaluation of the impact on Aedes aegypti infestation in cement tanks of the municipal district of Canindé, Ceará, Brazil after using the Betta splendens fish as an alternative biological control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Góes Cavalcanti Pamplona

    2004-10-01

    clearly demonstrated, by achieving a 320 times reduction in the infestation level.

  10. Recent developments using TowerJazz SiGe BiCMOS platform for mmWave and THz applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Howard, David; Preisler, Edward J.; Racanelli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we report on the highest speed 240GHz/340GHz FT/FMAX NPN which is now available for product designs in the SBC18H4 process variant of TowerJazz's mature 0.18μm SBC18 silicon germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technology platform. NFMIN of ~2dB at 50GHz has been obtained with these NPNs. We also describe the integration of earlier generation NPNs with FT/FMAX of 240GHz/280GHz into SBC13H3, a 0.13μm SiGe BiCMOS technology platform. Next, we detail the integration of the deep silicon via (DSV), through silicon via (TSV), high-resistivity substrate, sub-field stitching and hybrid-stitching capability into the 0.18μm SBC18 technology platform to enable higher performance and highly integrated product designs. The integration of SBC18H3 into a thick-film SOI substrate, with essentially unchanged FT and FMAX, is also described. We also report on recent circuit demonstrations using the SBC18H3 platform: (1) a 4-element phased-array 70-100GHz broadband transmit and receive chip with flat saturated power greater than 5dBm and conversion gain of 33dB; (2) a fully integrated W-band 9-element phase-controllable array with responsivity of 800MV/W and receiver NETD is 0.45K with 20ms integration time; (3) a 16-element 4x4 phased-array transmitter with scanning in both the E- and H-planes with maximum EIRP of 23-25 dBm at 100-110GHz; (4) a power efficient 200GHz VCO with -7.25dBm output power and tuning range of 3.5%; and (5) a 320GHz 16-element imaging receiver array with responsivity of 18KV/W at 315GHz, a 3dB bandwidth of 25GHz and a low NEP of 34pW/Hz1/2. Wafer-scale large-die implementation of the phased-arrays and mmWave imagers using stitching in TowerJazz SBC18 process are also discussed.

  11. Whole-heart 320-row computed tomography. Reduction of radiation dose via prior coronary calcium scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, E.; Dewey, M. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: The whole heart can be scanned in one rotation using 320-row coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), which covers up to 16 cm. Since most hearts are smaller, the total radiation dose may be reduced by adjusting the CCTA range to the individual heart size defined on a low-dose calcium scan (CACS). Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients with suspected coronary artery disease (13 women, 32 men; mean 61 {+-} 10 years) underwent CCTA preceded by low-dose CACS on a 320-row scanner (Aquilion ONE, Toshiba; 0.35 s gantry rotation, 120 kV, 350 - 450 mA) with 16-cm z-axis coverage (120 kV, 150 mA). The subsequent CCTA was performed over an adjusted scan range calculated as the individual heart size on CACS ({+-} 1 cm above and below). The total radiation dose of 16-cm CACS and the individually adjusted CCTA was compared with that of a calculated single CCTA using full 16-cm z-axis coverage. Results: CCTA could be performed with a reduced scan length in the z-axis in all patients. None of the scans had to be performed over the whole range of 16 cm. The adjusted scan length was 14 cm in 2 patients, 12.8 cm in 3 patients, and 12 cm in 40 patients. The effective CCTA scan range was 12.1 {+-} 0.5 cm based on mean individual heart sizes of 9.6 {+-} 1.1 cm. The mean total effective radiation dose of the entire cardiac CT examination (individually adapted CCTA and CACS) was significantly smaller than the exposure calculated for 16-cm CCTA without CACS (8.5 {+-} 4.7 vs. 9.1 {+-} 6.0 mSv, p = 0.006). The dose reduction was most relevant in patients with heart rates above 65 beats/min (n = 10) in whom 2 or 3 heartbeats were necessary for CCTA (17.7 {+-} 6.5 vs. 21.1 {+-} 8.4 mSv, p = 0.001). Conclusion: 320-row CCTA with an individually adjusted scan range based on prior CACS significantly reduces the radiation exposure compared with full 16-cm CCTA. (orig.)

  12. Visible light induced changes in the immune response through an eye-brain mechanism (photoneuroimmunology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J E

    1995-07-01

    The immune system is susceptible to a variety of stresses. Recent work in neuroimmunology has begun to define how mood alteration, stress, the seasons, and daily rhythms can have a profound effect on immune response through hormonal modifications. Central to these factors may be light through an eye-brain hormonal modulation. In adult primates, only visible light (400-700 nm) is received by the retina. This photic energy is then transduced and delivered to the visual cortex and by an alternative pathway to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN is a part of the hypothalamic region in the brain believed to direct circadian rhythm. Visible light exposure also modulates the pituitary and pineal gland which leads to neuroendocrine changes. Melatonin, norepinephrine and acetylcholine decrease with light activation, while cortisol, serotonin, gaba and dopamine levels increase. The synthesis of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in rat SCN has been shown to be modified by light. These induced neuroendocrine changes can lead to alterations in mood and circadian rhythm. All of these neuroendocrine changes can lead to immune modulation. An alternative pathway for immune modulation by light is through the skin. Visible light (400-700 nm) can penetrate epidermal and dermal layers of the skin and may directly interact with circulating lymphocytes to modulate immune function. However, even in the presence of phototoxic agents such as eosin and rose bengal, visible light did not produce suppression of contact hypersensitivity with suppresser cells. In contrast to visible light, in vivo exposure to UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation can only alter normal human immune function by a skin mediated response. Each UV subgroup (B, A) induces an immunosuppressive response but by differing mechanisms involving the regulation of differing interleukins and growth factors. Some effects observed in humans are

  13. Non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, R.M.; Pourzand, C.; Zhong, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The ultraviolet A (320 - 380 nm) component of sunlight generates an oxidative stress in skin which contributes to both the acute (sunburn) and chronic (aging, skin cancer) effects of sunlight. The damaging effects occur via generation of active oxygen species and will be exacerbated by the presence of catalytically reactive iron so that the observation that UVA radiation causes an immediate release of 'free' iron in human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes via the proteolysis of ferritin is likely to be biologically significant. UVA radiation also breaks down heme-containing proteins in the microsomal membrane to release free heme. The well-characterised activation of heme oxygenase 1 by UVA radiation will lead to breakdown of heme and further release of iron. Overall these interactions generate a strong oxidative stress on cells. Both the basal and UVA-induced levels of labile iron are 2-4 times higher in fibroblasts than keratinocytes and this is consistent with the higher resistance of keratinocytes to UVA-induced necrotic cell death. Modulating cellular iron levels by hemin (to enhance the levels) or iron chelators (to reduce the levels) has the predicted effect on levels of necrotic cell death. Overall these studies further illustrate the potent oxidising nature of UVA radiation. A series of genes activated by UVA radiation including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), ferritin and superoxide dismutase (SOD) may be involved in protection against the damaging effects of this oxidising carcinogen. HO will act by removing free heme and possibly by promoting the efflux of free iron, ferritin will bind free iron and SOD will remove superoxide anion. The strong response of HO-1 to oxidants in human skin fibroblasts provides a useful molecular model to study this inducible enzyme which appears to play a major role in anti-inflammatory activity in mammals and could play a significant role in preventing atherosclerosis. Several indirect lines of evidence support the role of UVA

  14. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chiew-Yen; Teoh, Ming-Li; Phang, Siew-Moi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237), temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248) and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001) environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320–400 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A) and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280–320 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek) and light harvesting efficiency (α) were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k) and repair (r) rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r) mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  15. Changes in activation energy and kinetics of heat-activated persulfate oxidation of phenol in response to changes in pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Li, Haiyan; Chi, Liping; Chen, Hongkun; Chen, Changzhao

    2017-12-01

    Persulfate (peroxydisulfate, S 2 O 8 2- ) is the newest oxidant used for the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) remediation of soil and groundwater. The present study investigated impacts of solution pH, temperature, and persulfate concentration on the reaction rate constant (k 1 ), activation energy (E a ), and reaction order of the heat-activated persulfate process. Phenol was chosen as the model organic contaminant. As temperature increased from 30 °C to 70 °C, k 1 exhibited a significant increase from 0.003 h -1 ∼0.962 h -1 (pH 1.3-13.9) to 1.184 h -1 ∼9.91 h -1 (pH 1.3-13.9), which corroborated with the activation of persulfate using heat. As pH increased from 1.3 to 13.9, k 1 exhibited a 4.3-fold increase at 70 °C and a 320-fold increase at 30 °C, thereby suggesting that: 1) the phenol oxidation rate increased under alkaline conditions, and 2) the enhancement of reaction rate due to alkaline activation was more pronounced at a lower temperature. Increasing pH significantly reduced E a from 139.7 ± 1.3 kJ/mol at pH 1.3 to 52.0 ± 3.3 kJ/mol at pH 13.9. In contrast to changing pH, increasing persulfate concentration from 20 to 320 mM significantly increased k 1 but did not affect E a . Changes in E a suggest that persulfate oxidation of phenol experienced different reaction pathways or elementary reaction sequences as the pH changed from 1.3 to 13.9. In addition, the k 1 and E a data also suggest that a minimal pH threshold of ∼11 was required for the effective alkaline activation of persulfate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of free radicals and stress signalling in persistent genomic instability induced by long wavelength UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipson, R.; McMillan, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Induction of persistent genomic instability has commonly been investigated with ionising radiation. It has been characterised as a decrease in plating efficiency, and an increase in chromosomal aberrations and mutation frequency in the progeny of cells that survive the initial irradiation. We now present data demonstrating the phenomenon following exposure to long-wavelength solar UV-A (320-400nm) radiation at environmentally relevant doses. Using the spontaneously immortalised human skin keratinocyte line, HaCaT, we observed a significant decrease in plating efficiency (77 +/- 2% of control), and increase in micronuclei (2.5 fold) and mutation frequency (2 fold), 7 days after the initial radiation insult. Modification of UV-A-induced instability by incubation with exogenous catalase implicated reactive oxygen species (ROS), in-particular hydrogen peroxide, in the production and/or maintenance of the phenomenon. Assessment of anti-oxidant enzymes revealed a significant increase in glutathione-s-transferase activity (158 +/- 4% of control) at day 7 in the irradiated cell population, which was inhibited by incubation with exogenous catalase (97 +/- 3%), providing further evidence for an ROS-mediated pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of UV-A-induced micronuclei at day 7 by the flavonoid-containing-protein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) indicates that the NADPH oxidase family of enzymes may be involved in this phenomenon. Measurement of superoxide production by the cytochrome c reduction assay revealed that the irradiated cell population produce 50% more superoxide than the unirradiated controls, and that incubation with DPI led to a preferential reduction in superoxide production in the UV-A treated population at day 7. Finally, NADPH oxidase activity is increased significantly over controls in UV-A-treated cells. These data demonstrate that oxidative stress, analogous to that produced by ionising radiation, induces persistent genomic instability through a

  17. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew-Yen Wong

    Full Text Available Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR, have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237, temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248 and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm, PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm radiation (PAR + UV-A and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek and light harvesting efficiency (α were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k and repair (r rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  18. Radiation hardness assessment of the charge-integrating hybrid pixel detector JUNGFRAU 1.0 for photon science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmann-Smith, J. H., E-mail: jsmith@magnet.fsu.edu; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jaggi, A.; Maliakal, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, Ch.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Cartier, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETHZ, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Medjoubi, K. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin–BP 48, 91192 GIF-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2015-12-15

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 10{sup 4} photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm{sup 2} pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 × 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm{sup 2}. Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines.

  19. Modifying effects of 5-azacytidine on metal-containing proteins profile in Guerin carcinoma with different sensitivity to cytostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhun, V F; Lozovska, Y V; Naleskina, L A; Borikun, T V; Burlaka, A P; Todor, I N; Demash, D V; Yalovenko, T M; Zadvornyi, T V; Pavlova, A O; Storchay, D M; Lukianova, N Yu

    2016-12-01

    To assess the influence of the treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-aza) on the profile of metal-containing proteins and factors of their regulation in Guerin carcinoma cells in vivo. The study was conducted on Wistar rats transplanted with wild-type Guerin carcinoma (Guerin/WT) and its strains resistant to cisplatin (Guerin/CP) or doxorubicin (Guerin/Dox). Animals were distributed in 6 groups treated with 5-aza and control animals without treatment. 5-Aza was injected by i.v. route (1 injection in 4 days at a dose of 2 mg/kg starting from the 4 th day after tumor transplantation, 4 injections in total). Ferritin levels in blood serum and tumor tissue were measured by ELISA, transferrin and free iron complexes - by low-temperature EPR, miRNA-200b, -133a and -320a levels and promoter methylation - by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The study has shown that 5-aza treatment caused demethylation of promoter regions of fth1 and tfr1 genes in all studied Guerin carcinoma strains. 5-Aza treatment resulted in a significant decrease of ferritin levels in tumor tissue (by 32.1% in Guerin/WT strain, by 29.8% in Guerin/Dox and by 69.1% in Guerin/CP). These events were accompanied by 3.5-fold and 2-fold increase of free iron complexes levels in tumor tissue of doxorubicin and cisplatin resistant strains, respectively. Also, 5-aza treatment resulted in significantly elevated levels of miR-200b, -133a, 320a expression in tumor tissue. After 5-aza treatment, ferritin levels in blood serum of animals with Guerin/Dox were increased by 23.9%, while in Guerin/Wt and Guerin/CP they were decreased by 17 and 16%, respectively. Alterations of epigenetic regulation upon in vivo treatment with 5-aza change the levels of metal-containing proteins due to DNA demethylation and altered miRNA expression profiles in Guerin carcinoma cells.

  20. Nitride-based Quantum-Confined Structures for Ultraviolet-Visible Optical Devices on Silicon Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2017-04-01

    III–V nitride quantum-confined structures embedded in nanowires (NWs), also known as quantum-disks-in-nanowires (Qdisks-in-NWs), have recently emerged as a new class of nanoscale materials exhibiting outstanding properties for optoelectronic devices and systems. It is promising for circumventing the technology limitation of existing planar epitaxy devices, which are bounded by the lattice-, crystal-structure-, and thermal- matching conditions. This work presents significant advances in the growth of good quality GaN, InGaN and AlGaN Qdisks-in-NWs based on careful optimization of the growth parameters, coupled with a meticulous layer structure and active region design. The NWs were grown, catalyst-free, using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on silicon (Si) substrates. A 2-step growth scheme was developed to achieve high areal density, dislocation free and vertically aligned NWs on Ti/Si substrates. Numerical modeling of the NWs structures, using the nextnano3 software, showed reduced polarization fields, and, in the presence of Qdisks, exhibited improved quantum-confinement; thus contributing to high carrier radiative-recombination rates. As a result, based on the growth and device structure optimization, the technologically challenging orange and yellow NWs light emitting devices (LEDs) targeting the ‘green-yellow’ gap were demonstrated on scalable, foundry compatible, and low-cost Ti coated Si substrates. The NWs work was also extended to LEDs emitting in the ultraviolet (UV) range with niche applications in environmental cleaning, UV-curing, medicine, and lighting. In this work, we used a Ti (100 nm) interlayer and Qdisks to achieve good quality AlGaN based UV-A (320 - 400 nm) device. To address the issue of UV-absorbing polymer, used in the planarization process, we developed a pendeo-epitaxy technique, for achieving an ultra-thin coalescence of the top p-GaN contact layer, for a self-planarized Qdisks-in-NWs UV-B (280 – 320 nm) LED grown

  1. Dual-energy CT virtual non-calcium technique for detection of bone marrow edema in patients with vertebral fractures: A prospective feasibility study on a single- source volume CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekhoff, T.; Hermann, K.G.; Pumberger, M.; Hamm, B.; Putzier, M.; Fuchs, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a recent development for detecting bone marrow edema (BME) in patients with vertebral compression fractures. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the reliability of single-source DECT in detecting vertebral BME using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Materials and methods: Nine patients with radiographic thoracic or lumbar vertebral compression fractures underwent both, DECT on a 320-row single-source scanner and 1.5 T MRI. Virtual non-calcium (VNC) images were reconstructed from the DECT volume datasets. Three blinded readers independently scored images for the presence of BME. Only vertebrae with loss of height in radiography (target vertebrae) were included in the analysis. A vertebra was counted as positive if two readers agreed on the presence of BME. Cohen’s kappa was calculated for interrater comparison. Intervertebral ratios of target and the reference vertebra were compared for CT attenuation and MR signal intensity in a reference vertebra using Spearman correlation. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Results: Fourteen target vertebrae with a radiographic height loss were identified; eight of them showed BME on MRI, while DECT identified BME in 7 instances. There were no false positive virtual non-calcium images, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.88 (0.75–1.0 among all readers) and specificity of 1.0 (0.81–1.0). Interrater agreement was inferior for DECT (κ = 0.63–0.89) compared to MRI (κ = 0.9–1.0). Intervertebral ratio in VNC images strongly correlated with short-tau inversion recovery (r = 0.87) and inversely with T1 (-0.89). SNR (0.2 +/− 0.2 in VNC and 16.7 +/− 7.3 in STIR) and CNR (0.2 +/− 0.3 and 7.1 +/− 6.3) values were inferior in VNC. Conclusions: Detecting BME with single-source DECT is feasible and allows detection of vertebral compression fractures with reasonably high sensitivity and specificity

  2. Dual-energy CT virtual non-calcium technique for detection of bone marrow edema in patients with vertebral fractures: A prospective feasibility study on a single- source volume CT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhoff, T; Hermann, K G; Pumberger, M; Hamm, B; Putzier, M; Fuchs, M

    2017-02-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a recent development for detecting bone marrow edema (BME) in patients with vertebral compression fractures. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the reliability of single-source DECT in detecting vertebral BME using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Nine patients with radiographic thoracic or lumbar vertebral compression fractures underwent both, DECT on a 320-row single-source scanner and 1.5T MRI. Virtual non-calcium (VNC) images were reconstructed from the DECT volume datasets. Three blinded readers independently scored images for the presence of BME. Only vertebrae with loss of height in radiography (target vertebrae) were included in the analysis. A vertebra was counted as positive if two readers agreed on the presence of BME. Cohen's kappa was calculated for interrater comparison. Intervertebral ratios of target and the reference vertebra were compared for CT attenuation and MR signal intensity in a reference vertebra using Spearman correlation. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Fourteen target vertebrae with a radiographic height loss were identified; eight of them showed BME on MRI, while DECT identified BME in 7 instances. There were no false positive virtual non-calcium images, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.88 (0.75-1.0 among all readers) and specificity of 1.0 (0.81-1.0). Interrater agreement was inferior for DECT (κ=0.63-0.89) compared to MRI (κ=0.9-1.0). Intervertebral ratio in VNC images strongly correlated with short-tau inversion recovery (r=0.87) and inversely with T1 (-0.89). SNR (0.2+/- 0.2 in VNC and 16.7+/- 7.3 in STIR) and CNR (0.2+/- 0.3 and 7.1+/- 6.3) values were inferior in VNC. Detecting BME with single-source DECT is feasible and allows detection of vertebral compression fractures with reasonably high sensitivity and specificity. However, image quality of VNC reconstructions has to be improved to achieve better

  3. Mechanical Design of High Lift Systems for High Aspect Ratio Swept Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center is working to develop a methodology for the optimization and design of the high lift system for future subsonic airliners with the involvement of two partners. Aerodynamic analysis methods for two dimensional and three dimensional wing performance with flaps and slats deployed are being developed through a grant with the aeronautical department of the University of California Davis, and a flap and slat mechanism design procedure is being developed through a contract with PKCR, Inc., of Seattle, WA. This report documents the work that has been completed in the contract with PKCR on mechanism design. Flap mechanism designs have been completed for seven (7) different mechanisms with a total of twelve (12) different layouts all for a common single slotted flap configuration. The seven mechanisms are as follows: Simple Hinge, Upside Down/Upright Four Bar Linkage (two layouts), Upside Down Four Bar Linkages (three versions), Airbus A330/340 Link/Track Mechanism, Airbus A320 Link/Track Mechanism (two layouts), Boeing Link/Track Mechanism (two layouts), and Boeing 767 Hinged Beam Four Bar Linkage. In addition, a single layout has been made to investigate the growth potential from a single slotted flap to a vane/main double slotted flap using the Boeing Link/Track Mechanism. All layouts show Fowler motion and gap progression of the flap from stowed to a fully deployed position, and evaluations based on spanwise continuity, fairing size and number, complexity, reliability and maintainability and weight as well as Fowler motion and gap progression are presented. For slat design, the options have been limited to mechanisms for a shallow leading edge slat. Three (3) different layouts are presented for maximum slat angles of 20 deg, 15 deg and 1O deg all mechanized with a rack and pinion drive similar to that on the Boeing 757 airplane. Based on the work of Ljungstroem in Sweden, this type of slat design appears to shift the lift curve so that

  4. TH-AB-207A-11: Anatomical and Functional Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease Using Low-Dose Whole-Organ Dynamic Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, L; Ziemer, B; Lipinski, J; Malkasian, S; Sadeghi, B; Javan, H; Dertli, B; Groves, EM; Molloi, S [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a low-dose, first-pass-analysis (FPA) dynamic computed tomography angiography and perfusion (CTAP) technique, for whole-organ anatomical and functional assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: An angioplasty balloon was advanced into the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery of five swine (35–45 kg) to induce several levels of stenosis at maximal hyperemia (intracoronary adenosine, 240 µg/min). Reference fluorescence microspheres and intravenous contrast (370 mg/mL iodine, 25 mL, 7 mL/s) were injected centrally and dynamic imaging was performed using a 320-slice CT scanner at 100 kVp and 200 mA. Twenty volume scans were acquired per stenosis level to capture complete aortic and myocardial enhancement curves, but only two volume scans were used for whole-organ dynamic FPA CTAP measurement. All CTAP measurements in the LAD were compared to the reference microsphere perfusion measurements using linear regression, concordance correlation, and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: The result of dynamic FPA CTAP measurement in the LAD was in good agreement with the reference microsphere perfusion measurement (P-CTAP = 1.01 P-MICRO + 0.16, R{sup 2} = 0.95). The root mean square error (RMSE) and difference (RMSD) of measurement were 0.51 mL/min/g and 0.47 mL/min/g, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated negligible systematic measurement bias. Additionally, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was found to be ρ = 0.97, indicating excellent agreement between dynamic FPA CTAP measurement and the reference microsphere perfusion measurement. Lastly, the effective dose of the proposed technique using the “simulated” two-volume scan CTAP acquisition protocol was 2.6 mSv; much lower than the ∼10 mSv effective dose of current dynamic CTP techniques alone. Conclusion: The results indicate the potential for significant improvements in CAD assessment through low-dose, quantitative dynamic FPA CTAP. Such

  5. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 μmol m -2 s -1 ) or high PAR (HL; 800 μmol m -2 s -1 ). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F v /F max and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.)

  6. AVALIAÇÃO DAS BOAS PRÁTICAS EM UNIDADE DE ALIMENTAÇÃO E NUTRIÇÃO NO MUNICÍPIO DE CONTAGEM-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackline Freitas Brilhante de SÃO JOSÉ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As unidades de alimentação e nutrição são responsáveis pelo fornecimento de refeições balanceadas e dentro de condições higiênico-sanitárias satisfatórias. Com este estudo, objetivou-se avaliar as condições físicas e higiênico-sanitárias em uma unidade de alimentação e nutrição institucional quanto ao atendimento a regulamentos federais sobre boas práticas. Foi realizado estudo transversal em uma Unidade de Alimentação e Nutrição institucional que distribuía 320 refeições por dia. Para avaliação utilizou-se a lista de verifi cação proposta no Anexo II da Resolução RDC 275/2002. O controle de temperatura das preparações e dos equipamentos foi realizado utilizando planilha de controle da própria unidade. A avaliação por blocos evidenciou que o maior percentual de adequação foi verifi cado no bloco manipuladores e o maior percentual de inadequação, no bloco documentação. Quanto à avaliação das preparações, as quentes apresentaram melhor adequa- ção no que se refere a temperaturas analisadas, destacando o resultado obtido para o arroz e o feijão, que atingiram 100% de adequação. Temperaturas inferiores a 60ºC foram identifi cadas para guarnição, prato principal e opção. Para as preparações frias, especifi camente saladas, foram detectadas inadequações, considerando o valor inferior a 10ºC como temperatura aceitável. Entre os equipamentos quentes de distribuição, o balcão foi o que apresentou maior percentual de adequação no turno do almoço e jantar (100%. Assim, a UAN obteve 75% de adequação, considerando o total de itens aplicáveis, e, por meio do critério empregado, fi cou classifi cada no Grupo 2. A correção das inadequações é necessária para garantir a segurança na produção de refei- ções oferecidas pela unidade.

  7. Improved dynamic CT angiography visualization by flow territory masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Christensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Purpose: Computerized tomography (CT perfusion (or CTP source images from CT scanners with small detector widths can be used to create a dynamic CT angiogram (CTA similar to digital subtraction angiography (DSA. Because CTP studies use a single intravenous injection, all arterial territories enhance simultaneously, and individual arterial territories [i.e., anterior cerebral artery (ACA, middle cerebral artery (MCA, and posterior cerebral artery (PCA] cannot be delineated. This limits the ability to assess collateral flow patterns on dynamic CTAs. The aim of this study was to devise and test a postprocessing method to selectively color-label the major arterial territories on dynamic CTA. Materials and Methods: We identified 22 acute-stroke patients who underwent CTP on a 320-slice CT scanner within 6 h from symptom onset. For each case, two investigators independently generated an arterial territory map from CTP bolus arrival maps using a semiautomated method. The volumes of the arterial territories were calculated for each map and the average relative difference between these volumes was calculated for each case as a measure of interrater agreement. Arterial territory maps were superimposed on the dynamic CTA to create a vessel-selective dynamic CTA with color-coding of the main arterial territories. Two experts rated the arterial territory maps and the color-coded CTAs for consistency with expected arterial territories on a 3-point scale (excellent, moderate, poor. Results: Arterial territory maps were generated for all 22 patients. The median difference in arterial territory volumes between investigators was 2.2% [interquartile range (IQR 0.6-8.5%]. Based on expert review, the arterial territory maps and the vessel-selective dynamic CTAs showed excellent consistency with the expected arterial territories in 18 of 22 patients, moderate consistency in 2 patients, and poor consistency in another 2 patients. Conclusion: Using a

  8. Investigation of lung nodule detectability in low-dose 320-slice computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Paul, N. S.; Siewerdsen, J. H. [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C6 (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Low-dose imaging protocols in chest CT are important in the screening and surveillance of suspicious and indeterminate lung nodules. Techniques that maintain nodule detectability yet permit dose reduction, particularly for large body habitus, were investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which radiation dose can be minimized while maintaining diagnostic performance through knowledgeable selection of reconstruction techniques. A 320-slice volumetric CT scanner (Aquilion ONE, Toshiba Medical Systems) was used to scan an anthropomorphic phantom at doses ranging from {approx}0.1 mGy up to that typical of low-dose CT (LDCT, {approx}5 mGy) and diagnostic CT ({approx}10 mGy). Radiation dose was measured via Farmer chamber and MOSFET dosimetry. The phantom presented simulated nodules of varying size and contrast within a heterogeneous background, and chest thickness was varied through addition of tissue-equivalent bolus about the chest. Detectability of a small solid lung nodule (3.2 mm diameter, -37 HU, typically the smallest nodule of clinical significance in screening and surveillance) was evaluated as a function of dose, patient size, reconstruction filter, and slice thickness by means of nine-alternative forced-choice (9AFC) observer tests to quantify nodule detectability. For a given reconstruction filter, nodule detectability decreased sharply below a threshold dose level due to increased image noise, especially for large body size. However, nodule detectability could be maintained at lower doses through knowledgeable selection of (smoother) reconstruction filters. For large body habitus, optimal filter selection reduced the dose required for nodule detection by up to a factor of {approx}3 (from {approx}3.3 mGy for sharp filters to {approx}1.0 mGy for the optimal filter). The results indicate that radiation dose can be reduced below the current low-dose (5 mGy) and ultralow-dose (1 mGy) levels with knowledgeable selection of

  9. Technetium Sorption By Cementitious Materials Under Reducing Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Estes, Shanna L.; Arai, Yuji; Powell, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    more representative K d and solubility values under these experimental conditions. The purpose of this revision is to correct K d values reported in the original document. This document reports results for the first 56 days of a 319 day experiment. After the experiment had finished and all the data were compiled for QA/QC analysis, a mistake in the K d calculations was found. The K d values reported in revision 0 of this report were essentially one order of magnitude higher than the actual values. In this revision, the text references to K d values have been updated along with the data in Figure 2 and Appendix B. Between the time the original document was issued, Janurary 2012, and this document was issued, a final report (Estes et al. 2012; SRNL-STI-2012-00596, Rev. 0) describing all the corrected data for the 319 day experiment was issued. This document does not contain any data that is not already reported in the final report (SRNL-STI-2012-00596, Rev. 0)

  10. Prevalence of intestinal microsporidiosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patients with diarrhea in major United States cities Prevalência de microsporidiose intestinal em pacientes infectados pelo HIV com diarréia nas principais cidades dos Estados Unidos da América do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Dworkin

    2007-12-01

    meses do diagnóstico de microsporidiose foi de 33 células/microlitro (3 a 319 células/microlitro. A análise da base de dados nacional (n = 24.098 mostrou uma prevalência de microsporidiose de 0,16%. A prevalência de microsporidiose em pacientes HIV-positivos com diarréia é baixa. Entretando, como a microsporidiose é mais frequentemente diagnosticada em pacientes com contagens de CD4 muito baixas, a indicação de pesquisa de microsporídios é justificada, especialmente para estes pacientes.

  11. Produtividade da couve-flor em função da idade de transplantio das mudas e tamanhos de células na bandeja Cauliflower production depending on age of seedling and cell size of the trays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Godoy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado de novembro de 2000 a abril de 2001, na UNESP em São Manuel (SP. Estudou-se o efeito do tamanho da célula da bandeja de poliestireno expandido e a idade de transplantio das mudas sobre a produção de couve-flor, híbrido Shiromaru II. Usaram-se bandejas com 128 e 288 células, correspondentes a 34,6 e 9,7 cm³/célula, respectivamente, e mudas transplantadas aos 27, 34, 41 e 48 dias após a semeadura. Os tratamentos foram arranjados como fatorial 2 x 4, dispostos no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Foram avaliados, por ocasião do transplantio, o número de folhas, peso fresco, peso seco e área foliar das mudas. A parcela experimental no campo foi constituída por dez plantas. Nas colheitas, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de plantas com cabeça comercial e nestas, o número de folhas, peso fresco e diâmetro da cabeça. A produção total por parcela foi obtida com a soma do peso fresco de todas as cabeças consideradas comerciais. A produção de mudas em bandejas com 128 células proporcionou maior porcentagem de plantas comerciais (64% relativamente às bandejas com 288 células (45%, maior peso médio de cabeça (337 g na bandeja com 128 e 247 g na bandeja com 288 células e maior produção de plantas comerciais (36,9 t/ha em bandeja de 128 células e 19,9 t/ha em bandeja de 288 células. As mudas transplantadas com 32 dias apresentaram maior peso médio de cabeça (319 g. Concluiu-se ser recomendável produzir mudas de couve-flor em bandejas com 128 células.The experiment was carried out from November/2000 to April/2001, in São Manuel, São Paulo State, Brazil. The effect of cell size of two polyestyrene trays and age of seedling at transplanting date was observed, on the production of cauliflower, hybrid Shiromaru II. Trays with 128 and 288 cells, corresponding to 34.6 and 9.7 cm³/cell, respectively, were used with seedlings transplanted at 27; 34; 41 and 48 days after sowing date

  12. ZZ-CENPL, Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Parameter Library. ZZ CENPL-DLS, Discrete Level Schemes and Gamma Branching Ratios Library; ZZ CENPL-FBP, Fission Barrier Parameter Library; ZZ CENPL-GDRP, Giant Dipole Resonance Parameter Library; ZZ CENPL-NLD, Nuclear Level Density Parameter Library; ZZ CENPL-MCC, Nuclear Ground State Atomic Masses Library; ZZ CENPL-OMP, Optical Model Parameter Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zongdi

    1995-01-01

    Description of program or function: CENPL - GDRP (Giant Dipole Resonance Parameters for Gamma-Ray): - Format: special format described in documentation; - Nuclides: V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Lu, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Bi, Th, U, Np, Pu. - Origin: Experimental values offered by S.S. Dietrich and B.L. Berman. CENPL - FBP (Fission Barrier Parameter Sub-Library): - Format: special format described in documentation; - Nuclides: (1) 51 nuclei region from Th-230 to Cf-255, (2) 46 nuclei region from Th-229 to Cf-253, (3) 24 nuclei region from Pa-232 to Cf-253; - Origin: (1) Lynn, (2) Analysis of experimental data by Back et al., (3) Ohsawa. CENPL - DLS (Discrete level scheme and branch ratio of gamma decay: - Format: Special format described in documentation; - Origin: ENSDF - BNL. CENPL - NLD (Nuclear Level Density): - Format: Special format described in documentation; - Origin: Huang Zhongfu et al. CENPL - OMP (Optical model parameter sub-library): - Format: special format described in documentation ; - Origin: CENDL, ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3. CENPL - MC (I) and (II) (Atomic masses and characteristic constants for nuclear ground states) : - Format: Brief table format; - Nuclides: 4760 nuclides ranging from Z=0 A=1 to Z=122 A=318. - Origin: Experimental data and systematic results evaluated by Wapstra, theoretical results calculated by Moller, ENSDF - BNL and Nuclear Wallet Cards. CENPL contains the following six sub-libraries: 1. Atomic Masses and Characteristic Constants for nuclear ground states (MCC). This data consists of calculated and in most cases also measured mass excesses, atomic masses, total binding energies, spins, parities, and half-lives of nuclear ground states, abundances, etc. for 4800 nuclides. 2. Discrete Level Schemes and branching ratios of gamma decay (DLS). The data on nuclear discrete levels are based on the Evaluated

  13. A region-based segmentation method for ultrasound images in HIFU therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Yan; Xu, Menglong; Yan, Yu; Qin, Qianqing

    2016-01-01

    information about the tumor position, shape, and size. Additionally, an appropriate cluster number for spectral clustering can be determined by the same algorithm, thus the automatic segmentation of the tumor region is achieved. Results: To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, 50 uterine fibroid ultrasound images from different patients receiving HIFU therapy were segmented, and the obtained tumor contours were compared with those delineated by an experienced radiologist. For area-based evaluation results, the mean values of the true positive ratio, the false positive ratio, and the similarity were 94.42%, 4.71%, and 90.21%, respectively, and the corresponding standard deviations were 2.54%, 3.12%, and 3.50%, respectively. For distance-based evaluation results, the mean values of the normalized Hausdorff distance and the normalized mean absolute distance were 4.93% and 0.90%, respectively, and the corresponding standard deviations were 2.22% and 0.34%, respectively. The running time of the segmentation process was 12.9 s for a 318 × 333 (pixels) image. Conclusions: Experiments show that the proposed method can segment the tumor region accurately and efficiently with less manual intervention, which provides for the possibility of automatic segmentation and real-time guidance in HIFU therapy.

  14. A region-based segmentation method for ultrasound images in HIFU therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dong, E-mail: dongz@whu.edu.cn; Liu, Yu; Yang, Yan; Xu, Menglong; Yan, Yu [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Qin, Qianqing [State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-06-15

    information about the tumor position, shape, and size. Additionally, an appropriate cluster number for spectral clustering can be determined by the same algorithm, thus the automatic segmentation of the tumor region is achieved. Results: To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, 50 uterine fibroid ultrasound images from different patients receiving HIFU therapy were segmented, and the obtained tumor contours were compared with those delineated by an experienced radiologist. For area-based evaluation results, the mean values of the true positive ratio, the false positive ratio, and the similarity were 94.42%, 4.71%, and 90.21%, respectively, and the corresponding standard deviations were 2.54%, 3.12%, and 3.50%, respectively. For distance-based evaluation results, the mean values of the normalized Hausdorff distance and the normalized mean absolute distance were 4.93% and 0.90%, respectively, and the corresponding standard deviations were 2.22% and 0.34%, respectively. The running time of the segmentation process was 12.9 s for a 318 × 333 (pixels) image. Conclusions: Experiments show that the proposed method can segment the tumor region accurately and efficiently with less manual intervention, which provides for the possibility of automatic segmentation and real-time guidance in HIFU therapy.

  15. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  16. Sensitivity of winter phytoplankton communities from Andean lakes to artificial ultraviolet-B radiation Sensibilidad de comunidades fitoplanctónicas invernales de lagos andinos a la radiación ultravioleta-B artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. WALTER HELBLING

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During July of 1999 sampling was carried out in five Andean lakes to determine the sensitivity of winter phytoplankton communities to ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm. The studied lakes, Moreno, El Trébol, Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez, and Morenito, located in the Patagonia region (41° S, 71° W, 800 m of altitude, had attenuation coefficients for UV-B that ranged from 0.36 m-1 (Lake Moreno to 2.8 m-1 (Lake Morenito. The samples were inoculated with labeled carbon (NaH14CO3 and incubated in an illuminated chamber (UV-B = 0.35 W m-2, UV-A [320-400 nm] = 1.1 W m-2, and PAR [400-700 nm] = 10.8 W m-2 at 10 °C. The phytoplankton cells were exposed to UV radiation (280-400 nm + PAR (quartz tubes, and to UV-A + PAR (quartz tubes covered with Mylar-D. The total duration of the experiments was 4 h and two samples were taken from each treatment every hour. In lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Nahuel Huapi and Gutiérrez, the photosynthetic inhibition increased linearly with UV-B doses, while in Lake Morenito just a slight relationship was observed. After receiving a dose of 1.25 kJ m-2 (UV-B, phytoplankton from Lake Morenito had the highest cumulative photosynthetic inhibition (44 %, whereas in Lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Nahuel Huapi and Gutiérrez the inhibition was of 22, 11, 5, and 1 %, respectively. However, at the end of incubation period and after receiving doses of 5 kJ m-2, the most inhibited phytoplankton cells were from Lake Moreno (70 % and the most resistant (27 % was that from Lake Gutiérrez. The kinetics of inhibition was different in each lake, and transparent lakes, with higher proportion of large cells, had higher inhibition rates. The results suggest that an increase in UV-B radiation (e.g., produced by a decrease in stratospheric ozone would have a greater impact on microplankton from clear lakes, while pico- and nanoplankton from less transparent lakes will be less affectedDurante julio de 1999 se realizaron muestreos en cinco lagos

  17. Propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AZ31 procesada por una ruta eco-sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Errico, F.

    2013-12-01

    coladas y extruidas, y aleaciones procesadas por una ruta pulvimetalúrgica utilizando virutas (chips. Esto último tiene como objeto analizar la viabilidad de la reutilización de virutas para la fabricación de componentes de la industria del automóvil y del transporte en general. Se ha demostrado que los materiales fabricados a partir de virutas precompactadas son los más resistentes y la aleación con mayor concentración de CaO la que presenta los valores más altos de resistencia, cercanos a 320 MPa.

  18. Advances in detector technologies for visible and infrared wavefront sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Kolb, Johann; Rothman, Johan; Fusco, Thierry; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Destefanis, Gérard; Lhermet, Nicolas; Pacaud, Olivier; Vuillermet, Michel; Kerlain, Alexandre; Hubin, Norbert; Reyes, Javier; Kasper, Markus; Ivert, Olaf; Suske, Wolfgang; Walker, Andrew; Skegg, Michael; Derelle, Sophie; Deschamps, Joel; Robert, Clélia; Vedrenne, Nicolas; Chazalet, Frédéric; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Preis, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    detector with a readout noise of 3 e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate. The LGSD is a scaling of the NGSD with 1760x1680 pixels and 3 e readout noise (goal 1e) at 700 Hz (goal 1000 Hz) frame rate. New technologies will be developed for that purpose: advanced CMOS pixel architecture, CMOS back thinned and back illuminated device for very high QE, full digital outputs with signal digital conversion on chip. In addition, the CMOS technology is extremely robust in a telescope environment. Both detectors will be used on the European ELT but also interest potentially all giant telescopes under development. Additional developments also started for wavefront sensing in the infrared based on a new technological breakthrough using ultra low noise Avalanche Photodiode (APD) arrays within the RAPID project. Developed by the SOFRADIR and CEA/LETI manufacturers, the latter will offer a 320x240 8 outputs 30 microns IR array, sensitive from 0.4 to 3.2 microns, with 2 e readout noise at 1500 Hz frame rate. The high QE response is almost flat over this wavelength range. Advanced packaging with miniature cryostat using liquid nitrogen free pulse tube cryocoolers is currently developed for this programme in order to allow use on this detector in any type of environment. First results of this project are detailed here. These programs are held with several partners, among them are the French astronomical laboratories (LAM, OHP, IPAG), the detector manufacturers (e2v technologies, Sofradir, CEA/LETI) and other partners (ESO, ONERA, IAC, GTC). Funding is: Opticon FP6 and FP7 from European Commission, ESO, CNRS and Université de Provence, Sofradir, ONERA, CEA/LETI and the French FUI (DGCIS).

  19. IrLaW an OGC compliant infrared thermography measurement system developed on mini PC with real time computing capabilities for long term monitoring of transport infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, J.; Averty, R.

    2012-04-01

    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project is to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, uncooled infrared camera is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its relative low cost on the market. Infrared thermography, when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey), requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The system studied and developed uses a fast Ethernet camera FLIR A320 [1] coupled with a VAISALA WXT520 [2] weather station and a light GPS unit [3] for positioning and dating. It can be used with other Ethernet infrared cameras (i.e. visible ones) but requires to be able to access measured data at raw level. In the present study, it has been made possible thanks to a specific agreement signed with FLIR Company. The prototype system studied and developed is implemented on low cost small computer that integrates a GPU card to allow real time parallel computing [4] of simplified radiometric [5] heat balance using information measured with the weather station. An HMI was developed under Linux using OpenSource and complementary pieces of software developed at IFSTTAR. This new HMI called "IrLaW" has various functionalities that let it compliant to be use in

  20. Technical performance of the Villas Carrousel PV-Wind hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, J.; Munguia, G.; Flores, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Fifteen PV-Wind mini Hybrid Systems were installed at the Villas Carrousel Hotel. The first twelve were installed in December 1995. The remainder were installed during January 1997. The energy produced by the systems is used to provide the hotel illumination. Monitoring of the system`s performance has been carried out since 1996. Each system is integrated by a wind generator (Avispa) rated at 500 W, a PV array ranging from 150 to 320 Wp, an electronic control and a battery bank with capacities from 585 up to 780 Ah. The systems operate at 12 VDC and the energy produced is used through 12 V, 13 Watt high efficiency fluorescent lamps. The systems were designed to produce 140-180 Ah/day. During the first months of operation. Some problems arised with the battery voltage measurement. This parameter was formerly measured at the DC bus car of the control board. Some corrosion problems were detected there. This problem caused the undercharging of the battery banks, and in several cases abnormal operation of the wind generators were observed. In general the systems produce the energy demanded by the load. This first experience is helping to promote the Mini Hybrid technology in other applications. This paper presents some results from the system monitoring for the first year of operation that gives a general idea of the system performance. [Espanol] En el Hotel Villas Carrousel se instalaron 15 sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento. Los primeros doce se instalaron en diciembre de 1995. Los restantes se instalaron durante el mes de enero de 1997. La energia producida por los sistemas se usa para proporcionar la iluminacion del hotel. El monitoreo del rendimiento del sistema se ha llevado a cabo desde 1966. Cada sistema esta integrado por un aerogenerador (Avispa) con capacidad nominal de 500 W, en un arreglo fotovoltaico que varia de 150 a 320 Wp, un control electronico y un banco de baterias con capacidades desde 585 hasta 780 Ampere-horas. Los sistemas operan a 12 VCD y

  1. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils; Detección de la adulteración de aceite de oliva mediante relaxometría magnética nuclear de campo bajo y espectroscopía UV-Vis sobre mezcla de aceite de oliva con diversos aceites comestibles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, S.

    2017-07-01

    tiempo de relajación de magnetización transversal (T2) fueron completadas con funciones de decaimiento biexponencial. Los tiempos T2 determinados para cada mezcla de aceite de oliva con ricino y maíz cambian sistemáticamente conforme las relaciones volumétricas. Para detectar la adulteración de los aceites de oliva con aceites de almendra y de sésamo, se necesitan tanto relaxometría LF 1H RMN como la espectroscopía UV-Vis. En las mezclas de aceite de oliva arbequina con aceites de lino, maní, soja y girasol, ambos valores T21 y T22 se hicieron mayores sistemáticamente conforme el porcentaje de aceite de oliva se reduce en la mezcla. El máximo de absorbancia UV-Vis del aceite de lino a 320,0 nm demostrará la adulteración del aceite de oliva cualitativamente.

  2. Multi-Sensing system for outdoor thermal monitoring: Application to large scale civil engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Manceau, Jean-Luc; Perez, Laetitia; Bourquin, Frederic

    2014-05-01

    Aging of transport infrastructures combined with traffic and climatic solicitations contribute to the reduction of their performances. To address and quantify the resilience of civil engineering structure, investigations on robust, fast and efficient methods are required. Among research works carried out at IFSTTAR, methods for long term monitoring face an increasing demand. Such works take benefits of this last decade technological progresses in ICT domain. The present study follows the ISTIMES European project [1], which aimed at demonstrate the ability of different electromagnetic sensing techniques, processing methods and ICT architecture, to be used for long term monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. Thanks to this project a multi-sensing techniques system, able to date and synchronize measurements carried out by infrared thermography coupled with various measurements data (i.e. weather parameters), have been designed, developed and implemented on real site [2]. Among experiments carried out on real transport infrastructure, it has been shown, for the "Musmesci" bridge deck (Italy), that by using infrared thermal image sequence with weather measurements during sevral days it was possible to develop analysis methods able to produce qualitative and quantitative data [3]. In the present study, added functionalities were designed and added to the "IrLAW" system in order to reach full autonomy in term of power supply, very long term measurement capability (at least 1 year) and automated data base feeding. The surveyed civil engineering structures consist in two concrete beams of 16 m long and 21 T weight each. One of the two beams was damage by high energy mechanical impact at the IFSTTAR falling rocks test station facilities located in the French Alpes [4]. The system is composed of one IR uncooled microbolometric camera (FLIR SC325) with a 320X240 Focal Plane Array detector in band III, a weather station VAISALA WXT520, a GPS, a failover power supply

  3. PBS Plus Facebook: The Old And New Communication Of Climate Science (Please "Like" And "Share" This Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2012-12-01

    Traditional and innovative communications strategies were combined in "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM; writer & director Geoff Haines-Stiles, producer Erna Akuginow, presenter Richard Alley). We attempted both a clear and accessible presentation of some key essentials of current climate science and an experiment in new messaging and new media for outreach and education. ETOM is a 3-part TV series broadcast by PBS ("…one of the more interesting documentary series to come along in years", said the New York Times) and a 320 plus page tradebook, with 110 pages of footnotes referencing peer-reviewed science, published by Norton. But it's also a lively and growing Facebook page with a clear voice sharing positive examples of how renewable energy can reduce polluting emissions here in the US and worldwide, alongside headlines of climate science, and a website—relaunched for the 2012 Earth Day PBS broadcasts—where all three programs can be streamed, and teachers can register to download HD segments for classroom use. The TV programs were designed to offer a highly accessible statement of core climate science, literally explaining how ice cores show us today's climate is changing in ways not seen in the last 800,000 thousand years and why physics and chemistry let us know "It's Us" who are changing CO2 levels in the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels. But the project's outreach components also includes a "Science Pub" in a converted theater in Portland, where the audience consumes food, drink and climate science, and "Adventures of a Climate Scientist in the Age of Politics and Punditry," a dynamic live performance recorded for TV and the web. Messaging includes a Navy Rear Admiral in dress whites explaining why the Pentagon believes climate change is real, and scenes showing Marines and Army implementing solar technologies to enhance mission security and reduce their carbon bootprint. Similarly, outreach events at the North Carolina Museum of Natural

  4. Technical performance of the Villas Carrousel PV-Wind hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, J; Munguia, G; Flores, J R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Fifteen PV-Wind mini Hybrid Systems were installed at the Villas Carrousel Hotel. The first twelve were installed in December 1995. The remainder were installed during January 1997. The energy produced by the systems is used to provide the hotel illumination. Monitoring of the system`s performance has been carried out since 1996. Each system is integrated by a wind generator (Avispa) rated at 500 W, a PV array ranging from 150 to 320 Wp, an electronic control and a battery bank with capacities from 585 up to 780 Ah. The systems operate at 12 VDC and the energy produced is used through 12 V, 13 Watt high efficiency fluorescent lamps. The systems were designed to produce 140-180 Ah/day. During the first months of operation. Some problems arised with the battery voltage measurement. This parameter was formerly measured at the DC bus car of the control board. Some corrosion problems were detected there. This problem caused the undercharging of the battery banks, and in several cases abnormal operation of the wind generators were observed. In general the systems produce the energy demanded by the load. This first experience is helping to promote the Mini Hybrid technology in other applications. This paper presents some results from the system monitoring for the first year of operation that gives a general idea of the system performance. [Espanol] En el Hotel Villas Carrousel se instalaron 15 sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento. Los primeros doce se instalaron en diciembre de 1995. Los restantes se instalaron durante el mes de enero de 1997. La energia producida por los sistemas se usa para proporcionar la iluminacion del hotel. El monitoreo del rendimiento del sistema se ha llevado a cabo desde 1966. Cada sistema esta integrado por un aerogenerador (Avispa) con capacidad nominal de 500 W, en un arreglo fotovoltaico que varia de 150 a 320 Wp, un control electronico y un banco de baterias con capacidades desde 585 hasta 780 Ampere-horas. Los sistemas operan a 12 VCD y

  5. Introduction - Latin America and nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    For the second time in its history, the International Atomic Energy Agency is holding its General Conference in Latin America. The first was in Mexico City in September 1972; this September the Conference meets in Rio de Janeiro (in each case, the arrangement has been possible because of the very generous hospitality of the Host Government). Therefore, it is an appropriate occasion to devote a section of the IAEA Bulletin to nuclear energy in Latin America. The vast Latin American region presents many special opportunities for the introduction of nuclear science and technology. The first mission that the IAEA sent out, as far back as 1957, was to Latin America to promote co-operation in using radioisotope techniques. Today, these techniques are widely used by hospitals and medical research institutions throughout the region. Besides their medical applications, isotope techniques are also proving to be very useful in studying soils and irrigation, improving crops and livestock, and controlling insect pests. They also help make prudent use of the underground water resources in the region which, despite its bountiful rivers and tropical forests, includes many large arid areas. The major applications of nuclear technology have come only recently to Latin America, firstly in Argentina, where a 319 MW(e) nuclear power plant began operating at Atucha in 1974. It will soon be followed by the first Brazilian nuclear power plant - a 600 MW(e) light water plant at Angra dos Reis nearing completion. Argentina is building a second power plant at Embalse, and Brazil is planning two 1200 MW(e) plants at Angra and six more 1200 MW(e) units by 1990. Mexico is building its first nuclear plant at Laguna Verde, while other countries such as Chile and Colombia are planning the introduction of nuclear power. After a relatively slow start it, therefore, seems that nuclear power will go ahead fast in the Latin American region in the 1980's and 1990's. This is not surprising. Despite

  6. Introduction - Latin America and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    For the second time in its history, the International Atomic Energy Agency is holding its General Conference in Latin America. The first was in Mexico City in September 1972; this September the Conference meets in Rio de Janeiro (in each case, the arrangement has been possible because of the very generous hospitality of the Host Government). Therefore, it is an appropriate occasion to devote a section of the IAEA Bulletin to nuclear energy in Latin America. The vast Latin American region presents many special opportunities for the introduction of nuclear science and technology. The first mission that the IAEA sent out, as far back as 1957, was to Latin America to promote co-operation in using radioisotope techniques. Today, these techniques are widely used by hospitals and medical research institutions throughout the region. Besides their medical applications, isotope techniques are also proving to be very useful in studying soils and irrigation, improving crops and livestock, and controlling insect pests. They also help make prudent use of the underground water resources in the region which, despite its bountiful rivers and tropical forests, includes many large arid areas. The major applications of nuclear technology have come only recently to Latin America, firstly in Argentina, where a 319 MW(e) nuclear power plant began operating at Atucha in 1974. It will soon be followed by the first Brazilian nuclear power plant - a 600 MW(e) light water plant at Angra dos Reis nearing completion. Argentina is building a second power plant at Embalse, and Brazil is planning two 1200 MW(e) plants at Angra and six more 1200 MW(e) units by 1990. Mexico is building its first nuclear plant at Laguna Verde, while other countries such as Chile and Colombia are planning the introduction of nuclear power. After a relatively slow start it, therefore, seems that nuclear power will go ahead fast in the Latin American region in the 1980's and 1990's. This is not surprising. Despite

  7. Uranium occurrences and exploration experience in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, A.

    2010-01-01

    and a dip length of more than 2 km. After establishing a large-tonnage deposit in a small sector and in spite of a resource potential of more than 500,000 t U_3O_8, exploration activities in this province were discontinued because of inherent ore beneficiation problems associated with the deposit. During the period of India's technological isolation, sustained in-house efforts made possible the development of a new beneficiation technology to process the ore and this has resulted in renewal of large-scale exploration activities in this province. An underground mine and a mill are under construction for the exploitation of this deposit. In the early nineties, discovery of unconformity-related uranium mineralization in the Proterozoic Cuddapah basin has opened up opportunities for unconformity-related mineralization in thirteen other Proterozoic basins in India. Exploration in the fringe areas in the northwestern part of the Cuddapah basin has resulted in the establishment of four low-grade, low-tonnage unconformity-related deposits in the shallower fringe parts of the basin. All the four deposits have been discovered by ground radiometric surveys. The mineralization is likely to continue in the inner parts of the basin where the sediment thickness is of the order of 300-400 m and more. Ongoing airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys are expected to provide vital clues on the localization of uranium mineralization in the deeper parts of the basin. Similarly, the Proterozoic Bhima and Kaladgi basins in the state of Karnataka, whose uranium potentials have already been established, are being rigorously explored for unconformity-related mineralization. While a medium-grade, low-tonnage deposit has already been established in Bhima basin, interesting mineralization has been intercepted in boreholes of the Kaladgi basin. Extensive airborne EM and magnetic surveys are being carried out in these basins as well for vital clues on mineralization. A 320-km belt known as the

  8. Low grade uranium deposits of India - a bane or boon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    northern parts of Cuddapah basin in Andhra Pradesh is the host for unconformity related low grade uranium deposits. Four low grade low to medium tonnage deposits viz. Lambapur, Peddagattu, Chitrial and Koppunuru have been established in this province along the contact between basement granite and Proterozoic sedimentary rocks. This province also holds promise for large tonnage high grade mineralization in the deeper unexplored parts of the basin. The North Delhi Fold Belt in the states of Rajasthan and Haryana is the host for albitite/vein type uranium mineralization. A 320km long NE-SW trending zone of deep seated fractures and soda metasomatism hosted the low grade mineralization.. A low grade uranium deposit is already established at Rohil associated with albitites and vast areas in this zone is open for exploration. The Cigar lake deposit, one of the two very high grade deposits in the world, though discovered in the year 1991 remains unexploited because of it high grade and requirement of remote handling and high end mining technology. The Mc Arthur deposit is being mined by raisebore mining method and the entire operation is carried out by 750 employees. Because of the high grade nature of the ore, it is diluted with barren rocks to bring the grade into manageable level before the beneficiation. The Rossing uranium deposit in Namibia, the biggest opencast mine for uranium, is of low grade and produces nearly 8% of the global output. As a result of the massive mining and beneficiation operation, the employment of manpower is also very high compare to the high grade deposits. India, being a developing country with a high rate of unemployment, should treat the low grade deposits as an opportunity for employment. The operation of Rossing mine in Namibia is a shining example of as to how a low grade deposit could be economically exploited in the national interest and still be among the top five countries in terms of production. In spite of mining the low grade resources

  9. Water-level altitudes 2010 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973-2009 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Ramage, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    -foot rise (2009-10), from a 25-foot decline to a 35-foot rise (2005-10), from a 40-foot decline to an 80-foot rise (1990-2010), and from a 140-foot decline to a 200-foot rise (1977-2010). In 2010, water-level-altitude contours for the Evangeline aquifer ranged from 300 feet below datum in north-central Harris County to 200 feet above datum at the boundary of Waller, Montgomery, and Grimes Counties. Water-level-altitude changes in the Evangeline aquifer ranged from a 58-foot decline to a 69-foot rise (2009-10), from an 80-foot decline to an 80-foot rise (2005-10), from a 200-foot decline to a 220-foot rise (1990-2010), and from a 320-foot decline to a 220-foot rise (1977-2010). In 2010, water-level-altitude contours for the Jasper aquifer ranged from 200 feet below datum in south-central Montgomery County to 250 feet above datum in eastern-central Grimes County. Water-level-altitude changes in the Jasper aquifer ranged from a 39-foot decline to a 39-foot rise (2009-10), from a 110-foot decline to no change (2005-10), and from a 180-foot decline to no change (2000-10). Compaction of subsurface materials (mostly in the clay layers) composing the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers was recorded continuously at 13 borehole extensometers at 11 sites. For the period of record beginning in 1973, or later, and ending in December 2009, cumulative clay compaction data measured by 12 extensometers ranged from 0.088 foot at the Texas City-Moses Lake site to 3.559 foot at the Addicks site. The rate of compaction varies from site to site because of differences in groundwater withdrawals near each site and differences among sites in the clay-to-sand ratio in the subsurface materials. Therefore, it is not possible to extrapolate or infer a rate of clay compaction for an area based on the rate of compaction measured at a nearby extensometer.

  10. Knowledge of prenatal health care among Costa Rican and Panamanian women Conocimientos de las mujeres de Costa Rica y Panamá sobre el cuidado de la salud durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Harold Guilford

    2008-06-01

    ótesis de que las mujeres costarricenses conocen más acerca de los cuidados durante el embarazo que las panameñas. MÉTODOS: El conocimiento de las mujeres acerca de los cuidados de la salud durante el embarazo se evaluó mediante una encuesta, con las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud como estándar nominal. La encuesta se aplicó verbalmente a 320 mujeres en clínicas de Costa Rica y Panamá. Las preguntas de selección múltiple evaluaron el conocimiento en cuatro dominios específicos: nutrición, señales de alarma, amenazas por enfermedades y actividades aceptables durante el embarazo. Se asignaron puntuaciones a las respuestas. Se emplearon el análisis de varianza y modelos lineares para establecer los factores significativos que determinaron el conocimiento sobre los cuidados prenatales. RESULTADOS: Las mujeres costarricenses tuvieron una mayor puntuación que las panameñas en la mayoría de los dominios del conocimiento sobre los cuidados de la salud durante el embarazo. Los únicos factores significativos que determinaron esos conocimientos fueron el país de origen y el nivel educacional. El país de origen fue un factor de predicción de estos conocimientos más potente que haber completado la enseñanza media. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados indican que las mujeres costarricenses tienen más conocimientos sobre los cuidados necesarios durante el embarazo que las panameñas y que esa diferencia puede estar relacionada con la educación directa sobre los cuidados prenatales y su promoción en Costa Rica. Esto podría indicar que hay una influencia de la cultura de concientización del cuidado de la salud que va más allá de la correlación negativa ya conocida entre la mortalidad infantil y el nivel de educación de la madre.

  11. Water-level altitudes 2016 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973–2015 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Ramage, Jason K.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2016-10-07

    changes in effective stress caused by changes in groundwater withdrawal from the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers.In 2016, water-level-altitude contours for the Chicot aquifer ranged from 200 feet (ft) below the vertical datum (North American Vertical Datum of 1988; hereinafter, datum) in a localized area in northwestern Harris County to 200 ft above datum in west-central Montgomery County. Water-level changes during 2015–16 in the Chicot aquifer ranged from a 39-ft decline to a 26-ft rise. Contoured 5-year and long-term changes in water-level altitudes of the Chicot aquifer ranged from a 30-ft decline to a 20-ft rise (2011–16), from a 140-ft decline to a 160-ft rise (1990–2016), and from a 120-ft decline to a 200-ft rise (1977–2016). In 2016, water-level-altitude contours for the Evangeline aquifer ranged from 250 ft below datum in three separate areas in south-central Montgomery County and extending into north-central Harris County, in west-central Harris County, and in southwestern Harris County to 200 ft above datum in southeastern Grimes and northwestern Montgomery Counties. Water-level changes during 2015–16 in the Evangeline aquifer ranged from a 65-ft decline to a 61-ft rise. Contoured 5-year and long-term changes in water-level altitudes of the Evangeline aquifer ranged from a 60-ft decline to a 40-ft rise (2011–16), from a 160-ft decline to a 160-ft rise (1990–2016), and from a 320-ft decline to a 240-ft rise (1977–2016). In 2016, water-level-altitude contours for the Jasper aquifer ranged from 200 ft below datum in south-central Montgomery County extending into north-central Harris County to 250 ft above datum in northwestern Montgomery County and extending into eastern Grimes County and southwestern Walker County. Water-level changes during 2015–16 in the Jasper aquifer ranged from a 38-ft decline to a 51-ft rise. Contoured 5-year and long-term changes in water-level altitudes of the Jasper aquifer ranged from a 60-ft decline to a 40-ft rise

  12. Carcinogenesis by Fast Neutrons Relative to X-Rays in Mice; Carcinogenese chez les Souris sous l'Effet des Neutrons Rapides et des Rayons X; Sravnitel'naya chastota vozniknoveniya rakovykh opukholej u myshej pri obluchenii bystrymi nejtronami i rentgenovskimi luchami; Accion Carcinogenica Comparada de los Neutrones Rapidos y de los Rayos X en el Raton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, L. J.; Nowell, P. C. [Division of Biological and Medical Sciences, U.S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1964-05-15

    Young adult LAF{sub 1} mice received a single sublethal exposure to fission-spectrum neutrons, and were treated as follows: Group 1 - 195 to 199 rad, followed by a single subcutaneous injection of CCI{sub 4} one month later; Group II - CCl{sub 4} injected one day prior to neutron irradiation (280 - 329 rad); Group III - CCI{sub 4} only; no irradiation; Group IV - unilateral nephrectomy carried out one day before neutron irradiation (320 - 328 rad); Group V - neutron irradiation only (200 - 320 rad> In the Group I-mice, sacrificed 12-16 months post-irradiation, 75% exhibited hepatomas, while 92% of the mice in Group II showed hepatomas. By contrast, liver tumours appeared in 14% of mice receiving neutron irradiation only (Group V), and in 2.4% of mice exposed to a single dose (500 rad) of 250 kVp X-rays. The incidence of kidney neoplasms approached 100% in the uninephrectomized irradiated mice (Group IV), whereas such lesions were infrequent in control mice. The induction of these neoplasms is discussed in terms of initiation by the neutron radiation, and promotion by the specific proliferative stimuli exployed. The data indicate a potency factor of approximately 2 for fission neutrons relative to 250 kVp X-rays for initiation of kidney neoplasms in mice. With respect to the occurrence of lymphoma in this strain, the neutron-irradiated mice showed a reduced incidence (11 %) as compared with the X-irradiated animals (29%). (author) [French] On a expose a une dose sub letale unique de neutrons de fission des jeunes sujets adultes de souche LAF, que l'on a traites de la facon suivante: Groupe 1 - injection souscutanee de CCl{sub 4} un mois apres l 'exposition(195 a 199rad); Groupe II - injection de CCl{sub 4} un jour avant l'exposition aux neutrons (280 a 329 rad); Groupe III - CCl{sub 4} seulement, pas d'exposition; Groupe IV - nephrectomie unilaterale un jour avant l'exposition aux neutrons (320 a 328 rad); Groupe V - exposition aux mettrons seulement (200 a 320 rad

  13. The Effect of Chlorothiazide on Caesium-137 Excretion in Human Subjects; Effet de la Chiorothiazide sur l'Elimination du Cesium 137 chez l'Homme; 0412 041b 0414 ; Influencia de la Ciorotiazida sobre la Excrecion de Cesio en el Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Joan; McNeill, K. G. [Departments of Medicine and Physics, University of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1964-11-15

    time to determine the effect of basal metabolism on caesium excretion and these results will also be reported. (author) [French] L'etude avait pour objet de determiner les facteurs qui influent sur le metabolisme du cesium chez des sujets normaux, en vue notamment d'etablir une therapie qui permettrait de reduite la charge corporelle de cesium. Etant donne que le cesium et le potassium sont chimiquement semblables et qu'ils sont localises l'un et l'autre dans le compartiment intracellulaire de l'organisme, principalement dans le tissu musculaire, il a semble aux auteurs que la chlorothiazide, qui stimule fortement l'elimination urinaire du potassium, pouvait augmenter aussi la quantite de cesium elimine. Ils ont administre a quatre sujets normaux une dose unique de 0,1 {mu}c. de cesium 137 par voie buccale. Deux des sujets ont alors recu de la chlorothiazide a raison de 2,0 g/j pendant trois jours consecutifs, a compter d'une heure apres l'absorption du cesium. La dose de chlorothiazide a ete administree a nouveau apres deux semaines. Les deux autres sujets ont servi de temoins. La charge corporelle de cesium 137 a ete mesuree a l'aide d'un anthropogammametre, 3 des intervalles de temps allant jusqu'a 320 j. Les auteurs ont recueilli les urines de 24 h, d'abord pendant trois jours a des fins de controle, puis pendant les 20 j qui ont suivi l'absorption de cesium. Ils ont analyse les echantillons afin de determiner les electrolytes et l'activite du cesium. la chlorothiazide a augmente la quantite de potassium eliminee, qui a atteint jusqu'a 1,5 fois les valeurs temoins, mais elle n'a pas eu d'effet significatif sur l'elimination du cesium et n'a pas non plus reduit sensiblement la charge corporelle de cesium. Chez tous les sujets, une faible fraction de Cs (10 a 20%) a ete eliminee rapidement, la periode biologique (T{sub b}) etant inferieure a 1 j. Le reste a ete elimine a un taux constant, Tb etant de 90 a 155 j. Plus de 70 Degree-Sign jo du cesium elimine

  14. Fixation of Simulated Highly Radioactive Wastes in Glassy Solids; Fixation de Dechets Simules de Haute Activite dans des Soudes Vitreux; 0424 0418 041a 0421 0410 0426 0418 042f 0418 041c 0418 0422 0418 0420 041e 0412 0410 041d 041d 042b 0425 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0410 041a 0422 0418 0412 041d 042b 0425 041e 0422 0425 041e 0414 041e 0412 0412 042b 0421 041e 041a 041e 0419 0410 041a 0422 0418 0412 041d 041e 0421 0422 0418 0421 0422 0415 041a 041b 041e 041e 0411 0420 0410 0417 041d 042b 041c 0418 0422 0412 0415 0420 0414 042b 041c 0418 0412 0415 0429 0415 0421 0422 0412 0410 041c 0418 ; Fijacion de Desechos Simulados de Elevada Radiactividad en Solidos Vitreos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W. E.; Godbee, H. W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1963-02-15

    OH, y el MgO. Las densidades brutas varian entre 2,36 y 2,90 g/cm{sup 3} para los desechos del proceso TBP-25 y entre 2,63 y 2,80 g/cm{sup 3} para los del Purex. Las reducciones de volumen correspondientes a las soluciones concentradas de desechos estan comprendidas entre 7,2 y 9,3 y entre 5,7 y 8,3; los puntos de reblandecimiento iniciales varian entre 875 y 1000 Degree-Sign C y entre 830 y 975 Degree-Sign C, respectivamente. Los ensayos con los desechos Darex se encuentran aun en la etapa preliminar. Al trabajar de manera semicontinua, en escala semiindustrial, se obtuvo un vidrio verdadero partiendo de desechos TBP-25 y un solido microcristalino partiendo de desechos Purex. La conductividad termica del vidrio varfa entre 1,05 BTU/h pie 'F a 320 Degree-Sign F y 1,6 a 1050 Degree-Sign F, es decir, que es 10 veces superior a la de la masa calcinada sin aditivos. La volatilidad del rutenio se mantuvo por debajo del 10% anadiendo fosfito. El acero inoxidable constituye un material satisfactorio para la construccion del recipiente de calcinacion- fijacion. Practicamente toda la corrosion interna se produce durante el periodo relativamente breve (2 a 6 h) en el que se expulsan los ultimos residuos de acido y agua a la temperatura maxima. La formacion de vidrio fundido acrecento la corrosion del acero inoxidable 304L de 5 a 42 milesimas de pulg/mes, en un ciclo de evaporacion-fijacion de 24 horas, en el caso de los desechos del proceso TBP-25 y de 8 a 140 milesimas de pulg/mes, en el de los desechos Purex. Al trabajar a mas de 900 Degree-Sign C con desechos Purex y fundentes anadidos, puede originarse una corrosion localizada sumamente seria. (author) [Russian] Cel'ju novyh rabot v Okriohskoj nacional'noj laboratorii, javljaetsja vkljuchenie radioaktivnyh othodov vysokoj aktivnosti v nerastvorimye stekla s vysokoj plotnost'ju, uderzhivajushhie voe radioaktivnye veshhestva v tverdom sostojanii. Jeksperimenty s imitirovannymi othodami ''TBF-25-processa'', ''Pureks