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Sample records for a2-desulfoferrodoxin operon enzymes

  1. GLYCOGEN IN BACILLUS-SUBTILIS - MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AN OPERON ENCODING ENZYMES INVOLVED IN GLYCOGEN BIOSYNTHESIS AND DEGRADATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KIEL, JAKW; BOELS, JM; BELDMAN, G; VENEMA, G

    1994-01-01

    Although it has never been reported that Bacillus subtilis is capable of accumulating glycogen, we have isolated a region from the chromosome of B. subtilis containing a glycogen operon. The operon is located directly downstream from trnB, which maps at 275 degrees on the B. subtilis chromosome. It

  2. The cyanase operon and cyanate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P M; Sung, Y C; Fuchs, J A

    1990-12-01

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in E. coli that catalyzes bicarbonate-dependent decomposition of cyanate. It is encoded as part of an operon we have named the cyn operon, which includes three genes in the following order: cynT (cyanate permease), cynS (cyanase), and cynX (protein of unknown function). The direction of transcription is opposite to that of the lac operon, and the 3'-end of the cyn operon overlaps the 3'-end of the lac operon by 98 nucleotides. The gene cynR (regulatory protein) is located upstream from the cyn operon, and its transcription is opposite that of the cyn operon. The genes of the cyn operon and the cynR gene have been cloned, sequenced and over-expressed. Cyanate at concentrations of about 1 mM is toxic to strains of E. coli lacking the cyanase gene, but strains in which the inducible gene for cyanase is present can grow on cyanate as the sole source of nitrogen at concentrations as high as 20 mM. The presence of cyanase itself is not sufficient to overcome cyanate toxicity--the permease must also be present. Strains lacking the cyanase gene, but having a functional permease gene, are extremely sensitive to cyanate. Uptake of cyanate involves the product of the permease gene in an energy-dependent process. It appears that the cyn operon has evolved to function in detoxification/decomposition of cyanate arising from both intra- and extracellular sources.

  3. The complete nucleotide sequence of the ilvGMEDA operon of Escherichia coli K-12

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    In this report we present the complete nucleotide sequence of the ilvGMEDA operon of Escherichia coli. This operon contains five genes encoding four of the five enzymes required for the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine. We identify and describe the coding regions for these five structural genes and the structural and functional features of the flanking and internal regulatory regions of this operon. This new information contributes to a more complete understanding of the overall control ...

  4. The post-transcriptional operon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Christiansen, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A post-transcriptional operon is a set of monocistronic mRNAs encoding functionally related proteins that are co-regulated by a group of RNA-binding proteins and/or small non-coding RNAs so that protein expression is coordinated at the post-transcriptional level. The post-transcriptional operon m...

  5. The Life-cycle of Operons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-18

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findings suggest that operon evolution is driven by selection on gene expression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destruction lead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, the removal of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essential genes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNA damage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone accelerated evolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period. Third, although most operons are closely spaced because of a neutral bias towards deletion and because of selection against large overlaps, highly expressed operons tend to be widely spaced because of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Although operon evolution seems to be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operons often comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already in proximity before the operon formed.

  6. Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  7. The Life-cycle of Operons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-03-15

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, buthow and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidatethe life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichiacoli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed anddestroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operonsform, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findingssuggest that operon evolution may be driven by selection on geneexpression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destructionlead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, theremoval of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essentialgenes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNAdamage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone acceleratedevolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period.Third, although genes within operons are usually closely spaced becauseof a neutral bias toward deletion and because of selection against largeoverlaps, genes in highly expressed operons tend to be widely spacedbecause of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Althoughoperon evolution may be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operonsoften comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already inproximity before the operon formed.

  8. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  9. Autogenous regulation of ethanolamine utilization by a transcriptional activator of the eut operon in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Roof, D M; Roth, J R

    1992-01-01

    The genes required for use of ethanolamine as a carbon and nitrogen source are encoded by a single operon (eut) whose expression is induced by the simultaneous presence of both ethanolamine and cobalamin (vitamin B12). The action of B12 as an inducer of this operon reflects the fact that this cofactor is required by the degradative enzyme ethanolamine lyase (eutBC). The eutR gene encodes a protein that activates transcription of the eut operon in response to the simultaneous presence of B12 a...

  10. BIOINFORMATICS AND BIOSYNTHESIS ANALYSIS OF CELLULOSE SYNTHASE OPERON IN ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS ZM4

    OpenAIRE

    Sheik Abdul Kader Sheik Asraf, K. Narayanan Rajnish, and Paramasamy Gunasekaran

    2011-01-01

    Biosynthesis of cellulose has been reported in many species of bacteria. The genes encoding cellulose biosynthetic enzymes of Z. mobilis have not been studied so far. Preliminary sequence analysis of the Z. mobilis ZM4 genome revealed the presence of a cellulose synthase operon comprised of Open Reading Frames (ORFs) ZMO01083 (bcsA), ZMO1084 (bcsB) and ZMO1085 (bcsC). The first gene of the operon bcsA encodes the cellulose synthase catalytic subunit BcsA. The second gene of the operon bcsB en...

  11. Regulation of Tryptophan Operon Expression in the Archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yunwei; Reeve, John N.

    2005-01-01

    Conserved trp genes encode enzymes that catalyze tryptophan biosynthesis in all three biological domains, and studies of their expression in Bacteria and eukaryotes have revealed a variety of different regulatory mechanisms. The results reported here provide the first detailed description of an archaeal trp gene regulatory system. We have established that the trpEGCFBAD operon in Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus is transcribed divergently from a gene (designated trpY) that encodes a try...

  12. Identification and characterization of an operon in Salmonella typhimurium involved in thiamine biosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, L A; Downs, D M

    1997-01-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is synthesized de novo in Salmonella typhimurium and is a required cofactor for many enzymes in the cell. Five kinase activities have been implicated in TPP synthesis, which involves joining a 4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl)thiazole (THZ) moiety and a 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (HMP) moiety. We report here identification of a 2-gene operon involved in thiamine biosynthesis and present evidence that the genes in this operon, thiMD, encode two previou...

  13. Detecting uber-operons in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Dongsheng; Li, Guojun; Mao, Fenglou; Wu, Hongwei; Xu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We present a study on computational identification of uber-operons in a prokaryotic genome, each of which represents a group of operons that are evolutionarily or functionally associated through operons in other (reference) genomes. Uber-operons represent a rich set of footprints of operon evolution, whose full utilization could lead to new and more powerful tools for elucidation of biological pathways and networks than what operons have provided, and a better understanding of prokaryotic genome structures and evolution. Our prediction algorithm predicts uber-operons through identifying groups of functionally or transcriptionally related operons, whose gene sets are conserved across the target and multiple reference genomes. Using this algorithm, we have predicted uber-operons for each of a group of 91 genomes, using the other 90 genomes as references. In particular, we predicted 158 uber-operons in Escherichia coli K12 covering 1830 genes, and found that many of the uber-operons correspond to parts of known regulons or biological pathways or are involved in highly related biological processes based on their Gene Ontology (GO) assignments. For some of the predicted uber-operons that are not parts of known regulons or pathways, our analyses indicate that their genes are highly likely to work together in the same biological processes, suggesting the possibility of new regulons and pathways. We believe that our uber-operon prediction provides a highly useful capability and a rich information source for elucidation of complex biological processes, such as pathways in microbes. All the prediction results are available at our Uber-Operon Database: http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/uber, the first of its kind.

  14. Cycling expression and cooperative operator interaction in the trp operon of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Valdez, Areli; Santillán, Moisés; Zeron, Eduardo S

    2010-04-01

    Oscillatory behaviour in the tryptophan operon of an Escherichia coli mutant strain lacking the enzyme-inhibition regulatory mechanism has been observed by Bliss et al. but not confirmed by others. This behaviour could be important from the standpoint of synthetic biology, whose goals include the engineering of intracellular genetic oscillators. This work is devoted to investigating, from a mathematical modelling point of view, the possibility that the trp operon of the E. coli inhibition-free strain expresses cyclically. For that we extend a previously introduced model for the regulatory pathway of the tryptophan operon in Escherichia coli to account for the observed multiplicity and cooperativity of repressor binding sites. Thereafter we investigate the model dynamics using deterministic numeric solutions, stochastic simulations, and analytic studies. Our results suggest that a quasi-periodic behaviour could be observed in the trp operon expression level of single bacteria. PMID:20004672

  15. The pyrimidine operon pyrRPB-carA from Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Schallert, J.; Andersen, Birgit;

    2001-01-01

    The four genes pyrR, pyrP, pyrB, and carA were found to constitute an operon in Lactococcus lactis subsp, lactis MG1363. The functions of the different genes were established by mutational analysis. The first gene in the operon is the pyrimidine regulatory gene, pyrR, which is responsible for the...... regulation of the expression of the pyrimidine biosynthetic genes leading to UMP formation. The second gene encodes a membrane-bound high-affinity uracil permease, required for utilization of exogenous uracil. The last two genes in the operon, pyrB and carA, encode pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes; aspartate...... transcarbamoylase (pyrB) is the second enzyme in the pathway, whereas carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase subunit A (carA) is the small subunit of a heterodimeric enzyme, catalyzing the formation of carbamoyl phosphate. The carA gene product is shown to be required for both pyrimidine and arginine biosynthesis. The...

  16. Possible regulation of the Salmonella typhimurium histidine operon by adenosine triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase: large metabolic effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Goitein, R K; Parsons, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    An effort to find growth conditions leading to conditional regulation of the histidine operon of Salmonella typhimurium by the allosteric first enzyme of the pathway, adenosine triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.17), is reported. A strain deleting the enzyme, TR3343, behaved simply and predictably under all growth conditions, whereas histidine auxotrophs containing active enzyme behaved in complicated ways dependent upon the location of the histidine pathway lesion. hisE strains...

  17. Regulation of tryptophan operon expression in the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunwei; Reeve, John N

    2005-09-01

    Conserved trp genes encode enzymes that catalyze tryptophan biosynthesis in all three biological domains, and studies of their expression in Bacteria and eukaryotes have revealed a variety of different regulatory mechanisms. The results reported here provide the first detailed description of an archaeal trp gene regulatory system. We have established that the trpEGCFBAD operon in Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus is transcribed divergently from a gene (designated trpY) that encodes a tryptophan-sensitive transcription regulator. TrpY binds to TRP box sequences (consensus, TGTACA) located in the overlapping promoter regions between trpY and trpE, inhibiting trpY transcription in the absence of tryptophan and both trpY and trpEGCFBAD transcription in the presence of tryptophan. TrpY apparently inhibits trpY transcription by blocking RNA polymerase access to the site of trpY transcription initiation and represses trpEGCFBAD transcription by preventing TATA box binding protein (TBP) binding to the TATA box sequence. Given that residue 2 (W2) is the only tryptophan in TrpY and in TrpY homologues in other Euryarchaea and that there is only one tryptophan codon in the entire trpEGCFBAD operon (trpB encodes W175), expression of the trp operon may also be regulated in vivo by the supply of charged tRNA(Trp) available to translate the second codon of the trpY mRNA. PMID:16159776

  18. Konstruktie van plasmiden met genen van het tryptofaan operon van Escherichia coli K12 als genetische kenmerken

    OpenAIRE

    Enger-Valk, B E

    1981-01-01

    Chapter 1CONSTRUCTION OF NEW CLONING VEHICLES WITH GENES OF THETRYPTOPHAN OPERON OF Escherichia coli AS GENETIC MARKERSIn vitro recombination techniques were used to construct a series of new cloning vehicles with genes of the tryptophan (trp) operon of Escherichia coli as selective marker. To construct these plasmids we have made a restriction cleavage map of the trp operon for the enzymes Aos I, Ava I, Bgl I, Bgl II, Hind III, Hpa I, Pvu II, Sal I, Sst I and Xho I.The constructed plasmids p...

  19. Valine-Resistant Escherichia coli K-12 Strains with Mutations in the ilvB Operon

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Ann; Newman, Thomas; Francis, Marilyn; Freundlich, Martin

    1981-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 mutants resistant to growth inhibition by valine were isolated. These strains contained mutations in the ilvB operon effecting either the regulation of acetohydroxy acid synthase I or the sensitivity of the enzyme to end product inhibition by valine.

  20. Stochastic simulations of the tetracycline operon

    OpenAIRE

    Kaznessis Yiannis N; Daoutidis Prodromos; Biliouris Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The tetracycline operon is a self-regulated system. It is found naturally in bacteria where it confers resistance to antibiotic tetracycline. Because of the performance of the molecular elements of the tetracycline operon, these elements are widely used as parts of synthetic gene networks where the protein production can be efficiently turned on and off in response to the presence or the absence of tetracycline. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of the tetracyclin...

  1. Positions of Trp Codons in the Leader Peptide-Coding Region of the at Operon Influence Anti-Trap Synthesis and trp Operon Expression in Bacillus licheniformis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Levitin, Anastasia; Yanofsky, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and several other metabolites are all synthesized from a common precursor, chorismic acid. Since tryptophan is a product of an energetically expensive biosynthetic pathway, bacteria have developed sensing mechanisms to downregulate synthesis of the enzymes of tryptophan formation when synthesis of the amino acid is not needed. In Bacillus subtilis and some other Gram-positive bacteria, trp operon expression is regulated by two proteins, TRAP (the tryptopha...

  2. Stochastic simulations of the tetracycline operon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaznessis Yiannis N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetracycline operon is a self-regulated system. It is found naturally in bacteria where it confers resistance to antibiotic tetracycline. Because of the performance of the molecular elements of the tetracycline operon, these elements are widely used as parts of synthetic gene networks where the protein production can be efficiently turned on and off in response to the presence or the absence of tetracycline. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of the tetracycline operon. To this end, we develop a mathematical model guided by experimental findings. Our model consists of biochemical reactions that capture the biomolecular interactions of this intriguing system. Having in mind that small biological systems are subjects to stochasticity, we use a stochastic algorithm to simulate the tetracycline operon behavior. A sensitivity analysis of two critical parameters embodied this system is also performed providing a useful understanding of the function of this system. Results Simulations generate a timeline of biomolecular events that confer resistance to bacteria against tetracycline. We monitor the amounts of intracellular TetR2 and TetA proteins, the two important regulatory and resistance molecules, as a function of intrecellular tetracycline. We find that lack of one of the promoters of the tetracycline operon has no influence on the total behavior of this system inferring that this promoter is not essential for Escherichia coli. Sensitivity analysis with respect to the binding strength of tetracycline to repressor and of repressor to operators suggests that these two parameters play a predominant role in the behavior of the system. The results of the simulations agree well with experimental observations such as tight repression, fast gene expression, induction with tetracycline, and small intracellular TetR2 amounts. Conclusions Computer simulations of the tetracycline operon afford augmented insight into the

  3. Teaching the Big Ideas of Biology with Operon Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an activity that engages students in model-based reasoning, requiring them to predict the behavior of the trp and lac operons under different environmental conditions. Students are presented six scenarios for the "trp" operon and five for the "lac" operon. In most of the scenarios, specific mutations have…

  4. Characterization of the cyn operon in Escherichia coli K12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y C; Fuchs, J A

    1988-10-15

    Escherichia coli can overcome the toxicity of environmental cyanate by hydrolysis of cyanate to ammonia and bicarbonate. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme cyanase, encoded by the cynS gene. The nucleotide sequence of cynS has been reported (Sung, Y.-c., Anderson, P. M., and Fuchs, J. A. (1987) J. Bacteriol. 169, 5224-5230). The nucleotide sequence of the complete cyn operon has now been determined. The cyn operon is approximately 2600 base pairs and includes cynT, cynS, and cynX, which encode cyanate permease, cyanase, and a protein of unknown function, respectively. Two cyanate-inducible transcripts of 1500 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, were detected by Northern blot analysis. S1 nuclease mapping experiments indicated that two different cyn mRNAs have a common 5'-end and two different 3'-ends. One 3'-end was located within the coding region of cynX, whereas the other 3'-end includes the entire DNA sequence of cynX. The longer transcript contained 98 nucleotides complementary to lac mRNA produced by the predominant lac transcription termination sequence. Termination vectors were used to show that both 3'-ends were generated by sequences that caused transcriptional termination in vivo. Expression vectors were used to demonstrate that a protein corresponding to the expected size was synthesized from the DNA fragment containing the open reading frame designated cynX. The predicted amino acid sequence of cynX indicates that it is a very hydrophobic protein. The level of cynX expression was significantly less than that of cynT or cynS expression.

  5. BIOINFORMATICS AND BIOSYNTHESIS ANALYSIS OF CELLULOSE SYNTHASE OPERON IN ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS ZM4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheik Abdul Kader Sheik Asraf, K. Narayanan Rajnish, and Paramasamy Gunasekaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of cellulose has been reported in many species of bacteria. The genes encoding cellulose biosynthetic enzymes of Z. mobilis have not been studied so far. Preliminary sequence analysis of the Z. mobilis ZM4 genome revealed the presence of a cellulose synthase operon comprised of Open Reading Frames (ORFs ZMO01083 (bcsA, ZMO1084 (bcsB and ZMO1085 (bcsC. The first gene of the operon bcsA encodes the cellulose synthase catalytic subunit BcsA. The second gene of the operon bcsB encodes the cellulose synthase subunit B (BcsB, which shows the presence of BcsB multi-domain and is inferred to bind c-di-GMP, the regulator of cellulose biosynthesis. The third gene of the operon bcsC encodes the cellulose synthase operon C domain protein (BcsC, which belongs to super family of teratrico peptide repeat (TPR that are believed to mediate protein – protein interactions for the formation of cellulose. Multiple sequence alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of BcsA and BcsC with other closely related homologs showed the presence of PVDPYE, HAKAGNLN, DCD motif and TPR motif, the characteristic motifs of bacterial cellulose synthases. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the ORF ZMO1085 and neighboring ORFs namely ZMO1083 and ZMO1084 indicated that all the ORFs are translationally linked and form an operon. Transcript analysis using Real-time PCR indicated the expression of the genes involved in cellulose synthase operon in Zymomonas mobilis ZM4. Z. mobilis colonies grown on RM-glucose containing Congo red displayed a characteristic bright red-brown colour. Z. mobilis colonies grown on RM-glucose medium supplemented with Calcoflour exhibited fluorescence. The arrangement of Calcofluor stained microfibrils can be seen in fluorescence microscopy which is an indicative for cellulose biosynthesis. AFM micrograph of the extracellular matrix of Z. mobilis shows a relatively dense matrix with bacterial cell residues. The presence of cellulose was

  6. Positions of Trp codons in the leader peptide-coding region of the at operon influence anti-trap synthesis and trp operon expression in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Anastasia; Yanofsky, Charles

    2010-03-01

    Tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and several other metabolites are all synthesized from a common precursor, chorismic acid. Since tryptophan is a product of an energetically expensive biosynthetic pathway, bacteria have developed sensing mechanisms to downregulate synthesis of the enzymes of tryptophan formation when synthesis of the amino acid is not needed. In Bacillus subtilis and some other Gram-positive bacteria, trp operon expression is regulated by two proteins, TRAP (the tryptophan-activated RNA binding protein) and AT (the anti-TRAP protein). TRAP is activated by bound tryptophan, and AT synthesis is increased upon accumulation of uncharged tRNA(Trp). Tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to trp operon leader RNA, generating a terminator structure that promotes transcription termination. AT binds to tryptophan-activated TRAP, inhibiting its RNA binding ability. In B. subtilis, AT synthesis is upregulated both transcriptionally and translationally in response to the accumulation of uncharged tRNA(Trp). In this paper, we focus on explaining the differences in organization and regulatory functions of the at operon's leader peptide-coding region, rtpLP, of B. subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Our objective was to correlate the greater growth sensitivity of B. licheniformis to tryptophan starvation with the spacing of the three Trp codons in its at operon leader peptide-coding region. Our findings suggest that the Trp codon location in rtpLP of B. licheniformis is designed to allow a mild charged-tRNA(Trp) deficiency to expose the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and start codon for the AT protein, leading to increased AT synthesis. PMID:20061467

  7. Distinct noise-controlling roles of multiple negative feedback mechanisms in a prokaryotic operon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L K; Kulasiri, D

    2011-03-01

    Molecular fluctuations are known to affect dynamics of cellular systems in important ways. Studies aimed at understanding how molecular systems of certain regulatory architectures control noise therefore become essential. The interplay between feedback regulation and noise has been previously explored for cellular networks governed by a single negative feedback loop. However, similar issues within networks consisting of more complex regulatory structures remain elusive. The authors investigate how negative feedback loops manage noise within a biochemical cascade concurrently governed by multiple negative feedback loops, using the prokaryotic tryptophan (trp) operon system in Escherechia coli as the model system. To the authors knowledge, this is the first study of noise in the trp operon system. They show that the loops in the trp operon system possess distinct, even opposing, noise-controlling effects despite their seemingly analogous feedback structures. The enzyme inhibition loop, although controlling the last reaction of the cascade, was found to suppress noise not only for the tryptophan output but also for other upstream components. In contrast, the Repression (Rep) loop enhances noise for all systems components. Attenuation (Att) poses intermediate effects by attenuating noise for the upstream components but promoting noise for components downstream of its target. Regarding noise at the output tryptophan, Rep and Att can be categorised as noise-enhancing loops whereas Enzyme Inhibition as a noise-reducing loop. These findings suggest novel implications in how cellular systems with multiple feedback mechanisms control noise. [Includes supplementary material]. PMID:21405203

  8. Influence of the feedback loops in the trp operon of B. subtilis on the system dynamic response and noise amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Chimal, Criseida; Santillán, Moisés; Rodríguez-González, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model for the tryptophan operon regulatory pathway in Bacillus subtilis. This model considers the transcription-attenuation, and the enzyme-inhibition regulatory mechanisms. Special attention is paid to the estimation of all the model parameters from reported experimental data. With the aid of this model we investigate, from a mathematical-modeling point of view, whether the existing multiplicity of regulatory feedback loops is advantageous in some sense, regarding the dynamic response and the biochemical noise in the system. The tryptophan operon dynamic behavior is studied by means of deterministic numeric simulations, while the biochemical noise is analyzed with the aid of stochastic simulations. The model feasibility is tested comparing its stochastic and deterministic results with experimental reports. Our results for the wildtype and for a couple of mutant bacterial strains suggest that the enzyme-inhibition feedback loop, dynamically accelerates the operon response, and plays a major role in the reduction of biochemical noise. Also, the transcription-attenuation feedback loop makes the trp operon sensitive to changes in the endogenous tryptophan level, and increases the amplitude of the biochemical noise. PMID:22713856

  9. Carbonic anhydrase in Escherichia coli. A product of the cyn operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloton, M B; Korte, J J; Lamblin, A F; Fuchs, J A; Anderson, P M

    1992-02-25

    The product of the cynT gene of the cyn operon in Escherichia coli has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase. The cyn operon also includes the gene cynS, encoding the enzyme cyanase. Cyanase catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to give ammonia and carbon dioxide. The carbonic anhydrase was isolated from an Escherichia coli strain overexpressing the cynT gene and characterized. The purified enzyme was shown to contain 1 Zn2+/subunit (24 kDa) and was found to behave as an oligomer in solution; the presence of bicarbonate resulted in partial dissociation of the oligomeric enzyme. The kinetic properties of the enzyme are similar to those of carbonic anhydrases from other species, including inhibition by sulfonamides and cyanate. The amino acid sequence shows a high degree of identity with the sequences of two plant carbonic anhydrases. but not with animal and algal carbonic anhydrases. Since carbon dioxide formed in the bicarbonate-dependent decomposition of cyanate diffuses out of the cell faster than it would be hydrated to bicarbonate, the apparent function of the induced carbonic anhydrase is to catalyze hydration of carbon dioxide and thus prevent depletion of cellular bicarbonate.

  10. A phylogenomic analysis of the Actinomycetales mce operons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Lee W

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors four copies of a cluster of genes termed mce operons. Despite extensive research that has demonstrated the importance of these operons on infection outcome, their physiological function remains obscure. Expanding databases of complete microbial genome sequences facilitate a comparative genomic approach that can provide valuable insight into the role of uncharacterized proteins. Results The M. tuberculosis mce loci each include two yrbE and six mce genes, which have homology to ABC transporter permeases and substrate-binding proteins, respectively. Operons with an identical structure were identified in all Mycobacterium species examined, as well as in five other Actinomycetales genera. Some of the Actinomycetales mce operons include an mkl gene, which encodes an ATPase resembling those of ABC uptake transporters. The phylogenetic profile of Mkl orthologs exactly matched that of the Mce and YrbE proteins. Through topology and motif analyses of YrbE homologs, we identified a region within the penultimate cytoplasmic loop that may serve as the site of interaction with the putative cognate Mkl ATPase. Homologs of the exported proteins encoded adjacent to the M. tuberculosis mce operons were detected in a conserved chromosomal location downstream of the majority of Actinomycetales operons. Operons containing linked mkl, yrbE and mce genes, resembling the classic organization of an ABC importer, were found to be common in Gram-negative bacteria and appear to be associated with changes in properties of the cell surface. Conclusion Evidence presented suggests that the mce operons of Actinomycetales species and related operons in Gram-negative bacteria encode a subfamily of ABC uptake transporters with a possible role in remodeling the cell envelope.

  11. A rationale for autoinduction of a transcriptional activator: ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EutBC) and the operon activator (EutR) compete for adenosyl-cobalamin in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, D E; Roth, J R

    1994-01-01

    The ethanolamine utilization (eut) operon of Salmonella typhimurium is controlled by a positive regulatory protein (EutR) which stimulates eut operon expression in response to the simultaneous presence of two effectors, ethanolamine and adenosyl-cobalamin (Ado-B12). Ado-B12 is a cofactor for ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (lyase), the first enzyme in the ethanolamine-degradative pathway. The dependence of this pathway on the use of Ado-B12 as an effector in eut operon induction may be explained b...

  12. The pvc Operon Regulates the Expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fimbrial Chaperone/Usher Pathway (Cup) Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Uzma Qaisar; Liming Luo; Haley, Cecily L.; Brady, Sean F.; Carty, Nancy L.; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A.; Hamood, Abdul N.

    2013-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial structures encoded by the cup gene clusters (cupB and cupC) contribute to its attachment to abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation. The P. aeruginosa pvcABCD gene cluster encodes enzymes that synthesize a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin, paerucumarin. Paerucumarin has already been characterized chemically, but this is the first report elucidating its role in bacterial biology. We examined the relationship between the pvc operon and the cup gene clus...

  13. Evolution and Biophysics of the Escherichia coli lac Operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. Christian; Igoshin, Oleg; Quan, Selwyn; Monds, Russell; Cooper, Tim; Balázsi, Gábor

    2011-03-01

    To understand, predict, and control the evolution of living organisms, we consider biophysical effects and molecular network architectures. The lactose utilization system of E. coli is among the most well-studied molecular networks in biology, making it an ideal candidate for such studies. Simulations show how the genetic architecture of the wild-type operon attenuates large metabolic intermediate fluctuations that are predicted to occur in an equivalent system with the component genes on separate operons. Quantification of gene expression in the lac operon evolved in growth conditions containing constant lactose, alternating with glucose, or constant glucose, shows characteristic gene expression patterns depending on conditions. We are simulating these conditions to show context-dependent biophysical sources and costs of different lac operon architectures.

  14. Visualization of ribosomal RNA operon copy number distribution

    OpenAIRE

    DasGupta Indrani; Wu Martin; Rastogi Rajat; Fox George E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Results of microbial ecology studies using 16S rRNA sequence information can be deceiving due to differences in rRNA operon copy number and genome size of the detected organisms. It therefore will be useful for investigators to have a better understanding of how these two parameters differ in various organism types. In this study, the number of ribosomal operons and genome size were separately mapped onto a Bacterial phylogenetic tree. Results A representative Bacterial tr...

  15. Evolution of bacterial trp operons and their regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Merino, Enrique; Jensen, Roy A.; Yanofsky, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Survival and replication of most bacteria require the ability to synthesize the amino acid L-tryptophan whenever it is not available from the environment. In this article we describe the genes, operons, proteins, and reactions involved in tryptophan biosynthesis in bacteria, and the mechanisms they use in regulating tryptophan formation. We show that although the reactions of tryptophan biosynthesis are essentially identical, gene organization varies among species - from whole-pathway operons...

  16. Genetic organization of the cellulose synthase operon in Acetobacter xylinum.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, H C; Fear, A L; Calhoon, R D; Eichinger, G H; Mayer, R; Amikam, D; Benziman, M; Gelfand, D H; Meade, J H; Emerick, A W

    1990-01-01

    An operon encoding four proteins required for bacterial cellulose biosynthesis (bcs) in Acetobacter xylinum was isolated via genetic complementation with strains lacking cellulose synthase activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the cellulose synthase operon is 9217 base pairs long and consists of four genes. The four genes--bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD--appear to be translationally coupled and transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA with an initiation site 97 bases upstream of the co...

  17. The Mercury Resistance Operon: From an Origin in a Geothermal Environment to an Efficient Detoxification Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eBoyd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mercuric mercury (Hg[II] is a highly toxic and mobile element that is likely to have had a pronounced and adverse effect on biology since Earth’s oxygenation ~2.4 Gy ago due to its high affinity for protein sulfhydryl groups, which upon binding destabilizes protein structure and decreases enzyme activity, resulting in a decreased organismal fitness. The central enzyme in the microbial mercury detoxification system is the mercuric reductase (MerA protein, which catalyzes the reduction of Hg2+ to volatile Hg0. In addition to MerA, mer operons encode for proteins involved in regulation, Hg binding, and organomercury degradation. Here, we examine the composition of 272 individual mer operons and quantitatively map the distribution of mer-encoded functions on both taxonomic SSU rRNA gene and MerA protein phylogenies. The results indicate an origin and early evolution of MerA among thermophilic bacteria and an overall increase in the complexity of mer operons and in the sophistication of transcriptional regulation through evolutionary time, suggesting continual gene recruitment and evolution leading to an improved efficiency and functionality of the Mer detoxification system. Consistent with a positive relationship between the evolutionary history and topology of MerA and SSU rRNA gene phylogeneties (Mantel R = 0.81, p < 0.01, the distribution of the majority of mer functions, when mapped on these phylograms, indicates an overall tendency to inherit mer-encoded functions through vertical descent. However, individual mer functions display evidence of a variable degree of vertical inheritance, with several genes exhibiting strong evidence for acquisition via lateral gene transfer and/or gene loss. These data suggest that (i mer has evolved from a simple system in geothermal environments to a widely distributed and more complex and efficient detoxification system, and (ii MerA is a suitable taxonomic marker for examining the functional diversity of mer.

  18. Contribution of the nos-pdt operon to virulence phenotypes in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M Sapp

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is emerging as an important regulator of bacterial stress resistance, biofilm development, and virulence. One potential source of endogenous NO production in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is its NO-synthase (saNOS enzyme, encoded by the nos gene. Although a role for saNOS in oxidative stress resistance, antibiotic resistance, and virulence has been recently-described, insights into the regulation of nos expression and saNOS enzyme activity remain elusive. To this end, transcriptional analysis of the nos gene in S. aureus strain UAMS-1 was performed, which revealed that nos expression increases during low-oxygen growth and is growth-phase dependent. Furthermore, nos is co-transcribed with a downstream gene, designated pdt, which encodes a prephenate dehydratase (PDT enzyme involved in phenylalanine biosynthesis. Deletion of pdt significantly impaired the ability of UAMS-1 to grow in chemically-defined media lacking phenylalanine, confirming the function of this enzyme. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the operon organization of nos-pdt appears to be unique to the staphylococci. As described for other S. aureus nos mutants, inactivation of nos in UAMS-1 conferred sensitivity to oxidative stress, while deletion of pdt did not affect this phenotype. The nos mutant also displayed reduced virulence in a murine sepsis infection model, and increased carotenoid pigmentation when cultured on agar plates, both previously-undescribed nos mutant phenotypes. Utilizing the fluorescent stain 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM diacetate, decreased levels of intracellular NO/reactive nitrogen species (RNS were detected in the nos mutant on agar plates. These results reinforce the important role of saNOS in S. aureus physiology and virulence, and have identified an in vitro growth condition under which saNOS activity appears to be upregulated. However, the significance of the operon organization of nos-pdt and

  19. Role of the ganSPQAB Operon in Degradation of Galactan by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-10-15

    Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a β-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain β-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic β-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the σ(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is

  20. Transcription of the extended hyp-operon in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturation of hydrogenases into active enzymes is a complex process and e.g. a correctly assembled active site requires the involvement of at least seven proteins, encoded by hypABCDEF and a hydrogenase specific protease, encoded either by hupW or hoxW. The N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 may contain both an uptake and a bidirectional hydrogenase. The present study addresses the presence and expression of hyp-genes in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. Results RT-PCRs demonstrated that the six hyp-genes together with one ORF may be transcribed as a single operon. Transcriptional start points (TSPs were identified 280 bp upstream from hypF and 445 bp upstream of hypC, respectively, demonstrating the existence of several transcripts. In addition, five upstream ORFs located in between hupSL, encoding the small and large subunits of the uptake hydrogenase, and the hyp-operon, and two downstream ORFs from the hyp-genes were shown to be part of the same transcript unit. A third TSP was identified 45 bp upstream of asr0689, the first of five ORFs in this operon. The ORFs are annotated as encoding unknown proteins, with the exception of alr0692 which is identified as a NifU-like protein. Orthologues of the four ORFs asr0689-alr0692, with a highly conserved genomic arrangement positioned between hupSL, and the hyp genes are found in several other N2-fixing cyanobacteria, but are absent in non N2-fixing cyanobacteria with only the bidirectional hydrogenase. Short conserved sequences were found in six intergenic regions of the extended hyp-operon, appearing between 11 and 79 times in the genome. Conclusion This study demonstrated that five ORFs upstream of the hyp-gene cluster are co-transcribed with the hyp-genes, and identified three TSPs in the extended hyp-gene cluster in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. This may indicate a function related to the assembly of a functional uptake hydrogenase, hypothetically in the

  1. In vitro transcriptional studies of the bkd operon of Pseudomonas putida: L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, K T; Luo, J; Sokatch, J R

    1999-05-01

    BkdR is the transcriptional activator of the bkd operon, which encodes the four proteins of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Pseudomonas putida. In this study, hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that BkdR bound to only one face of DNA over the same region identified in DNase I protection assays. Deletions of even a few bases in the 5' region of the BkdR-binding site greatly reduced transcription, confirming that the entire protected region is necessary for transcription. In vitro transcription of the bkd operon was obtained by using a vector containing the bkdR-bkdA1 intergenic region plus the putative rho-independent terminator of the bkd operon. Substrate DNA, BkdR, and any of the L-branched-chain amino acids or D-leucine was required for transcription. Branched-chain keto acids, D-valine, and D-isoleucine did not promote transcription. Therefore, the L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers of the bkd operon. The concentration of L-valine required for half-maximal transcription was 2.8 mM, which is similar to that needed to cause half-maximal proteolysis due to a conformational change in BkdR. A model for transcriptional activation of the bkd operon by BkdR during enzyme induction which incorporates these results is presented. PMID:10217783

  2. Transcriptional Regulation of the Streptococcus salivarius 57.I Urease Operon

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Weaver, Cheryl A.; Mendelsohn, David R.; Burne, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The Streptococcus salivarius 57.I ure cluster was organized as an operon, beginning with ureI, followed by ureABC (structural genes) and ureEFGD (accessory genes). Northern analyses revealed transcripts encompassing structural genes and transcripts containing the entire operon. A ς70-like promoter could be mapped 5′ to ureI (PureI) by primer extension analysis. The intensity of the signal increased when cells were grown at an acidic pH and was further enhanced by excess carbohydrate. To deter...

  3. Dynamic model of gene regulation for the lac operon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelova, Maia; Ben-Halim, Asma, E-mail: maia.angelova@northumbria.ac.uk, E-mail: asma.benhalim@northumbria.ac.uk [Intelligent Modelling Lab, School of Computing, Engineering and Information Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 1XE (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    Gene regulatory network is a collection of DNA which interact with each other and with other matter in the cell. The lac operon is an example of a relatively simple genetic network and is one of the best-studied structures in the Escherichia coli bacteria. In this work we consider a deterministic model of the lac operon with a noise term, representing the stochastic nature of the regulation. The model is written in terms of a system of simultaneous first order differential equations with delays. We investigate an analytical and numerical solution and analyse the range of values for the parameters corresponding to a stable solution.

  4. Operon Formation is Driven by Co-Regulation and Not by Horizontal Gene Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Katherine H.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-04-12

    Although operons are often subject to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), non-HGT genes are particularly likely to be in operons. To resolve this apparent discrepancy and to determine whether HGT is involved in operon formation, we examined the evolutionary history of the genes and operons in Escherichia coli K12. We show that genes that have homologs in distantly related bacteria but not in close relatives of E. coli (indicating HGTi) form new operons at about the same rates as native genes. Furthermore, genes in new operons are no more likely than other genes to have phylogenetic trees that are inconsistent with the species tree. In contrast, essential genes and ubiquitous genes without paralogs (genes believed to undergo HGT rarely) often form new operons. We conclude that HGT is not associated with operon formation, but instead promotes the prevalence of pre-existing operons. To explain operon formation, we propose that new operons reduce the amount of regulatory information required to specify optimal expression patterns. Consistent with this hypothesis, operons have greater amounts of conserved regulatory sequences than do individually transcribed genes.

  5. Role of leader peptide synthesis in tryptophanase operon expression in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, V; Yanofsky, C

    1986-01-01

    We used site-directed mutagenesis to replace the Escherichia coli tryptophanase (tna) operon leader peptide start codon with AUC. This change greatly decreased the uninduced rate of tna operon expression, and it also lowered the response to inducer. We conclude that leader peptide synthesis plays an essential role in tna operon expression.

  6. Characterization of the Cobalamin and Fep Operons in Methylobium petrolphilum PM1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, J

    2005-09-06

    The bacterium Methylobium petroleophilum PM1 is economically important due to its ability to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a fuel additive. Because PM1 is a representative of all MTBE degraders, it is important to understand the transport pathways critical for the organism to survive in its particular environment. In this study, the cobalamin pathway and select iron transport genes will be characterized to help further understand all metabolic pathways in PM1. PM1 contains a total of four cobalamin operons. A single operon is located on the chromosome. Located on the megaplasmid are two tandem repeats of cob operons and a very close representative of the cob operon located on the chromosome. The fep operon, an iron transport mechanism, lies within the multiple copies of the cob operon. The cob operon and the fep operon appear to be unrelated except for a shared need for the T-on-B-dependent energy transduction complex to assist the operons in moving large molecules across the outer membrane of the cell. A genomic study of the cob and the fep operons with that of phylogenetically related organisms helped to confirm the identity of the cob and fep operons and to represent the pathways. More study of the pathways should be done to find the relationship that positions the two seemingly unrelated cob and fep genes together in what appears to be one operon.

  7. Fucose-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of the fcs Operon by FcsR in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Afzal, Muhammad; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the impact of fucose on the transcriptome of S. pneumoniae D39. The expression of various genes and operons, including the fucose uptake PTS and utilization operon (fcs operon) was altered in the presence of fucose. By means of quantitative RT-PCR and β-galactosidase analys

  8. Visualization of ribosomal RNA operon copy number distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DasGupta Indrani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of microbial ecology studies using 16S rRNA sequence information can be deceiving due to differences in rRNA operon copy number and genome size of the detected organisms. It therefore will be useful for investigators to have a better understanding of how these two parameters differ in various organism types. In this study, the number of ribosomal operons and genome size were separately mapped onto a Bacterial phylogenetic tree. Results A representative Bacterial tree was constructed using 31 marker genes found in 578 bacterial genome sequences. Organism names are displayed on the trees using graduations of color such that similar colors indicate similar numbers of operons or genome size. The resulting images provide an intuitive understanding of how copy number and genome size vary in different Bacterial phyla. Conclusion Once the phylogenetic position of a novel organism is known the number of rRNA operons, and to a lesser extent the genome size, can be estimated by examination of the colored maps. Further detail can then be obtained for members of relevant taxa from the rrnDB database.

  9. NMR studies of the allosteric effectors of the lac operon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanuka, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to characterize the regulatory mechanism of the Lac repressor which is the molecular switch of the lac operon. Lac repressor binds to its cognate DNA operator and inhibits transcription. When an inducer binds to the protein, it triggers a conformational change that releases

  10. Nitrate and nitrite-mediated transcription antitermination control of nasF (nitrate assimilation) operon expression in Klebsiella pheumoniae M5al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J T; Stewart, V

    1996-03-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae can use nitrate and nitrite as sole nitrogen sources during aerobic growth. Nitrate is converted through nitrite to ammonium by assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductase, respectively. Enzymes required for nitrate assimilation are encoded by the nasFEDCBA operon of K. pneumoniae; nasF operon expression is subject to both general nitrogen control and pathway-specific nitrate/nitrite induction, mediated by the NtrC and NasR proteins, respectively. Sequence inspection revealed a presumptive sigmaN (sigma54)-dependent promoter as well as two presumptive upstream NtrC protein binding sites. Site-specific mutational and primer extension analyses confirmed the identity of the sigmaN-dependent promoter. Deletions removing the apparent NtrC protein binding sites greatly reduced NtrC-dependent regulation, indicating that these sites are involved in general nitrogen control. However, deletions removing most of the sequence upstream of the promoter had little effect on nitrate/nitrite regulation, suggesting that the nasF leader region is involved in nitrate/nitrite regulation. The 119 nucleotide long transcribed leader region contains an apparent factor-independent transcription terminator. Promoter replacement experiments demonstrated that the leader region is involved in nitrate/nitrite regulation of nasF operon expression. Deletions removing the transcription terminator structure resulted in a nitrate-blind constitutive phenotype, indicating that the transcription terminator structure serves a negative function. Other deletions, removing proximal portions of the leader region, resulted in an uninducible phenotype, indicating that this region serves a positive function. These results indicate that nitrate/nitrite regulation of nasF operon expression is determined by a transcription attenuation mechanism. We hypothesize that in the absence of nitrate or nitrite, the terminator structure abrogates transcription readthrough into the nasF operon. In the

  11. Definition of a second Bacillus subtilis pur regulon comprising the pur and xpt-pbuX operons plus pbuG, nupG (yxjA), and pbuE (ydhL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, L.E.; Nygaard, P.; Lassen, C.;

    2003-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis expression of genes or operons encoding enzymes and other proteins involved in purine synthesis is affected by purine bases and nucleosides in the growth medium. The genes belonging to the PurR regulon (purR, purA, glyA, guaC, pbuO, pbuG, and the pur, yqhZ-folD, and xpt......-pbuX operons) are controlled by the PurR repressor, which inhibits transcription initiation. Other genes are regulated by a less-well-described transcription termination mechanism that responds to the presence of hypoxanthine and guanine. The pur operon and the xpt-pbuX operon, which were studied here......, are regulated by both mechanisms. We isolated two mutants resistant to 2-fluoroadenine in which the pur operon and the xpt-pbuX operon are expressed at increased levels in a PurR-independent manner. The mutations were caused by deletions that disrupted a potential transcription terminator structure located...

  12. Characterisation of the mgo operon in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158 that is required for mangotoxin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrebola Eva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mangotoxin is an antimetabolite toxin that is produced by strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae; mangotoxin-producing strains are primarily isolated from mango tissues with symptoms of bacterial apical necrosis. The toxin is an oligopeptide that inhibits ornithine N-acetyl transferase (OAT, a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the essential amino acids ornithine and arginine. The involvement of a putative nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene (mgoA in mangotoxin production and virulence has been reported. Results In the present study, we performed a RT-PCR analysis, insertional inactivation mutagenesis, a promoter expression analysis and terminator localisation to study the gene cluster containing the mgoA gene. Additionally, we evaluated the importance of mgoC, mgoA and mgoD in mangotoxin production. A sequence analysis revealed an operon-like organisation. A promoter sequence was located upstream of the mgoB gene and was found to drive lacZ transcription. Two terminators were located downstream of the mgoD gene. RT-PCR experiments indicated that the four genes (mgoBCAD constitute a transcriptional unit. This operon is similar in genetic organisation to those in the three other P. syringae pathovars for which complete genomes are available (P. syringae pv. syringae B728a, P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A. Interestingly, none of these three reference strains is capable of producing mangotoxin. Additionally, extract complementation resulted in a recovery of mangotoxin production when the defective mutant was complemented with wild-type extracts. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that mgoB, mgoC, mgoA and mgoD function as a transcriptional unit and operon. While this operon is composed of four genes, only the last three are directly involved in mangotoxin production.

  13. MycoperonDB: a database of computationally identified operons and transcriptional units in Mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Akash

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key post genomics challenge is to identify how genes in an organism come together and perform physiological functions. An important first step in this direction is to identify transcriptional units, operons and regulons in a genome. Here we implement and report a strategy to computationally identify transcriptional units and operons of mycobacteria and construct a database-MycoperonDB. Description We have predicted transcriptional units and operons in mycobacteria and organized these predictions in the form of relational database called MycoperonDB. MycoperonDB database at present consists of 18053 genes organized as 8256 predicted operons and transcriptional units from five closely related species of mycobacteria. The database further provides literature links for experimentally characterized operons. All known promoters and related information is collected, analysed and stored. It provides a user friendly interface to allow a web based navigation of transcription units and operons. The web interface provides search tools to locate transcription factor binding DNA motif upstream to various genes. The reliability of operon prediction has been assessed by comparing the predicted operons with a set of known operons. Conclusion MycoperonDB is a publicly available structured relational database which has information about mycobacterial genes, transcriptional units and operons. We expect this database to assist molecular biologists/microbiologists in general, to hypothesize functional linkages between operonic genes of mycobacteria, their experimental characterization and validation. The database is freely available from our website http://www.cdfd.org.in/mycoperondb/index.html.

  14. Fucose-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of the fcs Operon by FcsR in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Afzal, Muhammad; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the impact of fucose on the transcriptome of S. pneumoniae D39. The expression of various genes and operons, including the fucose uptake PTS and utilization operon (fcs operon) was altered in the presence of fucose. By means of quantitative RT-PCR and β-galactosidase analysis, we demonstrate the role of the transcriptional regulator FcsR, present upstream of the fcs operon, as a transcriptional activator of the fcs operon. We also predict a 19-bp putative FcsR regulatory site (5'-ATTTGAACATTATTCAAGT-3') in the promoter region of the fcs operon. The functionality of this predicted FcsR regulatory site was further confirmed by promoter-truncation experiments, where deletion of half of the FscR regulatory site or full deletion led to the abolition of expression of the fcs operon.

  15. Evolution of bacterial trp operons and their regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Enrique; Jensen, Roy A; Yanofsky, Charles

    2008-04-01

    Survival and replication of most bacteria require the ability to synthesize the amino acid L-tryptophan whenever it is not available from the environment. In this article we describe the genes, operons, proteins, and reactions involved in tryptophan biosynthesis in bacteria, and the mechanisms they use in regulating tryptophan formation. We show that although the reactions of tryptophan biosynthesis are essentially identical, gene organization varies among species--from whole-pathway operons to completely dispersed genes. We also show that the regulatory mechanisms used for these genes vary greatly. We address the question--what are some potential advantages of the gene organization and regulation variation associated with this conserved, important pathway? PMID:18374625

  16. Elucidation of operon structures across closely related bacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Ma, Qin; Li, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    About half of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes are organized into operons to facilitate co-regulation during transcription. With the evolution of genomes, operon structures are undergoing changes which could coordinate diverse gene expression patterns in response to various stimuli during the life cycle of a bacterial cell. Here we developed a graph-based model to elucidate the diversity of operon structures across a set of closely related bacterial genomes. In the constructed graph, each node represents one orthologous gene group (OGG) and a pair of nodes will be connected if any two genes, from the corresponding two OGGs respectively, are located in the same operon as immediate neighbors in any of the considered genomes. Through identifying the connected components in the above graph, we found that genes in a connected component are likely to be functionally related and these identified components tend to form treelike topology, such as paths and stars, corresponding to different biological mechanisms in transcriptional regulation as follows. Specifically, (i) a path-structure component integrates genes encoding a protein complex, such as ribosome; and (ii) a star-structure component not only groups related genes together, but also reflects the key functional roles of the central node of this component, such as the ABC transporter with a transporter permease and substrate-binding proteins surrounding it. Most interestingly, the genes from organisms with highly diverse living environments, i.e., biomass degraders and animal pathogens of clostridia in our study, can be clearly classified into different topological groups on some connected components.

  17. Elucidation of operon structures across closely related bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Zhou

    Full Text Available About half of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes are organized into operons to facilitate co-regulation during transcription. With the evolution of genomes, operon structures are undergoing changes which could coordinate diverse gene expression patterns in response to various stimuli during the life cycle of a bacterial cell. Here we developed a graph-based model to elucidate the diversity of operon structures across a set of closely related bacterial genomes. In the constructed graph, each node represents one orthologous gene group (OGG and a pair of nodes will be connected if any two genes, from the corresponding two OGGs respectively, are located in the same operon as immediate neighbors in any of the considered genomes. Through identifying the connected components in the above graph, we found that genes in a connected component are likely to be functionally related and these identified components tend to form treelike topology, such as paths and stars, corresponding to different biological mechanisms in transcriptional regulation as follows. Specifically, (i a path-structure component integrates genes encoding a protein complex, such as ribosome; and (ii a star-structure component not only groups related genes together, but also reflects the key functional roles of the central node of this component, such as the ABC transporter with a transporter permease and substrate-binding proteins surrounding it. Most interestingly, the genes from organisms with highly diverse living environments, i.e., biomass degraders and animal pathogens of clostridia in our study, can be clearly classified into different topological groups on some connected components.

  18. Insights into arsenic multi-operons expression and arsenic resistance mechanisms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungui eZhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is widespread in the environment and causes numerous health problems. Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been regarded as a good model organism for studying arsenic detoxification since it was first demonstrated to methylate environmental arsenic by conversion to soluble or gaseous methylated species. However, the detailed arsenic resistance mechanisms remain unknown though there are at least three arsenic-resistance operons (ars1, ars2 and ars3 in R. palustris. In this study, we investigated how arsenic multi-operons contributed to arsenic detoxification in R. palustris. The expression of ars2 or ars3 operons increased with increasing environmental arsenite (As(III concentrations (up to 1.0 mM while transcript of ars1 operon was not detected in the middle log-phase (55 h. ars2 operon was actively expressed even at the low concentration of As(III (0.01 μM, whereas the ars3 operon was expressed at 1.0 µM of As(III, indicating that there was a differential regulation mechanism for the three arsenic operons. Furthermore, ars2 and ars3 operons were maximally transcribed in the early log-phase where ars2 operon was 5.4-fold higher than that of ars3 operon. A low level of ars1 transcript was only detected at 43 h (early log-phase. Arsenic speciation analysis demonstrated that R. palustris could reduce As(V to As(III.

  19. Modification of the rib operon derived from Bacillus subtilis and its expression in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huitu; Meng Kun; Wang Yaru; Luo Huiying; Yuan Tiezheng; Yang Peilong; Bai Yingguo; Yao Bin; Fan Yunliu

    2007-01-01

    A riboflavin operon(rib operon)derived from Bacillus subtilis 368 was modified on structure and the resulting operons were expressed in various strains of Escherichia coli. The results showed that the optimization of the rib operon and the host strain used for expression are two main factors affecting the riboflavin production. Replacing the promoter l and rfn box of the rib operon with a strong constructive promoter spo l drastically increased the expression of the rib genes. When E. Coli JMl09 was used as the host strain, the highest riboflavin production reached 95.3μg/mL(about eight times higher than that 0f the unmodified rib operon). In addition, when tetracycline(20 μg/mL)was used as the selective pressure, compared with the ampicillin resistant transformants, a higher riboflavin yield Was obtained in tetracycline resistant host strain.

  20. Effect of Riboflavin Operon Dosage on Riboflavin Productivity in Bacillus Subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tao; CHEN Xun; WANG Jingyu; ZHAO Xueming

    2005-01-01

    After deregulating the purine and riboflavin synthesis in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis,it is critical to amplify riboflavin operon with appropriate dosage in the host strain for remarkable increase of riboflavin production.Bacillus subtilis RH13, a riboflavin-producing strain, was selected as host strain in the construction of engineering strains by protoplast fusion. The integrative plasmid pRB63 and autonomous plasmid pRB49, pRB62 containing riboflavin operon of B.subtilis 24 were constructed and transformed into the host strain respectively. Increasing one operon copy in B.subtilis RH13 results in about 0.4 g/L improvement in riboflavin yield and the appropriate number of operon copies was about 7-8. Amplifying more riboflavin operons is of no use for further improvement of yield of riboflavin. Furthermore, excessive operon dosage results in metabolic unbalance and is fatal to the host cells producing riboflavin.

  1. New insights into regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Preciado, A; Jensen, R A; Yanofsky, C; Merino, E

    2005-08-01

    The tryptophan operon of Bacillus subtilis serves as an excellent model for investigating transcription regulation in Gram-positive bacteria. In this article, we extend this knowledge by analyzing the predicted regulatory regions in the trp operons of other fully sequenced Gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, it appears that in eight of the organisms examined, transcription of the trp operon appears to be regulated by tandem T-box elements. These regulatory elements have recently been described in the trp operons of two bacterial species. Single T-box elements are commonly found in Gram-positive bacteria in operons encoding aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and proteins performing other functions. Different regulatory mechanisms appear to be associated with variations of trp gene organization within the trp operon. PMID:15953653

  2. The 17-Gene Ethanolamine (eut) Operon of Salmonella typhimurium Encodes Five Homologues of Carboxysome Shell Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Kofoid, Eric; Rappleye, Chad; Stojiljkovic, Igor; Roth, John

    1999-01-01

    The eut operon of Salmonella typhimurium encodes proteins involved in the cobalamin-dependent degradation of ethanolamine. Previous genetic analysis revealed six eut genes that are needed for aerobic use of ethanolamine; one (eutR), encodes a positive regulator which mediates induction of the operon by vitamin B12 plus ethanolamine. The DNA sequence of the eut operon included 17 genes, suggesting a more complex pathway than that revealed genetically. We have correlated an open reading frame i...

  3. The pseudogenes of Mycobacterium leprae reveal the functional relevance of gene order within operons

    OpenAIRE

    Muro, E.M.; Mah, N.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G.; Andrade-Navarro, M A

    2010-01-01

    Almost 50 years following the discovery of the prokaryotic operon, the functional relevance of gene order within operons remains unclear. In this work, we take advantage of the eroded genome of Mycobacterium leprae to add evidence supporting the notion that functionally less important genes have a tendency to be located at the end of its operons. M. leprae's genome includes 1133 pseudogenes and 1614 protein-coding genes and can be compared with the close genome of M. tuberculosis. Assuming M....

  4. Comparison of tryptophan biosynthetic operon regulation in different Gram-positive bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Preciado, Ana; Yanofsky, Charles; Merino, Enrique

    2007-09-01

    The tryptophan biosynthetic operon has been widely used as a model system for studying transcription regulation. In Bacillus subtilis, the trp operon is primarily regulated by a tryptophan-activated RNA-binding protein, TRAP. Here we show that in many other Gram-positive species the trp operon is regulated differently, by tRNA(Trp) sensing by the RNA-based T-box mechanism, with T-boxes arranged in tandem. Our analyses reveal an apparent relationship between trp operon organization and the specific regulatory mechanism(s) used. PMID:17555843

  5. Dynamic behavior in mathematical models of the tryptophan operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    This paper surveys the general theory of operon regulation as first formulated by Goodwin and Griffith, and then goes on to consider in detail models of regulation of tryptophan production by Bliss, Sinha, and Santillán and Mackey, and the interrelationships between them. We further give a linear stability analysis of the Santillán and Mackey model for wild type E. coli as well as three different mutant strains that have been previously studied in the literature. This stability analysis indicates that the tryptophan production systems should be stable, which is in accord with our numerical results.

  6. Economy of operon formation: cotranscription minimizes shortfall in protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneppen, Kim; Pedersen, Steen; Krishna, Sandeep; Dodd, Ian; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    Genes of prokaryotes and Archaea are often organized in cotranscribed groups, or operons. In contrast, eukaryotic genes are generally transcribed independently. Here we show that there is a substantial economic gain for the cell to cotranscribe genes encoding protein complexes because it synchronizes the fluctuations, or noise, in the levels of the different components. This correlation substantially reduces the shortfall in production of the complex. This benefit is relatively large in small cells such as bacterial cells, in which there are few mRNAs and proteins per cell, and is diminished in larger cells such as eukaryotic cells. PMID:20877578

  7. act Operon Control of Developmental Gene Expression in Myxococcus xanthus

    OpenAIRE

    Gronewold, Thomas M. A.; Kaiser, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Cell-bound C-signal guides the building of a fruiting body and triggers the differentiation of myxospores. Earlier work has shown that transcription of the csgA gene, which encodes the C-signal, is directed by four genes of the act operon. To see how expression of the genes encoding components of the aggregation and sporulation processes depends on C-signaling, mutants with loss-of-function mutations in each of the act genes were investigated. These mutations were found to have no effect on g...

  8. Unprecedented high-resolution view of bacterial operon architecture revealed by RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Tyrrell; Creecy, James P; Maddox, Scott M; Grissom, Joe E; Conkle, Trevor L; Shadid, Tyler M; Teramoto, Jun; San Miguel, Phillip; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ishihama, Akira; Mori, Hirotada; Wanner, Barry L

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12 by strand-specific RNA sequencing at single-nucleotide resolution during steady-state (logarithmic-phase) growth and upon entry into stationary phase in glucose minimal medium. To generate high-resolution transcriptome maps, we developed an organizational schema which showed that in practice only three features are required to define operon architecture: the promoter, terminator, and deep RNA sequence read coverage. We precisely annotated 2,122 promoters and 1,774 terminators, defining 1,510 operons with an average of 1.98 genes per operon. Our analyses revealed an unprecedented view of E. coli operon architecture. A large proportion (36%) of operons are complex with internal promoters or terminators that generate multiple transcription units. For 43% of operons, we observed differential expression of polycistronic genes, despite being in the same operons, indicating that E. coli operon architecture allows fine-tuning of gene expression. We found that 276 of 370 convergent operons terminate inefficiently, generating complementary 3' transcript ends which overlap on average by 286 nucleotides, and 136 of 388 divergent operons have promoters arranged such that their 5' ends overlap on average by 168 nucleotides. We found 89 antisense transcripts of 397-nucleotide average length, 7 unannotated transcripts within intergenic regions, and 18 sense transcripts that completely overlap operons on the opposite strand. Of 519 overlapping transcripts, 75% correspond to sequences that are highly conserved in E. coli (>50 genomes). Our data extend recent studies showing unexpected transcriptome complexity in several bacteria and suggest that antisense RNA regulation is widespread. Importance: We precisely mapped the 5' and 3' ends of RNA transcripts across the E. coli K-12 genome by using a single-nucleotide analytical approach. Our resulting high-resolution transcriptome maps show that ca. one-third of E. coli operons are

  9. Transcriptional Regulation of the Streptococcus salivarius 57.I Urease Operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Weaver, Cheryl A.; Mendelsohn, David R.; Burne, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The Streptococcus salivarius 57.I ure cluster was organized as an operon, beginning with ureI, followed by ureABC (structural genes) and ureEFGD (accessory genes). Northern analyses revealed transcripts encompassing structural genes and transcripts containing the entire operon. A ς70-like promoter could be mapped 5′ to ureI (PureI) by primer extension analysis. The intensity of the signal increased when cells were grown at an acidic pH and was further enhanced by excess carbohydrate. To determine the function(s) of two inverted repeats located 5′ to PureI, transcriptional fusions of the full-length promoter region (PureI), or a deletion derivative (PureIΔ100), and a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene were constructed and integrated into the chromosome to generate strains PureICAT and PureIΔ100CAT, respectively. CAT specific activities of PureICAT were repressed at pH 7.0 and induced at pH 5.5 and by excess carbohydrate. In PureIΔ100CAT, CAT activity was 60-fold higher than in PureICAT at pH 7.0 and pH induction was nearly eliminated, indicating that expression was negatively regulated. Thus, it was concluded that PureI was the predominant, regulated promoter and that regulation was governed by a mechanism differing markedly from other known mechanisms for bacterial urease expression. PMID:9791132

  10. RNase III cleavage of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase and tryptophan operon mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, V; Imamoto, F; Schlessinger, D

    1982-01-01

    Purified RNase III of Escherichia coli cleaved the initial 479-nucleotide sequence of lac operon mRNA at four specific sites and also gave limited cleavage of trp operon mRNA. This action explains the inactivation of mRNA coding capacity by RNase III in vitro.

  11. Metabolic diversification--independent assembly of operon-like gene clusters in different plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Ben; Osbourn, Anne E

    2008-04-25

    Operons are clusters of unrelated genes with related functions that are a feature of prokaryotic genomes. Here, we report on an operon-like gene cluster in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana that is required for triterpene synthesis (the thalianol pathway). The clustered genes are coexpressed, as in bacterial operons. However, despite the resemblance to a bacterial operon, this gene cluster has been assembled from plant genes by gene duplication, neofunctionalization, and genome reorganization, rather than by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Furthermore, recent assembly of operon-like gene clusters for triterpene synthesis has occurred independently in divergent plant lineages (Arabidopsis and oat). Thus, selection pressure may act during the formation of certain plant metabolic pathways to drive gene clustering.

  12. Metabolic diversification--independent assembly of operon-like gene clusters in different plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Ben; Osbourn, Anne E

    2008-04-25

    Operons are clusters of unrelated genes with related functions that are a feature of prokaryotic genomes. Here, we report on an operon-like gene cluster in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana that is required for triterpene synthesis (the thalianol pathway). The clustered genes are coexpressed, as in bacterial operons. However, despite the resemblance to a bacterial operon, this gene cluster has been assembled from plant genes by gene duplication, neofunctionalization, and genome reorganization, rather than by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Furthermore, recent assembly of operon-like gene clusters for triterpene synthesis has occurred independently in divergent plant lineages (Arabidopsis and oat). Thus, selection pressure may act during the formation of certain plant metabolic pathways to drive gene clustering. PMID:18356490

  13. vanO, a new glycopeptide resistance operon in environmental Rhodococcus equi isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Moodley, Arshnee; Bortolaia, Valeria;

    2014-01-01

    We describe sequence and gene organization of a new glycopeptide resistance operon (vanO) in Rhodococcus equi from soil. The vanO operon has low homology to enterococccal van operons and harbors a vanHOX cluster transcribed in opposite direction to the vanS-vanR regulatory system and comprised be...

  14. The rise of operon-like gene clusters in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycheva, Svetlana; Daviet, Laurent; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2014-07-01

    Gene clusters are common features of prokaryotic genomes also present in eukaryotes. Most clustered genes known are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Although horizontal gene transfer is a primary source of prokaryotic gene cluster (operon) formation and has been reported to occur in eukaryotes, the predominant source of cluster formation in eukaryotes appears to arise de novo or through gene duplication followed by neo- and sub-functionalization or translocation. Here we aim to provide an overview of the current knowledge and open questions related to plant gene cluster functioning, assembly, and regulation. We also present potential research approaches and point out the benefits of a better understanding of gene clusters in plants for both fundamental and applied plant science.

  15. Evolution of the Leukotoxin Operon in Genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Christensen, Henrik;

    The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines......RNA sequences; (iii) phylogeny of 24 leukotoxin gene sequences and 16 homologous genes retrieved from SWISS-PROT by using PSI-BLAST. Our data show no evidence for horizontal gene transfer into this clade. We propose that vertical descent from the common ancestor of genus Mannheimia, with subsequent loss...... of these genes in many strains can explain the patchy distribution of leukotoxin in this clade. Finally, we argue that antagonistic pleiotropy was the main contributor to gene loss in the radiating M. ruminalis lines, which have adapted to different ecological niches in the rumen offering different conditions...

  16. Evolution of the leukotoxin operon in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Pedersen, A. G.; Christensen, H.;

    2005-01-01

    The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines......RNA sequences; (iii) phylogeny of 24 leukotoxin gene sequences and 16 homologous genes retrieved from SWISS-PROT by using PSI-BLAST. Our data show no evidence for horizontal gene transfer into this clade. We propose that vertical descent from the common ancestor of genus Mannheimia, with subsequent loss...... of these genes in many strains can explain the patchy distribution of leukotoxin in this clade. Finally, we argue that antagonistic pleiotropy was the main contributor to gene loss in the radiating M. ruminalis lines, which have adapted to different ecological niches in the rumen offering different conditions...

  17. Recombination and selectional forces in cyanopeptolin NRPS operons from highly similar, but geographically remote Planktothrix strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Tom

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanopeptolins are nonribosomally produced heptapetides showing a highly variable composition. The cyanopeptolin synthetase operon has previously been investigated in three strains from the genera Microcystis, Planktothrix and Anabaena. Cyanopeptolins are displaying protease inhibitor activity, but the biological function(s is (are unknown. Cyanopeptolin gene cluster variability and biological functions of the peptide variants are likely to be interconnected. Results We have investigated two cyanopeptolin gene clusters from highly similar, but geographically remote strains of the same genus. Sequencing of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS cyanopeptolin gene cluster from the Japanese strain Planktothrix NIES 205 (205-oci, showed the 30 kb gene cluster to be highly similar to the oci gene cluster previously described in Planktothrix NIVA CYA 116, isolated in Norway. Both operons contained seven NRPS modules, a sulfotransferase (S and a glyceric acid loading (GA-domain. Sequence analyses showed a high degree of conservation, except for the presence of an epimerase domain in NIES 205 and the regions around the epimerase, showing high substitution rates and Ka/Ks values above 1. The two strains produce almost identical cyanopeptolins, cyanopeptolin-1138 and oscillapeptin E respectively, but with slight differences regarding the production of minor cyanopeptolin variants. These variants may be the result of relaxed adenylation (A-domain specificity in the nonribosomal enzyme complex. Other genetic markers (16S rRNA, ntcA and the phycocyanin cpcBA spacer were identical, supporting that these geographically separated Planktothrix strains are closely related. Conclusion A horizontal gene transfer event resulting in exchange of a whole module-encoding region was observed. Nucleotide statistics indicate that both purifying selection and positive selection forces are operating on the gene cluster. The positive selection forces are

  18. The role of FIS in trans activation of stable RNA operons of E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, L; Vanet, A; Vijgenboom, E; Bosch, L

    1990-03-01

    The thrU(tufB) operon of Escherichia coli is endowed with a cis-acting region upstream of the promoter, designated UAS for Upstream Activator Sequence. A protein fraction has been isolated that binds specifically to DNA fragments of the UAS, thus forming three protein-DNA complexes corresponding to three binding sites on the UAS. It stimulates in vitro transcription of the operon by facilitating the binding of the RNA polymerase to the promoter. All three protein-DNA complexes contain one and the same protein. Dissociation constants for the three complexes have been determined, the lowest being in the sub-nanomolar range. The protein also binds to the UAS of the tyrT operon and to the UAS upstream of the P1 promoter of the rrnB operon, suggesting that transcription of the three operons, if not of more stable RNA operons, is activated by a common trans activator. We demonstrate that the E.coli protein FIS (Factor for Inversion Stimulation) also binds to the UAS of the thrU(tufB) operon forming three protein-DNA complexes. A burst of UAS- and FIS-dependent promoter activity is observed after reinitiation of growth of stationary cultures in fresh medium. PMID:1690124

  19. Regulation of gene expression: Cryptic β-glucoside (bgl operon of Escherichia coli as a paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh Harwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to extract utilizable substrates from available resources and consequently acquire fitness advantage over competitors. One of the strategies is the exploitation of cryptic cellular functions encoded by genetic systems that are silent under laboratory conditions, such as the bgl (β-glucoside operon of E. coli. The bgl operon of Escherichia coli, involved in the uptake and utilization of aromatic β-glucosides salicin and arbutin, is maintained in a silent state in the wild type organism by the presence of structural elements in the regulatory region. This operon can be activated by mutations that disrupt these negative elements. The fact that the silent bgl operon is retained without accumulating deleterious mutations seems paradoxical from an evolutionary view point. Although this operon appears to be silent, specific physiological conditions might be able to regulate its expression and/or the operon might be carrying out function(s apart from the utilization of aromatic β-glucosides. This is consistent with the observations that the activated operon confers a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase (GASP phenotype to Bgl+ cells and exerts its regulation on at least twelve downstream target genes.

  20. Interplay of gene expression noise and ultrasensitive dynamics affects bacterial operon organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Christian J Ray

    Full Text Available Bacterial chromosomes are organized into polycistronic cotranscribed operons, but the evolutionary pressures maintaining them are unclear. We hypothesized that operons alter gene expression noise characteristics, resulting in selection for or against maintaining operons depending on network architecture. Mathematical models for 6 functional classes of network modules showed that three classes exhibited decreased noise and 3 exhibited increased noise with same-operon cotranscription of interacting proteins. Noise reduction was often associated with a decreased chance of reaching an ultrasensitive threshold. Stochastic simulations of the lac operon demonstrated that the predicted effects of transcriptional coupling hold for a complex network module. We employed bioinformatic analysis to find overrepresentation of noise-minimizing operon organization compared with randomized controls. Among constitutively expressed physically interacting protein pairs, higher coupling frequencies appeared at lower expression levels, where noise effects are expected to be dominant. Our results thereby suggest an important role for gene expression noise, in many cases interacting with an ultrasensitive switch, in maintaining or selecting for operons in bacterial chromosomes.

  1. The Genomic Pattern of tDNA Operon Expression in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In fast-growing microorganisms, a tRNA concentration profile enriched in major isoacceptors selects for the biased usage of cognate codons. This optimizes translational rate for the least mass invested in the translational apparatus. Such translational streamlining is thought to be growth-regulated, but its genetic basis is poorly understood. First, we found in reanalysis of the E. coli tRNA profile that the degree to which it is translationally streamlined is nearly invariant with growth rate. Then, using least squares multiple regression, we partitioned tRNA isoacceptor pools to predicted tDNA operons from the E. coli K12 genome. Co-expression of tDNAs in operons explains the tRNA profile significantly better than tDNA gene dosage alone. Also, operon expression increases significantly with proximity to the origin of replication, oriC, at all growth rates. Genome location explains about 15% of expression variation in a form, at a given growth rate, that is consistent with replication-dependent gene concentration effects. Yet the change in the tRNA profile with growth rate is less than would be expected from such effects. We estimated per-copy expression rates for all tDNA operons that were consistent with independent estimates for rDNA operons. We also found that tDNA operon location, and the location dependence of expression, were significantly different in the leading and lagging strands. The operonic organization and genomic location of tDNA operons are significant factors influencing their expression. Nonrandom patterns of location and strandedness shown by tDNA operons in E. coli suggest that their genomic architecture may be under selection to satisfy physiological demand for tRNA expression at high growth rates.

  2. Organization and sequence analysis of the 2,4-dichlorophenol hydroxylase and dichlorocatechol oxidative operons of plasmid pJP4.

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, E J; Gordon, M P; Caceres, O.; Lurquin, P F

    1990-01-01

    Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate requires a 2,4-dichlorphenol hydroxylase encoded by gene tfdB. Catabolism of either 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate or 3-chlorobenzoate involves enzymes encoded by the chlorocatechol oxidative operon consisting of tfdCDEF, which converts 3-chloro- and 3,5-dichlorocatechol to maleylacetate and chloromaleylacetate, respectively. Transposon mutagenesis has localized tfdB and tfdCDEF to EcoRI fragment B of plasmid pJP4 (R. H. Don, A....

  3. Characterization of transcriptional regulation of the kdp operon of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Frymier, J S; Reed, T. D.; Fletcher, S A; Csonka, L N

    1997-01-01

    The transcriptional control of the kdpFABC (K+ transport) operon of Salmonella typhimurium was characterized with a lacZ fusion. The kdpFABC operon of this organism was induced by K+ limitation and high osmolality, and osmotic induction was antagonized by a high concentration of K+. In the trkA (sapG) kdp+ mutant background, high concentrations of K+ inhibited growth, along with repressing the kdp operon. This result, which has not been reported for Escherichia coli, is inconsistent with the ...

  4. Repression of the Escherichia coli modABCD (molybdate transport) operon by ModE.

    OpenAIRE

    Grunden, A M; Ray, R M; Rosentel, J K; Healy, F. G.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    1996-01-01

    The modABC gene products constitute the molybdate-specific transport system in Escherichia coli. Another operon coding for two proteins which diverges from the modABCD operon has been identified. The first gene of this operon codes for a 262-amino-acid protein, designated ModE (28 kDa), and the second genes codes for a 490-amino-acid protein. ModF (54 kDa). The role of ModF has not yet been determined; however, mutations in modE depressed modABCD transcription even in the presence of molybdat...

  5. Ancient origin of the tryptophan operon and the dynamics of evolutionary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Gary; Keyhani, Nemat O; Bonner, Carol A; Jensen, Roy A

    2003-09-01

    The seven conserved enzymatic domains required for tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis are encoded in seven genetic regions that are organized differently (whole-pathway operons, multiple partial-pathway operons, and dispersed genes) in prokaryotes. A comparative bioinformatics evaluation of the conservation and organization of the genes of Trp biosynthesis in prokaryotic operons should serve as an excellent model for assessing the feasibility of predicting the evolutionary histories of genes and operons associated with other biochemical pathways. These comparisons should provide a better understanding of possible explanations for differences in operon organization in different organisms at a genomics level. These analyses may also permit identification of some of the prevailing forces that dictated specific gene rearrangements during the course of evolution. Operons concerned with Trp biosynthesis in prokaryotes have been in a dynamic state of flux. Analysis of closely related organisms among the Bacteria at various phylogenetic nodes reveals many examples of operon scission, gene dispersal, gene fusion, gene scrambling, and gene loss from which the direction of evolutionary events can be deduced. Two milestone evolutionary events have been mapped to the 16S rRNA tree of Bacteria, one splitting the operon in two, and the other rejoining it by gene fusion. The Archaea, though less resolved due to a lesser genome representation, appear to exhibit more gene scrambling than the Bacteria. The trp operon appears to have been an ancient innovation; it was already present in the common ancestor of Bacteria and Archaea. Although the operon has been subjected, even in recent times, to dynamic changes in gene rearrangement, the ancestral gene order can be deduced with confidence. The evolutionary history of the genes of the pathway is discernible in rough outline as a vertical line of descent, with events of lateral gene transfer or paralogy enriching the analysis as interesting

  6. Identification of anthranilate and benzoate metabolic operons of Pseudomonas fluorescens and functional characterization of their promoter regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Vincent D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to identify alternate recombinant gene expression systems in Pseudomonas fluorescens, we identified genes encoding two native metabolic pathways that were inducible with inexpensive compounds: the anthranilate operon (antABC and the benzoate operon (benABCD. Results The antABC and benABCD operons were identified by homology to the Acinetobacter sp. anthranilate operon and Pseudomonas putida benzoate operon, and were confirmed to be regulated by anthranilate or benzoate, respectively. Fusions of the putative promoter regions to the E. coli lacZ gene were constructed to confirm inducible gene expression. Each operon was found to be controlled by an AraC family transcriptional activator, located immediately upstream of the first structural gene in each respective operon (antR or benR. Conclusion We have found the anthranilate and benzoate promoters to be useful for tightly controlling recombinant gene expression at both small (

  7. 木醋杆菌纤维素合成操纵子的克隆及棉花转化%Cloning Whole Cellulose-Synthesizing Operon (ayacs Operon) from Acetobacter xylinum and Transforming It into Cultivated Cotton Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢迎春; 魏刚; 朱玉贤

    2002-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Acetobacter xylinum synthesizes an extracellular ribbon of cellulose microfibrils that possess unique structural and mechanical properties when compared to higher plant cellulose. All four genes in the cellulose-synthesizing operon (ayacs operon) of A. xylinum Ay201 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotide primers designed according to published acs operon sequence of A. xylinum ATCC 53582. Alignment of the two operons showed that they were highly homologous (98% similarity, 97% identity). AcsA and acsB gene were cloned in pCAMBIA 1301 vector while acsC and acsD were cloned in pCOB302-3 under the control of CaM 35S promoter. The constructs were introduced into cotton by the pollen-tube-pathway method and seeds obtained from putative transgenic plants were germinated on media containing hygromycin and phosphinothricin (PPT). Five seedlings out of 934 seeds were proved to contain all four foreign genes by PCR amplification. This is the first time that a whole operon encoding four different bacterial enzymes with various biological functions is transformed into cultivated cotton plants.%革兰氏阴性菌木醋杆菌(Acetobacter xylinum (Brown) Yamada)合成一种由纤维素微纤丝组成的胞外带状物.与高等植物纤维素相比,它具有独特的结构和机械性能.根据从木醋杆菌ATCC 53582克隆的acs纤维素合成操纵子序列设计引物, 用PCR的方法从木醋杆菌Ay201中克隆了ayacs纤维素合成操纵子的全部4个基因.序列比较发现,两者高度同源.将连上CaMV 35S启动子的acsA、acsB克隆到植物表达载体pCAMBIA 1301上,acsC、acsD克隆到pCOB302-3中.然后通过花粉管通道法转化棉花(Gossypium hirsutum)胚珠,收获的种子在含有卡那霉素和除草剂的双抗培养基上进行筛选.PCR检测发现934粒种子中有5棵植株含有全部4个基因.这是首次将编码4个功能蛋白的细菌操纵子成功地转入棉花.

  8. Parallel Evolution and Horizontal Gene Transfer of the pst Operon in Firmicutes from Oligotrophic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moreno-Letelier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The high affinity phosphate transport system (pst is crucial for phosphate uptake in oligotrophic environments. Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB has extremely low P levels and its endemic Bacillus are closely related to oligotrophic marine Firmicutes. Thus, we expected the pst operon of CCB to share the same evolutionary history and protein similarity to marine Firmicutes. Orthologs of the pst operon were searched in 55 genomes of Firmicutes and 13 outgroups. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed for the pst operon and 14 concatenated housekeeping genes using maximum likelihood methods. Conserved domains and 3D structures of the phosphate-binding protein (PstS were also analyzed. The pst operon of Firmicutes shows two highly divergent clades with no correlation to the type of habitat nor a phylogenetic congruence, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Despite sequence divergence, the PstS protein had a similar 3D structure, which could be due to parallel evolution after horizontal gene transfer events.

  9. Kunstige Enzymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Bjerre, Jeannette; Marinescu, Lavinia

    2007-01-01

    Enzymer har en enestående evne til at accelerere kemiske processer. Der forskes målrettet i at optimere enzymer baseret på cyclodextrin.......Enzymer har en enestående evne til at accelerere kemiske processer. Der forskes målrettet i at optimere enzymer baseret på cyclodextrin....

  10. Physiological studies of tryptophan transport and tryptophanase operon induction in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanofsky, C; Horn, V.; Gollnick, P

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli forms three permeases that can transport the amino acid tryptophan: Mtr, AroP, and TnaB. The structural genes for these permeases reside in separate operons that are subject to different mechanisms of regulation. We have exploited the fact that the tryptophanase (tna) operon is induced by tryptophan to infer how tryptophan transport is influenced by the growth medium and by mutations that inactivate each of the permease proteins. In an acid-hydrolyzed casein medium, high leve...

  11. Analysis of the puc Operon Promoter from Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickens, David G.; Bauer, Carl E.

    1998-01-01

    Expression of the Rhodobacter capsulatus puc operon, which codes for structural polypeptides of the light-harvesting-II peripheral antenna complex, is highly regulated in response to alterations in oxygen tension and light intensity. To obtain an understanding of the puc promoter region we report the high-resolution 5′ mapping of the puc mRNA transcriptional start site and DNA sequence analysis of the puc upstream regulatory sequence (pucURS). A ς70-type promoter sequence was identified (pucP1) which has a high degree of sequence similarity with carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis promoters. Inspection of the DNA sequence also indicated the presence of two CrtJ and four integration host factor (IHF) binding sites. Transcriptional fusions of the pucURS fused to lacZ also confirmed that puc promoter activity is regulated by the transcriptional regulators IHF, CrtJ, and RegA. Gel retardation analysis using cell extracts indicates that mutations in IHF and RegA disrupt protein binding to DNA fragments containing the pucURS. PMID:9696778

  12. Sequence analysis of the Legionella micdadei groELS operon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindersson, P; Høiby, N; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1991-01-01

    A 2.7 kb DNA fragment encoding the 60 kDa common antigen (CA) and a 13 kDa protein of Legionella micdadei was sequenced. Two open reading frames of 57,677 and 10,456 Da were identified, corresponding to the heat shock proteins GroEL and GroES, respectively. Typical -35, -10, and Shine-Dalgarno he......, Western blot analysis with an L. micdadei specific anti-groEL antibody did not reveal a significant increase in the amount of the GroEL protein during heat shock in L. micdadei or in the recombinant E. coli expressing L. micdadei GroEL.......A 2.7 kb DNA fragment encoding the 60 kDa common antigen (CA) and a 13 kDa protein of Legionella micdadei was sequenced. Two open reading frames of 57,677 and 10,456 Da were identified, corresponding to the heat shock proteins GroEL and GroES, respectively. Typical -35, -10, and Shine-Dalgarno heat...... shock expression signals were identified upstream of the L. micdadei groEL gene. Further upstream, a poly-T region, also a feature of the sigma 32-regulated Escherichia coli groELS heat shock operon, was found. Despite the high degree of homology of the expression signals in E. coli and L. micdadei...

  13. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  14. Organization and expression of photosynthesis genes and operons in anoxygenic photosynthetic proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotenberg, Sylviane; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Picaud, Martine; Reiss-Husson, Françoise; Astier, Chantal; Ouchane, Soufian

    2008-09-01

    Genes belonging to the same metabolic route are usually organized in operons in microbial genomes. For instance, most genes involved in photosynthesis were found clustered and organized in operons in photosynthetic Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. The discovery of Gammaproteobacteria with a conserved photosynthetic gene cluster revives the questions on the role and the maintenance of such organization in proteobacteria. In this paper, we report the analysis of the structure and expression of the 14 kb cluster (crtEF-bchCXYZ-pufBALMC-crtADC) in the photosynthetic betaproteobacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus, with the purpose of understanding the reasons and the biological constraints that might have led to the clustering of photosynthesis genes. The genetic analyses are substantiated by reverse transcription-PCR data which reveal the presence of a transcript encompassing the 14 genes and provide evidence of a polycistronic 'super-operon' organization starting at crtE and ending 14 kb downstream at the crtC gene. Furthermore, genetic analyses suggest that one of the selection pressures that may have driven and maintained the photosynthesis operons/super-operons in proteobacteria could very likely be the coexpression and regulation of the clustered genes/operon.

  15. A Novel Method for Accurate Operon Predictions in All SequencedProkaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Katherine H.; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2004-12-01

    We combine comparative genomic measures and the distance separating adjacent genes to predict operons in 124 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Our method automatically tailors itself to each genome using sequence information alone, and thus can be applied to any prokaryote. For Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis, our method is 85 and 83% accurate, respectively, which is similar to the accuracy of methods that use the same features but are trained on experimentally characterized transcripts. In Halobacterium NRC-1 and in Helicobacterpylori, our method correctly infers that genes in operons are separated by shorter distances than they are in E.coli, and its predictions using distance alone are more accurate than distance-only predictions trained on a database of E.coli transcripts. We use microarray data from sixphylogenetically diverse prokaryotes to show that combining intergenic distance with comparative genomic measures further improves accuracy and that our method is broadly effective. Finally, we survey operon structure across 124 genomes, and find several surprises: H.pylori has many operons, contrary to previous reports; Bacillus anthracis has an unusual number of pseudogenes within conserved operons; and Synechocystis PCC6803 has many operons even though it has unusually wide spacings between conserved adjacent genes.

  16. Solving a discrete model of the lac operon using Z3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Natalia A.

    2014-05-01

    A discrete model for the Lcac Operon is solved using the SMT-solver Z3. Traditionally the Lac Operon is formulated in a continuous math model. This model is a system of ordinary differential equations. Here, it was considerated as a discrete model, based on a Boolean red. The biological problem of Lac Operon is enunciated as a problem of Boolean satisfiability, and it is solved using an STM-solver named Z3. Z3 is a powerful solver that allows understanding the basic dynamic of the Lac Operon in an easier and more efficient way. The multi-stability of the Lac Operon can be easily computed with Z3. The code that solves the Boolean red can be written in Python language or SMT-Lib language. Both languages were used in local version of the program as online version of Z3. For future investigations it is proposed to solve the Boolean red of Lac Operon using others SMT-solvers as cvc4, alt-ergo, mathsat and yices.

  17. Inter-genomic displacement via lateral gene transfer of bacterial trp operons in an overall context of vertical genealogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing conviction that lateral gene transfer plays a significant role in prokaryote genealogy opens up a need for comprehensive evaluations of gene-enzyme systems on a case-by-case basis. Genes of tryptophan biosynthesis are frequently organized as whole-pathway operons, an attribute that is expected to facilitate multi-gene transfer in a single step. We have asked whether events of lateral gene transfer are sufficient to have obscured our ability to track the vertical genealogy that underpins tryptophan biosynthesis. Results In 47 complete-genome Bacteria, the genes encoding the seven catalytic domains that participate in primary tryptophan biosynthesis were distinguished from any paralogs or xenologs engaged in other specialized functions. A reliable list of orthologs with carefully ascertained functional roles has thus been assembled and should be valuable as an annotation resource. The protein domains associated with primary tryptophan biosynthesis were then concatenated, yielding single amino-acid sequence strings that represent the entire tryptophan pathway. Lateral gene transfer of several whole-pathway trp operons was demonstrated by use of phylogenetic analysis. Lateral gene transfer of partial-pathway trp operons was also shown, with newly recruited genes functioning either in primary biosynthesis (rarely or specialized metabolism (more frequently. Conclusions (i Concatenated tryptophan protein trees are congruent with 16S rRNA subtrees provided that the genomes represented are of sufficiently close phylogenetic spacing. There are currently seven tryptophan congruency groups in the Bacteria. Recognition of a succession of others can be expected in the near future, but ultimately these should coalesce to a single grouping that parallels the 16S rRNA tree (except for cases of lateral gene transfer. (ii The vertical trace of evolution for tryptophan biosynthesis can be deduced. The daunting complexities engendered

  18. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Mercury Transfers and Transformations by Proteins of the Mer Operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. M.; Hong, B.; Nauss, R.; Momany, C.; Summers, A. O.; Feng, X.; Harwood, I.; Stroud, R.

    2008-12-01

    Aerobic bacteria exhibiting resistance to the toxic effects of Hg(II) and organomercurials [RHg(I), e.g. MeHg(I)] and are widely found in both pristine and mercury contaminated environments. Resistance, afforded by a plasmid- or transposon-associated mer operon, involves an unusual pathway where Hg(II) and organomercurials [RHg(I)] undergo facilitated entry into the bacterial cytoplasm via an integral membrane transport protein (MerT) and are then "detoxified" by the concerted effort of two enzymes, organomercurial lyase (MerB), which catalyzes dealkylation (i.e., demethylation) of RHg(I) to Hg(II) and a hydrocarbon, and mercuric ion reductase (MerA), which catalyzes reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) as the ultimate detoxification for the organism. With a widespread distribution, these bacterial transformations play a significant role in the fate of mercury in the environment. Our focus is on elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for the transport and catalytic transformations of RHg(I) and Hg(II) by these proteins and the factors that influence the overall efficiency of the process. Current efforts are focused primarily on elucidating details of RHg(I) binding and dealkylation by MerB as well as the mechanism for transfer of the Hg(II) product to MerA. Key findings include the demonstration of a non-cysteine residue as essential for the catalytic activity and demonstration that direct transfer of Hg(II) to MerA proceeds more rapidly and more completely than transfer to small MW thiols such as cysteines or glutathione. Reuslts of these studies as well as an overview of our current understanding of the whole system will be presented.

  19. Identification and functional analysis of a nitrate assimilation operon nasACKBDEF from Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhihui; Gao, Jin; Ding, Xiaoming; Wang, Jin; Chiao, Juishen; Zhao, Guoping

    2011-07-01

    Nitrate assimilation has been well studied for Gram-negative bacteria but not so much in the Gram-positive actinomycetes up to date. In a rifamycin SV-producing actinomycete, Amycolatopsis mediterranei strain U32, nitrate not only can be used as a sole nitrogen source but also remarkably stimulates the antibiotic production along with regulating the related metabolic enzymes. A gene cluster of nasACKBDEF was cloned from a U32 genomic library by in situ hybridization screening with a heterogeneous nasB probe and confirmed later by whole genome sequence, corresponding to the protein coding genes of AMED_1121 to AMED_1127. These genes were co-transcribed as an operon, concomitantly repressed by ammonium while activated with supplement of either nitrate or nitrite. Genetic and biochemical analyses identified the essential nitrate/nitrite assimilation functions of the encoded proteins, orderly, the assimilatory nitrate reductase catalytic subunit (NasA), nitrate reductase electron transfer subunit (NasC), nitrate/nitrite transporter (NasK), assimilatory nitrite reductase large subunit (NasB) and small subunit (NasD), bifunctional uroporphyrinogen-III synthase (NasE), and an unknown function protein (NasF). Comparing rifamycin SV production and the level of transcription of nasB and rifE from U32 and its individual nas mutants in Bennet medium with or without nitrate indicated that nitrate assimilation function encoded by the nas operon played an essential role in the "nitrate stimulated" rifamycin production but had no effect upon the transcription regulation of the primary and secondary metabolic genes related to rifamycin biosynthesis. PMID:21424691

  20. The pvc operon regulates the expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial chaperone/usher pathway (cup genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Qaisar

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial structures encoded by the cup gene clusters (cupB and cupC contribute to its attachment to abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation. The P. aeruginosa pvcABCD gene cluster encodes enzymes that synthesize a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin, paerucumarin. Paerucumarin has already been characterized chemically, but this is the first report elucidating its role in bacterial biology. We examined the relationship between the pvc operon and the cup gene clusters in the P. aeruginosa strain MPAO1. Mutations within the pvc genes compromised biofilm development and significantly reduced the expression of cupB1-6 and cupC1-3, as well as different genes of the cupB/cupC two-component regulatory systems, roc1/roc2. Adjacent to pvc is the transcriptional regulator ptxR. A ptxR mutation in MPAO1 significantly reduced the expression of the pvc genes, the cupB/cupC genes, and the roc1/roc2 genes. Overexpression of the intact chromosomally-encoded pvc operon by a ptxR plasmid significantly enhanced cupB2, cupC2, rocS1, and rocS2 expression and biofilm development. Exogenously added paerucumarin significantly increased the expression of cupB2, cupC2, rocS1 and rocS2 in the pvcA mutant. Our results suggest that pvc influences P. aeruginosa biofilm development through the cup gene clusters in a pathway that involves paerucumarin, PtxR, and different cup regulators.

  1. The pvc operon regulates the expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial chaperone/usher pathway (cup) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisar, Uzma; Luo, Liming; Haley, Cecily L; Brady, Sean F; Carty, Nancy L; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Hamood, Abdul N

    2013-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial structures encoded by the cup gene clusters (cupB and cupC) contribute to its attachment to abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation. The P. aeruginosa pvcABCD gene cluster encodes enzymes that synthesize a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin, paerucumarin. Paerucumarin has already been characterized chemically, but this is the first report elucidating its role in bacterial biology. We examined the relationship between the pvc operon and the cup gene clusters in the P. aeruginosa strain MPAO1. Mutations within the pvc genes compromised biofilm development and significantly reduced the expression of cupB1-6 and cupC1-3, as well as different genes of the cupB/cupC two-component regulatory systems, roc1/roc2. Adjacent to pvc is the transcriptional regulator ptxR. A ptxR mutation in MPAO1 significantly reduced the expression of the pvc genes, the cupB/cupC genes, and the roc1/roc2 genes. Overexpression of the intact chromosomally-encoded pvc operon by a ptxR plasmid significantly enhanced cupB2, cupC2, rocS1, and rocS2 expression and biofilm development. Exogenously added paerucumarin significantly increased the expression of cupB2, cupC2, rocS1 and rocS2 in the pvcA mutant. Our results suggest that pvc influences P. aeruginosa biofilm development through the cup gene clusters in a pathway that involves paerucumarin, PtxR, and different cup regulators. PMID:23646138

  2. Identification and characterization of MalA in the maltose/maltodextrin operon of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Hwang, Sungmin; Cha, Jaeho

    2013-04-01

    A putative maltose/maltodextrin operon was found in the Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 genome. The gene cluster consisted of 7 genes (malA, trmB, amyA, malG, malF, malE, and malK). Here, we report the identification of MalA, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of maltose or maltodextrin to glucose in S. acidocaldarius. The transcription level of malA was increased 3-fold upon the addition of maltose or starch to the medium. Moreover, the α-glucosidase activity for maltose as a substrate in cell extracts of S. acidocaldarius DSM639 was also 11- and 10-fold higher during growth in YT medium (Brock's mineral salts, 0.1% [wt/vol] tryptone, and 0.005% [wt/vol] yeast extract) containing maltose or starch, respectively, than during growth on other sugars. The gene encoding MalA was cloned and expressed in S. acidocaldarius. The enzyme purified from the organism was a dodecamer in its active state and showed strong maltose-hydrolyzing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. MalA was remarkably thermostable, with half-lives of 33.8 h, 10.6 h, and 1.8 h at 95°C, 100°C, and 105°C, respectively. Substrate specificity and kinetic studies of MalA with maltooligosaccharides indicated that MalA efficiently hydrolyzed maltose to maltopentaose, which is a typical characteristic of GH31-type α-glucosidases. However, glycogen or starch was not hydrolyzed. Reverse transcription-PCR, sugar uptake, and growth studies of the wild-type DSM639 and ΔmalEFG mutant on different sugars demonstrated that MalA located in the mal operon gene cluster is involved in maltose and starch metabolism in S. acidocaldarius.

  3. FIS-dependent trans activation of stable RNA operons of Escherichia coli under various growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, L; Verbeek, H; Vijgenboom, E; van Drunen, C; Vanet, A; Bosch, L

    1992-02-01

    In Escherichia coli transcription of the tRNA operon thrU (tufB) and the rRNA operon rrnB is trans-activated by the protein FIS. This protein, which stimulates the inversion of various viral DNA segments, binds specifically to a cis-acting sequence (designated UAS) upstream of the promoter of thrU (tufB) and the P1 promoter of the rrnB operon. There are indications that this type of regulation is representative for the regulation of more stable RNA operons. In the present investigation we have studied UAS-dependent transcription activation of the thrU (tufB) operon in the presence and absence of FIS during a normal bacterial growth cycle and after a nutritional shift-up. In early log phase the expression of the operon rises steeply in wild-type cells, whereafter it declines. Concomitantly, a peak of the cellular FIS concentration is observed. Cells in the stationary phase are depleted of FIS. The rather abrupt increase of transcription activation depends on the nutritional quality of the medium. It is not seen in minimal medium. After a shift from minimal to rich medium, a peak of transcription activation and of FIS concentration is measured. This peak gets higher as the medium gets more strongly enriched. We conclude that a correlation between changes of the UAS-dependent activation of the thrU (tufB) operon and changes of the cellular FIS concentration under a variety of experimental conditions exists. This correlation strongly suggests that the production of FIS responds to environmental signals, thereby trans-activating the operon. Cells unable to produce FIS (fis cells) also show an increase of operon transcription in the early log phase and after a nutritional shift-up, albeit less pronounced than that wild-type cells. Presumably it is controlled by the ribosome feedback regulatory system. cis activation of the operon by the upstream activator sequence is apparent in the absence of FIS. This activation is constant throughout the entire growth cycle and is

  4. Characterization of the Primary Starch Utilization Operon in the Obligate Anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis: Regulation by Carbon Source and Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, Cheryl; Wells, W. Greg; Smith, C. Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Bacteroides fragilis is a commensal organism in the large intestine, where it utilizes both dietary and host-derived polysaccharides as a source of carbon and energy. In this study, a four-gene operon required for starch utilization was identified. The operon also was found to be oxygen responsive and thus was designated osu for oxygen-induced starch utilization. The first three genes in the operon were predicted to encode outer membrane proteins involved in starch ...

  5. On multiple regulatory mechanisms in the tryptophan operon system in Escherichia coli: in silico study of perturbation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lan K; Kulasiri, Don

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms often exist in uncertain environments where changes are the norm. Cellular systems therefore require resilient regulatory mechanisms for timely and stable adaptation. Among various regulation motifs, multiple feedback control emerges as a common theme. The tryptophan operon system in Escherichia coli regulates the production ofintracellular tryptophan using an apparatus of three feedback mechanisms: repression, attenuation and enzyme inhibition; each provides essentially the same function but operates in distinctly different ways. Here we aim to understand the roles of each loop by studying transient dynamics of the system to perturbations of different types; to reveal the underlying relationships between individual control mechanisms and macroscopic behaviour. We develop an S-systems approximation of an existing model for the system and characterise transient dynamics by introducing two measurable quantities: maximum disturbance (MD) and recovery time (RT). Our simulation results showed that combined regulation using all three feedback mechanisms significantly increases system stability, broadening the range of kinetic parameters for stable behaviour. Enzyme inhibition was shown to directly control the disturbance level in system variables after perturbations. Attenuation, on the other hand, was found to speed up system recovery whereas repression lengthens recovery time. The method developed in this paper and the defined transient dynamics measurements can be applied to other cellular systems. PMID:19374133

  6. Frequency of pap and pil operons in Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, M R; Vidotto, M C

    1996-03-01

    Strains of E. coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection were examined for P and type 1 adhesin production by colony hybridization with pap and pil operons. The P pili probe detected 45 (46.4%) of the total of 97 strains studied and the type 1 pili probe detected 83 (85.6%). The pap operon was detected in 39 (53.4%) of 73 strains isolated from urine of patients with urinary disease and in 6 (25.0%) of 24 strains isolated from feces of healthy individuals employed as controls (P = 0.029), and the pil operon was detected in 67 (91.8%) of the urinary strains and in 16 (66.6%) of the fecal strains (P = 0.007). Our data did not show significant differences in frequency of P pili among isolates from pyelonephritis (78.5%), cystitis (45.8%) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (54.5%). Type 1 pili were not associated with the different types of infection; the frequency of these pili was 100% in pyelonephritis and in asymptomatic bacteriuria, and 87.5% in cystitis. The incidence of pap operon in strains isolated from pyelonephritis and from asymptomatic bacteriuria was higher in 11- to 40-year old women. These data show a high frequency of pap and pil operons among uropathogenic strains of E. coli, which seems to be an important factor in the development of urinary infection.

  7. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  8. RNA sequence requirements for NasR-mediated, nitrate-responsive transcription antitermination of the Klebsiella oxytoca M5al nasF operon leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, W; Stewart, V

    1999-09-17

    In Klebsiella oxytoca, enzymes required for nitrate assimilation are encoded by the nasFEDCBA operon. Nitrate and nitrite induction of nasF operon expression is determined by a transcriptional antitermination mechanism, in which the nasR gene product responds to nitrate or nitrite and overcomes transcription termination at the factor-independent terminator site located in the nasF upstream leader region. Previous studies led to the hypothesis that the NasR protein mediates transcription antitermination through interaction with nasF leader RNA. Here, we report a DNA sequence comparison that reveals conserved 1:2 and 3:4 RNA secondary structures in the nasF leader RNAs from two Klebsiella species. Additionally, we found that specific binding of the NasR protein to nasF leader RNA was stimulated by nitrate and nitrite. We combined mutational analysis, in vivo and in vitro antitermination assays, and an RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay to define regions in the nasF leader that are essential for antitermination and for NasR-RNA interaction. Formation of the 1:2 stem structure and the specific sequence of the 1:2 hexanucleotide loop were required for both nitrate induction and for NasR-RNA interaction. Mutations in the 1:2 stem-loop region that abolished nitrate induction also interfered with NasR-leader RNA interaction. Finally, nucleotide alterations or additions in the linker region between the 1:2 and 3:4 stem-loops were deleterious to nasF operon induction but not to NasR-leader RNA interaction. We hypothesize that NasR protein recognizes the 1:2 stem-loop structure in the nasF leader RNA to mediate transcription antitermination in response to nitrate or nitrite. PMID:10493869

  9. Identification of an intestine-specific promoter and inducible expression of bacterial α-galactosidase in mammalian cells by a lac operon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Feng Zhai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-galactosidase has been widely used in animal husbandry to reduce anti-nutritional factors (such as α-galactoside in feed. Intestine-specific and substrate inducible expression of α-galactosidase would be highly beneficial for transgenic animal production. Methods To achieve the intestine-specific and substrate inducible expression of α-galactosidase, we first identified intestine-specific promoters by comparing the transcriptional activity and tissue specificity of four intestine-specific promoters from human intestinal fatty acid binding protein, rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein, human mucin-2 and human lysozyme. We made two chimeric constructs combining the promoter and enhancer of human mucin-2, rat intestinal trefoil factor and human sucrase-isomaltase. Then a modified lac operon system was constructed to investigate the induction of α-galactosidase expression and enzyme activity by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG and an α-galactosidase substrate, α-lactose. We declared that the research carried out on human (Zhai Yafeng was in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration, and experimental research on animals also followed internationally recognized guidelines. Results The activity of the human mucin-2 promoter was about 2 to 3 times higher than that of other intestine-specific promoters. In the lac operon system, the repressor significantly decreased (P P Conclusions We have successfully constructed a high specificity inducible lac operon system in an intestine-derived cell line, which could be of great value for gene therapy applications and transgenic animal production.

  10. The diversity of membrane transporters encoded in bacterial arsenic-resistance operons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiren Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transporter-facilitated arsenite extrusion is the major pathway of arsenic resistance within bacteria. So far only two types of membrane-bound transporter proteins, ArsB and ArsY (ACR3, have been well studied, although the arsenic transporters in bacteria display considerable diversity. Utilizing accumulated genome sequence data, we searched arsenic resistance (ars operons in about 2,500 bacterial strains and located over 700 membrane-bound transporters which are encoded in these operons. Sequence analysis revealed at least five distinct transporter families, with ArsY being the most dominant, followed by ArsB, ArsP (a recently reported permease family, Major Facilitator protein Superfamily (MFS and Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP. In addition, other types of transporters encoded in the ars operons were found, but in much lower frequencies. The diversity and evolutionary relationships of these transporters with regard to arsenic resistance will be discussed.

  11. Footprints of Optimal Protein Assembly Strategies in the Operonic Structure of Prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ewald

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate optimality principles behind synthesis strategies for protein complexes using a dynamic optimization approach. We show that the cellular capacity of protein synthesis has a strong influence on optimal synthesis strategies reaching from a simultaneous to a sequential synthesis of the subunits of a protein complex. Sequential synthesis is preferred if protein synthesis is strongly limited, whereas a simultaneous synthesis is optimal in situations with a high protein synthesis capacity. We confirm the predictions of our optimization approach through the analysis of the operonic organization of protein complexes in several hundred prokaryotes. Thereby, we are able to show that cellular protein synthesis capacity is a driving force in the dissolution of operons comprising the subunits of a protein complex. Thus, we also provide a tested hypothesis explaining why the subunits of many prokaryotic protein complexes are distributed across several operons despite the presumably less precise co-regulation.

  12. Expression and regulation of the ery operon of Brucella melitensis in human trophoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Dou, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Fei; Wang, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhen; Li, Tiansen; Gu, Xinli; Chen, Chuangfu

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is primarily a disease of domestic animals in which the bacteria localizes to fetal tissues such as embryonic trophoblast cells and fluids containing erythritol, which stimulates Brucella spp. growth. The utilization of erythritol is a characteristic of the genus Brucella. The ery operon contains four genes (eryA, eryB, eryC and eryD) for the utilization of erythritol, and plays a major role in the survival and multiplication of Brucella spp. The objective of the present study was to conduct a preliminary characterization of differential genes expression of the ery operon at several time points after Brucella infected embryonic trophoblast cells (HPT-8 cells). The result showed that the ery operon expression was higher in HPT-8 cells compared with the medium. The relative expression of eryA, eryB and eryC peaked at 2 h post-infection in HPT-8 cells, and eryD expression peaked at 3 h post-infection. The expression of eryA, eryB and eryC may be inhibited by increased eryD expression. However, the expression of the ery operon was stable in the presence of erythritol in cells. 2308Δery and 027Δery mutants of the ery operon were successfully constructed by homologous recombination, which were attenuated in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. The characterization of the ery operon genes and their expression profiles in response to Brucella infection further contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of infection and the pathogenesis of brucellosis. PMID:27698777

  13. Evidence for Vertical Inheritance and Loss of the Leukotoxin Operon in Genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Christensen, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    as a commensal in the ovine rumen. We have tested the hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer of the leukotoxin operon has catalyzed pathogenic adaptation and speciation of M. haemolytica + M. glucosida, or other major subclades, by using a strategy that combines compositional and phylogenetic methods. We show....... On one hand, it opposes the hypothesis of horizontal gene transfer as a catalyst of pathogenic adaptation and speciation. On the other hand, it indicates that losses of the leukotoxin operons in the radiating lineages of M. ruminalis have catalyzed their adaptation to a commensal environment...

  14. Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis ytmI Operon, Involved in Sulfur Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Burguière, Pierre; Fert, Juliette; Guillouard, Isabelle; Auger, Sandrine; Danchin, Antoine; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    The YtlI regulator of Bacillus subtilis activates the transcription of the ytmI operon encoding an l-cystine ABC transporter, a riboflavin kinase, and proteins of unknown function. The expression of the ytlI gene and the ytmI operon was high with methionine and reduced with sulfate. Using deletions and site-directed mutagenesis, a cis-acting DNA sequence important for YtlI-dependent regulation was identified upstream from the −35 box of ytmI. Gel mobility shift assays confirmed that YtlI spec...

  15. Sequencing and Characterization of the xyl Operon of a Gram-Positive Bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEDA, YASUO; Takase, Kazuma; Yamato, Ichiro; Abe, Keietsu

    1998-01-01

    The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive ...

  16. Sequencing and characterization of the xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Y; Takase, K; Yamato, I; Abe, K

    1998-07-01

    The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive bacterium. The xyl operon consisted of three genes, xylA, encoding a xylose isomerase, xylB, encoding a xylulose kinase, and xylE, encoding a xylose transporter, with predicted molecular weights of 49,400, 56,400, and 51,600, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the XylR, XylA, XylB, and XylE proteins were similar to those of the corresponding proteins in other gram-positive and -negative bacteria, the similarities being 37 to 64%. Each polypeptide of XylB and XylE was expressed functionally in Escherichia coli. XylE transported D-xylose in a sodium ion-dependent manner, suggesting that it is the first described xylose/Na+ symporter. The XylR protein contained a consensus sequence for binding catabolites of glucose, such as glucose-6-phosphate, which has been discovered in glucose and fructose kinases in bacteria. Correspondingly, the regulatory region of this operon contained a putative binding site of XylR with a palindromic structure. Furthermore, it contained a consensus sequence, CRE (catabolite-responsive element), for binding CcpA (catabolite control protein A). We speculate that the transcriptional regulation of this operon resembles the regulation of catabolite-repressible operons such as the amy, lev, xyl, and gnt operons in various gram-positive bacteria. We discuss the significance of the regulation of gene expression of this operon in T. halophila. PMID:9647823

  17. Autoregulation of the stability operon of IncFII plasmid NR1.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuchi, A; Min, Y N; Womble, D D; Rownd, R H

    1992-01-01

    The stb locus of IncFII plasmid NR1, which mediates stable inheritance of the plasmid, is composed of an essential cis-acting DNA site located upstream from two tandem genes that encode essential stability proteins. The two tandem genes, stbA and stbB, are transcribed as an operon from promoter PAB. Using PAB-lacZ gene fusions, it was found that the stb operon is autoregulated. A low-copy-number stb+ plasmid introduced into the same cell with the PAB-lacZ fusion plasmid repressed beta-galacto...

  18. Molecular characterization of the mde operon involved in L-methionine catabolism of Pseudomonas putida.

    OpenAIRE

    H. Inoue; Inagaki, K.; Eriguchi, S I; Tamura, T.; Esaki, N; Soda, K; Tanaka, H.

    1997-01-01

    A 15-kb region of Pseudomonas putida chromosomal DNA containing the mde operon and an upstream regulatory gene (mdeR) has been cloned and sequenced. The mde operon contains two structural genes involved in L-methionine degradative metabolism: the already-identified mdeA, which encodes L-methionine gamma-lyase (H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, M. Sugimoto, N. Esaki, K. Soda, and H. Tanaka. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 117:1120-1125, 1995), and mdeB, which encodes a homologous protein to the homodimeric-type E1 co...

  19. Molecular cloning of the wild-type phoM operon in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Wanner, B L; Wilmes, M R; Hunter, E

    1988-01-01

    A metastable bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Bap) phenotype is seen in phoR mutants, which alternately express a Bap-constitutive or -negative phenotype. The alteration is affected by mutations in the phoM region near 0 min. By molecular cloning of the wild-type phoM operon onto a multicopy plasmid and recombining onto the plasmid the pho-510 mutation that abolishes variation, the phoM operon, rather than some nearby gene, was shown to control variation. Complementation tests indicated that t...

  20. A Simple Structure Model for Enzyme Production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑沛霖; 郑重鸣; FOOYinDin; JefferyPhilipObbard; 林建平

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the behavior of ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium, study on time courses and a mathematical model for the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) of the fungi was undertaken. Based on the Monod-Jacob operon model, the ligninolytic enzyme would be synthesized in the absence of a related repressor. The repressor is assumed to be active in the presence of ammonia nitrogen, and as combined as co-repressor, it causes the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. The model can explain the mechanism of extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi. The results,as predicted by the model, correspond closely to those observed in experimental studies. In addition, some light is also shed on unmeasured variables, such as the concentrations of repressor and mRNA that are related to the enzyme synthesis.

  1. Structural explanation for allolactose (lac operon inducer) synthesis by lacZ β-galactosidase and the evolutionary relationship between allolactose synthesis and the lac repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Robert W; Lo, Summie; Jancewicz, Larisa J; Dugdale, Megan L; Huber, Reuben E

    2013-05-01

    β-Galactosidase (lacZ) has bifunctional activity. It hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose and catalyzes the intramolecular isomerization of lactose to allolactose, the lac operon inducer. β-Galactosidase promotes the isomerization by means of an acceptor site that binds glucose after its cleavage from lactose and thus delays its exit from the site. However, because of its relatively low affinity for glucose, details of this site have remained elusive. We present structural data mapping the glucose site based on a substituted enzyme (G794A-β-galactosidase) that traps allolactose. Various lines of evidence indicate that the glucose of the trapped allolactose is in the acceptor position. The evidence includes structures with Bis-Tris (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2',2″-nitrilotriethanol) and L-ribose in the site and kinetic binding studies with substituted β-galactosidases. The site is composed of Asn-102, His-418, Lys-517, Ser-796, Glu-797, and Trp-999. Ser-796 and Glu-797 are part of a loop (residues 795-803) that closes over the active site. This loop appears essential for the bifunctional nature of the enzyme because it helps form the glucose binding site. In addition, because the loop is mobile, glucose binding is transient, allowing the release of some glucose. Bioinformatics studies showed that the residues important for interacting with glucose are only conserved in a subset of related enzymes. Thus, intramolecular isomerization is not a universal feature of β-galactosidases. Genomic analyses indicated that lac repressors were co-selected only within the conserved subset. This shows that the glucose binding site of β-galactosidase played an important role in lac operon evolution. PMID:23486479

  2. Konstruktie van plasmiden met genen van het tryptofaan operon van Escherichia coli K12 als genetische kenmerken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enger-Valk, B.E.

    1981-01-01

    Chapter 1CONSTRUCTION OF NEW CLONING VEHICLES WITH GENES OF THETRYPTOPHAN OPERON OF Escherichia coli AS GENETIC MARKERSIn vitro recombination techniques were used to construct a series of new cloning vehicles with genes of the tryptophan (trp) operon of Escherichia coli as selective marker. To const

  3. Regulation of the metC-cysK Operon, Involved in Sulfur Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, María; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Siezen, Roland J.; Kranenburg, Richard van

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur metabolism in gram-positive bacteria is poorly characterized. Information on the molecular mechanisms of regulation of genes involved in sulfur metabolism is limited, and no regulator genes have been identified. Here we describe the regulation of the lactococcal metC-cysK operon, encoding a c

  4. Tryptophan auxotrophs were obtained by random transposon insertions in the Methanococcus maripaludis tryptophan operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Iris; Whitman, William B

    2009-08-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is an anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon that utilizes H(2) or formate for the reduction of CO(2) to methane. Tryptophan auxotrophs were constructed by in vitro insertions of the Tn5 transposon into the tryptophan operon, followed by transformation into M. maripaludis. This method could serve for rapid insertions into large cloned DNA regions. PMID:19566682

  5. Tryptophan auxotrophs were obtained by random transposon insertions in the Methanonococcus maripaludis tryptophan operon

    OpenAIRE

    Porat, Iris; Whitman, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is an anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon that utilizes H2 or formate for the reduction of CO2 to methane. Tryptophan auxotrophs were constructed by in vitro insertions of the Tn5 transposon into the tryptophan operon, followed by transformation into M. maripaludis. This method could serve for rapid insertions into large cloned DNA regions.

  6. Decreases in average bacterial community rRNA operon copy number during succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemergut, Diana R; Knelman, Joseph E; Ferrenberg, Scott; Bilinski, Teresa; Melbourne, Brett; Jiang, Lin; Violle, Cyrille; Darcy, John L; Prest, Tiffany; Schmidt, Steven K; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Trait-based studies can help clarify the mechanisms driving patterns of microbial community assembly and coexistence. Here, we use a trait-based approach to explore the importance of rRNA operon copy number in microbial succession, building on prior evidence that organisms with higher copy numbers respond more rapidly to nutrient inputs. We set flasks of heterotrophic media into the environment and examined bacterial community assembly at seven time points. Communities were arrayed along a geographic gradient to introduce stochasticity via dispersal processes and were analyzed using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, and rRNA operon copy number was modeled using ancestral trait reconstruction. We found that taxonomic composition was similar between communities at the beginning of the experiment and then diverged through time; as well, phylogenetic clustering within communities decreased over time. The average rRNA operon copy number decreased over the experiment, and variance in rRNA operon copy number was lowest both early and late in succession. We then analyzed bacterial community data from other soil and sediment primary and secondary successional sequences from three markedly different ecosystem types. Our results demonstrate that decreases in average copy number are a consistent feature of communities across various drivers of ecological succession. Importantly, our work supports the scaling of the copy number trait over multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from cells to populations and communities, with implications for both microbial ecology and evolution. PMID:26565722

  7. ISOLATION OF AN OPERON INVOLVED IN XYLITOL METABOLISM FROM PANTOEA ANANATIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An operon involved in xylitol metabolism in a xylitol-utilizing Pantoea ananatis mutant was cloned by the transposon tagging method. Sequencing analysis revealed that seven consecutive open reading frames (ORFs) are located in the same strand (xytA-G). Sequence homology search suggested that the o...

  8. Mutational analysis of the regulatory region of the srfA operon in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, M M; Zuber, P

    1993-01-01

    Transcription of the Bacillus subtilis srfA operon is dependent on the transcriptional activator ComA. Mutational analysis of the srfA regulatory region suggests that two regions of dyad symmetry upstream of the srfA promoter may function in transcriptional activation by facilitating a cooperative interaction between ComA dimers.

  9. Disruption of the Operon Encoding Ehb Hydrogenase Limits AnabolicCO2 Assimilation in the Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porat, Iris; Kim, Wonduck; Hendrickson, Erik L.; Xia, Qiangwei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tiansong; Taub, Fred; Moore, Brian C.; Anderson, IainJ.; Hackett, Murray; Leigh, John A.; Whitman, William B.

    2006-02-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a mesophilic archaeon thatreduces CO2 to methane with H2 or formate as an energy source. Itcontains two membrane-bound energy-conserving hydrogenases, Eha and Ehb.To determine therole of Ehb, a deletion in the ehb operon wasconstructed to yield the mutant, strain S40. Growth of S40 was severelyimpaired in minimal medium. Both acetate and yeast extract were necessaryto restore growth to nearly wild-type levels, suggesting that Ehb wasinvolved in multiple steps in carbon assimilation. However, nodifferences in the total hydrogenase specific activities were foundbetween the wild type and mutant in either cell extracts ormembrane-purified fractions. Methanogenesis by resting cells withpyruvate as the electron donor was also reduced by 30 percent in S40,suggesting a defect in pyruvate oxidation. CO dehydrogenase/acetylcoenzyme A (CoA) synthase and pyruvate oxidoreductase had higher specificactivities in the mutant, and genes encoding these enzymes, as well asAMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase, were expressed at increased levels.These observations support a role for Ehb in anabolic CO2 assimilation inmethanococci.

  10. Tryptophan inhibits Proteus vulgaris TnaC leader peptide elongation, activating tna operon expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yang, Rui; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Expression of the tna operon of Escherichia coli and of Proteus vulgaris is induced by L-tryptophan. In E. coli, tryptophan action is dependent on the presence of several critical residues (underlined) in the newly synthesized TnaC leader peptide, WFNIDXXL/IXXXXP. These residues are conserved in TnaC of P. vulgaris and of other bacterial species. TnaC of P. vulgaris has one additional feature, distinguishing it from TnaC of E. coli; it contains two C-terminal lysine residues following the conserved proline residue. In the present study, we investigated L-tryptophan induction of the P. vulgaris tna operon, transferred on a plasmid into E. coli. Induction was shown to be L-tryptophan dependent; however, the range of induction was less than that observed for the E. coli tna operon. We compared the genetic organization of both operons and predicted similar folding patterns for their respective leader mRNA segments. However, additional analyses revealed that L-tryptophan action in the P. vulgaris tna operon involves inhibition of TnaC elongation, following addition of proline, rather than inhibition of leader peptide termination. Our findings also establish that the conserved residues in TnaC of P. vulgaris are essential for L-tryptophan induction, and for inhibition of peptide elongation. TnaC synthesis is thus an excellent model system for studies of regulation of both peptide termination and peptide elongation, and for studies of ribosome recognition of the features of a nascent peptide. PMID:19767424

  11. Physiological studies of tryptophan transport and tryptophanase operon induction in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanofsky, C; Horn, V; Gollnick, P

    1991-10-01

    Escherichia coli forms three permeases that can transport the amino acid tryptophan: Mtr, AroP, and TnaB. The structural genes for these permeases reside in separate operons that are subject to different mechanisms of regulation. We have exploited the fact that the tryptophanase (tna) operon is induced by tryptophan to infer how tryptophan transport is influenced by the growth medium and by mutations that inactivate each of the permease proteins. In an acid-hydrolyzed casein medium, high levels of tryptophan are ordinarily required to obtain maximum tna operon induction. High levels are necessary because much of the added tryptophan is degraded by tryptophanase. An alternate inducer that is poorly cleaved by tryptophanase, 1-methyltryptophan, induces efficiently at low concentrations in both tna+ strains and tna mutants. In an acid-hydrolyzed casein medium, the TnaB permease is most critical for tryptophan uptake; i.e., only mutations in tnaB reduce tryptophanase induction. However, when 1-methyltryptophan replaces tryptophan as the inducer in this medium, mutations in both mtr and tnaB are required to prevent maximum induction. In this medium, AroP does not contribute to tryptophan uptake. However, in a medium lacking phenylalanine and tyrosine the AroP permease is active in tryptophan transport; under these conditions it is necessary to inactivate the three permeases to eliminate tna operon induction. The Mtr permease is principally responsible for transporting indole, the degradation product of tryptophan produced by tryptophanase action. The TnaB permease is essential for growth on tryptophan as the sole carbon source. When cells with high levels of tryptophanase are transferred to tryptophan-free growth medium, the expression of the tryptophan (trp) operon is elevated. This observation suggests that the tryptophanase present in these cells degrades some of the synthesized tryptophan, thereby creating a mild tryptophan deficiency. Our studies assign roles to

  12. NasR, a novel RNA-binding protein, mediates nitrate-responsive transcription antitermination of the Klebsiella oxytoca M5al nasF operon leader in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, W; Stewart, V

    1998-10-23

    In Klebsiella oxytoca (pneumoniae), enzymes required for nitrate assimilation are encoded by the nasFEDCBA operon. Previous genetic studies led to the conclusion that nitrate and nitrite induction of nasF operon expression is determined by a transcriptional antitermination mechanism. In the presence of nitrate or nitrite, the nasR gene product is hypothesized to inhibit transcription termination at the factor-independent terminator site located in the nasF operon leader region. To test this model in vitro, we first purified NasR as both a maltose binding protein fusion form (MBP-NasR) and a His6-tagged form (His6-NasR). Templates for in vitro transcription contained the nasF operon leader region, with a substitution of the sigma70-dependent tac promoter for the native sigmaN-dependent promoter. We found that in vitro transcription of the leader template terminated at the terminator site, and that MBP-NasR and His6-NasR proteins both caused transcription readthrough of this site in response to nitrate or nitrite. Half-maximal antitermination required nitrate or nitrite at moderate (1 to 10 microM) concentrations, and several other anions tested, including chlorate, were without effect. Previous in vivo analysis of leader deletions identified regions required for both negative regulation (the terminator) and for positive regulation. Results from in vitro transcription of these deletion templates correlated fully with the in vivo analysis. Finally, electrophoresis mobility shift analysis revealed that His6-NasR bound specifically to nasF leader RNA. This binding was independent of nitrate in vitro. These results strongly support the conclusions drawn from previous in vivo analysis, and establish that NasR mediates ligand-responsive transcription antitermination through interaction with nasF leader RNA. PMID:9769209

  13. Prediction of DtxR regulon: Identification of binding sites and operons controlled by Diphtheria toxin repressor in Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Seyed

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diphtheria toxin repressor, DtxR, of Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been shown to be an iron-activated transcription regulator that controls not only the expression of diphtheria toxin but also of iron uptake genes. This study aims to identify putative binding sites and operons controlled by DtxR to understand the role of DtxR in patho-physiology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Result Positional Shannon relative entropy method was used to build the DtxR-binding site recognition profile and the later was used to identify putative regulatory sites of DtxR within C. diphtheriae genome. In addition, DtxR-regulated operons were also identified taking into account the predicted DtxR regulatory sites and genome annotation. Few of the predicted motifs were experimentally validated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The analysis identifies motifs upstream to the novel iron-regulated genes that code for Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FpG, an enzyme involved in DNA-repair and starvation inducible DNA-binding protein (Dps which is involved in iron storage and oxidative stress defense. In addition, we have found the DtxR motifs upstream to the genes that code for sortase which catalyzes anchoring of host-interacting proteins to the cell wall of pathogenic bacteria and the proteins of secretory system which could be involved in translocation of various iron-regulated virulence factors including diphtheria toxin. Conclusions We have used an in silico approach to identify the putative binding sites and genes controlled by DtxR in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Our analysis shows that DtxR could provide a molecular link between Fe+2-induced Fenton's reaction and protection of DNA from oxidative damage. DtxR-regulated Dps prevents lethal combination of Fe+2 and H2O2 and also protects DNA by nonspecific DNA-binding. In addition DtxR could play an important role in host interaction and virulence by regulating the levels of sortase

  14. Identification of a Positive Transcription Regulatory Element within the Coding Region of the nifLA Operon in Azotobacter vinelandii

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Ranjana; Das, Hirendra K.; Dixit, Aparna

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation in Azotobacter vinelandii is regulated by the nifLA operon. NifA activates the transcription of nif genes, while NifL antagonizes the transcriptional activator NifA in response to fixed nitrogen and molecular oxygen levels. However, transcriptional regulation of the nifLA operon of A. vinelandii itself is not fully understood. Using the S1 nuclease assay, we mapped the transcription start site of the nifLA operon, showing it to be similar to the σ54-dependent promoters. We a...

  15. Repression of the pyr operon in Lactobacillus plantarum prevents its ability to grow at low carbon dioxide levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoloff, Hervé; Elagöz, Aram; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence;

    2005-01-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate is a precursor for both arginine and pyrimidine biosynthesis. In Lactobacillus plantarum, carbamoyl phosphate is synthesized from glutamine, ATP, and carbon dioxide by two sets of identified genes encoding carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS). The expression of the carAB operon...... (encoding CPS-A) responds to arginine availability, whereas pyrAaAb (encoding CPS-P) is part of the pyrR1BCAaAbDFE operon coding for the de novo pyrimidine pathway repressed by exogenous uracil. The pyr operon is regulated by transcription attenuation mediated by a trans-acting repressor that binds...... is the limiting step in pyrimidine synthesis. FB335 is unable to grow in the presence of uracil due to a lack of sufficient carbamoyl phosphate required for arginine biosynthesis. Forty independent spontaneous FB335-derived mutants that have lost regulation of the pyr operon were readily obtained by their ability...

  16. The different roles of tryptophan transfer RNA in regulating trp operon expression in E. coli versus B. subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanofsky, Charles

    2004-08-01

    Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis use different mechanisms of sensing and responding to tryptophan and uncharged tRNA(Trp) as regulatory signals. In E. coli, tryptophan activates a repressor that binds to the trp promoter- operator, inhibiting transcription initiation. In B. subtilis, tryptophan activates an RNA-binding protein, TRAP, which binds to the trp operon leader RNA, causing transcription termination. In E. coli uncharged tRNA(Trp) accumulation stalls the ribosome attempting translation of tandem Trp codons in the leader-peptide coding region of the operon. This stalling permits the formation of an RNA antiterminator structure, preventing transcription termination. In B. subtilis uncharged tRNA(Trp) accumulation activates transcription and translation of the at operon. AT protein inhibits tryptophan-activated TRAP, thereby preventing TRAP-mediated transcription termination. These differences might reflect the unique organizational features of the respective trp operons and their ancestry. PMID:15262409

  17. Requirement of duplicated operons for maximal metabolism of phthalate by Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Kim, Dockyu; Chae, Jong-Chan; Zylstra, Gerben J; Kim, Eungbin

    2007-06-01

    The operons encoding the transformation of phthalate to protocatechuate are duplicated and present on two different megaplasmids [pDK2 (330 kb) and pDK3 (750 kb)] in Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17. RT-PCR experiments using gene-specific primers showed that both the pDK2- and the pDK3-encoded dihydroxyphthalate decarboxylase genes are simultaneously expressed during growth on phthalate. The doubling time of the pDK2-cured mutant strain DK176 in minimal liquid medium with 5mM phthalate is 52.5% of that of the wild-type strain DK17. The data indicate that both copies of the phthalate operon are equally functional in DK17, and gene dosage is the main reason for slower growth of DK176 on phthalate. PMID:17449009

  18. Agrobacterium tumefaciens virE operon encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A

    1988-05-01

    The virulence (vir) genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid are essential for transformation of plant cells. Overproduction of a virE-encoded gene product in Escherichia coli was achieved by construction of an operon fusion with the E. coli tryptophan (trp) operon. The virE2 gene product in E. coli partitioned into the insoluble membrane fraction. The protein was solubilized by treatment with 4 M urea at 0 degree C. DNA-protein binding experiments showed that a strong single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding activity was present in protein fractions containing the virE2 gene product. The binding was highly specific with little or no binding observed with either double-stranded DNA or ssRNA. No significant binding to Ti plasmid DNA sequences was observed. Protein blotting studies indicated that the ssDNA-binding activity was associated with the 68-kDa virE2 polypeptide. PMID:2452439

  19. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the tetrameric form of SorC sorbitol operon regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanctis, Daniele de; Rêgo, Ana T.; Marçal, David; McVey, Colin E.; Carrondo, Maria A. [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Avenida da República, Apartado 127, 2781-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Enguita, Francisco J., E-mail: fenguita@fm.ul.pt [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Avenida da República, Apartado 127, 2781-901 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2008-01-01

    The sorbitol operon regulator from K. pneumoniae has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å. The sorbitol operon regulator (SorC) regulates the metabolism of l-sorbose in Klebsiella pneumonia. SorC was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and crystals were obtained of a tetrameric form. A single crystal showed X-ray diffraction to 3.20 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.6, b = 113.3, c = 184.1 Å. Analysis of the molecular-replacement solution indicates the presence of four SorC molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  20. Food Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, Rachel; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2007-01-01

    Many students view biology and chemistry as two unrelated, separate sciences; how these courses are generally taught in high schools may do little to change that impression. The study of enzymes provide a great opportunity for both biology and chemistry teachers to share with students the interdisciplinary nature of science. This article describes…

  1. Enzyme immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Dinesen, B; Deckert, M

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay for urinary albumin using commercially available reagents is described. The assay range is 2.5-120 micrograms/l. When samples are analysed in two standard dilutions, the assayable albumin concentration range is 2.5-240 mg/l, covering the clinical range from...

  2. Rule-based modeling of transcriptional attenuation at the tryptophan operon

    OpenAIRE

    Kuttler, Céline; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Nebut, Mirabelle

    2010-01-01

    International audience Transcriptional attenuation at E.coli's tryptophan operon is a prime example of RNA-mediated gene regulation. In this paper, we present a discrete stochastic model of the fine-grained control of attenuation, based on chemical reactions. Stochastic simulation of our model confirms results that were previously obtained by master or differential equations. Our approach is easier to understand than master equations, although mathematically well founded. It is compact due...

  3. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of the cholera enterotoxin operon of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    We report a set of oligonucleotide primers and amplification conditions for the polymerase chain reaction to detect the ctx operon of Vibrio cholerae. The results of this assay on strains of V. cholerae and related organisms were identical with those obtained by the DNA colony hybridization test with the polynucleotide probe. The detection limit of this system was 1 pg of chromosomal DNA or broth culture containing three viable cells. The polymerase chain reaction method could directly detect...

  4. Promoter analysis of the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris gum operon directing biosynthesis of the xanthan polysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Katzen, F; Becker, A.; Zorreguieta, A; Pühler, A; Ielpi, L

    1996-01-01

    The Xanthomonas campestris gum gene cluster is composed of 12 genes designated gumB, -C, -D, -E, -F, -G, -H, -I, -J, -K, -L, and -M. The transcriptional organization of this gene cluster was analyzed by the construction of gum-lacZ transcriptional fusions in association with plasmid integration mutagenesis. This analysis, coupled with primer extension assays, indicated that the gum region was mainly expressed as an operon from a promoter located upstream of the first gene, gumB.

  5. Unprecedented High-Resolution View of Bacterial Operon Architecture Revealed by RNA Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Tyrrell; Creecy, James P.; Maddox, Scott M.; Grissom, Joe E; Conkle, Trevor L.; Shadid, Tyler M.; Teramoto, Jun; San Miguel, Phillip; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ishihama, Akira; Mori, Hirotada; Wanner, Barry L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We analyzed the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12 by strand-specific RNA sequencing at single-nucleotide resolution during steady-state (logarithmic-phase) growth and upon entry into stationary phase in glucose minimal medium. To generate high-resolution transcriptome maps, we developed an organizational schema which showed that in practice only three features are required to define operon architecture: the promoter, terminator, and deep RNA sequence read coverage. We precisely ...

  6. Control of a Salmonella virulence operon by proline-charged tRNAPro

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens must express their virulence genes in the correct locales to cause disease. This task requires a pathogen’s ability to sense host signals and to transduce this information to its expression machinery. Here we establish that the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica responds to a decrease in the levels of proline-charged tRNAPro by promoting expression of the mgtCBR virulence operon. We determine that hyperosmotic stress and proline limitation reduce proline-charged ...

  7. Repression is relieved before attenuation in the trp operon of Escherichia coli as tryptophan starvation becomes increasingly severe.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanofsky, C; Kelley, R.L.; Horn, V.

    1984-01-01

    Expression of the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli is regulated over about a 500- to 600-fold range by the combined action of repression and attenuation. Repression regulates transcription initiation in response to variation in the intracellular concentration of tryptophan. Attenuation regulates transcription termination at a site in the leader region of the operon in response to changes in the extent of charging of tRNATrp. We measured repression independently of attenuation to ascertai...

  8. BigR, a Transcriptional Repressor from Plant-Associated Bacteria, Regulates an Operon Implicated in Biofilm Growth▿

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Rosicler L.; Benedetti, Celso E.

    2007-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen that colonizes the xylem vessels, causing vascular occlusion due to bacterial biofilm growth. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving biofilm formation in Xylella-plant interactions. Here we show that BigR (for “biofilm growth-associated repressor”) is a novel helix-turn-helix repressor that controls the transcription of an operon implicated in biofilm growth. This operon, which encodes BigR, membrane proteins, and an unusual beta...

  9. Structure and copy number of gene clusters related to the pap P-adhesin operon of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, M; Campanelli, C; Arbeit, R D; Kim, C.; Steinbach, S; C. E. Johnson; Rubin, R H; Goldstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    The structurally related pap and prs operons of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate J96 encode a P and an F adhesin that mediate bacterial attachment to the human P blood group antigen and the Forssman antigen, respectively. Using probes prepared from different segments of the pap operon, Southern blot hybridizations were performed to characterize pap-related sequences of 30 E. coli clinical isolates expressing different adhesin phenotypes. Gene clusters encoding P and F adhesins displ...

  10. OpWise: Operons aid the identification of differentially expressed genes in bacterial microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkin Adam P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentially expressed genes are typically identified by analyzing the variation between replicate measurements. These procedures implicitly assume that there are no systematic errors in the data even though several sources of systematic error are known. Results OpWise estimates the amount of systematic error in bacterial microarray data by assuming that genes in the same operon have matching expression patterns. OpWise then performs a Bayesian analysis of a linear model to estimate significance. In simulations, OpWise corrects for systematic error and is robust to deviations from its assumptions. In several bacterial data sets, significant amounts of systematic error are present, and replicate-based approaches overstate the confidence of the changers dramatically, while OpWise does not. Finally, OpWise can identify additional changers by assigning genes higher confidence if they are consistent with other genes in the same operon. Conclusion Although microarray data can contain large amounts of systematic error, operons provide an external standard and allow for reasonable estimates of significance. OpWise is available at http://microbesonline.org/OpWise.

  11. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanta Adhikary

    Full Text Available Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1 and citrate transporter (citC genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration.

  12. The Mannitol Operon Repressor MTIR belongs to a new class of transcription regulators in bacteria.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K.; Borovilos, M.; Zhou, M; Horer, S; Clancy, S; Moy, S; Volkart, LL; Sassoon, J; Baumann, U; Joachimiak, A (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Berne)

    2009-12-25

    Many bacteria express phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS). The mannitol-specific PTS catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of d-mannitol. The uptake system comprises several genes encoded in the single operon. The expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by a proposed transcriptional factor, mannitol operon repressor (MtlR) that was first studied in Escherichia coli. Here we report the first crystal structures of MtlR from Vibrio parahemeolyticus (Vp-MtlR) and its homolog YggD protein from Shigella flexneri (Sf-YggD). MtlR and YggD belong to the same protein family (Pfam05068). Although Vp-MtlR and Sf-YggD share low sequence identity (22%), their overall structures are very similar, representing a novel all {alpha}-helical fold, and indicate similar function. However, their lack of any known DNA-binding structural motifs and their unfavorable electrostatic properties imply that MtlR/YggD are unlikely to bind a specific DNA operator directly as proposed earlier. This structural observation is further corroborated by in vitro DNA-binding studies of E. coli MtlR (Ec-MtlR), which detected no interaction of Ec-MtlR with the well characterized mannitol operator/promoter region. Therefore, MtlR/YggD belongs to a new class of transcription factors in bacteria that may regulate gene expression indirectly as a part of a larger transcriptional complex.

  13. OpWise: Operons aid the identification of differentially expressedgenes in bacterial microarray experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-23

    Differentially expressed genes are typically identified by analyzing the variation between replicate measurements. These procedures implicitly assume that there are no systematic errors in the data even though several sources of systematic error are known. Results-OpWise estimates the amount of systematic error in bacterial microarray data by assuming that genes in the same operon have matching expression patterns. OpWise then performs a Bayesian analysis of a linear model to estimate significance. In simulations, OpWise corrects for systematic error and is robust to deviations from its assumptions. In several bacterial data sets, significant amounts of systematic error are present, and replicate-based approaches overstate the confidence of the changers dramatically, while OpWise does not. Finally, OpWise can identify additional changers by assigning genes higher confidence if they are consistent with other genes in the same operon. Although microarray data can contain large amounts of systematic error, operons provide an external standard and allow for reasonable estimates of significance. OpWise is available at http://microbesonline.org/OpWise.

  14. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  15. Deterministic and stochastic population-level simulations of an artificial lac operon genetic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygourakis Kyriacos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lac operon genetic switch is considered as a paradigm of genetic regulation. This system has a positive feedback loop due to the LacY permease boosting its own production by the facilitated transport of inducer into the cell and the subsequent de-repression of the lac operon genes. Previously, we have investigated the effect of stochasticity in an artificial lac operon network at the single cell level by comparing corresponding deterministic and stochastic kinetic models. Results This work focuses on the dynamics of cell populations by incorporating the above kinetic scheme into two Monte Carlo (MC simulation frameworks. The first MC framework assumes stochastic reaction occurrence, accounts for stochastic DNA duplication, division and partitioning and tracks all daughter cells to obtain the statistics of the entire cell population. In order to better understand how stochastic effects shape cell population distributions, we develop a second framework that assumes deterministic reaction dynamics. By comparing the predictions of the two frameworks, we conclude that stochasticity can create or destroy bimodality, and may enhance phenotypic heterogeneity. Conclusions Our results show how various sources of stochasticity act in synergy with the positive feedback architecture, thereby shaping the behavior at the cell population level. Further, the insights obtained from the present study allow us to construct simpler and less computationally intensive models that can closely approximate the dynamics of heterogeneous cell populations.

  16. The F-ATPase operon from the oral streptococci S. mutans and S. sanguis: How structure relates to function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Wendi Lee

    1999-10-01

    The oral microbe, Streptococcus mutans is known to be a primary contributor to the most common infection in humans, dental caries. In the plaque environment, resident bacteria metabolize dietary sucrose which results in the production of organic acids and a decrease in plaque pH. The proton-translocating ATPase (F-ATPase) protects the bacteria from acidification by extruding protons, at the expense of ATP, to maintain an internal pH which is more neutral than the external environment. Examination of this enzyme will help us to gain insight regarding its contribution to the aciduricity characteristics of oral bacteria. In this work, our goal was to begin the molecular dissection of the mechanism by which streptococcal ATPases are regulated and function enzymatically. Sequence analysis of the F-ATPase from the non-pathogenic S. sanguis revealed that the structural genes are homologous to S. mutans as well as other sequenced F-ATPases. Cloned subunits were functionally similar as shown by complementing E. coli ATPase mutants. S. sanguis/E. coli hybrid enzymes hydrolyzed ATP, but proton conduction was uncoupled as demonstrated with inhibition studies. Transcriptional regulation of the F-ATPase operon from S. mutans was examined using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fusions. Fusions containing 136 bp of DNA upstream of the promoter showed higher levels of expression as compared to those with only 16 bp. Similar to ATPase enzymatic activity, CAT expression also increased during growth at low pH. Analysis of RNA demonstrated that ATPase mRNA levels were higher at low pH, which supported the CAT activity data. Therefore, the F-ATPase from S. mutans was regulated, at least partially, by both the DNA located upstream of the promoter as well as by pH. Examination of structural models of the F-ATPase from the pathogenic oral organisms S. mutans and Lactobacillus casei and the non- pathogenic S. sanguis showed that the differences noted in the sequence of the catalytic

  17. Alkylating enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessjohann, Ludger A; Keim, Jeanette; Weigel, Benjamin; Dippe, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Chemospecific and regiospecific modifications of natural products by methyl, prenyl, or C-glycosyl moieties are a challenging and cumbersome task in organic synthesis. Because of the availability of an increasing number of stable and selective transferases and cofactor regeneration processes, enzyme-assisted strategies turn out to be promising alternatives to classical synthesis. Two categories of alkylating enzymes become increasingly relevant for applications: firstly prenyltransferases and terpene synthases (including terpene cyclases), which are used in the production of terpenoids such as artemisinin, or meroterpenoids like alkylated phenolics and indoles, and secondly methyltransferases, which modify flavonoids and alkaloids to yield products with a specific methylation pattern such as 7-O-methylaromadendrin and scopolamine.

  18. Engineering enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, P. Leslie; Moser, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental research into bioinorganic catalysis of the kind presented at this Faraday Discussion has the potential to turn inspiration drawn from impressive natural energy and chemical transformations into artificial catalyst constructions useful to mankind. Creating bio-inspired artificial constructions requires a level of understanding well beyond simple description of structures and mechanisms of natural enzymes. To be useful, such description must be augmented by a practical sense of str...

  19. Expression of proteins encoded by the Escherichia coli cyn operon: carbon dioxide-enhanced degradation of carbonic anhydrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, E I; Guilloton, M B; Gerami-Nejad, M; Fuchs, J A; Anderson, P M

    1994-09-01

    Cyanase catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to give 2CO2. The cynS gene encoding cyanase, together with the cynT gene for carbonic anhydrase, is part of the cyn operon, the expression of which is induced in Escherichia coli by cyanate. The physiological role of carbonic anhydrase is to prevent depletion of cellular bicarbonate during cyanate decomposition due to loss of CO2 (M.B. Guilloton, A.F. Lamblin, E. I. Kozliak, M. Gerami-Nejad, C. Tu, D. Silverman, P.M. Anderson, and J.A. Fuchs, J. Bacteriol. 175:1443-1451, 1993). A delta cynT mutant strain was extremely sensitive to inhibition of growth by cyanate and did not catalyze decomposition of cyanate (even though an active cyanase was expressed) when grown at a low pCO2 (in air) but had a Cyn+ phenotype at a high pCO2. Here the expression of these two enzymes in this unusual system for cyanate degradation was characterized in more detail. Both enzymes were found to be located in the cytosol and to be present at approximately equal levels in the presence of cyanate. A delta cynT mutant strain could be complemented with high levels of expressed human carbonic anhydrase II; however, the mutant defect was not completely abolished, perhaps because the E. coli carbonic anhydrase is significantly less susceptible to inhibition by cyanate than mammalian carbonic anhydrases. The induced E. coli carbonic anhydrase appears to be particularly adapted to its function in cyanate degradation. Active cyanase remained in cells grown in the presence of either low or high pCO2 after the inducer cyanate was depleted; in contrast, carbonic anhydrase protein was degraded very rapidly (minutes) at a high pCO2 but much more slowly (hours) at a low pCO2. A physiological significance of these observations is suggested by the observation that expression of carbonic anhydrase at a high pCO2 decreased the growth rate.

  20. CcpA affects expression of the groESL and dnaK operons in Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marasco Rosangela

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are widely used in food industry and their growth performance is important for the quality of the fermented product. During industrial processes changes in temperature may represent an environmental stress to be overcome by starters and non-starters LAB. Studies on adaptation to heat shock have shown the involvement of the chaperon system-proteins in various Gram-positive bacteria. The corresponding operons, namely the dnaK and groESL operons, are controlled by a negative mechanism involving the HrcA repressor protein binding to the cis acting element CIRCE. Results We studied adaptation to heat shock in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. The LM3-2 strain, carrying a null mutation in the ccpA gene, encoding the catabolite control protein A (CcpA, showed a lower percent of survival to high temperature with respect to the LM3 wild type strain. Among proteins differentially expressed in the two strains, the GroES chaperon was more abundant in the wild type strain compared to the mutant strain under standard growth conditions. Transcriptional studies showed that class I heat shock operons were differentially expressed upon heat shock in both strains. Indeed, the dnaK and groESL operons were induced about two times more in the LM3 strain compared to the LM3-2 strain. Analysis of the regulatory region of the two operons showed the presence of cre sequences, putative binding sites for the CcpA protein. Conclusion The L. plantarum dnaK and groESL operons are characterized by the presence of the cis acting sequence CIRCE in the promoter region, suggesting a negative regulation by the HrcA/CIRCE system, which is a common type of control among the class I heat shock operons of Gram-positive bacteria. We found an additional system of regulation, based on a positive control exerted by the CcpA protein, which would interact with cre sequences present in the regulatory region of the dnaK and gro

  1. Fate of the H-NS-repressed bgl operon in evolution of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sabari Sankar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the enterobacterial species Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, expression of horizontally acquired genes with a higher than average AT content is repressed by the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. A classical example of an H-NS-repressed locus is the bgl (aryl-beta,D-glucoside operon of E. coli. This locus is "cryptic," as no laboratory growth conditions are known to relieve repression of bgl by H-NS in E. coli K12. However, repression can be relieved by spontaneous mutations. Here, we investigated the phylogeny of the bgl operon. Typing of bgl in a representative collection of E. coli demonstrated that it evolved clonally and that it is present in strains of the phylogenetic groups A, B1, and B2, while it is presumably replaced by a cluster of ORFans in the phylogenetic group D. Interestingly, the bgl operon is mutated in 20% of the strains of phylogenetic groups A and B1, suggesting erosion of bgl in these groups. However, bgl is functional in almost all B2 isolates and, in approximately 50% of them, it is weakly expressed at laboratory growth conditions. Homologs of bgl genes exist in Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Erwinia species and also in low GC-content Gram-positive bacteria, while absent in E. albertii and Salmonella sp. This suggests horizontal transfer of bgl genes to an ancestral Enterobacterium. Conservation and weak expression of bgl in isolates of phylogenetic group B2 may indicate a functional role of bgl in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli.

  2. The effect of stochasticity on the lac operon: an evolutionary perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan van Hoek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of stochasticity on gene expression is widely discussed. Both potential advantages and disadvantages have been revealed. In some systems, noise in gene expression has been quantified, in among others the lac operon of Escherichia coli. Whether stochastic gene expression in this system is detrimental or beneficial for the cells is, however, still unclear. We are interested in the effects of stochasticity from an evolutionary point of view. We study this question in the lac operon, taking a computational approach: using a detailed, quantitative, spatial model, we evolve through a mutation-selection process the shape of the promoter function and therewith the effective amount of stochasticity. We find that noise values for lactose, the natural inducer, are much lower than for artificial, nonmetabolizable inducers, because these artificial inducers experience a stronger positive feedback. In the evolved promoter functions, noise due to stochasticity in gene expression, when induced by lactose, only plays a very minor role in short-term physiological adaptation, because other sources of population heterogeneity dominate. Finally, promoter functions evolved in the stochastic model evolve to higher repressed transcription rates than those evolved in a deterministic version of the model. This causes these promoter functions to experience less stochasticity in gene expression. We show that a high repression rate and hence high stochasticity increases the delay in lactose uptake in a variable environment. We conclude that the lac operon evolved such that the impact of stochastic gene expression is minor in its natural environment, but happens to respond with much stronger stochasticity when confronted with artificial inducers. In this particular system, we have shown that stochasticity is detrimental. Moreover, we demonstrate that in silico evolution in a quantitative model, by mutating the parameters of interest, is a promising way to unravel

  3. Expression of the ompATb operon accelerates ammonia secretion and adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Houhui; Huff, Jason; Janik, Katharine; Walter, Kerstin; Keller, Christine; Ehlers, Stefan; Bossmann, Stefan H; Niederweis, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Homeostasis of intracellular pH is a trait critical for survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages. However, mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis adapts to acidic environments are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed the physiological functions of OmpATb, a surface-accessible protein of M. tuberculosis. OmpATb did not complement the permeability defects of a Mycobacterium smegmatis porin mutant to glucose, serine and glycerol, in contrast to the porin MspA. Uptake rates of these solutes were unchanged in an ompATb operon mutant of M. tuberculosis indicating that OmpATb is not a general porin. Chemical analysis of low-pH culture filtrates showed that the proteins encoded by the ompATb operon are involved in generating a rapid ammonia burst, which neutralized medium pH and preceded exponential growth of M. tuberculosis. Addition of ammonia accelerated growth of the ompATb operon mutant demonstrating that ammonia secretion is indeed a mechanism by which M. tuberculosis neutralizes acidic environments. Infection experiments revealed that the ompATb operon was not required for full virulence in mice suggesting that M. tuberculosis has multiple mechanisms of resisting phagosomal acidification. Taken together, these results show that the ompATb operon is necessary for rapid ammonia secretion and adaptation of M. tuberculosis to acidic environments in vitro but not in mice. PMID:21410778

  4. Opine-based Agrobacterium competitiveness: dual expression control of the agrocinopine catabolism (acc) operon by agrocinopines and phosphate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H Stanley; Yi, Hyojeong; Myung, Jaehee; Piper, Kevin R; Farrand, Stephen K

    2008-05-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 can transform plant cells to produce and secrete the sugar-phosphate conjugate opines agrocinopines A and B. The bacterium then moves in response to the opines and utilizes them as exclusive sources of carbon, energy, and phosphate via the functions encoded by the acc operon. These privileged opine-involved activities contribute to the formation of agrobacterial niches in the environment. We found that the expression of the acc operon is induced by agrocinopines and also by limitation of phosphate. The main promoter is present in front of the first gene, accR, which codes for a repressor. This operon structure enables efficient repression when opine levels are low. The promoter contains two putative operators, one overlapping the -10 sequence and the other in the further upstream from it; two partly overlapped putative pho boxes between the two operators; and two consecutive transcription start sites. DNA fragments containing either of the operators bound purified repressor AccR in the absence of agrocinopines but not in the presence of the opines, demonstrating the on-off switch of the promoter. Induction of the acc operon can occur under low-phosphate conditions in the absence of agrocinopines and further increases when the opines also are present. Such opine-phosphate dual regulatory system of the operon may ensure maximum utilization of agrocinopines when available and thereby increase the chances of agrobacterial survival in the highly competitive environment with limited general food sources. PMID:18344359

  5. A mutation in a new gene bglJ, activates the bgl operon in Escherichia coli K-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giel, M.; Desnoyer, M.; Lopilato, J. [Simmons College, Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A new mutation , bglJ4, has been characterized that results in the expression of the silent bgl operon. The bgl operon encodes proteins necessary for the transport and utilization of the aromatic {beta}-glucosides arbutin and salicin. A variety of mutations activate the operon and result in a Bgl{sup +} phenotype. Activating mutations are located upstream of the bgl promoter and in genes located elsewhere on the chromosome. Mutations outside of the bgl operon occur in the genes encoding DNA gyrase and in the gene encoding the nucleoid associated protein H-NS. The mutation described here, bglJ4, has been mapped to a new locus at min 99 on the Escherichia coli K-12 genetic map. The putative protein encoded by the bglJ gene has homology to a family of transcriptional activators. Evidence is presented that increased expression of the bglJ product is needed for activation of the bgl operon. 56 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Aromatic acid metabolites of Escherichia coli K-12 can induce the marRAB operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubiz, Lon M; Rao, Christopher V

    2010-09-01

    MarR is a key regulator of the marRAB operon involved in antibiotic resistance and solvent stress tolerance in Escherichia coli. We show that two metabolic intermediates, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate and anthranilate, involved in enterobactin and tryptophan biosynthesis, respectively, can activate marRAB transcription. We also found that a third intermediate involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis, 4-hydroxybenzoate, activates marRAB transcription in the absence of TolC. Of the three, however, only 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate directly binds MarR and affects its activity. PMID:20639340

  7. Role of P27 -P55 operon from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the resistance to toxic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataldi Angel A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The P27-P55 (lprG-Rv1410c operon is crucial for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, during infection in mice. P55 encodes an efflux pump that has been shown to provide Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG with resistance to several drugs, while P27 encodes a mannosylated glycoprotein previously described as an antigen that modulates the immune response against mycobacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the individual contribution of the proteins encoded in the P27-P55 operon to the resistance to toxic compounds and to the cell wall integrity of M. tuberculosis. Method In order to test the susceptibility of a mutant of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in the P27-P55 operon to malachite green, sodium dodecyl sulfate, ethidium bromide, and first-line antituberculosis drugs, this strain together with the wild type strain and a set of complemented strains were cultivated in the presence and in the absence of these drugs. In addition, the malachite green decolorization rate of each strain was obtained from decolorization curves of malachite green in PBS containing bacterial suspensions. Results The mutant strain decolorized malachite green faster than the wild type strain and was hypersensitive to both malachite green and ethidium bromide, and more susceptible to the first-line antituberculosis drugs: isoniazid and ethambutol. The pump inhibitor reserpine reversed M. tuberculosis resistance to ethidium bromide. These results suggest that P27-P55 functions through an efflux-pump like mechanism. In addition, deletion of the P27-P55 operon made M. tuberculosis susceptible to sodium dodecyl sulfate, suggesting that the lack of both proteins causes alterations in the cell wall permeability of the bacterium. Importantly, both P27 and P55 are required to restore the wild type phenotypes in the mutant. Conclusions The results clearly indicate that P27 and P55 are

  8. A mutant crp allele that differentially activates the operons of the fuc regulon in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

    1988-01-01

    L-Fucose is used by Escherichia coli through an inducible pathway mediated by a fucP-encoded permease, a fucI-encoded isomerase, a fucK-encoded kinase, and a fucA-encoded aldolase. The adolase catalyzes the formation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-lactaldehyde. Anaerobically, lactaldehyde is converted by a fucO-encoded oxidoreductase to L-1,2-propanediol, which is excreted. The fuc genes belong to a regulon comprising four linked operons: fucO, fucA, fucPIK, and fucR. The positive regula...

  9. Genetic analysis of the modABCD (molybdate transport) operon of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Maupin-Furlow, J A; Rosentel, J K; Lee, J.H.; Deppenmeier, U; Gunsalus, R P; Shanmugam, K. T.

    1995-01-01

    DNA sequence analysis of the modABCD operon of Escherichia coli revealed the presence of four open reading frames. The first gene, modA, codes for a 257-amino-acid periplasmic binding protein enunciated by the presence of a signal peptide-like sequence. The second gene (modB) encodes a 229-amino-acid protein with a potential membrane location, while the 352-amino-acid ModC protein (modC product) contains a nucleotide-binding motif. On the basis of sequence similarities with proteins from othe...

  10. The nasFEDCBA operon for nitrate and nitrite assimilation in Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J. T.; Goldman, B. S.; Stewart, V

    1994-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae can use nitrate and nitrite as sole nitrogen sources through the nitrate assimilation pathway. We previously identified structural genes for assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases, nasA and nasB, respectively. We report here our further identification of four genes, nasFEDC, upstream of the nasBA genes. The nasFEDCBA genes probably form an operon. Mutational and complementation analyses indicated that both the nasC and nasA genes are required for nitrate assimilatio...

  11. The stb operon balances the requirements for vegetative stability and conjugative transfer of plasmid R388

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Guynet; Ana Cuevas; Gabriel Moncalián; Fernando de la Cruz

    2011-01-01

    The conjugative plasmid R388 and a number of other plasmids carry an operon, stbABC, adjacent to the origin of conjugative transfer. We investigated the role of the stbA, stbB, and stbC genes. Deletion of stbA affected both conjugation and stability. It led to a 50-fold increase in R388 transfer frequency, as well as to high plasmid loss. In contrast, deletion of stbB abolished conjugation but provoked no change in plasmid stability. Deletion of stbC showed no effect, neither in conjugation n...

  12. Tandem attenuators control expression of the Salmonella mgtCBR virulence operon

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2012-01-01

    The mgtCBR operon from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium specifies the virulence protein MgtC, the Mg2+ transporter MgtB and the regulatory peptide MgtR. The mgtCBR transcript includes a long leader region harbouring two short open reading frames (ORFs). Translation of these ORFs is anticipated to impact the formation of particular stem-loop structures and control transcription of the coding region by an attenuation-like mechanism. We previously reported that ORF mgtM enables Salmonella...

  13. The structure of a ribosomal protein S8/spc operon mRNA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Helen J; Wang, Jimin; Moore, Peter B

    2004-06-01

    In bacteria, translation of all the ribosomal protein cistrons in the spc operon mRNA is repressed by the binding of the product of one of them, S8, to an internal sequence at the 5' end of the L5 cistron. The way in which the first two genes of the spc operon are regulated, retroregulation, is mechanistically distinct from translational repression by S8 of the genes from L5 onward. A 2.8 A resolution crystal structure has been obtained of Escherichia coli S8 bound to this site. Despite sequence differences, the structure of this complex is almost identical to that of the S8/helix 21 complex seen in the small ribosomal subunit, consistent with the hypothesis that autogenous regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis results from conformational similarities between mRNAs and rRNAs. S8 binding must repress the translation of its own mRNA by inhibiting the formation of a ribosomal initiation complex at the start of the L5 cistron.

  14. Toward Bioremediation of Methylmercury Using Silica Encapsulated Escherichia coli Harboring the mer Operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Aunica L; Al-Shayeb, Basem; Holec, Patrick V; Rajan, Srijay; Le Mieux, Nicholas E; Heinsch, Stephen C; Psarska, Sona; Aukema, Kelly G; Sarkar, Casim A; Nater, Edward A; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal and the ability of the neurotoxin methylmercury to biomagnify in the food chain is a serious concern for both public and environmental health globally. Because thousands of tons of mercury are released into the environment each year, remediation strategies are urgently needed and prompted this study. To facilitate remediation of both organic and inorganic forms of mercury, Escherichia coli was engineered to harbor a subset of genes (merRTPAB) from the mercury resistance operon. Protein products of the mer operon enable transport of mercury into the cell, cleavage of organic C-Hg bonds, and subsequent reduction of ionic mercury to the less toxic elemental form, Hg(0). E. coli containing merRTPAB was then encapsulated in silica beads resulting in a biological-based filtration material. Performing encapsulation in aerated mineral oil yielded silica beads that were smooth, spherical, and similar in diameter. Following encapsulation, E. coli containing merRTPAB retained the ability to degrade methylmercury and performed similarly to non-encapsulated cells. Due to the versatility of both the engineered mercury resistant strain and silica bead technology, this study provides a strong foundation for use of the resulting biological-based filtration material for methylmercury remediation. PMID:26761437

  15. Toward Bioremediation of Methylmercury Using Silica Encapsulated Escherichia coli Harboring the mer Operon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunica L Kane

    Full Text Available Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal and the ability of the neurotoxin methylmercury to biomagnify in the food chain is a serious concern for both public and environmental health globally. Because thousands of tons of mercury are released into the environment each year, remediation strategies are urgently needed and prompted this study. To facilitate remediation of both organic and inorganic forms of mercury, Escherichia coli was engineered to harbor a subset of genes (merRTPAB from the mercury resistance operon. Protein products of the mer operon enable transport of mercury into the cell, cleavage of organic C-Hg bonds, and subsequent reduction of ionic mercury to the less toxic elemental form, Hg(0. E. coli containing merRTPAB was then encapsulated in silica beads resulting in a biological-based filtration material. Performing encapsulation in aerated mineral oil yielded silica beads that were smooth, spherical, and similar in diameter. Following encapsulation, E. coli containing merRTPAB retained the ability to degrade methylmercury and performed similarly to non-encapsulated cells. Due to the versatility of both the engineered mercury resistant strain and silica bead technology, this study provides a strong foundation for use of the resulting biological-based filtration material for methylmercury remediation.

  16. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose. All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  17. Genomics of pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic loci: evidence for conservation and whole-operon mobility within gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rodrigo; van Aarle, Ingrid M; Mendes, Rodrigo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin (PRN) is a tryptophan-derived secondary metabolite produced by a narrow range of gram-negative bacteria. The PRN biosynthesis by rhizobacteria presumably has a key role in their life strategies and in the biocontrol of plant diseases. The biosynthetic operon that encodes the pathway that converts tryptophan to PRN is composed of four genes, prnA through D, whose diversity, genomic context and spread over bacterial genomes are poorly understood. Therefore, we launched an endeavour aimed at retrieving, by in vitro and in silico means, diverse bacteria carrying the prnABCD biosynthetic loci in their genomes. Analysis of polymorphisms of the prnD gene sequences revealed a high level of conservation between Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Serratia spp. derived sequences. Whole-operon- and prnD-based phylogeny resulted in tree topologies that are incongruent with the taxonomic status of the evaluated strains as predicted by 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. The genomic composition of c. 20 kb DNA fragments containing the PRN operon varied in different strains. Highly conserved and distinct transposase-encoding genes surrounding the PRN biosynthetic operons of Burkholderia pseudomallei strains were found. A prnABCD-deprived genomic region in B. pseudomallei strain K96243 contained the same gene composition as, and shared high homology with, the flanking regions of the PRN operon in B. pseudomallei strains 668, 1106a and 1710b. Our results strongly suggest that the PRN biosynthetic operon is mobile. The extent, frequency and promiscuity of this mobility remain to be understood. PMID:18793314

  18. Rv2031c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a master regulator of Rv2028-Rv2031 (HspX operon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram eMushtaq

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGenes belonging to the same operon are transcribed as a single mRNA molecule in all prokaryotes. The genes of the same operon are presumed to be involved in similar metabolic and physiological processes. Hence, computational analysis of constituent proteins could provide important clues to the functional relationships within the operonic genes. This tends to be more fruitful in the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, considering the number of hypothetical genes with unknown functions and interacting partners. Dramatic advances in the past decade have increased our knowledge of the mechanisms that tubercle bacilli employ to survive within the host. But the phenomenon of Mtb latency continues to baffle all. Rv2031c belonging to dormancy regulon of Mtb is predominantly expressed during latency, with myriad immunological roles. Thus we attempted to analyze the operon comprising Rv2031c protein to gain insights into its role during latency. In the current study, we have carried out computational analysis of proteins encoded by genes known to be a part of this operon. Our study includes phylogenetic analysis, modeling of protein 3D structures, and protein interaction network analysis. We describe the mechanistic role in the establishment of latency and regulation of DevS/DevR component system. Additionally, we have identified the probable role of these proteins in carbohydrate metabolism, erythromycin tolerance and nucleotide synthesis. Hence, these proteins can modulate the metabolism of mycobacterium inside the host cells and can be important for its survival in latency. The functional characterization and interactome of this important operon can give insight into its role during latency along with the exploitation of constituent proteins as drug targets and vaccine candidates.

  19. Modulating TRAP-mediated transcription termination by AT during transcription of the leader region of the Bacillus subtilis trp operon

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shraddha; Gollnick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    An 11-subunit protein called trp RNA binding Attenuation Protein (TRAP) controls attenuation of the tryptophan biosynthetic (trpEDCFBA) operon in Bacillus subtilis. Tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to 11 (G/U)AG repeats in the 5′ leader region of trp mRNAs, and downregulates expression of the operon by promoting transcription termination prior to the structural genes. Anti-TRAP (AT) is an antagonist that binds to tryptophan-activated TRAP and prevents TRAP from binding to RNA, thereby upregula...

  20. Structural organization of the transfer RNA operon I of Vibrio cholerae: Differences between classical and El Tor strains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atreyi Ghatak; Anasuya Majumdar; Ranajit K Ghosh

    2005-09-01

    Nine major transfer RNA (tRNA) gene clusters were analysed in various Vibrio cholerae strains. Of these, only the tRNA operon I was found to differ significantly in V. cholerae classical (sixth pandemic) and El Tor (seventh pandemic) strains. Amongst the sixteen tRNA genes contained in this operon, genes for tRNA Gln3 (CAA) and tRNA Leu6 (CUA) were absent in classical strains as compared to El Tor strains. The observation strongly supported the view that the above two pandemic strains constitute two different clones.

  1. Cross-Regulation between the phz1 and phz2 Operons Maintain a Balanced Level of Phenazine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinna Cui

    Full Text Available Gene duplication often provides selective advantages for the survival of microorganisms in adapting to varying environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa PAO1 possesses two seven-gene operons [phz1 (phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1 and phz2 (phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2] that are involved in the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its derivatives. Although the two operons are highly homologous and their functions are well known, it is unclear how the two phz operons coordinate their expressions to maintain the phenazine biosynthesis. By constructing single and double deletion mutants of the two phz operons, we found that the phz1-deletion mutant produced the same or less amount of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin in GA medium than the phz2-knockout mutant while the phz1-phz2 double knockout mutant did not produce any phenazines. By generating phzA1 and phzA2 translational and transcriptional fusions with a truncated lacZ reporter, we found that the expression of the phz1 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and did not alter at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz2 operon. Surprisingly, the expression the phz2 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and only moderately at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz1 operon. Our findings suggested that a complex cross-regulation existed between the phz1 and phz2 operons. By mediating the upregulation of one phz operon expression while the other was deleted, this crosstalk would maintain the homeostatic balance of phenazine biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  2. Enzyme detection by microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic-implemented methods of detecting an enzyme, in particular a DNA-modifying enzyme, are provided, as well as methods for detecting a cell, or a microorganism expressing said enzyme. The enzyme is detected by providing a nucleic acid substrate, which is specifically targeted...... by that enzyme...

  3. Genomics of pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic loci : evidence for conservation and whole-operon mobility within Gram-negative bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Rodrigo; van Aarle, Ingrid M.; Mendes, Rodrigo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin (PRN) is a tryptophan-derived secondary metabolite produced by a narrow range of Gram-negative bacteria. The PRN biosynthesis by rhizobacteria presumably has a key role in their life strategies and in the biocontrol of plant diseases. The biosynthetic operon that encodes the pathway tha

  4. Five phosphonate operon gene products as components of a multi-subunit complex of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochimsen, Bjarne; Lolle, Signe; McSorley, Fern R.;

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphonate utilization by Escherichia coli requires the 14 cistrons of the phnCDEFGHIJKLMNOP operon, of which the carbon-phosphorus lyase has been postulated to consist of the seven polypeptides specified by phnG to phnM. A 5,660-bp DNA fragment encompassing phnGHIJKLM is cloned, followed ...

  5. Identification and functional characterization of the Lactococcus lactis rfb operon, required for dTDP-rhamnose biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boels, I.C.; Beerthuyzen, M.M.; Kosters, M.H.; Kaauwen, van M.P.W.; Kleerebezem, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2004-01-01

    dTDP-rhamnose is an important precursor of cell wall polysaccharides and rhamnose-containing exopolysaccharides (EPS) in Lactococcus lactis. We cloned the rfbACBD operon from L. lactis MG1363, which comprises four genes involved in dTDP-rhamnose biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the

  6. A Quantitative bgl Operon Model for E. coli Requires BglF Conformational Change for Sugar Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Paras; Bender, Andreas

    The bgl operon is responsible for the metabolism of β-glucoside sugars such as salicin or arbutin in E. coli. Its regulatory system involves both positive and negative feedback mechanisms and it can be assumed to be more complex than that of the more closely studied lac and trp operons. We have developed a quantitative model for the regulation of the bgl operon which is subject to in silico experiments investigating its behavior under different hypothetical conditions. Upon administration of 5mM salicin as an inducer our model shows 80-fold induction, which compares well with the 60-fold induction measured experimentally. Under practical conditions 5-10mM inducer are employed, which is in line with the minimum inducer concentration of 1mM required by our model. The necessity of BglF conformational change for sugar transport has been hypothesized previously, and in line with those hypotheses our model shows only minor induction if conformational change is not allowed. Overall, this first quantitative model for the bgl operon gives reasonable predictions that are close to experimental results (where measured). It will be further refined as values of the parameters are determined experimentally. The model was developed in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and it is available from the authors and from the Biomodels repository [www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels].

  7. Functional analysis of an intergenic non-coding sequence within mce1 operon of M.tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Mridula

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mce operons play an important role in the entry of M. tuberculosis into macrophages and non-phagocytic cells. Their non-redundant function as well as complex regulation is implied by the phenotype of mce mutants. Recently, mce1 operon was found to extend over 13 genes, fadD5 (Rv0166 being the first gene of the operon. The presence of a non-coding sequence of 200 base pairs between Rv0166 and Rv0167 is peculiar to mce1 among the four mce operons of M.tuberculosis. We have examined the function of this region. Results We predicted putative promoter activity of the 200 base pairs of non-coding, intergenic region between Rv0166 and Rv0167 in silico using MEME software and designate it as intergenic promoter, IGPr. We demonstrate both promoter activity and a putative negative regulatory function of this fragment by reporter assays carried out in the surrogate host M.smegmatis. We find that the repressive elements not only control the native promoter but also repress a heterologous promoter of M.smegmatis. The higher activity of the intergenic promoter in a clinical isolate in comparison with the wild type sequence from M.tuberculosis H37Rv could be correlated with a point mutation within the negative element. We have mapped two transcription start sites for mce1 operon both of which are utilized in M.tuberculosis H37Rv as well as the clinical isolate VPCI591. Our studies show that the promoter activity in the non-coding region is relevant not only in reporter gene expression but also in the expression of mce1 operon in M. tuberculosis cells grown in synthetic medium. Conclusion The mce operon of M.tuberculosis H37Rv potentially can be transcribed from two promoters P1 and P2, former mapping upstream of Rv0166 and the latter in the non-coding intergenic region between Rv0166 and Rv0167. The transcription initiation from P1 results in a transcript with Rv0166 while that from P2 will be without it. The sequences between the

  8. Optimal performance of the tryptophan operon of E. coli: a stochastic, dynamical, mathematical-modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Cavazos, Emanuel; Santillán, Moisés

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we develop a detailed, stochastic, dynamical model for the tryptophan operon of E. coli, and estimate all of the model parameters from reported experimental data. We further employ the model to study the system performance, considering the amount of biochemical noise in the trp level, the system rise time after a nutritional shift, and the amount of repressor molecules necessary to maintain an adequate level of repression, as indicators of the system performance regime. We demonstrate that the level of cooperativity between repressor molecules bound to the first two operators in the trp promoter affects all of the above enlisted performance characteristics. Moreover, the cooperativity level found in the wild-type bacterial strain optimizes a cost-benefit function involving low biochemical noise in the tryptophan level, short rise time after a nutritional shift, and low number of regulatory molecules. PMID:24307084

  9. A mutant crp allele that differentially activates the operons of the fuc regulon in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

    1988-05-01

    L-Fucose is used by Escherichia coli through an inducible pathway mediated by a fucP-encoded permease, a fucI-encoded isomerase, a fucK-encoded kinase, and a fucA-encoded aldolase. The adolase catalyzes the formation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-lactaldehyde. Anaerobically, lactaldehyde is converted by a fucO-encoded oxidoreductase to L-1,2-propanediol, which is excreted. The fuc genes belong to a regulon comprising four linked operons: fucO, fucA, fucPIK, and fucR. The positive regulator encoded by fucR responds to fuculose 1-phosphate as the effector. Mutants serially selected for aerobic growth on propanediol became constitutive in fucO and fucA [fucO(Con) fucA(Con)], but noninducible in fucPIK [fucPIK(Non)]. An external suppressor mutation that restored growth on fucose caused constitutive expression of fucPIK. Results from this study indicate that this suppressor mutation occurred in crp, which encodes the cyclic AMP-binding (or receptor) protein. When the suppressor allele (crp-201) was transduced into wild-type strains, the recipient became fucose negative and fucose sensitive (with glycerol as the carbon and energy source) because of impaired expression of fucA. The fucPIK operon became hyperinducible. The growth rate on maltose was significantly reduced, but growth on L-rhamnose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, glycerol, or glycerol 3-phosphate was close to normal. Lysogenization of fuc+ crp-201 cells by a lambda bacteriophage bearing crp+ restored normal growth ability on fucose. In contrast, lysogenization of [fucO(Con)fucA(Con)fucPIK(Non)crp-201] cells by the same phage retarded their growth on fucose. PMID:2834341

  10. Synthesis and degradation of the mRNA of the Tn21 mer operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambill, B D; Summers, A O

    1992-05-20

    The mercury resistance locus encoded by Tn21 on the monocopy IncFII plasmid R100 (merTn21) consists of a metal-responsive activator/repressor, merR, which controls initiation of a polycistronic message that includes genes for the uptake (merTPC) and reduction (merA) of Hg2+ and merD, which may also play a minor regulatory role. Comparison of the relative abundance of the 5' and 3' ends of the merTPCAD transcript revealed a strong transcriptional gradient in the operon, consistent with previous observations of lower relative abundance of the more promoter-distal gene products. In vivo mRNA degradation rates varied only slightly for the different genes: however, the rates of mRNA synthesis varied considerably from the beginning to the end of the operon. Specifically, mRNA corresponding to the promoter-proximal genes, merTPC, achieved a maximum in vivo synthesis rate between 60 and 120 seconds after induction; this rate was maintained for approximately ten minutes. In contrast, the synthesis rates of mRNA corresponding to the promoter-distal genes merA and merD, were initially fivefold lower than the rates of the promoter-proximal genes for the first five minutes after induction, and then rose gradually to approximately 50% of the merTPC synthesis rates. These data suggested that early after induction only 20% of the transcripts initiating at merT proceed beyond merC. At later times after induction approximately 50% of the transcripts proceed beyond merC. Nuclease end mapping did not reveal any discrete termination events in the merPCA region, thus, premature termination may occur at many sites.

  11. The stb operon balances the requirements for vegetative stability and conjugative transfer of plasmid R388.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Guynet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The conjugative plasmid R388 and a number of other plasmids carry an operon, stbABC, adjacent to the origin of conjugative transfer. We investigated the role of the stbA, stbB, and stbC genes. Deletion of stbA affected both conjugation and stability. It led to a 50-fold increase in R388 transfer frequency, as well as to high plasmid loss. In contrast, deletion of stbB abolished conjugation but provoked no change in plasmid stability. Deletion of stbC showed no effect, neither in conjugation nor in stability. Deletion of the entire stb operon had no effect on conjugation, which remained as in the wild-type plasmid, but led to a plasmid loss phenotype similar to that of the R388ΔstbA mutant. We concluded that StbA is required for plasmid stability and that StbA and StbB control conjugation. We next observed the intracellular positioning of R388 DNA molecules and showed that they localize as discrete foci evenly distributed in live Escherichia coli cells. Plasmid instability of the R388ΔΔstbA mutant correlated with aberrant localization of the plasmid DNA molecules as clusters, either at one cell pole, at both poles, or at the cell center. In contrast, plasmid molecules in the R388ΔΔstbB mutant were mostly excluded from the cell poles. Thus, results indicate that defects in both plasmid maintenance and transfer are a consequence of variations in the intracellular positioning of plasmid DNA. We propose that StbA and StbB constitute an atypical plasmid stabilization system that reconciles two modes of plasmid R388 physiology: a maintenance mode (replication and segregation and a propagation mode (conjugation. The consequences of this novel concept in plasmid physiology will be discussed.

  12. Crosstalk between virulence loci: regulation of Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) by products of the std fimbrial operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Garrido, Javier; Casadesús, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells is a critical step in Salmonella infection and requires the expression of genes located in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). A key factor for SPI-1 expression is DNA adenine (Dam) methylation, which activates synthesis of the SPI-1 transcriptional activator HilD. Dam-dependent regulation of hilD is postranscriptional (and therefore indirect), indicating the involvement of unknown cell functions under Dam methylation control. A genetic screen has identified the std fimbrial operon as the missing link between Dam methylation and SPI-1. We show that all genes in the std operon are part of a single transcriptional unit, and describe three previously uncharacterized ORFs (renamed stdD, stdE, and stdF). We present evidence that two such loci (stdE and stdF) are involved in Dam-dependent control of Salmonella SPI-1: in a Dam(-) background, deletion of stdE or stdF suppresses SPI-1 repression; in a Dam(+) background, constitutive expression of StdE and/or StdF represses SPI-1. Repression of SPI-1 by products of std operon explains the invasion defect of Salmonella Dam(-) mutants, which constitutively express the std operon. Dam-dependent repression of std in the ileum may be required to permit invasion, as indicated by two observations: constitutive expression of StdE and StdF reduces invasion of epithelial cells in vitro (1,000 fold) and attenuates Salmonella virulence in the mouse model (>60 fold). In turn, crosstalk between std and SPI-1 may play a role in intestinal infections by preventing expression of SPI-1 in the caecum, an intestinal compartment in which the std operon is known to be expressed.

  13. Identification of a positive transcription regulatory element within the coding region of the nifLA operon in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranjana; Das, Hirendra K; Dixit, Aparna

    2005-07-01

    Nitrogen fixation in Azotobacter vinelandii is regulated by the nifLA operon. NifA activates the transcription of nif genes, while NifL antagonizes the transcriptional activator NifA in response to fixed nitrogen and molecular oxygen levels. However, transcriptional regulation of the nifLA operon of A. vinelandii itself is not fully understood. Using the S1 nuclease assay, we mapped the transcription start site of the nifLA operon, showing it to be similar to the sigma54-dependent promoters. We also identified a positive cis-acting regulatory element (+134 to +790) of the nifLA operon within the coding region of the nifL gene of A. vinelandii. Deletion of this element results in complete loss of promoter activity. Several protein factors bind to this region, and the specific binding sites have been mapped by DNase I foot printing. Two of these sites, namely dR1 (+134 to +204) and dR2 (+745 to +765), are involved in regulating the nifLA promoter activity. The absence of NtrC-like binding sites in the upstream region of the nifLA operon in A. vinelandii makes the identification of these downstream elements a highly significant finding. The interaction of the promoter with the proteins binding to the dR2 region spanning +745 to +765 appears to be dependent on the face of the helix as introduction of 4 bases just before this region completely disrupts promoter activity. Thus, the positive regulatory element present within the BglII-BglII fragment may play, in part; an important role in nifLA regulation in A. vinelandii. PMID:16000781

  14. The use of amino sugars by Bacillus subtilis: presence of a unique operon for the catabolism of glucosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugué, Isabelle; Oberto, Jacques; Putzer, Harald; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    B. subtilis grows more rapidly using the amino sugar glucosamine as carbon source, than with N-acetylglucosamine. Genes for the transport and metabolism of N-acetylglucosamine (nagP and nagAB) are found in all the sequenced Bacilli (except Anoxybacillus flavithermus). In B. subtilis there is an additional operon (gamAP) encoding second copies of genes for the transport and catabolism of glucosamine. We have developed a method to make multiple deletion mutations in B. subtilis employing an excisable spectinomycin resistance cassette. Using this method we have analysed the contribution of the different genes of the nag and gam operons for their role in utilization of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Faster growth on glucosamine is due to the presence of the gamAP operon, which is strongly induced by glucosamine. Although the gamA and nagB genes encode isozymes of GlcN6P deaminase, catabolism of N-acetylglucosamine relies mostly upon the gamA gene product. The genes for use of N-acetylglucosamine, nagAB and nagP, are repressed by YvoA (NagR), a GntR family regulator, whose gene is part of the nagAB yvoA(nagR) operon. The gamAP operon is repressed by YbgA, another GntR family repressor, whose gene is expressed divergently from gamAP. The nagAB yvoA synton is found throughout the Bacilli and most firmicutes. On the other hand the ybgA-gamAP synton, which includes the ybgB gene for a small protein of unknown provenance, is only found in B. subtilis (and a few very close relatives). The origin of ybgBA-gamAP grouping is unknown but synteny analysis suggests lateral transfer from an unidentified donor. The presence of gamAP has enabled B. subtilis to efficiently use glucosamine as carbon source.

  15. Structure and function of enzymes involved in the anaerobic degradation of L-threonine to propionate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhirendra K Simanshu; Sagar Chittori; H S Savithri; M R N Murthy

    2007-09-01

    In Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, L-threonine is cleaved non-oxidatively to propionate via 2-ketobutyrate by biodegradative threonine deaminase, 2-ketobutyrate formate-lyase (or pyruvate formate-lyase), phosphotransacetylase and propionate kinase. In the anaerobic condition, L-threonine is converted to the energy-rich keto acid and this is subsequently catabolised to produce ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation, providing a source of energy to the cells. Most of the enzymes involved in the degradation of L-threonine to propionate are encoded by the anaerobically regulated tdc operon. In the recent past, extensive structural and biochemical studies have been carried out on these enzymes by various groups. Besides detailed structural and functional insights, these studies have also shown the similarities and differences between the other related enzymes present in the metabolic network. In this paper, we review the structural and biochemical studies carried out on these enzymes.

  16. The extent of co-metabolism of glucose and galactose by L. lactis changes with the expression of the lacSZ operon from Streptococcus thermophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Købmann, Brian Jensen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2008-01-01

    The lactose transporter and β-galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus, encoded by the lacSZ operon, were introduced into the lactose-negative strain Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and the expression of the lacSZ operon was modulated by substitution of the native promoter with randomized synthetic...... and only glucose was metabolized in glycolysis. Interestingly, strains with low expression of the operon showed a mixed acid metabolism and co-metabolism of galactose and glucose. The lactose flux increased gradually with increasing expression of the lacSZ operon until an optimum was observed...... promoters. A series of strains with various expression levels of lacSZ were examined for their fermentation of lactose. Strains with a high expression level were found to metabolize lactose in a similar manner to S. thermophilus, i.e. the galactose moiety of lactose was excreted to the growth medium...

  17. Bistable behavior of the lac operon in E. coli when induced with a mixture of lactose and TMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz-Hernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate multistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli when it is induced by a mixture of lactose and the non-metabolizable thiomethyl galactoside (TMG. In accordance with previously published experimental results and computer simulations, our simulations predict that: (1 when the system is induced by TMG, the system shows a discernible bistable behavior while, (2 when the system is induced by lactose, bistability does not disappear but excessively high concentrations of lactose would be required to observe it. Finally, our simulation results predict that when a mixture of lactose and TMG is used, the bistability region in the extracellular glucose concentration vs. extracellular lactose concentration parameter space changes in such a way that the model predictions regarding bistability could be tested experimentally. These experiments could help to solve a recent controversy regarding the existence of bistability in the lac operon under natural conditions.

  18. Structural and functional analysis of fucose-processing enzymes from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Melanie A; Suits, Michael D; Marsters, Candace; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2014-04-01

    Fucose metabolism pathways are present in many bacterial species and typically contain the central fucose-processing enzymes fucose isomerase (FcsI), fuculose kinase (FcsK), and fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase (FcsA). Fucose initially undergoes isomerization by FcsI producing fuculose, which is then phosphorylated by FcsK. FcsA cleaves the fuculose-1-phosphate product into lactaldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, which can be incorporated into central metabolism allowing the bacterium to use fucose as an energy source. Streptococcus pneumoniae has fucose-processing operons containing homologs of FcsI, FcsK, and FcsA; however, this bacterium appears unable to utilize fucose as an energy source. To investigate this contradiction, we performed biochemical and structural studies of the S. pneumoniae fucose-processing enzymes SpFcsI, SpFcsK, and SpFcsA. These enzymes are demonstrated to act in a sequential manner to ultimately produce dihydroxyacetone phosphate and have structural features entirely consistent with their observed biochemical activities. Analogous to the regulation of the Escherichia coli fucose utilization operon, fuculose-1-phosphate appears to act as an inducing molecule for activation of the S. pneumoniae fucose operon. Despite our evidence that S. pneumoniae appears to have the appropriate regulatory and biochemical machinery for fucose metabolism, we confirmed the inability of the S. pneumoniae TIGR4 strain to grow on fucose or on the H-disaccharide, which is the probable substrate of the transporter for the pathway. On the basis of these observations, we postulate that the S. pneumoniae fucose-processing pathway has a non-metabolic role in the interaction of this bacterium with its human host.

  19. Heterogeneity of outer membrane proteins in Borrelia burgdorferi: comparison of osp operons of three isolates of different geographic origins.

    OpenAIRE

    JONSSON, M; Noppa, L; Barbour, A G; Bergström, S

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical and immunochemical studies of the outer membrane proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi have shown that the OspA and OspB proteins from strains of different geographic origins may differ considerably in their reactivities with monoclonal antibodies and in their apparent molecular weights. To further characterize this variation in Osp proteins between strains, the osp operons and deduced translation products from two strains, one from Sweden (ACAI) and one from eastern Russia (Ip90), wer...

  20. Synthetic operon for (R,R)-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    To reduce dependence on petroleum, an alternative route to production of the chemical feedstock 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from renewable lignocellulosic sources is desirable. In this communication, the genes encoding the pathway from pyruvate to 2,3-BD (alsS, alsD, and bdhA encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase, respectively) from Bacillus subtilis were engineered into a single tricistronic operon under control of the isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible Pspac promoter in a shuttle plasmid capable of replication and expression in either B. subtilis or Escherichia coli. We describe the construction and performance of a shuttle plasmid carrying the IPTG-inducible synthetic operon alsSDbdhA coding for 2,3-BD pathway capable of (i) expression in two important representative model microorganisms, the gram-positive B. subtilis and the gram-negative E. coli; (ii) increasing 2,3-BD production in B. subtilis; and (iii) successfully introducing the B. subtilis 2,3-BD pathway into E. coli. The synthetic alsSDbdhA operon constructed using B. subtilis native genes not only increased the 2,3-BD production in its native host but also efficiently expressed the pathway in the heterologous organism E. coli. Construction of an efficient shuttle plasmid will allow investigation of 2,3-BD production performance in related organisms with industrial potential for production of bio-based chemicals.

  1. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur.

  2. [Insertional Inactivation of Virulence Operon in Population of Persistent Bordetella pertussis Bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataev, G I; Sinyashina, L N; Medkova, A Yu; Semin, E G; Shevtsova, Z V; Matua, A Z; Kondzariya, I G; Amichba, A A; Kubrava, D T; Mikvabia, Z Ya

    2016-04-01

    Avirulent B. pertussis bacteria containing IS elements in the bvgAS operon were detected during the study of whooping cough patients and bacilli carriers. The present work is devoted to the study of the accumulation dynamics and the mechanisms of generation of persistent forms of the B. pertussis bacteria in lower monkeys as the most adequate model for extrapolation ofthe experiment results to humans. By means of the real-time PCR method, it was established that the B. pertussis bacteria lived more than three months in the upper respiratory tract after a single intranasal monkey infection; the period was reduced to 14-28 days during repeated infection. An increase in the portion of B. pertussis Bvg mutants in the population to tens of percent from the total number of registered bacteria was registered. The experimental confirmation ofthe development and accumulation of avirulent B. pertussis Bvg mutants during the development of the infectious process was obtained. Further study of the composition of the B. pertussis persistent bacteria population at different stages of the disease will make it possible to formulate new approaches to the whooping cough diagnostics and prevention and creation of fundamentally new drugs.

  3. The Rhodomonas salina mitochondrial genome: bacteria-like operons, compact gene arrangement and complex repeat region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauth, Amy M; Maier, Uwe G; Lang, B Franz; Burger, Gertraud

    2005-01-01

    To gain insight into the mitochondrial genome structure and gene content of a putatively ancestral group of eukaryotes, the cryptophytes, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of Rhodomonas salina. The 48 063 bp circular-mapping molecule codes for 2 rRNAs, 27 tRNAs and 40 proteins including 23 components of oxidative phosphorylation, 15 ribosomal proteins and two subunits of tat translocase. One potential protein (ORF161) is without assigned function. Only two introns occur in the genome; both are present within cox1 belong to group II and contain RT open reading frames. Primitive genome features include bacteria-like rRNAs and tRNAs, ribosomal protein genes organized in large clusters resembling bacterial operons and the presence of the otherwise rare genes such as rps1 and tatA. The highly compact gene organization contrasts with the presence of a 4.7 kb long, repeat-containing intergenic region. Repeat motifs approximately 40-700 bp long occur up to 31 times, forming a complex repeat structure. Tandem repeats are the major arrangement but the region also includes a large, approximately 3 kb, inverted repeat and several potentially stable approximately 40-80 bp long hairpin structures. We provide evidence that the large repeat region is involved in replication and transcription initiation, predict a promoter motif that occurs in three locations and discuss two likely scenarios of how this highly structured repeat region might have evolved.

  4. Characterization of the glnK-amtB operon of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletzus, D; Rudnick, P; Doetsch, N; Green, A; Kennedy, C

    1998-06-01

    To determine whether in Azotobacter vinelandii the PII protein influences the regulation of nif gene expression in response to fluxes in the ammonium supply, the gene encoding PII was isolated and characterized. Its deduced translation product was highly similar to PII proteins from other organisms, with the greatest degree of relatedness being exhibited to the Escherichia coli glnK gene product. A gene designated amtB was found downstream of and was contranscribed with glnK as in E. coli. The AmtB protein is similar to functionally characterized ammonium transport proteins from a few other eukaryotes and one other prokaryote. glnK and amtB comprise an operon. Attempts to isolate a stable glnK mutant strain were unsuccessful, suggesting that glnK, like glnA, is an essential gene in A. vinelandii. amtB mutants were isolated, and although growth on limiting amounts of ammonium was similar in the mutant and wild-type strains, the mutants were unable to transport [14C]methylammonium. PMID:9620984

  5. The nasFEDCBA operon for nitrate and nitrite assimilation in Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J T; Goldman, B S; Stewart, V

    1994-05-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae can use nitrate and nitrite as sole nitrogen sources through the nitrate assimilation pathway. We previously identified structural genes for assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases, nasA and nasB, respectively. We report here our further identification of four genes, nasFEDC, upstream of the nasBA genes. The nasFEDCBA genes probably form an operon. Mutational and complementation analyses indicated that both the nasC and nasA genes are required for nitrate assimilation. The predicted NASC protein is homologous to a variety of NADH-dependent oxidoreductases. Thus, the NASC protein probably mediates electron transfer from NADH to the NASA protein, which contains the active site for nitrate reduction. The deduced NASF, NASE, and NASD proteins are homologous to the NRTA, NRTB, and NRTD proteins, respectively, that are involved in nitrate uptake in Synechococcus sp. (T. Omata, X. Andriesse, and A. Hirano, Mol. Gen. Genet. 236:193-202, 1993). Mutational and complementation studies indicated that the nasD gene is required for nitrate but not nitrite assimilation. By analogy with the Synechococcus nrt genes, we propose that the nasFED genes are involved in nitrate transport in K. pneumoniae. PMID:8169203

  6. Tandem attenuators control expression of the Salmonella mgtCBR virulence operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2012-10-01

    The mgtCBR operon from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium specifies the virulence protein MgtC, the Mg(2+) transporter MgtB and the regulatory peptide MgtR. The mgtCBR transcript includes a long leader region harbouring two short open reading frames (ORFs). Translation of these ORFs is anticipated to impact the formation of particular stem-loop structures and control transcription of the coding region by an attenuation-like mechanism. We previously reported that ORF mgtM enables Salmonella to promote transcription of the mgtC and mgtB coding regions when experiencing a rise in cytoplasmic ATP levels. We now show that the proline codon-rich ORF mgtP mediates an increase in transcription of the mgtC and mgtB coding regions under conditions predicted to decrease the levels of proline-charged tRNA(Pro) . The high ATP and low proline signals act independently in an additive form. Replacing conserved mgtP proline codons with codons specifying other amino acids abolished the response to proline limitation but had no effect on the response to ATP. Substitution of conserved adenine nucleotides in mgtM abolished the response to ATP but had no effect in the response to proline limitation. This provides a singular example of a leader mRNA with tandem attenuators responding to different signals. PMID:22857388

  7. Autonomous expression of the slo gene of the bicistronic nga-slo operon of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Dragutin J; McShan, William M; Ferretti, Joseph J

    2002-05-01

    A recent model for cytolysin-mediated translocation in Streptococcus pyogenes proposes that NAD-glycohydrolase is translocated through streptolysin O-generated pores into a host cell (J. Madden, N. Ruiz, and M. Caparon, Cell 104:143-152, 2001). This model also assumes that the NAD-glycohydrolase (nga) and streptolysin O (slo) genes that code for these products are organized in an operon-like structure expressed from a single promoter only (nga). We expand this model by showing that slo possesses its own autonomous promoter, which is located 155 bp upstream of the slo gene. Under experimental conditions in which S. pyogenes is grown in THY medium, the strength of the slo promoter, as measured by the activity of a lacZ reporter gene, resulted in low but highly reproducible values. Finally, we demonstrated that sloR, a S. pyogenes gene that closely resembles the Clostridium perfringens pfoR gene, exerts a negative effect on the expression of the slo gene. PMID:11953421

  8. Distribution and degree of heterogeneity of the afimbrial-adhesin-encoding operon (afa) among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labigne-Roussel, A; Falkow, S

    1988-03-01

    The afimbrial adhesin (AFA-I) from a pyelonephritic Escherichia coli isolate (KS52) is a mannose-resistant, P-independent, X-binding adhesin, expressed by the afa-1 operon. It is distinct from the E. coli X-binding adhesins with M and S specificity. A total of 138 E. coli isolates belonging to various serotypes, mostly from urinary tract infections, were screened for the presence of DNA sequences related to the afa operon and for the expression of an X-adhesin able to mediate mannose-resistant hemagglutination (MRHA) and adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Fifteen strains were shown to harbor DNA sequences related to the AFA-I-encoding operon, and 13 of them expressed an X-adhesin. Using as probes different DNA segments of the AFA-I-encoding operon in Southern experiments, we demonstrated that only three of these clinical isolates contained genetic determinants closely related to those identified in the original afa prototype strain (KS52): presence of the afaA, afaB, afaC, afaD, and afaE genes associated with the expression of a 16,000-dalton hemagglutinin-adhesin which strongly cross-reacted with AFA-I-specific antibodies. The other E. coli isolates harbored DNA sequences homologous to the afaA, afaB, afaC, and afaD genes, but lacked the sequence corresponding to the adhesin-producing gene afaE; Western blots allowed the detection of polypeptides (15,000, 15,500, or 16,000 daltons) in these strains which cross-reacted with variable intensity with antibodies raised against the denatured AFA-I protein, but did not cross-react with native AFA-I-specific antibodies. Following DNA cloning experiments from chromosomal DNA of two of those strains (A22 and A30), we demonstrated that although the AFA-related operon in A22 and A30 strains lacked the AFA-I adhesin-encoding gene, they synthesized a functional X-adhesin. Thus, strains A22 and A30 encode adhesins designated AFA-II and AFA-III, which were cloned on recombinant plasmids pILL72 and pILL61, respectively. Southern

  9. Evidence that a B12-Adenosyl Transferase Is Encoded within the Ethanolamine Operon of Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, David E.; Penrod, Joseph T.; Bobik, Thomas; Kofoid, Eric; Roth, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Adenosylcobalamin (Ado-B12) is both the cofactor and inducer of ethanolamine ammonia lyase (EA-lyase), a catabolic enzyme for ethanolamine. De novo synthesis of Ado-B12 by Salmonella enterica occurs only under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, aerobic growth on ethanolamine requires import of Ado-B12 or a precursor (CN-B12 or OH-B12) that can be adenosylated internally. Several known enzymes adenosylate corrinoids. The CobA enzyme transfers adenosine from ATP to a biosynthetic intermediate in ...

  10. A conserved UDP-glucose dehydrogenase encoded outside the hasABC operon contributes to capsule biogenesis in group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jason N; Aziz, Ramy K; Kuipers, Kirsten; Timmer, Anjuli M; Nizet, Victor; van Sorge, Nina M

    2012-11-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific bacterial pathogen responsible for serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule of GAS is a major virulence factor, contributing to bloodstream survival through resistance to neutrophil and antimicrobial peptide killing and to in vivo pathogenicity. Capsule biosynthesis has been exclusively attributed to the ubiquitous hasABC hyaluronan synthase operon, which is highly conserved across GAS serotypes. Previous reports indicate that hasA, encoding hyaluronan synthase, and hasB, encoding UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, are essential for capsule production in GAS. Here, we report that precise allelic exchange mutagenesis of hasB in GAS strain 5448, a representative of the globally disseminated M1T1 serotype, did not abolish HA capsule synthesis. In silico whole-genome screening identified a putative HasB paralog, designated HasB2, with 45% amino acid identity to HasB at a distant location in the GAS chromosome. In vitro enzymatic assays demonstrated that recombinant HasB2 is a functional UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase enzyme. Mutagenesis of hasB2 alone slightly decreased capsule abundance; however, a ΔhasB ΔhasB2 double mutant became completely acapsular. We conclude that HasB is not essential for M1T1 GAS capsule biogenesis due to the presence of a newly identified HasB paralog, HasB2, which most likely resulted from gene duplication. The identification of redundant UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenases underscores the importance of HA capsule expression for M1T1 GAS pathogenicity and survival in the human host.

  11. Organizational requirements of the SaeR binding sites for a functional P1 promoter of the sae operon in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hoonsik; Jeong, Do-Won; Li, Chunling; Bae, Taeok

    2012-06-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS two-component system controls the expression of multiple virulence factors. Of the two promoters in the sae operon, P1 is autoinduced and has two binding sites for the response regulator SaeR. In this study, we examined the organizational requirements of the SaeR binding sites in P1 for transcription activation. Mutational studies showed that both binding sites are essential for binding to phosphorylated SaeR (P-SaeR) and transcription activation. When the 21-bp distance between the centers of the two SaeR binding sites was altered to 26 bp, 31 bp, 36 bp, or 41 bp, only the 31-bp mutant retained approximately 40% of the original promoter activity. When the -1-bp spacing (i.e.,1-bp overlap) between the primary SaeR binding site and the -35 promoter region was altered, all mutant P1 promoters failed to initiate transcription; however, when the first nucleotide of the -35 region was changed from A to T, the mutants with 0-bp or 22-bp spacing showed detectable promoter activity. Although P-SaeR was essential for the binding of RNA polymerase to P1, it was not essential for the binding of the enzyme to the alpha-hemolysin promoter. When the nonoptimal spacing between promoter elements in P1 or the coagulase promoter was altered to the optimal spacing of 17 bp, both promoters failed to initiate transcription. These results suggest that SaeR binding sites are under rather strict organizational restrictions and provide clues for understanding the molecular mechanism of sae-mediated transcription activation.

  12. Enzyme inhibition by iminosugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Óscar; Qing, Feng-Ling; Pedersen, Christian Marcus;

    2013-01-01

    Imino- and azasugar glycosidase inhibitors display pH dependant inhibition reflecting that both the inhibitor and the enzyme active site have groups that change protonation state with pH. With the enzyme having two acidic groups and the inhibitor one basic group, enzyme-inhibitor complexes...

  13. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwan Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose.

  14. Positive control of lac operon expression in vitro by guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primakoff, P; Artz, S W

    1979-04-01

    Maximal expression of the Escherichia coli lactose operon in a coupled in vitro transcription-translation system from a Salmonella typhimurium relA mutant was strongly dependent upon addition of guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp). Without added ppGpp, at saturating 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentrations, synthesis of beta-galactosidase (beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.23) was reproducibly only 5-7% of that which can be obtained with 0.5-0.8 mM ppGpp. Experiments in which transcription was uncoupled from translation indicated that this 14- to 20-fold stimulation by ppGpp occurred at the level of transcription. When coupled beta-galactosidase synthesis was primed with a template containing a well-characterized mutant lac promoter (lacP(r)L8UV5), the dependence on ppGpp was greatly reduced. This result provides an important experimental control previously unavailable for verifying the significance of ppGpp effects on gene regulation in vitro; it indicates that activation of lacP(+) expression by ppGpp is specifically an effect of increased transcription initiations. Furthermore, the large ppGpp stimulation of lacP(+) DNA enabled the level of expression of this template to approach that of lacP(r)L8UV5 DNA, an observation expected from results in vivo but not obtained with other transcription-translation systems in vitro. The importance of these results is considered with respect to previous ideas on the physiological role of ppGpp as a supercontrol molecule in bacterial regulation. PMID:109832

  15. Interplay of protein and DNA structure revealed in simulations of the lac operon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Czapla

    Full Text Available The E. coli Lac repressor is the classic textbook example of a protein that attaches to widely spaced sites along a genome and forces the intervening DNA into a loop. The short loops implicated in the regulation of the lac operon suggest the involvement of factors other than DNA and repressor in gene control. The molecular simulations presented here examine two likely structural contributions to the in-vivo looping of bacterial DNA: the distortions of the double helix introduced upon association of the highly abundant, nonspecific nucleoid protein HU and the large-scale deformations of the repressor detected in low-resolution experiments. The computations take account of the three-dimensional arrangements of nucleotides and amino acids found in crystal structures of DNA with the two proteins, the natural rest state and deformational properties of protein-free DNA, and the constraints on looping imposed by the conformation of the repressor and the orientation of bound DNA. The predicted looping propensities capture the complex, chain-length-dependent variation in repression efficacy extracted from gene expression studies and in vitro experiments and reveal unexpected chain-length-dependent variations in the uptake of HU, the deformation of repressor, and the folding of DNA. Both the opening of repressor and the presence of HU, at levels approximating those found in vivo, enhance the probability of loop formation. HU affects the global organization of the repressor and the opening of repressor influences the levels of HU binding to DNA. The length of the loop determines whether the DNA adopts antiparallel or parallel orientations on the repressor, whether the repressor is opened or closed, and how many HU molecules bind to the loop. The collective behavior of proteins and DNA is greater than the sum of the parts and hints of ways in which multiple proteins may coordinate the packaging and processing of genetic information.

  16. Effect of growth conditions on expression of the acid phosphatase (cyx-appA) operon and the appY gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Lone; Atlung, Tove

    1996-01-01

    The expression and transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli cyx-appA operon and the appY gene has been investigated during different environmental conditions using single copy transcriptional lacZ fusions. The cyx-appA operon encodes acid phosphatase and a putative cytochrome oxidase.......ArcA and AppY activated transcription of the cyx-appA operon during entry into stationary phase and under anaerobic growth conditions. The expression of the cyx-appA operon was affected by the anaerobic energy metabolism.The presence of the electron acceptors nitrate and fumarate repressed the expression...... of the cyx-appA operon. The nitrate repression was partially dependent on NarL. A high expression of the operon was obtained in glucose medium supplemented with formate, where E.coli obtains energy by fermentation. The formate induction was independent of the fhlA gene product. The results presented...

  17. Nitrite-Responsive Activation of the Nitrate Assimilation Operon in Cyanobacteria Plays an Essential Role in Up-Regulation of Nitrate Assimilation Activities under Nitrate-Limited Growth Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Aichi, Makiko; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Omata, Tatsuo

    2004-01-01

    NtcB of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 is a LysR family protein that enhances expression of the nitrate assimilation operon (nirA operon) in response to the presence of nitrite, an intermediate of assimilatory nitrate reduction. Inactivation of ntcB in this cyanobacterium specifically abolishes the nitrite responsiveness of nirA operon expression, but under nitrate-replete conditions (wherein negative feedback by intracellularly generated ammonium prevails over the...

  18. Variability of rRNA operon copy number and growth rate dynamics of Bacillus isolated from an extremely oligotrophic aquatic ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Valdivia-Anistro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ribosomal RNA (rrn operon is a key suite of genes related to the production of protein synthesis machinery and thus to bacterial growth physiology. Experimental evidence has suggested an intrinsic relationship between the number of copies of this operon and environmental resource availability, especially the availability of phosphorus (P, because bacteria that live in oligotrophic ecosystems usually have few rrn operons and a slow growth rate. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB is a complex aquatic ecosystem that contains an unusually high microbial diversity that is able to persist under highly oligotrophic conditions. These environmental conditions impose a variety of strong selective pressures that shape the genome dynamics of their inhabitants. The genus Bacillus is one of the most abundant cultivable bacterial groups in the CCB and usually possesses a relatively large number of rrn operon copies (6-15 copies. The main goal of this study was to analyze the variation in the number of rrn operon copies of Bacillus in the CCB and to assess their growth-related properties as well as their stoichiometric balance (N and P content. We defined 18 phylogenetic groups within the Bacilli clade and documented a range of from six to 14 copies of the rrn operon. The growth dynamic of these Bacilli was heterogeneous and did not show a direct relation to the number of operon copies. Physiologically, our results were not consistent with the Growth Rate Hypothesis, since the copies of the rrn operon were decoupled from growth rate. However, we speculate that the diversity of the growth properties of these Bacilli as well as the low P content of their cells in an ample range of rrn copy number is an adaptive response to oligotrophy of the CCB and could represent an ecological mechanism that allows these taxa to coexist. These findings increase the knowledge of the variability in the number of copies of the rrn operon in the genus Bacillus and give insights

  19. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  20. The use of a hands-on model in learning the regulation of an inducible operon and the development of a gene regulation concept inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanski, Katherine M.

    A central concept in genetics is the regulation of gene expression. Inducible gene expression is often taught in undergraduate biology courses using the lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli ). With national calls for reform in undergraduate biology education and a body of literature that supports the use of active learning techniques including hands-on learning and analogies we were motivated to develop a hands-on analogous model of the lac operon. The model was developed over two iterations and was administered to genetics students. To determine the model's worth as a learning tool a concept inventory (CI) was developed using rigorous protocols. Concept inventories are valuable tools which can be used to assess students' understanding of a topic and pinpoint commonly held misconceptions as well as the value of educational tools. Through in-class testing (n =115) the lac operon concept inventory (LOCI) was demonstrated to be valid, predictive, and reliable (? coefficient = 0.994). LOCI scores for students who participated in the hands-on activity (n = 67) were 7.5% higher (t = -2.281, P students who did not ( n = 62). Use of the model is also supported by student feedback from two surveys. This study provides an effective activity that aids students' understanding of the lac operon. We were able to determine the efficacy of the activity and identify misconceptions held by students about the lac operon because of the use of a valid and reliable CI.

  1. HosA, a MarR Family Transcriptional Regulator, Represses Nonoxidative Hydroxyarylic Acid Decarboxylase Operon and Is Modulated by 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ajit; Ranjan, Akash

    2016-02-23

    Members of the Multiple antibiotic resistance Regulator (MarR) family of DNA binding proteins regulate transcription of a wide array of genes required for virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria. The present study reports the molecular characterization of HosA (Homologue of SlyA), a MarR protein, with respect to its target gene, DNA recognition motif, and nature of its ligand. Through a comparative genomics approach, we demonstrate that hosA is in synteny with nonoxidative hydroxyarylic acid decarboxylase (HAD) operon and is present exclusively within the mutS-rpoS polymorphic region in nine different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family. Using molecular biology and biochemical approach, we demonstrate that HosA binds to a palindromic sequence downstream to the transcription start site of divergently transcribed nonoxidative HAD operon and represses its expression. Furthermore, in silico analysis showed that the recognition motif for HosA is highly conserved in the upstream region of divergently transcribed operon in different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family. A systematic chemical search for the physiological ligand revealed that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) interacts with HosA and derepresses HosA mediated repression of the nonoxidative HAD operon. Based on our study, we propose a model for molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of nonoxidative HAD operon by HosA in Enterobacteriaceae family. PMID:26818787

  2. Mutations in PurBox1 of the Bacillus subtilis pur operon control site affect adenine-regulated expression in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUAN; Jinsong; Howard; Zalkin; WENG; Manli

    2005-01-01

    Transcription of the Bacillus subtilis pur operon is regulated by a purine repressor (PurR)-DNA control site interaction. The pur operon control site has two PurBoxes that are required for high-affinity PurR binding. An upstream, strong-binding PurBox1 is at position -81 to -68 relative to the transcription start site and a downstream weak-binding PurBox2 is at position -49 to -36. We constructed three PurBox1 mutations and the effects on binding of PurR to the control region in vitro and on regulation of pur operon expression in vivo were investigated. The mutations significantly reduced the binding of PurR to control region DNA. In strains with G-75A, G-75T and a five bp deletion (△5) pur operon repression was defective in vivo. In addition in vivo PurR titration was used to confirm that sequences flanking PurBox1 and PurBox2 are required for PurR binding to the pur operon control site.

  3. Opine-Based Agrobacterium Competitiveness: Dual Expression Control of the Agrocinopine Catabolism (acc) Operon by Agrocinopines and Phosphate Levels ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. Stanley; Yi, Hyojeong; Myung, Jaehee; Piper, Kevin R.; Farrand, Stephen K.

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 can transform plant cells to produce and secrete the sugar-phosphate conjugate opines agrocinopines A and B. The bacterium then moves in response to the opines and utilizes them as exclusive sources of carbon, energy, and phosphate via the functions encoded by the acc operon. These privileged opine-involved activities contribute to the formation of agrobacterial niches in the environment. We found that the expression of the acc operon is induced by agrocinopines and also by limitation of phosphate. The main promoter is present in front of the first gene, accR, which codes for a repressor. This operon structure enables efficient repression when opine levels are low. The promoter contains two putative operators, one overlapping the −10 sequence and the other in the further upstream from it; two partly overlapped putative pho boxes between the two operators; and two consecutive transcription start sites. DNA fragments containing either of the operators bound purified repressor AccR in the absence of agrocinopines but not in the presence of the opines, demonstrating the on-off switch of the promoter. Induction of the acc operon can occur under low-phosphate conditions in the absence of agrocinopines and further increases when the opines also are present. Such opine-phosphate dual regulatory system of the operon may ensure maximum utilization of agrocinopines when available and thereby increase the chances of agrobacterial survival in the highly competitive environment with limited general food sources. PMID:18344359

  4. Genetic analysis of the virE operon of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid pTiA6.

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, K E; Knauf, V C

    1988-01-01

    The virE operon of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid pTiA6 encodes at least one trans-acting protein involved in the expression of virulence. Two open reading frames designated virE1 and virE2 code for polypeptides of 7 and 60 kilodaltons (kDa), respectively, that can be visualized after expression in Escherichia coli minicells. To determine which virE sequences are required for virulence, a strain deleted for the entire locus [strain KE1(pTiA6 delta E)] was constructed and tested for ...

  5. Identification of a Bordetella pertussis regulatory factor required for transcription of the pertussis toxin operon in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    DeShazer, D; Wood, G E; Friedman, R L

    1995-01-01

    Transcription of the pertussis toxin operon (ptx) is positively regulated in Bordetella pertussis by the bvgAS locus. However, a ptx-lacZ transcriptional fusion in Escherichia coli cannot be activated by bvgAS in trans. This suggests that an additional factor(s) is required for transcription of ptx. A gene encoding a Bvg accessory factor (Baf) was identified by its ability to activate an E. coli ptx-lacZ fusion in the presence of bvgAS. The expression of ptx-lacZ was decreased by the addition...

  6. In vivo and in vitro detection of the leader RNA of the histidine operon of Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Frunzio, R; Bruni, C B; Blasi, F.

    1981-01-01

    The DNA of the attenuator region of the histidine operon of Escherichia coli has been transcribed in a purified in vitro system and found to synthesize two major RNA transcripts. The first one, 180 nucleotides long, has been identified as the histidine-specific leader RNA. It contains the coding sequence for the leader peptide [Di Nocera, P. P., Blasi, F., Di Lauro, R., Frunzio, R. & Bruni, C. B. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 4276-4280] and is terminated at the attenuator site. Termin...

  7. Vibrio vulnificus Secretes an Insulin-degrading Enzyme That Promotes Bacterial Proliferation in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Hwang; Kim, Ik-Jung; Wen, Yancheng; Park, Na-Young; Park, Jinyoung; Lee, Keun-Woo; Koh, Ara; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Kim, Kun-Soo

    2015-07-24

    We describe a novel insulin-degrading enzyme, SidC, that contributes to the proliferation of the human bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus in a mouse model. SidC is phylogenetically distinct from other known insulin-degrading enzymes and is expressed and secreted specifically during host infection. Purified SidC causes a significant decrease in serum insulin levels and an increase in blood glucose levels in mice. A comparison of mice infected with wild type V. vulnificus or an isogenic sidC-deletion strain showed that wild type bacteria proliferated to higher levels. Additionally, hyperglycemia leads to increased proliferation of V. vulnificus in diabetic mice. Consistent with these observations, the sid operon was up-regulated in response to low glucose levels through binding of the cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) complex to a region upstream of the operon. We conclude that glucose levels are important for the survival of V. vulnificus in the host, and that this pathogen uses SidC to actively manipulate host endocrine signals, making the host environment more favorable for bacterial survival and growth.

  8. Characterization of TRAP-mediated regulation of the B. subtilis trp operon using in vitro transcription and transcriptional reporter fusions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Natalie M; Gollnick, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, transcription of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon is regulated by an attenuation mechanism involving two alternative RNA secondary structures in the 5' leader region upstream of the structural genes. Regulation is accomplished, at least in part, by controlling which RNA structure forms during transcription of the operon. When intracellular tryptophan levels are high, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) binds to the nascent trp mRNA to promote formation of a transcription terminator structure so as to induce transcription termination prior to the structural genes. In limiting tryptophan, TRAP does not bind, the alternative antiterminator RNA structure forms, and the operon is transcribed. Several in vitro and in vivo assays have been utilized to study TRAP-mediated regulation of both transcription and translation. Here, we describe using in vitro transcription attenuation assays and in vivo trp-lacZ fusions to examine TRAP-mediated regulation of the trp genes. PMID:25579595

  9. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.pospiskova@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction.

  10. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction

  11. HYDRATION AND ENZYME ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydration induced conformation and dynamic changes are followed using a variety of experimental techniques applied to hen egg white lysozyme. These changes are completed just before the onset of enzyme activity, which occurs before all polar groups are hydrated, and before monolayer coverage is attained. We suggest that these hydration induced changes are necessary for the return of enzyme activity.

  12. Use of the Operon Structure of the C. elegans Genome as a Tool to Identify Functionally Related Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dossena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing challenges in the post genomic era is the identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions (PPIs, as these are essential in understanding the cellular physiology of health and disease. Experimental techniques suitable for characterizing PPIs (X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, among others are usually laborious, time-consuming and often difficult to apply to membrane proteins, and therefore require accurate prediction of the candidate interacting partners. High-throughput experimental methods (yeast two-hybrid and affinity purification succumb to the same shortcomings, and can also lead to high rates of false positive and negative results. Therefore, reliable tools for predicting PPIs are needed. The use of the operon structure in the eukaryote Caenorhabditis elegans genome is a valuable, though underserved, tool for identifying physically or functionally interacting proteins. Based on the concept that genes organized in the same operon may encode physically or functionally related proteins, this algorithm is easy to be applied and, importantly, gives a limited number of candidate partners of a given protein, allowing for focused experimental verification. Moreover, this approach can be successfully used to predict PPIs in the human system, including those of membrane proteins.

  13. The mitochondrial genome and ribosomal operon of Brachycladium goliath (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) recovered from a stranded minke whale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Andrew G; Bray, Rodney A; Brabec, Jan; Littlewood, D T J

    2016-06-01

    Members of the Brachycladiidae are known to cause pathologies implicated in cetacean strandings and it is important to develop accurate diagnostic markers to differentiate these and other helminths found in cetaceans. Brachycladium goliath (van Beneden, 1858) is a large trematode found, as adults, usually in the hepatic (bile) and pancreatic ducts of various cetaceans. Complete sequences were determined for the entire mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetically informative nuclear genes contained within the ribosomal operon, from a small piece of an individual worm taken from a common minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804. Genomic DNA was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. The mtDNA is 15,229 bp in length consisting of 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions of which the larger is comprised of 4 tandemly repeated units (260 bp each). The ribosomal RNA operon is 9297 bp long. These data provide a rich resource of molecular markers for diagnostics, phylogenetics and population genetics in order to better understand the role, and associated pathology of helminth infections in cetaceans. PMID:26883466

  14. The operon for cytokinin biosynthesis of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae contains two promoters and is plant induced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M; Manulis, S; Barash, I; Lichter, A

    2001-12-01

    The operon for cytokinin biosynthesis in the gall-forming bacterium Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg) has been previously shown to reside on an indigenous plasmid (pPATH(Ehg)) that is mandatory for pathogenicity. This operon consists of two genes: the first open reading frame (pre-etz) is of unknown function, whereas the second one (etz) encodes for isopentenyl transferase. Northern hybridization performed with the wild-type strain Ehg824-1 grown in Luria-Bertani broth demonstrated two transcripts of which an etz-specific transcript (1.0 kb) was predominant. Fusion of upstream DNA fragments of both pre-etz and etz to the ice nucleation reporter gene inaZ in pVSP61 showed high ice nucleation activity in both cultures, confirming the presence of two independent promoters. An increase of 1-1.5 orders in transcriptional activity of these promoters was observed following inoculation of gypsophila cuttings. Mutants of Ehg824-1 were generated by insertion of inaZ into pre-etz and etz using the transposon reporter Tn3-Spice. An increase of about two orders in transcriptional activity was recorded with both mutants following inoculation of gypsophila or bean cuttings. A similar induction was also observed when the bacteria were applied to the leaf surface of these plants. Unlike other virulence genes present on the pPATH(Ehg), neither pre-etz nor etz was regulated by the adjacent hrp gene cluster. PMID:11822839

  15. rRNA operons and genome size of 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus', a bacterium associated with citrus huanglongbing in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, N A; Eveillard, S; Foissac, X; Ayres, A J; Bové, J-M

    2009-08-01

    Huanglongbing is one of the most severe diseases of citrus worldwide and is associated with 'Candidatus (Ca.) Liberibacter africanus' in Africa, 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' in Asia and the Americas (Brazil, USA and Cuba) and 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus' (Lam) in Brazil. In the absence of axenic cultures, genetic information on liberibacters is scarce. The sequences of the entire 23S rRNA and 5S rRNA genes from Lam have now been obtained, using a consensus primer designed on known tRNAMet sequences of rhizobia. The size of the Lam genome was determined by PFGE, using Lam-infected periwinkle plants for bacterial enrichment, and was found to be close to 1.31 Mbp. In order to determine the number of ribosomal operons on the Lam genome, probes designed to detect the 16S rRNA gene and the 3' end of the 23S rRNA gene were developed and used for Southern hybridization with I-CeuI-treated genomic DNA. Our results suggest that there are three ribosomal operons in a circular genome. Lam is the first liberibacter species for which such data are available.

  16. Modulating TRAP-mediated transcription termination by AT during transcription of the leader region of the Bacillus subtilis trp operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shraddha; Gollnick, Paul

    2014-05-01

    An 11-subunit protein called trp RNA binding Attenuation Protein (TRAP) controls attenuation of the tryptophan biosynthetic (trpEDCFBA) operon in Bacillus subtilis. Tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to 11 (G/U)AG repeats in the 5' leader region of trp mRNAs, and downregulates expression of the operon by promoting transcription termination prior to the structural genes. Anti-TRAP (AT) is an antagonist that binds to tryptophan-activated TRAP and prevents TRAP from binding to RNA, thereby upregulating expression of the trp genes. AT forms trimers, and multiple trimers bind to a TRAP 11mer. It is not known how many trimers must bind to TRAP in order to interfere with RNA binding. Studies of isolated TRAP and AT showed that AT can prevent TRAP from binding to the trp leader RNA but cannot dissociate a pre-formed TRAP-RNA complex. Here, we show that AT can prevent TRAP-mediated termination of transcription by inducing dissociation of TRAP from the nascent RNA when it has bound to fewer than all 11 (G/U)AG repeats. The 5'-most region of the TRAP binding site in the nascent transcript is most susceptible to dissociation from TRAP. We also show that one AT trimer bound to TRAP 11mer reduces the affinity of TRAP for RNA and eliminates TRAP-mediated transcription termination in vitro. PMID:24682818

  17. The rate of TRAP binding to RNA is crucial for transcription attenuation control of the B. subtilis trp operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbolina, Maria V; Kristoforov, Roman; Manfredo, Amanda; Chen, Yanling; Gollnick, Paul

    2007-07-27

    The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) regulates expression of the tryptophan biosynthetic and transport genes in Bacillus subtilis in response to changes in the levels of intracellular tryptophan. Transcription of the trpEDCFBA operon is controlled by an attenuation mechanism involving two overlapping RNA secondary structures in the 5' leader region of the trp transcript; TRAP binding promotes formation of a transcription terminator structure that halts transcription prior to the structural genes. TRAP consists of 11 identical subunits and is activated to bind RNA by binding up to 11 molecules of L-tryptophan. The TRAP binding site in the leader region of the trp operon mRNA consists of 11 (G/U)AG repeats. We examined the importance of the rate of TRAP binding to RNA for the transcription attenuation mechanism. We compared the properties of two types of TRAP 11-mers: homo-11-mers composed of 11 wild-type subunits, and hetero-11-mers with only one wild-type subunit and ten mutant subunits defective in binding either RNA or tryptophan. The hetero-11-mers bound RNA with only slightly diminished equilibrium binding affinity but with slower on-rates as compared to WT TRAP. The hetero-11-mers showed significantly decreased ability to induce transcription termination in the trp leader region when examined using an in vitro attenuation system. Together these results indicate that the rate of TRAP binding to RNA is a crucial factor in TRAP's ability to control attenuation. PMID:17555767

  18. Role of translation in the UTP-modulated attenuation at the pyrBI operon of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Kåre; Bonekamp, Fons; Karlström, Olle;

    1985-01-01

    A 273 bp DNA fragment containing the attenuator of the pyrBI operon was inserted into a synthetic cloning site early in the lacZ gene on a plasmid. By this operation the first few codons of lacZ were joined through a linker to the last 39 codons of the open reading frame for the putative pyr...... as for the native pyrB gene. This is probably because the substitution of the normal start of the leader peptide by the start of lacZ alters the coupling between transcription and translation and thereby the attenuation frequency. It cannot, however, be ruled out that the pyrBI operon is regulated at the promoters......B leader peptide. In addition a gene fusion encoding a hybrid protein with -galactosidase activity was formed between the pyrB start and the rest of lacZ. This gene fusion is expressed from the lac promoter and the transcript is subject to facultative termination at the pyrBI attenuator. Different variants...

  19. Rapid identification of sequences for orphan enzymes to power accurate protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Kevin R; Miller, Jennifer K; Ojha, Sunil; Watson, Douglas S; Bomar, Martha G; Galande, Amit K; Shearer, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the "back catalog" of enzymology--"orphan enzymes," those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC) database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme "back catalog" is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis) to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology's "back catalog" another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation.

  20. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;

    2008-01-01

    "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...... as chemzymes that catalyze conjugate additions, cycloadditions, and self-replicating processes. The focus will be mainly on cyclodextrin-based chemzymes since they have shown to be good candidate structures to base an enzyme model skeleton on. In addition hereto, other molecules that encompass binding......Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...

  1. Sequencing and expression of two arsenic resistance operons with different functions in the highly arsenic-resistant strain Ochrobactrum tritici SCII24T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ana-Paula

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic (As is a natural metalloid, widely used in anthropogenic activities, that can exist in different oxidation states. Throughout the world, there are several environments contaminated with high amounts of arsenic where many organisms can survive. The most stable arsenical species are arsenate and arsenite that can be subject to chemically and microbiologically oxidation, reduction and methylation reactions. Organisms surviving in arsenic contaminated environments can have a diversity of mechanisms to resist to the harmful effects of arsenical compounds. Results The highly metal resistant Ochrobactrum tritici SCII24 was able to grow in media with arsenite (50 mM, arsenate (up to 200 mM and antimonite (10 mM. This strain contains two arsenic and antimony resistance operons (ars1 and ars2, which were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that ars1 operon contains five genes encoding the following proteins: ArsR, ArsD, ArsA, CBS-domain-containing protein and ArsB. The ars2 operon is composed of six genes that encode two other ArsR, two ArsC (belonging to different families of arsenate reductases, one ACR3 and one ArsH-like protein. The involvement of ars operons in arsenic resistance was confirmed by cloning both of them in an Escherichia coli ars-mutant. The ars1 operon conferred resistance to arsenite and antimonite on E. coli cells, whereas the ars2 operon was also responsible for resistance to arsenite and arsenate. Although arsH was not required for arsenate resistance, this gene seems to be important to confer high levels of arsenite resistance. None of ars1 genes were detected in the other type strains of genus Ochrobactrum, but sequences homologous with ars2 operon were identified in some strains. Conclusion A new strategy for bacterial arsenic resistance is described in this work. Two operons involved in arsenic resistance, one giving resistance to arsenite and antimonite and the other giving resistance

  2. Transcriptional Regulation of the Vanillate Utilization Genes (vanABK Operon) of Corynebacterium glutamicum by VanR, a PadR-Like Repressor

    OpenAIRE

    Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Lange, Julian; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Kalinowski, Jörn; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to utilize vanillate, the product of lignin degradation, as the sole carbon source. The vanillate utilization components are encoded by the vanABK operon. The vanA and vanB genes encode the subunits of vanillate O-demethylase, converting vanillate to protocatechuate, while VanK is the specific vanillate transporter. The vanABK operon is regulated by a PadR-type repressor, VanR. Heterologous gene expression and variations of the vanR open reading frame reveal...

  3. A tenth atp gene and the conserved atpI gene of a Bacillus atp operon have a role in Mg2+ uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, David B.; Wang, Zhenxiong; Wei, Yi; Kent, Rebecca; Guffanti, Arthur A.; Banciu, Horia; Bechhofer, David H.; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2003-01-01

    The atp operon of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, as in most prokaryotes, contains the eight structural genes for the F-ATPase (ATP synthase), which are preceded by an atpI gene that encodes a membrane protein of unknown function. A tenth gene, atpZ, has been found in this operon, which is upstream of and overlapping with atpI. Most Bacillus species, and some other bacteria, possess atpZ homologues. AtpZ is predicted to be a membrane protein with a hairpin ...

  4. Posttranscriptional repression of the cel gene of the ColE7 operon by the RNA-binding protein CsrA of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tsung-Yeh; Sung, Yun-Min; Lei, Guang-Sheng; Romeo, Tony; Chak, Kin-Fu

    2010-01-01

    Carbon storage regulator (CsrA) is a eubacterial RNA-binding protein that acts as a global regulator of many functionally diverse chromosomal genes. Here, we reveal that CsrA represses expression from an extrachromosomal element of Escherichia coli, the lysis gene (cel) of the ColE7 operon (cea-cei-cel). This operon and colicin expression are activated upon SOS response. Disruption of csrA caused ∼5-fold increase of the lysis protein. Gel mobility shift assays established that both the single...

  5. Modified nucleotides m2G966/m5C967 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA are required for attenuation of tryptophan operon

    OpenAIRE

    Prokhorova, Irina V.; Osterman, Ilya A.; Burakovsky, Dmitry E.; Serebryakova, Marina V.; Galyamina, Maria A.; Pobeguts, Olga V.; Altukhov, Ilya; Kovalchuk, Sergey; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Dontsova, Olga A

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes contain a number of modifications in rRNA, the function of which is unclear. Here we show – using proteomic analysis and dual fluorescence reporter in vivo assays – that m2G966 and m5C967 in 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosomes are necessary for correct attenuation of tryptophan (trp) operon. Expression of trp operon is upregulated in the strain where RsmD and RsmB methyltransferases were deleted, which results in the lack of m2G966 and m5C967 modifications. The upregulation requi...

  6. Chromosomal insertion of the entire Escherichia coli lactose operon, into two strains of Pseudomonas, using a modified mini-Tn5 delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. H.; Sørensen, S. J.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1997-01-01

    A 12-kb PstI fragment including the entire E. coli lactose operon (lacIPOZYA) was inserted in one copy into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and an E. coli strain with lac(-) phenotype. This was made possible by improvements of an already existing mini-Tn5 transposon...... flanked by NotI sites needed in the mini-Tn5 delivery system; (b) the generation of E. coli nonlysogenic strains expressing the pi protein thus being capable of maintaining and delivering R6K-based mini-Tn5 vectors to other E. coli strains; (c) the successful insertion of the E. coli lactose operon...

  7. Finding New Enzymes from Bacterial Physiology: A Successful Approach Illustrated by the Detection of Novel Oxidases in Marinomonas mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sanchez-Amat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification and study of marine microorganisms with unique physiological traits can be a very powerful tool discovering novel enzymes of possible biotechnological interest. This approach can complement the enormous amount of data concerning gene diversity in marine environments offered by metagenomic analysis, and can help to place the activities associated with those sequences in the context of microbial cellular metabolism and physiology. Accordingly, the detection and isolation of microorganisms that may be a good source of enzymes is of great importance. Marinomonas mediterranea, for example, has proven to be one such useful microorganism. This Gram-negative marine bacterium was first selected because of the unusually high amounts of melanins synthesized in media containing the amino acid L-tyrosine. The study of its molecular biology has allowed the cloning of several genes encoding oxidases of biotechnological interest, particularly in white and red biotechnology. Characterization of the operon encoding the tyrosinase responsible for melanin synthesis revealed that a second gene in that operon encodes a protein, PpoB2, which is involved in copper transfer to tyrosinase. This finding made PpoB2 the first protein in the COG5486 group to which a physiological role has been assigned. Another enzyme of interest described in M. mediterranea is a multicopper oxidase encoding a membrane-associated enzyme that shows oxidative activity on a wide range of substrates typical of both laccases and tyrosinases. Finally, an enzyme very specific for L-lysine, which oxidises this amino acid in epsilon position and that has received a new EC number (1.4.3.20, has also been described for M. mediterranea. Overall, the studies carried out on this bacterium illustrate the power of exploring the physiology of selected microorganisms to discover novel enzymes of biotechnological relevance.

  8. Isolation of the phe-operon from G. stearothermophilus comprising the phenol degradative meta-pathway genes and a novel transcriptional regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiss Monika

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacillus stearothermophilus is able to utilize phenol as a sole carbon source. A DNA fragment encoding a phenol hydroxylase catalyzing the first step in the meta-pathway has been isolated previously. Based on these findings a PCR-based DNA walk was performed initially to isolate a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase for biosensoric applications but was continued to elucidate the organisation of the genes encoding the proteins for the metabolization of phenol. Results A 20.2 kb DNA fragment was isolated as a result of the DNA walk. Fifteen open reading frames residing on a low-copy megaplasmid were identified. Eleven genes are co-transcribed in one polycistronic mRNA as shown by reverse transcription-PCR. Ten genes encode proteins, that are directly linked with the meta-cleavage pathway. The deduced amino acid sequences display similarities to a two-component phenol hydroxylase, a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, a 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase, a 2-oxopent-4-dienoate hydratase, a 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase, a 4-hydroxy-2-oxovalerate aldolase, an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, a plant-type ferredoxin involved in the reactivation of extradiol dioxygenases and a novel regulatory protein. The only enzymes missing for the complete mineralization of phenol are a 2-hydroxymuconic acid-6-semialdehyde hydrolase and/or 2-hydroxymuconic acid-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Conclusion Research on the bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds on a sub-cellular level has been more intensively studied in gram-negative organisms than in gram-positive bacteria. Especially regulatory mechanisms in gram-positive (thermophilic prokaryotes remain mostly unknown. We isolated the first complete sequence of an operon from a thermophilic bacterium encoding the meta-pathway genes and analyzed the genetic organization. Moreover, the first transcriptional regulator of the phenol metabolism in gram-positive bacteria was identified. This is a first step to elucidate

  9. Genetic analysis of the virE operon of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid pTiA6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, K E; Knauf, V C

    1988-04-01

    The virE operon of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid pTiA6 encodes at least one trans-acting protein involved in the expression of virulence. Two open reading frames designated virE1 and virE2 code for polypeptides of 7 and 60 kilodaltons (kDa), respectively, that can be visualized after expression in Escherichia coli minicells. To determine which virE sequences are required for virulence, a strain deleted for the entire locus [strain KE1(pTiA6 delta E)] was constructed and tested for the ability to be complemented by subclones with and without site-directed mutations in the virE operon. One subclone containing only virE1 and virE2 as well as upstream promoter sequences was sufficient to restore full virulence on the host plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. However, some other virulence locus representing a host range determinant appeared to be deleted from strain KE1(pTiA6 delta E), since virE1 and virE2 were not sufficient to fully restore virulence on wounded tomato plants. virE operon constructs with specific lesions in either virE1 or virE2 were impaired for complementation of pTiA6 delta E. Several mutations specific for the promoter-proximal virE1 locus appeared to have a polar effect on expression of the virE2-encoded 60-kDa protein. However, virE2::lacZ fusion constructs suggest that this effect is not at the level of transcription or translation. Collectively, these data indicate that both the 7- and the 60-kDa polypeptides are virulence determinants for the Ti plasmid pTiA6 and suggest that the 60-kDa protein may be less stable in the absence of the 7-kDa protein. PMID:2832362

  10. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    . In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial enzyme...... fractionation, such as removal of a side activity from the main enzyme activity. As a proof-of-concept, amino acids were used as model solution to test the feasibility of EMF in the application of amphoteric molecule separation. A single amino acid was used to illustrate the effect of an electric field...... on the separation performance were very small in the investigated range. The mass transport of each enzyme can be well explained by the Extended-Nernst-Planck equation. Better separation was observed at lower feed concentration, higher solution pH in the investigated range and with a polysulfone (PS) MF membrane...

  11. Overproduction of ligninolytic enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Torok, Tamas

    2014-06-17

    Methods, compositions, and systems for overproducing ligninolytic enzymes from the basidiomycetous fungus are described herein. As described, the method can include incubating a fungal strain of Cerrena unicolor IBB 303 in a fermentation system having growth medium which includes lignocellulosic material and then cultivating the fungal strain in the fermentation system under conditions wherein the fungus expresses the ligninolytic enzymes. In some cases, the lignocellulosic material is mandarin peel, ethanol production residue, walnut pericarp, wheat bran, wheat straw, or banana peel.

  12. Enzyme with rhamnogalacturonase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kofod, L.V.; Andersen, L N; Dalboge, H; Kauppinen, M.S.; Christgau, S; Heldt-Hansen, H.P.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.M.; Voragen, A. G. J.; Schols, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme exhibiting rhamnogalacturonase activity, capable of cleaving a rhamnogalacturonan backbone in such a manner that galacturonic acids are left as the non-reducing ends, and which exhibits activity on hairy regions from a soy bean material and/or on saponified hairy regions from a sugar beet material. The enzyme has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 and is encoded by the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:1

  13. RNA-modifying enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2003-02-01

    A bewildering number of post-transcriptional modifications are introduced into cellular RNAs by enzymes that are often conserved among archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. The modifications range from those with well-understood functions, such as tRNA aminoacylation, to widespread but more mysterious ones, such as pseudouridylation. Recent structure determinations have included two types of RNA nucleobase modifying enzyme: pseudouridine synthases and tRNA guanine transglycosylases.

  14. Influence of sporulation medium composition on transcription of ger operons and the germination response of spores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 endospores were produced in Y1 medium, a nutrient-rich, chemically defined sporulation medium, and in modified G medium, containing low amounts of nutrients. The average transcription level of the seven ger operons per cell was 3.5 times higher in Y1 medium, and the spores

  15. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons rapidly classified the Sphingomonadaceae as alkylphenol polyethoxylate-degrading bacteria from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yudai; Sato, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2012-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using ribosomal subunit proteins coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon as biomarkers was applied for the classification of the Sphingomonadaceae from the environment. To construct a ribosomal protein database, S10-spc-alpha operon of type strains of the Sphingomonadaceae and their related alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO(n) )-degrading bacteria were sequenced using specific primers designed based on nucleotide sequences of genome-sequenced strains. The observed MALDI mass spectra of intact cells were compared with the theoretical mass of the constructed ribosomal protein database. The nine selected biomarkers coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon, L18, L22, L24, L29, L30, S08, S14, S17, and S19, could successfully distinguish the Sphingopyxis terrae NBRC 15098(T) and APEO(n) -degrading bacteria strain BSN20, despite only one base difference in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. This method, named the S10-GERMS (S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum) method, is a significantly useful tool for bacterial discrimination of the Sphingomonadaceae at the strain level and can detect and monitor the main APEO(n) -degrading bacteria in the environment.

  16. Classification of genus Pseudomonas by MALDI-TOF MS based on ribosomal protein coding in S10-spc-alpha operon at strain level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yudai; Teramoto, Kanae; Sato, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Hiromichi; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2010-12-01

    We have proposed a rapid phylogenetic classification at the strain level by MALDI-TOF MS using ribosomal protein matching profiling. In this study, the S10-spc-alpha operon, encoding half of the ribosomal subunit proteins and highly conserved in eubacterial genomes, was selected for construction of the ribosomal protein database as biomarkers for bacterial identification by MALDI-TOF MS analysis to establish a more reliable phylogenetic classification. Our method revealed that the 14 reliable and reproducible ribosomal subunit proteins with less than m/z 15,000, except for L14, coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon were significantly useful biomarkers for bacterial classification at species and strain levels by MALDI-TOF MS analysis of genus Pseudomonas strains. The obtained phylogenetic tree was consisted with that based on genetic sequence (gyrB). Since S10-spc-alpha operons of genus Pseudomonas strains were sequenced using specific primers designed based on nucleotide sequences of genome-sequenced strains, the ribosomal subunit proteins encoded in S10-spc-alpha operon were suitable biomarkers for construction and correction of the database. MALDI-TOF MS analysis using these 14 selected ribosomal proteins is a rapid, efficient, and versatile bacterial identification method with the validation procedure for the obtained results.

  17. Modified nucleotides m2G966/m5C967 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA are required for attenuation of tryptophan operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorova, Irina V.; Osterman, Ilya A.; Burakovsky, Dmitry E.; Serebryakova, Marina V.; Galyamina, Maria A.; Pobeguts, Olga V.; Altukhov, Ilya; Kovalchuk, Sergey; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Dontsova, Olga A.

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes contain a number of modifications in rRNA, the function of which is unclear. Here we show - using proteomic analysis and dual fluorescence reporter in vivo assays - that m2G966 and m5C967 in 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosomes are necessary for correct attenuation of tryptophan (trp) operon. Expression of trp operon is upregulated in the strain where RsmD and RsmB methyltransferases were deleted, which results in the lack of m2G966 and m5C967 modifications. The upregulation requires the trpL attenuator, but is independent of the promotor of trp operon, ribosome binding site of the trpE gene, which follows trp attenuator and even Trp codons in the trpL sequence. Suboptimal translation initiation efficiency in the rsmB/rsmD knockout strain is likely to cause a delay in translation relative to transcription which causes misregulation of attenuation control of trp operon.

  18. Sequencing and promoter analysis of the nifENXorf3orf5fdxAnifQ operon from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrich D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-kb DNA region containing the major cluster of nif genes has been isolated from the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 genome. In this region three nif operons have been identified: nifHDKorf1Y, nifENXorf3orf5fdxAnifQ and orf2nifUSVorf4. The operons containing nifENX and nifUSV genes are separated from the structural nifHDKorf1Y operon by about 5 kb and 10 kb, respectively. The present study shows the sequence analysis of the 6045-bp DNA region containing the nifENX genes. The deduced amino acid sequences from the open reading frames were compared to the nif gene products of other diazotrophic bacteria and indicate the presence of seven ORFs, all reading in the same direction as that of the nifHDKorf1Y operon. Consensus sigma54 and NifA-binding sites are present only in the promoter region upstream of the nifE gene. This promoter is activated by NifA protein and is approximately two-times less active than the nifH promoter, as indicated by the ß-galactosidase assays. This result suggests the differential expression of the nif genes and their respective products in Azospirillum.

  19. recA mediated spontaneous deletions of the icaADBC operon of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates : a new mechanism of phenotypic variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Kuijer, Roel; Aman, Abu T.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic variation of Staphylococcus epidermidis involving the slime related ica operon results in heterogeneity in surface characteristics of individual bacteria in axenic cultures. Five clinical S. epidermidis isolates demonstrated phenotypic variation, i.e. both black and red colonies on Congo

  20. nasST, two genes involved in the induction of the assimilatory nitrite-nitrate reductase operon (nasAB) of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, J C; Ramos, F; Ortner, L; Tortolero, M

    1995-11-01

    An operon including two new genes (nasS and nasT) has been defined, cloned and sequenced. The deduced NASS protein is homologous to NRTA from Synechococcus sp. and to NASF from Klebsiella pneumoniae, two proteins involved in nitrate uptake. The predicted NAST polypeptide is homologous to the regulator proteins of the two-component regulatory systems. NASS plays a negative regulatory role in the synthesis of the nitrate and nitrite reductase. NAST is required for the expression of the nitrite-nitrate reductase operon (nasAB). Expression of the nasST operon is not under the control of the NTR system and is not regulated by the nitrogen source. A Phi(nasA-lacZ) fusion has been used to analyse expression of the nasAB operon in three different genetic backgrounds with altered nitrate reductase activity. Beta-galactosidase activity in two of them was independent of nitrate but in a mutant unable to reduce nitrate, nas-4, it was normally induced by nitrate. PMID:8748040

  1. The davDT operon of Pseudomonas putida, involved in lysine catabolism, is induced in response to the pathway intermediate delta-aminovaleric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revelles, O.; Espinosa-Urgel, M.; Molin, Søren;

    2004-01-01

    to the addition of exogenous lysine to the culture medium. However, the true inducer of this operon seems to be delta-aminovaleric acid because in a mutant unable to metabolize lysine to delta-aminovaleric acid, this compound, but not lysine, acted as an effector. Effective induction of the P. putida P...

  2. Decaffeination and measurement of caffeine content by addicted Escherichia coli with a refactored N-demethylation operon from Pseudomonas putida CBB5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Erik M; Hammerling, Michael J; Summers, Ryan M; Otoupal, Peter B; Slater, Ben; Alnahhas, Razan N; Dasgupta, Aurko; Bachman, James L; Subramanian, Mani V; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2013-06-21

    The widespread use of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and other methylxanthines in beverages and pharmaceuticals has led to significant environmental pollution. We have developed a portable caffeine degradation operon by refactoring the alkylxanthine degradation (Alx) gene cluster from Pseudomonas putida CBB5 to function in Escherichia coli. In the process, we discovered that adding a glutathione S-transferase from Janthinobacterium sp. Marseille was necessary to achieve N 7 -demethylation activity. E. coli cells with the synthetic operon degrade caffeine to the guanine precursor, xanthine. Cells deficient in de novo guanine biosynthesis that contain the refactored operon are ″addicted″ to caffeine: their growth density is limited by the availability of caffeine or other xanthines. We show that the addicted strain can be used as a biosensor to measure the caffeine content of common beverages. The synthetic N-demethylation operon could be useful for reclaiming nutrient-rich byproducts of coffee bean processing and for the cost-effective bioproduction of methylxanthine drugs.

  3. Synthesis of lactococcin 972, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis IPLA 972, depends on the expression of a plasmid-encoded bicistronic operon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, B.; Fernández, M.; Suárez, J.E.; Rodríguez, A.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of lactococcin 972 is plasmid-encoded. An operon composed of two genes that encode pre-bacteriocin and a putative immunity protein has been identified. The first gene encodes a 91-residue polypeptide that is exported via a sec-dependent system to give the mature 66-aa bacteriocin. The immu

  4. gerR, a novel ger operon involved in L-alanine- and inosine-initiated germination of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus cereus endospores germinate in response to particular nutrients. Spores are able to sense these nutrients in the environment by receptors encoded by the gerA family of operons. Analysis of the Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 genome revealed seven gerA family homologues. Using a transposon Tn917-

  5. Modified nucleotides m(2)G966/m(5)C967 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA are required for attenuation of tryptophan operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorova, Irina V; Osterman, Ilya A; Burakovsky, Dmitry E; Serebryakova, Marina V; Galyamina, Maria A; Pobeguts, Olga V; Altukhov, Ilya; Kovalchuk, Sergey; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Govorun, Vadim M; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Sergiev, Petr V; Dontsova, Olga A

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes contain a number of modifications in rRNA, the function of which is unclear. Here we show--using proteomic analysis and dual fluorescence reporter in vivo assays--that m(2)G966 and m(5)C967 in 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosomes are necessary for correct attenuation of tryptophan (trp) operon. Expression of trp operon is upregulated in the strain where RsmD and RsmB methyltransferases were deleted, which results in the lack of m(2)G966 and m(5)C967 modifications. The upregulation requires the trpL attenuator, but is independent of the promotor of trp operon, ribosome binding site of the trpE gene, which follows trp attenuator and even Trp codons in the trpL sequence. Suboptimal translation initiation efficiency in the rsmB/rsmD knockout strain is likely to cause a delay in translation relative to transcription which causes misregulation of attenuation control of trp operon. PMID:24241179

  6. The Transcriptional Repressor, MtrR, of the mtrCDE Efflux Pump Operon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Can Also Serve as an Activator of “off Target” Gene (glnE Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. T. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MtrR is a well-characterized repressor of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae mtrCDE efflux pump operon. However, results from a previous transcriptional profiling study suggested that MtrR also represses or activates expression of at least sixty genes outside of the mtr locus. Evidence that MtrR can directly repress so-called “off target” genes has previously been reported; in particular, MtrR was shown to directly repress glnA, which encodes glutamine synthetase. In contrast, evidence for the ability of MtrR to directly activate expression of gonococcal genes has been lacking; herein, we provide such evidence. We now report that MtrR has the ability to directly activate expression of glnE, which encodes the dual functional adenyltransferase/deadenylase enzyme GlnE that modifies GlnA resulting in regulation of its role in glutamine biosynthesis. With its capacity to repress expression of glnA, the results presented herein emphasize the diverse and often opposing regulatory properties of MtrR that likely contributes to the overall physiology and metabolism of N. gonorrhoeae.

  7. The Transcriptional Repressor, MtrR, of the mtrCDE Efflux Pump Operon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Can Also Serve as an Activator of "off Target" Gene (glnE) Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul J T; Shafer, William M

    2015-06-01

    MtrR is a well-characterized repressor of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae mtrCDE efflux pump operon. However, results from a previous transcriptional profiling study suggested that MtrR also represses or activates expression of at least sixty genes outside of the mtr locus. Evidence that MtrR can directly repress so-called "off target" genes has previously been reported; in particular, MtrR was shown to directly repress glnA, which encodes glutamine synthetase. In contrast, evidence for the ability of MtrR to directly activate expression of gonococcal genes has been lacking; herein, we provide such evidence. We now report that MtrR has the ability to directly activate expression of glnE, which encodes the dual functional adenyltransferase/deadenylase enzyme GlnE that modifies GlnA resulting in regulation of its role in glutamine biosynthesis. With its capacity to repress expression of glnA, the results presented herein emphasize the diverse and often opposing regulatory properties of MtrR that likely contributes to the overall physiology and metabolism of N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:26078871

  8. Metagenomic analysis of novel lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from higher termite guts inhabiting microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchua, Thidarat; Thongaram, Taksawan; Uengwetwanit, Tanaporn; Pongpattanakitshote, Somchai; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2012-04-01

    A metagenomic fosmid library was constructed from genomic DNA isolated from the microbial community residing in hindguts of a wood-feeding higher termite (Microcerotermes sp.) collected in Thailand. The library was screened for clones expressing lignocellulolytic activities. Fourteen independent active clones (2 cellulases and 12 xylanases) were obtained by functional screening at pH 10.0. Analysis of shotgun-cloning and pyrosequencing data revealed six ORFs, which shared less than 59% identity and 73% similarity of their amino acid sequences with known cellulases and xylanases. Conserved domain analysis of these ORFs revealed a cellulase belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 5, whereas the other five xylanases showed significant identity to diverse families including families 8, 10, and 11. Interestingly, one fosmid clone was isolated carrying three contiguous xylanase genes that may comprise a xylanosome operon. The enzymes with the highest activities at alkaline pH from the initial activity screening were characterized biochemically. These enzymes showed a broad range of enzyme activities from pH 5.0 to 10.0, with pH optimal of 8.0 retaining more than 70% of their respective activities at pH 9.0. The optimal temperatures of these enzymes ranged from 50 degrees C to 55 degrees C. This study provides evidence for the diversity and function of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes in the termite gut microbial community, which could be of potential use for industrial processes such as pulp biobleaching and denim biostoning.

  9. Cloning of the cnr operon into a strain of Bacillaceae bacterium for the development of a suitable biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F; Piater, Lizelle A; Tlou, Matsobane G

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a potential microbial biosorbent was engineered to improve its capacity to remediate heavy metal contaminated water resources. A Bacillaceae bacterium isolated from a mining area was transformed with a plasmid carrying the (pECD312)-based cnr operon that encodes nickel and cobalt resistance. The bioadsorption ability of the transformed strain was evaluated for removal of nickel from metallurgical water relative to the wildtype strain. Results showed that transformation improved the adsorption capacity of the bacterium by 37 % at nickel concentrations equivalent to 150 mg/L. Furthermore it was possible to apply prediction modelling to study the bioadsorption behaviour of the transformed strain. As such, this work may be extended to the design of a nickel bioremediation plant utilising the newly developed Bacillaceae bacterium as a biosorbent. PMID:27263009

  10. Transcriptional activation of multiple operons involved in para-nitrophenol degradation by Pseudomonas sp. Strain WBC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xuan; Chao, Hongjun; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole carbon and energy source. The genes involved in PNP degradation are organized in the following three operons: pnpA, pnpB, and pnpCDEFG. How the expression of the genes is regulated is unknown. In this study, an LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) is identified to activate the expression of the genes in response to the specific inducer PNP. While the LTTR coding gene pnpR was found to be not physically linked to any of the three catabolic operons, it was shown to be essential for the growth of strain WBC-3 on PNP. Furthermore, PnpR positively regulated its own expression, which is different from the function of classical LTTRs. A regulatory binding site (RBS) with a 17-bp imperfect palindromic sequence (GTT-N11-AAC) was identified in all pnpA, pnpB, pnpC, and pnpR promoters. Through electrophoretic mobility shift assays and mutagenic analyses, this motif was proven to be necessary for PnpR binding. This consensus motif is centered at positions approximately -55 bp relative to the four transcriptional start sites (TSSs). RBS integrity was required for both high-affinity PnpR binding and transcriptional activation of pnpA, pnpB, and pnpR. However, this integrity was essential only for high-affinity PnpR binding to the promoter of pnpCDEFG and not for its activation. Intriguingly, unlike other LTTRs studied, no changes in lengths of the PnpR binding regions of the pnpA and pnpB promoters were observed after the addition of the inducer PNP in DNase I footprinting.

  11. 23S rRNA nucleotides in the peptidyl transferase center are essential for tryptophanase operon induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-06-01

    Distinct features of the ribosomal peptide exit tunnel are known to be essential for recognition of specific amino acids of a nascent peptidyl-tRNA. Thus, a tryptophan residue at position 12 of the peptidyl-tRNA TnaC-tRNA(Pro) leads to the creation of a free tryptophan binding site within the ribosome at which bound tryptophan inhibits normal ribosome functions. The ribosomal processes that are inhibited are hydrolysis of TnaC-tRNA(Pro) by release factor 2 and peptidyl transfer of TnaC of TnaC-tRNA(Pro) to puromycin. These events are normally performed in the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. In the present study, changes of 23S rRNA nucleotides in the 2585 region of the peptidyl transferase center, G2583A and U2584C, were observed to reduce maximum induction of tna operon expression by tryptophan in vivo without affecting the concentration of tryptophan necessary to obtain 50% induction. The growth rate of strains with ribosomes with either of these changes was not altered appreciably. In vitro analyses with mutant ribosomes with these changes showed that tryptophan was not as efficient in protecting TnaC-tRNA(Pro) from puromycin action as wild-type ribosomes. However, added tryptophan did prevent sparsomycin action as it normally does with wild-type ribosomes. These findings suggest that these two mutational changes act by reducing the ability of ribosome-bound tryptophan to inhibit peptidyl transferase activity rather than by reducing the ability of the ribosome to bind tryptophan. Thus, the present study identifies specific nucleotides within the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center that appear to be essential for effective tryptophan induction of tna operon expression. PMID:19329641

  12. Expression of a humanized viral 2A-mediated lux operon efficiently generates autonomous bioluminescence in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xu

    Full Text Available Expression of autonomous bioluminescence from human cells was previously reported to be impossible, suggesting that all bioluminescent-based mammalian reporter systems must therefore require application of a potentially influential chemical substrate. While this was disproven when the bacterial luciferase (lux cassette was demonstrated to function in a human cell, its expression required multiple genetic constructs, was functional in only a single cell type, and generated a significantly reduced signal compared to substrate-requiring systems. Here we investigate the use of a humanized, viral 2A-linked lux genetic architecture for the efficient introduction of an autobioluminescent phenotype across a variety of human cell lines.The lux cassette was codon optimized and assembled into a synthetic human expression operon using viral 2A elements as linker regions. Human kidney, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer cell lines were both transiently and stably transfected with the humanized operon and the resulting autobioluminescent phenotype was evaluated using common imaging instrumentation. Autobioluminescent cells were screened for cytotoxic effects resulting from lux expression and their utility as bioreporters was evaluated through the demonstration of repeated monitoring of single populations over a prolonged period using both a modified E-SCREEN assay for estrogen detection and a classical cytotoxic compound detection assay for the antibiotic Zeocin. Furthermore, the use of self-directed bioluminescent initiation in response to target detection was assessed to determine its amenability towards deployment as fully autonomous sensors. In all cases, bioluminescent measurements were supported with traditional genetic and transcriptomic evaluations.Our results demonstrate that the viral 2A-linked, humanized lux genetic architecture successfully produced autobioluminescent phenotypes in all cell lines tested without the induction of cytotoxicity

  13. A Phenotypically Silent vanB2 Operon Carried on a Tn1549-Like Element in Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Daniel R.; Androga, Grace O.; Ballard, Susan A.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has reached an epidemic state with increasing incidence and severity in both health care and community settings. Vancomycin is an important first-line therapy for CDI, and the emergence of resistance would have significant clinical consequences. In this study, we describe for the first time a vanB2 vancomycin resistance operon in C. difficile, isolated from an Australian veal calf at slaughter. The operon was carried on an ~42-kb element showing significant homology and synteny to Tn1549, a conjugative transposon linked with the emergence and global dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Notably, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly as a result of an aberrant vanRB gene. As observed for other anaerobic species of the animal gut microbiota, C. difficile may be a reservoir of clinically important vancomycin resistance genes. IMPORTANCE In an era when the development of new antimicrobial drugs is slow, vancomycin remains the preferred antimicrobial therapy for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most important health care-related infection in the world today. The emergence of resistance to vancomycin would have significant consequences in relation to treating patients with CDI. In this paper, we describe for the first time a complete set of vancomycin resistance genes in C. difficile. The genes were very similar to genes found in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) that were associated with the emergence and global dissemination of this organism. Fortunately, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly because of a small difference in one gene. However, this observation signals that we may be very close to seeing a fully vancomycin-resistant strain of C. difficile. PMID:27536735

  14. A Phenotypically Silent vanB2 Operon Carried on a Tn1549-Like Element in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Daniel R; Androga, Grace O; Ballard, Susan A; Howden, Benjamin P; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has reached an epidemic state with increasing incidence and severity in both health care and community settings. Vancomycin is an important first-line therapy for CDI, and the emergence of resistance would have significant clinical consequences. In this study, we describe for the first time a vanB2 vancomycin resistance operon in C. difficile, isolated from an Australian veal calf at slaughter. The operon was carried on an ~42-kb element showing significant homology and synteny to Tn1549, a conjugative transposon linked with the emergence and global dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Notably, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly as a result of an aberrant vanRB gene. As observed for other anaerobic species of the animal gut microbiota, C. difficile may be a reservoir of clinically important vancomycin resistance genes. IMPORTANCE In an era when the development of new antimicrobial drugs is slow, vancomycin remains the preferred antimicrobial therapy for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most important health care-related infection in the world today. The emergence of resistance to vancomycin would have significant consequences in relation to treating patients with CDI. In this paper, we describe for the first time a complete set of vancomycin resistance genes in C. difficile. The genes were very similar to genes found in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) that were associated with the emergence and global dissemination of this organism. Fortunately, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly because of a small difference in one gene. However, this observation signals that we may be very close to seeing a fully vancomycin-resistant strain of C. difficile. PMID:27536735

  15. Molecular basis of TRAP-5'SL RNA interaction in the Bacillus subtilis trp operon transcription attenuation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Adam P; Mokdad, Ali; Major, François; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Babitzke, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon is regulated by the interaction of tryptophan-activated TRAP with 11 (G/U)AG trinucleotide repeats that lie in the leader region of the nascent trp transcript. Bound TRAP prevents folding of an antiterminator structure and favors formation of an overlapping intrinsic terminator hairpin upstream of the trp operon structural genes. A 5'-stem-loop (5'SL) structure that forms just upstream of the triplet repeat region increases the affinity of TRAP-trp RNA interaction, thereby increasing the efficiency of transcription termination. Single-stranded nucleotides in the internal loop and in the hairpin loop of the 5'SL are important for TRAP binding. We show here that altering the distance between these two loops suggests that G7, A8, and A9 from the internal loop and A19 and G20 from the hairpin loop constitute two structurally discrete TRAP-binding regions. Photochemical cross-linking experiments also show that the hairpin loop of the 5'SL is in close proximity to the flexible loop region of TRAP during TRAP-5'SL interaction. The dimensions of B. subtilis TRAP and of a three-dimensional model of the 5'SL generated using the MC-Sym and MC-Fold pipeline imply that the 5'SL binds the protein in an orientation where the helical axis of the 5'SL is perpendicular to the plane of TRAP. This interaction not only increases the affinity of TRAP-trp leader RNA interaction, but also orients the downstream triplet repeats for interaction with the 11 KKR motifs that lie on TRAP's perimeter, increasing the likelihood that TRAP will bind in time to promote termination. PMID:19033375

  16. Inter-Protein Sequence Co-Evolution Predicts Known Physical Interactions in Bacterial Ribosomes and the Trp Operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Christoph; Szurmant, Hendrik; Weigt, Martin; Pagnani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between proteins is a fundamental mechanism that underlies virtually all biological processes. Many important interactions are conserved across a large variety of species. The need to maintain interaction leads to a high degree of co-evolution between residues in the interface between partner proteins. The inference of protein-protein interaction networks from the rapidly growing sequence databases is one of the most formidable tasks in systems biology today. We propose here a novel approach based on the Direct-Coupling Analysis of the co-evolution between inter-protein residue pairs. We use ribosomal and trp operon proteins as test cases: For the small resp. large ribosomal subunit our approach predicts protein-interaction partners at a true-positive rate of 70% resp. 90% within the first 10 predictions, with areas of 0.69 resp. 0.81 under the ROC curves for all predictions. In the trp operon, it assigns the two largest interaction scores to the only two interactions experimentally known. On the level of residue interactions we show that for both the small and the large ribosomal subunit our approach predicts interacting residues in the system with a true positive rate of 60% and 85% in the first 20 predictions. We use artificial data to show that the performance of our approach depends crucially on the size of the joint multiple sequence alignments and analyze how many sequences would be necessary for a perfect prediction if the sequences were sampled from the same model that we use for prediction. Given the performance of our approach on the test data we speculate that it can be used to detect new interactions, especially in the light of the rapid growth of available sequence data. PMID:26882169

  17. Inter-Protein Sequence Co-Evolution Predicts Known Physical Interactions in Bacterial Ribosomes and the Trp Operon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Feinauer

    Full Text Available Interaction between proteins is a fundamental mechanism that underlies virtually all biological processes. Many important interactions are conserved across a large variety of species. The need to maintain interaction leads to a high degree of co-evolution between residues in the interface between partner proteins. The inference of protein-protein interaction networks from the rapidly growing sequence databases is one of the most formidable tasks in systems biology today. We propose here a novel approach based on the Direct-Coupling Analysis of the co-evolution between inter-protein residue pairs. We use ribosomal and trp operon proteins as test cases: For the small resp. large ribosomal subunit our approach predicts protein-interaction partners at a true-positive rate of 70% resp. 90% within the first 10 predictions, with areas of 0.69 resp. 0.81 under the ROC curves for all predictions. In the trp operon, it assigns the two largest interaction scores to the only two interactions experimentally known. On the level of residue interactions we show that for both the small and the large ribosomal subunit our approach predicts interacting residues in the system with a true positive rate of 60% and 85% in the first 20 predictions. We use artificial data to show that the performance of our approach depends crucially on the size of the joint multiple sequence alignments and analyze how many sequences would be necessary for a perfect prediction if the sequences were sampled from the same model that we use for prediction. Given the performance of our approach on the test data we speculate that it can be used to detect new interactions, especially in the light of the rapid growth of available sequence data.

  18. The conserved nhaAR operon is drastically divergent between B2 and non-B2 Escherichia coli and is involved in extra-intestinal virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Lescat

    Full Text Available The Escherichia coli species is divided in phylogenetic groups that differ in their virulence and commensal distribution. Strains belonging to the B2 group are involved in extra-intestinal pathologies but also appear to be more prevalent as commensals among human occidental populations. To investigate the genetic specificities of B2 sub-group, we used 128 sequenced genomes and identified genes of the core genome that showed marked difference between B2 and non-B2 genomes. We focused on the gene and its surrounding region with the strongest divergence between B2 and non-B2, the antiporter gene nhaA. This gene is part of the nhaAR operon, which is in the core genome but flanked by mobile regions, and is involved in growth at high pH and high sodium concentrations. Consistently, we found that a panel of non-B2 strains grew faster than B2 at high pH and high sodium concentrations. However, we could not identify differences in expression of the nhaAR operon using fluorescence reporter plasmids. Furthermore, the operon deletion had no differential impact between B2 and non-B2 strains, and did not result in a fitness modification in a murine model of gut colonization. Nevertheless, sequence analysis and experiments in a murine model of septicemia revealed that recombination in nhaA among B2 strains was observed in strains with low virulence. Finally, nhaA and nhaAR operon deletions drastically decreased virulence in one B2 strain. This effect of nhaAR deletion appeared to be stronger than deletion of all pathogenicity islands. Thus, a population genetic approach allowed us to identify an operon in the core genome without strong effect in commensalism but with an important role in extra-intestinal virulence, a landmark of the B2 strains.

  19. Red cell enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniker, N V

    1975-03-01

    As compared to other cells of the body, the mammalian red cell has one of the simplest structural organizations. As a result, this cell has been extensively used in studies involving the structure, function, and integrity of cell membranes as well as cytoplasmic events. Additionally, the metabolic activities of the red blood cell are also relatively simple. During the past quarter century or so, an ocean of knowledge has been gathered on various aspects of red cell metabolism and function. The fields of enzymes, hemoglobin, membrane, and metabolic products comprise the major portion of this knowledge. These advances have made valuable contributions to biochemistry and medicine. Despite these favorable aspects of this simple, anucleated cell, it must be conceded that our knowledge about the red cell is far from complete. We are still in the dark concerning the mechanism involved in several aspects of its membrane, hemoglobin, enzymes, and a large number of other constituents. For example, a large number of enzymes with known catalytic activity but with unknown function have eluded investigators despite active pursuit. This review will be a consolidation of our present knowledge of human red cell enzymes, with particular reference to their usefulness in the diagnosis and therapy of disease. Owing to the multitude of publications by prominent investigators on each of the approximately 50 enzymes discussed in this review, it was impossible to cite a majority of them.

  20. Random-walk enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  1. Random-walk enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chi H; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A; Goodman, Myron F

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C→U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Rømer, F K; Cortes, D

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate bleomycin-associated lung damage in humans, lung function parameters and serum levels of the endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined by serial measurements in 11 patients who were treated for testicular cancer. None developed clinical or radiolog......In order to evaluate bleomycin-associated lung damage in humans, lung function parameters and serum levels of the endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined by serial measurements in 11 patients who were treated for testicular cancer. None developed clinical...

  3. The surface science of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Thomas Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    ? To solve these problems we must understand in some detail how enzymes interact with reactants from its surroundings. These interactions take place at the surface of the enzyme and the question of enzyme function can be viewed as the surface science of enzymes. In this article we discuss how to describe......One of the largest challenges to science in the coming years is to find the relation between enzyme structure and function. Can we predict which reactions an enzyme catalyzes from knowledge of its structure-or from its amino acid sequence? Can we use that knowledge to modify enzyme function...

  4. ISFET based enzyme sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der Bart H.; Bergveld, Piet

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the results that have been reported on ISFET based enzyme sensors. The most important improvement that results from the application of ISFETs instead of glass membrane electrodes is in the method of fabrication. Problems with regard to the pH dependence of the response and the dyn

  5. Computational enzyme design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolon, Daniel N.

    2002-08-01

    The long-term objective of computational enzyme design is the ability to generate efficient protein catalysts for any chemical reaction. This thesis develops and experimentally validates a general computational approach for the design of enzymes with novel function. In order to include catalytic mechanism in protein design, a high-energy state (HES) rotamer (side chain representation) was constructed. In this rotamer, substrate atoms are in a HES. In addition, at least one amino acid side chain is positioned to interact favorably with substrate atoms in their HES and facilitate the reaction. Including an amino acid side chain in the HES rotamer automatically positions substrate relative to a protein scaffold and allows protein design algorithms to search for sequences capable of interacting favorably with the substrate. Because chemical similarity exists between the transition state and the high-energy state, optimizing the protein sequence to interact favorably with the HES rotamer should lead to transition state stabilization. In addition, the HES rotamer model focuses the subsequent computational active site design on a relevant phase space where an amino acid is capable of interacting in a catalytically active geometry with substrate. Using a HES rotamer model of the histidine mediated nucleophilic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate, the catalytically inert 108 residue E. coli thioredoxin as a scaffold, and the ORBIT protein design software to compute sequences, an active site scan identified two promising active site designs. Experimentally, both candidate ?protozymes? demonstrated catalytic activity significantly above background. In addition, the rate enhancement of one of these ?protozymes? was the same order of magnitude as the first catalytic antibodies. Because polar groups are frequently buried at enzyme-substrate interfaces, improved modeling of buried polar interactions may benefit enzyme design. By studying native protein structures, rules have been

  6. The Moderately Efficient Enzyme: Futile Encounters and Enzyme Floppiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron; Noor, Elad; Tawfik, Dan S

    2015-08-18

    The pioneering model of Henri, Michaelis, and Menten was based on the fast equilibrium assumption: the substrate binds its enzyme reversibly, and substrate dissociation is much faster than product formation. Here, we examine this assumption from a somewhat different point of view, asking what fraction of enzyme-substrate complexes are futile, i.e., result in dissociation rather than product formation. In Knowles' notion of a "perfect" enzyme, all encounters of the enzyme with its substrate result in conversion to product. Thus, the perfect enzyme's catalytic efficiency, kcat/KM, is constrained by only the diffusion on-rate, and the fraction of futile encounters (defined as φ) approaches zero. The available data on >1000 different enzymes suggest that for ≥90% of enzymes φ > 0.99 and for the "average enzyme" φ ≥ 0.9999; namely, <1 of 10(4) encounters is productive. Thus, the "fast equilibrium" assumption holds for the vast majority of enzymes. We discuss possible molecular origins for the dominance of futile encounters, including the coexistence of multiple sub-states of an enzyme's active site (enzyme floppiness) and/or its substrate. Floppiness relates to the inherent flexibility of proteins, but also to conflicting demands, or trade-offs, between rate acceleration (the rate-determining chemical step) and catalytic turnover, or between turnover rate and accuracy. The study of futile encounters and active-site floppiness may contribute to a better understanding of enzyme catalysis, enzyme evolution, and improved enzyme design.

  7. Enzymes involved in DNA ligation and end-healing in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevelev Igor V

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymes involved in DNA metabolic events of the highly radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans are currently examined to understand the mechanisms that protect and repair the Deinococcus radiodurans genome after extremely high doses of γ-irradiation. Although several Deinococcus radiodurans DNA repair enzymes have been characterised, no biochemical data is available for DNA ligation and DNA endhealing enzymes of Deinococcus radiodurans so far. DNA ligases are necessary to seal broken DNA backbones during replication, repair and recombination. In addition, ionizing radiation frequently leaves DNA strand-breaks that are not feasible for ligation and thus require end-healing by a 5'-polynucleotide kinase or a 3'-phosphatase. We expect that DNA ligases and end-processing enzymes play an important role in Deinococcus radiodurans DNA strand-break repair. Results In this report, we describe the cloning and expression of a Deinococcus radiodurans DNA ligase in Escherichia coli. This enzyme efficiently catalyses DNA ligation in the presence of Mn(II and NAD+ as cofactors and lysine 128 was found to be essential for its activity. We have also analysed a predicted second DNA ligase from Deinococcus radiodurans that is part of a putative DNA repair operon and shows sequence similarity to known ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We show that this enzyme possesses an adenylyltransferase activity using ATP, but is not functional as a DNA ligase by itself. Furthermore, we identified a 5'-polynucleotide kinase similar to human polynucleotide kinase that probably prepares DNA termini for subsequent ligation. Conclusion Deinococcus radiodurans contains a standard bacterial DNA ligase that uses NAD+ as a cofactor. Its enzymatic properties are similar to E. coli DNA ligase except for its preference for Mn(II as a metal cofactor. The function of a putative second DNA ligase remains unclear, but its adenylyltransferase activity classifies it as a

  8. Coordination of the arc regulatory system and pheromone-mediated positive feedback in controlling the Vibrio fischeri lux operon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecia N Septer

    Full Text Available Bacterial pheromone signaling is often governed both by environmentally responsive regulators and by positive feedback. This regulatory combination has the potential to coordinate a group response among distinct subpopulations that perceive key environmental stimuli differently. We have explored the interplay between an environmentally responsive regulator and pheromone-mediated positive feedback in intercellular signaling by Vibrio fischeri ES114, a bioluminescent bacterium that colonizes the squid Euprymna scolopes. Bioluminescence in ES114 is controlled in part by N-(3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC6, a pheromone produced by LuxI that together with LuxR activates transcription of the luxICDABEG operon, initiating a positive feedback loop and inducing luminescence. The lux operon is also regulated by environmentally responsive regulators, including the redox-responsive ArcA/ArcB system, which directly represses lux in culture. Here we show that inactivating arcA leads to increased 3OC6 accumulation to initiate positive feedback. In the absence of positive feedback, arcA-mediated control of luminescence was only ∼2-fold, but luxI-dependent positive feedback contributed more than 100 fold to the net induction of luminescence in the arcA mutant. Consistent with this overriding importance of positive feedback, 3OC6 produced by the arcA mutant induced luminescence in nearby wild-type cells, overcoming their ArcA repression of lux. Similarly, we found that artificially inducing ArcA could effectively repress luminescence before, but not after, positive feedback was initiated. Finally, we show that 3OC6 produced by a subpopulation of symbiotic cells can induce luminescence in other cells co-colonizing the host. Our results suggest that even transient loss of ArcA-mediated regulation in a sub-population of cells can induce luminescence in a wider community. Moreover, they indicate that 3OC6 can communicate information about both cell density

  9. Identification and structure of the nasR gene encoding a nitrate- and nitrite-responsive positive regulator of nasFEDCBA (nitrate assimilation) operon expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, B S; Lin, J T; Stewart, V

    1994-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae can use nitrate and nitrite as sole nitrogen sources through the nitrate assimilatory pathway. The structural genes for assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases together with genes necessary for nitrate transport form an operon, nasFEDCBA. Expression of the nasF operon is regulated both by general nitrogen control and also by nitrate or nitrite induction. We have identified a gene, nasR, that is necessary for nitrate and nitrite induction. The nasR gene, located immediately upstream of the nasFEDCBA operon, encodes a 44-kDa protein. The NasR protein shares carboxyl-terminal sequence similarity with the AmiR protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the positive regulator of amiE (aliphatic amidase) gene expression. In addition, we present evidence that the nasF operon is not autogenously regulated. PMID:8051020

  10. Conserved residues Asp16 and Pro24 of TnaC-tRNAPro participate in tryptophan induction of Tna operon expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yanofsky, Charles

    2008-07-01

    In Escherichia coli, interactions between the nascent TnaC-tRNA(Pro) peptidyl-tRNA and the translating ribosome create a tryptophan binding site in the ribosome where bound tryptophan inhibits TnaC-tRNA(Pro) cleavage. This inhibition delays ribosome release, thereby inhibiting Rho factor binding and action, resulting in increased tna operon transcription. Replacing Trp12 of TnaC with any other amino acid residue was previously shown to prevent tryptophan binding and induction of tna operon expression. Genome-wide comparisons of TnaC amino acid sequences identify Asp16 and Pro24, as well as Trp12, as highly conserved TnaC residues. Replacing these residues with other residues was previously shown to influence tryptophan induction of tna operon expression. In this study, in vitro analyses were performed to examine the potential roles of Asp16 and Pro24 in tna operon induction. Replacing Asp16 or Pro24 of TnaC of E. coli with other amino acids established that these residues are essential for free tryptophan binding and inhibition of TnaC-tRNA(Pro) cleavage at the peptidyl transferase center. Asp16 and Pro24 are in fact located in spatial positions corresponding to critical residues of AAP, another ribosome regulatory peptide. Sparsomycin-methylation protection studies further suggested that segments of 23S RNA were arranged differently in ribosomes bearing TnaCs with either the Asp16Ala or the Pro24Ala change. Thus, features of the amino acid sequence of TnaC of the nascent TnaC-tRNA(Pro) peptidyl-tRNA, in addition to the presence of Trp12, are necessary for the nascent peptide to create a tryptophan binding/inhibition site in the translating ribosome. PMID:18424524

  11. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium fljBA operon stability: implications regarding the origin of Salmonella enterica I 4,[5],12:i:.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, M P O; Werle, C H; Milanez, G P; Nóbrega, D B; Pereira, J P; Calarga, A P; Flores, F; Brocchi, M

    2015-12-29

    Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- has been responsible for many recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Several studies indicate that this serovar originated from S. enterica subsp enterica serovar Typhimurium, by the loss of the flagellar phase II gene (fljB) and adjacent sequences. However, at least two different clones of S. enterica 4,5,12:i:- exist that differs in the molecular events responsible for fljB deletion. The aim of this study was to test the stability of the fljBA operon responsible for the flagellar phase variation under different growth conditions in order to verify if its deletion is a frequent event that could explain the origin and dissemination of this serovar. In fact, coding sequences for transposons are present near this operon and in some strains, such as S. enterica Typhimurium LT2, the Fels-2 prophage gene is inserted near this operon. The presence of mobile DNA could confer instability to this region. In order to examine this, the cat (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene was inserted adjacent to the fljBA operon so that deletions involving this genomic region could be identified. After growing S. enterica chloramphenicol-resistant strains under different conditions, more than 104 colonies were tested for the loss of chloramphenicol resistance. However, none of the colonies were sensitive to chloramphenicol. These data suggest that the origin of S. enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- from Typhimurium by fljBA deletion is not a frequent event. The origin and dissemination of 4,5,12:i:- raise several questions about the role of flagellar phase variation in virulence.

  12. The essential yhcSR two-component signal transduction system directly regulates the lac and opuCABCD operons of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Yan

    Full Text Available Our previous studies suggested that the essential two-component signal transduction system, YhcSR, regulates the opuCABCD operon at the transcriptional level, and the Pspac-driven opuCABCD partially complements the lethal effects of yhcS antisense RNA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the reason why yhcSR regulon is required for growth is still unclear. In this report, we present that the lac and opuC operons are directly transcriptionally regulated by YhcSR. Using real-time RT-PCR we showed that the down-regulation of yhcSR expression affected the transcription of lacA encoding galactose-6-phosphotase isomerase subunit LacA, and opuCA encoding a subunit of a glycine betaine/carnitine/choline ABC transporter. Promoter-lux reporter fusion studies further confirmed the transcriptional regulation of lac by YhcSR. Gel shift assays revealed that YhcR binds to the promoter regions of the lac and opuC operons. Moreover, the Pspac-driven lacABC expression in trans was able to partially complement the lethal effect of induced yhcS antisense RNA. Likewise, the Pspac-driven opuCABCD expression in trans complemented the growth defect of S. aureus in a high osmotic strength medium during the depletion of YhcSR. Taken together, the above data indicate that the yhcSR system directly regulates the expression of lac and opuC operons, which, in turn, may be partially associated with the essentiality of yhcSR in S. aureus. These results provide a new insight into the biological functions of the yhcSR, a global regulator.

  13. Identification and structure of the nasR gene encoding a nitrate- and nitrite-responsive positive regulator of nasFEDCBA (nitrate assimilation) operon expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, B. S.; Lin, J. T.; Stewart, V

    1994-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae can use nitrate and nitrite as sole nitrogen sources through the nitrate assimilatory pathway. The structural genes for assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases together with genes necessary for nitrate transport form an operon, nasFEDCBA. Expression of the nasF operon is regulated both by general nitrogen control and also by nitrate or nitrite induction. We have identified a gene, nasR, that is necessary for nitrate and nitrite induction. The nasR gene, located immed...

  14. Enzyme linked immunoassay with stabilized polymer saccharide enzyme conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1997-11-25

    An improvement in enzyme linked immunoassays is disclosed wherein the enzyme is in the form of a water soluble polymer saccharide conjugate which is stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises the enzyme which is linked to the polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 19 figs.

  15. Classification of the genus Bacillus based on MALDI-TOF MS analysis of ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yudai; Sato, Jun; Sato, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2011-05-25

    A rapid bacterial identification method by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons as biomarkers, named the S10-GERMS (the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum) method, was applied for the genus Bacillus a Gram-positive bacterium. The S10-GERMS method could successfully distinguish the difference between B. subtilis subsp. subtilis NBRC 13719(T) and B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii NBRC 101239(T) because of the mass difference of 2 ribosomal subunit proteins, despite the difference of only 2 bases in the 16S rRNA gene between them. The 8 selected reliable and reproducible ribosomal subunit proteins without disturbance of S/N level on MALDI-TOF MS analysis, S10, S14, S19, L18, L22, L24, L29, and L30, coded in S10 and spc operons were significantly useful biomarkers for rapid bacterial classification at species and strain levels by the S10-GERMS method of genus Bacillus strains without purification of ribosomal proteins.

  16. Legionella dumoffii Tex-KL Mutated in an Operon Homologous to traC-traD is Defective in Epithelial Cell Invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Tian; Iida Ken-ichiro; REN Hong Yu; ZHOU Hai Jian; Shin-ichi Yoshida

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the mechanism of invasion by Legionella dumoffii. Methods The L. dumoffii strain Tex-KL was mutated using the Tn903 derivative, Tn903dIIlacZ. After screening 799 transposon insertion mutants, we isolated one defective mutant. We then constructed the gene-disrupted mutant, KL16, and studied its invasion of and intracellular growth in HeLa and A549 cells, and in A/J mice survival experiments. The structure of traC-traD operon was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results The transposon insertion was in a gene homologous to Salmonella typhi traC, which is required for the assembly of F pilin into the mature F pilus structure and for conjugal DNA transmission. Results from RT-PCR suggested that the traC-traD region formed an operon. We found that when the traC gene was disrupted, invasion and intracellular growth of L. dumoffii Tex-KL were impaired in human epithelial cells. When mice were infected by intranasal inoculation with a traC deficient mutant, their survival significantly increased when compared to mice infected with the wild-type strain. Conclusion Our results indicated that the traC-traD operon is required for the invasion and intracellular growth abilities of L. dumoffii Tex-KL in epithelial cells.

  17. Nucleotide sequence and expression of the mercurial-resistance operon from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mercurial-resistance determinant from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 is located on a 6.4-kilobase-pair Bgl II fragment. The determinant was cloned into both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Mercury resistance was found only in B. subtilis. The 6404-base-pair DNA sequence of the Bgl II fragment was determined. The mer DNA sequence includes seven open reading frames, two of which have been identified by homology with the merA (mercuric reductase) and merB (organomercurial lyase) genes from the mercurial-resistance determinants of Gram-negative bacteria. Whereas 40% of the amino acid residues overall were identical between the pI258 merA polypeptide product and mercuric reductases from Gram-negative bacteria, the percentage identity in the active-site positions and those thought to be involved in NADPH and FAD contacts was above 90%. The 216 amino acid organomercurial lyase sequence was 39% identical with that from a Serratia plasmid, with higher conservation in the middle of the sequences and lower homologies at the amino and carboxyl termini. The remaining five open reading frames in the pI258 mer sequence have no significant homologies with the genes from previously sequenced Gram-negative mer operons

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-operonic PE32/PPE65 proteins alter host immune responses by hampering Th1 response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd eKhubaib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PE/PPE genes, present in cluster with ESAT-6 like genes, are suspected to have a role in antigenic variation and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Their roles in immune evasion and immune modulation of host are also well documented. We present evidence that PE32/PPE65 present within the RD8 region are co-operonic, co-transcribed and co-translated, and play role in modulating host immune responses. Experiments with macrophage cell lines revealed that this protein complex suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 whereas also inducing high expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Immunization of mice with these recombinant proteins dampens an effective Th1 response as evident from reduced frequency of IFN-g and IL-2 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. IgG sub-typing from serum of immunized mice revealed high levels of IgG1 when compared with IgG2a and IgG2b. Further IgG1/IgG2a ratio clearly demonstrated that the protein complex manipulates the host immune response favourable to the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the co-transcribed and co-translated PE32 and PPE65 antigens are involved specifically in modulating anti-mycobacterial host immune response by hampering Th1 response.

  19. Terminator Operon Reporter: combining a transcription termination switch with reporter technology for improved gene synthesis and synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Mur, Luis A J; Rees Stevens, Pauline; Pachebat, Justin A; Newbold, C James; Hayes, Finbarr; Kingston-Smith, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology is characterized by the development of novel and powerful DNA fabrication methods and by the application of engineering principles to biology. The current study describes Terminator Operon Reporter (TOR), a new gene assembly technology based on the conditional activation of a reporter gene in response to sequence errors occurring at the assembly stage of the synthetic element. These errors are monitored by a transcription terminator that is placed between the synthetic gene and reporter gene. Switching of this terminator between active and inactive states dictates the transcription status of the downstream reporter gene to provide a rapid and facile readout of the accuracy of synthetic assembly. Designed specifically and uniquely for the synthesis of protein coding genes in bacteria, TOR allows the rapid and cost-effective fabrication of synthetic constructs by employing oligonucleotides at the most basic purification level (desalted) and without the need for costly and time-consuming post-synthesis correction methods. Thus, TOR streamlines gene assembly approaches, which are central to the future development of synthetic biology. PMID:27220405

  20. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  1. Role of VicRKX and GlnR in pH-Dependent Regulation of the Streptococcus salivarius 57.I Urease Operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Szu-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Ywan M

    2016-01-01

    Ureolysis by Streptococcus salivarius is critical for pH homeostasis of dental plaque and prevention of dental caries. The expression of S. salivarius urease is induced by acidic pH and carbohydrate excess. The differential expression is mainly controlled at the transcriptional level from the promoter 5' to ureI (p ureI ). Our previous study demonstrates that CodY represses p ureI by binding to a CodY box 5' to p ureI , and the repression is more pronounced in cells grown at pH 7 than in cells grown at pH 5.5. Recent sequence analysis revealed a putative VicR consensus and two GlnR boxes 5' to the CodY box. The results of DNA affinity precipitation assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR analysis confirmed that both GlnR and VicR interact with the predicted binding sites in p ureI . Isogenic mutant strains (vicRKX null and glnR null) and their derivatives (harboring S. salivarius vicRKX and glnR, respectively) were generated in a recombinant Streptococcus gordonii strain harboring a p ureI-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fusion on gtfG to investigate the regulation of VicR and GlnR. The results indicated that GlnR activates, whereas VicR represses, p ureI expression. The repression by VicR is more pronounced at pH 7, whereas GlnR is more active at pH 5.5. Furthermore, the VicR box acts as an upstream element to enhance p ureI expression in the absence of the cognate regulator. The overall regulation by CodY, VicR, and GlnR in response to pH ensures an optimal expression of urease in S. salivarius when the enzyme is most needed. IMPORTANCE Dental plaque rich in alkali-producing bacteria is less cariogenic, and thus, urease-producing Streptococcus salivarius has been considered as a therapeutic agent for dental caries control. Being one of the few ureolytic microbes in the oral cavity, S. salivarius strain 57.I promotes its competitiveness by mass-producing urease only at acidic growth pH. Here, we

  2. The Catalytic Function of Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splittgerber, Allan G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: structure of the enzyme molecule; active site; reaction mechanism; transition state; factors affecting enzyme reaction rates, concentration of enzyme; concentration of substrate; product concentration; temperature effects and pH effects; factors causing a lowering of activation energy; proximity and orientation effects; substrate strain…

  3. Autogenous regulation and kinetics of induction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa recA transcription as analyzed with operon fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) was used to construct recA-cat operon fusions to quantitatively examine the transcriptional regulation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa recA gene in P. aeruginosa PAO. Wild-type P. aeruginosa containing the recA8-cat fusion was treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and showed immediate induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) specific activity, whereas a recA::Tn501 mutant of P. aeruginosa containing recA8-cat showed no induction with MMS. This indicated that a functional copy of recA was required for derepression of recA transcription and that P. aeruginosa recA protein was a positive regulatory factor promoting its own expression. Compared with that in the wild type, the uninduced level of CAT in recA8-cat-containing cells was reduced by approximately one-half in the recA::Tn501 mutant, indicating that recA+-dependent spontaneous induction contributes to the uninduced levels of recA expression in P. aeruginosa. MMS (0.012%) caused recA-directed CAT synthesis to increase almost immediately, with maximum CAT activity, fourfold higher than uninduced levels, attained at 60 min postinduction. The kinetics of recA8-cat fusion activity were shown to be directly related to the MMS doses used. Another fusion called recAa1-cat, where cat was located between the two transcriptional terminators of the P. aeruginosa recA gene, also showed dose-dependent induction by MMS, but the CAT activity from recAa1-cat was only one-half of that obtained with recA8-cat under the same conditions. Treatment of recA+ P. aeruginosa containing recA8-cat with UV irradiation produced an immediate effect on recA8-cat transcription and showed little UV dose dependency at doses of 5 J/m2 or greater

  4. An L-Fucose Operon in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Is Involved in Adaptation to Gastrointestinal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Jimmy E; Yebra, María J; Monedero, Vicente

    2015-06-01

    L-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative L-fucose permease (fucP), L-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of L-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on L-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by L-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on L-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the L-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, L-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that L-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:25819967

  5. An L-Fucose Operon in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Is Involved in Adaptation to Gastrointestinal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Jimmy E; Yebra, María J; Monedero, Vicente

    2015-06-01

    L-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative L-fucose permease (fucP), L-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of L-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on L-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by L-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on L-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the L-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, L-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that L-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions.

  6. Phylogenetic conservation of RNA secondary and tertiary structure in the trpEDCFBA operon leader transcript in Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaak, Janell E; Babitzke, Paul; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2003-12-01

    Expression of the trpEDCFBA operon of Bacillus subtilis is regulated by transcription attenuation and translation control mechanisms. We recently determined that the B. subtilis trp leader readthrough transcript can adopt a Mg(2+)-dependent tertiary structure that appears to interfere with TRAP-mediated translation control of trpE. In the present study, sequence comparisons to trp leaders from three other Bacillus sp. were made, suggesting that RNA secondary and tertiary structures are phylogenetically conserved. To test this hypothesis, experiments were carried out with the trp leader transcript from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Structure mapping experiments confirmed the predicted secondary structure. Native gel experiments identified a faster mobility species in the presence of Mg(2+), suggesting that a Mg(2+)-dependent tertiary structure forms. Mg(2+)-dependent protection of residues within the first five triplet repeats of the TRAP binding target and a pyrimidine-rich internal loop were observed, consistent with tertiary structure formation between these regions. Structure mapping in the presence of a competitor DNA oligonucleotide allowed the interacting partners to be identified as a single-stranded portion of the purine-rich TRAP binding target and the large downstream pyrimidine-rich internal loop. Thermal denaturation experiments revealed a Mg(2+)- and pH-dependent unfolding transition that was absent for a transcript missing the first five triplet repeats. The stability of several mutant transcripts allowed a large portion of the base-pairing register for the tertiary interaction to be determined. These data indicate that RNA secondary and tertiary structures involved in TRAP-mediated translation control are conserved in at least four Bacillus species. PMID:14624006

  7. Effect of Intrinsic Noise on the Phenotype of Cell Populations Featuring Solution Multiplicity: An Artificial lac Operon Network Paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G Aviziotis

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in cell populations originates from two fundamentally different sources: the uneven distribution of intracellular content during cell division, and the stochastic fluctuations of regulatory molecules existing in small amounts. Discrete stochastic models can incorporate both sources of cell heterogeneity with sufficient accuracy in the description of an isogenic cell population; however, they lack efficiency when a systems level analysis is required, due to substantial computational requirements. In this work, we study the effect of cell heterogeneity in the behaviour of isogenic cell populations carrying the genetic network of lac operon, which exhibits solution multiplicity over a wide range of extracellular conditions. For such systems, the strategy of performing solely direct temporal solutions is a prohibitive task, since a large ensemble of initial states needs to be tested in order to drive the system--through long time simulations--to possible co-existing steady state solutions. We implement a multiscale computational framework, the so-called "equation-free" methodology, which enables the performance of numerical tasks, such as the computation of coarse steady state solutions and coarse bifurcation analysis. Dynamically stable and unstable solutions are computed and the effect of intrinsic noise on the range of bistability is efficiently investigated. The results are compared with the homogeneous model, which neglects all sources of heterogeneity, with the deterministic cell population balance model, as well as with a stochastic model neglecting the heterogeneity originating from intrinsic noise effects. We show that when the effect of intrinsic source of heterogeneity is intensified, the bistability range shifts towards higher extracellular inducer concentration values.

  8. Whole-cell hydroxylation of n-octane by Escherichia coli strains expressing the CYP153A6 operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiminchi, Rama Krishna; Randall, Charlene; Opperman, Diederik J; Olaofe, Oluwafemi A; Harrison, Susan T L; Albertyn, Jacobus; Smit, Martha S

    2012-12-01

    CYP153A6 is a well-studied terminal alkane hydroxylase which has previously been expressed in Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli by using the pCom8 plasmid. In this study, CYP153A6 was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) by cloning the complete operon from Mycobacterium sp. HXN-1500, also encoding the ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin, into pET28b(+). LB medium with IPTG as well as auto-induction medium was used to express the proteins under the T7 promoter. A maximum concentration of 1.85 μM of active CYP153A6 was obtained when using auto-induction medium, while with IPTG induction of LB cultures, the P450 concentration peaked at 0.6-0.8 μM. Since more biomass was produced in auto-induction medium, the specific P450 content was often almost the same, 0.5-1.0 μmol P450 g (DCW)⁻¹, for both methods. Analytical scale whole-cell biotransformations of n-octane were conducted with resting cells, and it was found that high P450 content in biomass did not necessarily result in high octanol production. Whole cells from LB cultures induced with IPTG gave higher specific and volumetric octanol formation rates than biomass from auto-induction medium. A maximum of 8.7 g octanol L (BRM)⁻¹ was obtained within 24 h (0.34 g L (BRM)⁻¹  h⁻¹) with IPTG-induced cells containing only 0.20 μmol P450 g (DCW)⁻¹, when glucose (22 g L (BRM)⁻¹) was added for cofactor regeneration. PMID:22410745

  9. Measuring the Enzyme Activity of Arabidopsis Deubiquitylating Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitylating enzymes, or DUBs, are important regulators of ubiquitin homeostasis and substrate stability, though the molecular mechanisms of most of the DUBs in plants are not yet understood. As different ubiquitin chain types are implicated in different biological pathways, it is important to analyze the enzyme characteristic for studying a DUB. Quantitative analysis of DUB activity is also important to determine enzyme kinetics and the influence of DUB binding proteins on the enzyme activity. Here, we show methods to analyze DUB activity using immunodetection, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and fluorescence measurement that can be useful for understanding the basic characteristic of DUBs.

  10. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  11. Enzyme therapeutics for systemic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Lu, Yunfeng

    2015-08-01

    Life relies on numerous biochemical processes working synergistically and correctly. Certain substances disrupt these processes, inducing living organism into an abnormal state termed intoxication. Managing intoxication usually requires interventions, which is referred as detoxification. Decades of development on detoxification reveals the potential of enzymes as ideal therapeutics and antidotes, because their high substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency are essential for clearing intoxicating substances without adverse effects. However, intrinsic shortcomings of enzymes including low stability and high immunogenicity are major hurdles, which could be overcome by delivering enzymes with specially designed nanocarriers. Extensive investigations on protein delivery indicate three types of enzyme-nanocarrier architectures that show more promise than others for systemic detoxification, including liposome-wrapped enzymes, polymer-enzyme conjugates, and polymer-encapsulated enzymes. This review highlights recent advances in these nano-architectures and discusses their applications in systemic detoxifications. Therapeutic potential of various enzymes as well as associated challenges in achieving effective delivery of therapeutic enzymes will also be discussed.

  12. Isolation of a solventogenic Clostridium sp. strain: fermentation of glycerol to n-butanol, analysis of the bcs operon region and its potential regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, J C; Zverlov, V V; Pham, V T T; Stürzl, S; Schieder, D; Schwarz, W H

    2014-02-01

    A new solventogenic bacterium, strain GT6, was isolated from standing water sediment. 16S-rRNA gene analysis revealed that GT6 belongs to the heterogeneous Clostridium tetanomorphum group of bacteria exhibiting 99% sequence identity with C. tetanomorphum 4474(T). GT6 can utilize a wide range of carbohydrate substrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, xylose and glycerol to produce mainly n-butanol without any acetone. Additional products of GT6 metabolism were ethanol, butyric acid, acetic acid, and trace amounts of 1,3-propanediol. Medium and substrate composition, and culture conditions such as pH and temperature influenced product formation. The major fermentation product from glycerol was n-butanol with a final concentration of up to 11.5 g/L. 3% (v/v) glycerol lead to a total solvent concentration of 14 g/L within 72 h. Growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations as high as 15% (v/v). The solventogenesis genes crt, bcd, etfA/B and hbd composing the bcs (butyryl-CoA synthesis) operon of C. tetanomorphum GT6 were sequenced. They occur in a genomic arrangement identical to those in other solventogenic clostridia. Furthermore, the sequence of a potential regulator gene highly similar to that of the NADH-sensing Rex family of regulatory genes was found upstream of the bcs operon. Potential binding sites for Rex have been identified in the promoter region of the bcs operon of solvent producing clostridia as well as upstream of other genes involved in NADH oxidation. This indicates a fundamental role of Rex in the regulation of fermentation products in anaerobic, and especially in solventogenic bacteria.

  13. Predicting promiscuous antigenic T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mymA operon proteins binding to MHC Class I and Class II molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraav, Iti; Pandey, Kirti; Sharma, Monika; Singh, Swati; Dutta, Prasun; Bhardwaj, Anshu; Sharma, Sadhna

    2016-10-01

    Limited efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine has raised the need to explore other immunogenic candidates to develop an effective vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells play a critical role in host immunity to Mtb. Infection of macrophages with Mtb results in upregulation of mymA operon genes thereby suggesting their importance as immune targets. In the present study, after exclusion of self-peptides mymA operon proteins of Mtb were analyzed in silico for the presence of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I and Class II binding peptides using Bioinformatics and molecular analysis section, NetMHC 3.4, ProPred and Immune epitope database software. Out of 56 promiscuous epitopes obtained, 41 epitopes were predicted to be antigenic for MHC Class I. In MHC Class II, out of 336 promiscuous epitopes obtained, 142 epitopes were predicted to be antigenic. The comparative bioinformatics analysis of mymA operon proteins found Rv3083 to be the best vaccine candidate. Molecular docking was performed with the most antigenic peptides of Rv3083 (LASGAASVV with alleles HLA-B51:01, HAATSGTLI with HLA-A02, IVTATGLNI and EKIHYGLKVNTA with HLA-DRB1_01:01) to study the structural basis for recognition of peptides by various HLA molecules. The software binding prediction was validated by the obtained molecular docking score of peptide-HLA complex. These peptides can be further investigated for their immunological relevance in patients of tuberculosis using major histocompatibility complex tetramer approach. PMID:27389362

  14. Starvation for ilvB operon leader amino acids other than leucine or valine does not increase acetohydroxy acid synthase activity in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, P; Freundlich, M

    1985-01-01

    Eleven different amino acids are encoded in the ilvB leader mRNA. Starvation for leucine or valine, but not for any of the other nine amino acids, resulted in high levels of acetohydroxy acid synthase I. These results are discussed in terms of a report (C.A. Hauser and G.W. Hatfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:76-79, 1984) which suggests that threonine and alanine, in addition to leucine and valine, are involved in the regulation of the ilvB operon.

  15. In Vitro Transcriptional Studies of the bkd Operon of Pseudomonas putida: l-Branched-Chain Amino Acids and d-Leucine Are the Inducers

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudhan, Kunapuli T.; Luo, Jinhe; Sokatch, John R.

    1999-01-01

    BkdR is the transcriptional activator of the bkd operon, which encodes the four proteins of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Pseudomonas putida. In this study, hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that BkdR bound to only one face of DNA over the same region identified in DNase I protection assays. Deletions of even a few bases in the 5′ region of the BkdR-binding site greatly reduced transcription, confirming that the entire protected region is necessary for...

  16. DNA sequencing reveals limited heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon among five Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, T; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the intraspecies heterogeneity within the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma hominis, five isolates with diverse antigenic profiles, variable/identical P120 hypervariable domains, and different 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns were analysed. The 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon was amplified...... by PCR and the PCR products were sequenced. Three isolates had identical 16S rRNA sequences and two isolates had sequences that differed from the others by only one nucleotide....

  17. Nitrogen regulation of nasA and the nasB operon, which encode genes required for nitrate assimilation in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, M M; Yang, F; Hardin, P; Zuber, P.

    1995-01-01

    The divergently transcribed nasA gene and nasB operon are required for nitrate and nitrite assimilation in Bacillus subtilis. The beta-galactosidase activity of transcriptional lacZ fusions from the nasA and nasB promoters was high when cells were grown in minimal glucose medium containing poor nitrogen sources such as nitrate, proline, or glutamate. The expression was very low when ammonium or glutamine was used as the sole nitrogen source. The repression of the genes during growth on good s...

  18. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-01-01

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstr...

  19. Down-Regulation of the kps Region 1 Capsular Assembly Operon following Attachment of Escherichia coli Type 1 Fimbriae to d-Mannose Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Schwan, William R.; Beck, Michael T.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Pinkner, Jerry; Woolever, Nathan L.; Larson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A differential-display PCR procedure identified the capsular assembly gene kpsD after Escherichia coli type 1 fimbrial binding to mannose-coated Sepharose beads. Limiting-dilution reverse-transcribed PCRs confirmed down-regulation of the kpsD gene, and Northern blot and lacZ fusion analyses showed down-regulation of the kpsFEDUCS region 1 operon. KpsD protein levels fell, and an agglutination test showed less K capsular antigen on the surface following the bacterial ligand-receptor interactio...

  20. Computational enzyme design: transitioning from catalytic proteins to enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Wai Shun; Siegel, Justin B

    2014-08-01

    The widespread interest in enzymes stem from their ability to catalyze chemical reactions under mild and ecologically friendly conditions with unparalleled catalytic proficiencies. While thousands of naturally occurring enzymes have been identified and characterized, there are still numerous important applications for which there are no biological catalysts capable of performing the desired chemical transformation. In order to engineer enzymes for which there is no natural starting point, efforts using a combination of quantum chemistry and force-field based protein molecular modeling have led to the design of novel proteins capable of catalyzing chemical reactions not catalyzed by naturally occurring enzymes. Here we discuss the current status and potential avenues to pursue as the field of computational enzyme design moves forward.

  1. Demand theory of gene regulation. II. Quantitative application to the lactose and maltose operons of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savageau, M A

    1998-08-01

    Induction of gene expression can be accomplished either by removing a restraining element (negative mode of control) or by providing a stimulatory element (positive mode of control). According to the demand theory of gene regulation, which was first presented in qualitative form in the 1970s, the negative mode will be selected for the control of a gene whose function is in low demand in the organism's natural environment, whereas the positive mode will be selected for the control of a gene whose function is in high demand. This theory has now been further developed in a quantitative form that reveals the importance of two key parameters: cycle time C, which is the average time for a gene to complete an ON/OFF cycle, and demand D, which is the fraction of the cycle time that the gene is ON. Here we estimate nominal values for the relevant mutation rates and growth rates and apply the quantitative demand theory to the lactose and maltose operons of Escherichia coli. The results define regions of the C vs. D plot within which selection for the wild-type regulatory mechanisms is realizable, and these in turn provide the first estimates for the minimum and maximum values of demand that are required for selection of the positive and negative modes of gene control found in these systems. The ratio of mutation rate to selection coefficient is the most relevant determinant of the realizable region for selection, and the most influential parameter is the selection coefficient that reflects the reduction in growth rate when there is superfluous expression of a gene. The quantitative theory predicts the rate and extent of selection for each mode of control. It also predicts three critical values for the cycle time. The predicted maximum value for the cycle time C is consistent with the lifetime of the host. The predicted minimum value for C is consistent with the time for transit through the intestinal tract without colonization. Finally, the theory predicts an optimum value

  2. Diagnosis of contagious caprine and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) are caused by Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, small colony type (SC), respectively. These species belong to the group of six mycoplasmas referred to as the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. The members of the M. mycoides cluster are closely related, and some of them are very difficult to grow. Diagnosis based on identification of the causative agents by cultivation, biochemical reactions, or serology is therefore difficult, and improved diagnostic methods are sorely needed. Identification methods for M. capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides ssp. mycoides SC, based on detection of the 16S rRNA genes from all members of the M. mycoides cluster by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and differentiation of species by restriction enzyme analysis with PstI and AluI, respectively, have been developed in the Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute Laboratory, Sweden. The methods are based on the fact that members of the M. mycoides cluster have two rRNA operons and that there are sequence differences (polymorphisms) between the two 16S rRNA genes from the two operons. The majority of these polymorphisms are characteristic for each species, and some of them can be utilized for differentiation between the species. Techniques for extraction of DNA from lung tissue and from clinical material dried onto filter paper for preservation are described. Pleural fluid was found to be an ideal sample for direct analysis by PCR, but this material can also be dried onto filter paper for preservation and sent to another laboratory for the PCR analysis. These identification systems designed for M. capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides ssp. mycoides SC have been used for diagnosis of CCPP and CBPP, respectively, by analysis of clinical samples brought to the laboratory as frozen lung tissue or preserved by drying onto a filter

  3. Enzyme immunoassay for human ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We described an enzyme immunoassay with use of β-D-galactosidase for quantitation of ferritin in human serum. The minimum detectable ferritin concentration is 0.25 μg/L of serum, which is comparable to results obtained by radioimmunoassay. The correlation coefficient between values determined by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay was 0.95

  4. Phage lytic enzymes: a history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Trudil

    2015-01-01

    There are many recent studies regarding the efficacy of bacteriophage-related lytic enzymes: the enzymes of ‘bacteria-eaters’ or viruses that infect bacteria. By degrading the cell wall of the targeted bacteria, these lytic enzymes have been shown to efficiently lyse Gram-positive bacteria without affecting normal flora and non-related bacteria. Recent studies have suggested approaches for lysing Gram-negative bacteria as well(Briersa Y, et al., 2014). These enzymes include: phage-lysozyme, endolysin, lysozyme, lysin, phage lysin, phage lytic enzymes, phageassociated enzymes, enzybiotics, muralysin, muramidase, virolysin and designations such as Ply, PAE and others. Bacteriophages are viruses that kill bacteria, do not contribute to antimicrobial resistance, are easy to develop, inexpensive to manufacture and safe for humans, animals and the environment. The current focus on lytic enzymes has been on their use as anti-infectives in humans and more recently in agricultural research models. The initial translational application of lytic enzymes, however, was not associated with treating or preventing a specifi c disease but rather as an extraction method to be incorporated in a rapid bacterial detection assay(Bernstein D, 1997).The current review traces the translational history of phage lytic enzymes–from their initial discovery in 1986 for the rapid detection of group A streptococcus in clinical specimens to evolving applications in the detection and prevention of disease in humans and in agriculture.

  5. Enzyme immobilization on graft copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohy Eldin, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Immobilised enzymes can be reused, easily separated from the reaction medium, and are more stable in most of the cases. Despite of these advantages, there are still some problems facing the usage of the immobilised enzyme in industry. One of those problems is diffusion-limitation of both the reactan

  6. Engineering Cellulase Enzymes for Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Meera Elizabeth

    Sustainable energy sources, such as biofuels, offer increasingly important alternatives to fossil fuels that contribute less to global climate change. The energy contained within cellulosic biofuels derives from sunlight energy stored in the form of carbon-carbon bonds comprising sugars such as glucose. Second-generation biofuels are produced from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, including agricultural waste products and non-food crops like Miscanthus, that contain lignin and the polysaccharides hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose is the most abundant biological material on Earth; it is a polymer of glucose and a structural component of plant cell walls. Accessing the sugar is challenging, as the crystalline structure of cellulose resists degradation; biochemical and thermochemical means can be used to depolymerize cellulose. Cellulase enzymes catalyze the biochemical depolymerization of cellulose into glucose. Glucose can be used as a carbon source for growth of a biofuel-producing microorganism. When it converts glucose to a hydrocarbon fuel, this microbe completes the biofuels process of transforming sunlight energy into accessible, chemical energy capable of replacing non-renewable transportation fuels. Due to strong intermolecular interactions between polymer chains, cellulose is significantly more challenging to depolymerize than starch, a more accessible polymer of glucose utilized in first-generation biofuels processes (often derived from corn). While most mammals cannot digest cellulose (dietary fiber), certain fungi and bacteria produce cellulase enzymes capable of hydrolyzing it. These organisms secrete a wide variety of glycoside hydrolase and other classes of enzymes that work in concert. Because cellulase enzymes are slow-acting and expensive to produce, my aim has been to improve the properties of these enzymes as a means to make a cellulosic biofuels process possible that is more efficient and, consequently, more economical than current

  7. Moonlighting enzymes in parasitic protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingridge, Peter W; Brown, Robert W B; Ginger, Michael L

    2010-08-01

    Enzymes moonlight in a non-enzymatic capacity in a diverse variety of cellular processes. The discovery of these non-enzymatic functions is generally unexpected, and moonlighting enzymes are known in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Importantly, this unexpected multi-functionality indicates that caution might be needed on some occasions in interpreting phenotypes that result from the deletion or gene-silencing of some enzymes, including some of the best known enzymes from classic intermediary metabolism. Here, we provide an overview of enzyme moonlighting in parasitic protists. Unequivocal and putative examples of moonlighting are discussed, together with the possibility that the unusual biological characteristics of some parasites either limit opportunities for moonlighting to arise or perhaps contribute to the evolution of novel proteins with clear metabolic ancestry.

  8. Identification of an RcsA/RcsB recognition motif in the promoters of exopolysaccharide biosynthetic operons from Erwinia amylovora and Pantoea stewartii subspecies stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehland, M; Kiecker, C; Coplin, D L; Kelm, O; Saenger, W; Bernhard, F

    1999-02-01

    The regulation of capsule synthesis (Rcs) regulatory network is responsible for the induction of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in many enterobacterial species. We have previously shown that two transcriptional regulators, RcsA and RcsB, do bind as a heterodimer to the promoter of amsG, the first reading frame in the operon for amylovoran biosynthesis in the plant pathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. We now identified a 23-base pair fragment from position -555 to -533 upstream of the translational start site of amsG as sufficient for the specific binding of the Rcs proteins. In addition, we could detect an RcsA/RcsB-binding site in a corresponding region of the promoter of cpsA, the homologous counterpart to the E. amylovora amsG gene in the operon for stewartan biosynthesis of Pantoea stewartii. The specificity and characteristic parameters of the protein-DNA interaction were analyzed by DNA retardation, protein-DNA cross-linking, and directed mutagenesis. The central core motif TRVGAAWAWTSYG of the amsG promoter was found to be most important for the specific interaction with RcsA/RcsB, as evaluated by mutational analysis and an in vitro selection approach. The wild type P. stewartii Rcs binding motif is degenerated in two positions and an up-mutation according to our consensus motif resulted in about a 5-fold increased affinity of the RcsA/RcsB proteins. PMID:9920870

  9. The master regulator for biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis governs the expression of an operon encoding secreted proteins required for the assembly of complex multicellular communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven S. (Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA); Losick, Richard (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Kolter, Roberto (Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA); Kearns, Daniel B. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Chu, Frances (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)

    2005-08-01

    Wild strains of Bacillus subtilis are capable of forming architecturally complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Critical to biofilm formation is the eps operon, which is believed to be responsible for the biosynthesis of an exopolysaccharide that binds chains of cells together in bundles. We report that transcription of eps is under the negative regulation of SinR, a repressor that was found to bind to multiple sites in the regulatory region of the operon. Mutations in sinR bypassed the requirement in biofilm formation of two genes of unknown function, ylbF and ymcA, and sinI, which is known to encode an antagonist of SinR. We propose that these genes are members of a pathway that is responsible for counteracting SinR-mediated repression. We further propose that SinR is a master regulator that governs the transition between a planktonic state in which the bacteria swim as single cells in liquid or swarm in small groups over surfaces, and a sessile state in which the bacteria adhere to each other to form bundled chains and assemble into multicellular communities.

  10. Nonencapsulated or nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae are more likely than their encapsulated or serotypeable counterparts to have mutations in their fucose operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuel, Michelle L; Karlowsky, Kathleen E; Law, Dennis K S; Tsang, Raymond S W

    2011-12-01

    Population biology of Haemophilus influenzae can be studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and isolates are assigned sequence types (STs) based on nucleotide sequence variations in seven housekeeping genes, including fucK. However, the ST cannot be assigned if one of the housekeeping genes is absent or cannot be detected by the current protocol. Occasionally, strains of H. influenzae have been reported to lack the fucK gene. In this study, we examined the prevalence of this mutation among our collection of H. influenzae isolates. Of the 704 isolates studied, including 282 encapsulated and 422 nonencapsulated isolates, nine were not typeable by MLST owing to failure to detect the fucK gene. All nine fucK-negative isolates were nonencapsulated and belonged to various biotypes. DNA sequencing of the fucose operon region confirmed complete deletion of genes in the operon in seven of the nine isolates, while in the remaining two isolates, some of the genes were found intact or in parts. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:22107351

  11. The Bacillus subtilis TRAP protein can induce transcription termination in the leader region of the tryptophan biosynthetic (trp operon independent of the trp attenuator RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie M McAdams

    Full Text Available In Bacillus subtilis, transcription of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon is regulated by an attenuation mechanism. When intracellular tryptophan levels are high, the TRAP protein binds to the 5' leader region of the nascent trp mRNA and induces transcription termination prior to the structural genes. In limiting tryptophan, TRAP does not bind and the operon is transcribed. Two competing RNA secondary structures termed the antiterminator and terminator (attenuator can form in the leader region RNA. In prior attenuation models, the only role of TRAP binding was to alter the RNA secondary structure to allow formation of the attenuator, which has been thought function as an intrinsic transcription terminator. However, recent studies have shown that the attenuator is not an effective intrinsic terminator. From these studies it was not clear whether TRAP functions independently or requires the presence of the attenuator RNA structure. Hence we have further examined the role of the attenuator RNA in TRAP-mediated transcription termination. TRAP was found to cause efficient transcription termination in the trp leader region in vivo when the attenuator was mutated or deleted. However, TRAP failed to induce transcription termination at these mutant attenuators in a minimal in vitro transcription system with B. subtilis RNA polymerase. Further studies using this system showed that NusA as well as the timing of TRAP binding to RNA play a role in the observed differences in vivo and in vitro.

  12. The Bacillus subtilis TRAP protein can induce transcription termination in the leader region of the tryptophan biosynthetic (trp) operon independent of the trp attenuator RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Natalie M; Gollnick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, transcription of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon is regulated by an attenuation mechanism. When intracellular tryptophan levels are high, the TRAP protein binds to the 5' leader region of the nascent trp mRNA and induces transcription termination prior to the structural genes. In limiting tryptophan, TRAP does not bind and the operon is transcribed. Two competing RNA secondary structures termed the antiterminator and terminator (attenuator) can form in the leader region RNA. In prior attenuation models, the only role of TRAP binding was to alter the RNA secondary structure to allow formation of the attenuator, which has been thought function as an intrinsic transcription terminator. However, recent studies have shown that the attenuator is not an effective intrinsic terminator. From these studies it was not clear whether TRAP functions independently or requires the presence of the attenuator RNA structure. Hence we have further examined the role of the attenuator RNA in TRAP-mediated transcription termination. TRAP was found to cause efficient transcription termination in the trp leader region in vivo when the attenuator was mutated or deleted. However, TRAP failed to induce transcription termination at these mutant attenuators in a minimal in vitro transcription system with B. subtilis RNA polymerase. Further studies using this system showed that NusA as well as the timing of TRAP binding to RNA play a role in the observed differences in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24505391

  13. 2-ketogluconic acid secretion by incorporation of Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 gluconate dehydrogenase (gad) operon in Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 improves mineral phosphate solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chanchal; Yadav, Kavita; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 is known to efficiently solubilize rock phosphate by secretion of approximately 50 mM gluconic acid in Tris-buffered medium in the presence of 75 mM glucose and in a mixture of seven aldosugars each at 15 mM concentration, mimicking alkaline vertisol soils. Efficacy of this bacterium in the rhizosphere requires P release in the presence of low amount of sugars. To achieve this, E. asburiae PSI3 has been manipulated to express gluconate dehydrogenase (gad) operon of Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 to produce 2-ketogluconic acid. E. asburiae PSI3 harboring gad operon had 438 U of GAD activity, secreted 11.63 mM 2-ketogluconic and 21.65 mM gluconic acids in Tris-rock phosphate-buffered medium containing 45 mM glucose. E. asburiae PSI3 gad transformant solubilized 0.84 mM P from rock phosphate in TRP-buffered liquid medium. In the presence of a mixture of seven sugars each at 12 mM, the transformant brought about a drop in pH to 4.1 and released 0.53 mM P. PMID:23666029

  14. 黄孢原毛平革菌产酶的简化结构动力学模型%A Simple Structure Model for Enzyme Production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhongming(郑重鸣); FOO YinDin; Jeffery Philip Obbard; LIN Jianping(林建平); CEN Peilin(岑沛霖)

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the behavior of ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi Phanerochaetechrysosporium, study on time courses and a mathematical model for the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) andmanganese peroxidase (MnP) of the fungi was undertaken. Based on the Monod-Jacob operon model, the ligninolyticenzyme would be synthesized in the absence of a related repressor. The repressor is assumed to be active in thepresence of ammonia nitrogen, and as combined as co-repressor, it causes the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Themodel can explain the mechanism of extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi. The results,as predicted by the model, correspond closely to those observed in experimental studies. In addition, some lightis also shed on unmeasured variables, such as the concentrations of repressor and mRNA that are related to theenzyme synthesis.

  15. Evolution of substrate specificity in a recipient's enzyme following horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda-García, Lianet; Camacho-Zarco, Aldo R; Medina-Ruíz, Sofía; Gaytán, Paul; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Fülöp, Vilmos; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Despite the prominent role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in shaping bacterial metabolism, little is known about the impact of HGT on the evolution of enzyme function. Specifically, what is the influence of a recently acquired gene on the function of an existing gene? For example, certain members of the genus Corynebacterium have horizontally acquired a whole l-tryptophan biosynthetic operon, whereas in certain closely related actinobacteria, for example, Mycobacterium, the trpF gene is missing. In Mycobacterium, the function of the trpF gene is performed by a dual-substrate (βα)8 phosphoribosyl isomerase (priA gene) also involved in l-histidine (hisA gene) biosynthesis. We investigated the effect of a HGT-acquired TrpF enzyme upon PriA's substrate specificity in Corynebacterium through comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. After comprehensive in vivo and enzyme kinetic analyses of selected PriA homologs, a novel (βα)8 isomerase subfamily with a specialized function in l-histidine biosynthesis, termed subHisA, was confirmed. X-ray crystallography was used to reveal active-site mutations in subHisA important for narrowing of substrate specificity, which when mutated to the naturally occurring amino acid in PriA led to gain of function. Moreover, in silico molecular dynamic analyses demonstrated that the narrowing of substrate specificity of subHisA is concomitant with loss of ancestral protein conformational states. Our results show the importance of HGT in shaping enzyme evolution and metabolism. PMID:23800623

  16. An enzyme with rhamnogalacturonase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovod, L.V.; Dalboge, H; Andersen, L N; Kauppinen, M.; Christgan, S.; Heldt-Hansen, H.P.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.M.; Voragen, A. G. J.; Schols, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme exhibiting rhamnogalacturonase activity, which enzyme: a) is encoded by the DNA sequence shown in SEQ ID No. 1 or a sequence homologous thereto encoding a polypeptide with RGase activity, b) has the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID No. 2 or an analogue thereof, c) is reactive with an antibody raised against the enzyme encoded by the DNA sequence shown in SEQ ID No. 1, d) has a pH optimum above pH 5, and/or e) has a relative activity of at least 30t a pH in the range of 5.5-6.5. T...

  17. Purification and biochemical characterization of the F1-ATPase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1 and analysis of the atp operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Satoshi; Ohmori, Asami; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Sugio, Tsuyoshi; Kamimura, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    ATPase was purified 51-fold from a chemoautotrophic, obligately acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1. The purified ATPase showed the typical subunit pattern of the F1-ATPase on a polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate, with 5 subunits of apparent molecular masses of 55, 50, 33, 20, and 18 kDa. The enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, GTP, and ITP, but neither UTP nor ADP. The K(m) value for ATP was 1.8 mM. ATPase activity was optimum at pH 8.5 at 45 degrees C, and was activated by sulfite. Azide strongly inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas the enzyme was relatively resistant to vanadate, nitrate, and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The genes encoding the subunits for the F1F(O)-ATPase from A. ferrooxidans NASF-1 were cloned as three overlapping fragments by PCR cloning and sequenced. The molecular masses of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon subunits of the F1 portion were deduced from the amino acid sequences to be 55.5, 50.5, 33.1, 19.2, and 15.1 kDa, respectively. PMID:16244438

  18. ORGANOPHOSPHATE DEGRADING ENZYMES - PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agave BioSystems in collaboration with Carl A. Batt proposes to develop decon-nanoparticles, which will leverage ongoing opportunities in enzyme engineering and the fabrication of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. Enhanced performance will be engineered into the system t...

  19. Controlled enzyme catalyzed heteropolysaccharide degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Enggaard

    The work presented in this PhD thesis has provided a better understanding of the enzyme kinetics and quantitative phenomena of the hydrolysis of xylan substrates by selected pure enzyme preparations. Furthermore, the options for producing specific substituted xylooligosaccharides from selected...... substrates by specific xylanase treatment have been examined. The kinetics of the enzymatic degradation of water-extractable wheat arabinoxylan (WE-AX) during designed treatments with selected monocomponent enzymes was investigated by monitoring the release of xylose and arabinose. The results of different...... between -xylosidase and the α-L-arabinofuranosidases on the xylose release were low as compared to the effect of xylanase addition with β-xylosidase, which increased the xylose release by ~25 times in 30 minutes. At equimolar addition levels of the four enzymes, the xylanase activity was thus rate...

  20. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed.

  1. Human Gut-Commensalic Lactobacillus ruminis ATCC 25644 Displays Sortase-Assembled Surface Piliation: Phenotypic Characterization of Its Fimbrial Operon through In Silico Predictive Analysis and Recombinant Expression in Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yu

    Full Text Available Sortase-dependent surface pili (or fimbriae in Gram-positive bacteria are well documented as a key virulence factor for certain harmful opportunistic pathogens. However, it is only recently known that these multi-subunit protein appendages are also belonging to the "friendly" commensals and now, with this new perspective, they have come to be categorized as a niche-adaptation factor as well. In this regard, it was shown earlier that sortase-assembled piliation is a native fixture of two human intestinal commensalics (i.e., Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and correspondingly where the pili involved have a significant role in cellular adhesion and immunomodulation processes. We now reveal that intestinal indigenous (or autochthonous Lactobacillus ruminis is another surface-piliated commensal lactobacillar species. Heeding to in silico expectations, the predicted loci for the LrpCBA-called pili are organized tandemly in the L. ruminis genome as a canonical fimbrial operon, which then encodes for three pilin-proteins and a single C-type sortase enzyme. Through electron microscopic means, we showed that these pilus formations are a surface assemblage of tip, basal, and backbone pilin subunits (respectively named LrpC, LrpB, and LrpA in L. ruminis, and also when expressed recombinantly in Lactococcus lactis. As well, by using the recombinant-piliated lactococci, we could define certain ecologically relevant phenotypic traits, such as the ability to adhere to extracellular matrix proteins and gut epithelial cells, but also to effectuate an induced dampening on Toll-like receptor 2 signaling and interleukin-8 responsiveness in immune-related cells. Within the context of the intestinal microcosm, by wielding such niche-advantageous cell-surface properties the LrpCBA pilus would undoubtedly have a requisite functional role in the colonization dynamics of L. ruminis indigeneity. Our study provides only the second description of a

  2. The accumulation of glutamate is necessary for optimal growth of Salmonella typhimurium in media of high osmolality but not induction of the proU operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csonka, L N; Ikeda, T P; Fletcher, S A; Kustu, S

    1994-10-01

    Synthesis of glutamate can be limited in bacterial strains carrying mutations to loss of function of glutamate synthase (2-oxoglutarate:glutamine aminotransferase) by using low concentrations of NH4+ in the growth medium. By using such gltB/D mutant strains of Salmonella typhimurium, we demonstrated that: (i) a large glutamate pool, previously observed to correlate with growth at high external osmolality, is actually required for optimal growth under these conditions; (ii) the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) apparently cannot substitute for glutamate; and (iii) accumulation of glutamate is not necessary for high levels of induction of the proU operon in vivo. Expression of the proU operon, which encodes a transport system for the osmoprotectants proline and glycine betaine, is induced > 100-fold in the wild-type strain under conditions of high external osmolality. Ramirez et al. (R. M. Ramirez, W. S. Prince, E. Bremer, and M. Villarejo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1153-1157, 1989) observed and we confirmed that in vitro expression of the lacZ gene from the wild-type proU promoter is stimulated by 0.2 to 0.3 M K glutamate. However, we observed a very similar stimulation for lacZ expressed from the lacUV5 promoter and from the proU promoter when an important negative regulatory element downstream of this promoter (the silencer) was deleted. Since the lacUV5 promoter is not osmotically regulated in vivo and osmotic regulation of the proU promoter is largely lost as a result of deletion of the silencer, we conclude that stimulation of proU expression by K glutamate in vitro is not a specific osmoregulatory response but probably a manifestation of the optimization of in vitro transcription-translation at high concentrations of this solute. Our in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that glutamate is not an obligatory component of the transcriptional regulation of the proU operon. PMID:7929004

  3. Tricistronic operon expression of the genes gcaD (tms), which encodes N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate uridyltransferase, prs, which encodes phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase, and ctc in vegetative cells of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Ida; Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    The gcaD, prs, and ctc genes were shown to be organized as a tricistronic operon. The transcription of the prs gene, measured as phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase activity, and of the ctc gene, measured as β-galactosidase activity specified by a ctc-lacZ protein fusion, were dependent on the ...

  4. Tricistronic operon expression of the genes gcaD (tms), which encodes N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate uridyltransferase, prs, which encodes phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase, and ctc in vegetative cells of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Ida; Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    The gcaD, prs, and ctc genes were shown to be organized as a tricistronic operon. The transcription of the prs gene, measured as phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase activity, and of the ctc gene, measured as β-galactosidase activity specified by a ctc-lacZ protein fusion, were dependent...

  5. Heavy enzymes--experimental and computational insights in enzyme dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderek, Katarzyna; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Moliner, Vicent; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    The role of protein motions in the chemical step of enzyme-catalyzed reactions is the subject of an open debate in the scientific literature. The systematic use of isotopically substituted enzymes has been revealed as a useful tool to quantify the role of these motions. According to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, changing the mass of the protein does not change the forces acting on the system but alters the frequencies of the protein motions, which in turn can affect the rate constant. Experimental and theoretical studies carried out in this field are presented in this article and discussed in the framework of Transition State Theory.

  6. Mapping contacts of the S12-S7 intercistronic region of str operon mRNA with ribosomal protein S7 of E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Andrey; Spiridonova, Vera; Kopylov, Alexei

    2006-10-30

    In E. coli, S7 initiates 30S ribosome assembly by binding to 16S rRNA. It also regulates translation of the S12 and S7 cistrons of the 'streptomycin' operon transcript by binding to the S12-S7 intercistronic region. Here, we describe the contacts of N-terminally His(6)-tagged S7 with this region as mapped by UV-induced cross-linking. The cross-links are located at U(-34), U(-35), quite distant from the start codons of the two cistrons. In order to explain the mechanism of translational repression of S12-S7, we consider a possible conformational rearrangement of the intercistronic RNA structure induced by S7 binding.

  7. Molecular characterization of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis hsp60-hsp10 operon, and evaluation of the immune response and protective efficacy induced by hsp60 DNA vaccination in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sérgio C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (HSPs are important candidates for the development of vaccines because they are usually able to promote both humoral and cellular immune responses in mammals. We identified and characterized the hsp60-hsp10 bicistronic operon of the animal pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a Gram-positive bacterium of the class Actinobacteria, which causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA in small ruminants. Findings To construct the DNA vaccine, the hsp60 gene of C. pseudotuberculosis was cloned in a mammalian expression vector. BALB/c mice were immunized by intramuscular injection with the recombinant plasmid (pVAX1/hsp60. Conclusion This vaccination induced significant anti-hsp60 IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a isotype production. However, immunization with this DNA vaccine did not confer protective immunity.

  8. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-10-25

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstream contact suppresses open complex formation at galP1 at lower temperatures. In ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes, alpha appears to make direct contact with Activating Region 1 in CRP. DNAase I footprinting has been used to detect and quantify interactions between purified alpha and CRP bound at galP1. PMID:7971267

  9. Characterization of structural and free energy properties of promoters associated with Primary and Operon TSS in Helicobacter pylori genome and their orthologs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aditya Kumar; Manju Bansal

    2012-07-01

    Promoter regions in the genomes of all domains of life show similar trends in several structural properties such as stability, bendability, curvature, etc. In current study we analysed the stability and bendability of various classes of promoter regions (based on the recent identification of different classes of transcription start sites) of Helicobacter pylori 26695 strain. It is found that primary TSS and operon-associated TSS promoters show significantly strong features in their promoter regions. DNA free-energy-based promoter prediction tool PromPredict was used to annotate promoters of different classes, and very high recall values (∼80%) are obtained for primary TSS. Orthologous genes from other strains of H. pylori show conservation of structural properties in promoter regions as well as coding regions. PromPredict annotates promoters of orthologous genes with very high recall and precision.

  10. Involvement of the cynABDS Operon and the CO2-Concentrating Mechanism in the Light-Dependent Transport and Metabolism of Cyanate by Cyanobacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, George S.; Jalali, Farid; Tong, Tommy; Zacal, Natalie J.; So, Anthony K.-C.

    2007-01-01

    The cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC7942 and Synechococcus sp. strain UTEX625 decomposed exogenously supplied cyanate (NCO−) to CO2 and NH3 through the action of a cytosolic cyanase which required HCO3− as a second substrate. The ability to metabolize NCO− relied on three essential elements: proteins encoded by the cynABDS operon, the biophysical activity of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and light. Inactivation of cynS, encoding cyanase, and cynA yielded mutants unable to decompose cyanate. Furthermore, loss of CynA, the periplasmic binding protein of a multicomponent ABC-type transporter, resulted in loss of active cyanate transport. Competition experiments revealed that native transport systems for CO2, HCO3−, NO3−, NO2−, Cl−, PO42−, and SO42− did not contribute to the cellular flux of NCO− and that CynABD did not contribute to the flux of these nutrients, implicating CynABD as a novel primary active NCO− transporter. In the S. elongatus strain PCC7942 ΔchpX ΔchpY mutant that is defective in the full expression of the CCM, mass spectrometry revealed that the cellular rate of cyanate decomposition depended upon the size of the internal inorganic carbon (Ci) (HCO3− + CO2) pool. Unlike wild-type cells, the rate of NCO− decomposition by the ΔchpX ΔchpY mutant was severely depressed at low external Ci concentrations, indicating that the CCM was essential in providing HCO3− for cyanase under typical growth conditions. Light was required to activate and/or energize the active transport of both NCO− and Ci. Putative cynABDS operons were identified in the genomes of diverse Proteobacteria, suggesting that CynABDS-mediated cyanate metabolism is not restricted to cyanobacteria. PMID:17122352

  11. Involvement of the cynABDS operon and the CO2-concentrating mechanism in the light-dependent transport and metabolism of cyanate by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, George S; Jalali, Farid; Tong, Tommy; Zacal, Natalie J; So, Anthony K-C

    2007-02-01

    The cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC7942 and Synechococcus sp. strain UTEX625 decomposed exogenously supplied cyanate (NCO-) to CO2 and NH3 through the action of a cytosolic cyanase which required HCO3- as a second substrate. The ability to metabolize NCO- relied on three essential elements: proteins encoded by the cynABDS operon, the biophysical activity of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and light. Inactivation of cynS, encoding cyanase, and cynA yielded mutants unable to decompose cyanate. Furthermore, loss of CynA, the periplasmic binding protein of a multicomponent ABC-type transporter, resulted in loss of active cyanate transport. Competition experiments revealed that native transport systems for CO2, HCO3-, NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, PO4(2-), and SO4(2-) did not contribute to the cellular flux of NCO- and that CynABD did not contribute to the flux of these nutrients, implicating CynABD as a novel primary active NCO- transporter. In the S. elongatus strain PCC7942 DeltachpX DeltachpY mutant that is defective in the full expression of the CCM, mass spectrometry revealed that the cellular rate of cyanate decomposition depended upon the size of the internal inorganic carbon (Ci) (HCO3- + CO2) pool. Unlike wild-type cells, the rate of NCO- decomposition by the DeltachpX DeltachpY mutant was severely depressed at low external Ci concentrations, indicating that the CCM was essential in providing HCO3- for cyanase under typical growth conditions. Light was required to activate and/or energize the active transport of both NCO- and Ci. Putative cynABDS operons were identified in the genomes of diverse Proteobacteria, suggesting that CynABDS-mediated cyanate metabolism is not restricted to cyanobacteria.

  12. Characterization of the Lactobacillus casei group based on the profiling of ribosomal proteins coded in S10-spc-alpha operons as observed by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Torimura, Masaki; Kitahara, Maki; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hotta, Yudai; Tamura, Hiroto

    2012-10-01

    The taxonomy of the members of the Lactobacillus casei group is complicated because of their phylogenetic similarity and controversial nomenclatural status. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of ribosomal proteins coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon, termed S10-GERMS, was applied in order to classify 33 sample strains belonging to the L. casei group. A total of 14 types of ribosomal protein genes coded in the operon were first sequenced from four type strains of the L. casei group (L. casei JCM 1134(T), L. paracasei subsp. paracasei JCM 8130(T), L. paracasei subsp. tolerans JCM 1171(T), and L. rhamnosus JCM 1136(T)) together with L. casei JCM 11302, which is the former type strain of 'L. zeae'. The theoretical masses of the 14 types of ribosomal proteins used as biomarkers were classified into five types and compiled into a ribosomal protein database. The observed ribosomal proteins of each strain, identified by MALDI-TOF MS, were categorized into types based on their masses, summarized as ribosomal protein profiles, and they were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The 33 sample strains, together with seven genome-sequenced strains, could be classified into four major clusters, which coincided precisely with the taxa of the (sub)species within the L. casei group. Three "ancient" strains, identified as L. acidophilus and L. casei, were correctly re-identified as L. paracasei subsp. paracasei by S10-GERMS. S10-GERMS would thus appear to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic characterization, with considerable potential for management of culture collections.

  13. The phytohormone ethylene enhances bacterial cellulose production, regulates CRP/FNRKx transcription and causes differential gene expression within the cellulose synthesis operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vincent Augimeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx. Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature.

  14. The Phytohormone Ethylene Enhances Cellulose Production, Regulates CRP/FNRKx Transcription and Causes Differential Gene Expression within the Bacterial Cellulose Synthesis Operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augimeri, Richard V; Strap, Janice L

    2015-01-01

    Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx). Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx, and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs) operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature.

  15. The Enterococcus faecium enterococcal biofilm regulator, EbrB, regulates the esp operon and is implicated in biofilm formation and intestinal colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janetta Top

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Enterococcus faecium is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Strains causing clinical infections or hospital outbreaks are enriched in the enterococcal surface protein (Esp encoding ICEEfm1 mobile genetic element. Previous studies showed that Esp is involved in biofilm formation, endocarditis and urinary tract infections. In this study, we characterized the role of the putative AraC type of regulator (locus tag EfmE1162_2351, which we renamed ebrB and which is, based on the currently available whole genome sequences, always located upstream of the esp gene, and studied its role in Esp surface exposure during growth. A markerless deletion mutant of ebrB resulted in reduced esp expression and complete abolishment of Esp surface exposure, while Esp cell-surface exposure was restored when this mutant was complemented with an intact copy of ebrB. This demonstrates a role for EbrB in esp expression. However, during growth, ebrB expression levels did not change over time, while an increase in esp expression at both RNA and protein level was observed during mid-log and late-log phase. These results indicate the existence of a secondary regulation system for esp, which might be an unknown quorum sensing system as the enhanced esp expression seems to be cell density dependent. Furthermore, we determined that esp is part of an operon of at least 3 genes putatively involved in biofilm formation. A semi-static biofilm model revealed reduced biofilm formation for the EbrB deficient mutant, while dynamics of biofilm formation using a flow cell system revealed delayed biofilm formation in the ebrB mutant. In a mouse intestinal colonization model the ebrB mutant was less able to colonize the gut compared to wild-type strain, especially in the small intestine. These data indicate that EbrB positively regulates the esp operon and is implicated in biofilm formation and intestinal colonization.

  16. The Phytohormone Ethylene Enhances Cellulose Production, Regulates CRP/FNRKx Transcription and Causes Differential Gene Expression within the Bacterial Cellulose Synthesis Operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augimeri, Richard V; Strap, Janice L

    2015-01-01

    Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx). Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx, and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs) operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature. PMID:26733991

  17. TRAP-5' stem loop interaction increases the efficiency of transcription termination in the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon leader region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Adam P; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Babitzke, Paul

    2007-11-01

    TRAP regulates expression of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon by a transcription attenuation mechanism in which tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to 11 (G/U)AG repeats in the nascent trp leader transcript. Bound TRAP blocks formation of an antiterminator structure and allows formation of an overlapping intrinsic terminator upstream of the trp operon structural genes. A 5' stem-loop (5'SL) structure located upstream of the triplet repeat region also interacts with TRAP. TRAP-5'SL RNA interaction participates in the transcription attenuation mechanism by preferentially increasing the affinity of TRAP for the nascent trp leader transcript during the early stages of transcription, when only a few triplet repeats have been synthesized. Footprinting assays indicated that the 5'SL contacts TRAP through two discrete groups of single-stranded nucleotides that lie in the hairpin loop and in an internal loop. Filter binding and in vivo expression assays of 5'SL mutants established that G7, A8, and A9 from the internal loop, and A19 and G20 from the hairpin loop are critical for proper 5'SL function. These nucleotides are conserved among certain other 5'SL-containing organisms. Single-round transcription results indicated that the 5'SL increases the termination efficiency when transcription is fast; however, the influence of the 5'SL was lost when transcription was slowed by reducing the ribonucleoside triphosphate concentration. Since there is a limited amount of time for TRAP to bind to the nascent transcript and promote termination, our data suggest that the contribution of TRAP-5'SL interaction increases the rate of TRAP binding, which, in turn, increases the efficiency of transcription termination. PMID:17881743

  18. Cloning and Expression of Trp Operon Gene of E. coli%大肠杆菌色氨酸操纵子基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林维平; 郭长江; 张绪梅; 徐琪寿

    2008-01-01

    目的 克隆并表达大肠杆菌色氨酸操纵子基因,提高其酶活性.方法 利用PCR方法,从大肠杆菌31 884基因组中直接克隆出色氨酸操纵子,并将其连接到原核表达载体pET-22b(+)中,构建重组质粒pET-22b(+)-Trp operon,转化大肠杆菌BL21,IPTG诱导重组蛋白表达,表达产物经SDS-PAGE分析,并测定酶活性.结果 凝胶电泳可见PCR扩增产物大小约为7 000 bp,SDS-PAGE鉴定目的蛋白分别得到了表达,邻氨基苯甲酸合成酶和色氨酸合成酶的活性分别比对照提高了2.7和3.2倍.结论 已成功构建了重组表达质粒pET-22b(+)-Trp operon,邻氨基苯甲酸合成酶和色氨酸合成酶的活性在大肠杆菌中得到了提高,为高产色氨酸基因工程菌的构建奠定了基础.

  19. Cloning and Expression of trp Operon in Escherichia coli%大肠埃希菌trp operon的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林维平; 刘晓影; 武敬亮; 高志芹; 孙同毅

    2008-01-01

    色氨酸操纵子所表达酶的高效表达和酶活性的提高,从而构建高产色氨酸菌株.利用PCR的方法从大肠埃希菌基因组中直接克隆色氨酸操纵子,并将其连接到原核表达载体pBV220中,得到重组质粒pBV220-trp operon,转化大肠埃希菌DH5α,温度诱导重组蛋白表达,表达产物经SDS-PAGE分析并用比色法测定其活性.通过凝胶电泳观察PCR扩增产物大小约为7 kb.SDS-PAGE鉴定目的蛋白得到了高效表达,邻氨基苯甲酸合成酶和色氨酸合成酶的活性分别比对照提高了3.4倍和2.5倍.成功构建了重组质粒pBV220-trp operon,邻氨基苯甲酸合成酶和色氨酸合成酶的表达量和表达活性在大肠埃希菌中得到了提高,为高产色氨酸基因工程菌的构建奠定基础.

  20. Micromotors Powered by Enzyme Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Krishna K; Zhao, Xi; Tansi, Benjamin M; Méndez-Ortiz, Wilfredo J; Córdova-Figueroa, Ubaldo M; Golestanian, Ramin; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-12-01

    Active biocompatible systems are of great current interest for their possible applications in drug or antidote delivery at specific locations. Herein, we report the synthesis and study of self-propelled microparticles powered by enzymatic reactions and their directed movement in substrate concentration gradient. Polystyrene microparticles were functionalized with the enzymes urease and catalase using a biotin-streptavidin linkage procedure. The motion of the enzyme-coated particles was studied in the presence of the respective substrates, using optical microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. The diffusion of the particles was found to increase in a substrate concentration dependent manner. The directed chemotactic movement of these enzyme-powered motors up the substrate gradient was studied using three-inlet microfluidic channel architecture. PMID:26587897

  1. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  2. Discovery of new enzymes and metabolic pathways by using structure and genome context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suwen; Kumar, Ritesh; Sakai, Ayano; Vetting, Matthew W; Wood, B McKay; Brown, Shoshana; Bonanno, Jeffery B; Hillerich, Brandan S; Seidel, Ronald D; Babbitt, Patricia C; Almo, Steven C; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Gerlt, John A; Cronan, John E; Jacobson, Matthew P

    2013-10-31

    Assigning valid functions to proteins identified in genome projects is challenging: overprediction and database annotation errors are the principal concerns. We and others are developing computation-guided strategies for functional discovery with 'metabolite docking' to experimentally derived or homology-based three-dimensional structures. Bacterial metabolic pathways often are encoded by 'genome neighbourhoods' (gene clusters and/or operons), which can provide important clues for functional assignment. We recently demonstrated the synergy of docking and pathway context by 'predicting' the intermediates in the glycolytic pathway in Escherichia coli. Metabolite docking to multiple binding proteins and enzymes in the same pathway increases the reliability of in silico predictions of substrate specificities because the pathway intermediates are structurally similar. Here we report that structure-guided approaches for predicting the substrate specificities of several enzymes encoded by a bacterial gene cluster allowed the correct prediction of the in vitro activity of a structurally characterized enzyme of unknown function (PDB 2PMQ), 2-epimerization of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline betaine (tHyp-B) and cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline betaine (cHyp-B), and also the correct identification of the catabolic pathway in which Hyp-B 2-epimerase participates. The substrate-liganded pose predicted by virtual library screening (docking) was confirmed experimentally. The enzymatic activities in the predicted pathway were confirmed by in vitro assays and genetic analyses; the intermediates were identified by metabolomics; and repression of the genes encoding the pathway by high salt concentrations was established by transcriptomics, confirming the osmolyte role of tHyp-B. This study establishes the utility of structure-guided functional predictions to enable the discovery of new metabolic pathways.

  3. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena;

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a biorefinery concept for biological production of chemicals, drugs, feed and fuels using plant biomass as raw material in well-defined cell-factories. Among the important goals is the discovery of new biocatalysts for production of enzymes, biochemicals and fuels and already our...... screening of a large collection of fungal strains isolated from natural habitats have resulted in identification of strains with high production of hydrolytic enzymes and excretion of organic acids. Our research focuses on creating a fungal platform based on synthetic biology for developing new cell...

  4. Modifying enzyme activity and selectivity by immobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Rafael C.; Ortiz, Claudia; Berenguer Murcia, Ángel; Torres, Rodrigo; Fernández Lafuente, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Immobilization of enzymes may produce alterations in their observed activity, specificity or selectivity. Although in many cases an impoverishment of the enzyme properties is observed upon immobilization (caused by the distortion of the enzyme due to the interaction with the support) in some instances such properties may be enhanced by this immobilization. These alterations in enzyme properties are sometimes associated with changes in the enzyme structure. Occasionally, these variations will ...

  5. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  6. Enzyme recovery using reversed micelles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery of extracellular enzymes. The potentials of reaching this goal by using reversed micelles in an organic solvent have been investigated.Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an

  7. Insolubilized enzymes for food synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Cellulose matrix with numerous enzyme-coated silica particles of colloidal size permanently bound at various sites within matrix was produced that has high activity and possesses requisite physical characteristics for filtration or column operations. Product also allows coupling step in synthesis of edible food to proceed under mild conditions.

  8. The enzymes associated with denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the reduction of nitrogenous oxides are thought to be intermediates in denitrification processes. This review examines the roles of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductases, nitric oxide reductase, mechanisms of N-N bond formation, and nitrous oxide reductases.

  9. Kathepsine C : Een allosterisch enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Jeannette

    1969-01-01

    In chapter I an introduction into allosteric systems is given. In chapter II is a detailed method is described for the applica of Gly-Phe--p. nitroanilide (GPNA) as a substrate for the activity assay of the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin C. It is an allosteric which is activated by Cl-, Br-, 1-, CNS-, N

  10. Udfordringer ved undervisning i enzymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Karen; Dandanell, Gert; von Stemann, Jakob Hjorth;

    2015-01-01

    Enzymer er et centralt emne i biokemiundervisning. Det forudsætter og anvender grundlæggende viden inden for og kompetencer i kemi og matematik. Artiklen undersøger hvilke forståelsesvanskeligheder og udfordringer der er knyttet til dette område, såvel som virtuelle øvelsers potentiale i denne...

  11. Enzymes involved in triglyceride hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, M R; Kuusi, T

    1987-08-01

    The lipolytic enzymes LPL and HL play important roles in the metabolism of lipoproteins and participate in lipoprotein interconversions. LPL was originally recognized to be the key enzyme in the hydrolysis of chylomicrons and triglyceride, but it also turned out to be one determinant of HDL concentration in plasma. When LPL activity is high, chylomicrons and VLDL are rapidly removed from circulation and a concomitant rise of the HDL2 occurs. In contrast, low LPL activity impedes the removal of triglyceride-rich particles, resulting in the elevation of serum triglycerides and a decrease of HDL (HDL2). Concordant changes of this kind in LPL and HDL2 are induced by many physiological and pathological perturbations. Finally, the operation of LPL is also essential for the conversion of VLDL to LDL. This apparently clear-cut role of LPL in lipoprotein interconversions is contrasted with the enigmatic actions of HL. The enzyme was originally thought to participate in the catalyses of chylomicron and VLDL remnants generated in the LPL reaction. However, substantial in vitro and in vivo data indicate that HL is a key enzyme in the degradation of plasma HDL (HDL2) in a manner which opposes LPL. A scheme is presented for the complementary actions of the two enzymes in plasma HDL metabolism. In addition, recent studies have attributed a role to HL in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, particularly those containing apo E. However, this function becomes clinically important only under conditions where the capacity of the LPL-mediated removal system is exceeded. Such a situation may arise when the input of triglyceride-rich particles (chylomicrons and/or VLDL) is excessive or LPL activity is decreased or absent.

  12. Engineering cytochrome p450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2008-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen the widespread and routine application of methods in molecular biology such as molecular cloning, recombinant protein expression, and the polymerase chain reaction. This has had implications not only for the study of toxicological mechanisms but also for the exploitation of enzymes involved in xenobiotic clearance. The engineering of P450s has been performed with several purposes. The first and most fundamental has been to enable successful recombinant expression in host systems such as bacteria. This in turn has led to efforts to solubilize the proteins as a prerequisite to crystallization and structure determination. Lagging behind has been the engineering of enzyme activity, hampered in part by our still-meager comprehension of fundamental structure-function relationships in P450s. However, the emerging technique of directed evolution holds promise in delivering both engineered enzymes for use in biocatalysis and incidental improvements in our understanding of sequence-structure and sequence-function relationships, provided that data mining can extract the fundamental correlations underpinning the data. From the very first studies on recombinant P450s, efforts were directed toward constructing fusions between P450s and redox partners in the hope of generating more efficient enzymes. While this aim has been allowed to lie fallow for some time, this area merits further investigation as does the development of surface-displayed P450 systems for biocatalytic and biosensor applications. The final application of engineered P450s will require other aspects of their biology to be addressed, such as tolerance to heat, solvents, and high substrate and product concentrations. The most important application of these enzymes in toxicology in the near future is likely to be the biocatalytic generation of drug metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry. Further tailoring will be necessary for specific toxicological applications, such as in

  13. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be...

  14. Enzyme technology: Key to selective biorefining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    to the reaction is a unique trait of enzyme catalysis. Since enzyme selectivity means that a specific reaction is catalysed between particular species to produce definite products, enzymes are particularly fit for converting specific compounds in mixed biomass streams. Since enzymes are protein molecules...... their rational use in biorefinery processes requires an understanding of the basic features of enzymes and reaction traits with respect to specificity, kinetics, reaction optima, stability and structure-function relations – we are now at a stage where it is possible to use nature’s enzyme structures as starting...... point and then improve the functional traits by targeted mutation of the protein. The talk will display some of our recent hypotheses related to enzyme action, recently obtained results within knowledge-based enzyme improvements as well as cast light on research methods used in optimizing enzyme...

  15. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three...... European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes...... to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods....

  16. Lignolytic Enzymes Production from Selected Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Shantaveera Swamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ligninase enzymes produced by selected mushrooms have been reported. We collected mushrooms from Western Ghats, most of them were edible food. Thirty samples isolated were tested using a plate assay through direct agar plate assay by using ABTS, decolourisation containing the fifteen isolates were able to decolourise the dye, indicating a lignin-degrading ability. Spectrophotometric enzyme assays from all selected isolates were carried out to examine the production of Ligninolytic enzymes (Laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase. Ten selected isolates produced all three kinds of enzymes tested. Lignolytic enzymes are groups of enzymes these are actively involved in bioremediation.

  17. Comparative bioinformatics and experimental analysis of the intergenic regulatory regions of Bacillus cereus hbl and nhe enterotoxin operons and the impact of CodY on virulence heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elisabeth eBöhm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with greatly varying enteropathogenic potential. Almost all known strains harbor the genes for at least one of the three enterotoxins Nhe, Hbl and CytK. While some strains show no cytotoxicity, others have caused outbreaks, in rare cases even with lethal outcome. The reason for these differences in cytotoxicity is unknown. To gain insight into the origin of enterotoxin expression heterogeneity in different strains, the architecture and role of 5’ intergenic regions (5’IGRs upstream of the nhe and hbl operons was investigated. In silico comparison of 142 strains of all seven phylogenetic groups of B. cereus sensu lato proved the presence of long 5’IGRs upstream of the nheABC and hblCDAB operons, which harbor recognition sites for several transcriptional regulators, including the virulence regulator PlcR, redox regulators ResD and Fnr, the nutrient-sensitive regulator CodY as well as the master regulator for biofilm formation SinR. By determining transcription start sites, unusually long 5’ untranslated regions (5’UTRs upstream of the nhe and hbl start codons were identified, which are not present upstream of cytK-1 and cytK-2. Promoter fusions lacking various parts of the nhe and hbl 5’UTR in B. cereus INRA C3 showed that the entire 331 bp 5’UTR of nhe is necessary for full promoter activity, while the presence of the complete 606 bp hbl 5’UTR lowers promoter activity. Repression was caused by a 268 bp sequence directly upstream of the hbl transcription start. Luciferase activity of reporter strains containing nhe and hbl 5’IGR lux fusions provided evidence that toxin gene transcription is upregulated by the depletion of free amino acids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the branched-chain amino acid sensing regulator CodY binds to both nhe and hbl 5’UTR downstream of the promoter, potentially acting as a nutrient-responsive roadblock repressor of toxin gene transcription

  18. Comparative Bioinformatics and Experimental Analysis of the Intergenic Regulatory Regions of Bacillus cereus hbl and nhe Enterotoxin Operons and the Impact of CodY on Virulence Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Maria-Elisabeth; Krey, Viktoria M; Jeßberger, Nadja; Frenzel, Elrike; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with greatly varying enteropathogenic potential. Almost all known strains harbor the genes for at least one of the three enterotoxins Nhe, Hbl, and CytK. While some strains show no cytotoxicity, others have caused outbreaks, in rare cases even with lethal outcome. The reason for these differences in cytotoxicity is unknown. To gain insight into the origin of enterotoxin expression heterogeneity in different strains, the architecture and role of 5' intergenic regions (5' IGRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl operons was investigated. In silico comparison of 142 strains of all seven phylogenetic groups of B. cereus sensu lato proved the presence of long 5' IGRs upstream of the nheABC and hblCDAB operons, which harbor recognition sites for several transcriptional regulators, including the virulence regulator PlcR, redox regulators ResD and Fnr, the nutrient-sensitive regulator CodY as well as the master regulator for biofilm formation SinR. By determining transcription start sites, unusually long 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl start codons were identified, which are not present upstream of cytK-1 and cytK-2. Promoter fusions lacking various parts of the nhe and hbl 5' UTR in B. cereus INRA C3 showed that the entire 331 bp 5' UTR of nhe is necessary for full promoter activity, while the presence of the complete 606 bp hbl 5' UTR lowers promoter activity. Repression was caused by a 268 bp sequence directly upstream of the hbl transcription start. Luciferase activity of reporter strains containing nhe and hbl 5' IGR lux fusions provided evidence that toxin gene transcription is upregulated by the depletion of free amino acids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the branched-chain amino acid sensing regulator CodY binds to both nhe and hbl 5' UTR downstream of the promoter, potentially acting as a nutrient-responsive roadblock repressor of toxin gene transcription. PlcR binding sites are

  19. Comparative Bioinformatics and Experimental Analysis of the Intergenic Regulatory Regions of Bacillus cereus hbl and nhe Enterotoxin Operons and the Impact of CodY on Virulence Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Maria-Elisabeth; Krey, Viktoria M; Jeßberger, Nadja; Frenzel, Elrike; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with greatly varying enteropathogenic potential. Almost all known strains harbor the genes for at least one of the three enterotoxins Nhe, Hbl, and CytK. While some strains show no cytotoxicity, others have caused outbreaks, in rare cases even with lethal outcome. The reason for these differences in cytotoxicity is unknown. To gain insight into the origin of enterotoxin expression heterogeneity in different strains, the architecture and role of 5' intergenic regions (5' IGRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl operons was investigated. In silico comparison of 142 strains of all seven phylogenetic groups of B. cereus sensu lato proved the presence of long 5' IGRs upstream of the nheABC and hblCDAB operons, which harbor recognition sites for several transcriptional regulators, including the virulence regulator PlcR, redox regulators ResD and Fnr, the nutrient-sensitive regulator CodY as well as the master regulator for biofilm formation SinR. By determining transcription start sites, unusually long 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl start codons were identified, which are not present upstream of cytK-1 and cytK-2. Promoter fusions lacking various parts of the nhe and hbl 5' UTR in B. cereus INRA C3 showed that the entire 331 bp 5' UTR of nhe is necessary for full promoter activity, while the presence of the complete 606 bp hbl 5' UTR lowers promoter activity. Repression was caused by a 268 bp sequence directly upstream of the hbl transcription start. Luciferase activity of reporter strains containing nhe and hbl 5' IGR lux fusions provided evidence that toxin gene transcription is upregulated by the depletion of free amino acids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the branched-chain amino acid sensing regulator CodY binds to both nhe and hbl 5' UTR downstream of the promoter, potentially acting as a nutrient-responsive roadblock repressor of toxin gene transcription. PlcR binding sites are

  20. Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Fejerskov

    Full Text Available In this report, we detail Substrate Mediated Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (SMEPT as a novel approach in drug delivery which relies on enzyme-functionalized cell culture substrates to achieve a localized conversion of benign prodrug(s into active therapeutics with subsequent delivery to adhering cells or adjacent tissues. For proof-of-concept SMEPT, we use surface adhered micro-structured physical hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol, β-glucuronidase enzyme and glucuronide prodrugs. We demonstrate enzymatic activity mediated by the assembled hydrogel samples and illustrate arms of control over rate of release of model fluorescent cargo. SMEPT was not impaired by adhering cells and afforded facile time - and dose - dependent uptake of the in situ generated fluorescent cargo by hepatic cells, HepG2. With the use of a glucuronide derivative of an anticancer drug, SN-38, SMEPT afforded a decrease in cell viability to a level similar to that achieved using parent drug. Finally, dose response was achieved using SMEPT and administration of judiciously chosen concentration of SN-38 glucuronide prodrug thus revealing external control over drug delivery using drug eluting surface. We believe that this highly adaptable concept will find use in diverse biomedical applications, specifically surface mediated drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  1. The pH-dependent expression of the urease operon in Streptococcus salivarius is mediated by CodY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Szu-Chuan; Burne, Robert A; Chen, Yi-Ywan M

    2014-09-01

    Urease gene expression in Streptococcus salivarius 57.I, a strain of one of the major alkali producers in the mouth, is induced by acidic pH and excess amounts of carbohydrate. Expression is controlled primarily at the transcriptional level from a promoter, pureI. Recent sequencing analysis revealed a CodY box located 2 bases 5' to the -35 element of pureI. Using continuous chemostat culture, transcription from pureI was shown to be repressed by CodY, and at pH 7 the repression was more pronounced than that in cells grown at pH 5.5 under both 20 and 100 mM glucose. The direct binding of CodY to pureI was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The result of ChIP-qPCR also confirmed that the regulation of CodY is indeed modulated by pH and the binding of CodY at neutral pH is further enhanced by a limited supply of glucose (20 mM). In the absence of CodY, the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) α subunit interacted with the AT tracks within the CodY box, indicating that CodY and RNAP compete for the same binding region. Such regulation could ensure optimal urease expression when the enzyme is most required, i.e., at an acidic growth pH with an excess amount of carbon nutrients. PMID:24951785

  2. NAD(PH-hydrate dehydratase- a metabolic repair enzyme and its role in Bacillus subtilis stress adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Petrovova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the strategies for survival stress conditions in bacteria is a regulatory adaptive system called general stress response (GSR, which is dependent on the SigB transcription factor in Bacillus sp. The GSR is one of the largest regulon in Bacillus sp., including about 100 genes; however, most of the genes that show changes in expression during various stresses have not yet been characterized or assigned a biochemical function for the encoded proteins. Previously, we characterized the Bacillus subtilis168 osmosensitive mutant, defective in the yxkO gene (encoding a putative ribokinase, which was recently assigned in vitro as an ADP/ATP-dependent NAD(PH-hydrate dehydratase and was demonstrated to belong to the SigB operon. METHODS AND RESULTS: We show the impact of YxkO on the activity of SigB-dependent Pctc promoter and adaptation to osmotic and ethanol stress and potassium limitation respectively. Using a 2DE approach, we compare the proteomes of WT and mutant strains grown under conditions of osmotic and ethanol stress. Both stresses led to changes in the protein level of enzymes that are involved in motility (flagellin, citrate cycle (isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glycolysis (phosphoglycerate kinase, and decomposition of Amadori products (fructosamine-6-phosphate deglycase. Glutamine synthetase revealed a different pattern after osmotic stress. The patterns of enzymes for branched amino acid metabolism and cell wall synthesis (L-alanine dehydrogenase, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, ketol-acid reductoisomerase were altered after ethanol stress. CONCLUSION: We performed the first characterization of a Bacillus subtilis168 knock-out mutant in the yxkO gene that encodes a metabolite repair enzyme. We show that such enzymes could play a significant role in the survival of stressed cells.

  3. A DNA tweezer-actuated enzyme nanoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minghui; Fu, Jinglin; Hejesen, Christian; Yang, Yuhe; Woodbury, Neal W; Gothelf, Kurt; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The functions of regulatory enzymes are essential to modulating cellular pathways. Here we report a tweezer-like DNA nanodevice to actuate the activity of an enzyme/cofactor pair. A dehydrogenase and NAD(+) cofactor are attached to different arms of the DNA tweezer structure and actuation of enzymatic function is achieved by switching the tweezers between open and closed states. The enzyme/cofactor pair is spatially separated in the open state with inhibited enzyme function, whereas in the closed state, enzyme is activated by the close proximity of the two molecules. The conformational state of the DNA tweezer is controlled by the addition of specific oligonucleotides that serve as the thermodynamic driver (fuel) to trigger the change. Using this approach, several cycles of externally controlled enzyme inhibition and activation are successfully demonstrated. This principle of responsive enzyme nanodevices may be used to regulate other types of enzymes and to introduce feedback or feed-forward control loops.

  4. Electro-ultrafiltration of industrial enzyme solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Hansen, Erik Børresen; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2007-01-01

    To reduce the problems with fouling and concentration polarization during crossflow ultrafiltration of industrial enzyme solutions an electric field is applied across the membrane. The filtration performance during electro-ultrafiltration (EUF) has been tested with several enzymes. Results show...

  5. Extracellular enzyme kinetics scale with resource availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial community metabolism relies on external digestion, mediated by extracellular enzymes that break down complex organic matter into molecules small enough for cells to assimilate. We analyzed the kinetics of 40 extracellular enzymes that mediate the degradation and assimi...

  6. Protein Binding between PcrG-PcrV and PcrH-PopB/PopD Encoded by the pcrGVH-popBD Operon of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Secretion System

    OpenAIRE

    Allmond, Leonard R.; Karaca, Timur J.; Nguyen, Vinh N.; Nguyen, Thong; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P.; Sawa, Teiji

    2003-01-01

    Of the proteins encoded by the pcrGVH-popBD operon of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system, PcrG bound to PcrV and PcrH bound to PopB/PopD. In addition, Yersinia LcrG bound to PcrV, and Yersinia LcrH bound to PopD. The results imply a highly functional conservation of type III secretion between P. aeruginosa and Yersinia species.

  7. The Application of Enzyme and Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis concerns the application of enzymes and yeasts for bio-industry. The purpose of this work is to understand the basic knowledge about enzyme and yeast, and meanwhile, to find out their different applications. Through comprehensive study, the knowledge was accumulated which brought a clear understanding for the enzyme structure and yeast microorganism, together with their working principles for the bioprocess. For wood-based industry, the different enzymes used in bi...

  8. Effects of tryptophan starvation on levels of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) and anti-TRAP regulatory protein and their influence on trp operon expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Jen; Yanofsky, Charles

    2005-03-01

    The anti-TRAP protein (AT), encoded by the rtpA gene of Bacillus subtilis, can bind to and inhibit the tryptophan-activated trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP). AT binding can prevent TRAP from promoting transcription termination in the leader region of the trp operon, thereby increasing trp operon expression. We show here that AT levels continue to increase as tryptophan starvation becomes more severe, whereas the TRAP level remains relatively constant and independent of tryptophan starvation. Assuming that the functional form of AT is a trimer, we estimate that the ratios of AT trimers per TRAP molecule are 0.39 when the cells are grown under mild tryptophan starvation conditions, 0.83 under more severe starvation conditions, and approximately 2.0 when AT is expressed maximally. As the AT level is increased, a corresponding increase is observed in the anthranilate synthase level. When AT is expressed maximally, the anthranilate synthase level is about 70% of the level observed in a strain lacking TRAP. In a nutritional shift experiment where excess phenylalanine and tyrosine could potentially starve cells of tryptophan, both the AT level and anthranilate synthase activity were observed to increase. Expression of the trp operon is clearly influenced by the level of AT. PMID:15743934

  9. Tn5-mutagenesis and identification of atr operon and trpE gene responsible for indole-3-acetic acid synthesis in Azospirillum brasilense Yu62

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To bring more information about synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from Azospirillum brasilense, a Tn5-insertion library of A. brasilense Yu62 was constructed and subjected to screening for IAA producing mutants. Two mutants with decreased IAA levels, named as A3 and A24, were isolated. The sequence analysis of loci tagged showed that the Tn5-1063a was located in the atrA gene encoding GntR family transcriptional regulator and trpE gene encoding component I of anthranilate synthase respectively. At the same time, atrB encoding phosphotransferase and atrC encoding aminotransferase were cloned downstream the atrA gene and atrA,atrB and atrC were clustered in an operon. Mutagenesis and complementation studies showed that atrA and atrC were involved in IAA synthesis. IAA levels of trpE mutant and wild-type strain could be improved by adding anthranilate into the medium.

  10. Analysis of gene order data supports vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin operon and genome rearrangements in the 5' flanking region in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim;

    2007-01-01

    examined the gene order in the 5' flanking region of the leukotoxin operon and found that the 5' flanking gene strings, hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC, are peculiar to M. haemolytica + M. glucosida and M. granulomatis, respectively, whereas the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC is present in M. ruminalis......, the supposed sister group of M. haemolytica + M. glucosida, and in the most ancient subclade M. varigena. In M. granulomatis, we found remnants of the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC in the xylB-lktC intergenic region. CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicate that the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC is more ancient...... than the hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC gene strings. The presence of (remnants of) the ancient gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC among any subclades within genus Mannheimia supports that it has been vertically inherited from the last common ancestor of genus Mannheimia to any ancestor of the diverging...

  11. PacBio SMRT assembly of a complex multi-replicon genome reveals chlorocatechol degradative operon in a region of genome plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, N; Shen, S Y; Goordial, J; Jin, S; Fulthorpe, R R

    2016-07-25

    We have sequenced a Burkholderia genome that contains multiple replicons and large repetitive elements that would make it inherently difficult to assemble by short read sequencing technologies. We illustrate how the integrated long read correction algorithms implemented through the PacBio Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing technology successfully provided a de novo assembly that is a reasonable estimate of both the gene content and genome organization without making any further modifications. This assembly is comparable to related organisms assembled by more labour intensive methods. Our assembled genome revealed regions of genome plasticity for further investigation, one of which harbours a chlorocatechol degradative operon highly homologous to those previously identified on globally ubiquitous plasmids. In an ideal world, this assembly would still require experimental validation to confirm gene order and copy number of repeated elements. However, we submit that particularly in instances where a polished genome is not the primary goal of the sequencing project, PacBio SMRT sequencing provides a financially viable option for generating a biologically relevant genome estimate that can be utilized by other researchers for comparative studies. PMID:27063562

  12. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of two species of the genus Nostoc (Cyanobacteria based on the cpcB-IGS-cpcA locus of the phycocyanin operon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANKA TENEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the taxonomy of the genus Nostoc is based on morphological and physiological characters. The extreme morphological variability of the Nostoc species, due to their life cycle and environmental conditions, hampers the correct identification of the individual species. This is also one of the reasons for the disputed taxonomic positions and relationships between the genera Anabaena–Aphanizomenon as well as between Anabaena–Nostoc. Therefore, it is necessary to use additional markers for development of a polyphasic classification system of order Nostocales. In light of this, we here present the first molecular and phy-logenetic characterization of two species of the genus Nostoc (Nostoc linckia and Nostoc punctiforme based on the cpcB-IGS-cpcA locus of the phycocyanin oper-on. The phylogenetic position of these two species within order Nostocales as well as within division Cyanobacteria has been determined. Our results indicate that genus Nostoc is heterogeneous. Analysis of the IGS region between cpcB and cpcA showed that Nostoc and Anabaena are distinct genera. Reported molecular and phylogenetic data will be useful to solve other problematic points in the tax-onomy of genera Aphanizomenon, Anabaena and Nostoc.

  13. Transcription of the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis operon fabHDG is directly activated by FadR and inhibited by ppGpp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    My, Laetitia; Rekoske, Brian; Lemke, Justin J; Viala, Julie P; Gourse, Richard L; Bouveret, Emmanuelle

    2013-08-01

    In Escherichia coli, FadR and FabR are transcriptional regulators that control the expression of fatty acid degradation and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis genes, depending on the availability of fatty acids. In this report, we focus on the dual transcriptional regulator FadR. In the absence of fatty acids, FadR represses the transcription of fad genes required for fatty acid degradation. However, FadR is also an activator, stimulating transcription of the products of the fabA and fabB genes responsible for unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. In this study, we show that FadR directly activates another fatty acid synthesis promoter, PfabH, which transcribes the fabHDG operon, indicating that FadR is a global regulator of both fatty acid degradation and fatty acid synthesis. We also demonstrate that ppGpp and its cofactor DksA, known primarily for their role in regulation of the synthesis of the translational machinery, directly inhibit transcription from the fabH promoter. ppGpp also inhibits the fadR promoter, thereby reducing transcription activation of fabH by FadR indirectly. Our study shows that both ppGpp and FadR have direct roles in the control of fatty acid promoters, linking expression in response to both translation activity and fatty acid availability.

  14. Determining Enzyme Activity by Radial Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bill D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses advantages of radial diffusion assay in determining presence of enzyme and/or rough approximation of amount of enzyme activities. Procedures are included for the preparation of starch-agar plates, and the application and determination of enzyme. Techniques using plant materials (homogenates, tissues, ungerminated embryos, and seedlings)…

  15. Activation of interfacial enzymes at membrane surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Halperin, Avi;

    2006-01-01

    A host of water-soluble enzymes are active at membrane surfaces and in association with membranes. Some of these enzymes are involved in signalling and in modification and remodelling of the membranes. A special class of enzymes, the phospholipases, and in particular secretory phospholipase A2 (s...

  16. Rhamnogalacturonan I modifying enzymes: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Ines R.; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) modifying enzymes catalyse the degradation of the RGI backbone and encompass enzymes specific for either the α1,2-bond linking galacturonic acid to rhamnose or the α1,4-bond linking rhamnose to galacturonic acid in the RGI backbone. The first microbial enzyme found...

  17. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the...

  18. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  19. Curious cases of the enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusu, Nuriye Nuray

    2015-01-01

    Life as we know it heavily relies on biological catalysis, in fact, in a very nonromantic version of it, life could be considered as a series of chemical reactions, regulated by the guarding principles of thermodynamics. In ancient times, a beating heart was a good sign of vitality, however, to me, it is actually the presence of active enzymes that counts. Though we do not usually pay attention, the history of enzymology is as old as humanity itself, and dates back to the ancient times. This ...

  20. Curious cases of the enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusu Nuriye Nuray

    2015-01-01

    J Med Biochem 2015; 34 (3) DOI: 10.2478/jomb-2014-0045 UDK 577. 1 : 61 ISSN 1452-8258 J Med Biochem 34: 271–281, 2015 Review article Pregledni ~lanak CURIOUS CASES OF THE ENZYMES NEOBI^NA ISTORIJA ENZIMA Nuriye Nuray Ulusu Koç University, School of Medicine, Sariyer-Istanbul, Turkey Address for correspondence: N. Nuray Ulusu, PhD Koç University School of Medicine Professor of Biochemistry Rumelifeneri Yolu Sarıyer-Istanbul – Turkey Phone: +90 (212)...

  1. Enzyme Analysis to Determine Glucose Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles; Ward, Robert E.

    Enzyme analysis is used for many purposes in food science and technology. Enzyme activity is used to indicate adequate processing, to assess enzyme preparations, and to measure constituents of foods that are enzyme substrates. In this experiment, the glucose content of corn syrup solids is determined using the enzymes, glucose oxidase and peroxidase. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which then reacts with a dye in the presence of peroxidase to give a stable colored product.

  2. Direct Electron Transfer of Enzymes in a Biologically Assembled Conductive Nanomesh Enzyme Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Ki-Young; Song, Yong-Won; Choi, Won Kook; Chang, Joonyeon; Yi, Hyunjung

    2016-02-24

    Nondestructive assembly of a nanostructured enzyme platform is developed in combination of the specific biomolecular attraction and electrostatic coupling for highly efficient direct electron transfer (DET) of enzymes with unprecedented applicability and versatility. The biologically assembled conductive nanomesh enzyme platform enables DET-based flexible integrated biosensors and DET of eight different enzyme with various catalytic activities.

  3. DNA-Based Enzyme Reactors and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veikko Linko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the possibility to create custom biocompatible nanoshapes using DNA as a building material has rapidly emerged. Further, these rationally designed DNA structures could be exploited in positioning pivotal molecules, such as enzymes, with nanometer-level precision. This feature could be used in the fabrication of artificial biochemical machinery that is able to mimic the complex reactions found in living cells. Currently, DNA-enzyme hybrids can be used to control (multi-enzyme cascade reactions and to regulate the enzyme functions and the reaction pathways. Moreover, sophisticated DNA structures can be utilized in encapsulating active enzymes and delivering the molecular cargo into cells. In this review, we focus on the latest enzyme systems based on novel DNA nanostructures: enzyme reactors, regulatory devices and carriers that can find uses in various biotechnological and nanomedical applications.

  4. Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guanghui; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming; ZHU Yishu

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes play essential roles in the biological processes of sludge treatment. In this article, the ultrasound method to extract enzymes from sludge flocs was presented. Results showed that using ultrasound method at 20 kHz could extract more types of enzymes than that ultrasound at 40 kHz and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. The optimum parameters of ultrasound extraction at 20 kHz were duration of 10 min and power of 480 W. Under the condition, ultrasound could break the cells and extract both the extracellular and intercellular enzymes. Ultrasound power was apparently more susceptive to enzyme extraction than duration, suggesting that the control of power during ultrasound extraction was more important than that of duration. The Pearson correlation analysis between enzyme activities and cation contents revealed that the different types of enzymes had distinct cation binding characteristics.

  5. Carotenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: In vitro studies of a crt/bch transcription factor from Rhodobacter capsulatus and carotenoid enzymes from Erwinia herbicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, D.A.

    1992-11-01

    A putative transcription factor in Rhodobactor capsulatus which binds upstream of the crt and bch pigment biosynthesis operons and appears to play a role in the adaptation of the organism from the aerobic to the anaerobic-photosynthetic growth mode was characterized. Chapter 2 describes the identification of this factor through an in vitro mobility shift assay, as well as the determination of its binding properties and sequence specificity. Chapter 3 focuses on the isolation of this factor. Biochemistry of later carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes derived from the non-photosynthetic bacterium, Erwinia herbicola. Chapter 4 describes the separate overexpression and in vitro analysis of two enzymes involved in the main sequence of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, lycopene cyclase and 5-carotene hydroxylase. Chapter 5 examines the overexpression and enzymology of functionally active zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase, an enzyme which carries out a more unusual transformation, converting a carotenoid into its more hydrophilic mono- and diglucoside derivatives. In addition, amino acid homology with other glucosyltransferases suggests a putative binding site for the UDP-activated glucose substrate.

  6. Cellulose degradation by oxidative enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dimarogona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass has attracted intensive research interest for the production of economically viable biofuels. Here we present an overview of the recent findings on biocatalysts implicated in the oxidative cleavage of cellulose, including polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs or LPMOs which stands for lytic PMOs, cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs and members of carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33. PMOs, a novel class of enzymes previously termed GH61s, boost the efficiency of common cellulases resulting in increased hydrolysis yields while lowering the protein loading needed. They act on the crystalline part of cellulose by generating oxidized and non-oxidized chain ends. An external electron donor is required for boosting the activity of PMOs. We discuss recent findings concerning their mechanism of action and identify issues and questions to be addressed in the future.

  7. Ethanologenic Enzymes of Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Lonnie O' Neal

    1999-03-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a unique microorganism in being both obligately fermentative and utilizing a Entner-Doudoroff pathway for glycolysis. Glycolytic flux in this organism is readily measured as evolved carbon dioxide, ethanol, or glucose consumed and exceeds 1 {micro}mole glucose/min per mg cell protein. To support this rapid glycolysis, approximately 50% of cytoplasmic protein is devoted to the 13 glycolytic and fermentative enzymes which constitute this central catabolic pathway. Only 1 ATP (net) is produced from each glucose metabolized. During the past grant period, we have completed the characterization of 11 of the 13 glycolytic genes from Z. mobilis together with complementary but separate DOE-fimded research by a former post-dot and collaborator, Dr. Tyrrell Conway. Research funded in my lab by DOE, Division of Energy Biosciences can be divided into three sections: A. Fundamental studies; B. Applied studies and utility; and C. Miscellaneous investigations.

  8. Encapsulation of Enzymes and Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Gabrie M. H.

    A large part of formulated peptides and proteins, e.g., enzymes used as food ingredients, are formulated in a liquid form. Often, they are dissolved in water to which glycerol or sorbitol is added to reduce the water activity of the liquid, thus reducing the change of microbial growth. Still, there are reasons to formulate them in a solid form. Often, these reasons are stability, since a dry formulation is often much better than liquid formulations, and less transportation cost, since less mass is transported if one gets rid of the liquid; however, most of the times, the reason is that the product is mixed with a solid powder. Here, a liquid addition would lead to lump formation.

  9. Multi-enzyme Process Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade Santacoloma, Paloma de Gracia

    The subject of this thesis is to develop a methodological framework that can systematically guide mathematical model building for better understanding of multi-enzyme processes. In this way, opportunities for process improvements can be identified by analyzing simulations of either existing...... features of the process and provides the information required to structure the process model by using a step-by-step procedure with the required tools and methods. In this way, this framework increases efficiency of the model development process with respect to time and resources needed (fast and effective...... in the scientific literature. Reliable mathematical models of such multi-catalytic schemes can exploit the potential benefit of these processes. In this way, the best outcome of the process can be obtained understanding the types of modification that are required for process optimization. An effective evaluation...

  10. SPI-9 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is constituted by an operon positively regulated by RpoS and contributes to adherence to epithelial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Juan C; Hidalgo, Alejandro A; Villagra, Nicolás; Santiviago, Carlos A; Mora, Guido C; Fuentes, Juan A

    2016-08-01

    The genomic island 9 (SPI-9) from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) carries three ORFs (STY2876, STY2877, STY2878) presenting 98 % identity with a type 1 secretory apparatus (T1SS), and a single ORF (STY2875) similar to a large RTX-like protein exhibiting repeated Ig domains. BapA, the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis orthologous to S. Typhi STY2875, has been associated with biofilm formation, and is described as a virulence factor in mice. Preliminary in silico analyses revealed that S. Typhi STY2875 ORF has a 600 bp deletion compared with S. Enteritidis bapA, suggesting that S. Typhi STY2875 might be non-functional. At present, SPI-9 has not been studied in S. Typhi. We found that the genes constituting SPI-9 are arranged in an operon whose promoter was up-regulated in high osmolarity and low pH in a RpoS-dependent manner. All the proteins encoded by S. Typhi SPI-9 were located at the membrane fraction, consistent with their putative role as T1SS. Furthermore, SPI-9 contributed to adherence of S. Typhi to epithelial cells when bacteria were grown under high osmolarity or low pH. Under the test conditions, S. Typhi SPI-9 did not participate in biofilm formation. SPI-9 is functional in S. Typhi and encodes an adhesin induced under conditions normally found in the intestine, such as high osmolarity. Hence, this is an example of a locus that might be designated a pseudogene by computational approaches but not by direct biological assays.

  11. Physiological effects of anti-TRAP protein activity and tRNA(Trp) charging on trp operon expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Gong, Ming; Yanofsky, Charles

    2008-03-01

    The Bacillus subtilis anti-TRAP protein regulates the ability of the tryptophan-activated TRAP protein to bind to trp operon leader RNA and promote transcription termination. AT synthesis is regulated both transcriptionally and translationally by uncharged tRNA(Trp). In this study, we examined the roles of AT synthesis and tRNA(Trp) charging in mediating physiological responses to tryptophan starvation. Adding excess phenylalanine to wild-type cultures reduced the charged tRNA(Trp) level from 80% to 40%; the charged level decreased further, to 25%, in an AT-deficient mutant. Adding tryptophan with phenylalanine increased the charged tRNA(Trp) level, implying that phenylalanine, when added alone, reduces the availability of tryptophan for tRNA(Trp) charging. Changes in the charged tRNA(Trp) level observed during growth with added phenylalanine were associated with increased transcription of the genes of tryptophan metabolism. Nutritional shift experiments, from a medium containing tryptophan to a medium with phenylalanine and tyrosine, showed that wild-type cultures gradually reduced their charged tRNA(Trp) level. When this shift was performed with an AT-deficient mutant, the charged tRNA(Trp) level decreased even further. Growth rates for wild-type and mutant strains deficient in AT or TRAP or that overproduce AT were compared in various media. A lack of TRAP or overproduction of AT resulted in phenylalanine being required for growth. These findings reveal the importance of AT in maintaining a balance between the synthesis of tryptophan versus the synthesis of phenylalanine, with the level of charged tRNA(Trp) acting as the crucial signal regulating AT production. PMID:18178730

  12. Molecular dynamics investigation of the ionic liquid/enzyme interface: application to engineering enzyme surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Patrick R; Nordwald, Erik M; Hickman, Katie; Kaar, Joel L; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Molecular simulations of the enzymes Candida rugosa lipase and Bos taurus α-chymotrypsin in aqueous ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate were used to study the change in enzyme-solvent interactions induced by modification of the enzyme surface charge. The enzymes were altered by randomly mutating lysine surface residues to glutamate, effectively decreasing the net surface charge by two for each mutation. These mutations resemble succinylation of the enzyme by chemical modification, which has been shown to enhance the stability of both enzymes in ILs. After establishing that the enzymes were stable on the simulated time scales, we focused the analysis on the organization of the ionic liquid substituents about the enzyme surface. Calculated solvent charge densities show that for both enzymes and in both solvents that changing positively charged residues to negative charge does indeed increase the charge density of the solvent near the enzyme surface. The radial distribution of IL constituents with respect to the enzyme reveals decreased interactions with the anion are prevalent in the modified systems when compared to the wild type, which is largely accompanied by an increase in cation contact. Additionally, the radial dependence of the charge density and ion distribution indicates that the effect of altering enzyme charge is confined to short range (≤1 nm) ordering of the IL. Ultimately, these results, which are consistent with that from prior experiments, provide molecular insight into the effect of enzyme surface charge on enzyme stability in ILs. PMID:25641162

  13. Enzymes in Fish and Seafood Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. In recent decades, a growing trend toward a rational and controlled application of enzymes for such goals has emerged. Underlying such pattern are, among others, the increasingly wider array of enzyme activities and enzyme sources, improved enzyme formulations, and enhanced requirements for cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes. The better use of enzyme action in fish- and seafood-related application has had a significant impact on fish-related industry. Thus, new products have surfaced, product quality has improved, more sustainable processes have been developed, and innovative and reliable analytical techniques have been implemented. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. PMID:27458583

  14. Evaluation of pressure tuning of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naghshineh, Mahsa

    and high energy consumption. Therefore, searching for an environmentally friendly method of pectin extraction is a task for science and industry. Employment of hydrolytic enzymes may represent a green approach to obtain intact pectin polymer. However, the low stability/activity of enzymes, and low polymer...... yield of enzymatic extraction limits the application of enzyme in pectin production. There is evidence that emerging technology of high hydrostatic pressure processing can result in stabilization and activation of some enzymes. Therefore, the use of high hydrostatic pressure in combination with enzyme...... (cellulase/xylanase: 50/0, 50/25, 50/50, 25/50, and 0/50 U/g lime peel) at ambient pressure, 100 and 200 MPa were used to extract pectin from dried lime peel waste. It was found that pressure level, type and concentration of enzyme significantly influenced pectin yield and degree of esterification (DE...

  15. Prediction of Wild-type Enzyme Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz-Hansen, Henrik Marcus

    of biotechnology, including enzyme discovery and characterization. This work presents two articles on sequence-based discovery and functional annotation of enzymes in environmental samples, and two articles on analysis and prediction of enzyme thermostability and cofactor requirements. The first article presents...... a sequence-based approach to discovery of proteolytic enzymes in metagenomes obtained from the Polar oceans. We show that microorganisms living in these extreme environments of constant low temperature harbour genes encoding novel proteolytic enzymes with potential industrial relevance. The second article...... presents a web server for the processing and annotation of functional metagenomics sequencing data, tailored to meet the requirements of non-bioinformaticians. The third article presents analyses of the molecular determinants of enzyme thermostability, and a feature-based prediction method of the melting...

  16. Structure of cyanase reveals that a novel dimeric and decameric arrangement of subunits is required for formation of the enzyme active site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, M. A.; Otwinowski, Z.; Perrakis, A.; Anderson, P. M.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Texas; European Molecular Biology Lab.; Univ. of Minnesota; Northwestern Univ.

    2000-01-01

    Cyanase is an enzyme found in bacteria and plants that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. In Escherichia coli, cyanase is induced from the cyn operon in response to extracellular cyanate. The enzyme is functionally active as a homodecamer of 17 kDa subunits, and displays half-site binding of substrates or substrate analogs. The enzyme shows no significant amino acid sequence homology with other proteins. We have determined the crystal structure of cyanase at 1.65 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method. Cyanase crystals are triclinic and contain one homodecamer in the asymmetric unit. Selenomethionine-labeled protein offers 40 selenium atoms for use in phasing. Structures of cyanase with bound chloride or oxalate anions, inhibitors of the enzyme, allowed identification of the active site. The cyanase monomer is composed of two domains. The N-terminal domain shows structural similarity to the DNA-binding {alpha}-helix bundle motif. The C-terminal domain has an 'open fold' with no structural homology to other proteins. The subunits of cyanase are arranged in a novel manner both at the dimer and decamer level. The dimer structure reveals the C-terminal domains to be intertwined, and the decamer is formed by a pentamer of these dimers. The active site of the enzyme is located between dimers and is comprised of residues from four adjacent subunits of the homodecamer. The structural data allow a conceivable reaction mechanism to be proposed.

  17. Enzyme engineering reaches the boiling point

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Frances H.

    1998-01-01

    The boiled enzyme was toppled as a standard enzymology control when researchers in the 1970s started uncovering enzymes that loved the heat (1). Identification of a variety of intrinsically hyperstable enzymes from hyperthermophilic organisms, with optimal growth temperatures of 100°C and above, has piqued academic curiosity (e.g., how do these proteins withstand such ‘‘extreme’’ conditions?) and generated considerable interest for their possible applications in biotechnology (2, 3). The real...

  18. Recent advances in sulfotransferase enzyme activity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Priscilla; Suwan, Jiraporn; Liu, Jian; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfotransferases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfo groups from a donor, for example 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate, to an acceptor, for example the amino or hydroxyl groups of a small molecule, xenobiotic, carbohydrate, or peptide. These enzymes are important targets in the design of novel therapeutics for treatment of a variety of diseases. This review examines assays used for this important class of enzyme, paying particular attention to sulfotransferases acting on car...

  19. PURIFICATION OF GLUTAMINASE ENZYME PRODUCED FROM ERWINIA

    OpenAIRE

    PUSHPINDER PAUL

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to do Purification of the Glutaminase enzyme produced from free cells of Erwinia species at flask level. Glutaminase can be isolated from a number of sources such as plants, animals and microorganisms. Glutaminase is an important enzyme that serves many functions. It plays a key role in the energy and nitrogen metabolism of mammalian cells. Glutaminase is very important food enzyme used in food industries for flavor enhancement. Glutaminase, in combination with o...

  20. The mechanisms of Excited states in enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Bohr, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes.......Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes....

  1. Enzyme-based antifouling coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stefan Møller; Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Laursen, M.H.;

    2007-01-01

    for successful development of enzymatic AF coatings. The approaches described in the literature are divided into direct and indirect enzymatic AF, depending on the intended action of the enzymes. Direct antifouling is used when the enzymes themselves are active antifoulants. Indirect antifouling refers...... to the use of enzymes to release an active biocide with AF activity. For direct AF, several patents have been granted, and a commercial product has been launched. However, the achievement of an efficient broad-spectrum AF coating based on a single or a few enzymes has not yet been achieved. An indirect AF...

  2. A Bayesian method for identifying missing enzymes in predicted metabolic pathway databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Peter D

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PathoLogic program constructs Pathway/Genome databases by using a genome's annotation to predict the set of metabolic pathways present in an organism. PathoLogic determines the set of reactions composing those pathways from the enzymes annotated in the organism's genome. Most annotation efforts fail to assign function to 40–60% of sequences. In addition, large numbers of sequences may have non-specific annotations (e.g., thiolase family protein. Pathway holes occur when a genome appears to lack the enzymes needed to catalyze reactions in a pathway. If a protein has not been assigned a specific function during the annotation process, any reaction catalyzed by that protein will appear as a missing enzyme or pathway hole in a Pathway/Genome database. Results We have developed a method that efficiently combines homology and pathway-based evidence to identify candidates for filling pathway holes in Pathway/Genome databases. Our program not only identifies potential candidate sequences for pathway holes, but combines data from multiple, heterogeneous sources to assess the likelihood that a candidate has the required function. Our algorithm emulates the manual sequence annotation process, considering not only evidence from homology searches, but also considering evidence from genomic context (i.e., is the gene part of an operon? and functional context (e.g., are there functionally-related genes nearby in the genome? to determine the posterior belief that a candidate has the required function. The method can be applied across an entire metabolic pathway network and is generally applicable to any pathway database. The program uses a set of sequences encoding the required activity in other genomes to identify candidate proteins in the genome of interest, and then evaluates each candidate by using a simple Bayes classifier to determine the probability that the candidate has the desired function. We achieved 71% precision at a

  3. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-04-15

    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR methods depends on their influence on fluid/rock interactions related to wettability and fluid/fluid interactions reflected in IFT. If the method has the potential to change the interactions favorably, it may be considered for further investigation, i.e. core flooding experiment, pilot and reservoir implementation. Enzyme-proteins can be introduced as an enhanced oil recovery method to improve waterflood performance by affecting interactions at the oil-water-rock interfaces. An important part of this thesis was to investigate how selected enzymes may influence wettability and capillary forces in a crude oil-brine-rock system, and thus possibly contribute to enhanced oil recovery. To investigate further by which mechanisms selected enzyme-proteins may contribute to enhance oil recovery, groups of enzymes with different properties and catalytic functions, known to be interfacially active, were chosen to cover a wide range of possible effects. These groups include (1) Greenzyme (GZ) which is a commercial EOR enzyme and consists of enzymes and stabilizers (surfactants), (2) The Zonase group consists of two types of pure enzyme, Zonase1 and Zonase2 which are protease enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds, (3) The Novozyme (NZ) group consists of three types of pure enzyme, NZ2, NZ3 and NZ6 which are esterase enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze ester bonds, and (4) Alpha-Lactalbumin ( -La) which is an important whey protein. The effect of

  4. The Impact of Enzyme Orientation and Electrode Topology on the Catalytic Activity of Adsorbed Redox Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Duncan G. G.; Marritt, Sophie J.; Kemp, Gemma L.; Gordon-Brown, Piers; Butt, Julea N.; Jeuken, Lars J. C.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the structural details of electrodes and their interaction with adsorbed enzyme influences the interfacial electron transfer rate. However, for nanostructured electrodes, it is likely that the structure also impacts on substrate flux near the adsorbed enzymes and thus catalytic activity. Furthermore, for enzymes converting macro-molecular substrates it is possible that the enzyme orientation determines the nature of interactions between the adsorbed enzyme and substrate and therefore catalytic rates. In essence the electrode may impede substrate access to the active site of the enzyme. We have tested these possibilities through studies of the catalytic performance of two enzymes adsorbed on topologically distinct electrode materials. Escherichia coli NrfA, a nitrite reductase, was adsorbed on mesoporous, nanocrystalline SnO2 electrodes. CymA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 reduces menaquinone-7 within 200 nm sized liposomes and this reaction was studied with the enzyme adsorbed on SAM modified ultra-flat gold electrodes. PMID:24634538

  5. The Impact of Enzyme Orientation and Electrode Topology on the Catalytic Activity of Adsorbed Redox Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Duncan G G; Marritt, Sophie J; Kemp, Gemma L; Gordon-Brown, Piers; Butt, Julea N; Jeuken, Lars J C

    2013-11-01

    It is well established that the structural details of electrodes and their interaction with adsorbed enzyme influences the interfacial electron transfer rate. However, for nanostructured electrodes, it is likely that the structure also impacts on substrate flux near the adsorbed enzymes and thus catalytic activity. Furthermore, for enzymes converting macro-molecular substrates it is possible that the enzyme orientation determines the nature of interactions between the adsorbed enzyme and substrate and therefore catalytic rates. In essence the electrode may impede substrate access to the active site of the enzyme. We have tested these possibilities through studies of the catalytic performance of two enzymes adsorbed on topologically distinct electrode materials. Escherichia coli NrfA, a nitrite reductase, was adsorbed on mesoporous, nanocrystalline SnO2 electrodes. CymA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 reduces menaquinone-7 within 200 nm sized liposomes and this reaction was studied with the enzyme adsorbed on SAM modified ultra-flat gold electrodes.

  6. Genetic organization of the Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii hrp gene cluster and sequence analysis of the hrpA, hrpC, hrpN, and wtsE operons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, R D; Ahmad, M; Majerczak, D R; Arroyo-Rodríguez, A S; Manulis, S; Coplin, D L

    2001-10-01

    The hrp/wts gene cluster of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is required for pathogenicity on sweet corn and the ability to elicit a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. Site-directed transposon mutagenesis and nucleotide sequencing were used to identify hrp/wts genes within the left 20 kb of this cluster. Seventeen open reading frames (ORFs) comprise seven genetic complementation groups. These ORFs share homology with hrp and dsp genes from Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia chrysanthemi, and Pseudomonas syringae pathovars and have been designated, in map order, wtsF, wtsE, hrpN, hrpV, hrpT, hrcC, hrpG, hrpF, hrpE, hrpD, hrcJ, hrpB, hrpA, hrpS, hrpY, hrpX, and hrpL. Putative hrp consensus promoter sequences were identified upstream of hrpA, hrpF, hrpN, and wtsE. Expression of the hrpA, hrpC, and wtsE operons was regulated by HrpS. Transposon mutations in all of the hrp operons abolished pathogenicity and HR elicitation, except for the hrpN and hrpV mutants, which were still pathogenic. hrpS, hrpXY, and hrpL regulatory mutations abolished HrpN synthesis, whereas secretory mutations in the hrpC, hrpA, and hrpJ operons permitted intracellular HrpN synthesis. wtsEF mutants were not pathogenic but still produced HrpN and elicited the HR. wtsE encodes a 201-kDa protein that is similar to DspE in E. amylovora and AvrE in P. syringae pv. tomato, suggesting that this protein is a major virulence factor involved in the elicitation of water-soaked lesions. PMID:11605961

  7. 大肠杆菌色氨酸操纵子基因突变株的构建与表达%Construction and Expression of Trp Operon Gene Mutant of E.coil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林维平; 刘晓影; 武敬亮; 高志芹; 孙同毅

    2010-01-01

    目的 构建大肠杆菌色氨酸操纵子基因突变株.提高邻氨基苯甲酸合成酶和色氨酸合成酶的产量.方法 利用依赖于Opn I酶的PCR方法突变表达载体pET-22b(+)-Trp Operon上的关键位点,PCR扩增Trp OperonM基因,构建pET-22b (+)-Trp OperonM重组表达质粒,经酶切及测序鉴定正确后,转化大肠杆菌BL21(DE3),IPTG诱导表达.制备粗酶液,经比色法测定邻氨基苯甲酸合成酶和色氨酸合成酶的活性.结果 PCR扩增产物可见约7 000 bp的Trp OperoM条带;所构建的重组表达质粒经酶切及测序鉴定正确;邻氨基苯甲酸合成酶和色氨酸合成酶的活性比大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)空菌分别提高了4.5倍和5.2倍.结论 已成功构建了大肠杆菌色氨酸操纵子基因突变株BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-Trp OperonM邻氨基苯甲酸合成酶和色氨酸合成酶的活性均有提高,为高产色氨酸基因工程菌的构建奠定了基础.

  8. Endotoxin contamination of enzyme conjugates used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, R. E.; Chamovitz, B N; Morse, S A; Apicella, M A; Morthland, V H

    1983-01-01

    The specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(s) is thought to depend on the specificity of the antibody used in the assay system. Therefore, the association of broadly reactive antigens like endotoxin with enzyme conjugates or other enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reagents has the potential of altering the specificity of reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay, we demonstrated that commercially prepared conjugates of goat ant...

  9. The pyrH gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris encoding UMP kinase is transcribed as part of an operon including the frr1 gene encoding ribosomal recycling factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lüders; Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The pyrH gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363, encoding UMP kinase, has been sequenced and cloned. It encodes a polypeptide of 239 amino acid residues (deduced molecular weight of 25951), which was shown to complement a temperature sensitive pyrH mutation in Escherichia coli, thus...... establishing the ability of the encoded protein to synthesize UDP. The pyrH gene in L. lactis is flanked downstream by frr1 encoding ribosomal recycling factor 1 and upstream by an open reading frame, orfA, of unknown function. The three genes were shown to constitute an operon transcribed in the direction orf...

  10. Fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cloning and characterization of the fabAB operon encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabA) and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (FabB).

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, T.T.; Schweizer, H P

    1997-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabA and fabB genes, encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I, respectively, were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Northern analysis demonstrated that fabA and fabB are cotranscribed and most probably form a fabAB operon. The FabA and FabB proteins were similar in size and amino acid composition to their counterparts from Escherichia coli and to the putative homologs from Haemop...

  11. Bacterial Enzymes and Antibiotic Resistance- Oral Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Lauren [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-25

    By using protein crystallography and X-ray diffraction, structures of bacterial enzymes were solved to gain a better understanding of how enzymatic modification acts as an antibacterial resistance mechanism. Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) are one of three aminoglycoside modifying enzymes that confer resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics via enzymatic modification, rendering many drugs obsolete. Specifically, the APH(2”) family vary in their substrate specificities and also in their preference for the phosphate donor (ADP versus GDP). By solving the structures of members of the APH(2”) family of enzymes, we can see how domain movements are important to their substrate specificity. Our structure of the ternary complex of APH(2”)-IIIa with GDP and kanamycin, when compared to the known structures of APH(2”)-IVa, reveals that there are real physical differences between these two enzymes, a structural finding that explains why the two enzymes differ in their preferences for certain aminoglycosides. Another important group of bacterial resistance enzymes are the Class D β-lactamases. Oxacillinase carbapenemases (OXAs) are part of this enzyme class and have begun to confer resistance to ‘last resort’ drugs, most notably carbapenems. Our structure of OXA-143 shows that the conformational flexibility of a conserved hydrophobic residue in the active site (Val130) serves to control the entry of a transient water molecule responsible for a key step in the enzyme’s mechanism. Our results provide insight into the structural mechanisms of these two different enzymes.

  12. Immobilization to prevent enzyme incompatibility with proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossenberg, P.; Beeftink, H.H.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Tramper, J.

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme incompatibility is a problem in multi-enzyme processes that involve a non-specific protease, such as Alcalase. An example is the one-pot enzymatic synthesis of peptides catalyzed by a lipase and a protease. The incompatibility between lipase B from Candida antarctica (CalB) and Alcalase was s

  13. The use of enzymes for beer brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process. Th

  14. Enzyme Activity Experiments Using a Simple Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Experimental procedures for studying enzyme activity using a Spectronic 20 spectrophotometer are described. The experiments demonstrate the effect of pH, temperature, and inhibitors on enzyme activity and allow the determination of Km, Vmax, and Kcat. These procedures are designed for teaching large lower-level biochemistry classes. (MR)

  15. A toy quantum analog of enzymes

    CERN Document Server

    Svetlichny, George

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantum system incorporating qualitative aspects of enzyme action in which the possibility of quantum superposition of several conformations of the enzyme-substrate complex is investigated. We present numerical results showing quantum effects that transcend the case of a statistical mixture of conformations.

  16. Orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watschinger, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R

    2013-01-01

    Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. They have important roles as membrane components of e.g. lens, brain and testis, and as mediators such as platelet-activating factor. The metabolic enzymes for biosynthesis and degradation have been investigated to some extent. As most involved enzymes are integral membrane proteins they are tricky to handle in biochemical protocols. The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. Defined enzymes without assigned sequence are known as orphan enzymes. One of these enzymes with uncharacterised sequence is plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of one of the most abundant phospholipids in our body, the plasmalogens. This review aims to briefly summarise known functions of ether lipids, give an overview on their metabolism including the most prominent members, platelet-activating factor and the plasmalogens. A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. Only one of these four was characterised by classical protein purification and sequencing, whereas the other three required alternative strategies such as bioinformatic candidate gene selection and recombinant expression or development of an inhibitor and multidimensional metabolic profiling.

  17. Cytochrome P450 enzyme systems in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, H.M. van den; Gorcom, R.F.M. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The involvement of cytochrome P450 enzymes in many complex fungal bioconversion processes has been characterized in recent years. Accordingly, there is now considerable scientific interest in fungal cytochrome P450 enzyme systems. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, where surprisingly few P450 genes have

  18. Enzyme Catalysis and the Gibbs Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Addison

    2009-01-01

    Gibbs-energy profiles are often introduced during the first semester of organic chemistry, but are less often presented in connection with enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In this article I show how the Gibbs-energy profile corresponds to the characteristic kinetics of a simple enzyme-catalyzed reaction. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  19. Enzyme adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinhoven, S.

    1992-01-01

    Enzymes are proteins with the capacity of catalysing various reactions. Nowadays two types of enzymes, proteases and lipases, are available for use in detergent formulations for household and industrial laundry washing. Proteases are capable of catalysing the hydrolysis of proteins while lipases ena

  20. New rhamnogalacturonan degrading enzymes from Aspergillus aculeatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutter, M.

    1997-01-01

    Three new  rhamnogalacturonan degrading enzymes were purified from a commercial enzyme preparation, Pectinex Ultra SP, produced by the fungus Aspergillus aculeatus . Pectinex Ultra SP is industrially used in the mash treatment of apples and pears in juice production, increasing juice yield. Rhamnoga

  1. Illustrating Enzyme Inhibition Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles have great utility as teaching and learning tools because they present students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis. Unfortunately, most textbooks divorce discussions of traditional kinetic topics, such as enzyme inhibition, from discussions of these same topics in terms of…

  2. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  3. Application of radiopolymerization for immobilization of enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrophilic glass-forming monomers were used in an application of irradiation technology for the immobilization of cellulase and cellobiase. Experiments to observe the effect of additives such as silicates and polyethylene glycol in the enzyme entrapment are reported on. In all cases, enzymatic activity was maintained for more than fifteen batch enzyme reactions. (Author)

  4. Enzyme Activity of Cenococcum geophilum Isolates on Enzyme-specific Solid Media

    OpenAIRE

    Obase, Keisuke; Lee, Sang Yong; Chun, Kun Woo; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme activities of Cenococcum geophilum isolates were examined on enzyme-specific solid media. Deoxyribonuclease, phosphatase, and urease were detected in all isolates, whereas cellulase was not detected in any of the isolates. Variations in enzyme activities of amylase, caseinolysis, gelatinase, lipase, and ribonuclease were observed among isolates.

  5. Enzyme activity assay of glycoprotein enzymes based on a boronate affinity molecularly imprinted 96-well microplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaodong; Liu, Zhen

    2014-12-16

    Enzyme activity assay is an important method in clinical diagnostics. However, conventional enzyme activity assay suffers from apparent interference from the sample matrix. Herein, we present a new format of enzyme activity assay that can effectively eliminate the effects of the sample matrix. The key is a 96-well microplate modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) prepared according to a newly proposed method called boronate affinity-based oriented surface imprinting. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a glycoprotein enzyme that has been routinely used as an indicator for several diseases in clinical tests, was taken as a representative target enzyme. The prepared MIP exhibited strong affinity toward the template enzyme (with a dissociation constant of 10(-10) M) as well as superb tolerance for interference. Thus, the enzyme molecules in a complicated sample matrix could be specifically captured and cleaned up for enzyme activity assay, which eliminated the interference from the sample matrix. On the other hand, because the boronate affinity MIP could well retain the enzymatic activity of glycoprotein enzymes, the enzyme captured by the MIP was directly used for activity assay. Thus, additional assay time and possible enzyme or activity loss due to an enzyme release step required by other methods were avoided. Assay of ALP in human serum was successfully demonstrated, suggesting a promising prospect of the proposed method in real-world applications.

  6. Enzyme-Immobilized Microfluidic Process Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Maeda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Microreaction technology, which is an interdisciplinary science and engineering area, has been the focus of different fields of research in the past few years. Several microreactors have been developed. Enzymes are a type of catalyst, which are useful in the production of substance in an environmentally friendly way, and they also have high potential for analytical applications. However, not many enzymatic processes have been commercialized, because of problems in stability of the enzymes, cost, and efficiency of the reactions. Thus, there have been demands for innovation in process engineering, particularly for enzymatic reactions, and microreaction devices represent important tools for the development of enzyme processes. In this review, we summarize the recent advances of microchannel reaction technologies especially for enzyme immobilized microreactors. We discuss the manufacturing process of microreaction devices and the advantages of microreactors compared to conventional reaction devices. Fundamental techniques for enzyme immobilized microreactors and important applications of this multidisciplinary technology are also included in our topics.

  7. Directed Evolution of Enzymes for Industrial Biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Joanne L; Rusli, Rukhairul A; Ollis, David L

    2016-02-01

    Enzymes have the potential to catalyse a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are increasingly being sought as environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternatives to conventional catalysts used in industries ranging from bioremediation to applications in medicine and pharmaceutics. Despite the benefits, they are not without their limitations. Many naturally occurring enzymes are not suitable for use outside of their native cellular environments. However, protein engineering can be used to generate enzymes tailored for specific industrial applications. Directed evolution is particularly useful and can be employed even when lack of structural information impedes the use of rational design. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current industrial applications of enzyme technology and to show how directed evolution can be used to modify and to enhance enzyme properties. This includes a brief discussion on library generation and a more detailed focus on library screening methods, which are critical to any directed evolution experiment.

  8. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    of fermentable sugars (glucose) as cellulose is tightly linked to hemicellulose and lignin. Lignocellulose is disrupted during pretreatment, but to degrade cellulose to single sugars, lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases and hemicellulases are needed. Lignocellulolytic enzymes are costly...... for the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol processes....... Enzymes are added to the bioethanol process after pretreatment. For an efficient sugar and ethanol yield, the solids content of biomass is normally increased, which results in highly viscous slurries that are difficult to mix. Therefore, the first enzymatic challenge is to ensure rapid reduction...

  9. Production of cellulolytic enzymes from ascomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gustav Hammerich; Lübeck, Mette; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing production of cellulose degrading enzymes is of great interest in order to increase the feasibility of constructing biorefinery facilities for a sustainable supply of energy and chemical products. The ascomycete phylum has a large potential for the production of cellulolytic enzymes....... Although numerous enzymatic profiles have already been unraveled, the research has been covering only a limited number of species and genera, thus leaving many ascomycetes to be analyzed. Such analysis requires choosing appropriate media and cultivation methods that ensure enzyme profiles with high...... specificities and activities. However, the choice of media, cultivation methods and enzyme assays highly affect the enzyme activity profile observed. This review provides an overview of enzymatic profiles for several ascomycetes covering phylogenetically distinct genera and species. The profiles of cellulose...

  10. ARCD, THE 1ST GENE OF THE ARC OPERON FOR ANAEROBIC ARGININE CATABOLISM IN PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA, ENCODES AN ARGININE-ORNITHINE EXCHANGER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERHOOGT, HJC; SMIT, H; ABEE, T; GAMPER, M; DRIESSEN, AJM; KONINGS, WN

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of oxygen and nitrate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa metabolizes arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway, which allows slow growth on rich media. The conversion of arginine to ornithine, CO2, and NH3 is coupled to the production of ATP from ADP. The enzymes of the arginine deiminase path

  11. Highly efficient enzyme encapsulation in a protein nanocage: towards enzyme catalysis in a cellular nanocompartment mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonen, Lise; Nolte, Roeland J M; van Hest, Jan C M

    2016-08-14

    The study of enzyme behavior in small nanocompartments is crucial for the understanding of biocatalytic processes in the cellular environment. We have developed an enzymatic conjugation strategy to attach a model enzyme to the interior of a cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid. It is shown that with this methodology high encapsulation efficiencies can be achieved. Additionally, we demonstrate that the encapsulation does not affect the enzyme performance in terms of a decreased activity or a hampered substrate diffusion. Finally, it is shown that the encapsulated enzymes are protected against proteases. We believe that our strategy can be used to study enzyme kinetics in an environment that approaches physiological conditions. PMID:27407020

  12. Metagenomics as a Tool for Enzyme Discovery: Hydrolytic Enzymes from Marine-Related Metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Ana; Tchigvintsev, Anatoly; Tran, Hai; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Golyshina, Olga V; Yakimov, Michail M; Golyshin, Peter N; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses metagenomics and its application for enzyme discovery, with a focus on hydrolytic enzymes from marine metagenomic libraries. With less than one percent of culturable microorganisms in the environment, metagenomics, or the collective study of community genetics, has opened up a rich pool of uncharacterized metabolic pathways, enzymes, and adaptations. This great untapped pool of genes provides the particularly exciting potential to mine for new biochemical activities or novel enzymes with activities tailored to peculiar sets of environmental conditions. Metagenomes also represent a huge reservoir of novel enzymes for applications in biocatalysis, biofuels, and bioremediation. Here we present the results of enzyme discovery for four enzyme activities, of particular industrial or environmental interest, including esterase/lipase, glycosyl hydrolase, protease and dehalogenase.

  13. Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Colpa, Dana I; Habib, Mohamed H M; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-10-20

    Lignin forms a large part of plant biomass. It is a highly heterogeneous polymer of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units and is embedded within polysaccharide polymers forming lignocellulose. Lignin provides strength and rigidity to plants and is rather resilient towards degradation. To improve the (bio)processing of lignocellulosic feedstocks, more effective degradation methods of lignin are in demand. Nature has found ways to fully degrade lignin through the production of dedicated ligninolytic enzyme systems. While such enzymes have been well thoroughly studied for ligninolytic fungi, only in recent years biochemical studies on bacterial enzymes capable of lignin modification have intensified. This has revealed several types of enzymes available to bacteria that enable them to act on lignin. Two major classes of bacterial lignin-modifying enzymes are DyP-type peroxidases and laccases. Yet, recently also several other bacterial enzymes have been discovered that seem to play a role in lignin modifications. In the present review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the identification and use of bacterial enzymes acting on lignin or lignin-derived products. PMID:27544286

  14. Enzyme immobilization by means of ultrafiltration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardi, V; Cantarella, M; Gianfreda, L; Palescandolo, R; Alfani, F; Greco, G

    1980-01-01

    Unstirred, plane membrane, ultrafiltration cells have been used as enzymatic reactor units. Because of the concentration polarization phenomena which take place in the system, at steady-state the enzyme is confined (dynamically immobilized) within an extremely narrow region upstream the ultrafiltration membrane. Correspondingly its concentration attains fairly high values. Kinetic studies have been therefore performed under quite unusual experimental conditions in order to better approximate local enzyme concentration levels in immobilized enzyme systems. Studies have been also carried out on the kinetics of enzyme deactivation in the continuous presence of substrate and reaction products. Once the enzyme concentration profile is completely developed, further injection into the system of suitable amounts of an inert proteic macromolecule (albumin polymers) gives rise to the formation of a gel layer onto the ultrafiltration membrane within which the enzyme is entrapped (statically immobilized). The effect of this immobilization technique has been studied as far as the kinetics of the main reaction, the substrate mass transfer resistances and the enzyme stability are concerned. The rejective properties of such gel layers towards enzymatic molecules have been exploited in producing multilayer, multi-enzymatic reactors. PMID:7417597

  15. The MetaCyc database of metabolic pathways and enzymes and the BioCyc collection of pathway/genome databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Ron; Billington, Richard; Ferrer, Luciana; Foerster, Hartmut; Fulcher, Carol A; Keseler, Ingrid M; Kothari, Anamika; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Mueller, Lukas A; Ong, Quang; Paley, Suzanne; Subhraveti, Pallavi; Weaver, Daniel S; Karp, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    The MetaCyc database (MetaCyc.org) is a freely accessible comprehensive database describing metabolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life. The majority of MetaCyc pathways are small-molecule metabolic pathways that have been experimentally determined. MetaCyc contains more than 2400 pathways derived from >46,000 publications, and is the largest curated collection of metabolic pathways. BioCyc (BioCyc.org) is a collection of 5700 organism-specific Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs), each containing the full genome and predicted metabolic network of one organism, including metabolites, enzymes, reactions, metabolic pathways, predicted operons, transport systems, and pathway-hole fillers. The BioCyc website offers a variety of tools for querying and analyzing PGDBs, including Omics Viewers and tools for comparative analysis. This article provides an update of new developments in MetaCyc and BioCyc during the last two years, including addition of Gibbs free energy values for compounds and reactions; redesign of the primary gene/protein page; addition of a tool for creating diagrams containing multiple linked pathways; several new search capabilities, including searching for genes based on sequence patterns, searching for databases based on an organism's phenotypes, and a cross-organism search; and a metabolite identifier translation service.

  16. Modeling amperometric biosensors based on allosteric enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liutauras Ričkus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling of a biosensor with allosteric enzyme layer was investigated in this study. The operation of the biosensor is modeled using non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves three regions: the allosteric enzyme layer where the allosteric enzyme reactions as well as then mass transport by diffusion take place, the diffusion region where the mass transport by diffusion and non-enzymatic reactions take place and the convective region in which the analyte concentration is maintained constant. The biosensor response on dependency substrate concentration, cooperativity coefficient and the diffusion layer thickness on the same parameters have been studied.

  17. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...... appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied...

  18. Process for preparing multilayer enzyme coating on a fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae; Kwak, Ja Hun; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-11-03

    A process for preparing high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials is disclosed and processes for using the same. The process involves coating of a material or fiber with enzymes and enzyme aggregate providing a material or fiber with high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environments. In one illustrative approach, enzyme "seeds" are covalently attached to polymer nanofibers followed by treatment with a reagent that crosslinks additional enzyme molecules to the seed enzymes forming enzyme aggregates thereby improving biocatalytic activity due to increased enzyme loading and enzyme stability. This approach creates a useful new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with potential applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  19. An attenuated mutant of the Rv1747 ATP-binding cassette transporter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a mutant of its cognate kinase, PknF, show increased expression of the efflux pump-related iniBAC operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Vicky L; Whalan, Rachael H; Hirst, Elizabeth M A; Smerdon, Stephen J; Buxton, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter Rv1747 is required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice and in macrophages. Its structure suggests it is an exporter. Rv1747 forms a two-gene operon with pknF coding for the serine/threonine protein kinase PknF, which positively modulates the function of the transporter. We show that deletion of Rv1747 or pknF results in a number of transcriptional changes which could be complemented by the wild type allele, most significantly up-regulation of the iniBAC genes. This operon is inducible by isoniazid and ethambutol and by a broad range of inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis and is required for efflux pump functioning. However, neither the Rv1747 or pknF mutant showed increased susceptibility to a range of drugs and cell wall stress reagents including isoniazid and ethambutol, cell wall structure and cell division appear normal by electron microscopy, and no differences in lipoarabinomannan were found. Transcription from the pknF promoter was not induced by a range of stress reagents. We conclude that the loss of Rv1747 affects cell wall biosynthesis leading to the production of intermediates that cause induction of iniBAC transcription and implicates it in exporting a component of the cell wall, which is necessary for virulence. PMID:23915284

  20. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  1. Potato Peroxidase for the Study of Enzyme Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaefsky, Brian R.

    1993-01-01

    Explains how the surface of a freshly sliced potato can be used for a variety of enzyme action experiments including the influence of pH on enzyme action, the enzyme denaturation potential of boiling water, the inhibition of enzymes by heavy metals, and the effects of salt concentration on enzyme effectiveness. (PR)

  2. Highly efficient enzyme encapsulation in a protein nanocage: towards enzyme catalysis in a cellular nanocompartment mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonen, Lise; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    2016-07-01

    The study of enzyme behavior in small nanocompartments is crucial for the understanding of biocatalytic processes in the cellular environment. We have developed an enzymatic conjugation strategy to attach a model enzyme to the interior of a cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid. It is shown that with this methodology high encapsulation efficiencies can be achieved. Additionally, we demonstrate that the encapsulation does not affect the enzyme performance in terms of a decreased activity or a hampered substrate diffusion. Finally, it is shown that the encapsulated enzymes are protected against proteases. We believe that our strategy can be used to study enzyme kinetics in an environment that approaches physiological conditions.The study of enzyme behavior in small nanocompartments is crucial for the understanding of biocatalytic processes in the cellular environment. We have developed an enzymatic conjugation strategy to attach a model enzyme to the interior of a cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid. It is shown that with this methodology high encapsulation efficiencies can be achieved. Additionally, we demonstrate that the encapsulation does not affect the enzyme performance in terms of a decreased activity or a hampered substrate diffusion. Finally, it is shown that the encapsulated enzymes are protected against proteases. We believe that our strategy can be used to study enzyme kinetics in an environment that approaches physiological conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures for the cloning, expression, and purification of all proteins, as well as supplementary figures and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04181g

  3. ZnO-Based Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helong Jiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO with its unique properties could provide a suitable microenvironment for immobilization of enzymes while retaining their biological activity, and thus lead to an expanded use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance. ZnO-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors are summarized in several tables for an easy overview according to the target biosensing analyte (glucose, hydrogen peroxide, phenol and cholesterol, respectively. Moreover, recent developments in enzyme electrochemical biosensors based on ZnO nanomaterials are reviewed with an emphasis on the fabrications and features of ZnO, approaches for biosensor construction (e.g., modified electrodes and enzyme immobilization and biosensor performances.

  4. Novel enzymes for the degradation of cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn Svein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bulk terrestrial biomass resource in a future bio-economy will be lignocellulosic biomass, which is recalcitrant and challenging to process. Enzymatic conversion of polysaccharides in the lignocellulosic biomass will be a key technology in future biorefineries and this technology is currently the subject of intensive research. We describe recent developments in enzyme technology for conversion of cellulose, the most abundant, homogeneous and recalcitrant polysaccharide in lignocellulosic biomass. In particular, we focus on a recently discovered new type of enzymes currently classified as CBM33 and GH61 that catalyze oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides. These enzymes promote the efficiency of classical hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases by acting on the surfaces of the insoluble substrate, where they introduce chain breaks in the polysaccharide chains, without the need of first “extracting” these chains from their crystalline matrix.

  5. Enzymes: The possibility of production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronijević Živomir B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are biological catalysts with increasing application in the food pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and chemical industry. They are also important as reagents in chemical analysis, leather fabrications and as targets for the design of new drugs. Keeping in mind the growing need to replace classical chemical processes by alternative ones, because of ever growing environmental pollution, it is important that enzyme and other biotechnological processes are economical. Therefore, price decrease and stability and enzyme preparation efficiency increase are required more and more. This paper presents a short review of methods for yield increase and the improvement of the quality of enzyme products as commercial products, as well as a review of the possibilities of their application.

  6. Archaeal Enzymes and Applications in Industrial Biocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlechild, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Archaeal enzymes are playing an important role in industrial biotechnology. Many representatives of organisms living in "extreme" conditions, the so-called Extremophiles, belong to the archaeal kingdom of life. This paper will review studies carried by the Exeter group and others regarding archaeal enzymes that have important applications in commercial biocatalysis. Some of these biocatalysts are already being used in large scale industrial processes for the production of optically pure drug intermediates and amino acids and their analogues. Other enzymes have been characterised at laboratory scale regarding their substrate specificity and properties for potential industrial application. The increasing availability of DNA sequences from new archaeal species and metagenomes will provide a continuing resource to identify new enzymes of commercial interest using both bioinformatics and screening approaches.

  7. PURIFICATION OF CATALASE ENZYME FROM PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmitha.S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus is the most commonly cultivated mushroom, and are effective for antitumor, antibacterial, anti viral and hematological agents and in immune modulating treatments. Several compounds from oyster mushrooms, potentially beneficial for human health have been isolated and studied. The aim of this research is to purify an enzyme catalase from Pleurotus ostreatus through Sephadox G-75 column, its molecular weight was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the catalase enzyme stability were observed at various temperature and different pH condition. Under denaturing conditions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed dissociation of a major component of molecular weight 62,000 kDa, which constituted 90% of the total protein of the stained gel, suggesting that the native enzyme is tetrameric. The optimum temperature and pH for the purified enzyme catalase from Pleurotus ostreatus enzymatic reaction were 30°C and pH 7.5.

  8. Enzyme clustering can induce metabolic channeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellana, Michele

    2015-03-01

    Direct channeling of intermediates via a physical tunnel between enzyme active sites is an established mechanism to improve metabolic efficiency. In this talk, I will present a theoretical model that demonstrates that coclustering multiple enzymes into proximity can yield the full efficiency benefits of direct channeling. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with the spacing between coclusters in yeast and mammalian cells. The model also predicts that enzyme agglomerates can regulate steady-state flux division at metabolic branch points: we experimentally test this prediction for a fundamental branch point in Escherichia coli, and the results confirm that enzyme colocalization within an agglomerate can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation.

  9. Archaeal Enzymes and Applications in Industrial Biocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Littlechild

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeal enzymes are playing an important role in industrial biotechnology. Many representatives of organisms living in “extreme” conditions, the so-called Extremophiles, belong to the archaeal kingdom of life. This paper will review studies carried by the Exeter group and others regarding archaeal enzymes that have important applications in commercial biocatalysis. Some of these biocatalysts are already being used in large scale industrial processes for the production of optically pure drug intermediates and amino acids and their analogues. Other enzymes have been characterised at laboratory scale regarding their substrate specificity and properties for potential industrial application. The increasing availability of DNA sequences from new archaeal species and metagenomes will provide a continuing resource to identify new enzymes of commercial interest using both bioinformatics and screening approaches.

  10. Microbial Enzymes: Tools for Biotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Adrio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial enzymes are of great importance in the development of industrial bioprocesses. Current applications are focused on many different markets including pulp and paper, leather, detergents and textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemical, food and beverages, biofuels, animal feed and personal care, among others. Today there is a need for new, improved or/and more versatile enzymes in order to develop more novel, sustainable and economically competitive production processes. Microbial diversity and modern molecular techniques, such as metagenomics and genomics, are being used to discover new microbial enzymes whose catalytic properties can be improved/modified by different strategies based on rational, semi-rational and random directed evolution. Most industrial enzymes are recombinant forms produced in bacteria and fungi.

  11. Supramolecular Tectonics for Enzyme-like Reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO; LuYuan

    2001-01-01

    The enzyme-likes and bioactive species were closely related with the life phenomena and served as the reagent of bioassy1,2. In present works, the flow cytometry (FCM) and rapid-scanning stopped-flow (RSSF) spectroscopy combine with the stopped-flow difference UV/Vis spectra, FT-IR and other methods of assay, being used to study the biomimetic reaction and enzyme mimic. Based on catalytic kinetics of enzyme reaction3,4, the reaction mechanisms of the enzyme-likes had been studied and some new methods of kinetic determination were proposed. The study and methods not only provided the basic theoretical models for the life science, but also widened the application fields of biomimetic and analytical chemistry. The main contents of our works and the supramolecular models can be described as follows:  ……

  12. Microbial enzymes: tools for biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose L; Demain, Arnold L

    2014-01-16

    Microbial enzymes are of great importance in the development of industrial bioprocesses. Current applications are focused on many different markets including pulp and paper, leather, detergents and textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemical, food and beverages, biofuels, animal feed and personal care, among others. Today there is a need for new, improved or/and more versatile enzymes in order to develop more novel, sustainable and economically competitive production processes. Microbial diversity and modern molecular techniques, such as metagenomics and genomics, are being used to discover new microbial enzymes whose catalytic properties can be improved/modified by different strategies based on rational, semi-rational and random directed evolution. Most industrial enzymes are recombinant forms produced in bacteria and fungi.

  13. Enzyme conductometric biosensor for maltose determination

    OpenAIRE

    Dzyadevych S. V.; Soldatkin O. O.; Saiapina O. Y.; Pyeshkova V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim. To develop enzyme conductometric biosensor for maltose determination. Methods. A conductometric transducer consisting of two gold pairs of electrodes was applied. Three-enzyme membrane (glucose oxidase, mutarotase, -glucosidase) immobilized on the surface of the conductometric transducer was used as a bioselective element. Results. A linear range of maltose conductometric biosensor was from 0,002 mM to 1 mM for glucose and maltose detection. The time of maltose analysis in solution was 1...

  14. ZnO-Based Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Helong Jiang; Baoping Wang; Xiaobing Zhang; Zhiwei Zhao; Wei Lei

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO with its unique properties could provide a suitable microenvironment for immobilization of enzymes while retaining their biological activity, and thus lead to an expanded use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance. ZnO-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors are summarized in several tables for an easy overview according to the target biosensing analyte (glucose, hydrogen peroxide, phenol and cholesterol)...

  15. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenal, D.; Bajpai, P. K.; S P Mishra; Sharma, N.; Anand, A; Bajpai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an...

  16. Production of Protease Enzyme from Wheat Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed A. Atiya

    2008-01-01

    Protease enzyme production was studied and optimized as a first step to collect information about solid state fermenter) to produce protease enzyme. A local isolated Aspergillus niger was used for this study with constant spores feeding in every experiment at (105/g). Experiments carried out in conical flasks with (250 ml) containing (10 g) of wheat straw as a substrate with different conditions included temperature, pH, hydration ratio, and fermentation time, the results comprised by measuri...

  17. Enzyme Scouring of Cotton Fabrics: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2012-01-01

    Textile processing is a growing industry that traditionally has used a lot of water, energy and harsh chemicals. Due to the ever-growing costs for water and energy worldwide investigations are carriedout to substitute conventional chemical textile processes by environment-friendly andeconomically attractive bioprocesses using enzymes. Enzymes are used in a broad range of processes in the textileindustry: scouring, bleachclean-up, desizing, denim abrasion andpolishing. The conventional scourin...

  18. Enzymes in textile industry: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2014-01-01

    Textile processing is a growing industry that traditionally has used a lot of water, energy and harsh chemicals. Due to the ever-growing costs for water and energy worldwide investigations are carried out to substitute conventional chemical textile processes by environment-friendly and economically attractive bioprocesses using enzymes. The enzymes used in the textile field are amylases, catalase, and laccase which are used to removing the starch, degrading excess hydrogen peroxide, bleaching...

  19. Measuring enzyme activity in single cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kovarik, Michelle L.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Seemingly identical cells can differ in their biochemical state, function and fate, and this variability plays an increasingly recognized role in organism-level outcomes. Cellular heterogeneity arises in part from variation in enzyme activity, which results from interplay between biological noise and multiple cellular processes. As a result, single-cell assays of enzyme activity, particularly those that measure product formation directly, are crucial. Recent innovations have yielded a range o...

  20. Lignolytic Enzymes Production from Selected Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Shantaveera Swamy; Ramalingappa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ligninase enzymes produced by selected mushrooms have been reported. We collected mushrooms from Western Ghats, most of them were edible food. Thirty samples isolated were tested using a plate assay through direct agar plate assay by using ABTS, decolourisation containing the fifteen isolates were able to decolourise the dye, indicating a lignin-degrading ability. Spectrophotometric enzyme assays from all selected isolates were carried out to examine the production of Ligninoly...

  1. Microbial Enzymes: Tools for Biotechnological Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jose L. Adrio; Demain, Arnold L.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial enzymes are of great importance in the development of industrial bioprocesses. Current applications are focused on many different markets including pulp and paper, leather, detergents and textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemical, food and beverages, biofuels, animal feed and personal care, among others. Today there is a need for new, improved or/and more versatile enzymes in order to develop more novel, sustainable and economically competitive production processes. Microbial diversity an...

  2. Building proficient enzymes with foldamer prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Clemens; Müller, Manuel M; Gellman, Samuel H; Hilvert, Donald

    2014-07-01

    Foldamers are non-natural oligomers that adopt stable conformations reminiscent of those found in proteins. To evaluate the potential of foldameric subunits for catalysis, semisynthetic enzymes containing foldamer fragments constructed from α- and β-amino acid residues were designed and characterized. Systematic variation of the α→β substitution pattern and types of β-residue afforded highly proficient hybrid catalysts, thus demonstrating the feasibility of expanding the enzyme-engineering toolkit with non-natural backbones.

  3. Controlled enzyme catalyzed heteropolysaccharide degradation:Xylans

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Louise Enggaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this PhD thesis has provided a better understanding of the enzyme kinetics and quantitative phenomena of the hydrolysis of xylan substrates by selected pure enzyme preparations. Furthermore, the options for producing specific substituted xylooligosaccharides from selected substrates by specific xylanase treatment have been examined. The kinetics of the enzymatic degradation of water-extractable wheat arabinoxylan (WE-AX) during designed treatments with selected monocompo...

  4. Controlling reaction specificity in pyridoxal phosphate enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D Toney

    2011-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes are ubiquitous in the nitrogen metabolism of all organisms. They catalyze a wide variety of reactions including racemization, transamination, decarboxylation, elimination, retro-aldol cleavage, Claisen condensation, and others on substrates containing an amino group, most commonly α-amino acids. The wide variety of reactions catalyzed by PLP enzymes is enabled by the ability of the covalent aldimine intermediate formed between substrate and PLP to stabilize carb...

  5. Enzymes as catalysts in polymer chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sinigoi, Loris

    2011-01-01

    The use of enzymes in synthetic chemistry is attracting the interest of many researchers thanks to their extraordinary efficiency under mild conditions, high stereo- regio- and chemoselectivity and low environmental impact. Their application in the field of polymer chemistry has provided new synthetic strategies for useful polymers. The advantages coming from the use of enzymes are mainly: i) the possibility to synthesize polymers with novel properties and difficult to produce by conventional...

  6. Semisupervised Gaussian Process for Automated Enzyme Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Joseph; Grigoras, Ioana; Carbonell, Pablo; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2016-06-17

    Synthetic biology is today harnessing the design of novel and greener biosynthesis routes for the production of added-value chemicals and natural products. The design of novel pathways often requires a detailed selection of enzyme sequences to import into the chassis at each of the reaction steps. To address such design requirements in an automated way, we present here a tool for exploring the space of enzymatic reactions. Given a reaction and an enzyme the tool provides a probability estimate that the enzyme catalyzes the reaction. Our tool first considers the similarity of a reaction to known biochemical reactions with respect to signatures around their reaction centers. Signatures are defined based on chemical transformation rules by using extended connectivity fingerprint descriptors. A semisupervised Gaussian process model associated with the similar known reactions then provides the probability estimate. The Gaussian process model uses information about both the reaction and the enzyme in providing the estimate. These estimates were validated experimentally by the application of the Gaussian process model to a newly identified metabolite in Escherichia coli in order to search for the enzymes catalyzing its associated reactions. Furthermore, we show with several pathway design examples how such ability to assign probability estimates to enzymatic reactions provides the potential to assist in bioengineering applications, providing experimental validation to our proposed approach. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed approach is the first application of Gaussian processes dealing with biological sequences and chemicals, the use of a semisupervised Gaussian process framework is also novel in the context of machine learning applied to bioinformatics. However, the ability of an enzyme to catalyze a reaction depends on the affinity between the substrates of the reaction and the enzyme. This affinity is generally quantified by the Michaelis constant KM

  7. Enzyme-driven mechanisms in biocorrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Basséguy, Régine

    2007-01-01

    Objectives (abstract of presentation): Recent works carried out in our team concerning enzymes and biocorrosion are presented at the meeting. For aerobic conditions, the direct catalysis of the reduction of oxygen on steel by enzymes or porphyrin was proved and a local electrochemical analysis technique (SVET) was developed to visualize the localization of the catalysis. On anaerobic conditions, the influence of phosphate species and other weak acids on the water reduction on steel was shown....

  8. Protein engineering of enzymes for process applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John M

    2013-01-01

    Scientific progress in the field of enzyme modification today enables the opportunity to tune a given biocatalyst for a specific industrial application. Much work has been focused on extending the substrate repertoire and altering selectivity. Nevertheless, it is clear that many new forthcoming...... opportunities will be targeted on modification to enable process application. This article discusses the challenges involved in enzyme modification focused on process requirements, such as the need to fulfill reaction thermodynamics, specific activity under the required conditions, kinetics at required...

  9. Extracellular enzyme kinetics scale with resource availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Findlay, Stuart G.; Follstad Shah, Jennifer J.; Hill, Brian H.; Kuehn, Kevin A.; Kuske, Cheryl; Litvak, Marcy E.; Martinez, Noelle G.; Moorhead, Daryl L.; Warnock, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial community metabolism relies on external digestion, mediated by extracellular enzymes that break down complex organic matter into molecules small enough for cells to assimilate. We analyzed the kinetics of 40 extracellular enzymes that mediate the degradation and assimilation of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus by diverse aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities (1160 cases). Regression analyses were conducted by habitat (aquatic and terrestrial), enzyme class (hydrolases and oxidoreductases) and assay methodology (low affinity and high affinity substrates) to relate potential reaction rates to substrate availability. Across enzyme classes and habitats, the scaling relationships between apparent Vmax and apparent Km followed similar power laws with exponents of 0.44 to 0.67. These exponents, called elasticities, were not statistically distinct from a central value of 0.50, which occurs when the Km of an enzyme equals substrate concentration, a condition optimal for maintenance of steady state. We also conducted an ecosystem scale analysis of ten extracellular hydrolase activities in relation to soil and sediment organic carbon (2,000–5,000 cases/enzyme) that yielded elasticities near 1.0 (0.9 ± 0.2, n = 36). At the metabolomic scale, the elasticity of extracellular enzymatic reactions is the proportionality constant that connects the C:N:P stoichiometries of organic matter and ecoenzymatic activities. At the ecosystem scale, the elasticity of extracellular enzymatic reactions shows that organic matter ultimately limits effective enzyme binding sites. Our findings suggest that one mechanism by which microbial communities maintain homeostasis is regulating extracellular enzyme expression to optimize the short-term responsiveness of substrate acquisition. The analyses also show that, like elemental stoichiometry, the fundamental attributes of enzymatic reactions can be extrapolated from biochemical to community and ecosystem scales.

  10. Structure of PqsD, a Pseudomonas quinolone signal biosynthetic enzyme, in complex with anthranilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Asim K; Atanasova, Vesna; Robinson, Howard; Eisenstein, Edward; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C; Parsons, James F

    2009-09-15

    Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone, is an intercellular alkyl quinolone signaling molecule produced by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Alkyl quinolone signaling is an atypical system that, in P. aeruginosa, controls the expression of numerous virulence factors. PQS is synthesized from the tryptophan pathway intermediate, anthranilate, which is derived either from the kynurenine pathway or from an alkyl quinolone specific anthranilate synthase encoded by phnAB. Anthranilate is converted to PQS by the enzymes encoded by the pqsABCDE operon and pqsH. PqsA forms an activated anthraniloyl-CoA thioester that shuttles anthranilate to the PqsD active site where it is transferred to Cys112 of PqsD. In the only biochemically characterized reaction, a condensation then occurs between anthraniloyl-PqsD and malonyl-CoA or malonyl-ACP, a second PqsD substrate, forming 2,4-dihydroxyquinoline (DHQ). The role PqsD plays in the biosynthesis of other alkyl quinolones, such as PQS, is unclear, though it has been reported to be required for their production. No evidence exists that DHQ is a PQS precursor, however. Here we present a structural and biophysical characterization of PqsD that includes several crystal structures of the enzyme, including that of the PqsD-anthranilate covalent intermediate and the inactive Cys112Ala active site mutant in complex with anthranilate. The structure reveals that PqsD is structurally similar to the FabH and chalcone synthase families of fatty acid and polyketide synthases. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains a PqsD dimer. The PqsD monomer is composed of two nearly identical approximately 170-residue alphabetaalphabetaalpha domains. The structures show anthranilate-liganded Cys112 is positioned deep in the protein interior at the bottom of an approximately 15 A long channel while a second anthraniloyl-CoA molecule is waiting in the cleft leading to the protein surface. Cys112, His257, and

  11. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2015-04-01

    In extremely dynamic microhabitats as bio-pores made by earthworm, the in situ enzyme activities are assumed as a footprint of complex biotic interactions. Our study focused on the effect of earthworm on the enzyme activities inside bio-pores and visualizing the differences between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil by zymography technique (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013). For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in bio-pores. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworms, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phosphatase. Zymography showed higher activity of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. However, the differences in activity of cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase between bio-pore and bulk soil were less pronounced. This demonstrated an applicability of zymography approach to monitor and to distinguish the in situ activity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil biopores.

  12. Enzyme activity in the crowded milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Vöpel

    Full Text Available The cytosol of a cell is a concentrated milieu of a variety of different molecules, including small molecules (salts and metabolites and macromolecules such as nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins and large macromolecular complexes. Macromolecular crowding in the cytosolic environment is proposed to influence various properties of proteins, including substrate binding affinity and enzymatic activity. Here we chose to use the synthetic crowding agent Ficoll, which is commonly used to mimic cytosolic crowding conditions to study the crowding effect on the catalytic properties of glycolytic enzymes, namely phosphoglycerate kinase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and acylphosphatase. We determined the kinetic parameters of these enzymes in the absence and in the presence of the crowding agent. We found that the Michaelis constant, K(m, and the catalytic turnover number, k(cat, of these enzymes are not perturbed by the presence of the crowding agent Ficoll. Our results support earlier findings which suggested that the Michaelis constant of certain enzymes evolved in consonance with the substrate concentration in the cell to allow effective enzyme function in bidirectional pathways. This conclusion is further supported by the analysis of nine other enzymes for which the K(m values in the presence and absence of crowding agents have been measured.

  13. Immobilization of enzyme on a polymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Cheng, Kenneth Chun Kuen; Schroeder, McKenna; Yang, Pei; Marsh, E. Neil G.; Lahann, Joerg; Chen, Zhan

    2016-06-01

    We successfully immobilized enzymes onto polymer surfaces via covalent bonds between cysteine groups of the enzyme and dibromomaleimide functionalities present at the polymer surface. In this work, we used nitroreductase (NfsB) as a model enzyme molecule. The polymers were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization, resulting in surfaces with dibromomaleimide groups. NfsB variants were engineered so that each NfsB molecule only has one cysteine group on the enzyme surface. Two different NfsB constructs were studied, with cysteines at the positions of H360 and V424, respectively. A combination of sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopies were used to deduce the orientation of the immobilized enzymes on the surface. It was found that the orientation of the immobilized enzymes is controlled by the position of the cysteine residue in the protein. The NfsB H360C construct exhibited a similar orientational behavior on the polymer surface as compared to that on the self-assembled monolayer surface, but the NsfB V424C construct showed markedly different orientations on the two surfaces.

  14. Activity assessment of microbial fibrinolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Essam

    2013-08-01

    Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin inside blood vessels results in thrombosis, leading to myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. In general, there are four therapy options: surgical operation, intake of antiplatelets, anticoagulants, or fibrinolytic enzymes. Microbial fibrinolytic enzymes have attracted much more attention than typical thrombolytic agents because of the expensive prices and the side effects of the latter. The fibrinolytic enzymes were successively discovered from different microorganisms, the most important among which is the genus Bacillus. Microbial fibrinolytic enzymes, especially those from food-grade microorganisms, have the potential to be developed as functional food additives and drugs to prevent or cure thrombosis and other related diseases. There are several assay methods for these enzymes; this may due to the insolubility of substrate, fibrin. Existing assay methods can be divided into three major groups. The first group consists of assay of fibrinolytic activity with natural proteins as substrates, e.g., fibrin plate methods. The second and third groups of assays are suitable for kinetic studies and are based on the determination of hydrolysis of synthetic peptide esters. This review will deal primarily with the microorganisms that have been reported in literature to produce fibrinolytic enzymes and the first review discussing the methods used to assay the fibrinolytic activity.

  15. Bio-inspired enzyme entrapment and cross-linking approaches as alternative tools for enzyme immobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ardao Palacios, Inés; Demarche, Philippe; Nair, Rakesh; Agathos, Spiros N.; International Workshop on New and Synthetic Bioproduction Systems

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization has contributed to the widespread use of enzymes as catalysts in many industrial applications mainly due to stability enhancement and easy reuse of the catalysts, which contributes to a reduction of the process costs. However, enzyme immobilization still suffers from different operational constraints, such as activity losses during immobilization and mass-transfer limitations. Novel immobilization techniques with the goal of overcoming these limitations are increasingly ...

  16. REtools: A laboratory program for restriction enzyme work: enzyme selection and reaction condition assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulukos Kim E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction enzymes are one of the everyday tools used in molecular biology. The continuously expanding panel of known restriction enzymes (several thousands renders their optimal use virtually impossible without computerized assistance. Several manufacturers propose on-line sites that assist scientists in their restriction enzyme work, however, none of these sites meet all the actual needs of laboratory workers, and they do not take into account the enzymes actually present in one's own laboratory. Results Using FileMaker Pro, we developed a stand-alone application which can run on both PCs and Macintoshes. We called it REtools, for Restriction Enzyme tools. This program, which references all currently known enzymes (>3500, permits the creation and update of a personalized list of restriction enzymes actually available in one's own laboratory. Upon opening the program, scientists will be presented with a user friendly interface that will direct them to different menus, each one corresponding to different situations that restriction enzyme users commonly encounter. We particularly emphasized the ease of use to make REtools a solution that laboratory members would actually want to use. Conclusion REtools, a user friendly and easily customized program to organize any laboratory enzyme stock, brings a software solution that will make restriction enzyme use and reaction condition determination straightforward and efficient. The usually unexplored potential of isoschizomers also becomes accessible to all, since REtools proposes all possible enzymes similar to the one(s chosen by the user. Finally, many of the commonly overlooked subtleties of restriction enzyme work, such as methylation requirement, unusual reaction conditions, or the number of flanking bases required for cleavage, are automatically provided by REtools.

  17. Functional representation of enzymes by specific peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Kunik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the function of a protein from its sequence is a long-standing goal of bioinformatic research. While sequence similarity is the most popular tool used for this purpose, sequence motifs may also subserve this goal. Here we develop a motif-based method consisting of applying an unsupervised motif extraction algorithm (MEX to all enzyme sequences, and filtering the results by the four-level classification hierarchy of the Enzyme Commission (EC. The resulting motifs serve as specific peptides (SPs, appearing on single branches of the EC. In contrast to previous motif-based methods, the new method does not require any preprocessing by multiple sequence alignment, nor does it rely on over-representation of motifs within EC branches. The SPs obtained comprise on average 8.4 +/- 4.5 amino acids, and specify the functions of 93% of all enzymes, which is much higher than the coverage of 63% provided by ProSite motifs. The SP classification thus compares favorably with previous function annotation methods and successfully demonstrates an added value in extreme cases where sequence similarity fails. Interestingly, SPs cover most of the annotated active and binding site amino acids, and occur in active-site neighboring 3-D pockets in a highly statistically significant manner. The latter are assumed to have strong biological relevance to the activity of the enzyme. Further filtering of SPs by biological functional annotations results in reduced small subsets of SPs that possess very large enzyme coverage. Overall, SPs both form a very useful tool for enzyme functional classification and bear responsibility for the catalytic biological function carried out by enzymes.

  18. Trametes suaveolens as ligninolytic enzyme producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Trametes represent one of the most efficient lignin-degraders which can be attributed to a well developed ligninolytic enzyme system. Current trends are screening of ability of new species to produce these enzymes, as well as the optimization of conditions for their overproduction. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of T. suaveolens to synthesize laccase and Mn-oxidizing peroxidases during fermentation of the selected plant raw materials. Level of enzyme activities was measured on 7, 10 and 14th day of submersion, as well as the solid-state fermentation of wheat straw and oak sawdust in the presence of NH4NO3 in previously determined optimal nitrogen concentration of 25 mM. The enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically using ABTS and phenol red as the substrates. The highest level of laccase activity (1087.1 U/L was noted after 7 days of wheat straw solid-state fermentation, while during the submerged cultivation the production of the enzyme was not noted. Submerged cultivation in oak sawdust-enriched medium was the optimal for activity of Mn-dependent peroxidase (1767.7 U/L on day 14 and Mn-independent peroxidase (1113.7 U/L on day 7. Introduction of T. suaveolens to produce ligninolytic enzyme represented the base for further study, as well as the determination of relation between enzyme activity and rate of lignin degradation. It could lead to greater possibility of fungal species selection with high delignification capacity, which could take participation in sustainable production of food, feed, fibres, and energy, environmentally friendly pollution prevention, and bioremediation.

  19. Soil Enzyme Activities with Greenhouse Subsurface Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Long; WANG Yao-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Various environmental conditions determine soil enzyme activities, which are important indicators for changes of soil microbial activity, soil fertility, and land quality. The effect of subsurface irrigation scheduling on activities of three soil enzymes (phosphatase, urease, and catalase) was studied at five depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-60 cm) of a tomato greenhouse soil. Irrigation was scheduled when soil water condition reached the maximum allowable depletion(MAD) designed for different treatments (-10, -16, -25, -40, and -63 kPa). Results showed that soil enzyme activities had significant responses to the irrigation scheduling during the period of subsurface irrigation. The neutral phosphatase activity and the catalase activity were found to generally increase with more frequent irrigation (MAD of -10 and -16kPa). This suggested that a higher level of water content favored an increase in activity of these two enzymes. In contrast,the urease activity decreased under irrigation, with less effect for MAD of -40 and -63 kPa. This implied that relatively wet soil conditions were conducive to retention of urea N, but relatively dry soil conditions could result in increasing loss of urea N. Further, this study revealed that soil enzyme activities could be alternative natural bio-sensors for the effect of irrigation on soil biochemical reactions and could help optimize irrigation management of greenhouse crop production.

  20. Structure/function relationships in cellulolytic enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Claeyssens

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cellulose and hemicellulose (mostly xylan), together with lignin, are the major polymeric constituents of plant cell walls and from the largest reservoir of fixed carbon in nature. The enzymatic hydrolysis of polymeric substances by extracellular enzymes, such as cellulases, hemicellulases and laccases, is preferred to chemical depolymerisation to avoid the production of toxic by-products and waste that are expensive to treat. The monosaccharides released through enzymatic hydrolysis can subsequently be microbially converted to commercial commodities, such as bio-ethanol (fuel extender) or microbial protein as feed supplements. The individual depolymerisering enzymes used, such as cellulases,xylanases and laccases, also have industrial application in (i) biobleaching in the paper and pulp industry, (ii) improvement of animal feed (poultry and ruminants) digestibility in feed industries, and (iii) dough rheology and bread volume in the baking process, and beer viscosity and filtration velocity during brewing. The cloning of the genes, coding for several xylan degrading enzymes, and their expression in Baker' s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and filamentous fungi (Aspergillus species)opened the possibility to study the pure enzymes, without contaminating activity.Trichoderma reesei produces several of these enzymes and detailed information on their specificity,synergies and structure/activity relationships is known. An overview will be presented.