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Sample records for a2 b1 b2

  1. Overview of Research in Marketing in Brazil: An Analysis of Production in Periodic Functionalist Qualis Capes A2, B1 and B2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernandes Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the qualitative research tradition by constructivist or not functionalist paradigm approaches, the main question of this article is to know how is the appropriation of quality criteria in the functionalist research, with the main objective to present an overview of articles published in national journals classified as Qualis A2, B1 and B2 for the years 2003 to 2013. to this end, the analysis has focused on the items presented in its scope functionalist qualitative characteristics, and to evaluate how they are being worked on quality criteria in the marketing publications in Brazil, in the last 11 years. The results of this research allowed to identify and assess the following: the quality criteria in the marketing publications in Brazil during that period; the importance of thinking in quality for qualitative research; and the incipient use of triangulation to the quality of qualitative research.

  2. Radical prostatectomy and adjuvant radioactive gold seed placement: Results of treatment at 5 and 10 years for clinical stages A2, B1 and B2 cancer of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, E.D.; Loening, S.A.; Hawtrey, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1988, 131 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent combined radical prostatectomy and intraoperative radioactive gold seed placement. Of these 131 patients 80 were clinically assessed as having stage A2 (12), B1 (43) or B2 (25) cancer and they are the subject of this review. The average dose of radioactivity administered to each patient was 96.6 mCi, and mean followup was 65 months (median 64 months). No patient in this series received any other form of adjuvant therapy until disease recurrence was demonstrated. Local recurrences were observed in 2 patients (2.5%) in this series while distant recurrences were observed in 10 (12.5%). Cancer specific survival free of disease at 5 years was 100% for clinical stage A2, 91% for B1 and 75% for B2 cancers. The 10-year survival free of disease was 100% for clinical stage A2, 82% for B1 and 68% for B2 cancers. Covariants of clinical stage and seminal vesicle involvement influenced survival free of disease in a statistically significant manner (p less than 0.05) while pathological stage and degree of tumor differentiation did not. Mild to severe complications were observed in 12 patients (15%). Intraoperative placement of radioactive gold seeds into unresected pelvic tissues surrounding the site of prostatectomy offers a theoretical advantage in treatment by delivering tumoricidal levels of irradiation to residual foci of cancer not appreciated at the time of surgery. Our results suggest that increases in cancer specific survival free of disease over that previously reported for prostatectomy alone may be achieved through this combined treatment regimen. Furthermore, it is our opinion that therapeutic gains can be achieved without the attendant increases in morbidity and treatment delay often associated with adjuvant external beam radiotherapy

  3. LytB1 and LytB2 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Are Not Genetically Redundant.

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    Amanda Claire Brown

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesises isoprenoid precursors via the MEP/DOXP pathway and at least five enzymes in the pathway (Dxs1, Dxr/IspC, IspD, IspF, and GcpE/IspG are required for growth in vitro. We investigated the role of LytB (IspH in M. tuberculosis; M. tuberculosis is unusual in that it has two homologs-LytB1 and LytB2. We were unable to delete the lytB2 gene unless we provided an additional copy elsewhere, demonstrating that this is the essential homolog. We expressed lytB1 from the lytB2 promoter and confirmed that this could not complement for loss of function of lytB2, despite LytB1 possessing all the previously described conserved critical residues. Interestingly the sole LytB homolog of Mycobacterium smegmatis was able to compensate for loss of LytB2 in M. tuberculosis. We tested translational fusions of LytB1 and LytB2 for functionality in M. tuberculosis, but only a fusion with 90% N-terminal LytB2 and 10% C-terminal LytB1 was functional. In order to identify the key difference between the two proteins, site directed mutagenesis was used to change LytB2 residues into their counterparts in LytB1. None of these amino acid substitutions was essential for function and all lytB2 mutant alleles were functional. In contrast, mutation of the key residues for [Fe4S4] cluster formation, as well as a catalytic residue in LytB1 did not result in functional complementation. Thus, although LytB1 and LytB2 are not genetically redundant, this is not dependent on small amino acid changes, but is likely to be a result of major overall structural differences.

  4. B1 to B2 structural phase transition in LiF under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aayushi; Dixit, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    In the last few decades the alkali halides emerged as crystals with useful applications and their high-pressure behaviour is the most intensively studied subject in high-pressure physics/chemistry, material science, and geosciences. Most alkali halides follow the B1 (NaCl-type)→B2 (CsCl-type) phase-transition route under pressure. In the present paper, we have investigated the characteristics of structural phase transition that occurred in Lithium Florid compound under high pressure. The transition pressure of B1-B2 was calculated using an effective interionic interaction potential (EIOP). The changes of the characteristics of crystals like, Gibbs free energy, cohesive energy, volume collapse, and lattice constant are calculated for the B1 and B2 structures. These data were compared with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  5. Linkage of genes for laminin B1 and B2 subunits on chromosome 1 in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R W; Barlow, D; Hogan, B L

    1985-08-01

    We have used cDNA clones for the B1 and B2 subunits of laminin to find restriction fragment length DNA polymorphisms for the genes encoding these polypeptides in the mouse. Three alleles were found for LamB2 and two for LamB1 among the inbred mouse strains. The segregation of these polymorphisms among recombinant inbred strains showed that these genes are tightly linked in the central region of mouse Chromosome 1 between Sas-1 and Ly-m22, 7.4 +/- 3.2 cM distal to the Pep-3 locus. There is no evidence in the mouse for pseudogenes for these proteins.

  6. B1 but not B2 bradykinin receptor agonists promote DU145 prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of KwaZulu-Natal,. Private Bag X7, Congella 4013, Durban,. South Africa. Tel: +27 31 2604486. Fax: +27 31 2604338. Email: naidoot@ukzn.ac.za ..... ME, Leeb-Lundberg LM,Daaka Y. Requirement for di- rect cross-talk between b1 and b2 kinin receptors for the proliferation of androgen-insensitive prostate can-.

  7. The safety analysis of realization of the stabilization of beams B1/B2 supports project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, A.M.; Batij, V.G.; Glukhen'kij, V.N.; Kozoriz, V.I.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Kochnev, N.A.; Pavlovskij, L.I.; Rubezhanskij, Yu.I.; Sidorenko, N.V.; Stoyanov, A.I.; Shcherbin, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the analysis of radiation safety executed at preparing for realization of the stabilization of beams B1/B2 support are given. The comparison of results of the preliminary analysis of safety with the data received during realization of works is carried out

  8. Bu-2470, a new peptide antibiotic complex. II. Structure determination of Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a and B2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, K; Yonemoto, T; Konishi, M; Matsumoto, K; Miyaki, T; Kawaguchi, H

    1983-06-01

    The structures of Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a, and B2b have been determined. Bu-2470 A is a simple octapeptide having no fatty acid moiety, while Bu-2470 B1, B2a and B2b are octapeptides that have been acylated with a beta-hydroxy C11 or C10 fatty acid. The octapeptide structure of Bu-2470 components was found identical with that of octapeptin C1, hence generic names of octapeptin C0, C2, C3 and C4 are proposed for Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a and B2b, respectively.

  9. L1-mediated retrotransposition of murine B1 and B2 SINEs recapitulated in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewannieux, Marie; Heidmann, Thierry

    2005-06-03

    SINEs are short interspersed nucleotide elements with transpositional activity, present at a high copy number (up to a million) in mammalian genomes. They are 80-400 bp long, non-coding sequences which derive either from the 7SL RNA (e.g. human Alus, murine B1s) or tRNA (e.g. murine B2s) polymerase III-driven genes. We have previously demonstrated that Alus very efficiently divert the enzymatic machinery of the autonomous L1 LINE (long interspersed nucleotide element) retrotransposons to transpose at a high rate. Here we show, using an ex vivo assay for transposition, that both B1 and B2 SINEs can be mobilized by murine LINEs, with the hallmarks of a bona fide retrotransposition process, including target site duplications of varying lengths and integrations into A-rich sequences. Despite different phylogenetic origins, transposition of the tRNA-derived B2 sequences is as efficient as that of the human Alus, whereas that of B1s is 20-100-fold lower despite a similar high copy number of these elements in the mouse genome. We provide evidence, via an appropriate nucleotide substitution within the B1 sequence in a domain essential for its intracellular targeting, that the current B1 SINEs are not optimal for transposition, a feature most probably selected for the host sake in the course of evolution.

  10. Final characterization report for the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encke, D.B.; Harris, R.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a compilation of the characterization data collected from the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Trillium Laboratory. The characterization activities were organized and implemented to evaluate the radiological status and identify any hazardous materials. The data contained in this report reflects the current conditions and status of the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. This information is intended to be utilized in support of future building decontamination and demolition, to allow for proper disposal of the demolition debris as required by the Washington Administrative Code, WAC 173-303, the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, WHC-EP-0063, and the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria, BHI-00139. Based on the historical information and facility inspections, the only hazardous materials sampling and analysis activities necessary were to identify lead paint and asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. Asbestos samples were obtained from the outer boundary of the roof areas to confirm the presence and type of asbestos containing fibers. Lead paint samples were obtained to confirm the presence and quantity of lead paint on the roof trim, doors and vents

  11. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

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    Basić Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitivness. Methods. The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7, concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L, the lenght of contact with zeolite (10-180 min and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37°C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower with a defined content of the examined vitamines in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Results. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37°C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations testch. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed

  12. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B-1, B-2 and sterigmatocystin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    To report on aflatoxin B-1 and B-2 production from a species of Emericella. Methods and Results: Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and confirmed by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. Among 30 known species...... of Emericella only one species produced aflatoxin. Strains originating from the same geographical source material had different patterns of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin production on different media, indicating that epigenetic factors may be involved in the regulation of aflatoxin production. However, two...

  13. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Basić Zorica; Kilibarda Vesna; Dobrić Silva; Resanović Radmila

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the chara...

  14. Equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM due to fumonisins B1 and B2 in Argentina

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    Federico Giannitti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 2007 an outbreak of neurological disease and sudden death in Arabian horses occurred in a farm located in Coronel Rosales County, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The animals were on a pasture of native grasses and supplemented ad libitum with corn kernels and wheat bran. Three horses were observed having acute neurologic signs including blindness, four leg ataxia, hyperexcitability, aimless walking and circling, followed by death in two of them. Four other horses were found dead overnight without a history of neurologic signs. The morbidity, mortality and lethality rates were 11.6%, 10% and 85.7%, respectively. Grossly, the brain showed focal areas of hemorrhage, brown-yellow discoloration and softening of the sub-cortical white matter. The microscopic brain lesions consisted of extensive areas of malacia within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum, characterized by rarefaction of the white matter with cavitations filled with proteinaceous edema, multifocal hemorrhages and mild infiltration by neutrophils, and rare eosinophils. Swollen glial cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, distinct cell borders, intracytoplasmic deeply eosinophilic globules and eccentric, hyperchromatic, occasionally pyknotic nucleus were present throughout the areas of rarefaction hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. The feed supplements contained 12,490µg/kg of fumonisin B1 and 5,251µg/ kg of fumonisin B2. This is the first reported outbreak of ELEM associated with consumption of feed supplements containing high concentrations of fumonisins in Argentina.

  15. CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 encode gibberellin 13-oxidases that reduce gibberellin activity in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magome, Hiroshi; Nomura, Takahito; Hanada, Atsushi; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Shinma, Yuko; Katsumata, Takumi; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2013-01-29

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) control many aspects of growth and development in plants. GA(1) has been the most frequently found bioactive GA in various tissues of flowering plants, but the enzymes responsible for GA(1) biosynthesis have not been fully elucidated due to the enzymes catalyzing the 13-hydroxylation step not being identified. Because of the lack of mutants defective in this enzyme, biological significance of GA 13-hydroxylation has been unknown. Here, we report that two cytochrome P450 genes, CYP714B1 and CYP714B2, encode GA 13-oxidase in rice. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress CYP714B1 or CYP714B2 show semidwarfism. There was a trend that the levels of 13-OH GAs including GA(1) were increased in these transgenic plants. Functional analysis using yeast or insect cells shows that recombinant CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 proteins can convert GA(12) into GA(53) (13-OH GA(12)) in vitro. Moreover, the levels of 13-OH GAs including GA(1) were decreased, whereas those of 13-H GAs including GA(4) (which is more active than GA(1)) were increased, in the rice cyp714b1 cyp714b2 double mutant. These results indicate that CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 play a predominant role in GA 13-hydroxylation in rice. The double mutant plants appear phenotypically normal until heading, but show elongated uppermost internode at the heading stage. Moreover, CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 expression was up-regulated by exogenous application of bioactive GAs. Our results suggest that GA 13-oxidases play a role in fine-tuning plant growth by decreasing GA bioactivity in rice and that they also participate in GA homeostasis.

  16. ErbB2, but not ErbB1, reinitiates proliferation and induces luminal repopulation in epithelial acini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthuswamy, Senthil K; Li, Dongmei; Lelievre, Sophie; Bissell, Mina J; Brugge, Joan S

    2001-08-08

    Both ErbB1 and ErbB2 are overexpressed or amplified in breast tumors. To examine the effects of activating ErbB receptors in a context that mimics polarized epithelial cells in vivo, we activated ErbB1 and ErbB2 homodimers in preformed, growth-arrested mammary acini cultured in three-dimensional basement membrane gels. Activation of ErbB2, but not that of ErbB1, led to a reinitiation of cell proliferation and altered the properties of mammary acinar structures. These altered structures share several properties with early-stage tumors, including a loss of proliferative suppression, an absence of lumen, retention of the basement membrane and a lack of invasive properties. ErbB2 activation also disrupted tight junctions and the cell polarity of polarized epithelia, whereas ErbB1 activation did not have any effect. Our results indicate that ErbB receptors differ in their ability to induce early stages of mammary carcinogenesis in vitro and this three-dimensional model system can reveal biological activities of oncogenes that cannot be examined in vitro in standard transformation assays.

  17. Third EU MAT intercomparison on methods for the determination of vitamins B-1, B-2 and B-6 in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Schaik, F. van; Finglas, P.M.; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    1996-01-01

    An intercomparison study on the determination of vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 was performed as part of the EU MAT project involving 16 laboratories. Each laboratory was requested to analyse three different food samples (lyophilized pig's liver, mixed vegetables and wholemeal flour, respectively) using

  18. Supply with the vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in carcinomas before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, U.; Wulff, K.; Schmidt, W.

    1983-01-01

    In 108 breast cancer, 63 cervix carcinoma, 35 corpus carcinoma and 15 ovarial cancer patients the erythrocyte transketolase, gluthathione reductase and aspartate aminotransferase activity were determined as parameters for the supply with vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 before and after radiotherapy. The effects of thiamine pyrophosphate determined in cancer patients were normal but the effects of flavin adenine dinucleotide and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were significantly increased compared to the controls. These results revealed radiation-induced disorders in the B 2 metabolism and tumor-induced disorders in the B 6 metabolism. Both disorders can be avoided by treatment with vitamin B complex. (author)

  19. Modelling of three-dimensional structures of cytochromes P450 11B1 and 11B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, N V; Lisurek, M; Ivanov, A S; Bernhardt, R

    2001-12-15

    The final steps of the biosynthesis of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in the adrenal cortex require the action of two different cytochromes P450--CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. Homology modelling of the three-dimensional structures of these cytochromes was performed based on crystallographic coordinates of two bacterial P450s, CYP102 (P450BM-3) and CYP108 (P450terp). Principal attention was given to the modelling of the active sites and a comparison of the active site structures of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 was performed. It can be demonstrated that key residue contacts within the active site appear to depend on the orientation of the heme. The obtained 3D structures of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were used for investigation of structure-function relationships of these enzymes. Previously obtained results on naturally occurring mutants and on mutants obtained by site-directed mutagenesis are discussed.

  20. Occurrence of Ochratoxins, Fumonisin B2 , Aflatoxins (B1 and B2 ), and Other Secondary Fungal Metabolites in Dried Date Palm Fruits from Egypt: A Mini-Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed F; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of 295 fungal and bacterial metabolites in 28 samples of dried date palm fruits collected from different shops distributed in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt in 2016. Extraction and quantification of the target analytes were done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In total, 30 toxic fungal metabolites were detected. Among these metabolites, 4 types of ochratoxins including ochratoxin type A and B were quantified in 3 samples (11%) with a contamination range from 1.48 to 6070 μg/kg for ochratoxin A and from 0.28 to 692 μg/kg for ochratoxin B. In addition, fumonisin B 2 was observed in 2 (7%) samples with contamination levels ranging from 4.99 to 16.2 μg/kg. The simultaneous detection of fumonisin B 2 in the same contaminated samples with ochratoxins indicates the fungal attack by Aspergillus niger species during storage. Only 1 sample was contaminated with aflatoxin B 1 (14.4 μg/kg) and B 2 (2.44 μg/kg). The highest maximum concentration (90400 μg/kg) was for kojic acid that contaminated 43% of the samples. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the natural co-occurrence of fumonisin B 2 and ochratoxin A and B in addition to a wide range of other fungal metabolites in date palm fruits. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by different fungi. These metabolites pose a potential risk on human health since they contaminate many food commodities. Among these, date palm fruits which are an integral part of diet in several countries. Therefore, detection of mycotoxins is a prerequisite to insure the safety of food. Here, different types of mycotoxins have been detected in levels that may have health hazard. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in memory consolidation during the aging process of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Mayra Tolentino Resk; Amaral, Fabio Agostini; Dong, Karis Ester; Bittencourt, Maria Fernanda Queiroz Prado; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Pesquero, João Bosco; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2010-04-01

    Under physiological conditions, elderly people present memory deficit associated with neuronal loss. This pattern is also associated with Alzheimer's disease but, in this case, in a dramatically intensified level. Kinin receptors have been involved in neurodegeneration and increase of amyloid-beta concentration, associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considering these findings, this work evaluated the role of kinin receptors in memory consolidation during the aging process. Male C57Bl/6 (wt), knock-out B1 (koB1) or B2 (koB2) mice (3, 6, 12 and 18-month-old - mo; n=10 per group) were submitted to an acquisition session, reinforcement to learning (24h later: test 1) and final test (7days later: test 2), in an active avoidance apparatus, to evaluate memory. Conditioned avoidance responses (CAR, % of 50 trials) were registered. In acquisition sessions, similar CAR were obtained among age matched animals from all strains. However, a significant decrease in CAR was observed throughout the aging process (3mo: 8.8+/-2.3%; 6mo: 4.1+/-0.6%; 12mo: 2.2+/-0.6%, 18mo: 3.6+/-0.6%, Pprocess. In test 1, as expected, memory retention increased significantly (Pmemory retention. In test 2, 3- and 6-month-old wt and koB1 mice of all ages showed a significant improvement in memory (Pmemory retention. We suggest that, during the aging process, the B1 receptor could be involved in neurodegeneration and memory loss. Nevertheless, the B2 receptor is apparently acting as a neuroprotective factor. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidência de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em produtos de milho Occurrence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in corn products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Mie Kawashima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos de ocorrência de micotoxinas em alimentos foram realizados nas últimas duas décadas nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Levantamentos em alimentos comercializados em outras regiões têm-se limitado a aflatoxinas em amendoim e castanhas do Brasil. O presente trabalho pesquisou a presença de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em 74 amostras de produtos a base de milho adquiridas no comércio da cidade de Recife, PE, durante o período de 1999 a 2001. Fumonisina B1 foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por fluorescência e as demais toxinas foram determinadas por cromatografia em camada delgada. Fumonisina B1 foi encontrada em 94,6% das amostras em concentrações variando de 20 a 8600 µg/kg. Apenas 5 amostras continham aflatoxina B1 e o teor máximo encontrado foi 20 µg/kg. Duas amostras ultrapassaram o limite de 20 µg/kg para a somatória das aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 (farinha de milho pré-cozida com 21,5 µg/kg e quirera (xerém com 23,3 µg/kg. As aflatoxinas G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona não foram detectadas em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras contaminadas com aflatoxinas também apresentaram fumonisina B1.Research concerning the presence of mycotoxin in food has been conducted in the Southwest and South regions of Brazil over the last two decades. Research in other regions has been limited to aflatoxin in peanuts and Brazil nuts. The aim of this work is to study the presence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in 74 samples of corn products acquired in shops and food markets in the city of Recife (PE from 1999 to 2001. Fumonisin B1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence was detected. The other toxins were determined by thin layer chromatography. Fumonisin B1 was found in 94.6% of the samples in levels from 20 to 8600 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained

  3. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presoto Ana Elisa F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1, riboflavin (vitamin B2 and pyridoxine (vitamin B6 and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 of pyridoxine in royal jelly. According to the Food and Nutrition Board (2000, the DRI of these vitamins varies from 0.2-1.4 mg for thiamin; 0.3-1.6 mg for riboflavin and 0.1-2.0 mg for pyridoxine, depending on age and sex. According to these recommendations, royal jelly is not a good source of vitamins B1, B2 or B6 as these vitamins appear only on order of ng g-1. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis for royal jelly, having the advantage of being simple, fast and reliable.

  4. Interactions of phytochromes A, B1 and B2 in light-induced competence for adventitious shoot formation in hypocotyl of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercari, B; Bertram, L

    2004-02-01

    The interactions of phytochrome A (phyA), phytochrome B1 (phyB1) and phytochrome B2 (phyB2) in light-dependent shoot regeneration from the hypocotyl of tomato was analysed using all eight possible homozygous allelic combinations of the null mutants. The donor plants were pre-grown either in the dark or under red or far-red light for 8 days after sowing; thereafter hypocotyl segments (apical, middle and basal portions) were transferred onto hormone-free medium for culture under different light qualities. Etiolated apical segments cultured in vitro under white light showed a very high frequency of regeneration for all of the genotypes tested besides phyB1phyB2, phyAphyB1 and phyAphyB1phyB2 mutants. Evidence is provided of a specific interference of phyB2 with phyA-mediated HIR to far-red and blue light in etiolated explants. Pre-treatment of donor plants by growth under red light enhanced the competence of phyB1phyB2, phyAphyB1 and phyAphyB1phyB2 mutants for shoot regeneration, whereas pre-irradiation with far-red light enhanced the frequency of regeneration only in the phyAphyB1 mutant. Multiple phytochromes are involved in red light- and far-red light-dependent acquisition of competence for shoot regeneration. The position of the segments along the hypocotyl influenced the role of the various phytochromes and the interactions between them. The culture of competent hypocotyl segments under red, far-red or blue light reduced the frequency of explants forming shoots compared to those cultured under white light, with different genotypes having different response patterns.

  5. Removal of fumonisin B1 and B2 from model solutions and red wine using polymeric substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Sánchez, Verónica; Kreitman, Gal Y; Folch-Cano, Christian; Elias, Ryan J; Laurie, V Felipe

    2017-06-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins found in various foods whose consumption is known to be harmful for human health. In this study, we evaluated the ability of three polymers (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, PVPP; a resin of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and triallyl isocyanurate, PVP-DEGMA-TAIC; and poly(acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol-dimethacrylate), PA-EGDMA) to remove fumonisin B 1 (FB1) and fumonisin B 2 (FB2) from model solutions and red wine. Various polymer concentrations (1, 5 and 10mgmL -1 ) and contact times (2, 8 and 24h) were tested, with all polymers exhibiting fumonisin removal capacities (monitored by LC-MS). The impact of all polymers on polyphenol removal was also assessed. PA-EGDMA showed to be the most promising polymer, removing 71% and 95% of FB 1 , and FB 2 , respectively, with only a 22.2% reduction in total phenolics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat shock factors HsfB1 and HsfB2b are involved in the regulation of Pdf1.2 expression and pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Busch, Wolfgang; Birke, Hannah; Kemmerling, Birgit; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Schöffl, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfB1/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdf1.2a/b in mutant plants. The Pdf expression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdf1.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdf genes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses.

  7. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico / in vitro screening for human cytochrome P450 11B1 & cytochrome P450 11B2 inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Waratchareeyakul, Watcharee; Haupenthal, Joerg; Hartmann, Rolf W.; Schuster, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    Cortisol synthase (CYP11B1) is the main enzyme for the endogenous synthesis of cortisol and its inhibition is a potential way for the treatment of diseases associated with increased cortisol levels, such as Cushing’s syndrome, metabolic diseases, and delayed wound healing. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is the key enzyme for aldosterone biosynthesis and its inhibition is a promising approach for the treatment of congestive heart failure, cardiac fibrosis, and certain forms of hypertension. Both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 are structurally very similar and expressed in the adrenal cortex. To facilitate the identification of novel inhibitors of these enzymes, ligand-based pharmacophore models of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 inhibition were developed. A virtual screening of the SPECS database was performed with our pharmacophore queries. Biological evaluation of the selected hits lead to the discovery of three potent novel inhibitors of both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in the submicromolar range (compounds 8-10), one selective CYP11B1 inhibitor (Compound 11, IC50 = 2.5 µM), and one selective CYP11B2 inhibitor (compound 12, IC50 = 1.1 µM), respectively. The overall success rate of this prospective virtual screening experiment is 20.8% indicating good predictive power of the pharmacophore models.

  8. Pharmacophore Modeling and in Silico/in Vitro Screening for Human Cytochrome P450 11B1 and Cytochrome P450 11B2 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Waratchareeyakul, Watcharee; Haupenthal, Joerg; Hartmann, Rolf W; Schuster, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol synthase (CYP11B1) is the main enzyme for the endogenous synthesis of cortisol and its inhibition is a potential way for the treatment of diseases associated with increased cortisol levels, such as Cushing's syndrome, metabolic diseases, and delayed wound healing. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is the key enzyme for aldosterone biosynthesis and its inhibition is a promising approach for the treatment of congestive heart failure, cardiac fibrosis, and certain forms of hypertension. Both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 are structurally very similar and expressed in the adrenal cortex. To facilitate the identification of novel inhibitors of these enzymes, ligand-based pharmacophore models of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 inhibition were developed. A virtual screening of the SPECS database was performed with our pharmacophore queries. Biological evaluation of the selected hits lead to the discovery of three potent novel inhibitors of both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in the submicromolar range (compounds 8 - 10 ), one selective CYP11B1 inhibitor (Compound 11 , IC 50 = 2.5 μM), and one selective CYP11B2 inhibitor (compound 12 , IC 50 = 1.1 μM), respectively. The overall success rate of this prospective virtual screening experiment is 20.8% indicating good predictive power of the pharmacophore models.

  9. Pharmacophore Modeling and in Silico/in Vitro Screening for Human Cytochrome P450 11B1 and Cytochrome P450 11B2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol synthase (CYP11B1 is the main enzyme for the endogenous synthesis of cortisol and its inhibition is a potential way for the treatment of diseases associated with increased cortisol levels, such as Cushing's syndrome, metabolic diseases, and delayed wound healing. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 is the key enzyme for aldosterone biosynthesis and its inhibition is a promising approach for the treatment of congestive heart failure, cardiac fibrosis, and certain forms of hypertension. Both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 are structurally very similar and expressed in the adrenal cortex. To facilitate the identification of novel inhibitors of these enzymes, ligand-based pharmacophore models of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 inhibition were developed. A virtual screening of the SPECS database was performed with our pharmacophore queries. Biological evaluation of the selected hits lead to the discovery of three potent novel inhibitors of both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in the submicromolar range (compounds 8–10, one selective CYP11B1 inhibitor (Compound 11, IC50 = 2.5 μM, and one selective CYP11B2 inhibitor (compound 12, IC50 = 1.1 μM, respectively. The overall success rate of this prospective virtual screening experiment is 20.8% indicating good predictive power of the pharmacophore models.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Plantaricin Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains (IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Arief

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Indonesian lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2 were purified and characterized. Plantaricin W gene had been successfully amplified from all strains. This amplicon showed the expected 200 bp size of plantaricin W gene. This bacteriocins purified from L. plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2 were named plantaricin IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2. Purification by cation exchange chromatography increased the purity (fold and activity of plantaricins. Purity of plantaricin IIA-1A5 was increased by 3.13 fold with specific activity 13.40 AU/mg. Plantaricin IIA-1B1 had 2.98 fold purity with specific activity 5.12 AU/mg, while purity of plantaricin IIA-2B2 was 1.37 fold with specific activity 7.70 AU/mg. All plantaricins could inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Plantaricins could be digested by trypsin. Stability of plantaricins at 80 oC for 30 min and at 121 oC for 15 min were affected by type of plantaricin and species of pathogenic bacteria. Generally, plantaricin IIA-1A5 was better as antimicrobial agent than plantaricin IIA-1B1 and plantaricin IIA-2B2.

  11. Identification of SH2B2β as an Inhibitor for SH2B1- and SH2B2α-Promoted Janus Kinase-2 Activation and Insulin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minghua; Li, Zhiqin; Morris, David L.; Rui, Liangyou

    2007-01-01

    The SH2B family has three members (SH2B1, SH2B2, and SH2B3) that contain conserved dimerization (DD), pleckstrin homology, and SH2 domains. The DD domain mediates the formation of homo- and heterodimers between members of the SH2B family. The SH2 domain of SH2B1 (previously named SH2-B) or SH2B2 (previously named APS) binds to phosphorylated tyrosines in a variety of tyrosine kinases, including Janus kinase-2 (JAK2) and the insulin receptor, thereby promoting the activation of JAK2 or the ins...

  12. B1 Cell IgE Impedes Mast Cell-Mediated Enhancement of Parasite Expulsion through B2 IgE Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Martin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infection is known for generating large amounts of poly-specific IgE. Here we demonstrate that innate-like B1 cells are responsible for this IgE production during infection with the nematode parasites Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. In vitro analysis of B1 cell immunoglobulin class switch recombination to IgE demonstrated a requirement for anti-CD40 and IL-4 that was further enhanced when IL-5 was added or when the B1 source was helminth infected mice. An IL-25-induced upregulation of IgE in B1 cells was also demonstrated. In T cell-reconstituted RAG1−/− mice, N. brasiliensis clearance was enhanced with the addition of B2 cells in an IgE-dependent manner. This enhanced clearance was impeded by reconstitution with IgE sufficient B1 cells. Mucosal mast cells mediated the B2 cell enhancement of clearance in the absence of B1 cells. The data support B1 cell IgE secretion as a regulatory response exploited by the helminth.

  13. Optimization of chromatographic conditions for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 by using liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani Putri; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-11-01

    The optimization of instrument condition and chromatographic separation for analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 using liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometer detector was conducted in the aim to provide more accurate and reliable analysis results. The aflatoxin known to be serious threat for human health as it is classified as the carcinogenic compounds. The aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were selected due to its extensive contamination in various agricultural commodities. The best chromatographic separation was obtained using C-18 column with gradient elution of solvent 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in methanol at 7 minutes runtime analysis. The linearity of the detector showed satisfied results as the coefficient determination found to be 0.9994, 0.9996, 0.9998 and 0.9987 for aflatoxin B1, G1, B2, and G2 respectively in the range concentration from 1 to 20 ng/g. The quantifier ion selected for the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 was m/z 285.1, 259, 243 and 313 respectively. The instrument precision at these quantifier ions also showed satisfied result with %RSD was around 3.4 to 6.8%. The optimized method present in this study can be used for further sample analysis.

  14. Tumor growth pattern and thymidine phosphorylase expression are related with the risk of hematogenous metastasis in patients with Astler Coller B1/B2 colorectal carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halteren, H.K. van; Peters, H.F.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Roumen, R.M.H.; Worp, E. van der; Wagener, D.J.T.; Vreugdenhil, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy appears to be limited for patients with Astler Coller B1/B2 colorectal carcinoma but may be better in a subgroup of patients with a high recurrence risk. In the current case-control analysis, the authors evaluated whether patients with a high risk of

  15. A Common Origin for B-1a and B-2 Lymphocytes in Clonal Pre- Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Brandon K; Varnum-Finney, Barbara; Mandal, Pankaj K; Rossi, Derrick J; Poulos, Michael G; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Yoder, Mervin C; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Bernstein, Irwin D

    2017-06-06

    Recent evidence points to the embryonic emergence of some tissue-resident innate immune cells, such as B-1a lymphocytes, prior to and independently of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, whether the full hematopoietic repertoire of embryonic HSCs initially includes these unique lineages of innate immune cells has been difficult to assess due to lack of clonal assays that identify and assess HSC precursor (pre-HSC) potential. Here, by combining index sorting of single embryonic hemogenic precursors with in vitro HSC maturation and transplantation assays, we analyze emerging pre-HSCs at the single-cell level, revealing their unique stage-specific properties and clonal lineage potential. Remarkably, clonal pre-HSCs detected between E9.5 and E11.5 contribute to the complete B cell repertoire, including B-1a lymphocytes, revealing a previously unappreciated common precursor for all B cell lineages at the pre-HSC stage and a second embryonic origin for B-1a lymphocytes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Common Origin for B-1a and B-2 Lymphocytes in Clonal Pre- Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon K. Hadland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence points to the embryonic emergence of some tissue-resident innate immune cells, such as B-1a lymphocytes, prior to and independently of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. However, whether the full hematopoietic repertoire of embryonic HSCs initially includes these unique lineages of innate immune cells has been difficult to assess due to lack of clonal assays that identify and assess HSC precursor (pre-HSC potential. Here, by combining index sorting of single embryonic hemogenic precursors with in vitro HSC maturation and transplantation assays, we analyze emerging pre-HSCs at the single-cell level, revealing their unique stage-specific properties and clonal lineage potential. Remarkably, clonal pre-HSCs detected between E9.5 and E11.5 contribute to the complete B cell repertoire, including B-1a lymphocytes, revealing a previously unappreciated common precursor for all B cell lineages at the pre-HSC stage and a second embryonic origin for B-1a lymphocytes.

  17. Growth inhibitory effects of the dual ErbB1/ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor PKI-166 on human prostate cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Tran, Chris; Sawyers, Charles L

    2002-09-15

    Experiments with human prostate cancer cell lines have shown that forced overexpression of the ErbB2-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) promotes androgen-independent growth and increases androgen receptor-transcriptional activity in a ligand-independent fashion. To investigate the relationship between ErbB-RTK signaling and androgen in genetically unmanipulated human prostate cancer, we performed biochemical and biological studies with the dual ErbB1/ErbB2 RTK inhibitor PKI-166 using human prostate cancer xenograft models with isogenic sublines reflecting the transition from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent growth. In the presence of low androgen concentrations, PKI-166 showed profound growth-inhibitory effects on tumor growth, which could be partially reversed by androgen add-back. At physiological androgen concentrations, androgen withdrawal greatly enhanced the ability of PKI-166 to retard tumor growth. The level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation correlated with the response to PKI-166 treatment, whereas the expression levels of ErbB1 and ErbB2 did not. These results suggest that ErbB1/ErbB2 RTKs play an important role in the biology of androgen-independent prostate cancer and provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of inhibitors targeted to this pathway.

  18. Functional and molecular characterization of kinin B1 and B 2 receptors in human bladder cancer: implication of the PI3Kγ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgnaolin, V; Pereira, T C B; Bogo, M R; Zanin, R; Battastini, A M O; Morrone, F B; Campos, M M

    2013-08-01

    Kinins and their receptors have been recently implicated in cancer. Using functional and molecular approaches, we investigated the relevance of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in bladder cancer. Functional studies were conducted using bladder cancer cell lines, and human biopsies were employed for molecular studies. Both B1 des-Arg(9)-BK and B2 BK receptor agonists stimulated the proliferation of grade 3-derived T24 bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, treatment with B1 and B2 receptor antagonists (SSR240612 and HOE140) markedly inhibited the proliferation of T24 cells. Only higher concentrations of BK increased the proliferation of the grade 1 bladder cancer cell line RT4, while des-Arg(9)-BK completely failed to induce its proliferation. Real-time PCR revealed that the mRNA expression of kinin receptors, particularly B1 receptors, was increased in T24 cells relative to RT4 cells. Data from bladder cancer human biopsies revealed that B1 receptor expression was increased in all tumor samples and under conditions of chronic inflammation. We also show novel evidence demonstrating that the pharmacological inhibition of PI3Kγ (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) with AS252424, concentration-dependently reduced T24 cell proliferation induced by BK or des-Arg(9)-BK. Finally, the incubation of T24 cells with kinin agonists led to a marked activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK 1/2 signaling pathways, whereas p38 MAP kinase remained unaffected. Kinin receptors, especially B1 receptors, appear to be implicated in bladder cancer progression. It is tempting to suggest that selective kinin antagonists might represent potential alternative therapies for bladder cancer.

  19. A comparison of the retention of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and cooking yield in pork loin with conventional and enhanced meal-service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Kall, M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    processing included warm-holding, conventional cook-chill, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and sous vide. Compared to retention in the freshly cooked samples, vitamin B-2 retention remained unaffected, irrespective of the meal-service system used and storage period. As regards vitamin B-1 and vitamin B-6......, retentions declined significantly, by 14% and 21% respectively during 3 h of warm-holding, and by 11% and 19% respectively after 1 day of storage and subsequent reheating (cook-chill, MAP and sous vide). Vitamin B-1 retention declined by an extra 4% during storage for 14 days (sous vide) (not significant...

  20. Assessment of intake and nutritional status of vitamin b1, b2, and b6 in men and women with different physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, M; Hübner-Wozniak, E; Lewandowska, I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to

  1. Verification of LOCA/ECCS analysis codes ALARM-B2 and THYDE-B1 by comparison with RELAP4/MOD6/U4/J3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takashi

    1982-08-01

    For a verification study of ALARM-B2 code and THYDE-B1 code which are the component of the JAERI code system for evaluation of BWR ECCS performance, calculations for typical small and large break LOCA in BWR were done, and compared with those by RELAP4/MOD6/U4/J3 code. This report describes the influences of differences between the analytical models incorporated in the individual code and the problems identified by this verification study. (author)

  2. Natural occurrence of Fusarium species, fumonisin production by toxigenic strains, and concentrations of fumonisins B1, and B2 in conventional and organic maize grown in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariño, Agustín; Juan, Teresa; Estopañan, Gloria; González-Cabo, José F

    2007-01-01

    Sixty samples of corn from both conventional and organic farms were tested for internal fungal contamination. Molds were identified to genus, and those belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified to species. Twenty isolates of Fusarium verticillioides were tested with a high-performance liquid chromatography-naphthalene dicarboxaldehyde-fluorescence method for their ability to produce fumonisins B1 and B2. The internal fungal infection in organic maize (63.20%) was significantly higher than that in conventional maize (40.27%) (P fumonisins on conventional or organic corn. Up to 13.3% of the conventional corn samples contained fumonisins B1 and B2 at mean concentrations of 43 and 22 ng/g, respectively. Organic corn samples had somewhat lower levels of contamination: 35 ng/g fumonisin B1 and 19 ng/g fumonisin B2 (P > 0.05). The organic farming system, with well-balanced crop rotation, tillage, and compost fertilization, produced corn that was less likely to be contaminated with Fusarium species, although no significant difference in fumonisin concentrations was found between the two types of contaminated corn.

  3. ErbB2 regulates NHEJ repair pathway by affecting erbB1-triggered IR-induced Akt activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Peter Rodemann, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have already reported that erbBl-PI3K-AKT signaling is an important pathway in regulating radiation sensitivity and DNA double strand break repair of human tumor cells. In the present study using small interfering RNA and pharmacological inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines we investigated the role of Aktl on radiation-induced DNA-PKcs activity and DNA-double strand break (DNA-DSB) repair. Likewise, the function of erbB2 as hetrodimerization partner of erbBl in radiation-induced Akt activity and regulation of DNA-dsb repair through DNA-PKcs was evaluated. In A549 and H460 transfected with AKTl-siRNA radiation-induced phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs the key enzyme regulating NHEJ repair pathway was markedly inhibited. In both cell lines downregulation of Aktl led to a significant enhancement of residual DNA-DSB, i.e. impaired DNA-DSB repair. Interestingly, in cells transfected with DNA-PKcs-siRNA a lack of effect of AKTl-siRNA on enhancement of residual DNA-DSBs was observed. This results indicate that Aktl regulates NHEJ repair in a DNA-PKcs dependent manner

  4. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial effect of vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and K) with antibiotics against resistant bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Shakeel; Ashraf, M Adnan; Sajid, M; Shahzad, Aqeel; Rafique, Azhar; Mahmood, M Shahid

    2018-02-02

    Multiple drug resistant super bugs of Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming challenge for healthcare professionals. In this study, vitamins were evaluated for synergistic activity with the antibiotics. Synergistic effect between antibiotic and stock solutions of vitamins is evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Distilled water and propylene glycol were used as solvent for water soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins respectively. The final concentration of 10mg/ml of each water-soluble vitamin B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B6 (Pyridoxine) B12 (Methylcobalamin), C (Ascorbic acid) and 0.1mg/ml of each fat soluble vitamin A (retinol), D (cholecalciferol) E (αTocopherol) K (Menadione) were used with the antibiotics. The results depicted that vitamin K and E have better synergistic activity with piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem and doripenem antibiotics against A. baumannii. While vitamin B1, B2 and B12 showed remarkable synergistic activity with linezolid against MRSA. Vitamin B1 was further tested to have better synergism with antibiotics oxacillin, tetracycline, rifampicin and linezolid against MRSA. The fat-soluble vitamins E and K were good in synergism against Gram negative A. baumannii while water soluble vitamins as B1, B2 and B12 were effective against MRSA but not against A. baumannii. This synergistic action of vitamins with the antibiotics can be used as a tool to treat multiple drug resistant super bugs with further evaluation at molecular level. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Animal experiments and clinical studies on the role of the vitamins B1, B2, and B6 in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.; Wulff, K.; Grimm, U.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on erythrocytic transketolase, glutathion reductase, and aspartate-aminotransferase activities with and without addition of coenzymes were studied in 152 Wistar rats, six beagles, and 225 carcinoma patients, as a measure for vitamin B 1 , B 2 , and B 6 supplies. Examinations of 108 patients with mammary carcinoma and 117 patients with cervical, corpus, and ovarian carcinomas were undertaken prior to, during, and after termination of radiotherapy. Two check-up series were run, the first without vitamin B complex therapy, and the second with three daily applications of one dragee each, beginning on the first day of irradiation. The TPP effects recorded indicated no impairment of vitamin B 1 supply. FAD and PLP effects, on the other hand, were significantly increased, which suggested B 2 and B 6 deficits. Vitamin B 2 metabolism was causally impaired by radiation, while the disordes in vitamin B 6 metabolism were attributed to tumour-related causes. The results obtained revealed that both types of disorders can be avoided by prophylactic vitamin B complex treatment. (author)

  6. [Study on the expression of bradykinin and its receptors B1R and B2R in the kidney immune injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Li, Shulong; Zha, Wansheng; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Qixing

    2015-07-01

    To study the expression of bradykinin and its receptors B1R and B2R in the kidney immune injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mouse and discuss the pathogenesis of Dermatitis Medicamentosa-like of TCE (ODMLT). On the first days, intradermal injection by 50% TCE and the amount of FCA mixture 100 µl for initial sensitization; on 4, 7, 10 days, painted abdominal skin by 100 µl 50% TCE for three sensitization, on 17, 19 days, painted on the back skin by 100 µl 30% TCE for initial excitation and the last challenge; 24 h before each challenge, PKSI-527+TCE group received intraperitoneal injection by inhibitor PKSI-527 (50 mg/kg); solvent control group treat without TCE and sensitization and excitation reagent the same proportion of olive oil and acetone mixture, blank control group without any treatment. Before killing the mouse, renal weight and body weight were recorded. The renals and plasma were separated at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d after the last challenge and observed pathological of the renals. Expression of B1R and B2R in renal were examined by immunofluorescence technique. Plasma were examined by ELISA for BK. The renal pathological examination revealed the apparent damage of TCE sensitized mice which compared to solvent control group showed obvious cellular infiltration, vacuolar degeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells. The renal damage of PKSI-527+TCE-sensitized groups which compared to the corresponding point of TCE-sensitized groups showed significantly reduced. The expression of BK in 24 h, 48 h and 72 h TCE-sensitized groups were significant higher than solvent control group and related TCE non-sensitized groups (P trichloroethylene-sensitized mouse and the expression change of bradykinin and its receptors B1R and B2R which may play an important role in the process.

  7. Evaluation of FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Jinhong; Xie, Yafeng; Xiao, Yongjian; Wang, Chuan; Kuang, Xingxing; Xu, Man; Li, Ranhui; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuanquan; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Feijun; Wu, Yimou

    2016-02-01

    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and accurate diagnosis is important for the prevention and treatment of syphilis. Here, to identify appropriate diagnostic antigens for serodiagnosis of syphilis, 6 recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, including flagellins (FlaB1 [Tp0868], FlaB2 [Tp0792], and FlaB3 [Tp0870]), Tp0463, Tp0751, and Tp1038. The sensitivities were determined by screening sera from individuals with primary (n=82), secondary (n=115), latent (n=105), and congenital (n=65) syphilis. The specificities were determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n=30) and potentially cross-reactive infections including Lyme disease (n=30), leptospirosis (n=5), and hepatitis B (n=30). Our data showed that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, Tp0463, and Tp1038 exhibited higher overall sensitivities and specificities for detecting IgG antibody, with 95.4% and 98.9%, 92.6% and 95.8%, 95.1% and 95.8%, 92.6% and 97.9%, and 95.9% and 98.9%, respectively. In contrast, Tp0751 demonstrated only an overall sensitivity of 39.2%. For comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of Architect Syphilis TP were determined to be 98.1% and 93.7%, respectively. In addition, FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 demonstrated excellent performance for detecting IgM antibody in primary and congenital syphilis, with sensitivities of 76.8% and 83.1%, 72.0% and 87.7%, 74.4% and 89.2%, and 64.6% and 75.3%, respectively. These results indicate that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 could be as novel diagnostic candidates for serodiagnosis of syphilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacological characterization of homobaclofen on wild type and mutant GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with the GABA(B)2 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Madsen, Bo E.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2001-01-01

    homogenate and in an assay of electrically induced contractions of guinea pig ileum. The results from the two tissues did, however, not correlate very well, and in order to further investigate these discrepancies, we have pharmacologically characterized these enantiomers on recombinant wild type and mutant...... rat GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with rat GABA(B)2 receptors. The results from this study correlate nicely with the binding data from rat brain. (R)-Homobaclofen was shown to act like (R)-baclofen albeit with 20-fold less potency, and (S)-homobaclofen was inactive on the receptor. The discrepancies...

  9. Exposure assessment to fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 through consumption of gluten-free foodstuffs intended for people affected by celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Nardone, Antonio; Triassi, Maria; Cirillo, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins. The sample consisted of 154 gluten-free products analyzed according to method UNI EN 14352:2005. Results showed a heterogeneous contamination by fumoninisin B1, B2 and B3, although below limits of Commission Regulation No 1126/2007 and consistent with other European literature data. Exposure to fumonisins was evaluated for different age groups. In some cases exposure to fumonisins could not be ignored since the total intake could exceed EFSA Provisional Maximum Tolerable Intake up to 150%. Therefore, in the light of an overall contamination by fumonisins the total dietary exposure could be underrated not only in people affected by celiac disease, but also in non-celiac population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitation of fumonisin B1 and B2 in feed using FMOC pre-column derivatization with HPLC and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori L; Francis, Kyle A; Johnson, Joseph T; Gaskill, Cynthia L

    2017-11-01

    Pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) was determined to be effective for quantitation of fumonisins B 1 and B 2 in feed. Liquid-solid extraction, clean-up using immunoaffinity solid phase extraction chromatography, and FMOC-derivatization preceded analysis by reverse phase HPLC with fluorescence. Instrument response was unchanged in the presence of matrix, indicating no need to use matrix-matched calibrants. Furthermore, high method recoveries indicated calibrants do not need to undergo clean-up to account for analyte loss. Established method features include linear instrument response from 0.04-2.5µg/mL and stable derivatized calibrants over 7days. Fortified cornmeal method recoveries from 0.1-30.0μg/g were determined for FB 1 (75.1%-109%) and FB 2 (96.0%-115.2%). Inter-assay precision ranged from 1.0%-16.7%. Method accuracy was further confirmed using certified reference material. Inter-laboratory comparison with naturally-contaminated field corn demonstrated equivalent results with conventional derivatization. These results indicate FMOC derivatization is a suitable alternative for fumonisins B 1 and B 2 quantitation in corn-based feeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Pustograev, N N

    2015-01-01

    With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38-40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) andriboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavin-binding protein) was determined on the 3-10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42.9%--both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17.1% did not use vitamin complexes either duringpregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28.6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins By and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35.7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (perg creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins

  12. URINARY EXCRETION OF WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS (C, B1, B2, AND B6 IN HEALTHY CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOL AGE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana G. Makarova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Children of preschool and school age are at risk of developing vitamin deficiency. Screening of the vitamin provision of children remains an urgent problem of pediatrics. Objective. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of low excretion of watersoluble vitamins among healthy preschool and school-age children.Methods. The study was conducted in March-April 2017. We determined the urinary excretion (fasting morning portion collected during 30–120 min after night-time urination of metabolites of vitamins C, B1, B2, and B6 in healthy children. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 metabolite was determined spectrophotometrically by titration with a riboflavin-binding apoprotein; 4-pyridoxyl acid (vitamin B6 metabolite and thiamine (vitamin B1 metabolite — by fluorescent method, ascorbic acid (vitamin C metabolite — by visual titration with Tillman’s reagent. The excretion considered to be low (equivalent to vitamin deficiency when thiamine excretion was < 7, 10, 11, and 12 μg/h and riboflavin < 6, 9, 10, and 13 μg/h in children aged 3–5, 6–8, 9–11, and above 12 years, respectively; 4-pyridoxylic acid — < 40, 60, and 70 μg/h in children aged 3–5, 6–8, and ≥ 9 years, ascorbic acid — < 0.2 and 0.4 mg/h in children aged 3–11 and ≥ 12 years, respectively.Results. Metabolites were excreted in 39 children (20 girls, 14 of them aged 4–6 years and 25 children aged 7–14 years. A low level of ascorbic acid excretion was found in 13 (33% children, of thiamine — in 24 (62%, of riboflavin — in 16 (41%, of 4-pyridoxyl acid — in 26 (67%. Low excretion of at least one vitamin metabolite was detected in 30 (77% children, of 3 or more metabolites simultaneously — in 15 (39%.Conclusion. A low level of urinary excretion of metabolites of at least one water-soluble vitamin (C, B1, B2, and B≥ occurs in most preschool and schoolage children.

  13. Use of the Chinchilla model to evaluate the vaccinogenic potential of the Moraxella catarrhalis filamentous hemagglutinin-like proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L Shaffer

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis causes significant health problems, including 15-20% of otitis media cases in children and ~10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. In addition, the effectiveness of conjugate vaccines at reducing the incidence of otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae suggest that M. catarrhalis infections may become even more prevalent. Hence, M. catarrhalis is an important and emerging cause of infectious disease for which the development of a vaccine is highly desirable. Studying the pathogenesis of M. catarrhalis and the testing of vaccine candidates have both been hindered by the lack of an animal model that mimics human colonization and infection. To address this, we intranasally infected chinchilla with M. catarrhalis to investigate colonization and examine the efficacy of a protein-based vaccine. The data reveal that infected chinchillas produce antibodies against antigens known to be major targets of the immune response in humans, thus establishing immune parallels between chinchillas and humans during M. catarrhalis infection. Our data also demonstrate that a mutant lacking expression of the adherence proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2 is impaired in its ability to colonize the chinchilla nasopharynx, and that immunization with a polypeptide shared by MhaB1 and MhaB2 elicits antibodies interfering with colonization. These findings underscore the importance of adherence proteins in colonization and emphasize the relevance of the chinchilla model to study M. catarrhalis-host interactions.

  14. "Send & Hold" Clinical Decision Support Rules improvement to reduce unnecessary testing of vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Borja, Enrique; Corchon-Peyrallo, Africa; Barba-Serrano, Esther; Villalba Martínez, Celia; Carratala Calvo, Arturo

    2018-02-03

    We assessed the impact of several "send & hold" clinical decision support rules (CDSRs) within the electronical request system for vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for all outpatients at a large health department. When ordered through electronical request, providers (except for all our primary care physicians who worked as a non-intervention control group) were always asked to answer several compulsory questions regarding main indication, symptomatology, suspected diagnosis, vitamin active treatments, etc., for each vitamin test using a drop-down list format. After samples arrival, tests were later put on hold internally by our laboratory information system (LIS) until review for their appropriateness was made by two staff pathologists according to the provided answers and LIS records (i.e. "send & hold"). The number of tests for each analyte was compared between the 10-month period before and after CDSRs implementation in both groups. After implementation, vitamins test volumes decreased by 40% for vitamin A, 29% for vitamin E, 42% for vitamin K, 37% for vitamin B1, 85% for vitamin B2, 68% for vitamin B3, 65% for vitamin B6 and 59% for vitamin C (all p values 0.03 or lower except for vitamin B3), whereas in control group, the majority increased or remained stable. In patients with rejected vitamins, no new requests and/or adverse clinical outcome comments due to this fact were identified. "Send & hold" CDSRs are a promising informatics tool that can support in utilization management and enhance the pathologist's leadership role as tests specialist.

  15. Natural incidence of Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2 associated with maize kernels from nine provinces in China in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meng; Li, Renjie; Guo, Congcong; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Ningxia) in China. Fusarium species were isolated and identified using morphological (electron microscope) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing). Fumonisins B1 and B2 were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with OPA (2-Mercaptoethanol, o-phthaldialdehyde) post-column derivatisation. A total of 2321 Fusarium isolates (20.7%) were obtained from all the samples. These isolates included nine Fusarium species, namely, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale and F. chlamydosporum. The incidence of occurrence of Fusarium species in Guizhou was the highest, while in Inner Mongolia it was the lowest. F. verticillioides was the dominant species of maize ear rot in Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei and Ningxia. F. graminearum was the dominant species in Yunnan, Guizhou and Shanxi. F. subglutinans was the dominant species in Heilongjiang. F. verticillioides and F. graminearum percentages were the same in Inner Mongolia. The incidence of fumonisins in Liaoning was high (up to 81.0%) and in Heilongjiang low (up to 10.3%). Except Shanxi, more than 50% of maize samples from other provinces were contaminated with fumonisins, with concentrations less than 500 ng g(-1). About 33% of maize samples from Yunnan were contaminated with high levels of fumonisins, and average of fumonisin levels were 5191 ng g(-1). Fusarium species causing maize

  16. Observation of the $ \\chi_{\\mathrm{b}1}(\\text{3P}) $ and $ \\chi_{\\mathrm{b}2}(\\text{3P}) $ and measurement of their masses

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    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Pieters, Maxim; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Postiau, Nicolas; Starling, Elizabeth; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Wang, Qun; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vermassen, Basile; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; David, Pieter; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Calligaris, Luigi; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Sijing; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Levin, Andrew; Li, Jing; Li, Linwei; Li, Qiang; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Kolosova, Marina; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Ayala, Edy; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdalla, Hassan; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ehataht, Karl; Kadastik, Mario; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Kucher, Inna; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lattaud, Hugues; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max Philip; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Esch, Thomas; Ghosh, Saranya; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Keller, Henning; Knutzen, Simon; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Schmidt, Alexander; Teyssier, Daniel; Flügge, Günter; Hlushchenko, Olena; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Roy, Dennis; Sert, Hale; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Babounikau, Illia; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bertsche, David; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Danilov, Vladyslav; De Wit, Adinda; Defranchis, Matteo Maria; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Damiani, Daniela; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eichhorn, Thomas; Elwood, Adam; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Haranko, Mykyta; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Knolle, Joscha; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Meyer, Mareike; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Myronenko, Volodymyr; Pflitsch, Svenja Karen; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Schütze, Paul; Schwanenberger, Christian; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Singh, Akshansh; Tholen, Heiner; Turkot, Oleksii; Vagnerini, Antonio; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Benato, Lisa; Benecke, Anna; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Karavdina, Anastasia; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Kutzner, Viktor; Lange, Johannes; Marconi, Daniele; Multhaup, Jens; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Perieanu, Adrian; Reimers, Arne; Rieger, Oliver; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Troendle, Daniel; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; El Morabit, Karim; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mitra, Soureek; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Paspalaki, Garyfallia; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kontaxakis, Pantelis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Papavergou, Ioanna; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Bartók, Márton; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Major, Péter; Nagy, Marton Imre; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Vámi, Tamás Álmos; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Tiwari, Praveen Chandra; Bahinipati, Seema; Kar, Chandiprasad; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chauhan, Sushil; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Rajat; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Lohan, Manisha; Mehta, Ankita; Sandeep, Kaur; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Gola, Mohit; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ashok; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Priyanka, Priyanka; Ranjan, Kirti; Shah, Aashaq; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bharti, Monika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Mondal, Kuntal; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Saha, Gourab; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Bhat, Muzamil Ahmad; Dugad, Shashikant; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Ravindra Kumar Verma, Ravindra; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Karmakar, Saikat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Di Florio, Adriano; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Gelmi, Andrea; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Ince, Merve; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Ciocca, Claudia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Iemmi, Fabio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Latino, Giuseppe; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Zuolo, Davide; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Galati, Giuliana; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Voevodina, Elena; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Bragagnolo, Alberto; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Hoh, Siew Yan; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Fiori, Francesco; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Cometti, Simona; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Soldi, Dario; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Da Rold, Alessandro; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Vazzoler, Federico; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Kim, Hyunsoo; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Jeon, Dajeong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Benitez, Jose F; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramírez García, Mateo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Bheesette, Srinidhi; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Araujo, Mariana; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavine, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Barnyakov, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Dimova, Tatyana; Kardapoltsev, Leonid; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitskii, Sergei; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Baidali, Sergei; Okhotnikov, Vitalii; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Rodríguez Bouza, Víctor; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; García Alonso, Andrea; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Brondolin, Erica; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; Cucciati, Giacomo; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Fasanella, Daniele; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Guilbaud, Maxime; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Kornmayer, Andreas; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pantaleo, Felice; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Chernyavskaya, Nadezda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Pigazzini, Simone; Quittnat, Milena; Ruini, Daniele; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Brzhechko, Danyyl; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Neutelings, Izaak; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kumar, Arun; Li, You-ying; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dolek, Furkan; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Isik, Candan; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Atakisi, Ismail Okan; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Penning, Bjoern; Sakuma, Tai; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Taylor, Joseph; Titterton, Alexander; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Komm, Matthias; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Martelli, Arabella; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Singh, Gurpreet; Stoye, Markus; Strebler, Thomas; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Madrid, Christopher; Mcmaster, Brooks; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; 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Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Taus, Rhys; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Luo, Sifu; Mueller, Ryan; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; 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    2018-01-01

    The $ \\chi_{\\mathrm{b}1}(\\text{3P}) $ and $ \\chi_{\\mathrm{b}2}(\\text{3P}) $ states are observed through their $ \\Upsilon(\\text{3S}) \\gamma$ decays, using an event sample of proton-proton collisions collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The data were collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 80.0 fb$^{-1}$. The $ \\Upsilon(\\text{3S}) $ mesons are identified through their dimuon decay channel, while the low-energy photons are detected after converting to $ \\mathrm{ e^{+}e^{-} } $ pairs in the silicon tracker, leading to a $ \\chi_{\\mathrm{b}}(\\text{3P}) $ mass resolution of 2.2 MeV. This is the first time that the $J = $ 1 and 2 states are well resolved and their masses individually measured: 10 513.42 $\\pm$ 0.41 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.18 (syst) MeV and 10 524.02 $\\pm$ 0.57 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.18 (syst) MeV; they are determined with respect to the world-average value of the $ \\Upsilon(\\text{3S}) $ mass, which has an uncertainty of 0.5 MeV. The mass splitting is me...

  17. [Effects of excess vitamin B1 or vitamin B2 on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kuzuya, Mako; Satoh, Shiori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake levels of vitamin B(1) and vitamin B(2) in humans, we investigated the effects of excess thiamin or riboflavin administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weights, and urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0006% thiamin-HCl or the same diet with 0.006%, 0.03%, 0.18% or 1.0% thiamin-HCl for 30 days, or the diet containing 0.0006% riboflavin or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5 or 1.0% riboflavin for 22 days. Mild diarrhea was seen only in the rats fed with 1.0% thiamin-HCl diet. Excess thiamin-HCl or riboflavin did not affect body weight gains, food intake or tissue weights. The urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins also did not differ among the diets. These results clearly showed that feeding a diet containing up to 1.0% thiamin-HCl or 1.0% riboflavin did not induce apparent adverse effects, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) for thiamin-HCl and riboflavin in rats might be 1.0% in diet, corresponding to 900 mg/kg body weight/day.

  18. Extraction of fumonisins B1 and B2 from white rice flour and their stability in white rice flour, cornstarch, cornmeal, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Scott, Peter M; Lau, Ben P-Y; Lewis, David A

    2002-06-05

    To extract fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) from Thai white rice flour, different solvent mixtures, temperatures, pH values, and addition of enzymes or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA) were examined. Three extractions with 0.1 M Na2EDTA achieved the highest recoveries. Initial recoveries of fumonisins added to white rice flour, cornstarch, cornmeal, and glucose varied with commodity. Fumonisins disappeared in Thai white rice flour after 12 h, but 55% remained in another white rice flour. With cornstarch 20-30% fumonisins remained after 24 h; only 43% of 14C-labeled FB1 materials extracted from cornstarch was eluted with methanol from an immunoaffinity column. Fumonisins were stable in cornmeal for 24 h but only approximately 50% remained after 30 days. With glucose, 25% of FB1 and FB2 remained 24 h after addition; N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)FB(1) andN-(carboxymethyl)FB(1) were detected in lower amounts than residual FB(1) after 3 months.

  19. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 contaminants in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yiping; Zhang Yu; Han Shiyun; Han Zheng; Wu Yongning

    2011-01-01

    The present work developed an analytical method for simultaneous determination of fumonisins B 1 , B 2 and B 3 residues in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and especially focused on the optimization of extraction, clean-up, UHPLC separation and MS/MS parameters. The method involves addition of fumonisins isotope internal standards, extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and water and clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges before UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. A single-laboratory method validation was conducted by testing three different spiking levels for repeatability and recovery according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) guidelines. The LOQ of FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 were 1.50, 1.65 and 0.4 μg kg -1 , respectively, which were lower than the criteria of EU, USA and other countries regarding minimum residue limits of fumonisins in foods including baby foods and feedstuffs. Recoveries of three fumonisins ranged from 80.9% to 97.0% with RSD values of 2.4-11.1%.The advantages of this method include simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity, and it fulfills the requirements for food analysis with respect to minimum residue limits of fumonisins in various countries.

  20. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in different types of maize by matrix solid phase dispersion and HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Barros; de Castro Gomes Vieira, Carolyne Menezes; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2017-10-15

    This work involved the optimization and validation of a method, according to Directive 2002/657/EC and the Analytical Quality Assurance Manual of Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, Brazil, for simultaneous extraction and determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize. The extraction procedure was based on a matrix solid phase dispersion approach, the optimization of which employed a sequence of different factorial designs. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for determining these analytes using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The optimized method employed only 1g of silica gel for dispersion and elution with 70% ammonium formate aqueous buffer (50mmolL -1 , pH 9), representing a simple, cheap and chemically friendly sample preparation method. Trueness (recoveries: 86-106%), precision (RSD ≤19%), decision limits, detection capabilities and measurement uncertainties were calculated for the validated method. The method scope was expanded to popcorn kernels, white maize kernels and yellow maize grits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin in five cereal flours used in food industry (oat, rice, barley, corn and wheat.

  2. [Effect of vitamins B1, B2, B6, folic acid and vitamin C on the motor activity of chicken's intestines in chronic experiments and in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagórna-Stasiak, B; Wawrzeńska, M

    1987-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 33 chickens of the broiler breed in chronic experiments and in vitro. In the chronic experiments the motility of the jejunum under the influence of vitamins of group B and vitamine C was recorded in 8 chickens. The vitamins were used at concentrations from 10 mg/l to 2.5 x 10(3) mg/l. In the experiments in vitro, the motility of the isolated segment of the jejunum was recorded by the method of Magnus. In this part of experiments the chickens were divided into 3 groups, of which group I (15 chickens) were fed with DKA finischer mixture, group II (5 hens) received, besides the mixture, per os 200 mg of vitamin C for 2 weeks, group III (5 hens) received the mixture and for 2 weeks intraperitoneally 200 mg of vitamin C. The effect of vitamins of group B in vitro was determined in chickens of group I, whereas that of vitamin C in chickens of group I, II and III. At the same time the level of vitamin C in the wall of the jejunum was determined by the method of Roe-Kuenther. It was shown that vitamin B2 and folic acid caused stimulation of intestine motility in the chickens, while vitamin B1, B6 and C decreased the motoric activity. Increased level of vitamin C in the intestinal wall resulted in increased intestine sensitivity. Chicken intestines sensitivity to vitamins was 10 times stronger to vitamins than that of the intestines of rabbits.

  3. [Determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 in armeniacae semen amarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Run-Sheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhan, Ruo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2013-10-01

    A simple, rapid and cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was established for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in Armeniacae Semen Amarum and the application was performance in 11 samples collected from different markets, medical stores and hospitals. The sample was extracted with 84% acetonitrile/water and 250 microL extraction was directly injected into a LC-MS/MS system without further purification procedure after being redissolved with methanol. The LC separation was performed on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution program of 4 mmol x L(-1) NH4 Ac-0.1% formic acid solution and menthol as the mobile phase. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used for selective determination of the four aflatoxins on a triple quadruple mass spectrometer, which was operated in positive ionization modes. All the four aflatoxins showed a good linear relationship with r > 0.999 0, the average recoveries were between 87.88% and 102.9% and the matrix effect was ranged from 90.71% to 99.30% in low, intermediate and high levels. Furthermore, the higher recovery was obtained by the method reported in this study, comparing to the cleanup procedure with the Mycosep 226 purification column. Eleven samples collected were detected and the contamination levels of the AFB1 were between 1.590-2.340 microg x kg(-1) and the AF (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) was ranged from 2.340 to 3.340 microg x kg(-1). In summary, the developed method was suitable to detect and screen AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 in Armeniacae Semen Amarum.

  4. B1 Cell IgE Impedes Mast Cell-Mediated Enhancement of Parasite Expulsion through B2 IgE Blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca K. Martin; Sheela R. Damle; Yolander A. Valentine; Matthew P. Zellner; Briana N. James; Joseph C. Lownik; Andrea J. Luker; Elijah H. Davis; Martha M. DeMeules; Laura M. Khandjian; Fred D. Finkelman; Joseph F. Urban, Jr.; Daniel H. Conrad

    2018-01-01

    Helminth infection is known for generating large amounts of poly-specific IgE. Here we demonstrate that innate-like B1 cells are responsible for this IgE production during infection with the nematode parasites Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. In vitro analysis of B1 cell immunoglobulin class switch recombination to IgE demonstrated a requirement for anti-CD40 and IL-4 that was further enhanced when IL-5 was added or when the B1 source was helminth infected mi...

  5. Up-regulation and subcellular localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Huaqing; Wu, Feng; Sun, Yanling; Fan, Guocai; Wang, Qingming

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the world's leading causes of death among cancer patients. It is important to find a new biomarker that diagnoses HCC and monitors its treatment. In our previous work, we screened a single-chain antibody (scFv) N14, which could specifically recognize human HepG2 HCC cells but not human non-cancerous liver LO2 cells. However, the antigen it recognized in the cells remained unknown. Recombinant scFv N14 antibody was expressed as an active antibody. Using this antibody with a combination of immunological and proteomic approaches, we identified the antigen of scFv N14 antibody as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1). The expression of hnRNP A2/B1 in HCC cells was then investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that the up-regulation of hnRNP A2/B1 was measured at both transcriptional and translational levels in rat HCC cells but not in rat hepatic cells. We also found that in various human hepatic tissues, hnRNP A2/B1 was highly expressed in both human hepatitis virus positive liver tissues and human HCC tissues but not in normal liver tissues. Interestingly, we observed that the localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in HCC cells was altered during the development of HCC. In human hepatitis virus infected tissues hnRNP A2/B1 resides exclusively in the nuclei of hepatocytes. However, when the HCC progressed from a well differentiated to a poorly differentiated stage, hnRNP A2/B1 was increasingly localized in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the HCC tissues with hnRNP A2/B1 highly expressed in the nucleus decreased. This work is the first to show that hnRNP A2/B1 is the antigen specifically recognized by the scFv N14 antibody in HCC cells. The over-expression of hnRNP A2/B1 was confirmed in cultured human and rat HCC cell lines, human virus related hepatitis liver tissues and human HCC tissues. The increased localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in the cytoplasm of HCC cells was revealed

  6. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-2 - Exclusion for certain organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exclusion for certain organizations described in....509(a)-2 Exclusion for certain organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A). (a) General rule. Organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A) (other than in clauses (vii) and (viii)) are excluded from the...

  7. Biotransformation of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists spironolactone and canrenone by human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2: Characterization of the products and their influence on mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Lina; Müller, Anne-Rose; Hobler, Anna; Brixius-Anderko, Simone; Zapp, Josef; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Spironolactone and its major metabolite canrenone are potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and are, therefore, applied as drugs for the treatment of primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension. We report that both compounds can be converted by the purified adrenocortical cytochromes P450 CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, while no conversion of the selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone was observed. As their natural function, CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 carry out the final steps in the biosynthesis of gluco- and mineralocorticoids. Dissociation constants for the new exogenous substrates were determined by a spectroscopic binding assay and demonstrated to be comparable to those of the natural substrates, 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone. Metabolites were produced at preparative scale with a CYP11B2-dependent Escherichia coli whole-cell system and purified by HPLC. Using NMR spectroscopy, the metabolites of spironolactone were identified as 11β-OH-spironolactone, 18-OH-spironolactone and 19-OH-spironolactone. Canrenone was converted to 11β-OH-canrenone, 18-OH-canrenone as well as to the CYP11B2-specific product 11β,18-diOH-canrenone. Therefore, a contribution of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 to the biotransformation of drugs should be taken into account and the metabolites should be tested for their potential toxic and pharmacological effects. A mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation assay in antagonist mode revealed 11β-OH-spironolactone as pharmaceutically active metabolite, whereas all other hydroxylation products negate the antagonist properties of spironolactone and canrenone. Thus, human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 turned out to metabolize steroid-based drugs additionally to the liver-dependent biotransformation of drugs. Compared with the action of the parental drug, changed properties of the metabolites at the target site have been observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in food and feed using monolithic column and positive confirmation by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayoon, Wejdan Shakir; Saad, Bahruddin; Salleh, Baharuddin; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Abdul Manaf, Normaliza Hj; Abdul Latiff, Aishah

    2010-10-29

    The development of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method for the determination of the mycotoxins fumonisin B(1) and fumonisin B(2) by using silica-based monolithic column is described. The samples were first extracted using acetonitrile:water (50:50, v/v) and purified by using a C(18) solid phase extraction-based clean-up column. Then, pre-column derivatization for the analyte using ortho-phthaldialdehyde in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol was carried out. The developed method involved optimization of mobile phase composition using methanol and phosphate buffer, injection volume, temperature and flow rate. The liquid chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed phase Chromolith(®) RP-18e column (100 mm × 4.6 mm) at 30 °C and eluted with a mobile phase of a mixture of methanol and phosphate buffer pH 3.35 (78:22, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The fumonisins separation was achieved in about 4 min, compared to approximately 20 min by using a C(18) particle-packed column. The fluorescence excitation and emission were at 335 nm and 440 nm, respectively. The limits of detections were 0.01-0.04 μg g(-1) fumonisin B(1) and fumonisin B(2), respectively. Good recoveries were found for spiked samples (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 μg g(-1) fumonisins B(1) and B(2)), ranging from 84.0 to 106.0% for fumonisin B(1) and from 81.0 to 103.0% for fumonisin B(2). Fifty-three samples were analyzed including 39 food and feeds and 14 inoculated corn and rice. Results show that 12.8% of the food and feed samples were contaminated with fumonisin B(1) (range, 0.01-0.51 μg g(-1)) and fumonisin B(2) (0.05 μg g(-1)). The total fumonisins in these samples however, do not exceed the legal limits established by the European Union of 0.8 μg g(-1). Of the 14 inoculated samples, 57.1% contained fumonisin B(1) (0.16-41.0 μg g(-1)) and fumonisin B(2) (range, 0.22-50.0 μg g(-1)). Positive confirmation of selected samples was carried out using

  9. Investigation of Non-Covalent Interactions of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1 with Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are widely spread mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus species. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and drinks causes serious health risks for people worldwide. It is well-known that the reactive epoxide metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 forms covalent adducts with serum albumin. However, non-covalent interactions of aflatoxins with human serum albumin (HSA are poorly characterized. Thus, in this study the complex formation of aflatoxins was examined with HSA applying spectroscopic and molecular modelling studies. Our results demonstrate that aflatoxins form stable complexes with HSA as reflected by binding constants between 2.1 × 104 and 4.5 × 104 dm3/mol. A binding free energy value of −26.90 kJ mol−1 suggests a spontaneous binding process between AFB1 and HSA at room-temperature, while the positive entropy change of 55.1 JK−1 mol−1 indicates a partial decomposition of the solvation shells of the interacting molecules. Modeling studies and investigations with site markers suggest that Sudlow’s Site I of subdomain IIA is the high affinity binding site of aflatoxins on HSA. Interaction of AFB1 with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumins was also investigated. Similar stabilities of the examined AFB1-albumin complexes were observed suggesting the low species differences of the albumin-binding of aflatoxins.

  10. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds.

  11. Measurement of the $\\chi_b(3P)$ mass and of the relative rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ production

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Lespinasse, Mickael; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-10-14

    The production of $\\chi_b$ mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. The $\\chi_b$ mesons are identified through their decays to $\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$ using photons that converted to $e^+e^-$ pairs in the detector. The $\\chi_b(3P)$ meson mass, and the relative prompt production rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ mesons as a function of the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ transverse momentum in the $\\chi_b$ rapidity range 2.0< $y$<4.5, are measured. Assuming a mass splitting between the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ and the $\\chi_{b2}(3P)$ states of 10.5 MeV/$c^2$, the mass of the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ meson is \\begin{equation*} m(\\chi_{b1}(3P))= 10515.7^{+2.2}_{-3.9}(stat) ^{+1.5}_{-2.1}(syst) MeV/c^2. \\end{equation*}

  12. Measurement of the production cross section ratio $\\sigma(\\chi_{b2}(1\\mathrm{P}))/ \\sigma(\\chi_{b1}(1\\mathrm{P}))$ in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Song; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; 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Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Yuldashev, Bekhzod S; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; 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Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-04-09

    A measurement of the production cross section ratio $\\sigma(\\chi_{b2}(1\\mathrm{P}))/ \\sigma(\\chi_{b1}(1\\mathrm{P}))$ is presented. The $\\chi_{b1}(1\\mathrm{P})$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1\\mathrm{P})$ bottomonium states, promptly produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV, are detected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC through their radiative decays $\\chi_{b1,2}(1\\mathrm{P}) \\rightarrow \\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S}) + \\gamma$. The emitted photons are measured through their conversion to e$^+$e$^-$ pairs, whose reconstruction allows the two states to be resolved. The $\\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S})$ is measured through its decay to two muons. An event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.7 fb$^{-1}$ is used to measure the cross section ratio in a phase-space region defined by the photon pseudorapidity, |$\\eta^\\gamma$| < 1.0; the $\\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S})$ rapidity, |$y^\\Upsilon$| < 1.5; and the $\\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S})$ transverse momentum, 7 < $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^\\Upsilon$ < 40 GeV. The cross section ratio sh...

  13. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver.

  14. Comparison of the amount of bioaccessible fumonisin B1 and B2 in maize and rice inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826) and determined by in vitro digestion-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó-Fodor, J; Bors, I; Szabó, A; Kovács, M

    2016-08-01

    In this study the occurrence of hidden fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) was analysed, on two cereal substrates (maize and rice), inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826), in order to determine the ratio of hidden FB1 and FB2. Two parallel methods were applied: an in vitro human digestion sample pre-treatment and the routine extraction procedure, in both cases with subsequent LC-MS analysis. It was found that all samples showed higher concentration of total fumonisin B1 after digestion, as compared to that of free fumonisin analysed only after extraction. The percentage of the hidden form by maize was 18.8 % (±2.4) for FB1 and 36.8 % (±3.8) for FB2, while for rice it was 32.3 % (±11.3) and 58.0 (±6.8), respectively, expressed as the proportion to total fumonisin B1, for the total dataset. Significant differences were found in the FB1 and FB2 concentration measured after the different digestion phases (saliva, gastric and duodenal) in case of both matrixes. The results are useful for human risk assessment, since both humans and animals may be exposed to markedly higher toxin load, as determined merely by conventional analytical methods.

  15. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A; Halkjaer, J; van Gils, C H; Buijsse, B; Verhagen, H; Jenab, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Ericson, U; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Waaseth, M; Skeie, G; Khaw, K T; Travis, R; Ferrari, P; Sanchez, M J; Agudo, A; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Weikert, C; Sacerdote, C; Evangelista, A; Zylis, D; Tsiotas, K; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.

  16. Validation of a screening method for the simultaneous identification of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins (A, E, B1, B2 and B6) in an aqueous micellar medium of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Ruiz, V; Vera, S; San Andrés, M P

    2005-04-01

    Simultaneous determination of the fat-soluble vitamins A and E and the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2 and B6 has been carried using a screening method from fluorescence contour graphs. These graphs show different colour zones in relation to the fluorescence intensity measured for the pair of excitation/emission wavelengths. The identification of the corresponding excitation/emission wavelength zones allows the detection of different vitamins in an aqueous medium regardless of the fat or water solubility of each vitamin, owing to the presence of a surfactant which forms micelles in water at the used concentration (over the critical micelle concentration). The micelles dissolve very water insoluble compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, inside the aggregates. This approach avoids the use of organic solvents in determining these vitamins and offers the possibility of analysing fat- and water-soluble vitamins simultaneously. The method has been validated in terms of detection limit, cut-off limit, sensitivity, number of false positives, number of false negatives and uncertainty range. The detection limit is about microg L(-1). The screening method was applied to different samples such as pharmaceuticals, juices and isotonic drinks.

  17. In vivo biodistribution of 131I labeled bleomycin (BLM) and isomers (A2 and B2) on experimental animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avcibasi, U.; Demiroglu, H.; Uenak, P.; Mueftueler, F.Z.B.; Ichedef, C.A.; Guemueser, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Bleomycins (BLMs; BLM, A2, and B2) were labeled with 131 I and radiopharmaceutical potentials were investigated using animal models in this study. Quality control procedures were carried out using thin layer radiochromatography (TLRC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and liquid chromatography (LC/MS/MS). Labeling yields of radiolabeled BLMs were found to be 90, 68, and 71%, respectively. HPLC chromatograms were taken for BLM and cold iodinated BLM ( 127 I-BLM). Five peaks were detected for BLM and three peaks for 127 I-BLM in the HPLC studies. Two peaks belong to isomers of BLM. The isomers of BLM were purified with using HPLC. Biological activity of BLM was determined on male Albino Wistar rats by biodistribution and scintigraphic studies were performed for BLMs by using New Zealand rabbits. The biodistribution results of 131 I-BLM showed high uptake in the stomach, the bladder, the prostate, the testicle, and the spinal cord in rats. Scintigraphic results on rabbits agrees with that of biodistributional studies on rats. The scintigraphy of radiolabeled isomers ( 131 I-A2 and 131 I-B2) are similarly found with that of 131 I-BLM. (author)

  18. Country-Level Population and Downscaled Projections Based on the SRES A1, B1, and A2 Scenarios, 1990-2100

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Country-Level Population and Downscaled Projections Based on Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1, B1, and A2 Scenarios, 1990-2100, were adopted in...

  19. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-HR-MS Method for the Determination of Fumonisin B1 and Its Hydrolysed Metabolites and Fumonisin B2 in Broiler Chicken Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegrid De Baere

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of Fumonisin B1 (FB1, its partially hydrolysed metabolites pHFB1a+b and hydrolysed metabolite HFB1, and Fumonisin B2 (FB2 in broiler chicken plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS was developed. The sample preparation was rapid, straightforward and consisted of a deproteinization and phospholipid removal step using an Oasis® OstroTM 96-well plate. Chromatography was performed on an Acquity HSS-T3 column, using 0.3% formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate in water, and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The MS/MS instrument was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode and the two multiple reaction monitoring transitions were monitored for each component for quantification and identification, respectively. The method was validated in-house: matrix-matched calibration graphs were prepared and good linearity (r ≥ 0.99 was achieved over the concentration ranges tested (1–500 ng/mL for FB1 and FB2; 0.86–860 ng/mL for pHFB1a; 0.72–1430 ng/mL for pHFB1b and 2.5–2500 ng/mL for HFB1. Limits of quantification (LOQ and detection (LOD in plasma ranged between 0.72 to 2.5 ng/mL and 0.03 to 0.17 ng/mL, respectively. The results for the within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell within the specified ranges. Moreover, the method was transferred to an UPLC high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS instrument in order to determine potential metabolites of HFB1, such as N-acyl-HFB1s and phase II metabolites. The method has been successfully applied to investigate the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of HFB1 in broiler chickens.

  20. Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 reveals patrilineal traces of Austronesian populations on the eastern coastal regions of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yik-Ying; Huang, Yun-Zhi; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Yu, Ge; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Shu-Hua; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Austronesian diffusion is considered one of the greatest dispersals in human history; it led to the peopling of an extremely vast region, ranging from Madagascar in the Indian Ocean to Easter Island in Remote Oceania. The Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134), a predominant paternal lineage of Austronesian populations, is found at high frequencies in Polynesian populations. However, the internal phylogeny of this haplogroup remains poorly investigated. In this study, we analyzed -seventeen Y-chromosome sequences of haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134) and generated a revised phylogenetic tree of this lineage based on 310 non-private Y-chromosome polymorphisms. We discovered that all available O3a2b*-P164(xM134) samples belong to the newly defined haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 and samples from Austronesian populations belong to the sublineage O3a2b2a2-F706. Additionally, we genotyped a series of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in a large collection of samples from China. We confirmed that the sublineage O3a2b2a2b-B451 is unique to Austronesian populations. We found that O3a2b2-N6 samples are widely distributed on the eastern coastal regions of Asia, from Korea to Vietnam. Furthermore, we propose- that the O3a2b2a2b-B451 lineage represents a genetic connection between ancestors of Austronesian populations and ancient populations in North China, where foxtail millet was domesticated about 11,000 years ago. The large number of newly defined Y-chromosome polymorphisms and the revised phylogenetic tree of O3a2b2-N6 will be helpful to explore the origin of proto-Austronesians and the early diffusion process of Austronesian populations. PMID:28380021

  1. Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh

    2005-08-01

    Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions.

  2. Activation of bradykinin B2 receptor induced the inflammatory responses of cytosolic phospholipase A2 after the early traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Lin, Chao; Xu, Xiupeng; Li, Zheng; Bao, Zhongyuan; Fan, Liang; Tao, Chao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2018-06-09

    Phospholipase A 2 is a known aggravator of inflammation and deteriorates neurological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the exact inflammatory mechanisms remain unknown. This study investigated the role of bradykinin and its receptor, which are known initial mediators within inflammation activation, as well as the mechanisms of the cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 )-related inflammatory responses after TBI. We found that cPLA 2 and bradykinin B2 receptor were upregulated after a TBI. Rats treated with the bradykinin B2 receptor inhibitor LF 16-0687 exhibited significantly less cPLA 2 expression and related inflammatory responses in the brain cortex after sustaining a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Both the cPLA 2 inhibitor and the LF16-0687 improved CCI rat outcomes by decreasing neuron death and reducing brain edema. The following TBI model utilized both primary astrocytes and primary neurons in order to gain further understanding of the inflammation mechanisms of the B2 bradykinin receptor and the cPLA 2 in the central nervous system. There was a stronger reaction from the astrocytes as well as a protective effect of LF16-0687 after the stretch injury and bradykinin treatment. The protein kinase C pathway was thought to be involved in the B2 bradykinin receptor as well as the cPLA 2 -related inflammatory responses. Rottlerin, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) δ inhibitor, decreased the activity of the cPLA 2 activity post-injury, and LF16-0687 suppressed both the PKC pathway and the cPLA 2 activity within the astrocytes. These results indicated that the bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated pathway is involved in the cPLA 2 -related inflammatory response from the PKC pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun, E-mail: ydu@uark.edu

    2014-01-20

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication.

  4. VHL genetic alteration in CCRCC does not determine de-regulation of HIF, CAIX, hnRNP A2/B1 and osteopontin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nyhan, Michelle J

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene inactivation is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) development. The VHL protein (pVHL) has been proposed to regulate the expression of several proteins including Hypoxia Inducible Factor-alpha (HIF-alpha), carbonic anhydrase (CA)IX, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2\\/B1 and osteopontin. pVHL has been characterized in vitro, however, clinical studies are limited. We evaluated the impact of VHL genetic alterations on the expression of several pVHL protein targets in paired normal and tumor tissue. METHODS: The VHL gene was sequenced in 23 CCRCC patients and VHL transcript levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Expression of pVHL\\'s protein targets were determined by Western blotting in 17 paired patient samples. RESULTS: VHL genetic alterations were identified in 43.5% (10\\/23) of CCRCCs. HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha and CAIX were up-regulated in 88.2% (15\\/17), 100% (17\\/17) and 88.2% (15\\/17) of tumors respectively and their expression is independent of VHL status. hnRNP A2\\/B1 and osteopontin expression was variable in CCRCCs and had no association with VHL genetic status. CONCLUSION: As expression of these proposed pVHL targets can be achieved independently of VHL mutation (and possibly by hypoxia alone), these data suggests that other pVHL targets may be more crucial in renal carcinogenesis.

  5. Potential energy surfaces for ion-molecule reactions. Intersection of the 3A2 and 2B1 surfaces of NH+2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.F.; Meadows, J.H.; Schaefer, H.F. III.

    1976-04-01

    A theoretical study of two of the low-lying NH 2 + potential energy surfaces was performed. The intersection and avoided intersection (for C/sub s/ geometries) of the lowest 3 A 2 and 3 B 1 surfaces allows a pathway by which the ground state of HH 2 + may be accessed without a potential barrier. The electronic structure calculations employed a double zeta plus polarization basis set, and correlation effects were taken into account using the newly developed Vector Method (VM). To test the validity of this basis, additional self-consistent-field studies were performed using a very large contracted gaussian basis N(13s 8p 3d/9s 6p 3d), H(6s 2p/4s 2p). The 3 A 2 surface, on which N + and H 2 may approach, has a surprising deep potential minimum, approximately 60 kcal/mole, occurring at r/sub e/(NH) approximately 1.26 A and theta/sub e/(HNH) approximately 43 0 . Electron correlation is responsible for about 15 kcal of this well depth, which appears fairly insensitive to extension of the basis set beyond the double zeta plus polarization level. The line of intersection (or seam) of the 3 A 2 and 3 B 1 surfaces is presented both numerically and pictorially. The minimum energy along this seam occurs at approximately 51 kcal below separated N + + H 2 . Thus for sufficiently low energies one expects N + - H 2 collisions to provide considerable ''complex formation.'' 3 figs, 1 table, 28 refs

  6. A propos cahier d'exercices : B1-B2

    CERN Document Server

    Andant, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Les enseignants de français langue étrangère disposeront grâce aux dossiers thématiques d'" A propos " d'un abondant matériel pédagogique, souple, diversifié et stimulant pour la préparation et l'animation de leurs cours au niveau intermédiaire et avancé. Ils y trouveront de surcroît de très nombreuses indications pédagogiques pour aborder et exploiter les documents sélectionnés ainsi que des suggestions pour construire des séquences pédagogiques. La méthode " A propos " se compose de : - un manuel de l'élève pour les activités de classe avec la transcription des documents sonores ; - un coffret de 2 cd contenant plus de 50 documents sonores originaux ; - un cahier d'exercices pour le travail individuel de l'étudiant ; - un guide pédagogique proposant de très nombreux documents et activités complémentaires pour le professeur, avec le corrigé des exercices.

  7. New bands and new analyses in the spectrum of the Baldet-Johnson (B2Σ+-A2Πi) system of CO+1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bembenek, Z.; Domin, U.; Kepa, R.; Porada, K.; Rytel, M.; Zachwieja, M.; Zakubek, Z.; Janjic, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of the investigations of the CO+ ion molecule and its spectrum for the knowledge of physical and chemical processes taking place in the atmospheres of planets, the Sun and stars, comet tails, and interstellar space is already well known and well documented. Also, an interest is increasing in this molecule (in addition to the neutral Co molecular) as a monitoring probe for chemical dynamics in investigations of the combustion processes and environmental research. As a result, this molecule is still retained in the group of the most intensively and comprehensively spectroscopically studied diatomic molecules. In the emission spectrum of the CO+ ion new so-far unobserved 0-2, 1-3, and 2-1 bands and so-far unanalyzed 1-2 and 2-0 bands belonging to the Baldet-Johnson (B 2 Σ + -A 2 Π i ) system have been identified and recorded by means of conventional spectroscopy. The individual analysis of the recorded bands and the merged analysis of the Baldet-Johnson system which is now extended to eight bands made it possible to considerably improve and extend the information on both the B 2 Σ + and A 2 Π i excited states of the CO + molecule. Especially, the information about equilibrium constants of the rovibronic structure and the potential curve parameters of both states have been improved and extended. Also a new quantitative classification of the relative band intensities of the now enlarged Baldet-Johnson system has been proposed

  8. Estimating Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in Rice Paddies as Influenced by Climate Change under Scenario A2 and B2 of an i-EPIC model of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppol Arunrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration in soils constitutes an important option that can be used to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and reduce environmental impacts. Soil organic carbon (SOC is both a source of carbon release and a sink for carbon sequestration. Our objectives in this study were to validate the interactive Environmental Policy Impact Calculator (i-EPIC model version 0509, as well as to estimate SOC sequestration under climate change scenarios A2 and B2 SRES emission scenarios in Thailand. The SOC estimated by i-EPIC was compared with data from the Office of Soil Resources Survey and Research, Land Development Department. The results indicated that performance testing of i-EPIC is able to estimate SOC. Validation of SOC proved to be satisfactory with a resulting root mean square error (RMSE % value of 34.60. The SOC content showed a decreasing trend under B2 and A2 climate scenarios (average 0.87% and 0.85%, respectively compared to the reference from 2007 (average 0.92%. Stepwise regression analysis also revealed that carbon from residue decomposition, biomass pool carbon, and the total change of the carbon pool were directly correlated with the SOC (R2= 0.99, p< 0.01. Furthermore, the change from rain supplied water to irrigation also resulted in an increase of carbon inputs but a decrease in the SOC sequestered during the 2007-2017 period. Regression analyses indicated that soil carbon sequestration responds linearly to carbon input. Significant changes in carbon input as well as decreases in SOC levels were observed as temperature and precipitation increased. Based on the testing and analysis, we concluded that i-EPIC is capable of reliably simulating effects of climate change on SOC sequestration. Based on the results, this knowledge and information can increase effectiveness in the promotion of integrated rice management for rice production in Thailand.

  9. Analysis of cellular responses to aflatoxin B1 in yeast expressing human cytochrome P450 1A2 using cDNA microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yingying; Breeden, Linda L.; Fan, Wenhong; Zhao Lueping; Eaton, David L.; Zarbl, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB 1 ) is a potent human hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus. In human, AFB 1 is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, primarily CYP1A2, to the genotoxic epoxide that forms N 7 -guanine DNA adducts. To characterize the transcriptional responses to genotoxic insults from AFB 1 , a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to express human CYP1A2 was exposed to doses of AFB 1 that resulted in minimal lethality, but substantial genotoxicity. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated a dose and time dependent S phase delay under the same treatment conditions, indicating a checkpoint response to DNA damage. Replicate cDNA microarray analyses of AFB 1 treated cells showed that about 200 genes were significantly affected by the exposure. The genes activated by AFB 1 -treatment included RAD51, DUN1 and other members of the DNA damage response signature reported in a previous study with methylmethane sulfonate and ionizing radiation [A.P. Gasch, M. Huang, S. Metzner, D. Botstein, S.J. Elledge, P.O. Brown, Genomic expression responses to DNA-damaging agents and the regulatory role of the yeast ATR homolog Mec1p, Mol. Biol. Cell 12 (2001) 2987-3003]. However, unlike previous studies using highly cytotoxic doses, environmental stress response genes [A.P. Gasch, P.T. Spellman, C.M. Kao, O. Carmel-Harel, M.B. Eisen, G. Storz, D. Botstein, P.O. Brown, Genomic expression programs in the response of yeast cells to environmental changes, Mol. Biol. Cell 11 (2000) 4241-4257] were largely unaffected by our dosing regimen. About half of the transcripts affected are also known to be cell cycle regulated. The most strongly repressed transcripts were those encoding the histone genes and a group of genes that are cell cycle regulated and peak in M phase and early G1. These include most of the known daughter-specific genes. The rapid and coordinated repression of histones and M/G1-specific transcripts cannot be explained by

  10. 17O solid-state NMR spectroscopy of A2B2O7 oxides: quantitative isotopic enrichment and spectral acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Arantxa; Moran, Robert F; Sneddon, Scott; Dawson, Daniel M; McKay, David; Bignami, Giulia P M; Blanc, Frédéric; Whittle, Karl R; Ashbrook, Sharon E

    2018-02-13

    The potential of 17 O NMR spectroscopy for the investigation of A 2 B 2 O 7 ceramic oxides important in the encapsulation of radioactive waste is demonstrated, with post-synthetic enrichment by exchange with 17 O 2 gas. For Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 , Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 and La 2 Sn 2 O 7 pyrochlores, enrichment of the two distinct O species is clearly non quantitative at lower temperatures (∼700 °C and below) and at shorter times, despite these being used in prior work, with preferential enrichment of OA 2 B 2 favoured over that of OA 4 . At higher temperatures, the 17 O NMR spectra suggest that quantitative enrichment has been achieved, but the integrated signal intensities do not reflect the crystallographic 1 : 6 (O1 : O2) ratio until corrected for differences in T 1 relaxation rates and, more importantly, the contribution of the satellite transitions. 17 O NMR spectra of Y 2 Zr 2 O 7 and Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 defect fluorites showed little difference with any variation in enrichment temperature or time, although an increase in the absolute level of enrichment (up to ∼7.5%) was observed at higher temperature. DFT calculations show that the six distinct resonances observed cannot be assigned unambiguously, as each has contributions from more than one of the five possible next nearest neighbour environments. For La 2 Ti 2 O 7 , which adopts a layered perovskite-like structure, little difference in the spectral intensities is observed with enrichment time or temperature, although the highest absolute levels of enrichment (∼13%) were obtained at higher temperature. This work demonstrates that 17 O NMR has the potential to be a powerful probe of local structure and disorder in oxides, but that considerable care must be taken both in choosing the conditions for 17 O enrichment and the experimental acquisition parameters if the necessary quantitative measurements are to be obtained for more complex systems.

  11. Sign system choice influence on the substance formation forecast in A2MoO4-B2(MoO4)3 and A2MoO4-CMoO4 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanov, Yu.E.; Lutsik, V.I.; Mokhosoev, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Three sign spaces were used for forecasting compound formation in A 2 MoO 4 -B 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 (5:1 ratio, where A-Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs; B-Al, In, Ga, Sc, Cr, Fe, Bi, La, Nd, Sm-Lu, Y) and A 2 MoO 4 -CMoO 4 (1:2 ratio, where A-Li, Na, K, RB, Cs, Tl; C-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pd, Mn, Co, Ni) systems: 1-electron distribution on energy shells of cations and their valency; 2-the type of incomplete electron shell, charge of cations, three first ionization potentials, standard heat capacity, ionic radius of cations; 3-standard formation enthalpy and standard entropy, oxide melting points and ionic radius of cations. It is shown that sign space, related with thermodynamic properties of oxides contains data, necessary for forecasting interaction in molybdate systems. This enables to improve reliability of forecasting

  12. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  13. Low-voltage organic field effect transistors with a 2-tridecyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene semiconductor layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Atefeh Y; Khassanov, Artoem; Reuter, Knud; Meyer-Friedrichsen, Timo; Halik, Marcus

    2012-10-10

    An asymmetric n-alkyl substitution pattern was realized in 2-tridecyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C(13)-BTBT) in order to improve the charge transport properties in organic thin-film transistors. We obtained large hole mobilities up to 17.2 cm(2)/(V·s) in low-voltage operating devices. The large mobility is related to densely packed layers of the BTBT π-systems at the channel interface dedicated to the substitution motif and confirmed by X-ray reflectivity measurements. The devices exhibit promising stability in continuous operation for several hours in ambient air.

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CG5B-2QU0A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chain>A 2QU0A ence>AWGKVGGNAGAYence> 2QU0 A 2QU0A ence>DLHAHKLRVDP...0 A 2QU0A ence>YFPHF--DLSHG...1CG5B-2QU0A 1CG5 2QU0 B A VKLSEDQEHYIKGVWKDV--DHKQITAKALERVFVVYPW...dex>0 1CG5 B 1CG5B

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CG8B-2QU0A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 A 2QU0A ence>DLHAHKLRVDP...0 A 2QU0A ence>YFPHF--DLSHG...1CG8B-2QU0A 1CG8 2QU0 B A VKLSEDQEHYIKGVWKDV--DHKQITAKALERVFVVYPW...> 1CG8 B 1CG8B ence>VWKDV--DHKQI...ine> ILE CA 383 2QU0 A 2QU

  16. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in animal feeds by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Zhu, Yan; Jiao, Yang; Ning, Jinyan; Yang, Yaling

    2016-10-01

    A novel two-step extraction technique combining ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with magnetic solid-phase extraction was developed for the preconcentration and separation of aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs before high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this work, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used as the extractant in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and hydrophobic pelargonic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent were applied to retrieve the aflatoxins-containing ionic liquid. Notably, the target of magnetic nanoparticles was the ionic liquid rather than the aflatoxins. Because of the rapid mass transfer associated with the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid phase steps, fast extraction could be achieved. The main parameters affecting the extraction recoveries of aflatoxins were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, vortexing at 2500 rpm for 1 min in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid-phase extraction and then desorption by sonication for 2 min with acetonitrile as eluent. The recoveries were 90.3-103.7% with relative standard deviations of 3.2-6.4%. Good linearity was observed with correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9995. The detection limits were 0.632, 0.087, 0.422 and 0.146 ng/mL for aflatoxins B 1 , B2, G1, and G2, respectively. The results were also compared with the pretreatment method carried out by conventional immunoaffinity columns. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Suppression of HPV-16 late L1 5′-splice site SD3632 by binding of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 to upstream AUAGUA RNA motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) 5′-splice site SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNAs. We identified a 34-nt splicing inhibitory element located immediately upstream of HPV-16 late 5′-splice site SD3632. Two AUAGUA motifs located in these 34 nt inhibited SD3632. Two nucleotide substitutions in each of the HPV-16 specific AUAGUA motifs alleviated splicing inhibition and induced late L1 mRNA production from episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome in primary human keratinocytes. The AUAGUA motifs bind specifically not only to the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) D family of RNA-binding proteins including hnRNP D/AUF, hnRNP DL and hnRNP AB but also to hnRNP A2/B1. Knock-down of these proteins induced HPV-16 late L1 mRNA expression, and overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP AB, hnRNP DL and the two hnRNP D isoforms hnRNP D37 and hnRNP D40 further suppressed L1 mRNA expression. This inhibition may allow HPV-16 to hide from the immune system and establish long-term persistent infections with enhanced risk at progressing to cancer. There is an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 and HPV-16 L1 production in the cervical epithelium, as well as in cervical cancer, supporting the conclusion that hnRNP D proteins and A2/B1 inhibit HPV-16 L1 mRNA production. PMID:24013563

  18. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withey Laura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes have the potential to affect colorectal cancer (CRC risk by determining the genotoxic impact of exogenous carcinogens and levels of sex hormones. Methods To investigate if common variants of CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 influence CRC risk we genotyped 2,575 CRC cases and 2,707 controls for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have not previously been shown to have functional consequence within these genes. Results There was a suggestion of increased risk, albeit insignificant after correction for multiple testing, of CRC for individuals homozygous for CYP1B1 rs162558 and heterozygous for CYP1A2 rs2069522 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.80 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00–1.79 respectively. Conclusion This study provides some support for polymorphic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 playing a role in CRC susceptibility.

  19. Infectious genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 5a, 6a and 7a hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    .sub.1389c,A1590G (6a/2a) constructs for the deletion of Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1) to construct viable, JFH 1 (genotype 2a) based, genomes. The present inventors serially passaged the viruses in cell culture obtaining relatively high HCV RNA titers and infectivity titers. Sequence analysis...... of the viruses identified mutations adapting H77/JFH 1.sub.T27OOC,A4O8OT,.DELTA.HVR1 (1a/2a), J8/JFH .sub.1.DELTA.HVR1 (2b/2a), S52/JFH 1.sub.T2718G,T716OC,.DELTA.HVR1 (3a/2a) and J4/JFH 1.sub.T2996C,A4827T,.DELTA.HVR1 (1b/2a) to the HVR1 deletion....

  20. Expression proteomics of UPF1 knockdown in HeLa cells reveals autoregulation of hnRNP A2/B1 mediated by alternative splicing resulting in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavolan Mihaela

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to acting as an RNA quality control pathway, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD plays roles in regulating normal gene expression. In particular, the extent to which alternative splicing is coupled to NMD and the roles of NMD in regulating uORF containing transcripts have been a matter of debate. Results In order to achieve a greater understanding of NMD regulated gene expression we used 2D-DiGE proteomics technology to examine the changes in protein expression induced in HeLa cells by UPF1 knockdown. QPCR based validation of the corresponding mRNAs, in response to both UPF1 knockdown and cycloheximide treatment, identified 17 bona fide NMD targets. Most of these were associated with bioinformatically predicted NMD activating features, predominantly upstream open reading frames (uORFs. Strikingly, however, the majority of transcripts up-regulated by UPF1 knockdown were either insensitive to, or even down-regulated by, cycloheximide treatment. Furthermore, the mRNA abundance of several down-regulated proteins failed to change upon UPF1 knockdown, indicating that UPF1's role in regulating mRNA and protein abundance is more complex than previously appreciated. Among the bona fide NMD targets, we identified a highly conserved AS-NMD event within the 3' UTR of the HNRNPA2B1 gene. Overexpression of GFP tagged hnRNP A2 resulted in a decrease in endogenous hnRNP A2 and B1 mRNA with a concurrent increase in the NMD sensitive isoforms. Conclusions Despite the large number of changes in protein expression upon UPF1 knockdown, a relatively small fraction of them can be directly attributed to the action of NMD on the corresponding mRNA. From amongst these we have identified a conserved AS-NMD event within HNRNPA2B1 that appears to mediate autoregulation of HNRNPA2B1 expression levels.

  1. Einstein A coefficients for rovibronic lines of the A2Π → X2Σ+ and B2Σ+ → X2Σ+ transitions of CaH and CaD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S. Fatemeh; Shayesteh, Alireza

    2018-02-01

    Calcium monohydride is an important diatomic molecule appearing in the spectra of sunspots and M dwarfs. We report complete line lists with Einstein A coefficients for the A2Π-X2Σ+ and B2Σ+-X2Σ+ electronic transitions of CaH and CaD radicals. The most recent ab initio transition dipole moments and potential energy curves were used for the calculation of vibronic band intensities, taking the Herman-Wallis effect into account, and the rotational line strengths were calculated using the PGOPHER program of Western. For the A2Π and B2Σ+ excited states of CaH and CaD, new off-diagonal electronic matrix elements were included in the Hamiltonian matrix, and new sets of spectroscopic constants were determined in order to accurately reproduce the line positions and relative intensities of the observed branches in laboratory spectra. For both CaH and CaD isotopologues, Einstein A coefficients were calculated for all possible rovibronic transitions from the v΄ = 0-3 vibrational levels of the A2Π state and the v΄ = 0-2 vibrational levels of the B2Σ+ state to the v″ = 0-4 vibrational levels of the X2Σ+ ground state. The line lists and intensities reported here can be used to accurately determine the amounts of CaH and CaD in stellar environments.

  2. CYP7B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, P; Svenstrup, K; Danielsen, E R

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The SPG5A subtype of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, which encodes a steroid cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme provides the primary metabolic route for neurosteroids. Clinica......UNLABELLED: The SPG5A subtype of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, which encodes a steroid cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme provides the primary metabolic route for neurosteroids.......945_947 dupGGC p.A316AA). CONCLUSION: SPG5A could be characterized as a predominantly pure HSP. MRS showing elevated mI/Cr ratio in the white matter may be indicative of SPG5A....

  3. Induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 mRNAs by nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in various human tissue-derived cells: chemical-, cytochrome P450 isoform-, and cell-specific differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwanari, M.; Nakajima, M.; Yokoi, T. [Div. of Drug Metabolism, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan); Kizu, R.; Hayakawa, K. [Lab. of Hygienic Chemistry, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are found in diesel exhaust and ambient air. NPAHs as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to have mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine-disruptive effects. In the present study, the inducibility of the human cytochrome P450-1 (CYP1) family by NPAHs was compared with those produced by their parent PAHs and some reductive metabolites, amino-PAHs. Furthermore, to investigate the differences in the inducibility of the CYP1 family in human tissues, various human tissue-derived cell lines, namely HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), ACHN (renal carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), LS-180 (colon carcinoma), HT-1197 (bladder carcinoma), HeLa (cervix of uterus adenocarcinoma), OMC-3 (ovarian carcinoma), and NEC14 (testis embryonal carcinoma), were treated with NPAHs, PAHs, or amino-PAHs. The mRNA levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 were determined with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cell lines were classified into two groups: CYP1 inducible cell lines, comprising HepG2, MCF-7, LS-180, and OMC-3 cells, and CYP1 non-inducible cell lines, comprising ACHN, A549, HT-1197, HeLa, and NEC14 cells. In inducible cell lines, the induction profile of chemical specificity was similar for CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, although the extent of induction differed among the cell lines and for the CYP isoforms. Pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, 1-aminopyrene, 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrenes slightly induced CYP1 mRNAs, but 1,3-dinitropyrene produced a 6-fold induction of CYP1A1 mRNA in MCF-7 cells. 2-Nitrofluoranthene and 3-nitrofluoranthene exhibited stronger inducibility than fluoranthene in the inducible cell lines. 6-Nitrochrysene induced CYP1 mRNAs to the same extent or more potently than chrysene. The induction potencies of 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were weaker than those of their parents benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene, respectively. This

  4. B1 Aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1996-01-01

    , engineering and architectural basis which will support the appropriate use of aerogels in windows, solar collectors and passive solar applications, with the aim of saving or producing thermal energy for use in buildings".This objective is in very good agreement with the general scope of task 18 but where Task...... of aerogel as a material for window applications3. Construction of an aerogel DGU and measurement of key performance parameters. The goal for the aerogel DGU was to reach a Total Solar Energy Transmittance above 0.75 and a U-value below 0.5 W/m²K. These are values that can not be simultaneously reached......The report summarizes the work that has been carried out within the project "B1 AEROGELS" as a part of the IEA SH&CP Task 18 "Advanced Glazing and Associated Materials For Solar And Building Applications".By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very...

  5. aflatoxina b1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valdivia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de probar que la suplementación dietética de ácido elágico (AE o N-Acetilcisteína (NAC en pollos de engorda, atenúa los efectos de una intoxicación aguda por la aflatoxina B1 (AFB1, se intoxicaron con AFB1 pura, tres grupos de diez pollos cada uno (3.0 mb/kg pc, IP. Otros tres grupos recibieron solamente el vehículo (aceite de maíz 2.0 ml/kg pc, IP. Cuatro días antes se administró un alimento testigo, o bien, la misma dieta adicionada con AE (2.5 g/kg o NAC (200 mg/kg pc/6 h. A las 24 horas de la administración de AFB1, se cuantificaron las concentraciones hepáticas de glutatión (GSH, de actividad enzimática específica de la transferasa de glutatión (GST, alanina aminotransferasa, aspartato aminotransferasa y de proteínas hepáticas totales. Los resultados mostraron que NAC atenúa el impacto negativo de la AFB1 sobre el crecimiento corporal y al igual que AE, incrementa la GST y revierte parcialmente los efectos de AFB1 sobre GSH, lo cual sugiere que ambas sustancias pudieran conferir un efecto protector de las aves

  6. NMR solution structures and MD-simulation of procyanidin B1, B2, and C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procyanidins are polyphenols associated with a variety of benefits to the health of both plants and animals. Procyanidins provide increased defense against microbes, act as strong antioxidants, and may decrease the incidence of cancer. Key to understanding how procyanidins function requires understa...

  7. 10522 ASSESSMENT OF AFLATOXINS B1, B2, G1 AND G2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-04-13

    Apr 13, 2013 ... occurs when high concentrations of aflatoxins are consumed. Symptoms of acute aflatoxicosis include vomiting, weight loss, abdominal pain, jaundice, liver damage and ..... Pitt JI Application of the food safety objective concept to the problem of aflatoxins in peanuts. Mitt. Lebensm. Hyg, 2004; 95: 52-58. 19.

  8. The patient, disease status, and treatment options for prostate cancer: stages B1 and B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma palpably confined to the prostate is clinically defined as stage B. Although potentially curable in many, if not most, instances, there is no disputing that the optimal management of patients with stage B neoplasms is one of the most uncertain and controversial issues in modern urologic oncology. The present uncertainty can be related to three major factors: 1) competing causes of death in patients commonly older than 50 years of age; 2) the variable and unpredictable natural course of localized prostatic cancer as reflected by the three, at least in part, independent variables of growth rate, metastatic potential, and therapeutic responsiveness; and 3) the multiplicity and effectiveness of a variety of treatments in producing effects on the tumor favorable to the patient. The relative effectiveness of different treatments has been and remains clouded by a constantly changing array of clinical staging techniques, selection criteria for treatment, and definitions of response, and by the general absence of satisfactory control data. Experiences with patients receiving no treatment, various forms of irradiation, and radical excision have indicated a general similarity in at least 10-year survival rates and clinically manifest local failure rates among comparable substages of stage B prostatic cancer. Since suitable control data are lacking, one may conclude that a variety of treatments offer similar prospects of benefit or that none of the treatments is producing significant beneficial effect and that survivals are a consequence of the natural history of stage B disease. A Possibility that has yet to be evaluated is that different treatments produce benefit in different segments of the stage B prostatic cancer population, and the challenge today is to recognize and define such neoplasms that may respond most appropriately to one form of therapy or another

  9. A propos livre de l'élève : B1-B2

    CERN Document Server

    Andant, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Les enseignants de Français langue étrangère disposeront grâce aux dossiers thématiques d'" A propos " d'un abondant matériel pédagogique, souple, diversifié et stimulant pour la préparation et l'animation de leurs cours au niveau intermédiaire. Ils y trouveront de surcroît de très nombreuses exploiter les documents sélectionnés ainsi que des suggestions pour construire des séquences pédagogiques

  10. B1-B2 phase transition mechanism and pathway of PbS under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adebayo A.; Yao, Yansun

    2018-03-01

    Experimental studies at finite Pressure-Temperature (P-T) conditions and a theoretical study at 0 K of the phase transition in lead sulphide (PbS) have been inconclusive. Many studies that have been done to understand structural transformation in PbS can broadly be classified into two main ideological streams—one with Pnma and another with Cmcm orthorhombic intermediate phase. To foster better understanding of this phenomenon, we present the result of the first-principles study of phase transition in PbS at finite temperature. We employed the particle swarm-intelligence optimization algorithm for the 0 K structure search and first-principles metadynamics simulations to study the phase transition pathway of PbS from the ambient pressure, 0 K Fm-3m structure to the high-pressure Pm-3m phase under experimentally achievable P-T conditions. Significantly, our calculation shows that both streams are achievable under specific P-T conditions. We further uncover new tetragonal and monoclinic structures of PbS with space group P21/c and I41/amd, respectively. We propose the P21/c and I41/amd as a precursor phase to the Pnma and Cmcm phases, respectively. We investigated the stability of the new structures and found them to be dynamically stable at their stability pressure range. Electronic structure calculations reveal that both P21/c and I41/amd phases are semiconducting with direct and indirect bandgap energies of 0.69(5) eV and 0.97(3) eV, respectively. In general, both P21/c and I41/amd phases were found to be energetically competitive with their respective orthorhombic successors.

  11. Determining the frequencies of B1, B2, B3 and E alleles of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    2016-06-04

    Jun 4, 2016 ... bp of intronic regions with a total similarity with the corresponding ... (1.93%) than in milks of the 'strong' group (2.05%) in Norwegian dairy .... employed was: ..... protein, fat, TS, SNF, casein and lactose percentage were found by .... CSN1S1 locus by PCR-RFLP and AS-PCR in a Neapolitan goat population.

  12. The mechanism of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to remove fumonisins B1 and B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfei; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Junwen; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bolin

    2016-11-01

    Two Lactobacillus strains, L. plantarum B7 and L. pentosus X8, exhibited high efficiency in removing fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) from aqueous medium. 52.9% FB1 and 85.2% FB2 were bound by L. plantarum B7, and 58.0% FB1 and 86.5% FB2 by L. pentosus X8, respectively. Temperature, incubation time, and pH affected the binding ability of two strains. Cell viability was not necessary for the binding ability. The various components of cell wall were determined for their ability to absorb FBS. The results revealed that the intact peptidoglycans exhibited the greatest capacity in binding FBs. Especially the better structural integrity of the peptidoglycans the more FBs was bound. Thus, the absorption of two bacterial cells to FBs is proposed to be a physical process, and peptidoglycans should be the main binding site. Additionally, Caco-2 cell lines were used to evaluate the ability of the two strains to reduce the damage of FBs in vitro. Caco-2 cell's death was reduced after the cell lines were subjected to both viable and non-viable L. pentosus X8, respectively. The two Lactobacillus strains might be used as a biological detoxification for the removal of FBs from diet and feed in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The magnetic field of the B1/B2V star σ Lup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Wade, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ultraviolet stellar wind lines of the photometrically periodic variable early B-type star σ Lupi were found to behave very similarly to what has been observed in known magnetic B stars, although no periodicity could be determined. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained.

  14. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuejiao [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Jiaojiang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 518 Jingdong Rd., Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Wang, Shou-Lin, E-mail: wangshl@njmu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  15. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  16. Plasma extravasation mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induction of kinin B1 receptors in rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Wille

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to: (a evaluate the effects of kinin B1 (Sar{D-Phe8}-des-Arg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (bradykinin (BK; 10 nmol/kg receptor agonists on plasma extravasation in selected rat tissues; (b determine the contribution of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 μ g/kg to the effects triggered by B1 and B2 agonists; and (c characterize the selectivity of B1 ({Leu8}desArg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (HOE 140; 10 nmol/kg antagonists as inhibitors of this kinin-induced phenomenon. B1 and B2 agonists were shown to increase plasma extravasation in the duodenum, ileum and also in the urinary bladder of the rat. LPS pretreatment enhanced the plasma extravasation mediated only by the B1 agonist in the duodenum, ileum, trachea, main and segmentar bronchi. These effects were prevented by the B1. but not the B2 antagonist. In normal rats, the B2 antagonist inhibited the effect of B2 agonist in all the tissues analyzed. However, in LPS-treated rats, the B2 antagonist was ineffective in the urinary bladder.

  17. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-2 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-2 Meaning of terms. (a... with the particular type of arrow shaft. (b) Parts and accessories—(1) In general. “Parts and... attachment to, a bow or arrow of the type described in section 4161(b)(1) and paragraph (a) of this section...

  18. Rhodium. Suppl. Vol. B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.P.; Jehn, H.; McCleverty, J.A.; Raub, C.J.; Robinson, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    The present rhodium vol. B1 is concerned largely with linary compounds and coordination complexes of this important metal, which is used either alone or in alloy form for fabrication of other materials or for heterogeneous catalysis. In first two chapters are devoted for hydrides, oxides, ternary and quaternary oxorhodates. Third chapter is on different type of complexes with nitrogen. From chapter four to seven is on halogen complexes with this metal. Next chapters are on sulphides, sulphoxide and sulphito complexes, sulphates and sulphato complexes, selenides and tellurides, borides, borane complexes, carbides, carbonato, cyno, fulminato and thiocyanato complexes. Finally, silicide, phosphides, phosphito and arsenides are treated over here. (AB)

  19. Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulati Michel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family, consisting of four tyrosine kinase receptors, c-erbB1-4, seems to be influential in gliomagenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR gene amplification and expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins in human anaplastic astrocytomas. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections from 31 cases were investigated by standard immunohistochemical procedures for expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins using commercial antibodies. EGFR gene amplification was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using paraffin-embedded tissues. Two monoclonal antibodies, NCL-EGFR-384 and NCL-EGFR, were used for EGFR detection and they displayed positive immunoreactivity in 97% and 71%, respectively. For c-erbB2 detection three monoclonal antibodies, CB11, 3B5, and 5A2, were applied and they displayed positive immunoreactivity in 45%, 100%, and 52%, respectively. Positive immunostaining for c-erbB3 and c-erbB4 was encountered in 97% and 74%, respectively. The EGFR gene was amplified in 9 out of 31 tumors (29%. After adjusting for age, Karnofsky performance status, and extent of surgical resection, Cox multiple regression analysis with overall survival as the dependent variable revealed that c-erbB2 overexpression detected by the monoclonal antibody clone CB11 was a statistically significant poor prognostic factor (P = 0.004. This study shows the convenience and feasibility of immunohistochemistry when determining the expression of receptor proteins in tissue sections of human astrocytomas. The synchronous overexpression of c-erbB1-4 proteins in anaplastic astrocytomas supports their role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Further, c-erbB2 overexpression seems to predict aggressive behaviour.

  20. B2-B2.5 code benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekeyser, W.; Baelmans, M; Voskoboynikov, S.; Rozhansky, V.; Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S.; Kotov, V.; Boerner, P.

    2011-01-15

    ITER-IO currently (and since about 15 years) employs the SOLPS4.xxx code for its divertor design, currently version SOLPS4.3. SOLPS.xxx is a special variant of the B2-EIRENE code, which was originally developed by an European consortium (FZ Juelich, AEA Culham, ERM Belgium/KU Leuven) in the late eighties and early nineties of the last century under NET contracts. Until today even the very similar edge plasma codes within the SOLPS family, if run on a seemingly identical choice of physical parameters, still sometimes disagree significantly with each other. It is obvious that in computational engineering applications, as they are carried out for the various ITER divertor aspects with SOLPS4.3 for more than a decade now, any transition from one to another code must be fully backward compatible, or, at least, the origin of differences in the results must be identified and fully understood quantitatively. In this report we document efforts undertaken in 2010 to ultimately eliminate the third issue. For the kinetic EIRENE part within SOLPS this backward compatibility (back until 1996) was basically achieved (V. Kotov, 2004-2006) and SOLPS4.3 is now essentially up to date with the current EIRENE master maintained at FZ Juelich. In order to achieve a similar level of reproducibility for the plasma fluid (B2, B2.5) part, we follow a similar strategy, which is quite distinct from the previous SOLPS benchmark attempts: the codes are ''disintegrated'' and pieces of it are run on smallest (i.e. simplest) problems. Only after full quantitative understanding is achieved, the code model is enlarged, integrated, piece by piece again, until, hopefully, a fully backward compatible B2 / B2.5 ITER edge plasma simulation will be achieved. The status of this code dis-integration effort and its findings until now (Nov. 2010) are documented in the present technical note. This work was initiated in a small workshop by the three partner teams of KU Leuven, St. Petersburg

  1. Contextualized B2B Registries

    OpenAIRE

    Radetzki, U; Boniface, M.J.; Surridge, M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Service discovery is a fundamental concept underpinning the move towards dynamic service-oriented business partnerships. The business process for integrating service discovery and underlying registry technologies into busi-ness relationships, procurement and project management functions has not been examined and hence existing Web Service registries lack capabilities required by business today. In this paper we present a novel contextualized B2B registry that supports dynamic regist...

  2. Análisis de escenarios de cambio climático A1B, A2 y B1 para la reserva forestal protectora bosque oriental de Bogotá años 2040, 2070 y 2095 utilizando MarksimGCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johny Roberto Rodríguez Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo presenta los resultados y análisis de las condiciones climáticas futuras de temperatura y precipitación para la Reserva Forestal Bosque Protector Cerros Orientales de Bogotá (RFPBOB. Para esto, se simularon los escenarios de cambio climático: A1B, A2 y B1 en los años 2040, 2070 y 2095. La simulación de las condiciones climáticas futuras en la RFPBOB tuvo en cuenta las variables: temperatura y precipitación, descritas bajo escenarios de cambio climático aplicando modelos de circulación general en MarkSimGCM. Se encontró que para todos los escenarios la temperatura aumentará para el año 2095, respecto al periodo de referencia 1960-1990. Los incrementos esperados para cada escenario son: 3,6 °C A1B, 4,3 °C A2, 2,5 °C B1. El escenario más caluroso es el A2, seguido por el A1B y el B1. Para el caso de la precipitación anual la tendencia es hacia el aumento respecto al periodo de referencia en los escenarios A1B y A2, en el escenario B1 la variación no es significativa, 21% A1B, 14,5 % A2, 1 % B1. Producto de la comparación de los resultados encontrados en MarkSimGCM con resultados de estudios previos particularmente realizados por el Instituto de Investigaciones Ambientales (Ideam, se encontraron diferencias particularmente en la precipitación, siendo mucho más bajos los incrementos en la simulación efectuada en esta investigación Para la temperatura, los escenarios realizados por el Ideam coinciden con los discutidos en este estudio. Los escenarios comparados fueron el A1B y el A2.

  3. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintained by the Department, including but not limited to the individual's education, financial transactions... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a...

  4. 7 CFR 15b.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 15b.1 Section 15b.1 Agriculture Office of the... receiving Federal financial assistance. ...

  5. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of handicap in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. The purpose of this... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 8b.1 Section 8b.1 Commerce... HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1...

  6. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  7. Novel kinin B1 receptor agonists with improved pharmacological profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Jérôme; Savard, Martin; Bovenzi, Veronica; Bélanger, Simon; Morin, Josée; Neugebauer, Witold; Larouche, Annie; Dubuc, Céléna; Gobeil, Fernand

    2009-04-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that inducible kinin B1 receptors (B1R) may play beneficial and protecting roles in cardiovascular-related pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic organ diseases. Peptide B1R agonists bearing optimized pharmacological features (high potency, selectivity and stability toward proteolysis) hold promise as valuable therapeutic agents in the treatment of these diseases. In the present study, we used solid-phase methodology to synthesize a series of novel peptide analogues based on the sequence of Sar[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin, a relatively stable peptide agonist with moderate affinity for the human B1R. We evaluated the pharmacological properties of these peptides using (1) in vitro competitive binding experiments on recombinant human B1R and B2R (for index of selectivity determination) in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293T cells), (2) ex vivo vasomotor assays on isolated human umbilical veins expressing endogenous human B1R, and (3) in vivo blood pressure tests using anesthetized lipopolysaccharide-immunostimulated rabbits. Key chemical modifications at the N-terminus, the positions 3 and 5 on Sar[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin led to potent analogues. For example, peptides 18 (SarLys[Hyp(3),Cha(5), dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin) and 20 (SarLys[Hyp(3),Igl(5), dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin) outperformed the parental molecule in terms of affinity, functional potency and duration of action in vitro and in vivo. These selective agonists should be valuable in future animal and human studies to investigate the potential benefits of B1R activation.

  8. A new superhard material: Osmium diboride OsB 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbache, M.; Stuparević, L.; Živković, D.

    2006-08-01

    Superhard materials have many industrial applications, wherever resistance to abrasion and wear are important. The synthesis of new superhard materials is one of the great challenges to scientists. We re-examined the phase diagram of the binary osmium-boron system and confirmed the existence of two hexagonal phases, OsB 1.1, Os 2B 3, and an orthorhombic phase, OsB 2. Almost nothing is known about the physical properties of osmium borides. Microhardness measurements show that OsB 2 is extremely hard. Ab initio calculations show that this is due to formation of covalent bonds between boron atoms. OsB 2 is also a low compressibility material. It can be used as hard coating.

  9. The Vaporization of B2O3(l) to B2O3(g) and B2O2(g)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2011-01-01

    The vaporization of B2O3 in a reducing environment leads to formation of both B2O3(g) and B2O2(g). While formation of B2O3(g) is well understood, many questions about the formation of B2O2(g) remain. Previous studies using B(s) + B2O3(l) have led to inconsistent thermodynamic data. In this study, it was found that after heating, B(s) and B2O3(l) appear to separate and variations in contact area likely led to the inconsistent vapor pressures of B2O2(g). To circumvent this problem, an activity of boron is fixed with a two-phase mixture of FeB and Fe2B. Both second and third law enthalpies of formation were measured for B2O2(g) and B2O3(g). From these the enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are calculated to be -479.9 +/- 41.5 kJ/mol for B2O2(g) and -833.4 +/- 13.1 kJ/mol for B2O3(g). Ab initio calculations to determine the enthalpies of formation of B2O2(g) and B2O3(g) were conducted using the W1BD composite method and show good agreement with the experimental values.

  10. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.2 Basic guidelines. This part implements the Privacy Act of 1974...

  11. Ab initio calculations on the X (2)B1 and A (2)A1 states of AsH2, and Franck-Condon simulation, including anharmonicity, of the A(0,0,0)-X single vibronic level emission spectrum of AsH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edmond P F; Mok, Daniel K W; Chau, Foo-Tim; Dyke, John M

    2010-06-21

    Restricted-spin coupled-cluster single-double plus perturbative triple excitation {RCCSD(T)} calculations were carried out on the X (2)B(1) and A (2)A(1) states of AsH(2) employing the fully relativistic small-core effective core potential (ECP10MDF) for As and basis sets of up to the augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quintuple-zeta (aug-cc-pV5Z) quality. Minimum-energy geometrical parameters and relative electronic energies were evaluated, including contributions from extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and from outer core correlation of the As 3d(10) electrons employing additional tight 4d3f2g2h functions designed for As. In addition, simplified, explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12 calculations were also performed employing different atomic orbital basis sets of up to aug-cc-pVQZ quality, and associated complementary auxiliary and density-fitting basis sets. The best theoretical estimate of the relative electronic energy of the A (2)A(1) state of AsH(2) relative to the X (2)B(1) state including zero-point energy correction (T(0)) is 19,954(32) cm(-1), which agrees very well with available experimental T(0) values of 19,909.4531(18) and 19,909.4910(17) cm(-1) obtained from recent laser induced fluorescence and cavity ringdown absorption spectroscopic studies. In addition, potential energy functions (PEFs) of the X (2)B(1) and A (2)A(1) states of AsH(2) were computed at different RCCSD(T) and CCSD(T)-F12 levels. These PEFs were used in variational calculations of anharmonic vibrational wave functions, which were then utilized to calculate Franck-Condon factors (FCFs) between these two states, using a method which includes allowance for anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation. The A(0,0,0)-X single vibronic level (SVL) emission spectrum of AsH(2) was simulated using these computed FCFs. Comparison between simulated and available experimental vibrationally resolved spectra of the A(0,0,0)-X SVL emission of AsH(2), which consist essentially of

  12. 45 CFR 73b.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 73b.1 Section 73b.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DEBARMENT OR SUSPENSION OF FORMER EMPLOYEES... officer or employee of the Department, including former and retired officers of the commissioned corps of...

  13. ANTI-HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR RIBONUCLEOPROTEIN B1 (ANTI-RA33 ANTIBODIES IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kuznetsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP autoantibodies (AAbs are encountered in many autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs. The potential diagnostic value of the RA33 AAb complex consisting of RNP A2 and alternative domains of the splicing proteins RNP B1 and RNP B2 is now of interest to rheumatologists. Subjects and methods. The authors studied the frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs in 300 patients with systemic ARDs, including those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc, and Sjö gren's syndrome (SS and in 53 people without ARDs, who constituted a control group. Serum anti-RNP B1 AAbs were assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Results and discussion. The frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs in patients with ARDs was much higher than that in the control group: 170/300 (56.6% and 8/53 (13% patients, respectively. Anti-RNP B1 AAbs were detected in 78.5% (113/144 of the patients with RA; 40.3% (23/57 of those with AS, in 67.5% (27/40 of those with SSc, in 36.4% (16/44 of those with SLE, and in 13.3% (2/15 of those with SS. The diagnostic sensitivity of the marker for RA was 78.5%, its diagnostic specificity was 84.9%; the likelihood ratio of positive and negative results was 5.24 and 0.24, respectively. In the patients with RA, the level of anti-RNP B1 AAbs significantly correlated with that of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, while in those with SSc the detection of anti-RNP B1 AAbs was related to the rigidity of the vascular wall and the presence of hypertension. The frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs among the RA patients seronegative for rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies was 15.4%. Conclusion. Anti-RNP B1 AAs are a useful laboratory marker (with the upper limit of the normal range being 3.3 U/ml, but are of limited value in the diagnosis of RA. Anti-RNP B1 AAbs may be regarded as an additional diagnostic marker for RA.

  14. Degradation kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in filter paper and rough rice by using pulsed light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough rice is susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins, which are highly toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. To develop aflatoxin degradation technology for rice with the use of pulsed light (PL) treatment, the objective of this study was to investigate the degradation characters of aflat...

  15. Effect of alkaline cooking of maize on the content of fumonisins B1 and B2 and their hydrolysed forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo, A; Lattanzio, V M T; Schena, R; Visconti, A; Pascale, M

    2016-02-01

    The effect of nixtamalization on the content of fumonisins (FBs), hydrolysed (HFBs) and partially hydrolysed (PHFBs) fumonisins in maize was investigated at laboratory-scale. Maize naturally contaminated with FBs and PHFBs was cooked with lime. Starting raw maize, steeping and washing waters and final masa fractions were analysed for toxin content. Control-cooking experiments without lime were also carried out. The nixtamalization reduced the amount of FBs and PHFBs in masa and converted them to HFBs. However, the three forms of fumonisins collected in all fractions amounted to 183%, indicating that nixtamalization made available forms of matrix-associated fumonisins that were then converted to their hydrolysed forms. Control-cooking enhanced FBs and PHFBs reduction, due to the solubility of fumonisins in water during the steeping process, but did not form HFBs. These findings indicate that benefits associated with enhancing the nutritional value of nixtamalized maize are also associated with a safer product in terms of fumonisin contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions Among Indicators of B1, B2, B6 and Vitamin C Status in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, AV; Liuzzi, JP; Cioccia, AM; Hevia, P

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY: In 209 young university students (109 males and 80 females) with body mass index within the normal range, the activation coefficient of the erythrocyte transketolase (ETKAC) glutathione reductase (EGRAC) and aspartate amino transferase (EASTAC) as well as the circulating levels of vitamin C were determined. Using the usual cutoff points for ETKAC and serum vitamin C and higher than usual cutoff points for EASTAC and EGRAC 99, 95, 92, and 87% of the study subjects exhibited activation...

  17. Exotic B=2 states in the SU(2) Skyrme model and other recent results in the B=1 sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwesinger, B.

    1986-01-01

    Effective theories with surprising phenomenological success immediatly prompt the suspicion that they are intimately connected to a more fundamental theory. In the case of the Skyrme model things have gone the other way round: first there was the finding that the large N c -limit of QCD results in an effective theory of free mesons where baryons emerge as solitons from meson fields. Subsequently the long forgotten Skyrme model was unearthed by Witten as a possible candidate for such a theory. Examined in the light of its phenomenological capabilities the Skyrme model lead to the surprising success it enjoys till now. (orig./BBOE)

  18. SKI - ASAR - B1/B2 As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1995 Barsebaeck 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a so called ASAR-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the so called SKI-ASAR-report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its lifetime, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The second series ASAR was delivered by the Barsebaeck utility to SKI in September 1995, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  19. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... B6 (pyridoxine HCl) were higher in in vitro germinated seedlings. Thus, vitamin production was age and culture conditions dependent, which is discussed in detail. The study revealed that the germinated chickpea grains can be used for human consumption with value addition of vitamin B-group in the diet of vegetarians.

  20. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  1. SH2B1 regulation of energy balance, body weight, and glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The Src homology 2B (SH2B) family members (SH2B1, SH2B2 and SH2B3) are adaptor signaling proteins containing characteristic SH2 and PH domains. SH2B1 (also called SH2-B and PSM) and SH2B2 (also called APS) are able to form homo- or hetero-dimers via their N-terminal dimerization domains. Their C-terminal SH2 domains bind to tyrosyl phosphorylated proteins, including Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), TrkA, insulin receptors, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), and...

  2. Lattice dynamical and thermodynamical properties of ReB2, RuB2, and OsB2 compounds in the ReB2 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deligoz, E.; Colakoglu, K.; Ciftci, Y. O.

    2012-01-01

    Structural and lattice dynamical properties of ReB 2 , RuB 2 , and OsB 2 in the ReB 2 structure are studied in the framework of density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The present results show that these compounds are dynamically stable for the considered structure. The temperature-dependent behaviors of thermodynamical properties such as internal energy, free energy, entropy, and heat capacity are also presented. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data

  3. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  4. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann

    2012-01-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  5. MR fingerprinting with simultaneous B1 estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonincontri, Guido; Sawiak, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    MR fingerprinting (MRF) can be used for quantitative estimation of physical parameters in MRI. Here, we extend the method to incorporate B1 estimation. The acquisition is based on steady state free precession MR fingerprinting with a Cartesian trajectory. To increase the sensitivity to the B1 profile, abrupt changes in flip angle were introduced in the sequence. Slice profile and B1 effects were included in the dictionary and the results from two- and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions were compared. Acceleration was demonstrated using retrospective undersampling in the phase encode directions of 3D data exploiting redundancy between MRF frames at the edges of k-space. Without B1 estimation, T2 and B1 were inaccurate by more than 20%. Abrupt changes in flip angle improved B1 maps. T1 and T2 values obtained with the new MRF methods agree with classical spin echo measurements and are independent of the B1 field profile. When using view sharing reconstruction, results remained accurate (error Reson Med 76:1127-1135, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Cellular Barcoding Links B-1a B Cell Potential to a Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cell State at the Single-Cell Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Trine A; Jaensson Gyllenbäck, Elin; Zriwil, Alya

    2016-01-01

    . Using cellular barcoding for in vivo single-cell fate analyses, we found that fetal liver definitive HSCs gave rise to both B-1a and B-2 cells. Whereas B-1a potential diminished in all HSCs with time, B-2 output was maintained. B-1a and B-2 plasticity could be reinitiated in a subset of adult HSCs...... by ectopic expression of the RNA binding protein LIN28B, a key regulator of fetal hematopoiesis, and this coincided with the clonal reversal to fetal-like elevated self-renewal and repopulation potential. These results anchor the attenuation of B-1a cell output to fetal HSC behavior and demonstrate...

  7. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB2 by mechanochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz; Orlovskaya, Nina; Andrew Payzant, E.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal OsB 2 , a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB 2 begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB 2 crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB 2 phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from −225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB 2 powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB 2 at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods. - Graphical abstract: High resolution transmission electron micrograph of hexagonal OsB 2 nanocrystallite with corresponding fast Fourier transform and simulated diffraction pattern. - Highlights: • Hexagonal OsB 2 has been synthesized for the first time by mechanochemical method. • Hexagonal OsB 2 crystallizes in P63/mmc space group (No. 194), a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. • The hexagonal structure was confirmed by a transmission electron microscope. • No phase transformation was observed after being annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days. • 20 wt% of h-OsB 2 was transformed to o-OsB 2 after being sintered at 1500 °C for 5 min

  8. EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0220 Project Title: EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction Principal Investigator Name: Mark...Pain and Addiction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0220 5c. PROGRAM...SUBJECT TERMS Chronic neuropathic pain, opioid addiction , synaptic plasticity, EphB1 receptor, ephrin-B2, NMDA receptor, drug discovery 16. SECURITY

  9. The purification step is not crucial in EIA measurements of thromboxane B2 and 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadilkova, Lenka; Paluch, Zoltan; Mottlova, Jirina; Bednar, Frantisek; Alusik, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and particularly 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11-dTxB2) are widely used as prognostic risk markers of platelet activation in cardiovascular diseases. The main errors in TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 determination include either low concentrations of circulating TxB2 (1 - 2 pg/mL) and 11-dTxB2 (0.9 - 4.3 pg/mL) or rather high transiency (mean TxB2 half-life is approximately 5 minutes) as well as an incorrect pre-analytical phase set up. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a widely used purification step on the results of enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA)--based measurement of the two selected thromboxanes. For the purpose of this study, 20 plasma samples (10 healthy donors, 10 patients under treatment with acetylsalicylic acid) were screened for TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 concentrations using commercial competitive EIA kits (Cayman Chemicals, Tallinn, Estonia; Neogen, Lexington, KY, USA) with or without the introduction of the purification procedure. The purification step does not significantly affect the results of EIA measurements of the two of TxA2 metabolites (TxB2, 11-dTxB2) in human plasma. The levels of TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 determined in the plasma samples were not significantly changed (p < 0.05) when the purification step was omitted compared to the purified samples. This study establishes a protocol allowing for reliable and reproducible plasma TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 EIA measurement for routine basic screening of platelet function.

  10. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB2 by mechanochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz; Orlovskaya, Nina; Andrew Payzant, E.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.

    2014-07-01

    Hexagonal OsB2, a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB2 begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB2 crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB2 phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from -225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB2 powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB2 at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods.

  11. Doping effects of carbon and titanium on the critical current density of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T M; Li, G; Cheng, C H; Zhao, Y

    2006-01-01

    MgB 2 bulks doped with Ti or/and C were prepared by an in situ solid state reaction method to determine the combined effect of C and Ti doping and to probe the detailed mechanism. The magnetization measurement shows that Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 sample has significantly improved flux pinning compared to the MgB 1.95 C 0.05 sample at 20 K, indicating that C and Ti are largely cooperative in improving the J c (H) behaviour. No TiC phase was detected in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Moreover, the overlap of the (100) peaks of MgB 1.95 C 0.05 and Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 showed that Ti doping does not reduce the amount of C in MgB 2 . Microstructural analyses revealed that the addition of Ti eliminated the porosity present in the carbon-doped MgB 2 pellet, resulting in an improved intergrain connectivity and an increase of effective current pass. Further, MgB 2 doped with C and Ti, which mainly consists of spherical grains about 200-300 nm in size, shows an higher grain homogeneity than the C-doped sample, suggesting that the Ti doping in MgB 1-x C x has played an important role in obtaining uniform grains

  12. 26 CFR 1.381(b)-1 - Operating rules applicable to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the purpose of winding up its affairs, paying its debts, and distributing any remaining balance of... DISTRIBUTION OR TRANSFER PURSUANT TO § 1.381(b)-1(b)(2),” and must include: [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (IF ANY) OF DISTRIBUTOR OR TRANSFEROR CORPORATION] AND [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER...

  13. On heavy carbon doping of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Lee, K.-W.; Pickett, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy carbon doping of MgB 2 is studied by first principles electronic structure studies of two types, an ordered supercell (Mg(B 1-x C x ) 2 , x 0.0833) and also the coherent potential approximation method that incorporates effects of B-C disorder. For the ordered model, the twofold degenerate σ-bands that are the basis of the high temperature superconductivity are split by 60 meV (i.e. 7 meV/% C) and the σ Fermi cylinders contain 0.070 holes/cell, compared to 0.11 for MgB 2 . A virtual crystal treatment tends to overestimate the rate at which σ holes are filled by substitutional carbon. The coherent potential approximation (CPA) calculations give the same rate of band filling as the supercell method. The occupied local density of states of C is almost identical to that of B in the upper 2 eV of the valence bands, but in the range -8 eV to -2 eV, C has a considerably larger density of states. The calculations indicate that the σ Fermi surface cylinders pinch off at the zone center only above the maximum C concentration x ∼ 0.10. These results indicate that Mg(B 1-x C x ) 2 as well as Mg 1-x Al x B 2 is a good system in which to study the evolution of the unusual electron-phonon coupling character and strength as the crucial σ hole states are filled

  14. Kinin B1 receptors contributes to acute pain following minor surgery in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Jaime S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinins play an important role in regulation of pain and hyperalgesia after tissue injury and inflammation by activating two types of G-protein-coupled receptors, the kinin B1 and B2 receptors. It is generally accepted that the B2 receptor is constitutively expressed, whereas the B1 receptor is induced in response to inflammation. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of kinin receptors on the onset of acute inflammation and inflammatory pain in humans. The present study investigated the changes in gene expression of kinin receptors and the levels of their endogenous ligands at an early time point following tissue injury and their relation to clinical pain, as well as the effect of COX-inhibition on their expression levels. Results Tissue injury resulted in a significant up-regulation in the gene expression of B1 and B2 receptors at 3 hours post-surgery, the onset of acute inflammatory pain. Interestingly, the up-regulation in the gene expression of B1 and B2 receptors was positively correlated to pain intensity only after ketorolac treatment, signifying an interaction between prostaglandins and kinins in the inflammatory pain process. Further, the gene expression of both B1 and B2 receptors were correlated. Following tissue injury, B1 ligands des-Arg9-BK and des-Arg10-KD were significantly lower at the third hour compared to the first 2 hours in both the placebo and the ketorolac treatment groups but did not differ significantly between groups. Tissue injury also resulted in the down-regulation of TRPV1 gene expression at 3 hours post-surgery with no significant effect by ketorolac treatment. Interestingly, the change in gene expression of TRPV1 was correlated to the change in gene expression of B1 receptor but not B2 receptor. Conclusions These results provide evidence at the transcriptional level in a clinical model of tissue injury that up-regulation of kinin receptors are involved in the development of the

  15. B11 NMR in the layered diborides OsB2 and RuB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, B. J.; Zong, X.; Singh, Y.; Niazi, A.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-10-01

    B11 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been performed on B11 enriched OsB2 and RuB2 polycrystalline powder samples in an external field of 4.7T and in the temperature range, 4.2KOsB2 and RuB2 , respectively. The experimental results indicate that a p character dominates the conduction electron wave function at the B site with a negligibly small s character in both compounds.

  16. Ni-ZrB2 electrocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushpavanam, M.; Natarajan, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    New generation materials require high temperature oxidation resistance besides many other tribological properties. Ni-ZrB 2 composites and their properties are dealt with in this paper. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  17. A Model of B2B Exchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Gabor Fath; Miklos Sarvary

    2001-01-01

    B2B exchanges are revolutionizing the way businesses will buy and sell a variety of intermediary products and services. It is estimated that most of the roughly $7 trillion worth of business transactions are likely to go through these new institutions within the next decade. This paper tries to understand the economics governing the transactions within B2B exchanges and analyze their likely evolution over time. In doing so, we start by providing the rigorous definitions to a number of critica...

  18. Hotelzon's B2B content marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trang

    2015-01-01

    This thesis follows a research-based structure. The objective of this research was to help the case company Hotelzon develop a practical business-to-business (B2B) content marketing plan to engage new customers. The research topic came up when the case company named Hotelzon started expanding its business to many other countries. Therefore, attracting new prospects has become a critical issue to B2B corporates in this online world and constantly changing business environment. The first pa...

  19. Solvent-dependent transformation of aflatoxin B1 in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, James M; Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2017-08-01

    To date, all studies of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) transformation in soil or in purified mineral systems have identified aflatoxins B 2 (AFB 2 ) and G 2 (AFG 2 ) as the primary transformation products. However, identification in these studies was made using thin layer chromatography which has relatively low resolution, and these studies did not identify a viable mechanism by which such transformations would occur. Further, the use of methanol as the solvent delivery vehicle in these studies may have contributed to formation of artifactual transformation products. In this study, we investigated the role of the solvent vehicle in the transformation of AFB 1 in soil. To do this, we spiked soils with AFB 1 dissolved in water (93:7, water/methanol) or methanol and used HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS to identify the transformation products. Contrasting previous published reports, we did not detect AFB 2 or AFG 2 . In an aqueous-soil environment, we identified aflatoxin B 2a (AFB 2a ) as the single major transformation product. We propose that AFB 2a is formed from hydrolysis of AFB 1 with the soil acting as an acid catalyst. Alternatively, when methanol was used, we identified methoxy aflatoxin species likely formed via acid-catalyzed addition of methanol to AFB 1 . These results suggest that where soil moisture is adequate, AFB 1 is hydrolyzed to AFB 2a and that reactive organic solvents should be avoided when replicating natural conditions to study the fate of AFB 1 in soil.

  20. A search for cyanopolyynes in L1157-B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Lefloch, B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.; Jaber, A. A.; Podio, L.; Benedettini, M.; Codella, C.; Viti, S.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Bachiller, R.

    2018-04-01

    We present here a systematic search for cyanopolyynes in the shock region L1157-B1 and its associated protostar L1157-mm in the framework of the Large Program`Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM' (ASAI), dedicated to chemical surveys of solar-type star-forming regions with the IRAM 30-m telescope. Observations of the millimeter windows between 72 and 272 GHz permitted the detection of HC3N and its 13C isotopologues, and HC5N (for the first time in a protostellar shock region). In the shock, the analysis of the line profiles shows that the emission arises from the outflow cavities associated with L1157-B1 and L1157-B2. Molecular abundances and excitation conditions were obtained from the analysis of the Spectral Line Energy Distributions under the assumption of Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium or using a radiative transfer code in the Large Velocity Gradient approximation. Towards L1157 mm, the HC3N emission arises from the cold envelope (T_rot=10K) and a higher-excitation region (Trot = 31K) of smaller extent around the protostar. We did not find any evidence of 13C or D fractionation enrichment towards L1157-B1. We obtain a relative abundance ratio HC3N/HC5N of 3.3 in the shocked gas. We find an increase by a factor of 30 of the HC3N abundance between the envelope of L1157-mm and the shock region itself. Altogether, these results are consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of HC3N was produced by means of gas phase reactions in the passage of the shock. This scenario is supported by the predictions of a parametric shock code coupled with the chemical model UCL_CHEM.

  1. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and rabbit antisera in B2 microglobulin (B2m) radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, C.

    1981-01-01

    Human B2m is a globular protein devoid of carbohydrates and is composed of 100 aminoacids with an intrachain disulfide bridge in position 25-81. Its aminoacid sequence and three dimensional structure shows a partial homology with the constant domains of immunoglobulins. B2m has been detected at the surface of nearly all cell types with the exception of erythrocytes and trophoblastic cells and also in all biological fluids. On the cell surface B2m is found non-covalently associated with HLA molecules, and in serum and urine only a small part of the B2m is associated with HLA heavy chain, the remaining is found as free B2m. The aim of this paper is firstly to try to demonstrate the presence of two types of epitopes one of them specific of free B2m and secondly to compare monoclonal antibodies with rabbit antisera for B2m radioimmunoassay. (Auth.)

  2. New silicate-germanate Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] from the series A2Pb2[B2O7], A = K, Cs, B = Si, Ge with the umbrella-like [PbO3]4- group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokoneva, Elena L.; Morozov, Ivan A.; Volkov, Anatoly S.; Dimitrova, Olga V.; Stefanovich, Sergey Yu.

    2018-04-01

    New silicate-germanate Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] was synthesized in multi-components hydrothermal solution with 20 w.% concentration of Cs2CO3 mineralizer, pH = 10. Novel mixed compound belongs to the structure type A2Pb2[B2O7] previously indicated for powders with A = K, B=Si or Ge. Singe crystal structure determination of Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] revealed the need for the correction of the space group of the earlier suggested structural model from P-3 to P-3m1, as well as for the splitting of the Pb-atom position. Umbrella-like groups [PbO3]4- are located between [(Si,Ge)O4]4- tetrahedra in mica-like honeycomb layers and play the role of tetrahedra with the Pb-lone-pair as the forth apex. Crystal chemical comparison revealed similarities and differences with the classical structure type of α-celsian Ba[Al2Si2O8] with the tetrahedral double layer. Recently investigated nonlinear optical acentric borates Pb2(BO3)(NO3) and Pb2(BO3)Cl are both related to this structural type, possessing umbrella-like groups [PbO3]4- and honeycomb layers [Pb2(BO3)]+ with the BO3-triangles on the tetrahedral positions.

  3. 26 CFR 1.475(b)-2 - Exemptions-identification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements. (a) Identification of the basis for exemption. An identification of a security as exempt from mark to market does not satisfy section 475(b)(2) if it fails to state whether the security is described in— (1) Either of the first two subparagraphs of section 475(b)(1) (identifying a security as held...

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CG5B-2QU0C [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 C 2QU0C DLHAHKLRVDPence>...0 C 2QU0C FPHFD--LSHGSence...1CG5B-2QU0C 1CG5 2QU0 B C VKLSEDQEHYIKGVWKDVD--HKQITAKALERVFVVYPW... 1CG5 B 1CG5B ence>WKDVD--HKQIT... 384 THR CA 441 2QU0 C 2QU

  5. Aflatoxin B1 use in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yinkun; Zhang Xiaying; Chen Ruiqun; Gu Tianjue

    1987-01-01

    Antibodies against Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) were obtained after multiple-site injections of bovine serum albumin-AFB 1 conjugate into rabbits. The greatest specific binding effciency of antibody for AFB 1 is 70∼80%. The sensitivity of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for AFB 1 is between 0.46∼2.3 ng. The retrievel rate of AFB 1 by RIA from intentionally contaminated serum and rice is between 70∼80%. Detailed methods for the preparation of conjugate, immune serum, and methods for antibody titer determination are described

  6. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the. FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, c/a ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent ...

  7. Electronic structure of MgB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  8. Flux pinning behaviors of Ti and C co-doped MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhao, D.; Shen, T.M.; Li, G.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, Y.; Cheng, C.H.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Flux pinning behavior of carbon and titanium concurrently doped MgB 2 alloys has been studied by ac susceptibility and dc magnetization measurements. It is found that critical current density and irreversibility field of MgB 2 have been significantly improved by doping C and Ti concurrently, sharply contrasted to the situation of C-only-doped or Ti-only-doped MgB 2 samples. AC susceptibility measurement reveals that the dependence of the pinning potential on the dc applied field of Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 has been determined to be U(B dc )∝B dc -1 compared to that of MgB 2 U(B dc )∝B dc -1.5 . As to the U(J) behavior, a relationship of U(J) ∝ J -0.17 is found fitting well for Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 with respect to U(J) ∝ J -0.21 for MgB 2 . All the results reveal a strong enhancement of the high field pinning potential in C and Ti co-doped MgB 2

  9. cis- and trans-acting elements of the estrogen-regulated vitellogenin gene B1 of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahli, W; Martinez, E; Corthésy, B; Cardinaux, J R

    1989-01-01

    Vitellogenin genes are expressed under strict estrogen control in the liver of female oviparous vertebrates. Gene transfer experiments using estrogen-responsive cells have shown that the 13 bp perfect palindromic element GGTCACTGTGACC found upstream of the Xenopus laevis vitellogenin gene A2 promoter mediates hormonal stimulation and thus, was called the estrogen-responsive element (ERE). In the Xenopus vitellogenin genes B1 and B2 there are two closely adjacent EREs with one or more base substitutions when compared to the consensus ERE GGTCANNNTGACC. On their own, these degenerated elements have only a low or no regulatory capacity at all but act together synergistically to form an estrogen-responsive unit (ERU) with the same strength as the perfect palindromic 13 bp element. Analysis of estrogen receptor binding to the gene B1 ERU revealed a cooperative interaction of receptor dimers to the two adjacent imperfect EREs which most likely explains the synergistic stimulation observed in vivo. Furthermore, a promoter activator element located between positions --113 and --42 of the gene B1 and functional in the human MCF-7 and the Xenopus B3.2 cells has been identified and shown to be involved in the high level of induced transcription activity when the ERE is placed at a distance from the promoter. Finally, a hormone-controlled in vitro transcription system derived from Xenopus liver nuclear extracts was exploited to characterize two additional novel cis-acting elements within the vitellogenin gene B1 promoter. One of them, a negative regulatory element (NRE), is responsible for repression of promoter activity in the absence of hormone. The second is related to the NF-I binding site and is required, together with the ERE, to mediate hormonal induction. Moreover, we detected three trans-acting activities in Xenopus liver nuclear extracts that interact with these regions and demonstrated that they participate in the regulation of the expression of the vitellogenin

  10. Fetal Lymphoid Progenitors Become Restricted to B-1 Fates Coincident with IL-7Rα Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Iida

    Full Text Available B-1 cells represent a sub-fraction of B lymphocytes that participate in T cell-independent antibody production and contribute to innate immunity. While the production of B-1 cells is favored during the fetal waves of lymphopoiesis, it has been unclear when and how that differentiation option is specified. To clarify this, lymphoid and hematopoietic progenitors of fetal liver (FL and adult bone marrow (ABM were examined for the B cell differentiation potential. Mouse common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs and more primitive KSL fraction of FL and ABM were transferred to SCID mice and donor-derived B cell subsets were analyzed 4 weeks later. CLPs were also cultured on ST2 stromal cells for 6 days prior to transplantation. While Lin- IL-7Rα+ CLPs from ABM differentiated to B-1, B-2 and marginal zone B (MZB cells, equivalent cells from d15 FL differentiated mostly to B-1a cells. We found that fetal CLPs had less ability to colonize the bone marrow than adult CLPs. However, the fetal/adult difference was already present when progenitors were cultured in an identical condition before transplantation. More primitive KSL fraction of FL could generate the same broad spectrum of B cells typical of adults, including splenic MZB cells. In conclusion, we argue that FL and ABM-CLPs are intrinsically different regarding B-1/B-2 fates and the difference is acquired just before or coincident with the acquisition of IL-7Rα expression.

  11. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request number-sign M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal

  12. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel

  13. Controlled indole-3-acetaldoxime production through ethanol-induced expression of CYP79B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, M.D.; Fuller, V.L.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram

    2009-01-01

    Indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) is a key branching point between primary and secondary metabolism. IAOx serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates (I-GLSs), camalexin and the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The cytochrome P450s CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 catalyze......OH)-inducible CYP79B2 construct into double (cyp79b2 cyp79b3) or triple (cyp79b2 cyp79b3 cyp83b1) mutant lines. We show EtOH-dependent induction of camalexin and identify a number of candidate IAA homeostasis- or defense-related genes by clustered microarray analysis. The transgenic mutant lines are thus promising...

  14. Thermodynamic properties of vitamin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazev, A.V.; Letyanina, I.A.; Plesovskikh, A.S.; Smirnova, N.N.; Knyazeva, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B 2 has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B 2 have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. • The energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. • The enthalpy of combustion Δ c H° and the thermodynamic parameters Δ f H°, Δ f S°, Δ f G° have been calculated. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B 2 (riboflavin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 322 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B 2 , namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. In a calorimeter with a static bomb and an isothermal shield, the energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. The enthalpy of combustion Δ c H° and the thermodynamic parameters Δ f H°, Δ f S°, Δ f G° and of reaction of formation of the riboflavin from simple substances at T = 298.15 K and p = 0.1 MPa have been calculated

  15. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor attenuates melanoma tumor growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dillenburg-Pilla

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a very aggressive tumor that does not respond well to standard therapeutic approaches, such as radio- and chemotherapies. Furthermore, acquiring the ability to metastasize in melanoma and many other tumor types is directly related to incurable disease. The B1 kinin receptor participates in a variety of cancer-related pathophysiological events, such as inflammation and angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated whether this G protein-coupled receptor plays a role in tumor progression. We used a murine melanoma cell line that expresses the kinin B1 receptor and does not express the kinin B2 receptor to investigate the precise contribution of activation of the B1 receptor in tumor progression and correlated events using various in vitro and in vivo approaches. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor in the absence of B2 receptor inhibits cell migration in vitro and decreases tumor formation in vivo. Moreover, tumors formed from cells stimulated with B1-specific agonist showed several features of decreased aggressiveness, such as smaller size and infiltration of inflammatory cells within the tumor area, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the host anti-tumor immune response, lower number of cells undergoing mitosis, a poorer vascular network, no signs of invasion of surrounding tissues or metastasis and increased animal survival. Our findings reveal that activation of the kinin B1 receptor has a host protective role during murine melanoma tumor progression, suggesting that the B1 receptor could be a new anti-tumor GPCR and provide new opportunities for therapeutic targeting.

  16. EphrinB1 expression is dysregulated and promotes oncogenic signaling in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Nicole; Yuan, Liangping; Zhang, Hongying; Liu, Jingbo; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Rushing, Elisabeth; Schniederjan, Matthew; MacDonald, Tobey J

    2015-01-01

    Eph receptors and ephrin ligands are master regulators of oncogenic signaling required for proliferation, migration, and metastasis. Yet, Eph/ephrin expression and activity in medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, remains poorly defined. We hypothesized that Eph/ephrins are differentially expressed by sonic hedgehog (SHH) and non-SHH MB and that specific members contribute to the aggressive phenotype. Affymetrix gene expression profiling of 29 childhood MB, separated into SHH (N = 11) and non-SHH (N = 18), was performed followed by protein validation of selected Eph/ephrins in another 60 MB and two MB cell lines (DAOY, D556). Functional assays were performed using MB cells overexpressing or deleted for selected ephrins. We found EPHB4 and EFNA4 almost exclusively expressed by SHH MB, whereas EPHA2, EPHA8, EFNA1 and EFNA3 are predominantly expressed by non-SHH MB. The remaining family members, except EFNB1, are ubiquitously expressed by over 70-90 % MB, irrespective of subgroup. EFNB1 is the only member differentially expressed by 28 % of SHH and non-SHH MB. Corresponding protein expression for EphB/ephrinB1 and B2 was validated in MB. Only ephrinB2 was also detected in fetal cerebellum, indicating that EphB/ephrinB1 expression is MB-specific. EphrinB1 immunopositivity localizes to tumor cells within MB with the highest proliferative index. EphrinB1 overexpression promotes EphB activation, alters F-actin distribution and morphology, decreases adhesion, and significantly promotes proliferation. Either silencing or overexpression of ephrinB1 impairs migration. These results indicate that EphrinB1 is uniquely dysregulated in MB and promotes oncogenic responses in MB cells, implicating ephrinB1 as a potential target.

  17. Effect of TiB2 Pretreatment on Pt/TiB2 Catalyst Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen; Lin, Rui; Fan, Renjie; Fan, Qinbai; Ma, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We pretreated Titanium diboride by different acids and alkali. • We synthesis the Pt/as-pretreated TiB 2 catalysts by a colloid route. • We investigated the effects of TiB 2 Pretreatment on Pt/TiB 2 Catalyst Performance. • The BET surface area and defects on the surface have a close relationship with the deposition of Pt nanoparticles. - Abstract: Carbon support corrosion of traditional Pt/C catalyst is one of the major contributors causing poor durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Titanium diboride (TiB 2 ) has high electrical conductivity and considerable chemical stability, which making it as a good candidate for catalyst support in PEMFC. In this work, TiB 2 was pretreated by different acid and alkali. The as-obtained samples were characterized by Ex-situ microscopy (ESM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore size distribution (PSD) was analyzed by using DFT method. The PSD shows distinct volume in mesopore regions (less than 50 nm). The TiB2 pretreated by H 2 O 2 shows the biggest BET surface area of 57 m 2 g −1 and its PSD focus on mesoporous (1.5-8 nm) region, which resulted to high dispersion and better loading of Pt particles. The Hydrogen oxidization reaction (HOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was characterized by Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE). The Pt/TiB 2 prepared by H 2 O 2 -pretreated TiB 2 using the colloidal method showed better half-cell electrochemical performance. Facile synthetic for the development of Pt/TiB 2 catalysts was developed

  18. Prediction of B1 to B10 phase transition in LuN under pressure: An ab-initio investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, B. D., E-mail: bdsahoo@barc.gov.in; Mukherjee, D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India 400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Ab-initio total energy calculations have been performed in lutetium nitride (LuN) as a function of hydrostatic compression to understand the high pressure behavior of this compound. Our calculations predict a phase transition from ambient rocksalt type structure (B1 phase) to a tetragonal structure (B10 phase) at ~ 240 GPa. The phase transition has been identified as first order in nature with volume discontinuity of ~ 6%. The predicted high pressure phase has been found to be stable up to at least 400 GPa, the maximum pressure up to which calculations have been performed.Further, to substantiate the results of static lattice calculations analysis of lattice dynamic stability of B1 and B10 phase has been carried out at different pressures. Apart from this, we have analyzed the lattice dynamic stability CsCl type (B2) phase around the 240 GPa, the pressure reported for B1 to B2 transition in previous all-electron calculations by Gupta et al. 2013. We find that the B2 structure is lattice dynamically unstable at this pressure and remains unstable up to ~ 400 GPa, ruling out the possibility of B1 to B2 phase transition at least up to ~ 400 GPa. Further, the theoretically determined equation of state has been utilized to derive various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus of B1 phase at ambient conditions.

  19. Cyclic Di-GMP Binding by an Assembly ATPase (PilB2) and Control of Type IV Pilin Polymerization in the Gram-Positive Pathogen Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, William A; Orr, Mona W; Murray, Samantha R; Lee, Vincent T; Melville, Stephen B

    2017-05-15

    The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses type IV pili (TFP), which are extracellular fibers that are polymerized from a pool of pilin monomers in the cytoplasmic membrane. Two proteins that are essential for pilus functions are an assembly ATPase (PilB) and an inner membrane core protein (PilC). Two homologues each of PilB and PilC are present in C. perfringens , called PilB1/PilB2 and PilC1/PilC2, respectively, along with four pilin proteins, PilA1 to PilA4. The gene encoding PilA2, which is considered the major pilin based on previous studies, is immediately downstream of the pilB2 and pilC2 genes. Purified PilB2 had ATPase activity, bound zinc, formed hexamers even in the absence of ATP, and bound the second messenger molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Circular dichroism spectroscopy of purified PilC2 indicated that it retained its predicted degree of alpha-helical secondary structure. Even though no direct interactions between PilB2 and PilC2 could be detected in vivo or in vitro even in the presence of c-di-GMP, high levels of expression of a diguanylate cyclase from C. perfringens (CPE1788) stimulated polymerization of PilA2 in a PilB2- and PilC2-dependent manner. These results suggest that PilB2 activity is controlled by c-di-GMP levels in vivo but that PilB2-PilC2 interactions are either transitory or of low affinity, in contrast to results reported previously from in vivo studies of the PilB1/PilC1 pair in which PilC1 was needed for polar localization of PilB1. This is the first biochemical characterization of a c-di-GMP-dependent assembly ATPase from a Gram-positive bacterium. IMPORTANCE Type IV pili (TFP) are protein fibers involved in important bacterial functions, including motility, adherence to surfaces and host cells, and natural transformation. All clostridia whose genomes have been sequenced show evidence of the presence of TFP. The genetically tractable species Clostridium perfringens was used to study proteins involved in

  20. Effects of prolonged oral administration of fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, C R; Corrêa, B; Xavier, J G; Direito, G M; Orsi, R B; Matarazzo, S V

    2001-01-01

    The effects of prolonged oral administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were evaluated on male Wistar rats. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages and submitted to the following treatments: 1-0 microg AFB1 + 0 mg FB1/100g bw.; 2-72 microg AFB1+ 0 mg FB1/100 g bw; 3-0 microg AFB1 + 0.5 mg FB1 g bw; 4-0 microg AFB1 + 1.5 mg FB1/100 g bw; 5-72 microg AFB1 + 0.5 mg FB1/100g bw; 6-72 microgAFB1 + 1.5 mg FB1/100g bw. On day 21, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation. The results showed that treated animals presented differences in body weight and absolute/relative weights of liver and kidney as well as altered hepatic function and cholesterol blood levels. Rats fed with the greatest doses of AFB1 and FB1 gained less weight (2.79 g/day) at the end of the experimental period; their blood concentrations of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were above control levels (130.35 micro/l and 471.00 micro/l, respectively). Blood cholesterol increased in the groups treated with the highest dose of FB1 or FB1 associated with AFB1. Histopathology revealed the occurrence of apoptosis in the liver of rats exposed to FB1. The association of aflatoxin B1 with fumonisin B1 at higher dose probably potentiated the effects of the higher dose of fumonisin B1 acting singly.

  1. Characterization of metabolites from a strain of Aspergillus flavus accumulating aflatoxin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    A number of aflatoxins and anthraquinone pigments were isolated from a strain of Aspergillus flavus, several of which were fully characterized. The major metabolites isolated were aflatoxin B 2 and versicolorin C, which are normally only found as minor products from species of the genus Aspergillus. The identification of these products supports the proposal that aflatoxin B 2 can arise independently of aflatoxin B 1 and that, in this case, the branch in the pathway occurs at the versicolorins. Other metabolites charaterized were aflatoxin M 2 , norsolorinic acid, and averufin

  2. Lattice Thermal Conductivity from Atomistic Simulations: ZrB2 and HfB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 have a number of properties that make them attractive for applications in extreme environments. One such property is their high thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of these materials will facilitate understanding of fundamental mechanisms, elucidate structure-property relationships, and ultimately accelerate the materials design cycle. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs however has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. Recently, we developed Tersoff style parameterizations of such potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current, in contrast to the more typical monotonic decay seen in monoatomic materials such as Silicon, for example. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  3. B2B oriented on-line applications generator

    OpenAIRE

    Vintilă Bogdan-Cătălin

    2008-01-01

    B2B applications are presented. Quality characteristics of B2B applications are defined. B2B application structure is defined. The application for contracts is developed. The advantages are identified.

  4. B-1a transitional cells are phenotypically distinct and are lacking in mice deficient in IκBNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gabriel K.; Àdori, Monika; Khoenkhoen, Sharesta; Dosenovic, Pia; Beutler, Bruce; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.

    2014-01-01

    B-1 cells mediate early protection against infection by responding to T cell-independent (TI) antigens found on the surface of various pathogens. Mice with impaired expression of the atypical IκB protein IκBNS have markedly reduced frequencies of B-1 cells. We used a mouse strain with dysfunctional IκBNS derived from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen, named bumble, to investigate the point in the development of B-1 cells where IκBNS is required. The presence of wild-type (wt) peritoneal cells in mixed wt/bumble chimeras did not rescue the development of bumble B-1 cells, but wt peritoneal cells transferred to bumble mice restored natural IgM levels and response to TI antigens. The bumble and wt mice displayed similar levels of fetal liver B-1 progenitors and splenic neonatal transitional B (TrB) cells, both of which were previously shown to give rise to B-1 cells. Interestingly, we found that a subset of wt neonatal TrB cells expressed common B-1a markers (TrB-1a) and that this cell population was absent in the bumble neonatal spleen. Sorted TrB-1a (CD93+IgM+CD5+) cells exclusively generated B-1a cells when adoptively transferred, whereas sorted CD93+IgM+CD5− cells gave rise to B-2 cells and, to a lesser extent, B-1b and B-1a cells. This study identifies a phenotypically distinct splenic population of TrB-1a cells and establishes that the development of B-1a cells is blocked before this stage in the absence of IκBNS. PMID:25228759

  5. To be or not B2B?

    CERN Document Server

    Symons, L J

    2001-01-01

    La question du commerce électronique interentreprises par le web (Business to Business, B2B) est posée actuellement par les grands groupes industriels impliqués dans le commerce mondial. Les prévisions sont imposantes, le B2B atteindra le C.A. de 3000 milliards de dollars en 2003. Les conditions d'accès, la façon de procéder des deux organisateurs (ARIBA et COMMERCE ONE) des plus grandes places de marchés actuelles, sont décrites. La base de l'énorme pyramide est le catalogue électronique multilingue UNSPSC (United Nations Standard Products and Services Classification) et l'organisation ECCMA (Electronic Commerce Code Management Association) qui gère le développement des UNSPSC codes en 8 langues. Dans ce contexte, l'auteur (re)-déclare qu'un des efforts principaux à fournir par le CERN est la création de son propre catalogue électronique. Dans la Division ST, une aide partielle à ce vaste programme pourrait être apportée par la normalisation des codes et désignations des pièces de maint...

  6. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatic efficiency of sanazole under irradiation. A study in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Edith; Getoff, Nikola

    2003-06-01

    Experiments in vitro, using bacteria Escherichia coli (AB 1157) as a biological model, showed that the cytostatic efficiency of sanazole (AK-2123, a nitrotriazole-type radiosensitizer) in radiation treatment can be strongly influenced by the presence of various vitamins. In airfree media the sanazole action is increased by a factor of 2.5 in the presence of vitamin (vit.) B1, vit. C E-acetate and β-carotene, whereas vit. B1 used individually possesses a 2.7-times higher cytostatic activity than sanazole itself. In media containing air the highest increase of sanazole action is observed in the presence of vit. B1 and C, whereas the individual use of vit. B1 shows a radiation protection effect. In media saturated with N 2O the addition of the vit. B1 and C causes a 1.8-times larger sanazole activity, but the application of vit. B1 alone brings about a very high radiation protection. From studies of vit. B1-radiolysis it can be concluded that OH radicals are the major primary transients leading to substrate degradation. The results are of interest for the radiation therapy of cancer.

  7. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatic efficiency of sanazole under irradiation. A study in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Edith; Getoff, Nikola E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2003-06-01

    Experiments in vitro, using bacteria Escherichia coli (AB 1157) as a biological model, showed that the cytostatic efficiency of sanazole (AK-2123, a nitrotriazole-type radiosensitizer) in radiation treatment can be strongly influenced by the presence of various vitamins. In airfree media the sanazole action is increased by a factor of 2.5 in the presence of vitamin (vit.) B1, vit. C E-acetate and {beta}-carotene, whereas vit. B1 used individually possesses a 2.7-times higher cytostatic activity than sanazole itself. In media containing air the highest increase of sanazole action is observed in the presence of vit. B1 and C, whereas the individual use of vit. B1 shows a radiation protection effect. In media saturated with N{sub 2}O the addition of the vit. B1 and C causes a 1.8-times larger sanazole activity, but the application of vit. B1 alone brings about a very high radiation protection. >From studies of vit. B1-radiolysis it can be concluded that OH radicals are the major primary transients leading to substrate degradation. The results are of interest for the radiation therapy of cancer.

  8. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatic efficiency of sanazole under irradiation. A study in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, Edith; Getoff, Nikola

    2003-01-01

    Experiments in vitro, using bacteria Escherichia coli (AB 1157) as a biological model, showed that the cytostatic efficiency of sanazole (AK-2123, a nitrotriazole-type radiosensitizer) in radiation treatment can be strongly influenced by the presence of various vitamins. In airfree media the sanazole action is increased by a factor of 2.5 in the presence of vitamin (vit.) B1, vit. C E-acetate and β-carotene, whereas vit. B1 used individually possesses a 2.7-times higher cytostatic activity than sanazole itself. In media containing air the highest increase of sanazole action is observed in the presence of vit. B1 and C, whereas the individual use of vit. B1 shows a radiation protection effect. In media saturated with N 2 O the addition of the vit. B1 and C causes a 1.8-times larger sanazole activity, but the application of vit. B1 alone brings about a very high radiation protection. >From studies of vit. B1-radiolysis it can be concluded that OH radicals are the major primary transients leading to substrate degradation. The results are of interest for the radiation therapy of cancer

  9. CD25+ B-1a Cells Express Aicda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kaku

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available B-1a cells are innate-like B-lymphocytes producing natural antibodies. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, a product of the Aicda gene, plays a central role in class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in B cells. Although a role for Aicda in B-1a cells has been suggested on the basis of experiments with knock out (KO mice, whether B-1a cells express Aicda, and if so, which B-1a cell subpopulation expresses Aicda, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that B-1 cells express Aicda, but at a level below that expressed by germinal center (GC B cells. We previously reported that B-1a cells can be subdivided based on CD25 expression. We show here that B-1a cell Aicda expression is concentrated in the CD25+ B-1a cell subpopulation. These results suggest the possibility that previous studies of memory B cells identified on the basis of Aicda expression may have inadvertently included an unknown number of CD25+ B-1a cells. Although B-1a cells develop normally in the absence of Aicda, a competitive reconstitution assay reveals enhanced vigor for AID KO B-1a cell bone marrow (BM progenitors, as compared with wild-type BM B-1 cell progenitors. These results suggest that AID inhibits the development of B-1a cells from BM B-1 cell progenitors in a competitive environment.

  10. ONLINE ACQUISITIONS IN B2B MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the present paper, we propose to review some of the main aspects documented by the academic research so far with regard to the online purchasing behaviour in the B2B online environment (more specifically, in the case of the small and medium-sized companies. Preliminary conclusions reveal that, at least in the case studies, the dominant feature is that the geographic delimitation creates a potential obstacle when it comes to applying a general principle governing the small and medium-sized enterprises. Despite this, we consider that some theoretical elements can be acknowledged, elements from which future research can start to develop theories and hypothesis aimed at better explaining the phenomenon. Furthermore, the fact that the studies are rarely involving the same sector, makes it impossible to generalise the process.

  11. Diffusion in substitutionally disordered B2 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive diffusion kinetics theory is formulated to describe seamlessly tracer and chemical diffusion in antistructurally disordered B2 intermetallics showing positive and negative deviations from stoichiometry. The theory is based around unit processes consisting of six-jump cycles that can be assisted by intrinsic and extrinsic antistructural atoms of either atomic species. The Ising alloy model is used to illustrate the formalism, but the formalism can be adapted to other models. Expressions are developed for the tracer diffusion coefficients, the phenomenological coefficients, the intrinsic diffusion coefficients, the interdiffusion coefficient and the various correlation factor components. Results for the tracer and collective correlation factors and the vacancy wind factor (in interdiffusion) are in excellent agreement with results from Monte Carlo computer simulations based around single vacancy jumps. (author)

  12. Aflatoxin B1: Mechanism of mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Aflatoxins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites that frequently contaminate corn, peanuts and other products. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the most potent of these, is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system into a number of hydroxylated metabolites and glutathione conjugates in the process of conversion to more hydrophilic forms for urinary excretion. Unfortunately, one of these metabolites is the aflatoxin-8,9-epoxide that is produced in two forms, endo and exo. Glutathione S-transferases (GST are able to conjugate and detoxify this reactive intermediate. Species differences in susceptibility to the effects of AFB1 are partially related to differences in expression of specific GSTs that are able to conjugate the epoxide to glutathione. The exo epoxide is able to intercalate into DNA and this is followed by reaction of the C8 position of the epoxide with the N7 position of guanine.

    NMR studies of oligonucleotide duplexes containing the adduct have demonstrated that the adduct exists with the aromatic portion intercalated on the 5' face of the guanine residue with Watson-Crick base pairing maintained.

    However, this covalent adduct is chemically unstable due to the charge on the ribose ring. As a result, the guanine can be released from the DNA leaving an apurinic site. This released guanine adduct can be detected in the urine and serves as a biomarker of exposure to AFB1. Alternatively, the ribose ring opens forming a stable formamidopyrimidine (FAPY adduct. This adduct somewhat stabilizes the DNA duplex. Time course studies in animals have demonstrated that the N7 adduct is rapidly removed, probably because it causes more distortion in the helix, while the FAPY adduct is more

  13. A Simulation Based Methodology to Examine the B-1B’s AN/ALQ-161 Maintenance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    2001). “The Air Force does not think of, or advertise , bombers as interchangeable. The B-1, B-2 and B-52 all have a specific mission area and 2...Modeling ( CPM ), Goal Programming, EOQ, Nonlinear Programming Predictive Models unknown, ill-defined known or under the decision-maker’s control

  14. 77 FR 42707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-35] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Force (DAY) [[Page 42709

  15. Aging Converts Innate B1a Cells into Potent CD8+ T Cell Inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Chang, Catalina; Bodogai, Monica; Moritoh, Kanako; Chen, Xin; Wersto, Robert; Sen, Ranjan; Young, Howard A; Croft, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Biragyn, Arya

    2016-04-15

    B cell dysregulation in aging is thought to mostly occur in conventional B2 cells without affecting innate B1 cells. Elderly humans and mice also accumulate 4-1BBL(+)MHC class-I(Hi)CD86(Hi)B cells of unknown origin. In this article, we report that these cells, termed 4BL cells, are activated murine and possibly human B1a cells. The activation is mediated by aging human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. They induce expression and activation of 4-1BBL and IFN-γR1 on B1a cells to subsequently upregulate membrane TNF-α and CD86. As a result, activated B1a/4BL cells induce expression of granzyme B in CD8(+)T cells by targeting TNFR2 via membrane TNF-α and providing costimulation with CD86. Thus, for the first time, to our knowledge, these results indicate that aging affects the function of B1a cells. Upon aging, these cells lose their tumor-supporting activity and become inducers of potentially antitumor and autoimmune CD8(+)T cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1 - Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages. 31.3306(b)-1 Section 31.3306(b)-1... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1 Wages. (a) Applicable law and... after 1938 constitutes wages is determined under section 3306(b). Accordingly, only remuneration paid...

  17. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  18. 26 CFR 1.267(b)-1 - Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationships. 1.267(b)-1 Section 1.267(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(b)-1 Relationships. (a) In general. (1) The persons referred to... partnership separately. Therefore, if the other person and a partner are within any one of the relationships...

  19. Assessment of human exposure to fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, M. de; Egmond, H.P. van; Nauta, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Notermans, S.H.W.

    1998-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 is currently regarded as the most significant mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. It has carcinogenic properties and may play a role in the etiology of human esophageal cancer. The human population is exposed to fumonisin B1 primarily by intake of fumonisin B1-contaminated maize. Maize

  20. Risk assessment of fumonisin B1 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; Speijers GJA; Paulsch WE; van Egmond HP; SIR; ARO

    2004-01-01

    Fumonisine B1 is een mycotoxine, dat kan worden gevormd door bepaalde Fusarium schimmels. Het toxine wordt vooral in mais (-producten) aangetroffen, maar het kan ook voorkomen in tarwe (-producten). De inname van fumonisine B1 in de Nederlandse populatie is geschat door fumonisine B1 concentraties

  1. Human umbilical vein: involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in bradykinin B1 receptor-sensitized responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, A E; Rey-Ares, V; Daray, F M; Rogines-Velo, M P; Sardi, S P; Paz, C; Podestá, E J; Rothlin, R P

    2001-08-01

    In isolated human umbilical vein (HUV), the contractile response to des-Arg9-bradykinin (des-Arg9-BK), selective BK B1 receptor agonist, increases as a function of the incubation time. Here, we evaluated whether cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway is involved in BK B1-sensitized response obtained in 5-h incubated HUV rings. The effect of different concentrations of indomethacin, sodium salicylate, ibuprofen, meloxicam, lysine clonixinate or NS-398 administrated 30 min before concentration-response curves (CRC) was studied. All treatments produced a significant rightward shift of the CRC to des-Arg9-BK in a concentration-dependent manner, which provides pharmacological evidence that COX pathway is involved in the BK B1 responses. Moreover, in this tissue, the NS-398 pKb (5.2) observed suggests that COX-2 pathway is the most relevant. The strong correlation between published pIC50 for COX-2 and the NSAIDs' pKbs estimated further supports the hypothesis that COX-2 metabolites are involved in BK B1 receptor-mediated responses. In other rings, indomethacin (30, 100 micromol/l) or NS-398 (10, 30 micromol/l) produced a significant rightward shift of the CRC to BK, selective BK B2 agonist, and its pKbs were similar to the values to inhibit BK B1 receptor responses, suggesting that COX-2 pathway also is involved in BK B2 receptor responses. Western blot analysis shows that COX-1 and COX-2 isoenzymes are present before and after 5-h in vitro incubation and apparently COX-2 does not suffer additional induction.

  2. Effects of oral administration of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, R B; Oliveira, C A F; Dilkin, P; Xavier, J G; Direito, G M; Corrêa, B

    2007-12-15

    The effects of prolonged oral administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) were studied in male New Zealand rabbits by clinical, pathological, biochemical and sphingolipid analyses. Twenty-four animals were randomly divided into the following four experimental groups: (A) 0 mg FB(1)+0 microg AFB(1)/(kg body weight(bw)day) (control); (B) 0 mg FB(1)+30 microg AFB(1)/(kg bw day); (C) 1.5 mg FB(1)/(kg bw day)+30 microg AFB(1)/(kg bw day); (D) 1.5 mg FB(1)/(kg bw day)+0 microg AFB(1). Animals from group B and principally from group C presented clinical signs of intoxication. Rabbits from group C presented a lower body weight gain than controls. Differences were observed between intoxicated rabbits and controls with respect to absolute and relative liver and kidney weight, hepatic function, serum urea and creatinine levels and Sa/So ratio. The most frequent hepatic and renal injuries were vacuolar degeneration of the liver and kidney as shown by the histopathological and serum biochemical results. Combined administration of AFB(1) and FB(1) resulted in synergistic toxic effects both in the liver and in the kidney, but hepatic injuries were more marked.

  3. B1 -sensitivity analysis of quantitative magnetization transfer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Mathieu; Stikov, Nikola; Pike, G Bruce

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) fitted parameters to B 1 inaccuracies, focusing on the difference between two categories of T 1 mapping techniques: B 1 -independent and B 1 -dependent. The B 1 -sensitivity of qMT was investigated and compared using two T 1 measurement methods: inversion recovery (IR) (B 1 -independent) and variable flip angle (VFA), B 1 -dependent). The study was separated into four stages: 1) numerical simulations, 2) sensitivity analysis of the Z-spectra, 3) healthy subjects at 3T, and 4) comparison using three different B 1 imaging techniques. For typical B 1 variations in the brain at 3T (±30%), the simulations resulted in errors of the pool-size ratio (F) ranging from -3% to 7% for VFA, and -40% to > 100% for IR, agreeing with the Z-spectra sensitivity analysis. In healthy subjects, pooled whole-brain Pearson correlation coefficients for F (comparing measured double angle and nominal flip angle B 1 maps) were ρ = 0.97/0.81 for VFA/IR. This work describes the B 1 -sensitivity characteristics of qMT, demonstrating that it varies substantially on the B 1 -dependency of the T 1 mapping method. Particularly, the pool-size ratio is more robust against B 1 inaccuracies if VFA T 1 mapping is used, so much so that B 1 mapping could be omitted without substantially biasing F. Magn Reson Med 79:276-285, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  5. Towards a Cryogen-Free MgB2-Based Superconducting Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Alireza

    Studies on the application of Magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting films have shown promise for use with the radio-frequency (SRF) accelerating cavities. MgB2\\ coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) SRF cavities. The ultimate goal of our research is to demonstrate MgB2 coating on copper cavities to allow operation at about 20 K or so as a result of the high transition temperature (Tc) of MgB2 and taking advantage of the excellent thermal conductivity of copper. Here, we will report on our recent experimental results of applying hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) to grow MgB2 films on 2-inch diameter copper discs as well as on a 2.8 GHz resonator cavity *Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06H11357.

  6. Structure and Oxidation of Pyrrole Adducts Formed between Aflatoxin B2a and Biological Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2017-06-19

    Aflatoxin B 2a has been shown to bind to proteins through a dialdehyde intermediate under physiological conditions. The proposed structure of this adduct has been published showing a Schiff base interaction, but adequate verification using structural elucidation instrumental techniques has not been performed. In this work, we synthesized the aflatoxin B 2a amino acid adduct under alkaline conditions, and the formation of a new product was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resulting accurate mass was used to generate a novel proposed chemical structure of the adduct in which the dialdehyde forms a pyrrole ring with primary amines rather than the previously proposed Schiff base interaction. The pyrrole structure was confirmed using 1 H, 13 C, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation NMR and tandem mass spectrometry. Reaction kinetics show that the reaction is overall second order and that the rate increases as pH increases. Additionally, this study shows for the first time that aflatoxin B 2a dialdehyde forms adducts with phosphatidylethanolamines and does so through pyrrole ring formation, which makes it the first aflatoxin-lipid adduct to be structurally identified. Furthermore, oxidation of the pyrrole adduct produced a product that was 16 m/z heavier. When the aflatoxin B 2a -lysine (ε) adduct was oxidized, it gave a product with an accurate mass, mass fragmentation pattern, and 1 H NMR spectrum that match aflatoxin B 1 -lysine, which suggest the transformation of the pyrrole ring to a pyrrolin-2-one ring. These data give new insight into the fate and chemical properties of biological adducts formed from aflatoxin B 2a as well as possible interferences with known aflatoxin B 1 exposure biomarkers.

  7. RIN4 recruits the exocyst subunit EXO70B1 to the plasma membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabol, P.; Kulich, I.; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2017), s. 3253-3265 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14886S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : oligomeric golgi-complex * powdery mildew fungus * pseudomonas-syringae * cell polarity * arabidopsis * protein * plants * resistance * expression * transport * Autophagy * exo70b1 * exo70b2 * exocyst * plant immunity * rin4 * secretion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  8. Slice profile and B1 corrections in 2D magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Coppo, Simone; Chen, Yong; McGivney, Debra F; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize and improve the accuracy of 2D magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) scans in the presence of slice profile (SP) and B 1 imperfections, which are two main factors that affect quantitative results in MRF. The SP and B 1 imperfections are characterized and corrected separately. The SP effect is corrected by simulating the radiofrequency pulse in the dictionary, and the B 1 is corrected by acquiring a B 1 map using the Bloch-Siegert method before each scan. The accuracy, precision, and repeatability of the proposed method are evaluated in phantom studies. The effects of both SP and B 1 imperfections are also illustrated and corrected in the in vivo studies. The SP and B 1 corrections improve the accuracy of the T 1 and T 2 values, independent of the shape of the radiofrequency pulse. The T 1 and T 2 values obtained from different excitation patterns become more consistent after corrections, which leads to an improvement of the robustness of the MRF design. This study demonstrates that MRF is sensitive to both SP and B 1 effects, and that corrections can be made to improve the accuracy of MRF with only a 2-s increase in acquisition time. Magn Reson Med 78:1781-1789, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Laser cladding of aluminium using TiB2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available to that of steel (5) and Tita- nium (6; 7). Previous work con- sists of an effort to make deep laser injection of TiB2 on Al or the creation of in-situ of TiB2 using other reactant particles. In-situ creation of TiB2 suffers from other side effects...

  10. Theoretical study of the ionization of B2H5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, L.A.; Pople, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the G1 level of theory have been carried out on neutral B 2 H 5 radical, doubly bridged B 2 H + 5 cation, and the first triplet excited state of B 2 H + 5 . Singly bridged B 2 H 5 is 4.0 kcal/mol (without zero-point energies) more stable than doubly bridged B 2 H 5 . Based on this work and previous theoretical work on triply bridged B 2 H + 5 , ionization potentials (vertical and adiabatic) are determined for B 2 H 5 . The adiabatic ionization potentials of the two B 2 H 5 structures are 6.94 eV (singly bridged) and 7.53 eV (doubly bridged). A very large difference is found between the vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials (3.37 eV) of the singly bridged B 2 H 5 structure. The first triplet state of B 2 H + 5 is found to be 4.55 eV higher in energy than the lowest energy B 2 H + 5 cation (triply bridged). The results of this theoretical study support the interpretation of Ruscic, Schwarz, and Berkowitz of their recent photoionization measurements on B 2 H 5

  11. Component Based System Framework for Dynamic B2B Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu jinmin, Jinmin; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    Business-to-Business (B2B) collaboration is becoming a pivotal way to bring today's enterprises to success in the dynamically changing e-business environment. Though many business-to-business protocols are developed to support B2B interaction, none are generally accepted. A B2B system should support

  12. TRUST IN B2B E-MARKETPLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIAN KOT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents background of B2B exchanges and review of their forms and functionalities. The benefits and fails reasons are noticed. European enterprises interest in B2B trade is next aspect of consideration. Finally, the trust barriers of B2B exchanges are presented.

  13. Phase transformations in the B2 phase of Co-rich Co-Al binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, K.; Omori, T.; Nagasako, M.; Oikawa, K.; Kainuma, R.; Ishida, K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bainitic transformation and a martensite-like structure from B2-CoAl were observed depending on quenching rate. → The phase separation into the metastable A2 + B2 structure was found in the as-quenched B2-CoAl. → The two-phase structure of A2 and B2 was found to show some coercive force after aging under a magnetic field. - Abstract: Phase transformations in the β (B2) phase of Co-21 and -23 at.% Al alloys were examined using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructures obtained from as-quenched specimens were found to be strongly affected by the quenching condition. While relatively thick sheet-specimens with a lower quenching rate showed bainitic plate precipitates with a fcc structure, a martensite-like structure was observed by optical microscopy in relatively thin specimens with a higher quenching rate. Regardless of the quenching condition, a spinodal-like microstructure composed of A2 and B2 phases was also detected and the A2 phase changed to a metastable hcp phase during further aging.

  14. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudek, L; Premachandra, D; Webster, W A J; Bräu, L

    2016-11-01

    In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB - ) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme IMPORTANCE: Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the

  15. B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Confidence Level Confidence Level of cost estimate for current APB: 55% This APB reflects cost and funding data based on the B-2 EHF Increment I SCP...This cost estimate was quantified at the Mean (~55%) confidence level . Total Quantity Quantity SAR Baseline Production Estimate Current APB...Production Estimate Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total 33.624 -0.350 1.381 0.375 0.000 -6.075 0.000 -0.620 -5.289 28.335 Current SAR Baseline to Current

  16. Directional scanning tunneling spectroscopy in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iavarone, M.; Karapetrov, G.; Koshelev, A.E.; Kwok, W.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hinks, D.G.; Cook, R.; Kang, W.N.; Choi, E.M.; Kim, H.J.; Lee, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    The superconductivity in MgB 2 has a two-band character with the dominating band having a 2D character and the second band being isotropic in the three dimensions. We use tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to reveal the two distinct energy gaps at Δ 1 =2.3 meV and Δ 2 =7.1 meV. Different spectral weights of the partial superconducting density of states are a reflection of different tunneling directions in this multi-band system. The results are consistent with the existence of two-band superconductivity in the presence of strong interband superconducting pair interaction and quasiparticle scattering. The temperature evolution of the tunneling spectra shows both gaps vanishing at the bulk T c

  17. Antipsychotic potential of quinazoline ErbB1 inhibitors in a schizophrenia model established with neonatal hippocampal lesioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Makoto; Iwakura, Yuriko; Shibuya, Masako; Zheng, Yingjun; Eda, Takeyoshi; Kato, Taisuke; Takasu, Yohei; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Hyper-signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB) is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Various quinazoline inhibitors targeting ErbB1 or ErbB2 - 4 have been developed as anti-cancer agents and might be useful for antipsychotic treatment. In the present study, we used an animal model of schizophrenia established by neonatal hippocampal lesioning and evaluated the neurobehavioral consequences of ErbB1-inhibitor treatment. Subchronic administration of the ErbB1 inhibitor ZD1839 to the cerebroventricle of rats receiving neonatal hippocampal lesioning ameliorated deficits in prepulse inhibition as well as those in the latent inhibition of tone-dependent fear learning. There were no apparent adverse effects on basal learning scores or locomotor activity, however. The administration of other ErbB1 inhibitors, PD153035 and OSI-774, similarly attenuated the prepulse inhibition impairment of this animal model. In parallel, there were decreases in ErbB1 phosphorylation in animals treated with ErbB1 inhibitors. These results indicate an antipsychotic potential of quinazoline ErbB1 inhibitors. ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases may be novel therapeutic targets for schizophrenia or its related psychotic symptoms.

  18. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction otherwise allowable...

  19. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B1 is generally found in feed and food stuff, such as cereal and all products derived from cereals, including processed cereals since it has been proven to be at least partly resistant to food processing methods. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the possibility of contamination of aflatoxin B1 in food ...

  20. SerpinB1 Promotes Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Shirakawa, Jun; Hou, Lifei; Goodman, Jessica; Karampelias, Christos; Qiang, Guifeng; Boucher, Jeremie; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A.; De Jesus, Dario F.; Kahraman, Sevim; Bhatt, Shweta; Smith, Richard D.; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Gong, Yanping; Goldfine, Allison B.; Liew, Chong Wee; Doria, Alessandro; Andersson, Olov; Qian, Wei-Jun; Remold-O’Donnell, Eileen; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance is a common feature in diabetes. We recently reported that liver-derived factors participate in this compensatory response in the liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a model of significant islet hyperplasia. Here we show that serpinB1 is a liver-derived secretory protein that controls β-cell proliferation. SerpinB1 is abundant in the hepatocyte secretome and sera derived from LIRKO mice. SerpinB1 and small molecule compounds that partially mimic serpinB1 activity enhanced proliferation of zebrafish, mouse and human β-cells. We report that serpinB1-induced β-cell replication requires protease inhibition activity and mice lacking serpinB1 exhibit attenuated β-cell replication in response to insulin resistance. Finally, SerpinB1-treatment of islets modulated signaling proteins in growth and survival pathways such as MAPK, PKA and GSK3. Together, these data implicate SerpinB1 as a protein that can potentially be harnessed to enhance functional β-cell mass in patients with diabetes.

  1. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  3. Risk assessment of fumonisin B1 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; Speijers GJA; Paulsch WE; Egmond HP van; SIR; ARO

    2004-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 is a mycotoxin that can be produced by certain Fusarium species. The toxin is found, in particular, in maize and maize products, but occurrence in boeth wheat and wheat products, and rice and rice products, has also been reported. The intake of fumonisin B1 by the population in the

  4. OECD 28-days oral toxicity study on fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs M de; Egmond HP van; Jong WH de; Loveren H van; LPI; ARO; MGB

    1999-01-01

    Het beschreven experiment werd uitgevoerd om inzicht te verkrijgen over effecten van lage doseringen fumonisine B1 op target organen en het immuunsysteem. Mannelijke ratten van drie weken oud werden oraal via maagsonde behandeld met 0, 0,19, 0,75 of 3 mg/kg lichaamsgewicht fumonisine B1,

  5. 78 FR 46579 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-30] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: FMS case YAD-$22M-16Jan10. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None...

  6. 76 FR 17111 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-10] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  7. 78 FR 62590 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-43] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii) Sensitivity of...

  8. 76 FR 37071 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-03] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  9. 75 FR 60424 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-28 and 10-30] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to...

  10. 78 FR 78939 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-68] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...-$98M (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: N/A (vii) Sensitivity of...

  11. 76 FR 37075 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-77] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  12. 76 FR 43659 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-28] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  13. 78 FR 78941 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-70] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... any: FMS Case GAC--$82M--12Mar10 (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid...

  14. 76 FR 27026 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-13] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  15. 76 FR 37078 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-68] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  16. 77 FR 42709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-24] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Cases, if any: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii...

  17. 77 FR 60384 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-54] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is...

  18. 76 FR 43662 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-15] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...) Military Department: Navy (AAR) (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc...

  19. 75 FR 61440 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-47, 10-48, and 10-51] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications...

  20. 77 FR 37884 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-19] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Department: Navy (LAN). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid...

  1. 76 FR 72686 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-47] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This..., if any: FMS Case FAL-$73M-6Apr11 (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed To Be...

  2. 75 FR 29998 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-22] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  3. 76 FR 29212 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-75] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  4. 78 FR 26324 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-20] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Gasoline). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: Numerous cases dating back to 1995. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee...

  5. 75 FR 48646 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-27, 10-31 and 10-41] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications...

  6. 75 FR 23247 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-08] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  7. 76 FR 60461 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-27] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... any: FMS Case JAH-$402 million-11Dec91. FMS Case ZUF-$375 million-22Dec08. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee...

  8. 78 FR 76114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-66] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii) Sensitivity of Technology...

  9. 77 FR 42711 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-20] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This..., Amd 3). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: FMS case ULJ-$46M-15Jan10. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc...

  10. 75 FR 27314 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-19] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  11. 75 FR 11865 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-12] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  12. 78 FR 76112 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-63] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... case LAJ-$22M--8Mar07 FMS case GAU-$45M--25Jul08 FMS case LAL-$293M--5Jan09 (vi) Sales Commission, Fee...

  13. 78 FR 42051 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-26] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... any: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii...

  14. 75 FR 76418 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-65] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  15. 75 FR 76415 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-72] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  16. 78 FR 32632 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-28] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...-31Dec06. FMS case NZU-$93 million-19Aug10. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to...

  17. 75 FR 74011 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-24] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  18. 78 FR 26326 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-09] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...-20Feb08. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None. (vii) Sensitivity of...

  19. 78 FR 62600 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-47] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed To Be Paid: None (vii) Sensitivity of...

  20. 75 FR 76412 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-69] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  1. 77 FR 60391 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-32] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is...

  2. 76 FR 60455 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-71] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... support. (iv) Military Department: Army (UJT). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None. (vi) Sales...

  3. 75 FR 74014 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-49] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  4. 76 FR 27022 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-12] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  5. 77 FR 60387 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-26] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is...

  6. 77 FR 51780 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-42] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... support. (iv) Military Department: Air Force (QAZ). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None. (vi) Sales...

  7. 78 FR 26328 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-06] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...) Prior Related Cases, if any: FMS case QAA-$301M-3Dec08. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered...

  8. 77 FR 70151 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-56] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: Army (UAK). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or...

  9. 77 FR 13564 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-53] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This..., if any: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii...

  10. 78 FR 62588 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-53] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii) Sensitivity of Technology...

  11. 77 FR 12037 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-11] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... support. (iv) Military Department: Navy (SAF). (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None. (vi) Sales...

  12. 76 FR 60459 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-19] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...-$280 million-29Nov07. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid, Offered, or Agreed to be Paid: None. (vii...

  13. 75 FR 76408 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-73] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  14. 77 FR 46417 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-39] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: USA (UAF) (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: FMS case UAD-$95M-23Jan12 (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc...

  15. 76 FR 60467 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: a Foreign Military Sales Order II (FMSO II) to provide funds for blanket order requisitions, under...

  16. 78 FR 69073 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-59] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...) Military Department: Air Force (QAH) (v) Prior Related Cases: None (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid...

  17. 78 FR 54242 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-38] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...--$54.3M--5May04 FMS case QZX--$62.4M--24Dec03 FMS case CCZ--$48.4M--12Aug02 [[Page 54244

  18. Biotechnological Fluorescent Ligands of the Bradykinin B1 Receptor: Protein Ligands for a Peptide Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Charest-Morin

    Full Text Available The bradykinin (BK B1 receptor (B1R is a peculiar G protein coupled receptor that is strongly regulated to the point of being inducible in immunopathology. Limited clinical evidence suggests that its expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a biomarker of active inflammatory states. In an effort to develop a novel imaging/diagnostic tool, we report the rational design and testing of a fusion protein that is a ligand of the human B1R but not likely to label peptidases. This ligand is composed of a fluorescent protein (FP (enhanced green FP [EGFP] or mCherry prolonged at its N-terminus by a spacer peptide and a classical peptide agonist or antagonist (des-Arg9-BK, [Leu8]des-Arg9-BK, respectively. The design of the spacer-ligand joint peptide was validated by a competition assay for [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK binding to the human B1R applied to 4 synthetic peptides of 18 or 19 residues. The labeling of B1R-expressing cells with EGFP or mCherry fused with 7 of such peptides was performed in parallel (microscopy. Both assays indicated that the best design was FP-(Asn-Glyn-Lys-des-Arg9-BK; n = 15 was superior to n = 5, suggesting benefits from minimizing steric hindrance between the FP and the receptor. Cell labeling concerned mostly plasma membranes and was inhibited by a B1R antagonist. EGFP-(Asn-Gly15-Lys-des-Arg9-BK competed for the binding of [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK to human recombinant B1R, being only 10-fold less potent than the unlabeled form of Lys-des-Arg9-BK to do so. The fusion protein did not label HEK 293a cells expressing recombinant human BK B2 receptors or angiotensin converting enzyme. This study identifies a modular C-terminal sequence that can be adapted to protein cargoes, conferring high affinity for the BK B1R, with possible applications in diagnostic cytofluorometry, histology and drug delivery (e.g., in oncology.

  19. Anticonvulsant activity of B2, an adenosine analog, on chemical convulsant-induced seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. However, approximately one-third of epilepsy patients still suffer from uncontrolled seizures. Effective treatments for epilepsy are yet to be developed. N (6-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl adenine riboside (B2 is a N(6-substitued adenosine analog. Here we describe an investigation of the effects and mechanisms of B2 on chemical convulsant-induced seizures. Seizures were induced in mice by administration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, picrotoxin, kainite acid (KA, or strychnine. B2 has a dose-related anticonvulsant effect in these chemical-induced seizure models. The protective effects of B2 include increased latency of seizure onset, decreased seizure occurrence, shorter seizure duration and reduced mortality rate. Radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays indicated that B2 might be a functional ligand for both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Furthermore, DPCPX, a selective A1 receptor antagonist, but not SCH58261, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, blocked the anticonvulsant effect of B2 on PTZ-induced seizure. c-Fos is a cellular marker for neuronal activity. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses indicated that B2 significantly reversed PTZ-induced c-Fos expression in the hippocampus. Together, these results indicate that B2 has significant anticonvulsant effects. The anticonvulsant effects of B2 may be attributed to adenosine A1 receptor activation and reduced neuronal excitability in the hippocampus. These observations also support that the use of adenosine receptor agonist may be a promising approach for the treatment of epilepsy.

  20. Plexin-B2 negatively regulates macrophage motility, Rac, and Cdc42 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E Roney

    Full Text Available Plexins are cell surface receptors widely studied in the nervous system, where they mediate migration and morphogenesis though the Rho family of small GTPases. More recently, plexins have been implicated in immune processes including cell-cell interaction, immune activation, migration, and cytokine production. Plexin-B2 facilitates ligand induced cell guidance and migration in the nervous system, and induces cytoskeletal changes in overexpression assays through RhoGTPase. The function of Plexin-B2 in the immune system is unknown. This report shows that Plexin-B2 is highly expressed on cells of the innate immune system in the mouse, including macrophages, conventional dendritic cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. However, Plexin-B2 does not appear to regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, phagocytosis of a variety of targets, or directional migration towards chemoattractants or extracellular matrix in mouse macrophages. Instead, Plxnb2(-/- macrophages have greater cellular motility than wild type in the unstimulated state that is accompanied by more active, GTP-bound Rac and Cdc42. Additionally, Plxnb2(-/- macrophages demonstrate faster in vitro wound closure activity. Studies have shown that a closely related family member, Plexin-B1, binds to active Rac and sequesters it from downstream signaling. The interaction of Plexin-B2 with Rac has only been previously confirmed in yeast and bacterial overexpression assays. The data presented here show that Plexin-B2 functions in mouse macrophages as a negative regulator of the GTPases Rac and Cdc42 and as a negative regulator of basal cell motility and wound healing.

  1. SoxB2 in sea urchin development: implications in neurogenesis, ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Evgeniya; Arnone, Maria Ina; D'Aniello, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Current studies in evolutionary developmental biology are focused on the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks in target animal species. From decades, the scientific interest on genetic mechanisms orchestrating embryos development has been increasing in consequence to the fact that common features shared by evolutionarily distant phyla are being clarified. In 2011, a study across eumetazoan species showed for the first time the existence of a highly conserved non-coding element controlling the SoxB2 gene, which is involved in the early specification of the nervous system. This discovery raised several questions about SoxB2 function and regulation in deuterostomes from an evolutionary point of view. Due to the relevant phylogenetic position within deuterostomes, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus represents an advantageous animal model in the field of evolutionary developmental biology. Herein, we show a comprehensive study of SoxB2 functions in sea urchins, in particular its expression pattern in a wide range of developmental stages, and its co-localization with other neurogenic markers, as SoxB1 , SoxC and Elav . Moreover, this work provides a detailed description of the phenotype of sea urchin SoxB2 knocked-down embryos, confirming its key function in neurogenesis and revealing, for the first time, its additional roles in oral and aboral ectoderm cilia and skeletal rod morphology. We concluded that SoxB2 in sea urchins has a neurogenic function; however, this gene could have multiple roles in sea urchin embryogenesis, expanding its expression in non-neurogenic cells. We showed that SoxB2 is functionally conserved among deuterostomes and suggested that in S. purpuratus this gene acquired additional functions, being involved in ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning.

  2. 75 FR 63050 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, D, AS355E...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... point of the yaw channel ball-type control sheath stop, of a Model AS355N helicopter fitted with the... the non-modified cross- member may cause it to crack. A crack can reduce the yaw control travel. This... discovered in the area of the center cross-member at station X 2325, at the attachment point of the yaw...

  3. 76 FR 70046 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, C, D, and D1; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... are intended to prevent separation of the bearing ball from its outer race, rubbing of the body of the... movement. This action may be performed by an owner/operator (pilot) holding at least a private pilot... 4. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of...

  4. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT... the entire maximum inspiration and the entire maximum forced expiration. The instrument shall, in... unacceptable when the patient: (A) Has not reached full inspiration preceding the forced expiration; or (B) Has...

  5. Integrating toxin gene expression, growth and fumonisin B1 and B2 production by a strain of Fusarium verticillioides under different environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Angel; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus; Cárdenas-Chávez, Diana L.; Parra, Roberto; Geisen, Rolf; Magan, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to integrate data on the effect of water activity (aw; 0.995–0.93) and temperature (20–35°C) on activation of the biosynthetic FUM genes, growth and the mycotoxins fumonisin (FB1, FB2) by Fusarium verticillioides in vitro. The relative expression of nine biosynthetic cluster genes (FUM1, FUM7, FUM10, FUM11, FUM12, FUM13, FUM14, FUM16 and FUM19) in relation to the environmental factors was determined using a microarray analysis. The expression was related to growth and phenotypic FB1 and FB2 production. These data were used to develop a mixed-growth-associated product formation model and link this to a linear combination of the expression data for the nine genes. The model was then validated by examining datasets outside the model fitting conditions used (35°C). The relationship between the key gene (FUM1) and other genes in the cluster (FUM11, FUM13, FUM9, FUM14) were examined in relation to aw, temperature, FB1 and FB2 production by developing ternary diagrams of relative expression. This model is important in developing an integrated systems approach to develop prevention strategies to control fumonisin biosynthesis in staple food commodities and could also be used to predict the potential impact that climate change factors may have on toxin production. PMID:23697716

  6. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil.

  7. 75 FR 80293 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket..., inclusive. P/N SC5084....... S/N 30, 84, 104, 186, 438, 575, or 695. P/N SC5084-1..... S/N 1462 through 1481, inclusive. Tail rotor servo-control...... P/N SC5072....... S/N 222M, 306M, or 309. [[Page 80294

  8. [Evaluation of Livestock Carcasses and Performance.] Student Materials. V.A. III. [II-B-1 through II-B-2; II-D-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Part of a series of eight student learning modules in vocational agriculture, this booklet deals with evaluation of livestock. It contains sections on carcass evaluation, the evaluation of performance and production, and the design of livestock production facilities. Each of the first two sections has a glossary, and all three conclude with a…

  9. Effect of sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation on contents of vitamins A, B1 and B2 in cereal-based mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnukova, J.; Hanis, T.

    1984-01-01

    The diets were irradiated with doses of 25 kGy (diet I) an and 50 kGy (diet II) and stored for 79 days at room temperature with free access of air. In one month intervals the contents of the said vitamins were determined, this also for non-sterilized diets. No significant deviation was found in diet I and in the non-sterilized diet. In diet II the content of vitamin A and thiamine dropped mildly. As compared to autoclaving the decline is smaller. (E.F.)

  10. Ethnomathematics: The use of multiple linier regression Y = b 1 X 1 + b 2 X 2 + e in traditional house construction Saka Roras in Songan Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmayasa, J. B.; Wahyudin; Mulyana, T.

    2018-01-01

    Ethnomathematics may be the connecting bridge between culture and technology and arts. Therefore, the exploration of mathematics values that intersects with cultural anthropology should be significantly conducted. One case containing such issue is the construction of Traditional House of Saka Roras in Bali. Thus, this research aimed to explore the mathematic concept adopted in the construction of such traditional Bale (house) located in Songan Village, Kintamani, Bali. Specifically, this research also aimed to investigate the selection of linear regression coefficient for the saka (pillar) in the Bale. This research applied Embedded Mix-Method Design. Meanwhile, the data collection was conducted by interview, observation and measurement of pillars of 32 Bale Saka Roras. The result of this research revealed that the connection between the width and height of pillars was stated in the formula Y = 26,3 + 18,2X, where X acted as stimulus variable. The coefficient value amounted to 18.2 showed that most preceding architects in Songan Village were more likely to use 19 as the coefficient towards the pillar width than the other coefficients such as 17, 20 and 21 as mentioned in book/palm-leaf manuscript entitled Kosala-Kosali. The last but not least, the researchers also figured out that the pillar width depended on the length of the house-owner candidate’s index finger.

  11. Wind tunnel tests of Risø-B1-18 and Risø-B1-24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, P.; Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac

    2003-01-01

    This report contains 2D measurements of the Risø-B1-18 and Risø-B1-24 airfoils. The aerodynamic properties were derived from pressure measurements on the airfoil surface and in the wake. The measurements were conducted in the VELUX open jet wind tunnel,which has a background turbulence intensity...

  12. Method of preparing radioligand (2,3-3H)aflatoxin-B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, K.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium gas is used to act on non-radioactive aflatoxin-B 1 . Synthesis takes place in the presence of a Pt ar Pd catalyst in organic solvent at neutral pH and a temperature of 20 to 30 degC. The obtained product is cleaned chromatographically. Using 50% tritium gas it is possible to obtain a preparation of high specific activity of at least 103.6x10 10 s -1 .mmol -1 which is used for the radioimmunoassay of aflatoxins. An example is given of the preparation of (2,3- 3 H) aflatoxin-B 2 . (E.S.)

  13. Enhanced superconducting properties of MgB2 by carbon substitution using carbon containing nano additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadas, K.M.; Varghese, Neson; Vinod, K.; Rahul, S.; Thomas, Syju; Anooja, J.B.; Syamaprasad, U.; Sundaresan, A.; Roy, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study on the effect of doping of nano carbon, nano diamond and nano SiC in MgB 2 is carried out. The J c (H) is significantly enhanced for all doped samples compared to the pure sample among which MgB 1.9 C 0.1 (nano C) exhibits the best J c (H) performance. The enhanced performance is due to the effective substitution of C at B site which is confirmed by the systematic decrease in both α axis and T c . (author)

  14. Cloning and expression of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoform B2 (rCHH-B2) and its effects on the metabolism and osmoregulation of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Díaz, Fernando; Aguilar, Manuel B; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides ubiquitous in crustaceans. In Litopenaeus vannamei, CHH-B2 is a CHH eyestalk isoform whose expression has been shown to vary with enviromental conditions, suggesting its relevance for ecophysiological performance of shrimp, controlling processes related to metabolism and osmo-ionic regulation. To study the involvement of CHH-B2 in these processes, we cloned and expressed a recombinant version with a free C-terminal glycine (rCHH-B2-Gly) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The rCHH-B2-Gly peptide secreted to the culture medium was purified by RP-HPLC and used for in vivo glucose, triglyceride, and osmoregulation dose-response analyses with juvenile shrimp. The peptide was also amidated at the C-terminus using an α-amidating enzyme to produce rCHH-B2-amide. The shrimp showed a dose-dependent effect of rCHH-B2-Gly to hemolymph glucose and triglyceride levels, inducing maximal increases by injecting 500 and 1000pmol of hormone, respectively. Additionally, 10pmol of hormone was sufficient to reduce the hypo-osmoregulatory capacity of shrimp at 35‰. These findings suggest that CHH-B2 has regulatory roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and a potential involvement in osmoregulation of L. vannamei. Injection of 100pmol of rCHH-B2-amide increased glucose and triglyceride levels by 15 and 28%, respectively in comparison with rCHH-B2-Gly, suggesting an important role for the C-terminal amidation. Additionally, an in silico structural analysis done with the CHH-B1 and rCHH-B2-Gly peptides suggests that the C-terminal region may be relevant for the activity of the L. vannamei isoforms and explain the functional divergence from other crustacean CHH/CHH-like peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk assessment of fumonisin B1 in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker MI; Speijers GJA; Paulsch WE; van Egmond HP; SIR; ARO

    2004-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 is a mycotoxin that can be produced by certain Fusarium species. The toxin is found, in particular, in maize and maize products, but occurrence in boeth wheat and wheat products, and rice and rice products, has also been reported. The intake of fumonisin B1 by the population in the Netherlands was estimated in an exposure assessment using data on concentrations of fumonisin B1 in different food products combined with the consumption rate of these products. From the (limited) resu...

  16. Harnessing marketing automation for B2B content marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Joel; Taiminen, Heini

    2016-01-01

    The growing importance of the Internet to B2B customer purchasing decisions has motivated B2B sellers to create digital content that leads potential buyers to interact with their company. This trend has engendered a new paradigm referred to as ‘content marketing.’ This study investigates the organizational processes for developing valuable and timely content to meet customer needs and for integrating content marketing with B2B selling processes. The results of this single case study demonstra...

  17. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 protein impairs DNA repair mediated through the inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Kentaro; Sueoka, Naoko; Sato, Akemi; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2005-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1, an RNA binding protein, is overexpressed from the early stage of lung cancers; it is evident even in bronchial dysplasia, a premalignant lesion. We evaluated the proteins bound with hnRNP B1 and found that hnRNP B1 interacted with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex, and recombinant hnRNP B1 protein dose-dependently inhibited DNA-PK activity in vitro. To test the effect of hnRNP B1 on DNA repair, we performed comet assay after irradiation, using normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1: reduction of hnRNP B1 treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1 induced faster DNA repair in normal HBE cells. Considering these results, we assume that overexpression of hnRNP B1 occurring in the early stage of carcinogenesis inhibits DNA-PK activity, resulting in subsequent accumulation of erroneous rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks, causing tumor progression

  18. Osmotic stress upregulates the transcription of thiamine (vitamin B1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osmotic stress upregulates the transcription of thiamine (vitamin B1) ... Oil palm's responses in terms of the expression profiles of these two thiamine biosynthesis genes to an osmotic stress inducer, polyethylene glycol ... from 32 Countries:.

  19. ACTH Regulation of Adrenal SR-B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun eShen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal gland is one of the prominent sites for steroid hormone synthesis. Lipoprotein-derived cholesterol esters delivered via scavenger receptor, class B type 1 (SR-B1 constitute the dominant source of cholesterol for steroidogenesis, particularly in rodents. ACTH stimulates steroidogenesis through downstream actions on multiple components involved in steroidogenesis. Both acute and chronic ACTH treatment can modulate SR-B1 function including its transcription, its post transcriptional stability, its phosphorylation and dimerization status, as well as its interaction with other protein partners; all of which result in changes in the ability of SR-B1 to mediate HDL-cholesterol ester uptake and the supply of cholesterol for conversion to steroids. Here we provide a review of the recent findings on the regulation of adrenal SR-B1 function by ACTH.

  20. Cell type-specific localization of Ephs pairing with ephrin-B2 in the rat postnatal pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kanno, Naoko; Nishimura, Naoto; Nishihara, Hiroto; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kato, Yukio

    2017-10-01

    Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland form two types of micro-environments (niches): the marginal cell layer and dense cell clusters in the parenchyma. In relation to the mechanism of regulation of niches, juxtacrine signaling via ephrin and its receptor Eph is known to play important roles in various niches. The ephrin and Eph families are divided into two subclasses to create ephrin/Eph signaling in co-operation with confined partners. Recently, we reported that ephrin-B2 localizes specifically to both pituitary niches. However, the Ephs interacting with ephrin-B2 in these pituitary niches have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the Ephs interacting with ephrin-B2 and the cells that produce them in the rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated cell type-specific localization of candidate interacting partners for ephrin-B2, including EphA4 in cells located in the posterior lobe, EphB1 in gonadotropes, EphB2 in corticotropes, EphB3 in stem/progenitor cells and EphB4 in endothelial cells in the adult pituitary gland. In particular, double-immunohistochemistry showed cis-interactions between EphB3 and ephrin-B2 in the apical cell membranes of stem/progenitor cell niches throughout life and trans-interactions between EphB2 produced by corticotropes and ephrin-B2 located in the basolateral cell membranes of stem/progenitor cells in the early postnatal pituitary gland. These data indicate that ephrin-B2 plays a role in pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches by selective interaction with EphB3 in cis and EphB2 in trans.

  1. On a generalization of B1( ) on C∗ -algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Let Ж be a complex and separable Hilbert space and let 多 (Ж ) be the set of bounded linear operators on Ж . Let be a open connected subset of complex plane C. A class of Cowen–Douglas operator with index one: B1( ) is defined as follows [6]: B1( ) =: {T ∈ 多 (Ж ): (i). ⊂ σ (T ) =: {λ ∈ C : T − λI is not invertible ...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3401(b)-1 - Payroll period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payroll period. 31.3401(b)-1 Section 31.3401(b... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(b)-1 Payroll period. (a) The term payroll period means the... elapsed and receives the remainder at the end of the week, the payroll period is still the calendar week...

  3. 77 FR 46413 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-29] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...-$131.7M-15Jun10 FMS case ZUM-$32.1M-15Jun10 FMS case ULU-$150.3M-20Oct10 (vi) Sales Commission, Fee...

  4. Effects of a novel bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist and angiotensin II receptor blockade on experimental myocardial infarction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of the novel bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist BI-113823 following myocardial infarction (MI and to determine whether B1 receptor blockade alters the cardiovascular effects of an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 receptor antagonist after MI in rats.Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the left descending coronary artery. Cardiovascular function was determined at 7 days post MI. Treatment with either B1 receptor antagonist (BI-113823 or AT1 receptor antagonist (irbesartan alone or in combination improved post-MI cardiac function as evidenced by attenuation of elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP; greater first derivative of left ventricular pressure (± dp/dt max, left ventricle ejection fraction, fractional shorting, and better wall motion; as we as reductions in post-MI up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2 and collagen III. In addition, the cardiac up-regulation of B1 receptor and AT1 receptor mRNA were markedly reduced in animals treated with BI 113823, although bradykinin B2 receptor and angiotensin 1 converting enzyme (ACE1 mRNA expression were not significantly affected by B1 receptor blockade.The present study demonstrates that treatment with the novel B1 receptor antagonist, BI-113823 improves post-MI cardiac function and does not influence the cardiovascular effects of AT1 receptor antagonist following MI.

  5. NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts in MgB2 and AlB2: theory versus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavarini, E; Baek, S H; Suh, B J; Borsa, F; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C

    2003-01-01

    We have performed 11 B NMR measurements in 11 B enriched MgB 2 powder sample in the normal phase. The Knight shift was accurately determined by using the magic angle spinning technique. Results for 11 B and 27 Al Knight shifts (K) and relaxation rates (1/T 1 ) are also reported for AlB 2 . The data show a dramatic decrease of both K and 1/T 1 for 11 B in AlB 2 with respect to MgB 2 . We compare experimental results with ab initio calculated NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts. The experimental values for 1/T 1 and K are in most cases in good agreement with the theoretical results. We show that the decrease of K and 1/T 1 for 11 B is consistent with a drastic drop of the density of states at the boron site in AlB 2 with respect to MgB 2

  6. B2B or Not to Be: Does B2B E-Commerce Increase Labour Productivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Bertschek, Irene; Fryges, Helmut; Kaiser, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    We implement an endogeneous switching-regression model for labour productivity and firms' decision to use business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce. Our approach allows B2B usage to affect any parameter of the labour productivity equation and to properly take account of strategic complementarities between the input factors and B2B usage. Empirical evidence from 1,394 German firms shows that firms using B2B e-commerce have a significantly higher output elasticity with respect to ICT-investment and...

  7. Influence of TiB2 particles on machinability and machining parameter optimization of TiB2/Al MMCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong JIANG

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ formed TiB2 particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites (TiB2/Al MMCs have some extraordinary properties which make them be a promising material for high performance aero-engine blade. Due to the influence of TiB2 particles, the machinability is still a problem which restricts the application of TiB2/Al MMCs. In order to meet the industrial requirements, the influence of TiB2 particles on the machinability of TiB2/Al MMCs was investigated experimentally. Moreover, the optimal machining conditions for this kind of MMCs were investigated in this study. The major conclusions are: (1 the machining force of TiB2/Al MMCs is bigger than that of non-reinforced alloy and mainly controlled by feed rate; (2 the residual stress of TiB2/Al MMCs is compressive while that of non-reinforced alloy is nearly neutral; (3 the surface roughness of TiB2/Al MMCs is smaller than that of non-reinforced alloy under the same cutting speed, but reverse result was observed when the feed rate increased; (4 a multi-objective optimization model for surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR was established, and a set of optimal parameter combinations of the machining was obtained. The results show a great difference from SiC particle reinforced MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control of machining process of this material.

  8. Observation of the hadronic transitions χb1,2(2P)→ωΥ(1S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Park, C.S.; Park, W.; Thayer, J.B.; Thorndike, E.H.; Coan, T.E.; Gao, Y.S.; Liu, F.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Boulahouache, C.; Blusk, S.; Dambasuren, E.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Mountain, R.; Muramatsu, H.; Nandakumar, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The CLEO Collaboration has made the first observations of hadronic transitions among bottomonium (bb-bar) states other than the dipion transitions among Υ(nS) states. In our study of Υ(3S) decays, we find a significant signal for Υ(3S)→γωΥ(1S) that is consistent with radiative decays Υ(3S)→γχ b1,2 (2P), followed by χ b1,2 (2P)→ωΥ(1S). The branching ratios we obtain are B[χ b1 (2P)→ωΥ(1S)]=(1.63 -0.31-0.15 +0.35+0.16 )% and B[χ b2 (2P)→ωΥ(1S)]=(1.10 -0.28-0.10 +0.32+0.11 )%, in which the first error is statistical and the second is systematic.

  9. ORM-based semantics of B2B transactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H.; van Blommestein, F.; Meersman, R; Herrero, P; Dillon, T

    2009-01-01

    After widespread implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning and Personal Information Management, the next wave in the application of ICT is headed towards business to business (B2B) communication. B2B has a number of specific aspects, one of them being negotiation. This aspect has been largely

  10. 17 CFR 270.8b-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such document is filed with such exchange. (j) Share. The term “share” means a share of stock in a... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 270.8b-2 Section 270.8b-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND...

  11. Hexagonal OsB2: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Lugovy, Mykola; Orlovskaya, Nina; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob; Mueller, Martin; Gao, Huili; Radovic, Miladin; Cullen, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ReB 2 -type hexagonal OsB 2 powder has been densified by spark plasma sintering. • The sintered OsB 2 contains ∼80 wt.% hexagonal and ∼20 wt.% orthorhombic phases. • The average grain size of the sintered OsB 2 sample was 0.56 ± 0.26 μm. • H = 31 ± 9 GPa and E = 574 ± 112 GPa measured by nanoindentation. - Abstract: The metastable high pressure ReB 2 -type hexagonal OsB 2 bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB 2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (∼80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (∼20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulus of 574 ± 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; however, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB 2 bulk ceramics

  12. Multiband model for tunneling in MgB2 junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Rogalla, Horst; Dolgov, O.V.; Kortus, J.; Kong, Y.; Jepsen, O.; Andersen, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical model for quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling in multiband superconductors is developed and applied to MgB2-based junctions. The gap functions in different bands in MgB2 are obtained from an extended Eliashberg formalism, using the results of band structure calculations. The

  13. Characterization of a symbol rate timing recovery technique for a 2B1Q digital receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulnasr, T.; Hage, M.; Sayar, B.; Aly, S.

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents a study of several implementations of the Mueller and Muller symbol rate timing recovery algorithm for ISDN transmission over digital subscriber loops (DSL). Implementations of this algorithm using various estimates of a specified timing function are investigated. It will be shown that despite the fact that all of the estimates considered are derived based on one set of conditions, their performance varies widely in a real system. The intrinsic properties of these estimates are first analyzed, then their performance on real subscriber loops is studied through extensive simulations of a practical digital receiver. The effect of various system parameters such as channel distortion and additive noise are included. Possible sources of convergence problems are also identified and corrective action proposed.

  14. Effect of an esterified glucomannan on laying hens exposed to combined mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and fumonisin B1)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zaghini; A. Altafini; M. Simioli; L. Rizzi

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxin toxicity depends on species, exposure time, age, sex, health and possible synergistic effects of other mycotoxins present in feed. In poultry, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are associated with poor growth performance, lowered feed utilization efficiency, liver damage and immunosuppression; metabolites may persist in tissues and eggs. Exposure of mature hens to zearalenone (ZEN) apparently does not cause adverse effects, but ZEN residues and α and β zearalenol...

  15. B2B myynnin johtaminen ravintola-alalla

    OpenAIRE

    Pajari, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten ravintola-alan yrityksissä johdetaan B2B myyntiä. Tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa, miten yrityksissä panostetaan B2B myyntiin ja sen johtamiseen sekä millä tavoin yritysmyyntiä johdetaan. Tutkimus pohjautuu opinnäytetyön tietoperustaan, jossa käsitellään B2B myyntiprosessia ja myynnin johtamista. Työssä käsitellään B2B myyntiä ja selvitetään myyntiprosessin eri vaiheita. Aihe on rajattu koskemaan nimenomaan johtamisen näkökulmaa B2B myynni...

  16. Fluorescent sensor systems based on nanostructured polymeric membranes for selective recognition of Aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyeva, Tetyana; Yarynka, Daria; Piletska, Elena; Lynnik, Rostyslav; Zaporozhets, Olga; Brovko, Oleksandr; Piletsky, Sergey; El'skaya, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes for selective recognition of aflatoxin B1 were synthesized in situ and used as highly sensitive recognition elements in the developed fluorescent sensor. Artificial binding sites capable of selective recognition of aflatoxin B1 were formed in the structure of the polymeric membranes using the method of molecular imprinting. A composition of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membranes was optimized using the method of computational modeling. The MIP membranes were synthesized using the non-toxic close structural analogue of aflatoxin B1, ethyl-2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate as a dummy template. The MIP membranes with the optimized composition demonstrated extremely high selectivity towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Negligible binding of close structural analogues of AFB1 - aflatoxins B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), and ochratoxin A (OTA) was demonstrated. Binding of AFB1 by the MIP membranes was investigated as a function of both type and concentration of the functional monomer in the initial monomer composition used for the membranes' synthesis, as well as sample composition. The conditions of the solid-phase extraction of the mycotoxin using the MIP membrane as a stationary phase (pH, ionic strength, buffer concentration, volume of the solution, ratio between water and organic solvent, filtration rate) were optimized. The fluorescent sensor system based on the optimized MIP membranes provided a possibility of AFB1 detection within the range 14-500ngmL -1 demonstrating detection limit (3Ϭ) of 14ngmL -1 . The developed technique was successfully applied for the analysis of model solutions and waste waters from bread-making plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glaucoma and Cytochrome P4501B1 Gene Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Tanwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental anomalies of the ocular anterior chamber angle may lead to an incomplete development of the structures that form the conventional aqueous outflow pathway. Thus, disorders that present with such dysfunction tend to be associated with glaucoma. Among them, Axenfeld-Rieger (ARS malformation is a rare clinical entity with an estimated prevalence of one in every 200,000 individuals. The changes in eye morphogenesis in ARS are highly penetrant and are associated with 50% risk of development of glaucoma. Mutations in the cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1 gene have been reported to be associated with primary congenital glaucoma and other forms of glaucoma and mutations in pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2 gene have been identified in ARS in various studies. This case was negative for PITX2 mutations and compound heterozygote for CYP1B1 mutations. Clinical manifestations of this patient include bilateral elevated intraocular pressure (>40 mmHg with increased corneal diameter (>14 mm and corneal opacity. Patient also had iridocorneal adhesions, anteriorly displaced Schwalbe line, anterior insertion of iris, broad nasal bridge and protruding umbilicus. This is the first study from north India reporting CYP1B1 mutations in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome with bilateral buphthalmos and early onset glaucoma. Result of this study supports the role of CYP1B1 as a causative gene in ASD disorders and its role in oculogenesis.

  18. B1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerten, S G J; Tijssen, K C H; van Bentum, P J M; Kentgens, A P M

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed-field gradients are common in modern liquid state NMR pulse sequences. They are often used instead of phase cycles for the selection of coherence pathways, thereby decreasing the time required for the NMR experiment. Soft off-resonance pulses with a B 1 gradient result in a spatial encoding similar to that created by pulsed-field (B 0 ) gradients. In this manuscript we show that pulse sequences with pulsed-field gradients can easily be converted to one which uses off-resonance B 1 field gradient (OFFBEAT) pulses. The advantage of B 1 gradient pulses for coherence selection is that the chemical shift evolution during the pulses is (partially) suppressed. Therefore no refocusing echos are required to correct for evolution during the gradient pulses. A tapered stripline is shown to be a convenient tool for creating a well-defined gradient in the B 1 field strength. B 1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline is a simple and cheap alternative to B 0 pulsed-field gradients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic and Moessbauer studies on GdCo3B2 and DyCo3B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.K.; Umarji, A.M.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1984-10-01

    Magnetization and Moessbauer studies have been carried out on GdCo 3 B 2 and DyCo 3 B 2 . These compounds are magnetically ordered with Curie temperatures of 56 0 and 21 0 K respectively. The Co atoms are either nonmagnetic or carry a small moment in these compounds. The saturation moment of DyCo 3 B 2 at 5 0 K is smaller than the Dy 3+ free-ion value. From 161 Dy Moessbauer studies, the measured hyperfine magnetic field at the Dy site is also observed to be smaller than the free-ion value. 155 Gd Moessbauer measurements in GdCo 3 B 2 reveal the presence of large crystalline electric fields at the rare earth site. This causes the moment and the hyperfine field at the Dy site in DyCo 3 B 2 to be reduced from its free-ion value

  20. Defect structure of ultrafine MgB2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateni, Ali; Somer, Mehmet; Repp, Sergej; Erdem, Emre; Thomann, Ralf; Acar, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    Defect structure of MgB 2 bulk and ultrafine particles, synthesized by solid state reaction route, have been investigated mainly by the aid of X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. Two different amorphous Boron (B) precursors were used for the synthesis of MgB 2 , namely, boron 95 (purity 95%–97%, <1.5 μm) and nanoboron (purity >98.5%, <250 nm), which revealed bulk and nanosized MgB 2 , respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrate uniform and ultrafine morphology for nanosized MgB 2 in comparison with bulk MgB 2 . Powder X-ray diffraction data show that the concentration of the by-product MgO is significantly reduced when nanoboron is employed as precursor. It is observed that a significant average particle size reduction for MgB 2 can be achieved only by using B particles of micron or nano size. The origin and the role of defect centers were also investigated and the results proved that at nanoscale MgB 2 material contains Mg vacancies. Such vacancies influence the connectivity and the conductivity properties which are crucial for the superconductivity applications

  1. Labelling aflatoxine-B1 by radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.S.; Park, K.B.; Sung, H.K.; Ryu, Y.W.

    1977-01-01

    Labelling aflatoxines, the potential carcinogenic compounds, by radioactive iodine has been studied. The auflatoxine-B 1 , which is known to be the most abundant components of auflatoxines in the nature, was labelled by radioactive iodine-125 through an acid catalyst chloroamine-T procedure. The radiochemical yield was amounted to 63.6%. The chemical structure of the labelled product was proved to be 6-iodo 5-methoxy coumarine structure of auflatoxine-B 1 molecule by means of I.R. and N.M.R. spectroscopy. The labelled product was orally administered in a test animal (rat) and examined the accumulation of radioactivity in the body at the definite time interval. The accumulation of the radioactivity was pronounced at the blood and the liver. There was no indication of the decomposition of auflatoxine-B 1 - 125 I in the organs of the test animal. (author)

  2. Seasonal behaviour of B0 and B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosert Gonzalez, M. de; Radicella, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the thickness parameter B0 and the shape parameter B1 is presented. Noon electron density profiles recorded at five ionospheric stations during different seasonal and solar activity conditions are used in the study. The results show that both parameters present a seasonal trend with minimum value for B0 during the local winter and maximum during the local summer. This behaviour is inverted for B1. Discrepancies with IRI-90 model are found. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Variability in equatorial B0 and B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, J.O.; Radicella, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Variability of ionospheric profile parameters B0 and B1, below the F2 peak is investigated for an equatorial station at two levels of solar activities. The whole 24 hours of the day and the four seasons of the year are covered. Absolute and relative variability indices were utilized in the study. Some evidences of correlations of variability index and profiles parameters were observed. Daytime values of relative variability in B1 at solar minimum were found to be greater than those of solar maximum. (author)

  4. RIA determination of aflatoxin B1 in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludovsky, R.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility was tested of the application of a commercial RIA kit in determining aflatoxin B 1 in foodstuffs. Stability, sensitivity, specificity and the effect of interfering materials were studied. Alternative methods were tested of sample preparation and a technique was proposed usable for food analysis. The kit was found to be mainly suitable for screening and for the determination of aflatoxin B 1 in concentrations exceedings 1 μg/kg. Lipids were found to cause a systematic positive error and should thus be removed by extraction prior to analysis. (author). 10 tabs., 15 refs

  5. Digitaalisen markkinoinnin suunnitelma b2b-yritykselle

    OpenAIRE

    Harhakoski, Oskari

    2011-01-01

    Työ käsittelee digitaalisen markkinoinnin suunnitelman tekemistä b2b-yritykselle. Tavoitteena oli kilpailuedun hankkiminen sosiaalisen median tehokkaalla hyödyntämisellä mark-kinoinnissa. Konkreettisemmin yritys halusi lisää näkyvyyttä ja myyntiä. Suunnitelman laatimisessa hyödynnettiin POST-menetelmää. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitettiin b2b-markkinoinnin eroihin b2c-markkinointiin verrattuna. Myös yrityksen toimiminen Suomen markkinoilla huomioitiin. Lisäksi analysoitiin kilpailijoita asia...

  6. Pulse laser irradiation into superconducting MgB2 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Daisuke; Miki, Shigehito; Satoh, Kazuo; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Shimakage, Hisashi; Wang, Zhen; Okayasu, Satoru; Katagiri, Masaki; Machida, Masahiko; Kato, Masaru; Ishida, Takekazu

    2005-01-01

    We performed 20-ps pulse laser irradiation experiments on a MgB 2 neutron detector to know a thermal-relaxation process for designing a MgB 2 neutron detector. The membrane-type structured MgB 2 device was fabricated to minimize the heat capacity of sensing part of a detector as well as to enhance its sensitivity. We successfully observed a thermal-relaxation signal resulting from pulse laser irradiation by developing a detection circuit. The response time was faster than 1 μs, meaning that the detector would be capable of counting neutrons at a rate of more than 10 6 events per second

  7. Magnetic anisotropy of YNi2B2C single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, M.; Gladczuk, L.; Gorecka, J.; Szymczak, H.; Szymczak, R.; Drzazga, Z.; Winiarska, H.

    1994-01-01

    Reversible and irreversible magnetization processes in YNi 2 B 2 C single crystal have been measured and analysed in terms of existing theories. Performed measurements suggest that anisotropy of the effective mass in YNi 2 B 2 C superconductor is rather small and similar to that observed in conventional superconductors. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on T c is shown to be typical of low-temperature superconductors. It is suggested that the layered structure of YNi 2 B 2 C has some effect on the irreversible magnetization processes observed in this superconductor. ((orig.))

  8. Characterization of the promoter region of the human c-erbB-2 protooncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, S.; Imamoto, F.; Yamanashi, Y.; Toyoshima, K.; Yamamoto, T.

    1987-01-01

    Three overlapping genomic clones that contain the 5'-terminal portion of the human c-erbB-2 gene (ERBB2) were isolated. The promoter region was identified by nuclease S1 mapping with c-erbB-2 mRNA. Seven transcriptional start sites were identified. DNA sequence analysis showed that the promoter region contains a TATA box and a CAAT box about 30 and 80 base pairs (bp), respectively, upstream of the most downstream RNA initiation site. Two putative binding sites for transcription factor Sp1 were identified about 50 and 110 bp upstream of the CAAT box, and six GGA repeats were found between the CAAT box and the TATA box. This region had strong promoter activity when placed upstream of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and transfected into monkey CV-1 cells. These data indicate that the promoter of the human c-erbB-2 protooncogene is different from that of the protooncogene c-erbB-1 (epidermal growth factor receptor gene), which does not contain either a TATA box or a CAAT box. Comparison of the promoter sequences and activities of the two protooncogenes should be helpful in analysis of the regulatory mechanism of expression of their gene products, which are growth-factor receptors

  9. The role of TiB2 in strengthening TiB2 reinforced aluminium casting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z; Kang, H; Zhao, Y; Zheng, Y; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    With an aim of developing high quality in situ TiB 2 reinforced aluminium foundry alloy based composites, the conventional direct synthesis method was modified into a two-step route. In step one we optimized the halide salt route to fabricate in situ TiB 2 particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites and in step two we investigated the effects of the Al-5wt.% TiB 2 composite, as a “master composite”, on strengthening the practical foundry alloys. The in situ formed TiB 2 particles play two roles while strengthening the composites: (1) The grain refinement effect that improves the quality of the alloy matrix; and (2) The interactions between the hard particulates and the matrix add extra increment to the material strength. In different alloy systems, TiB 2 may play distinct roles in these two aspects (figure 1). Further analysis of the strengthening mechanisms shows that particle agglomeration behaviour during solidification is responsible for the latter one. The present work details the role of TiB 2 in strengthening TiB 2 reinforced aluminium casting composites. (paper)

  10. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.403(b)-2 Definitions. (a) Application... 1450(b) of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 (110 Stat. 1755, 1814) for special rules...

  11. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    This paper addresses the challenge of perceiving B2B sales negotiation in a manner that would open up new possibilities for the improvement of the practice. B2B sales agents work under high pressure in developing relevant and appealing proposals when negotiating for a deal with a customer. The key...... problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery...... on the ways in which design sense making artefacts may drive also B2B sales agents’ work....

  12. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamel, Magdi N

    2008-01-01

    A central vision of B2B e-commerce is that of an electronic marketplace that would bring suppliers together with major buyers of goods and services for the purpose of conducting "frictionless commerce...

  13. Rapid on-site sensing aflatoxin B1 in food and feed via a chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Zhang

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1. In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring.

  14. Rapid on-site sensing aflatoxin B1 in food and feed via a chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Tang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Du; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1). In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring.

  15. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to -225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2→2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276-426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  16. Combustion synthesis of AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Xiao, Guoqing; Ding, Donghai; Ren, Yun; Yang, Shoulei; Lv, Lihua; Hou, Xing

    2018-05-01

    Using of Al and B2O3 powders as starting materials, and Mg-Al alloy as additives, AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures were successfully fabricated via combustion synthesis method in Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. The effect of different amount of Mg-Al alloy on the phase compositions and morphology of the combustion products was investigated. The results revealed that AlB2 and Al2O3 increased, whereas Al decreased with the content of Mg-Al alloy increasing. The impurities MgAl2O4 and AlB12 would exist in the sample with adding of 18 wt% Mg-Al alloy. Interestingly, FESEM/TEM/EDS results showed that AlB2 nanowires were observed in the products when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 6 wt% and 12 wt%. The more AlB2 nanowires can be found as the content of Mg-Al alloy increased. And the yield of AlB2 nanowires with the diameter of about 200 nanometers (nm) and the length up to several tens of micrometers (μm) in the combustion product is highest when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 12 wt%. The vapor, such as Mg-Al (g), B2O2 (g), AlO (g) and Al2O (g), produced during the process of combustion synthesis, reacted with each other to yield AlB2 nanowires by vapor-solid (VS) mechanism and the corresponding model was also proposed.

  17. Osmotic stress upregulates the transcription of thiamine (vitamin B1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syamimi Mimi

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... damage tolerance when subjected to abiotic stress. (Machado et al. ... µg/µl of total RNA, 4 µl of 5× Reverse Transcriptase Buffer, 1 µl of 10 mM ..... facilitate vitamin B1 biofortification of plants by genetic engineering;. Front.

  18. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-1 - Straight line method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Straight line method. 1.167(b)-1 Section 1.167(b... Straight line method. (a) In general. Under the straight line method the cost or other basis of the... may be reduced to a percentage or fraction. The straight line method may be used in determining a...

  19. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... avoidance of U.S. income tax. A stapling of interests may have a principal purpose of tax avoidance even though the tax avoidance purpose is outweighed by other purposes when taken together. (3) Example. The....269B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX...

  20. 77 FR 68742 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... missile defense capability, strengthen its homeland defense, and deter regional threats. The proposed sale... Defense System continues to hold a significant technology lead over other surface-to-air missile systems... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-58] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales...

  1. 78 FR 48426 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... of Technology: 1. The AN/FPS-132 Block 5 supports Missile Defense, Space Situational Awareness, and... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-33] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  2. 77 FR 40028 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-18] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... proposed sale will require travel of U.S. Government or contractor representatives to Kuwait on a temporary...

  3. 78 FR 26332 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... type of mission. 2. The AN/ALE-47 Counter-Measures Dispensing System (CMDS) is an integrated, threat... multiple Optical Sensor Converter (OSC) units, a Computer Processor (CP) and a Control Indicator (CI). The...

  4. 77 FR 27202 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... airframe/outer mold line, Pratt and Whitney engine, radar, integrated core processor central computer... amounts and types of stores, fuel, and other supplies or equipment needed to quickly turn the aircraft for...

  5. 75 FR 41820 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-05, 10-11, 10-18, 10-21 and 10-29] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION...) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164, dated 21...

  6. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    product design, demand forecasting, asset management, and sales and marketing plans 35 Proctor & Gamble’s Private Industrial Network SOURCE: Laudon... B2B Models for DoD Acquisition 30 July 2007 by Magdi N. Kamel, Associate Professor Graduate School of Operational & Information Sciences...number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 JUL 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE B2B Models for DoD

  7. Creating Competitive Advantage by Rethinking B2B Software Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Adelstrand, Carl; Brostedt, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The choice of pricing model for software products is a complex procedure due to the different characteristics compared to physical products. This thesis investigates and compares software pricing models in a B2B setting, and describes how KAM plays a role in executing a pricing model. The research has been conducted as an opportunist case study on Adebro, a technology company in the B2B sector. The thesis have come to the following conclusions, with data from interviews and literature: Perpet...

  8. Scope of Internal Marketing in B2B Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, Niharika

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have focused on "internal marketing" from services marketing perspective. There is, therefore, a great dearth of in-depth research on its application to other business types. This research attempts to find the scope of internal marketing in B2B companies. The purpose of this research is to closely examine the elements, their linkage, tools and applications of Internal marketing when applied to B2B settings. Internal marketing, the application of marketing managem...

  9. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.

  10. WNT2B2 mRNA, up-regulated in primary gastric cancer, is a positive regulator of the WNT- beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M; Kirikoshi, H; Terasaki, H; Shiokawa, K

    2001-12-21

    Genetic alterations of WNT signaling molecules lead to carcinogenesis through activation of the beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway. We have previously cloned and characterized WNT2B/WNT13 gene on human chromosome 1p13, which is homologous to proto-oncogene WNT2 on human chromosome 7q31. WNT2B1 and WNT2B2 mRNAs, generated from the WNT2B gene due to alternative splicing of the alternative promoter type, encode almost identical polypeptides with divergence in the N-terminal region. WNT2B2 mRNA rather than WNT2B1 mRNA is preferentially expressed in NT2 cells with the potential of neuronal differentiation. Here, we describe our investigations of expression of WNT2B mRNAs in various types of human primary cancer. Matched tumor/normal expression array analysis revealed that WNT2B mRNAs were significantly up-regulated in 2 of 8 cases of primary gastric cancer. WNT2B2 mRNA rather than WNT2B1 mRNA was found to be preferentially up-regulated in a case of primary gastric cancer (signet ring cell carcinoma). Function of WNT2B1 mRNA and that of WNT2B2 mRNA were investigated by using Xenopus axis duplication assay. Injection of synthetic WNT2B1 mRNA into the ventral marginal zone of fertilized Xenopus eggs at the 4-cell stage did not induce axis duplication. In contrast, ventral injection of synthetic WNT2B2 mRNA induced axis duplication in 90% of embryos (complete axis duplication, 24%). These results strongly suggest that WNT2B2 up-regulation in some cases of gastric cancer might lead to carcinogenesis through activation of the beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway.

  11. A comparative study of ausforming of shape memory alloys with A2 and B2 structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornbogen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Ausforming implies plastic deformation of austenite (β) at temperatures T AF M d , at which no stress- or strain-induced transformation can occur. It introduces a variety of extrinsic lattice defects, which in turn modify the course of transformation, the structure of martensite, and increase the conventional strength of the alloys. The temperature range of ausforming has to be subdivided into three subranges, depending on whether the β-phase is (1), disordered; (2), ordered; or (3) capable of precipitation of a second phase or massive transformation. For the Cu-base alloys the ranges 1 and 3, and for Ni-Ti 2 and 3 may apply. This causes a different hot-deformation behavior of the two types of alloys: the formation of dislocation groupings (2-d, 3-d-nets, and Moires) in the brass-type alloys which undergo ordering during cooling from T AF. In addition a particular twinning mechanism and the formation of a rolling texture are found in ordered Ni-Ti. In Ni-Ti-alloys premartensitic R-phase formation can be caused by ausforming. Ausforming leads to lower temperatures but not to suppression of martensitic transformation cycles. Conventional strength is increased in both types of alloys. (orig.)

  12. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB 2 -type OsB 2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10 B and 11 B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11 B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB 2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os 2 B 3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11 B powder was used as a raw material, only Os 2 B 3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB 2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB 2 +3O 2 →2Os+2B 2 O 3 took place due to presence of O 2 /water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B 2 O 3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB 2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB 2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB 2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O 2 , the hexagonal OsB 2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling. - Graphical abstract: The in situ high temperature XRD

  13. Formation of polycrystalline MgB2 synthesized by powder in sealed tube method with different initial boron phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudanto, Sigit Dwi; Imaduddin, Agung; Kurniawan, Budhy; Manaf, Azwar

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium diboride, MgB2 is a new high critical temperature superconductor that discovered in the beginning of the 21st century. The MgB2 has a simple crystal structure and a high critical temperature, which can be manufactured in several forms like thin films, tapes, wires including bulk in the large scale. For that reason, the MgB2 has good prospects for various applications in the field of electronic devices. In the current work, we have explored the synthesis of MgB2 polycrystalline using powder in a sealed tube method. Different initial boron phase for the synthesized of MgB2 polycrystalline were used. These were, in addition to magnesium powders, crystalline boron, amorphous boron and combination both of them were respectively fitted in the synthesis. The raw materials were mixed in a stoichiometric ratio of Mg: B=1:2, ground using agate mortar, packed into stainless steel SS304. The pack was then sintered at temperature of 800°C for 2 hours in air atmosphere. Phase formation of MgB2 polycrystalline in difference of initial boron phase was characterized using XRD and SEM. Referring to the diffraction pattern and microstructure observation, MgB2 polycrystalline was formed, and the formation was effective when using the crystalline Mg and fully amorphous B as the raw materials. The critical temperature of the specimen was evaluated by the cryogenic magnet. The transition temperature of the MgB2 specimen synthesized using crystalline magnesium and full amorphous boron is 42.678 K (ΔTc = 0.877 K).

  14. Effects of graphite doping on critical current density and microstructure of MgB2 bulks by an improved Mg-diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, X.F.; Zhao, Y.; Feng, Y.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    abstract: A series of graphite-doped MgB 2 bulks with high density have been successfully prepared by an improved Mg-diffusion method in ambient pressure. The effects of graphite doping on lattice parameters, T c , J c and microstructure of MgB 2 have been investigated. The results show that compared to the nano-C-doped or CNTs-doped MgB 2 , C is not easy to substitute B in graphite-doped MgB 2 . However, at the same C content, the graphite-doped MgB 2 has a higher J c . At 10 K and self-field, the J c for MgB 1.985 C 0.015 reaches 0.58 MA/cm 2 . For the MgB 1.945 C 0.055 , at 5 K, 7 T and 10 K, 6 T the J c achieves 10,000 A/cm 2 which is two orders of magnitude higher than that for the undoped sample. In addition to improving electron scattering and intergranular connectivity, the unreacted graphite in the graphite-doped MgB 2 is proposed to be responsible to the excellent J c properties of MgB 2 in high fields, due to depressed grain growth and enhanced grain boundary flux pinning

  15. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Murray, Daw S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Atomistic Green-Kubo simulations are performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of the ultra high temperature ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 for a range of temperatures. Recently developed interatomic potentials are used for these simulations. Heat current correlation functions show rapid oscillations which can be identified with mixed metal-Boron optical phonon modes. Agreement with available experimental data is good.

  16. Pseudopotential approach to superconductivity in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.S.; Bhargava, Nidhi; Jain, Ritu; Goyal, Varsha; Sharma, Ritu; Sharma, Smita

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity in MgB 2 has been re-examined in BCS-Eliashberg framework by employing Mc-Millan's T c -equation and form factors of MgB 2 computed from the form factors of component metals (Model-I). The empty core model pseudopotential due to Ashcroft and random phase approximation form of dielectric screening due to Gellmann and Brueckner are used in the present work. An excellent agreement between the present values and other theoretically computed values of T c and with the relevant experimental data for MgB 2 confirms the validity of the present approach. The explicit dependence of λ and T c on the isotopic masses of Mg and B, as revealed from the present work, confirms the role of lattice vibrations in the superconducting behaviour of MgB 2 and the high value of T c in it may be attributed to the phonon mediated e-e interaction coupled with higher values of phonon frequencies due to light mass of B atoms. It has also been observed that the pseudo-atom model (Model-II) with appropriate choice of the potential parameter r c successfully explains high value of T c and isotope effect in MgB 2 , confirming the prominent role played by electron-phonon interaction in the high-T c superconductivity observed in MgB 2 . The isotope effect exponent α-values obtained from the two models are in complete agreement with each other and the present value α = 0.46 is also much closer to the BCS value of 0.5. Interaction strength N 0 V values obtained from the two models are also in perfect agreement with each other and the present value N 0 V = 0.48 suggests that MgB 2 is a strong coupling superconductor. (author)

  17. A systematic expression analysis implicates Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C in the regulation of the vascular and endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Matthias; Xia, Jingjing; Friedel, Roland H; Offermanns, Stefan; Worzfeld, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Plexins serve as receptors for semaphorins and play important roles in the developing nervous system. Plexin-B2 controls decisive developmental programs in the neural tube and cerebellum. However, whether Plexin-B2 also regulates biological functions in adult nonneuronal tissues is unknown. Here we show by two methodologically independent approaches that Plexin-B2 is expressed in discrete cell types of several nonneuronal tissues in the adult mouse. In the vasculature, Plexin-B2 is selectively expressed in functionally specialized endothelial cells. In endocrine organs, Plexin-B2 localizes to the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and to both cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland. Plexin-B2 expression is also detected in certain types of immune and epithelial cells. In addition, we report on a systematic comparison of the expression patterns of Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C, which show complementarity or overlap in some but not all tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 and its family member Plexin-B1 display largely nonredundant expression patterns. This work establishes Plexin-B2 and Sema4C as potential regulators of the vascular and endocrine system and provides an anatomical basis to understand the biological functions of this ligand-receptor pair. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dry cryomagnetic system with MgB2 coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abin, D. A.; Mineev, N. A.; Osipov, M. A.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2017-12-01

    MgB2 may be the future superconducting wire material for industrial magnets due to it’s higher operation temperature and potentially lower cost than low temperature superconductors (LTS) have. We designed a compact cryomagnetic system with the use of MgB2. The possibility of creating a magnet with a central field of 5 T from a commercial MgB2 wire by the “react and wound” method was investigated. The magnetic system is cooled by a cryocooler through a copper bus. The magnet has a warm bore diameter of 4 cm. The design of a magnet consisting of three concentric solenoids is proposed: an internal one of high-temperature superconductor (HTS), an average of MgB2, and an external of NbTi. The operating current of the system is 100 A. Two pairs of current leads are used. A separate pair of current leads for power supplying NbTi coil allows testing of MgB2 and HTS coils in an external field. The load curves for each of the magnets are calculated.

  19. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-1 - Other transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its successor in interest) that the shareholder is making the election described in § 1.367(b)-3(c)(3... paragraph (c)(2)— (i) A shareholder described in § 1.367(b)-3(b)(1) that realizes income in a transaction described in § 1.367(b)-3(a); (ii) A shareholder that makes the election described in § 1.367(b)-3(c)(3...

  20. CobB1 deacetylase activity in Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulík, Karel; Felsberg, Jürgen; Kudrnáčová, E.; Bezoušková, Silvia; Šetinová, Dita; Stodůlková, Eva; Zídková, J.; Zídek, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2012), s. 179-187 ISSN 0829-8211 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110805; GA ČR GA303/09/0475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : sirtuin * NAD(+)dependent deacetylation activity CobB1 * Streptomyces coeliocolor Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.915, year: 2012

  1. Biochemical characterization of the GM2 gangliosidosis B1 variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutor J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of the A isoenzyme of ß-hexosaminidase (Hex produced by different mutations of the gene that codes for the alpha subunit (Tay-Sachs disease has two variants with enzymological differences: the B variant consists of the absence of Hex A isoenzyme and the B1 variant produces an inactive Hex A isoenzyme for the hydrolysis of the GM2 ganglioside and synthetic substrates with negative charge. In contrast to the early childhood form of the B variant, the B1 variant appears at a later clinical stage (3 to 7 years of age with neurodegenerative symptoms leading to the death of the patient in the second decade of life. The most frequent mutation responsible for the GM2 gangliosidosis B1 variant is R178H, which has a widespread geographic and ethnic distribution. The highest incidence has been described in Portugal, which has been suggested as the point of origin of this mutation. Biochemical characterization of this lysosomal disease is carried out using negatively charged synthetic alpha subunit-specific sulfated substrates, since Hex A isoenzyme heat-inactivation assays are not applicable. However, the determination of the apparent activation energy of Hex using the neutral substrate 3,3'-dichlorophenolsulfonphthaleinyl N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminide, may offer a valid alternative. The presence of an alpha subunit in the alphaß heterodimer Hex A means that its activation energy (41.8 kJ/mol is significantly lower than that of the ßß homodimer Hex B (75.1 kJ/mol; however, as mutation inactivates the alpha subunit, the Hex A of the B1 variant presents an activation energy that is similar to that of the Hex B isoenzyme.

  2. Inhibition of ErbB2 by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors causes myofibrillar structural damage without cell death in adult rat cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentassuglia, Laura; Graf, Michael; Lane, Heidi; Kuramochi, Yukio; Cote, Gregory; Timolati, Francesco; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Zuppinger, Christian; Suter, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibition of ErbB2 (HER2) with monoclonal antibodies, an effective therapy in some forms of breast cancer, is associated with cardiotoxicity, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Recent data suggest, that dual inhibition of ErbB1 (EGFR) and ErbB2 signaling is more efficient in cancer therapy, however, cardiac safety of this therapeutic approach is unknown. We therefore tested an ErbB1-(CGP059326) and an ErbB1/ErbB2-(PKI166) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in an in-vitro system of adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and assessed their effects on 1. cell viability, 2. myofibrillar structure, 3. contractile function, and 4. MAPK- and Akt-signaling alone or in combination with Doxorubicin. Neither CGP nor PKI induced cardiomyocyte necrosis or apoptosis. PKI but not CGP caused myofibrillar structural damage that was additive to that induced by Doxorubicin at clinically relevant doses. These changes were associated with an inhibition of excitation-contraction coupling. PKI but not CGP decreased p-Erk1/2, suggesting a role for this MAP-kinase signaling pathway in the maintenance of myofibrils. These data indicate that the ErbB2 signaling pathway is critical for the maintenance of myofibrillar structure and function. Clinical studies using ErbB2-targeted inhibitors for the treatment of cancer should be designed to include careful monitoring for cardiac dysfunction.

  3. Wind tunel tests of Risoe-B1-18 and Risoe-B1-24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglsang, P.; Bak, C.; Gaunaa, M.; Antoniou, I.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains 2D measurements of the Risoe-B1-18 and Risoe-B1-24 airfoils. The aerodynamic properties were derived from pressure measurements on the airfoil surface and in the wake. The measurements were conducted in the VELUX open jet wind tunnel, which has a background turbulence intensity of 1%, and an inlet flow velocity of 42 m/s. The airfoil sections had a chord of 0.600 m giving a Reynolds number of 1.6Oe106. The span was 1.9 m and end plates were used to minimize 3D flow effects. The measurements comprised both static and dynamic inflow. Static inflow covered angles of attack from 5o to 30 deg. Dynamic inflow was obtained by pitching the airfoil in a harmonic motion around various mean angles of attack. The test matrix involved smooth flow, various kinds of leading edge roughness, stall strips, vortex generators and Gurney flaps in different combinations. The quality of the measurements was good and the agreement between measurements and numerical CFD predictions with EllipSys2D was good. For both airfoils predictions with turbulent flow captured very well the shapes of lift and drag curves as well as the magnitude of maximum lift. Measurements of Risoe-B1-18 showed that the maximum lift coefficient was 1.64 at an angle of attack of approximately 13 deg. The airfoil was not very sensitive to leading edge roughness despite its high maximum lift. Measurements with stall strips showed that stall strips could control the level of maximum lift. The Risoe-B1-24 measurements showed that the maximum lift coefficient was 1.62 at an angle of attack of approximately 14 deg. The airfoil was only little sensitive to leading edge roughness despite its high relative thickness and high maximum lift. Measurements with delta wing shaped vortex generators increased the maximum lift coefficient to 2.02 and measurements with Gurney flaps increased the maximum lift coefficient to 1.85. Measurements with combination of vortex generators and Gurney flaps showed a maximum

  4. Studies on the intestinal absorption of vitamin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Moriwaki, Chiaki

    1978-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of vitamin B 2 was studied by in situ mesenteric perfusion system. Free form riboflavin (FR), FMN and FAD (1 mg each) were injected into the ligated jejunum of rat which was infused Krebs Ringer bicarbonate solution from the superior mesenteric artery. Perfusate was recovered from the mesenteric vein and the recoveries of the total riboflavin during 120 min after the administration of these 3 types vitamin B 2 were 1.0, 1.5 and 2.8%, respectively. Furthermore, riboflavin and its esters were detected in the perfusates from 14 C-FR and 14 C-FAD given rats. There was a considerable amount of labeled substance which was not vitamin B 2 derivatives in the radiopaperchromatogram of the perfusate of 14 C-FR dosed rats, and it is suggested that a portion of riboflavin is decomposed in the process of absorption. (auth.)

  5. B2B-myynnin nykytila ja haasteet Suomessa

    OpenAIRE

    Ylimaula, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tutki B2B-myynnin nykytilaa valituissa suomalaisissa yrityksissä. Tutkimuksen tavoite oli selvittää myyntijohdon mielestä B2B-myynnissä tärkeitä asioita ja hahmottaa tapaa, jolla organisaatio toimii yhteistyössä myynnissä. Näin teemojen pohjalta opinnäytetyö pyrki muodostamaan ajankuvan suomalaisesta B2B-myynnistä. Opinnäytetyö muodostuu teoriaosasta ja empiirisestä osasta. Teoreettinen osuus tutkii myyntiä sekä myyjän että ostajan näkökulmasta. Myös asiakassuhteita ja m...

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of TiB2 on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierson, H.O.; Randich, E.; Mattox, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    This study is an experimental investigation of the coating of graphite with TiB 2 by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using the hydrogen reduction of BCl 3 and TiCl 4 at 925 0 C and 1 atm. Reasonable matching of the thermal expansion of TiB 2 and graphite was necessary to eliminate cracking. A suitable graphite was POCO DFP-1. Adhesion was improved by having a slightly rough graphite surface. Heat treatment at 2000 0 C and above resulted in a certain degree of diffusion. No melting or solid phases other than TiB 2 and graphite were detected up to 2400 0 C. The coatings showed no failure when repeatedly submitted to an electron beam pulse of 2 KW/cm 2 for 0.8 sec

  7. ORM-Based Semantics of B2B Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, H.; van Blommestein, F.

    After widespread implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning and Personal Information Management, the next wave in the application of ICT is headed towards business to business (B2B) communication. B2B has a number of specific aspects, one of them being negotiation. This aspect has been largely neglected by present implementations of standard EDI- or XML-messaging and by B2B webservice implementations. In this paper a precise model is given of the negotiation process. The requirements of a potential Buyer and the offer of a potential Seller are matched and, if the negotiation is successful, a contract is concluded. The negotiation process model is represented in ORM, extended with dynamic constraints. Our model may be implemented in the databases of the trading partners and in message- or service definitions.

  8. Densification and properties of HfB2 based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonber, J.K.; Ch Murthy, T.S.R.; Bedse, R.D.; Subramanian, C.; Kumar, Sunil; Fotedar, R.K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on densification and properties of HfB 2 based materials. Densification study of HfB 2 with and without sinter additive was carried out by hot pressing. TiSi 2 and CrSi 2 were used as sinter additive. Monolithic HfB 2 was densified to only 80%ρ th at 1850 deg C with a pressure of 35 MPa. Addition of 10 wt% TiSi 2 resulted in a density of 95% TD at a relatively low temperature of 1650 deg C and a low pressure of 20 MPa. Addition of 10% CrSi 2 resulted in a density of 99% TD at the same operating conditions. All the samples were characterized by SEM/EDS and mechanical property measurement. (author)

  9. Electromagnetic densification of MgB2/Cu wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woźniak, M; Glowacki, B A

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic compaction of in situ MgB 2 /Cu wire has been achieved using a custom-built 200 J device. The monofilament core packing density was increased by 8% and up to 31% for unreacted and reacted wires respectively. The higher density of the MgB 2 core resulted in a critical current density increase of up to 75% in comparison to that for cold-drawn-only wire. Applying this treatment to a wire with Cu powder additions to the core and with an optimized heat treatment resulted in one of the highest ever reported values of J c for MgB 2 /Cu wires of 6.83 × 10 3  A cm −2 at 4.2 K and 6 T. (paper)

  10. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin content in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Škrovánková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B2 (riboflavin is a water-soluble essential vitamin. Nowadays an increased risk for riboflavin deficiency may be seen in people on special diets (diabetes mellitus, smokers or heavy alcohol drinkers. In the Czech diet the main sources of the vitamin intake are milk and dairy products followed by cereals and meat. Cereals are good source of this vitamin as it is widely and regularly consumed in different forms. Analyses of the vitamin B2 content in different types of cereal products (flours, breads, pastries, breakfast cereals, cooked pasta of Czech origin using HPLC with reversed phase and UV detection were done. The vitamin B2 content of chosen cereal products decreased in this progression: enriched wholemeal breakfast cereals (the best source of the vitamin, enriched wheat flours, breads – rye and wholemeal wheat breads, whole wheat and spelt flours, wheat bread, cooked whole wheat and rye spaghetti, wheat and multigrain pastries and finally scoured wheat flours.

  11. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  12. Construction of the irreducibles of B(2, 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melas, Evangelos

    2006-01-01

    The ordinary Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group B is the common asymptotic symmetry group of all radiating, asymptotically flat, Lorentzian spacetimes. As such, B is the best candidate for the universal symmetry group of general relativity. However, in studying quantum gravity, spacetimes with signatures other than the usual Lorentzian one and complex spacetimes are frequently considered. Generalizations of B appropriate to these other signatures have been defined earlier. In particular, the generalization B(2, 2) appropriate to the ultrahyperbolic signature (+, +, -, -) has been described in detail, and the study of its irreducible unitary representations (IRs) of B(2, 2) has been initiated. The infinite little groups have been given explicitly, but the finite little groups have only been partially described. This study is completed by describing in detail the finite little groups and by giving all the necessary information in order to construct the IRs of B(2, 2) in all cases

  13. Isolation and structure of a cDNA encoding the B1 (CD20) cell-surface antigen of human B lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tender, T.F.; Streuli, M.; Schlossman, S.F.; Saito, H.

    1988-01-01

    The B1 (CD20) molecule is a M/sub r/ 33,000 phosphoprotein on the surface of human B lymphocytes that may serve a central role in the homoral immune response by regulating B-cell proliferation and differentiation. In this report, a cDNA clone that encodes the B1 molecule was isolated and the amino acid sequence of B1 was determined. B-cell-specific cDNA clones were selected from a human tonsillar cDNA library by differential hybridization with labeled cDNA derived from either size-fractionated B-cell mRNA or size-fractionated T-cell mRNA. Of the 261 cDNA clones isolated, 3 cross-hybridizing cDNA clones were chosen as potential candidates for encoding B1 based on their selective hybridization to RNA from B1-positive cell lines. The longest clone, pB1-21, contained a 2.8-kilobase insert with an 891-base-pair open reading frame that encodes a protein of 33 kDa. mRNA synthesized from the pB1-21 cDNA clone in vitro was translated into a protein of the same apparent molecular weight as B1. Limited proteinase digestion of the pB1-21 translation product and B1 generated peptides of the same sizes, indicating that the pB1-21 cDNA encodes the B1 molecule. Gel blot analysis indicated that pB1-21 hybridized with two mRNA species of 2.8 and 3.4 kilobases only in B1-positive cell lines. The amino acid sequence deduced from the pB1-21 nucleotide sequence apparently lacks a signal sequence and contains three extensive hydrophobic regions. The deduced B1 amino acid sequence shows no significant homology with other known patients

  14. B2B-myyntiprosessi : case: Yritys X

    OpenAIRE

    Lamppu, Samuli

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on B2B-myyntiprosessi yrityksessä x. Työn tavoitteena on kartoittaa yrityksen B2B-myyntiprosessin nykytila, tunnistaa mahdolliset ongelma-alueet ja tehdä tämän perusteella ehdotukset toimenpiteistä prosessin parantamiseksi. Työ tehdään suomalaisen PK-yrityksen toimeksiannosta. Opinnäytetyön taustalla on oma urani yrityksen yritysmyynnissä, ja työni kautta tunnistamani haasteet sekä mahdollisuudet, joita hyödyntämällä yritys voisi kehittää myyntitoimintaansa. Yritykse...

  15. Cosima B2B - Sales Automation for E-Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kießling, Werner (Prof. Dr.); Fischer, Stefan; Döring, Sven

    2006-01-01

    E-procurement is one of the fastest growing application areas for e-commerce. Though B2B transaction costs could be reduced recently by establishing XML based standards for electronic product catalogs and data interchange, B2B sales costs are still high due to the amount of human interaction. For the first time we present a fully automated electronic sales agent for e-procurement portals. The key technologies for this breakthrough are based on preferences modeled as strict partial orders, ena...

  16. How has IT impacted the B2B sales process?

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnstad, Julia Jemli

    2017-01-01

    B2B sales role plays a major role in driving the economy, and this industry has been experiencing major changes over the year with the advances in technology which allow for more cost savings and driving for more efficient ways of conducting sales operations. The objective of this exploratory qualitative research paper was to raise interest in the role technology plays in the B2B sales process today from the salesperson’s view point. It was further partly built on previous rese...

  17. B2B Integration in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Legner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The competitiveness of businesses is increasingly dependent on their electronic networks with customers, suppliers, and partners. While the strategic and operational impact of external integration and IOS adoption has been extensively studied, much less attention has been paid to the organizational...... and technical design of electronic relationships. The objective of our longitudinal research project is the development of a framework for understanding and explaining B2B integration. Drawing on existing literature and empirical cases we present a reference model (a classification scheme for B2B Integration...

  18. Effect of an esterified glucomannan on laying hens exposed to combined mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaghini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin toxicity depends on species, exposure time, age, sex, health and possible synergistic effects of other mycotoxins present in feed. In poultry, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are associated with poor growth performance, lowered feed utilization efficiency, liver damage and immunosuppression; metabolites may persist in tissues and eggs. Exposure of mature hens to zearalenone (ZEN apparently does not cause adverse effects, but ZEN residues and α and β zearalenol persist in liver and muscle (Kuiper-Goodman et al., 1987 and may be transmitted to egg yolk (Dailey et al., 1990. Various treatments and dietary strategies have been tried to reduce mycotoxin levels in contaminated commodities...

  19. Manipulation of EphB2 regulatory motifs and SH2 binding sites switches MAPK signaling and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiefei; Elowe, Sabine; Nash, Piers; Pawson, Tony

    2003-02-21

    Signaling by the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is complex, because they can interact with a variety of intracellular targets, and can potentially induce distinct responses in different cell types. In NG108 neuronal cells, activated EphB2 recruits p120RasGAP, in a fashion that is associated with down-regulation of the Ras-Erk mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathway and neurite retraction. To pursue the role of the Ras-MAPK pathway in EphB2-mediated growth cone collapse, and to explore the biochemical and biological functions of Eph receptors, we sought to re-engineer the signaling properties of EphB2 by manipulating its regulatory motifs and SH2 binding sites. An EphB2 mutant that retained juxtamembrane (JM) RasGAP binding sites but incorporated a Grb2 binding motif at an alternate RasGAP binding site within the kinase domain had little effect on basal Erk MAPK activation. In contrast, elimination of all RasGAP binding sites, accompanied by the addition of a Grb2 binding site within the kinase domain, led to an increase in phospho-Erk levels in NG108 cells following ephrin-B1 stimulation. Functional assays indicated a correlation between neurite retraction and the ability of the EphB2 mutants to down-regulate Ras-Erk MAPK signaling. These data suggest that EphB2 can be designed to repress, stabilize, or activate the Ras-Erk MAPK pathway by the manipulation of RasGAP and Grb2 SH2 domain binding sites and support the notion that Erk MAPK regulation plays a significant role in axon guidance. The behavior of EphB2 variants with mutations in the JM region and kinase domains suggests an intricate pattern of regulation and target recognition by Eph receptors.

  20. Cellular localization of kinin B1 receptor in the spinal cord of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with a fluorescent [Nα-Bodipy]-des-Arg9-bradykinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudreau Pierrette

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinin B1 receptor (B1R is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxins and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. In animal models of diabetes, it contributes to pain polyneuropathy. This study aims at defining the cellular localization of B1R in thoracic spinal cord of type 1 diabetic rats by confocal microscopy with the use of a fluorescent agonist, [Nα-Bodipy]-des-Arg9-BK (BdABK and selective antibodies. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg, i.p.. Four days post-STZ treatment, B1R expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and autoradiography. The B1R selectivity of BdABK was determined by assessing its ability to displace B1R [125I]-HPP-desArg10-Hoe140 and B2R [125I]-HPP-Hoe 140 radioligands. The in vivo activity of BdABK was also evaluated on thermal hyperalgesia. Results B1R was increased by 18-fold (mRNA and 2.7-fold (binding sites in the thoracic spinal cord of STZ-treated rats when compared to control. BdABK failed to displace the B2R radioligand but displaced the B1R radioligand (IC50 = 5.3 nM. In comparison, IC50 values of B1R selective antagonist R-715 and B1R agonist des-Arg9-BK were 4.3 nM and 19 nM, respectively. Intraperitoneal BdABK and des-Arg9-BK elicited dose-dependent thermal hyperalgesia in STZ-treated rats but not in control rats. The B1R fluorescent agonist was co-localized with immunomarkers of microglia, astrocytes and sensory C fibers in the spinal cord of STZ-treated rats. Conclusion The induction and up-regulation of B1R in glial and sensory cells of the spinal cord in STZ-diabetic rats reinforce the idea that kinin B1R is an important target for drug development in pain processes.

  1. Compare the Difference of B-cell Epitopes of EgAgB1 and EgAgB3 Proteins Selected through Bioinformatic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Mengting; Zhang, Fengbo; Zhu, Yuejie; Zhao, Xiao; Ding, Jianbing

    2018-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, as a zoonosis, seriously endangers humans and animals, so early diagnosis of this disease is particularly important. Therefore, this study is to predict B-cell epitopes of EgAgB1 and EgAgB3 proteins by bioinformatics software. B-cell epitopes of EgAgB1 and EgAgB3 proteins are predicted using DNAStar and IEDB software. The results suggest that there are two potential B-cell epitopes in EgAgB1, which located in the 8-15 and 31-37 amino acid residue segments. And two potential B-cell epitopes in EgAgB2, located in the 20∼27 and 47∼53 amino acid residue segments. This study predicted the B-cell epitopes of EgAgB1 and EgAgB3 proteins, which laid the foundation for the early diagnosis of Cystic echinococcosis.

  2. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.         JEL Codes: D23, L86Keywords: Cost, Transaction Costs, Transactions

  3. Investigation of TaC–TaB2 ceramic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ture and the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results .... 300 nm. Jingangzuan in the TaC/TaB2 composites SPS for 10 min at different temperatures are .... [1] Liu L, Yea F, Hea X and Zhoua Y 2011 Mater. Chem.

  4. Canonical realizations of B2 approximately C2 Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosifescu, M.; Scutaru, H.

    1982-12-01

    Canonical realizations associated to subrepresentations of ad x ad, for B 2 apppoximately C 2 semisimple Lie algebras, have been determined. An algebraic foundation has been obtained for the constraints satisfied by the dinamical variables of the classical limit of the generalized Helium problem. (authors)

  5. Selenidation of epitaxial silicene on ZrB2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, F. B.; Yamada-Takamura, Y.; Kovalgin, A. Y.; de Jong, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The deposition of elemental Se on epitaxial silicene on ZrB2 thin films was investigated with synchrotron-based core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. The deposition of Se at room temperature caused the appearance of Si 2p peaks with chemical shifts of n × 0.51 ±

  6. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat, Morocco ... Abstract. The self-consistent ab-initio calculations, based on density functional theory approach and using the full ... The exchange interactions between the magnetic atoms Mn–Mn in MnB2 are ... involved, and on the local environment of the transition-.

  7. Microwave absorption studies of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    band (9–. 10 GHz) spectrometer. Both polycrystalline pellet and single-grain MgB2, having nearly the same Tc (∼ 39 K) and same size (3×2×1 mm3), were used in the present investigations. Low field modulated microwave absorption signals ...

  8. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound, MgB2, using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange–correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  9. Intelligent Information Integration in B2B Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fensel, Dieter; Omelayenko, Borys; Ding, Ying; Klein, Michel; Flett, Alan; Schulten, Ellen; Botquin, Guy; Brown, Mike; Dabiri, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    Internet and web technology penetrates many aspects of our daily life. Its importance as a medium for business transactions will grow exponentially during the next few years. In terms of the involved market volume, the B2B area will hereby be the most interesting area. Also, it will be the place,

  10. Superconducting state in (W, Ta)5SiB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, M.; Kawashima, K.; Akimitsu, J.

    We characterize the superconducting state in a boro-silicide (W, Ta)5SiB2, with Tc of 6.5 K by means of magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements. As x increased, the transition temperature Tc abruptly enhances from 5.8 to 6.5 K. The magnetization versus magnetic field (M-H) curve indicated that (W, Ta)5SiB2 was a conventional type-II superconductor. The estimated lower critical field Hc1(0) and upper critical field Hc2(T) are about 121 Oe and 14.7 kOe, respectively. The penetration depth λ(0) and coherence length ξ(0) are calculated to be approximately 369 and 14.9 nm, respectively, using Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations. Specific heat data shows the superconductivity in W4.5Ta0.5SiB2 belongs to a week-coupling BCS superconductor. Finally, we discuss the increasing of Tc in of (W, Ta)5SiB2 system.

  11. Preparation and characterization of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. The MgB2 superconductor, synthesized using solid-state and liquid-phase sintering methods, have been characterized for various properties. The upper critical field, irreversibility line and critical current density have been ...

  12. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The

  13. Development of New B2B Venture Corporate Brand Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törmälä, Minna; Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.

    2017-01-01

    of interviews and archival data generated during a three-year period to examine the development of corporate brand over time. This study shows that the development of corporate brand identity and the context of the development of new B2B venture are closely intertwined processes and provides a framework...

  14. Microwave absorption studies of MgB 2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signals recorded for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10m) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The field dependent direct microwave ...

  15. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Brooks, M. S. S.

    1989-01-01

    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from...

  16. Insulator layer formation in MgB2 SIS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakage, H.; Tsujimoto, K.; Wang, Z.; Tonouchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of current-voltage characteristics on thin film deposition conditions was investigated using MgB 2 /AlN/NbN SIS junctions. By increasing the substrate temperature in AlN insulator deposition, the current density decreased and the normal resistance increased. The results indicated that an additional insulator layer between the MgB 2 and AlN formed, either before or during the AlN deposition. The thickness of the additional insulator layer was increased with an increase in the AlN deposition temperature. From the dependence of current density on the thickness of AlN in low temperature depositions, the thickness of the additional insulator layer was estimated to be 1-1.5 nm when the AlN insulator was deposited from 0.14 to 0.7 nm. Moreover, with the current density of MgB 2 /AlN/MgB 2 SIS junctions, further insulator layer formation was confirmed

  17. 29 CFR 2520.104b-2 - Summary plan description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... welfare plan), required by section 104(b)(1) of the Act, the administrator of an employee benefit plan... to participants and beneficiaries have been completed; and (ii) In the case of an employee welfare... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. E-Business Models in B2B: Process Based Categorization and Analysis of B2B Models

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh S. Raisinghani; Turan Melemez; Lijie Zou; Chris Paslowski; Irma Kimvidze; Susanne Taha; Klaus Simons

    2005-01-01

    The business models in business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce and their effectiveness have been a major topic of research in recent years. Due to the variety of existing models, it seems difficult to find a widely accepted categorization that can be analyzed and assessed. An in-depth study that provides a process-based approach to B2B e-commerce is presented and illustrated with examples from industry. A comparative examination of both the buy and the sell side based on a process-related appro...

  19. Directional crystallization of B4C-NbB2 and B4C-MoB2 eutectic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paderno, Varvara; Paderno, Y.B.; Filippov, Vladimir; Liashchenko, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    We studied the directional crystallization of different compositions in B 4 C-NbB 2 and B 4 C-MoB 2 systems. The eutectic compositions for both systems are evaluated. It is shown that in the first system the rod-like eutectic structure is formed, in second, the 'Chinese hieroglyphics'. In both cases high hardness and high microplasticity are observed, which are much more than for individual component phases. These compositions may be considered as a new kind of self-strengthening composite materials

  20. OsB 2 and RuB 2, ultra-incompressible, hard materials: First-principles electronic structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, S.; Gotsis, H. J.; Russo, N.; Sicilia, E.

    2006-07-01

    Recently it has been reported that osmium diboride has an unusually large bulk modulus combined with high hardness, and consequently is a most interesting candidate as an ultra-incompressible and hard material. The electronic and structural properties of the transition metal diborides OsB 2 and RuB 2 have been calculated within the local density approximation (LDA). It is shown that the high hardness is the result of covalent bonding between transition metal d states and boron p states in the orthorhombic structure.

  1. Synthesis of Polyclonal Antibodies against Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyogo Prio Wicaksono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyclonal antibodies of aflatoxin B1 were successfully produced from New Zealand White female rabbits after immunization by the hapten of aflatoxin B1-carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (AFB1-CMO conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the antigen. The hapten was synthesized using the carbodiimide method with CMO as a linker. Absorption peaks at 362, 264, and 218 nm were observed as a result of characterization with UV-Vis spectroscopy, while IR spectroscopy showed peaks at 3448 cm-1 and 1642 cm-1 attributable to the hydroxyl and nitrile groups, respectively. Furthermore, mass spectrometry showed fragmentation at the m/z of 386, 368.2, and 310, which confirms that the hapten of AFB1-CMO was successfully synthesized. The hapten was then conjugated with BSA to serve as an antigen of AFB1 when it was injected into the rabbits. The specificity of the antigen towards its antibody and the confirmation of hapten-BSA conjugation were characterized using the dot blot immunoassay, which showed a BSA concentration of 1.74 mg/mL. Two weeks after the primary immunization by its antigen, agar gel precipitation testing showed that the rabbit blood serum had positive results for polyclonal antibodiest against AFB1 with the highest concentration of antibodiest of 2.19 mg/mL.

  2. Screening and Initial Binding Assessment of Fumonisin B1 Aptamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. DeRosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, fungi that are ubiquitous in corn (maize. Insect damage and some other environmental conditions result in the accumulation of fumonisins in corn-based products worldwide. Current methods of fumonisin detection rely on the use of immunoaffinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The use of aptamers offers a good alternative to the use of antibodies in fumonisin cleanup and detection due to lower costs and improved stability. Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides that are selected using Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX for their ability to bind to targets with high affinity and specificity. Sequences obtained after 18 rounds of SELEX were screened for their ability to bind to fumonisin B1. Six unique sequences were obtained, each showing improved binding to fumonisin B1 compared to controls. Sequence FB1 39 binds to fumonisin with a dissociation constant of 100 ± 30 nM and shows potential for use in fumonisin biosensors and solid phase extraction columns.

  3. Rapid Immunoenzyme Assay of Aflatoxin B1 Using Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr E. Urusov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main limitations of microplate-based enzyme immunoassays are the prolonged incubations necessary to facilitate heterogeneous interactions, the complex matrix and poorly soluble antigens, and the significant sample dilutions often required because of the presence of organic extractants. This study presents the use of antibody immobilization on the surface of magnetic particles to overcome these limitations in the detection of the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1. Features of the proposed system are a high degree of nanoparticle dispersion and methodologically simple immobilization of the antibodies by adsorption. Reactions between the immobilized antibodies with native and labeled antigens are conducted in solution, thereby reducing the interaction period to 5 min without impairing the analytical outcome. Adsorption of immunoglobulins on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles increases their stability in aqueous-organic media, thus minimizing the degree of sample dilution required. Testing barley and maize extracts demonstrated a limit of aflatoxin B1 detection equal to 20 pg/mL and total assay duration of 20 min. Using this method, only the 3-fold dilution of the initial methanol/water (60/40 extraction mixture in the microplate wells is necessary. The proposed pseudo-homogeneous approach could be applied toward immunodetection of a wide range of compounds.

  4. DELF B1 200 activités

    CERN Document Server

    Bloomfield, Anatole

    2006-01-01

    L'ouvrage est organisé par compétences de réception et de production. Chaque partie propose d'abord une présentation de l'épreuve correspondante, puis les activités de préparation suivies d'épreuves-types et d'une auto-évaluation. Dans le cadre d'une approche actionnelle, les activités fournissent les outils nécessaires à la préparation des examens. Elles donnent des exemples concrets répondant aux attentes des candidats comme à celle des examinateurs. LeNouveau DELF B1 propose des activités précises en vue d'atteindre les compétences nécessaires aux épreuves (oral, écrit, réception, production); sa simplicité et sa pédagogie en font une méthode complète. Dans la tradition de la collection Nouvel Entraînez-vous, cet ouvrage est pratique, didactique et se prête à une utilisation en autonomie ou en classe.Le niveau B1 dit " avancé " évalue un niveau de compétence où l'apprenant peut se considérer comme étant indépendant. Arrivé à ce stade, il est apte de comprendre l'inform...

  5. Thermoelastic properties of ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    (4)GPa). No pressure-induced phase transformations are observed in any of the above borides up to about 20GPa. A continuous temperature-driven orthorhombic distortion is observed for HoB4 below 285K. Values of the thermal expansion coefficient are reported for ScB2 and HoB4 at 293, 200 and 100K...

  6. Downregulation of NF-ΚB1 enhances the radiosensitivity of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikegami, Amanda; Silva, Luiz Felipe Teixeira da; Bellini, Maria Helena [Instituto De Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for ∼80% of all renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and has the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene mutated. The lack of VHL protein leads to a constitutionally active Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) pathway that confers both chemoresistance and radioresistance for renal tumor. HIF pathway is known to interact with the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Increased NF-κB activity is associated with the development and progression of RCC (IKEGAMI A, TEIXEIRA LF. BRAGA MS et al. The American Society for Cell Biology 2016; 26: 3948-3955). Objective: Evaluate the synergistic effect of NF-kB1 knockdown and ionizing radiation in murine renal adenocarcinoma cell line. Methods: The murine renal adenocarcinoma cell line (Renca cells) (ATCC, USA) was cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS and penicillin/streptomycin. Lentiviral shRNA vector was used to knockdown of NF-KB1 gene in Renca cells, as described previously (1). In the clonogenic cell survival assay, the cells were irradiated by {sup 60}Co source in the range from 0 to 10 Gy, using the GammaCell 220 – Irradiation Unit of Canadian-Atomic Energy Commision Ltd. (CTR-IPEN). After 10-14 days of culture, cell colonies were fixed and stained with formaldehyde 4% and rhodamine B 2% and counted. To assess cell viability, tetrazolium [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5- (3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-MTS] was performed within 24 hours after irradiation at a dose of 10Gy. The survival variables α e β were fitted according to the linear quadratic equation (SF=exp[-αD-βD2]); SF=survival fraction, D=dose of irradiation and P value was determined by F test. Multiple comparisons were assessed by One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni´s tests with GraphPad Prism version 6.0 software. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data are shown as the mean ± SD. Results: The Renca-shRNA-NF-kB1 cells were found

  7. Downregulation of NF-ΚB1 enhances the radiosensitivity of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Amanda; Silva, Luiz Felipe Teixeira da; Bellini, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for ∼80% of all renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and has the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene mutated. The lack of VHL protein leads to a constitutionally active Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) pathway that confers both chemoresistance and radioresistance for renal tumor. HIF pathway is known to interact with the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Increased NF-κB activity is associated with the development and progression of RCC (IKEGAMI A, TEIXEIRA LF. BRAGA MS et al. The American Society for Cell Biology 2016; 26: 3948-3955). Objective: Evaluate the synergistic effect of NF-kB1 knockdown and ionizing radiation in murine renal adenocarcinoma cell line. Methods: The murine renal adenocarcinoma cell line (Renca cells) (ATCC, USA) was cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS and penicillin/streptomycin. Lentiviral shRNA vector was used to knockdown of NF-KB1 gene in Renca cells, as described previously (1). In the clonogenic cell survival assay, the cells were irradiated by 60 Co source in the range from 0 to 10 Gy, using the GammaCell 220 – Irradiation Unit of Canadian-Atomic Energy Commision Ltd. (CTR-IPEN). After 10-14 days of culture, cell colonies were fixed and stained with formaldehyde 4% and rhodamine B 2% and counted. To assess cell viability, tetrazolium [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5- (3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-MTS] was performed within 24 hours after irradiation at a dose of 10Gy. The survival variables α e β were fitted according to the linear quadratic equation (SF=exp[-αD-βD2]); SF=survival fraction, D=dose of irradiation and P value was determined by F test. Multiple comparisons were assessed by One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni´s tests with GraphPad Prism version 6.0 software. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data are shown as the mean ± SD. Results: The Renca-shRNA-NF-kB1 cells were found to be

  8. Electronic and elastic properties of new semiconducting oP12-type RuB2 and OsB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xianfeng; Xu Yuanhui; Gao Faming

    2011-01-01

    Using first-principles total energy calculations we investigate the structural, elastic and electronic properties of new hypothetical oP 12 -type phase RuB 2 and OsB 2 . The calculations indicate that the oP 12 -type phase RuB 2 and OsB 2 are thermodynamically and mechanically stable. Remarkably, the new phases RuB 2 and OsB 2 are predicted to be semiconductors, and the appearance of band gaps is ascribed to the enhanced B-B covalent hybridization. Compared to metallic oP 6 -type RuB 2 and OsB 2 phases, the new phases possess similar mechanical properties and hardness. The combination of the probability of tunable electronic properties, strong stiffness and high hardness make RuB 2 and OsB 2 attractive and interesting for advanced applications.

  9. Electronic and elastic properties of new semiconducting oP(12)-type RuB(2) and OsB(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xianfeng; Xu, Yuanhui; Gao, Faming

    2011-03-30

    Using first-principles total energy calculations we investigate the structural, elastic and electronic properties of new hypothetical oP(12)-type phase RuB(2) and OsB(2). The calculations indicate that the oP(12)-type phase RuB(2) and OsB(2) are thermodynamically and mechanically stable. Remarkably, the new phases RuB(2) and OsB(2) are predicted to be semiconductors, and the appearance of band gaps is ascribed to the enhanced B-B covalent hybridization. Compared to metallic oP(6)-type RuB(2) and OsB(2) phases, the new phases possess similar mechanical properties and hardness. The combination of the probability of tunable electronic properties, strong stiffness and high hardness make RuB(2) and OsB(2) attractive and interesting for advanced applications. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  10. Active Protection of an MgB2 Test Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Keun; Hahn, Seungyong; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study, experimental and computational, of a detect-and-activate-the-heater protection technique applied to a magnesium diboride (MgB2) test coil operated in semi-persistent mode. The test coil with a winding ID of 25 cm and wound with ~500-m long reacted MgB2 wire was operated at 4.2 K immersed in a bath of liquid helium. In this active technique, upon the initiation of a “hot spot” of a length ~10 cm, induced by a “quench heater,” a “protection heater” (PH) of ~600-cm long planted within the test coil is activated. The normal zone created by the PH is large enough to absorb the test coil’s entire initial stored energy and still keeps the peak temperature within the winding below ~260 K. PMID:22081754

  11. Observation of pseudogap in MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S.; Medicherla, V. R. R.; Ali, Khadiza; Singh, R. S.; Manfrinetti, P.; Wrubl, F.; Dhar, S. K.; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the electronic structure of a specially prepared highly dense conventional high temperature superconductor, MgB2, employing high resolution photoemission spectroscopy. The spectral evolution close to the Fermi energy is commensurate to BCS descriptions as expected. However, the spectra in the wider energy range reveal the emergence of a pseudogap much above the superconducting transition temperature indicating an apparent departure from the BCS scenario. The energy scale of the pseudogap is comparable to the energy of the E2g phonon mode responsible for superconductivity in MgB2 and the pseudogap can be attributed to the effect of electron-phonon coupling on the electronic structure. These results reveal a scenario of the emergence of the superconducting gap within an electron-phonon coupling induced pseudogap and have significant implications in the study of high temperature superconductors.

  12. Investigation of pinning in MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, S.; Reissner, M.; Steiner, W.; Bauer, E.; Giovannini, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The pinning behaviour of bulk MgB 2 superconductors is peculiar in many respects. Pinning seems to be stronger than in classical high T C materials and there seems to be no weak link problem in these compounds, giving hope to produce bulk samples and wires with current densities appropriate for technical applications. But, although many studies concerning the pinning behaviour in this compound appeared in recent years, the results are still contradictory. In the present work we present results of an investigation of the pinning behaviour by magnetic relaxation measurements of three MgB 2 samples: a pure one, a sample with 8 at% Al substitution and a sample with 10 wt% of SiC admixture. A comparison of different analyses methods is given. (author)

  13. COSIMA B2B - sales automation for e-procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Döring, Sven

    2004-01-01

    COSIMA B2B - sales automation for e-procurement / W. Kießling, S. Fischer, S. Döring. - In: International Conference on E-Commerce Technology : Proceedings / IEEE International Conference on E-Commerce Technology, CEC 2004 : 6 - 9 July 2004, San Diego, California / ed. by Martin Bichler ... - Los Alamitos, Calif. [u.a.] : IEEE Computer Society, 2004. - S. 59-68

  14. Customer satisfaction in B2B cloud services

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Helinä

    2013-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on kirjallisuuskatsauksen kautta esitellä B2B-pilvipalveluiden asiakastyytyväisyyteen vaikuttavia seikkoja, ja kuinka näitä seikkoja tulisi ottaa huomioon asiakastyytyväisyyden parantamisessa. Tässä tutkimuksessa verkkopohjaiseen liiketoimintaan liittyvää asiakastyytyväisyyden tutkimusta käytettiin pohjana etsiessä asiakastyytyväisyyteen vaikuttavia seikkoja pilvipalveluissa. Tutkimuksessa vertaillaan asiakastyytyväisyyteen vaikuttavia seikkoja vertailemalla tyytyväisy...

  15. Mass Customized Technical Textiles in the B2B Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, R.; Barteld, M.; Grafmüller, L.; Mosig, T.; Weiß, M.

    2017-10-01

    Mass Customization is a great opportunity for textile companies for both staying competitive in high-wage countries and offering inexpensive, customized products. Within the area of Technical Textiles, this study focuses on the B2B sector and shows the status quo, potentials and strengths. Both management and technological issues are addressed. For the former, business models and the value co-creation process are dealt with, for the latter, the focus is on modelling.

  16. Superconducting and Normal State Properties of OsB2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Zong, X.; Suh, B. J.; Vannette, M. W.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-03-01

    OsB2 is a layered superhard metallic material that was found to superconduct below Tc= 2.1 K.^1 We report the first detailed measurements of the static and dynamic magnetic susceptibilities χ, electrical resistivity, heat capacity Cp, penetration depth, and ^11B NMR on OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal state properties. The results confirm that OsB2 is a bulk superconductor below Tc= 2.1 K@. Its properties can be described by a close to weak-coupling s-wave BCS model with an electron-phonon coupling constant λ= 0.4--0.5, δ(0)/(kBTc) 1.9, a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ of order 5 or less, and a small zero-temperature critical magnetic field of roughly 500 Oe. The ^11B NMR measurements in the normal state show a nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time T1= 2.1 s at room temperature and a Korringa law with T1T = 610 s.K at lower T, and a correspondingly small T-independent Knight shift. These results indicate a small s character of the conduction electron wave function at the B site at the Fermi level. Our results will be compared to corresponding data for MgB2.1. J. K. Vandenberg et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 889 (1975).^*Supported by the USDOE under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-82. Permanent address: Dept. Phys., The Catholic Univ. Korea.

  17. $1$-string $B_2$-VPG representation of planar graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Biedl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that every planar graph has a 1-string $B_2$-VPG representation—a string representation using paths in a rectangular grid that contain at most two bends. Furthermore, two paths representing vertices $u,v$ intersect precisely once whenever there is an edge between $u$ and $v$. We also show that only a subset of the possible curve shapes is necessary to represent $4$-connected planar graphs.

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticle-based assay (MINA): application for fumonisin B1 determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Hasim; Smolinska-Kempisty, Katarzyna; Cruz, Alvaro Garcia; Canfarotta, Francesco; Piletska, Elena; Karim, Khalku; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2018-06-20

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used as a standard tool for monitoring food and animal feed contamination from the carcinogenic fumonisin B1 (FB1). Unfortunately, ELISA is not always efficient due to the instability of the antibody and enzyme components in the immunoassay, the presence of natural enzyme inhibitors in the samples and the high levels of non-specific protein binding. Additionally, the production of antibodies for ELISA can be time-consuming and costly, due to the involvement of animals in the manufacturing process. To overcome these limiting factors, a molecularly imprinted nanoparticle based assay (MINA) has been developed, where the molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) replace the primary antibody used in a competitive ELISA. Herein, computational modelling was used to design the nanoMIPs by selecting monomers that specifically interact with FB1. The affinity of the monomers to FB1 was verified by measuring their binding in affinity chromatography experiments. The nanoMIPs were produced by solid phase synthesis and the results showed that nanoMIPs had a hydrodynamic diameter of around 249 ± 29 nm. The assay tested in model samples is highly selective and does not show cross-reactivity with other mycotoxins such as fumonisin B2 (FB2), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), citrinin (CTT), zearalenone (ZEA), and deoxynivalenol (DON). The MINA allows the detection of FB1 in the concentration range of 10 pM-10 nM with a detection limit of 1.9 pM and a recovery of 108.13-113.76%.

  19. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  20. Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matsumoto, N. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan). Graduate School

    1994-12-31

    Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). The orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from <111>-type to <001>-type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.

  1. Competition for vitamin B1 (thiamin) structures numerous ecological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Clifford E; Angert, Esther R

    2017-06-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is a cofactor required for essential biochemical reactions in all living organisms, yet free thiamin is scarce in the environment. The diversity of biochemical pathways involved in the acquisition, degradation, and synthesis of thiamin indicates that organisms have evolved numerous ecological strategies for meeting this nutritional requirement. In this review we synthesize information from multiple disciplines to show how the complex biochemistry of thiamin influences ecological outcomes of interactions between organisms in environments ranging from the open ocean and the Australian outback to the gastrointestinal tract of animals. We highlight population and ecosystem responses to the availability or absence of thiamin. These include widespread mortality of fishes, birds, and mammals, as well as the thiamin-dependent regulation of ocean productivity. Overall, we portray thiamin biochemistry as the foundation for molecularly mediated ecological interactions that influence survival and abundance of a vast array of organisms.

  2. New insights into the stereochemical requirements of the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupala, Cecylia S.; Gomez-Gutierrez, Patricia; Perez, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is a member of the kinin family, released in response to inflammation, trauma, burns, shock, allergy and some cardiovascular diseases, provoking vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability among other effects. Their actions are mediated through at least two G-protein coupled receptors, B1 a receptor up-regulated during inflammation episodes or tissue trauma and B2 that is constitutively expressed in a variety of cell types. The goal of the present work is to carry out a structure-activity study of BK B2 antagonism, taking into account the stereochemical features of diverse non-peptide antagonists and the way these features translate into ligand anchoring points to complementary regions of the receptor, through the analysis of the respective ligand-receptor complex. For this purpose an atomistic model of the BK B2 receptor was built by homology modeling and subsequently refined embedded in a lipid bilayer by means of a 600 ns molecular dynamics trajectory. The average structure from the last hundred nanoseconds of the molecular dynamics trajectory was energy minimized and used as model of the receptor for docking studies. For this purpose, a set of compounds with antagonistic profile, covering maximal diversity were selected from the literature. Specifically, the set of compounds include Fasitibant, FR173657, Anatibant, WIN64338, Bradyzide, CHEMBL442294, and JSM10292. Molecules were docked into the BK B2 receptor model and the corresponding complexes analyzed to understand ligand-receptor interactions. The outcome of this study is summarized in a 3D pharmacophore that explains the observed structure-activity results and provides insight into the design of novel molecules with antagonistic profile. To prove the validity of the pharmacophore hypothesized a virtual screening process was also carried out. The pharmacophore was used as query to identify new hits using diverse databases of molecules. The results of this study revealed a set of new

  3. MgB2 and Mg1-xAlxB2 single crystals: high pressure growth and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpinski, J.; Kazakov, S.M.; Jun, J.; Zhigadlo, N.D.; Angst, M.; Puzniak, R.; Wisniewski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Single crystals of MgB 2 have been grown with a high pressure cubic anvil technique. They grow via the peritectic decomposition of the MgNB 9 ternary nitride. The crystals are of a size up to 2 x 1 x 0.1 mm 3 with a weight up to 230 μg. Typically they have transition temperatures between 38 and 38.6 K with a width of 0.3-0.5 K. Investigations of the P-T phase diagram prove that the MgB 2 phase is stable at least up to 2190 deg. C at high hydrostatic pressure in the presence of Mg vapor under high pressure. Substitution of aluminum for magnesium in single crystals leads to stepwise decrease of T c . This indicates a possible appearance of superstructures or phases with different T c 's. The upper critical field decreases with Al doping

  4. Enhancement of bradykinin and resensitization of its B2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcic, B; Deddish, P A; Jackman, H L; Erdös, E G

    1999-03-01

    We studied the enhancement of the effects of bradykinin B2 receptor agonists by agents that react with active centers of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) independent of enzymatic inactivation. The potentiation and the desensitization and resensitization of B2 receptor were assessed by measuring [3H]arachidonic acid release and [Ca2+]i mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected to express human ACE and B2 receptor, or in endothelial cells with constitutively expressed ACE and receptor. Administration of bradykinin or its ACE-resistant analogue desensitized the receptor, but it was resensitized (arachidonic acid release or [Ca2+]i mobilization) by agents such as enalaprilat (1 micromol/L). Enalaprilat was inactive in the absence of ACE expression. La3+ (100 micromol/L) inhibited the apparent resensitization, probably by blocking the entry of extracellular calcium. Enalaprilat resensitized the receptor via ACE to release arachidonic acid by bradykinin at a lower concentration (5 nmol/L) than required to mobilize [Ca2+]i (1 micromol/L). Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the ACE N-domain active center and polyclonal antiserum potentiated bradykinin. The snake venom peptide BPP5a and metabolites of angiotensin and bradykinin (angiotensin-[1-9], angiotensin-[1-7], bradykinin-[1-8]; 1 micromol/L) enhanced arachidonic acid release by bradykinin. Angiotensin-(1-9) and -(1-7) also resensitized the receptor. Enalaprilat potentiated the bradykinin effect in cells expressing a mutant ACE with a single N-domain active site. Agents that reacted with a single active site, on the N-domain or on the C-domain, potentiated bradykinin not by blocking its inactivation but by inducing crosstalk between ACE and the receptor. Enalaprilat enhanced signaling via ACE by Galphai in lower concentration than by Galphaq-coupled receptor.

  5. B2B-verkkokaupan markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma

    OpenAIRE

    Luoma, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli luoda markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma Yritys Oy:n kehitteillä olevalle verkkokaupalle. Työn tavoitteena oli markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelman avulla selvittää miten Yritys Oy:n B2B-verkkokauppa saadaan osaksi myyntitoimia ja miten se mahdollisimman tehokkaasti tuodaan asiakkaiden tietoisuuteen. Yritys Oy on vuonna 2003 perustettu perheyritys, jonka toiminta on kiinnitystekniikan tukkumyynti alan ammattilaisille. Yritys Oy:llä on useampi toimipiste ympäri Suomea...

  6. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...... guideline covering the themes of map, smoke and mirror as metaphors) has been extended to comprise a larger group of engineers and may be taken up in a company-wide way. The experiment was deemed effective in developing both a procedure for mystery shopping and a new way to train the consultants....

  7. Properties of hot pressed MgB2/Ti tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, P.; Husek, I.; Melisek, T.; Fedor, J.; Cambel, V.; Morawski, A.; Kario, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hot axial and hot isostatic pressing was applied for single-core MgB 2 /Ti tapes. Differences in transport current density, n-exponents and critical current anisotropy are discussed and related to the grain connectivity influenced by pressing. The magnetic Hall probe scanning measurements allowed observing the isolated regions for axially hot pressed sample attributed to the longitudinally oriented cracks introduced by pressing. The highest current densities were measured for the tape subjected to hot isostatic pressing due to improved connectivity.

  8. Specific heat of MgB_2 after irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Sheikin, Ilya; Toulemonde, Pierre; Revaz, Bernard; Eisterer, Michael; Weber, Harald W.; Hinderer, Joerg; Junod, Alain

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB_2 by specific-heat measurements. In the pristine state, these measurements give a bulk confirmation of the presence of two superconducting gaps with 2 Delta 0 / k_B T_c = 1.3 and 3.9 with nearly equal weights. The scattering introduced by irradiation suppresses T_c and tends to average the two gaps although less than predicted by theory. We also found that by a suitable irradiation process by fast neutr...

  9. B-1 cell immunoglobulin directed against oxidation-specific epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios eTsiantoulas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural antibodies (NAbs are pre-existing antibodies with germline origin that arise in the absence of previous exposure to foreign antigens. NAbs are produced by B-1 lymphocytes and are primarily of the IgM isotype. There is accumulating evidence that - in addition to their role in antimicrobial host defense - NAbs exhibit important housekeeping functions by facilitating the non-immunogenic clearance of apoptotic cells as well as the removal of (neo-self antigens. These properties are largely mediated by the ability of NAbs to recognize highly conserved and endogenously generated structures, which are exemplified by so-called oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs that are products of lipid peroxidation. The generation of OSEs as well as their interaction with the immune system have been studied extensively in the context of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the vascular wall that is characterized by the accumulation of cellular debris and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDL. Both apoptotic cells as well as OxLDL carry OSEs that are targeted by NAbs. Therefore, OSEs represent stress-induced neo-self structures that mediate recognition of metabolic waste (e.g. cellular debris by NAbs, allowing its safe disposal, which has fundamental implications in health and disease.

  10. Identification of New Aflatoxin B1-Degrading Bacteria from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Sangi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a mutagenic and carcinogenic compound mainly produced by the Aspergillus parasiticus, A. flavus, A. nomius, A. tamari, and A. pseudotamarii. AFB1 biodegradation is the most important strategy for reducing AFB1 in plant tissues. Bacteria can deactivate and biodegrade AFB1 for effective detoxification of contaminated products. The present study investigated the efficiency of AFB1 degradation by soil bacteria from the Southern Khorasan Province in Eastern Iran by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography during 2014–2015. Methods: DNA was extracted from AFB1-degrading isolates by the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the 27f and 1492r general bacterial primers and the sequences were used to identify the isolates based on their similarity to Gene Bank sequences of known bacterial species. Results: We isolated five strains from four species of AFB1-degrading bacteria from Birjand plain, including Bacillus pumilus, two isolates of Ochrobactrum pseudogrigonens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloace, which had AFB1-degrading activities of 88%, 78%, 61%, 58%, and 51%, respectively. Conclusion: We provide the first demonstration of AFB1 degradation by B. pumilus in from Iran and the first report identifying O. pseudogrigonens and E. cloace species as having AFB1-degrading activity.

  11. Decomposition and detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiko, Visenuo; Edamana, Prasad; Mehta, Alka

    2016-04-01

    A degradation study of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was carried out using a combination of physical and chemical methods. AFB1 was heated at 80 °C in the presence of acetic, citric and lactic acids for various time periods. The cytotoxicity of the degraded AFB1 and its products were determined by MTT assay. The results showed that among the three organic acids lactic acid was most efficient in degrading AFB1. Although complete degradation was not observed, up to 85% degradation of AFB1 was obtained when heated for 120 min. Degradation of AFB1 was confirmed by the reduced toxicity on HeLa cells using MTT assay. Treatment with lactic acid resulted in the conversion of AFB1 into two degradation products. These products were observed at lower retention factors of 0.63 and 0.38, which were identified as AFB2 and AFB2a, respectively. The cytotoxicity of AFB2a exhibited much reduced toxicity on HeLa cells compared to that of AFB1. The results have shown the efficiency of lactic acid in degrading AFB1. This study suggest that lactic acid may be considered for use in the food and feed industry since it is present naturally in food and is considered safe. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Amide temperature coefficients in the protein G B1 domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, Jennifer H.; Williamson, Mike P.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature coefficients have been measured for backbone amide 1 H and 15 N nuclei in the B1 domain of protein G (GB1), using temperatures in the range 283–313 K, and pH values from 2.0 to 9.0. Many nuclei display pH-dependent coefficients, which were fitted to one or two pK a values. 1 H coefficients showed the expected behaviour, in that hydrogen-bonded amides have less negative values, but for those amides involved in strong hydrogen bonds in regular secondary structure there is a negative correlation between strength of hydrogen bond and size of temperature coefficient. The best correlation to temperature coefficient is with secondary shift, indicative of a very approximately uniform thermal expansion. The largest pH-dependent changes in coefficient are for amides in loops adjacent to sidechain hydrogen bonds rather than the amides involved directly in hydrogen bonds, indicating that the biggest determinant of the temperature coefficient is temperature-dependent loss of structure, not hydrogen bonding. Amide 15 N coefficients have no clear relationship with structure.

  13. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  14. MgB2-based superconductors for fault current limiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, V.; Prikhna, T.; Meerovich, V.; Eisterer, M.; Goldacker, W.; Kozyrev, A.; Weber, H. W.; Shapovalov, A.; Sverdun, V.; Moshchil, V.

    2017-02-01

    A promising solution of the fault current problem in power systems is the application of fast-operating nonlinear superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) with the capability of rapidly increasing their impedance, and thus limiting high fault currents. We report the results of experiments with models of inductive (transformer type) SFCLs based on the ring-shaped bulk MgB2 prepared under high quasihydrostatic pressure (2 GPa) and by hot pressing technique (30 MPa). It was shown that the SFCLs meet the main requirements to fault current limiters: they possess low impedance in the nominal regime of the protected circuit and can fast increase their impedance limiting both the transient and the steady-state fault currents. The study of quenching currents of MgB2 rings (SFCL activation current) and AC losses in the rings shows that the quenching current density and critical current density determined from AC losses can be 10-20 times less than the critical current determined from the magnetization experiments.

  15. Magnesium diboride(MgB2) wires for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Dipak; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Field and temperature dependence of the critical current density, Jc, were measured for both un-doped and carbon doped MgB 2 /Nb/Monel wires manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. In particular, carbon incorporation into the MgB 2 structure using malic acid additive and a chemical solution method can be advantageous because of the highly uniform mixing between the carbon and boron powders. At 4.2 K and 10 T, Jc was estimated to be 25,000 - 25,300 Acm -2 for the wire sintered at 600 degrees C for 4 hours. The irreversibility field, Birr, of the malic acid doped wire was approximately 21.0 - 21.8 T, as obtained from a linear extrapolation of the J-B characteristic. Interestingly enough, the Jc of the malic acid doped sample exceeds 10 5 Acm -2 at 6 T and 4.2 K, which is comparable to that of commercial Nb-Ti wires

  16. USING UML SCENARIOS IN B2B SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jakimi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios has become a popular technique for requirements elicitation and specification building. Since scenarios capture only partial descriptions of the system behavior, an approach for scenario composition and/or integration is needed to produce more complete specifications. The Unified Modeling Language (UML, which has become a standard notation for object-oriented modeling, provides a suitable framework for scenario acquisition using Use Case diagrams and Sequence or Collaboration diagrams. In this paper, we suggest an algorithmic and tool support for composing and integrating scenarios that are represented in form of sequence diagrams. We suggest four operators (;: sequential operator, ||: concurrent operator, ?: conditional operator and  * :iteration operator to compose a set of scenarios that describe a use case of a given system. In this paper, we suggest also to apply the scenario approach to B2B systems (Business to Business. We propose to develop B2B systems as a three activities process deriving formal specifications and code skeletons from UML scenarios. Activities of this proposed process are generally automatic and are supported by a set of developed algorithms and tools.

  17. B2FH, the Cosmic Microwave Background and Cosmology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, G.

    In this talk I shall start by describing how we set about and carried out the work that led to the publication of Burbidge et al. (1957, hereafter B2FH). I then shall try and relate this work and the circumstances that surrounded it to the larger problem of the origin and formation of the universe. Here it is necessary to look back at the way that ideas developed and how, in many situations, astronomers went astray. Of course this is a personal view, though I very strongly believe that if he were still here, it is the approach that Fred Hoyle would take. I start by describing the problems originally encountered by Gamow and his associates in trying to decide where the helium was made. This leads me to a modern discussion of the origin of 2D, 3He, 4He and 7Li, originally described by B2FH as due to the x-process. While it is generally argued, following Gamow, Alpher, and Herman, that these isotopes were synthesised in a big bang I shall show that it is equally likely that these isotopes were made in active galactic nuclei, as was the cosmic microwave background (CMB), in a cyclic universe model. The key piece of observational evidence is that the amount of energy released in the conversion of hydrogen to helium in the universe is very close to the energy carried by the CMB, namely ~4.5 × 10-13 erg cm-3.

  18. Vortex lattice structures in YNi2B2C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yethiraj, M.; Paul, D.M.; Tomy, C.V.; Forgan, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors observe a flux lattice with square symmetry in the superconductor YNi 2 B 2 C when the applied field is parallel to the c-axis of the crystal. A square lattice observed previously in the isostructural magnetic analog ErNi 2 B 2 C was attributed to the interaction between magnetic order in that system and the flux lattice. Since the Y-based compound does not order magnetically, it is clear that the structure of the flux lattice is unrelated to magnetic order. In fact, they show that the flux lines have a square cross-section when the applied field is parallel to the c-axis of the crystal, since the measured penetration depth along the 100 crystal direction is larger than the penetration depth along the 110 by approximately 60%. This is the likely reason for the square symmetry of the lattice. Although they find considerable disorder in the arrangement of the flux lines at 2.5T, no melting of the vortex lattice was observed

  19. Predominant porB1A and porB1B genotypes and correlation of gene mutations with drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Renxian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations of porB1A and porB1B genes and their serotypes exist in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from different geographical areas, and some site mutations in the porB1B gene correlate with drug resistance. Methods The β-lactamase production of N. gonorrhoeae isolates was determined by paper acidometric test and nitrocefin discs. The porB1A and porB1B genes of 315 non-penicillinase-producting N. gonorrhoeae (non-PPNG strains were amplified by PCR for sequencing to determine serotypes and site mutations. A duplex PCR was designed to simultaneously detect both porB1A and porB1B genes. Penicillin and tetracycline resistance was assessed by an in vitro drug sensitivity test. Results Of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates, 31.1% tested positive for porB1A and 68.9% for porB1B genes. All the 98 porB1A+ isolates belonging to IA6 serotype with either no mutation at the 120 and 121 sites (88.8% or a D120G (11.2% mutation and were no resistance to both penicillin and tetracycline. Among the 217 porB1B+ isolates, 26.7%, 22.6% and 11.5% belonged to IB3, IB3/6 and IB4 serotypes, respectively. Particularly, two novel chimeric serotypes, IB3/6-IB2 and IB2-IB4-IB2, were found in 77 and 8 porB1B+ isolates. Two hundred and twelve (97.7% of the porB1B+ isolates were presented G120 and/or A121 mutations with 163 (76.9% at both sites. Interestingly, within the 77 porB1B+ isolates belonging to IB3/6-IB2 serotype, 15 were discovered to possess novel deletions at both A121 and N122 sites. All the replacement mutations at these sites in PorB1B were correlated with resistance and the deletion mutation showed the highest resistance. Conclusion N. gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in Eastern China include a sole PorB1A serotype (IA6 and five PorB1B serotypes. Multiple mutations in porB1B genes, including novel A121 and N122 deletions, are correlated with high levels of penicillin and tetracycline resistance.

  20. Remelting of aluminium with the addition of AlTi5B1 and AlTi3C0,15 grain refiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobešrek, M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It was found that concentration of boron in aluminium with the addition of AlTi5B1 grain refiner is decreasing during remelting as a consequence of TiB2 particles settling down due to gravity. TiB2 particles remained in aluminium after four remelts shows lower effect of grain refinement compared to non-remelted samples with the same TiB2 content. It was also found that TiC particles are still present in aluminium with the addition of AlTi3C0,15 grain refiner after four remelts and they probably participate in nucleation of α-Al grains.

  1. Co-current Doping Effect of Nanoscale Carbon and Aluminum Nitride on Critical Current Density and Flux Pinning Properties of Bulk MgB2 Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of nanoscale aluminum nitride (n-AlN) and carbon (n-C) co-doping on superconducting properties of polycrystalline bulk MgB2 superconductor has been investigated. Polycrystalline pellets of MgB2, MgB2 + 0.5 wt% AlN (nano), MgB_{1.99}C_{0.01} and MgB_{1.99}C_{0.01} + 0.5 wt% AlN (nano) have been synthesized by a solid reaction process under inert atmosphere. The transition temperature (TC) estimated from resistivity measurement indicates only a small decrease for C (nano) and co-doped MgB2 samples. The magnetic field response of investigated samples has been measured at 4, 10, and 20 K in the field range ± 6 T. MgB2 pellets co-doped with 0.5 wt% n-AlN and 1 wt% n-C display appreciable enhancement in critical current density (J_C) of MgB2 in both low (≥ 3 times), as well as, high-field region (≥ 15 times). J_C versus H behavior of both pristine and doped MgB2 pellets is well explained in the light of the collective pinning model. Further, the normalized pinning force density f_p(= F_p/F_{pmax}) displays a fair correspondence with the scaling procedure proposed by Eisterer et al. Moreover, the scaled data of the pinning force density (i.e., f_p{-}h data) of the investigated pellets at different temperature are well interpreted by a modified Dew-Hughes expression reported by Sandu and Chee.

  2. SLC9B1 methylation predicts fetal intolerance of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Anna K; Conneely, Karen N; Kilaru, Varun; Cobb, Dawayland; Payne, Jennifer L; Meilman, Samantha; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Kaminsky, Zachary A; Dunlop, Anne L; Smith, Alicia K

    2018-01-01

    Fetal intolerance of labor is a common indication for delivery by Caesarean section. Diagnosis is based on the presence of category III fetal heart rate tracing, which is an abnormal heart tracing associated with increased likelihood of fetal hypoxia and metabolic acidemia. This study analyzed data from 177 unique women who, during their prenatal visits (7-15 weeks and/or 24-32 weeks) to Atlanta area prenatal care clinics, consented to provide blood samples for DNA methylation (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) and gene expression (Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip) analyses. We focused on 57 women aged 18-36 (mean 25.4), who had DNA methylation data available from their second prenatal visit. DNA methylation patterns at CpG sites across the genome were interrogated for associations with fetal intolerance of labor. Four CpG sites (P value intolerance of labor. DNA methylation and gene expression were negatively associated when examined longitudinally during pregnancy using a linear mixed-effects model. Positive predictive values of methylation of these four sites ranged from 0.80 to 0.89, while negative predictive values ranged from 0.91 to 0.92. The four CpG sites were also associated with fetal intolerance of labor in an independent cohort (the Johns Hopkins Prospective PPD cohort). Therefore, fetal intolerance of labor could be accurately predicted from maternal blood samples obtained between 24-32 weeks gestation. Fetal intolerance of labor may be accurately predicted from maternal blood samples obtained between 24-32 weeks gestation by assessing DNA methylation patterns of SLC9B1. The identification of pregnant women at elevated risk for fetal intolerance of labor may allow for the development of targeted treatments or management plans.

  3. Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by a Pseudomonas Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancine Sangare

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB1 effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn2+ and Cu2+ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg2+, Li+, Zn2+, Se2+, Fe3+ were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB1 was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB1. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB1 by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin.

  4. Determination of fumonisin B1 levels in body fluids and hair from piglets fed fumonisin B1-contaminated diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Pollyana C M C; Jager, Alessandra V; Tonin, Fernando G; Petta, Tânia; Di Gregório, Mayra C; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Isabelle P; Rottinghaus, George E; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2017-10-01

    The levels of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) residues in plasma, urine, feces and hair from 24 piglets fed FB 1 -contaminated diets containing 3.1, 6.1 or 9.0 μg FB 1 .g -1 for 28 days were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The levels of FB 1 in plasma, urine, feces and pooled hair (n = 3) samples varied from 0.15 to 1.08 μg.L -1 , 16.09-75.01 μg.L -1 , 1.87-13.89 μg.g -1 and 2.08-8.09 ng.g -1 , respectively. Significant correlations (r = 0.808-0.885; P 14 days). The possibility to evaluate hair as a biomarker of fumonisin exposure was established, although further studies are needed to provide physiologically based toxicokinetics of residual FB 1 in the pig hair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase and Microstructural Correlation of Spark Plasma Sintered HfB2-ZrB2 Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambreen Nisar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The refractory diborides (HfB2 and ZrB2 are considered as promising ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTCs where low damage tolerance limits their application for the thermal protection system in re-entry vehicles. In this regard, SiC and CNT have been synergistically added as the sintering aids and toughening agents in the spark plasma sintered (SPS HfB2-ZrB2 system. Herein, a novel equimolar composition of HfB2 and ZrB2 has shown to form a solid-solution which then allows compositional tailoring of mechanical properties (such as hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness. The hardness of the processed composite is higher than the individual phase hardness up to 1.5 times, insinuating the synergy of SiC and CNT reinforcement in HfB2-ZrB2 composites. The enhanced fracture toughness of CNT reinforced composite (up to a 196% increment surpassing that of the parent materials (ZrB2/HfB2-SiC is attributed to the synergy of solid solution formation and enhanced densification (~99.5%. In addition, the reduction in the analytically quantified interfacial residual tensile stress with SiC and CNT reinforcements contribute to the enhancement in the fracture toughness of HfB2-ZrB2-SiC-CNT composites, mandatory for aerospace applications.

  6. Matchmaking Framework for B2B E-Marketplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete ZOLTAN ALPAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years trading on the Internet become more popular. Online businesses gradually replace more and more from the conventional business. Much commercial information is exchanged on the internet, especially using the e-marketplaces. The demand and supply matching process becomes complex and difficult on last twenty years since the e-marketplaces play an important role in business management. Companies can achieve significant cost reduction by using e-marketplaces in their trade activities and by using matchmaking systems on finding the corresponding supply for their demand and vice versa. In the literature were proposed many approaches for matchmaking. In this paper we present a conceptual framework of matchmaking in B2B e-marketplaces environment.

  7. Relationship Quality as Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa S. B. Ahmed Doma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing has become extremely important recently due to the fierce competition in today's marketplace. Companies are required to build long-term profitable relationship with customers and to achieve customer loyalty. Also, switching behaviors frequently occur among most of targeted customers. Fewer studies, however, discuss the effects of relationship quality efforts on customer loyalty. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the impact of relationship quality on customer loyalty in B2B context in the Egyptian shipping services sector. Building on prior research, we propose relationship quality as a higher construct comprising trust, commitment and satisfaction. An analytical model is developed as a guideline to test the relationships between relationship quality dimensions and customer loyalty.

  8. Model of the Sgr B2 radio source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosachinskij, I.V.; Khersonskij, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamical model of the gas cloud around the radio source Sagittarius B2 is suggested. This model describes the kinematic features of the gas in this source: contraction of the core and rotation of the envelope. The stability of the cloud at the initial stage is supported by the turbulent motion of the gas, turbulence energy dissipates due to magnetic viscosity. This process is occurring more rapidly in the dense core and the core begins to collapse but the envelope remains stable. The parameters of the primary cloud and some parameters (mass, density and size) of the collapse are calculated. The conditions in the core at the moment of its fragmentation into masses of stellar order are established [ru

  9. Widespread Occurrence of the Mycotoxin Fumonisin B-2 in Wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2010-01-01

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins because they are suspected to cause human and animal toxicoses by the consumption of contaminated corn-based food and feeds. However, with the discovery of fumonisin production in grapes by Aspergillus niger, wine may also be a fumonisin-containing commodity....... In the present study, we have developed a simple and quantitative cation-exchange-based purification method for the subsequent isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of fumonisins in wine. A comparative study of seven different solid-phase extraction (SPE......) columns showed that polymeric mixed-mode reversed-phase (RP) cation-exchange columns were superior to classic silica-based cation and mixed-mode cation-exchange columns. A total of 77 wine samples from 13 countries were subsequently tested, and surprisingly, 18 (23%) were found to contain fumonisin B-2...

  10. Diatomic substitutionals in superconducting Nb(1-x)B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, H.H.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Lillo, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Using first-principles, density functional theory calculations, we have shown that the increase in superconducting critical temperature to above 9 K experimentally observed for B-rich, off-stoichiometry NbB 2 material is associated with the formation of B-dimers on Nb sites rather than with the formation of Nb vacancies, as previously proposed. Our calculations show that certain of these B-dimer configurations have lower binding energies than do the vacancy structures. This result is pressure independent in the range between 0 and 10 GPa, and above. Further, the dimer-containing materials have a higher electronic density of states at the Fermi level than do the vacancy structures. Finally, the presence of B-dimers results in the splitting off of phonon normal modes. These last two factors are relevant to the improved superconducting properties

  11. Specific heat of MgB2 after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Sheikin, Ilya; Toulemonde, Pierre; Revaz, Bernard; Eisterer, Michael; Weber, Harald W; Hinderer, Joerg; Junod, Alain

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB 2 by specific-heat measurements. In the pristine state, these measurements give a bulk confirmation of the presence of two superconducting gaps with 2Δ 0 /k B T c =1.3 and 3.9 with nearly equal weights. The scattering introduced by irradiation suppresses T c and tends to average the two gaps although less than predicted by theory. We also found that by a suitable irradiation process by fast neutrons, a substantial bulk increase of dH c2 /dT at T c can be obtained without sacrificing more than a few degrees in T c . The upper critical field of the sample after irradiation exceeds 28 T at T→0

  12. Podwójna negacja w B 2 poematu Parmenidesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz MRÓWKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In our article we focus on an analysis of the structure of double negation in the poem of Parmenides,paying attention to the fragment B 2. The starting point for the analysis is the classificationof varieties of negation contained in Diogenes Laertius (VII.69-70: negation, denial,privation and double negation. We provide an example of double negation as given by Diogenes: “Not (is not a day ↔ it is a day”. In terms of the poetic expression the law of double negationserves to strengthen the goddess’ speech. However, in the context of Parmenides’ ontology, thelaw of double negation serves as an affirmation of “is”. Our goal is to give a detailed analysis ofthe structure of double negation. In the next step we introduce Euclid’s proofs by comparison.We show that all four forms of negation indicated by Diogenes occur in the Elements and thereis a richer set of the linguistic forms used as an expression of negation, including that of doublenegation. Finally, we show that Parmenides applies consciously the law of double negation,and the poem is the first philosophical text confirming the use of this law. In short, doublenegation can be summarized as follows: for the Stoics, in Diogenes Laertius (VII.69-70: “not(is not a day ↔ is a day”; for Euclid: “not (is not-equal ↔ is equal” (Elements, I.6. “is notlike that (.... is not around ... ↔ is around” (Elements VI.26; and in Parmenides: “is ↔ not(is not to be” (B 2, v. 3.

  13. Induction of selective blood-tumor barrier permeability and macromolecular transport by a biostable kinin B1 receptor agonist in a glioma rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Jérôme; Bovenzi, Veronica; Savard, Martin; Dubuc, Céléna; Fortier, Audrey; Neugebauer, Witold; Tremblay, Luc; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Tsanaclis, Ana-Maria; Lepage, Martin; Fortin, David; Gobeil, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of malignant glioma with chemotherapy is limited mostly because of delivery impediment related to the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB). B1 receptors (B1R), inducible prototypical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) can regulate permeability of vessels including possibly that of brain tumors. Here, we determine the extent of BTB permeability induced by the natural and synthetic peptide B1R agonists, LysdesArg(9)BK (LDBK) and SarLys[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)BK (NG29), in syngeneic F98 glioma-implanted Fischer rats. Ten days after tumor inoculation, we detected the presence of B1R on tumor cells and associated vasculature. NG29 infusion increased brain distribution volume and uptake profiles of paramagnetic probes (Magnevist and Gadomer) at tumoral sites (T(1)-weighted imaging). These effects were blocked by B1R antagonist and non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, but not by B2R antagonist and non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Consistent with MRI data, systemic co-administration of NG29 improved brain tumor delivery of Carboplatin chemotherapy (ICP-Mass spectrometry). We also detected elevated B1R expression in clinical samples of high-grade glioma. Our results documented a novel GPCR-signaling mechanism for promoting transient BTB disruption, involving activation of B1R and ensuing production of COX metabolites. They also underlined the potential value of synthetic biostable B1R agonists as selective BTB modulators for local delivery of different sized-therapeutics at (peri)tumoral sites.

  14. Induction of selective blood-tumor barrier permeability and macromolecular transport by a biostable kinin B1 receptor agonist in a glioma rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Côté

    Full Text Available Treatment of malignant glioma with chemotherapy is limited mostly because of delivery impediment related to the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB. B1 receptors (B1R, inducible prototypical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR can regulate permeability of vessels including possibly that of brain tumors. Here, we determine the extent of BTB permeability induced by the natural and synthetic peptide B1R agonists, LysdesArg(9BK (LDBK and SarLys[dPhe(8]desArg(9BK (NG29, in syngeneic F98 glioma-implanted Fischer rats. Ten days after tumor inoculation, we detected the presence of B1R on tumor cells and associated vasculature. NG29 infusion increased brain distribution volume and uptake profiles of paramagnetic probes (Magnevist and Gadomer at tumoral sites (T(1-weighted imaging. These effects were blocked by B1R antagonist and non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, but not by B2R antagonist and non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Consistent with MRI data, systemic co-administration of NG29 improved brain tumor delivery of Carboplatin chemotherapy (ICP-Mass spectrometry. We also detected elevated B1R expression in clinical samples of high-grade glioma. Our results documented a novel GPCR-signaling mechanism for promoting transient BTB disruption, involving activation of B1R and ensuing production of COX metabolites. They also underlined the potential value of synthetic biostable B1R agonists as selective BTB modulators for local delivery of different sized-therapeutics at (peritumoral sites.

  15. Identification of a cyclin B1-derived CTL epitope eliciting spontaneous responses in both cancer patients and healthy donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Sørensen, Rikke Bæk; Ritter, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    . Furthermore, blood from cancer patients and healthy donors was screened for spontaneous T-cell reactivity against the peptide in IFN-γ ELISPOT assays. Patients with breast cancer, malignant melanoma, or renal cell carcinoma hosted powerful and high-frequency T-cell responses against the peptide. In addition......, when blood from healthy donors was tested, similar responses were observed. Ultimately, serum from cancer patients and healthy donors was analyzed for anti-cyclin B1 antibodies. Humoral responses against cyclin B1 were frequently detected in both cancer patients and healthy donors. In conclusion......, a high-affinity cyclin B1-derived HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope was identified, which was presented on the cell surface of cancer cells, and elicited spontaneous T-cell responses in cancer patients and healthy donors....

  16. Identification of a cyclin B1-derived CTL epitope eliciting spontaneous responses in both cancer patients and healthy donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Sørensen, Rikke Bæk; Ritter, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    . Furthermore, blood from cancer patients and healthy donors was screened for spontaneous T-cell reactivity against the peptide in IFN-¿ ELISPOT assays. Patients with breast cancer, malignant melanoma, or renal cell carcinoma hosted powerful and high-frequency T-cell responses against the peptide. In addition......, when blood from healthy donors was tested, similar responses were observed. Ultimately, serum from cancer patients and healthy donors was analyzed for anti-cyclin B1 antibodies. Humoral responses against cyclin B1 were frequently detected in both cancer patients and healthy donors. In conclusion......, a high-affinity cyclin B1-derived HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope was identified, which was presented on the cell surface of cancer cells, and elicited spontaneous T-cell responses in cancer patients and healthy donors....

  17. In-situ synchrotron x-ray study of MgB2 formation when doped by SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, A. B.; Grivel, J.-C.; Andersen, N. H.; Herrmann, M.; Häßler, W.; Birajdar, B.; Eibl, O.; Saksl, K.

    2008-02-01

    We have studied the evolution of the reaction xMg + 2B + ySiC → zMg1-p(B1-qCq)2 + yMg2Si in samples of 1, 2, 5 and 10 wt% SiC doping. We found a coincident formation of MgB2 and Mg2Si, whereas the crystalline part of the SiC nano particles is not reacting at all. Evidence for incorporation of carbon into the MgB2 phase was established from the decrease of the a-axis lattice parameter upon increasing SiC doping. An estimate of the MgB2 lower limit grain size was found to decrease from L100 = 795 Å and L002 = 337 Å at 1 wt% SiC to L100 = 227 Å and L002= 60 Å at 10 wt% SiC. Thus superconductivity might be suppressed at 10 wt% SiC doping due to the grain size approaching the coherence length.

  18. Atomistic simulation of the point defects in B2-type MoTa alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianmin; Wang Fang; Xu Kewei; Ji, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The formation and migration mechanisms of three different point defects (mono-vacancy, anti-site defect and interstitial atom) in B 2 -type MoTa alloy have been investigated by combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with modified analytic embedded-atom method (MAEAM). From minimization of the formation energy, we find that the anti-site defects Mo Ta and Ta Mo are easier to form than Mo and Ta mono-vacancies, while Mo and Ta interstitial atoms are difficult to form in the alloy. In six migration mechanisms of Mo and Ta mono-vacancies, one nearest-neighbor jump (1NNJ) is the most favorable due to its lowest activation and migration energies, but it will cause a disorder in the alloy. One next-nearest-neighbor jump (1NNNJ) and one third-nearest-neighbor jump (1TNNJ) can maintain the ordered property of the alloy but require higher activation and migration energies, so the 1NNNJ and 1TNNJ should be replaced by straight [1 0 0] six nearest-neighbor cyclic jumps (S[1 0 0]6NNCJ) or bent [1 0 0] six nearest-neighbor cyclic jumps (B[1 0 0]6NNCJ) and [1 1 0] six nearest-neighbor cyclic jumps ([1 1 0]6NNCJ), respectively. Although the migrations of Mo and Ta interstitial atoms need much lower energy than Mo and Ta mono-vacancies, they are not main migration mechanisms due to difficult to form in the alloy.

  19. Neuronal SH2B1 is essential for controlling energy and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Decheng; Zhou, Yingjiang; Morris, David; Li, Minghua; Li, Zhiqin; Rui, Liangyou

    2007-02-01

    SH2B1 (previously named SH2-B), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, binds via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain to a variety of protein tyrosine kinases, including JAK2 and the insulin receptor. SH2B1-deficient mice are obese and diabetic. Here we demonstrated that multiple isoforms of SH2B1 (alpha, beta, gamma, and/or delta) were expressed in numerous tissues, including the brain, hypothalamus, liver, muscle, adipose tissue, heart, and pancreas. Rat SH2B1beta was specifically expressed in neural tissue in SH2B1-transgenic (SH2B1(Tg)) mice. SH2B1(Tg) mice were crossed with SH2B1-knockout (SH2B1(KO)) mice to generate SH2B1(TgKO) mice expressing SH2B1 only in neural tissue but not in other tissues. Systemic deletion of the SH2B1 gene resulted in metabolic disorders in SH2B1(KO) mice, including hyperlipidemia, leptin resistance, hyperphagia, obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Neuron-specific restoration of SH2B1beta not only corrected the metabolic disorders in SH2B1(TgKO) mice, but also improved JAK2-mediated leptin signaling and leptin regulation of orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus. Moreover, neuron-specific overexpression of SH2B1 dose-dependently protected against high-fat diet-induced leptin resistance and obesity. These observations suggest that neuronal SH2B1 regulates energy balance, body weight, peripheral insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis at least in part by enhancing hypothalamic leptin sensitivity.

  20. Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Song, Jinpeng; Liang, Guoxing; Gao, Jiaojiao; Xie, Juncai; Cao, Lei; Wang, Shiying; Lv, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure. PMID:28772821

  1. Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure.

  2. Nanostructure characterization of Ni and B layers as artificial pinning centers in multilayered MgB2/Ni and MgB2/B superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosiati, H.; Hata, S.; Doi, T.; Matsumoto, A.; Kitaguchi, H.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructure characterization of Ni and B layers as artificial pinning centers (APCs). ► Relationship between nanostructure and J c property. ► Enhanced J c in parallel field by parallel APCs within the MgB 2 film. -- Abstract: Research on the MgB 2 /Ni and MgB 2 /B multilayer films fabricated by an electron beam (EB) evaporation technique have been extensively carried out. The critical current density, J c of MgB 2 /Ni and MgB 2 /B multilayer films in parallel fields has been suggested to be higher than that of monolayer MgB 2 film due to introducing the artificial pinning centers of nano-sized Ni and B layers. Nanostructure characterization of the artificial pinning centers in the multilayer films were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS))–EDS to understand the mechanism of flux pinning. The growth of columnar MgB 2 grains along the film-thickness direction was recognized in the MgB 2 /Ni multilayer film, but not in the MgB 2 /B multilayer film. Nano-sized Ni layers were present as crystalline epitaxial layers which is interpreted that Ni atoms might be incorporated into the MgB 2 lattice to form (Mg,Ni)B 2 phase. On the other hand, nano-sized B layers were amorphous layers. Crystalline (Mg,Ni)B 2 layers worked more effectively than amorphous B-layers, providing higher flux-pinning force that resulted in higher J c of the MgB 2 /Ni multilayer film than the MgB 2 /B multilayer film

  3. Getting started with Oracle SOA B2B Integration a hands-on tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Krishnaprem; Perlovsky, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This hands on tutorial gives you the best possible start you could hope for with Oracle B2B. Learn using real life scenarios and examples to give you a solid footing of B2B.This book is for B2B architects, consultants and developers who would like to design and develop B2B integrations using Oracle B2B. This book assumes no prior knowledge of Oracle B2B and explains all concepts from scratch using illustrations, real world examples and step-by-step instructions. The book covers enough depth and details to be useful for both beginner and advanced B2B users.

  4. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and identification of the major aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts formed in cultured human bronchus and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Essigmann, John M.; Croy, Robert G.

    1979-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene were activated by both cultured human bronchus and human colon as measured by binding to cellular DNA and protein. The binding of aflatoxin B1 to DNA was dose dependent, and the level of binding was higher in cultured human bronchus than it was in the colon. When c...

  5. Preparation and bioevaluation of 99Tcm-HYNIC-Annexin B1 as a novel radiotracer for apoptosis detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Quanyong; Luo Qiong; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen; Wang Fang; Zhang Yi; Sun Shuhan; Zhang Zhiyong; Liu Xingfeng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Annexin B1, a novel Ca 2+ -dependent phosphatidylserine (PS)-binding protein, has been shown to have a high affinity for PS exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells or activated platelets. The aim of this study was to develop and bioevaluate an Annexin B1 based PS-targeting radiotracer labeled with 99 Tc m . Methods: Annexin B1 was indirectly labeled with 99 Tc m using hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) as a bifunctional chelator agent. Binding assay with human activated platelets was used to evaluate the biological activity of 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Annexin B1 in vitro. The potential of 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Annexin B1 to detect apoptosis in vivo was evaluated in mice models with dexamethasone-inducecd thymus apoptosis and anti-Fas antibody induced liver apoptosis. The paired t-test was used to analyse the data. Results: The labeling procedure yielded a compound with radiochemical purity higher than 96% and good in vitro stability. Plate- lets binding assay indicated that 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Annexin B1 retained their PS binding activity in vitro. The percentage activity of injection dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) of mouse thymus showed a 3.50-fold increase at 18 h after administration of dexamethasone compared with control mice (t=5.234, P 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Annexin B1 in the liver of anti-Fas antibody treated mice. The %ID/g of apoptotic murine liver showed a 2.02-fo1d increase at 2 h after the administration of anti-Fas antibody compared with control mice (t=6.178, P 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Annexin B1 can be prepared with high radiochemical purity and in vitro stability. These da- ta also suggest that 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Annexin B1 retains its in vitro and in vivo biological activities. It may therefore be useful as a novel radioligand for the noninvasive imaging of PS externalization associated with apoptosis. (authors)

  6. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1, Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from derived International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1 observations of tropical cyclones worldwide. The B1 data...

  7. TU-H-206-03: Characterizing B1 Inhomogeneities in DCE MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gach, H; Mason, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI is a valuable technique for measuring perfusion and permeability characteristics of tumors. Exogenous contrast concentrations are calculated based on changes in T 1 measured using fast 3D gradient echo (FLASH) sequences. However, the slab selective pulses used in 3D MRI may result in B 1 inhomogeneities across the volume of interest that can lead to errors in T 1 and thus the estimated gadolinium concentration. We compared three FLASH DCE sequences (GRE, TWIST, and VIBE) to determine their signal homogeneity across slices and the accuracy in calculating T 1 using acquisitions with variable flip angles. Methods: The sequences were tested at 3 T on a Siemens mMR (VB20P) using a doped water phantom 3.75 g/L NiSO 4 - 6H 2 O + 5 g/L NaCl (T 1 = 104 ms) and a 2% agar, 0.67% NaCl phantom (T 1 = 1.71 s). 2D EPI B 1 maps and inversion recovery T 1 maps were acquired for ground truth. 3D MRI was acquired at different flip angles to generate a T 1 map. Regions of interest were drawn to measure signal inside the phantoms as a function of slice position. The T 1 for each slice ROI was fit to the FLASH steady-state model of magnetization. Results: Based on the data, GRE gave the most uniform signal homogeneity and T 1 values in the middle slices of the 3D volume. The 3D VIBE sequence had the largest region of signal inhomogeneity compared to the 3D GRE and TWIST sequences. VIBE’s B 1 inhomogeneity is inconsistent at low flip angles. However, VIBE resulted in more slices with T 1 values similar to the ground truth. Conclusion: The central 1/3 of the slices yielded signals that result in T 1 fits consistent with the ground truth. However, the remaining slices required some form of B 1 inhomogeneity correction for quantitative DCE analysis. The research was supported in part by NIH NCI Grant R01CA159471.

  8. High temperature microhardness of ZrB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Xuan; Chen Chunhua; Otani, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    Vickers microhardness of (0001), (101-bar 0) and (112-bar 0) planes of ZrB 2 single crystal prepared by the floating zone method has been investigated at various temperatures and loading times. As the temperature increases from 25 deg. C to 1000 deg. C, hardness drops from ∼20.9 GN m -2 of all planes to ∼7.85 GN m -2 for (0001) plane and ∼4.91 GN m -2 for (101-bar 0) and (112-bar 0) planes. The hardness of (101-bar 0) and (112-bar 0) planes exhibits almost same tendency and is always lower than that of (0001) plane by about 35%. The thermal softening coefficients of all three planes strongly depends on the temperature range with clear inflections at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C. The loading time dependence of hardness is used to calculate the activation energy for creep. In addition, a relationship was found that shows the variation of hardness with temperature to be proportional to the variation with the loading time in a specific temperature range. (rapid communication)

  9. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I.; Pujana, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Merino, J. M.; Tropeano, M.; Sun, J.; Canosa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator's main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator.

  10. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, I; Pujana, A; Sarmiento, G; Sanz, S; Merino, J M; Tropeano, M; Sun, J; Canosa, T

    2016-01-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB 2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator’s main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator. (paper)

  11. Bond deformation paths and electronic instabilities of ultraincompressible transition metal diborides: Case study of OsB2 and IrB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. F.; Legut, D.; Wen, X. D.; Veprek, S.; Rajan, K.; Lookman, T.; Mao, H. K.; Zhao, Y. S.

    2014-09-01

    The energetically most stable orthorhombic structure of OsB2 and IrB2 is dynamically stable for OsB2 but unstable for IrB2. Both diborides have substantially lower shear strength in their easy slip systems than their metal counterparts. This is attributed to an easy sliding facilitated by out-of-plane weakening of metallic Os-Os bonds in OsB2 and by an in-plane bond splitting instability in IrB2. A much higher shear resistance of Os-B and B-B bonds than Os-Os ones is found, suggesting that the strengthened Os-B and B-B bonds are responsible for hardness enhancement in OsB2. In contrast, an in-plane electronic instability in IrB2 limits its strength. The electronic structure of deformed diborides suggests that the electronic instabilities of 5d orbitals are their origin of different bond deformation paths. Neither IrB2 nor OsB2 can be intrinsically superhard.

  12. The conserved nhaAR operon is drastically divergent between B2 and non-B2 Escherichia coli and is involved in extra-intestinal virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescat, Mathilde; Reibel, Florence; Pintard, Coralie; Dion, Sara; Glodt, Jérémy; Gateau, Cecile; Launay, Adrien; Ledda, Alice; Cruveiller, Stephane; Cruvellier, Stephane; Tourret, Jérôme; Tenaillon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli species is divided in phylogenetic groups that differ in their virulence and commensal distribution. Strains belonging to the B2 group are involved in extra-intestinal pathologies but also appear to be more prevalent as commensals among human occidental populations. To investigate the genetic specificities of B2 sub-group, we used 128 sequenced genomes and identified genes of the core genome that showed marked difference between B2 and non-B2 genomes. We focused on the gene and its surrounding region with the strongest divergence between B2 and non-B2, the antiporter gene nhaA. This gene is part of the nhaAR operon, which is in the core genome but flanked by mobile regions, and is involved in growth at high pH and high sodium concentrations. Consistently, we found that a panel of non-B2 strains grew faster than B2 at high pH and high sodium concentrations. However, we could not identify differences in expression of the nhaAR operon using fluorescence reporter plasmids. Furthermore, the operon deletion had no differential impact between B2 and non-B2 strains, and did not result in a fitness modification in a murine model of gut colonization. Nevertheless, sequence analysis and experiments in a murine model of septicemia revealed that recombination in nhaA among B2 strains was observed in strains with low virulence. Finally, nhaA and nhaAR operon deletions drastically decreased virulence in one B2 strain. This effect of nhaAR deletion appeared to be stronger than deletion of all pathogenicity islands. Thus, a population genetic approach allowed us to identify an operon in the core genome without strong effect in commensalism but with an important role in extra-intestinal virulence, a landmark of the B2 strains.

  13. Structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of TaB2, TaB, IrB2, and IrB: First-principle calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenjie; Wang Yuanxu

    2009-01-01

    First-principle calculations were performed to investigate the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of TaB 2 , TaB, IrB 2 , and IrB. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters, shear modulus, and Young's modulus of TaB 2 are well consistent with the available experimental data, and TaB 2 with P6/mmm space group has stronger directional bonding between ions than WB 2 , OsB 2 , IrN 2 , and PtN 2 . For TaB 2 , the hexagonal P6/mmm structure is more stable than the orthorhombic Pmmn one, while for IrB 2 the orthorhombic Pmmn structure is the most stable one. The high shear modulus of P6/mmm phase TaB 2 is mainly due to the strong covalent π-bonding of B-hexagon in the (0001) plane. Such a B-hexagon network can strongly resist against an applied [112-bar0] (0001) shear deformation. Correlation between the hardness and the elastic constants of TaB 2 was discussed. The band structure shows that P6/mmm phase TaB 2 and Pmmn phase IrB 2 are both metallic. The calculations show that both TaB and IrB are elastically stable with the hexagonal P6 3 /mmc structure. - Elastic constant c 44 of TaB 2 is calculated to be 235 GPa. This value is exceptionally high, exceeding those of WB 2 , OsB 2 , WB 4 , OsN 2 , IrN 2 , and PtN 2 .

  14. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. 48.4161(b)-1 Section 48.4161(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-1...

  15. 17 CFR 270.6b-1 - Exemption of employees' securities company pending determination of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' securities company pending determination of application. 270.6b-1 Section 270.6b-1 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.6b-1 Exemption of employees' securities company pending determination of application. Any... Act (54 Stat. 801; 15 U.S.C. 80a-6) shall be exempt, pending final determination of such application...

  16. 17 CFR 240.15b1-1 - Application for registration of brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of brokers or dealers. 240.15b1-1 Section 240.15b1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Registration of Brokers and Dealers § 240.15b1-1 Application for registration of brokers or dealers. (a) An application for registration of...

  17. Fasitibant chloride, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone interact to inhibit carrageenan-induced inflammatory arthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Claudio; Giuliani, Sandro; Cialdai, Cecilia; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bradykinin, through the kinin B2 receptor, is involved in inflammatory processes related to arthropathies. B2 receptor antagonists inhibited carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats in synergy with anti-inflammatory steroids. The mechanism(s) underlying this drug interaction was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Drugs inhibiting inflammatory mediators released by carrageenan were injected, alone or in combination, into the knee joint of pentobarbital anaesthetized rats 30 min before intra-articular administration of carrageenan. Their effects on the carrageenan-induced inflammatory responses (joint pain, oedema and neutrophil recruitment) and release of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, IL-1β, IL-6 and the chemokine GRO/CINC-1), were assessed after 6 h. KEY RESULTS The combination of fasitibant chloride (MEN16132) and dexamethasone was more effective than each drug administered alone in inhibiting knee joint inflammation and release of inflammatory mediators. Fasitibant chloride, MK571, atenolol, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin (B2 receptor, leukotriene, catecholamine and B1 receptor antagonists, respectively) and dexketoprofen (COX inhibitor), reduced joint pain and, except for the latter, also diminished joint oedema. A combination of drugs inhibiting joint pain (fasitibant chloride, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin, dexketoprofen, MK571 and atenolol) and oedema (fasitibant chloride, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin, MK571 and atenolol) abolished the respective inflammatory response, producing inhibition comparable with that achieved with the combination of fasitibant chloride and dexamethasone. MK571 alone was able to block neutrophil recruitment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Bradykinin-mediated inflammatory responses to intra-articular carrageenan were not controlled by steroids, which were not capable of preventing bradykinin effects either by direct activation of the B2 receptor, or through the indirect effects mediated by release of eicosanoids

  18. Kinin B1 Receptor Promotes Neurogenic Hypertension Through Activation of Centrally Mediated Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Lazartigues, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with increased activity of the kallikrein-kinin system. Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) activation leads to vasoconstriction and inflammation. Despite evidence supporting a role for the B1R in blood pressure regulation, the mechanisms by which B1R could alter autonomic function and participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain unidentified. We sought to explore whether B1R-mediated inflammation contributes to hypertension and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of B1R in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, using the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in wild-type and B1R knockout mice. Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment in wild-type mice led to significant increases in B1R mRNA and protein levels and bradykinin levels, enhanced gene expression of carboxypeptidase N supporting an increase in the B1R ligand, associated with enhanced blood pressure, inflammation, sympathoexcitation, autonomic dysfunction, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity, whereas these changes were blunted or prevented in B1R knockout mice. B1R stimulation was further shown to involve activation of the ASK1-JNK-ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathways in the brain. To dismiss potential developmental alterations in knockout mice, we further used B1R blockade selectively in the brain of wild-type mice. Supporting the central origin of this mechanism, intracerebroventricular infusion of a specific B1R antagonist, attenuated the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced increase in blood pressure in wild-type mice. Our data provide the first evidence of a central role for B1R-mediated inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension and offer novel insights into possible B1R-targeted therapies for the treatment of neurogenic hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Microstructural characterization of LaB6-ZrB2 eutectic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengchang; Wei, W.J.; Zhang Litong

    2003-01-01

    Detail microstructure of LaB 6 -ZrB 2 composites has been characterized by TEM and HRTEM. The directionally solidified ZrB 2 fibers in LaB 6 matrix near LaB 6 -ZrB 2 eutectics present at least three growing relationship systems. In addition to previous report of [001]LaB 6 / [0001]ZrB 2 relationship, [0 anti 11]LaB 6 / [0001]ZrB 2 and [1 anti 20]LaB 6 / [0001]ZrB 2 . were identified. Different with [001]LaB 6 / [0001]ZrB 2 system, the interfaces of [0 anti 11]LaB 6 / [0001]ZrB 2 and [1 anti 20]LaB 6 / [0001]ZrB 2 . show non-coherent and clean interfaces. There is neither glassy phase nor reaction products found at the interfaces (orig.)

  20. The CVD ZrB2 as a selective solar absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randich, E.; Allred, D. D.

    Coatings of ZrB2 and TiB2 for photothermal solar absorber applications were prepared using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. Oxidation tests suggest a maximum temperature limit for air exposure of 600 K for TiB2 and 800 K for Z4B2. Both materials exhibit innate spectral selectivity with emittance at 375 K ranging from 0.06 to 0.09 and solar absorptance for ZrB2 ranging from 0.67 to 0.77 and solar absorptance for TiB2 ranging from 0.46 to 0.58. ZrB2 has better solar selectivity and more desirable oxidation behavior than TiB2. A 0.071 micrometer antireflection coating of Si3N4 deposited on the ZrB2 coating leads to an increase in absorptance from 0.77 to 0.93, while the emittance remains unchanged.

  1. Beyond the exchange--the future of B2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, R; Morrison, D

    2000-01-01

    Using the Internet to facilitate business-to-business commerce promises many benefits, such as dramatic cost reductions and greater access to buyers and sellers. Yet little is known about how B2B e-commerce will evolve. The authors argue that changes in the financial services industry over the past two decades provide important clues. Exchanges, they say, are not the primary source of value in information-intensive markets; value tends to accumulate among a diverse group of specialists that focus on such tasks as packaging, standard setting, arbitrage, and information management. Because scale and liquidity are vitally important to efficient trading, today's exchanges will consolidate into a relatively small set of mega-exchanges. Originators will handle the origination and aggregation of complex transactions before sending them on to mega-exchanges for execution. E-speculators, seeking to capitalize on an abundance of market information, will tend to concentrate where relatively standardized products can be transferred easily among a large group of buyers. In many markets, a handful of independent solution providers with well-known brand names and solid reputations will thrive alongside mega-exchanges. Sell-side asset exchanges will create the networks and provide the tools to allow suppliers to trade orders among themselves, sometimes after initial transactions with customers are made on the mega-exchanges. For many companies, traditional skills in such areas as product development, manufacturing, and marketing may become relatively less important, while the ability to understand and capitalize on market dynamics may become considerably more important.

  2. Thermal Vacuum Integrated System Test at B-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3x10(exp -4)Pa (1x10(exp -6)torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (140deg R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber s cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  3. Microwave surface impedance of MgB2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, B B; Klein, N; Kang, W N; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Choi, Eun-Mi; Lee, Sung-I K; Dahm, T; Maki, K

    2003-01-01

    The microwave surface impedance Z s = R s + jωμ 0 λ was measured with dielectric resonator techniques for two c-axis-oriented MgB 2 thin films. The temperature dependence of the penetration depth λ measured with a sapphire resonator at 17.93 GHz can be well fitted from 5 K close to T c by the standard BCS integral expression assuming the reduced energy gap Δ(0)/kT c to be as low as 1.13 and 1.03 for the two samples. From these fits the penetration depth at zero temperatures was determined to be 102 nm and 107 nm, respectively. The results clearly indicate the s-wave nature of the order parameter. The temperature dependence of surface resistance R s , measured with a rutile dielectric resonator, shows an exponential behaviour below about T c /2 with a reduced energy gap being consistent with the one determined from the λ data. The R s value at 4.2 K was found to be as low as 19 μΩ at 7.2 GHz, which is comparable with that of a high-quality high-temperature thin film of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . A higher-order mode at 17.9 GHz was employed to determine the frequency f dependence of R s ∝ f n(T) . Our results revealed a decrease of n with increasing temperature ranging from n = 2 below 8 K to n 1 from 13 to 34 K

  4. Sulfolobus Replication Factor C stimulates the activity of DNA Polymerase B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Likui; Guo, Li

    2014-01-01

    the hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus Sulfolobus physically interacts with DNA polymerase B1 (PolB1) and enhances both the polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities of PolB1 in an ATP-independent manner. Stimulation of the PolB1 activity by RFC is independent of the ability of RFC to bind DNA but is consistent...... with the ability of RFC to facilitate DNA binding by PolB1 through protein-protein interaction. These results suggest that Sulfolobus RFC may play a role in recruiting DNA polymerase for efficient primer extension, in addition to clamp loading, during DNA replication....

  5. Neuronal SH2B1 is essential for controlling energy and glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Decheng; Zhou, Yingjiang; Morris, David; Li, Minghua; Li, Zhiqin; Rui, Liangyou

    2007-01-01

    SH2B1 (previously named SH2-B), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, binds via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain to a variety of protein tyrosine kinases, including JAK2 and the insulin receptor. SH2B1-deficient mice are obese and diabetic. Here we demonstrated that multiple isoforms of SH2B1 (α, β, γ, and/or δ) were expressed in numerous tissues, including the brain, hypothalamus, liver, muscle, adipose tissue, heart, and pancreas. Rat SH2B1β was specifically expressed in neural tissue in SH2B1-tran...

  6. CYP1B1 expression, a potential risk factor for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Erdmann, Christine A.; Russell, Marion

    2001-05-31

    CYP1B1 expression in non-tumor breast tissue from breast cancer patients and cancer-free individuals was determined to test the hypothesis that high CYP1B1 expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. Large interindividual variations in CYP1B1 expression were found with CYP1B1 levels notably higher in breast cancer patients than cancer-free individuals. The results indicate that CYP1B1 might play a role in breast cancer either through increased PAH activation or through metabolism of endogenous estrogen to a carcinogenic derivative.

  7. Experiences and Future Expectations towards Online Courses--An Empirical Study of the B2C-and B2B-Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Andreas; Böhrs, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the future potential for the development of online courses. The findings are based on an empirical study with 3 sample groups: (1) B2C segment in Germany, (2) B2C segment in the United States, and (3) B2B segment (international). In the first step the status quo of the use of e-learning in general and online courses in…

  8. Study on Logistics Distribution Centers for B2C Online Shopping%B2C网购物流配送中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯凌燕; 尹军琪

    2011-01-01

    分析了我国B2C网购物流配送的现状,对其特点和难点作了分析,并提出了相应的B2C网购物流配送中心设计解决方案.%The paper analyzes the current status of the logistics and distribution operations for B2C online shopping in China, analyzes its characteristics and existing issues, and puts forth solutions for the design of logistics and distribution centers for B2C online shopping.

  9. Microvesicle transfer of kinin B1-receptors is a novel inflammatory mechanism in vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Robin; Mossberg, Maria; Ståhl, Anne-Lie; Johansson, Karl; Lopatko Lindman, Ingrid; Heijl, Caroline; Segelmark, Mårten; Mörgelin, Matthias; Leeb-Lundberg, L M Fredrik; Karpman, Diana

    2017-01-01

    During vasculitis, activation of the kinin system induces inflammation, whereby the kinin B1-receptor is expressed and activated after ligand binding. Additionally, activated blood cells release microvesicles into the circulation. Here we determined whether leukocyte-derived microvesicles bear B1-kinin receptors during vasculitis, and if microvesicles transfer functional B1-receptors to recipient cells, thus promoting inflammation. By flow cytometry, plasma from patients with vasculitis were found to contain high levels of leukocyte-derived microvesicles bearing B1-receptors. Importantly, renal biopsies from two patients with vasculitis showed leukocyte-derived microvesicles bearing B1-receptors docking on glomerular endothelial cells providing in vivo relevance. Microvesicles derived from B1-receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells transferred B1-receptors to wild-type human embryonic kidney cells, lacking the receptor, and to glomerular endothelial cells. The transferred B1-receptors induced calcium influx after B1-receptor agonist stimulation: a response abrogated by a specific B1-receptor antagonist. Microvesicles derived from neutrophils also transferred B1-receptors to wild-type human embryonic kidney cells and induced calcium influx after stimulation. Thus, we found a novel mechanism by which microvesicles transfer functional receptors and promote kinin-associated inflammation. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. THE CHESS SURVEY OF THE L1157-B1 SHOCK REGION: CO SPECTRAL SIGNATURES OF JET-DRIVEN BOW SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefloch, B.; Codella, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cabrit, S.; Busquet, G.; Benedettini, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Pardo, J. R.; Lis, D. C.; Nisini, B.

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented sensitivity of Herschel coupled with the high resolution of the HIFI spectrometer permits studies of the intensity-velocity relationship I(v) in molecular outflows, over a higher excitation range than possible up to now. Over the course of the CHESS Key Program, we have observed toward the bright bow shock region L1157-B1, the CO rotational transitions between J = 5-4 and J = 16-15 with HIFI, and the J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 with the IRAM 30 m and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory telescopes. We find that all the line profiles I CO (v) are well fit by a linear combination of three exponential laws ∝exp (– |v/v 0 |) with v 0 = 12.5, 4.4, and 2.5 km s –1 . The first component dominates the CO emission at J ≥ 13, as well as the high-excitation lines of SiO and H 2 O. The second component dominates for 3 ≤ J up ≤ 10 and the third one for J up ≤ 2. We show that these exponentials are the signature of quasi-isothermal shocked gas components: the impact of the jet against the L1157-B1 bow shock (T k ≅ 210 K), the walls of the outflow cavity associated with B1 (T k ≅ 64 K), and the older cavity L1157-B2 (T k ≅ 23 K), respectively. Analysis of the CO line flux in the large-velocity gradient approximation further shows that the emission arises from dense gas (n(H 2 ) ≥ 10 5 -10 6 cm –3 ) close to LTE up to J = 20. We find that the CO J = 2-1 intensity-velocity relation observed in various other molecular outflows is satisfactorily fit by similar exponential laws, which may hold an important clue to their entrainment process.

  11. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  12. Clinical relevance of ErbB-2/HER2 nuclear expression in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, Roxana; Charreau, Eduardo H; Maronna, Esteban; Roa, Juan C; Elizalde, Patricia V; Guzmán, Pablo; Cayrol, Florencia; Beguelin, Wendy; Díaz Flaqué, María C; Proietti, Cecilia J; Pineda, Viviana; Palazzi, Jorge; Frahm, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The biological relevance of nuclear ErbB-2/HER2 (NuclErbB-2) presence in breast tumors remains unexplored. In this study we assessed the clinical significance of ErbB-2 nuclear localization in primary invasive breast cancer. The reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies (REMARK) guidelines were used as reference. Tissue microarrays from a cohort of 273 primary invasive breast carcinomas from women living in Chile, a Latin American country, were examined for membrane (MembErbB-2) and NuclErbB-2 expression by an immunofluorescence (IF) protocol we developed. ErbB-2 expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a series of antibodies. Correlation between NuclErbB-2 and MembErbB-2, and between NuclErbB-2 and clinicopathological characteristics of tumors was studied. The prognostic value of NuclErbB-2 in overall survival (OS) was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox model was used to explore NuclErbB-2 as independent prognostic factor for OS. The IF protocol we developed showed significantly higher sensitivity for detection of NuclErbB-2 than IHC procedures, while its specificity and sensitivity to detect MembErbB-2 were comparable to those of IHC procedures. We found 33.6% NuclErbB-2 positivity, 14.2% MembErbB-2 overexpression by IF, and 13.0% MembErbB-2 prevalence by IHC in our cohort. We identified NuclErbB-2 positivity as a significant independent predictor of worse OS in patients with MembErbB-2 overexpression. NuclErbB-2 was also a biomarker of lower OS in tumors that overexpress MembErbB-2 and lack steroid hormone receptors. We revealed a novel role for NuclErbB-2 as an independent prognostic factor of poor clinical outcome in MembErbB-2-positive breast tumors. Our work indicates that patients presenting NuclErbB-2 may need new therapeutic strategies involving specific blockage of ErbB-2 nuclear migration

  13. Clinical relevance of ErbB-2/HER2 nuclear expression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillaci Roxana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological relevance of nuclear ErbB-2/HER2 (NuclErbB-2 presence in breast tumors remains unexplored. In this study we assessed the clinical significance of ErbB-2 nuclear localization in primary invasive breast cancer. The reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies (REMARK guidelines were used as reference. Methods Tissue microarrays from a cohort of 273 primary invasive breast carcinomas from women living in Chile, a Latin American country, were examined for membrane (MembErbB-2 and NuclErbB-2 expression by an immunofluorescence (IF protocol we developed. ErbB-2 expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC with a series of antibodies. Correlation between NuclErbB-2 and MembErbB-2, and between NuclErbB-2 and clinicopathological characteristics of tumors was studied. The prognostic value of NuclErbB-2 in overall survival (OS was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox model was used to explore NuclErbB-2 as independent prognostic factor for OS. Results The IF protocol we developed showed significantly higher sensitivity for detection of NuclErbB-2 than IHC procedures, while its specificity and sensitivity to detect MembErbB-2 were comparable to those of IHC procedures. We found 33.6% NuclErbB-2 positivity, 14.2% MembErbB-2 overexpression by IF, and 13.0%