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  1. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and the prediction of diabetes

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    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Shaw, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    With diabetes defined by HbA1c≥6.5% and/or FPG≥7.0mmol/l and/or diabetes treatment, we investigated HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) thresholds/change-points above which the incidence of diabetes increases.......With diabetes defined by HbA1c≥6.5% and/or FPG≥7.0mmol/l and/or diabetes treatment, we investigated HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) thresholds/change-points above which the incidence of diabetes increases....

  2. Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes according to Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c

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    Jeon, Ja Young; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Nan Hee; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Jang, Myoung-jin; Kim, Yuna; Oh, Kyungwon

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the inconvenience of performing oral glucose tolerance tests and day to day variability in glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association as a method to diagnose diabetes. In addition, the Korean Diabetes Association has also recommended the use of HbA1c as a diagnostic test for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of diabetes according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level only or the combination of FPG and HbA1c tests. Methods Data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were analyzed. Among 5,811 subjects aged 30 years or older, 5,020 were selected after excluding the data of fasting time <8 hours, missing values from fasting glucose or HbA1c level, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by physicians, or current use of antidiabetic medications. Diabetes was defined as FPG ≥126 mg/dL, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by a medical doctor, current use of antidiabetic medications, and/or HbA1c ≥6.5%. Prediabetes was defined as FPG of 100 to 125 mg/dL and/or HbA1c of 5.7% to 6.4%. Results When we used FPG only, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes were 10.5% (men, 12.6%; women, 8.5%) and 19.3% (men, 23.8%; women, 14.9%), respectively. When HbA1c was included as a diagnostic test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes increased to 12.4% (men, 14.5%; women, 10.4%) and 38.3% (men, 41%; women, 35.7%), respectively. Participants with HbA1c ≥6.5% and fasting glucose level <126 mg/dL were older and had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusion We concluded that using fasting glucose level only may result in an underestimation of diabetes and prediabetes. HbA1c is an acceptable complementary diagnostic test for diabetes in Korean patients. However, national standardization is needed to order to use HbA1c as a diagnostic method of diabetes and prediabetes. PMID:24199164

  3. Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes according to Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c

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    Ja Young Jeon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDue to the inconvenience of performing oral glucose tolerance tests and day to day variability in glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association as a method to diagnose diabetes. In addition, the Korean Diabetes Association has also recommended the use of HbA1c as a diagnostic test for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of diabetes according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG level only or the combination of FPG and HbA1c tests.MethodsData from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES were analyzed. Among 5,811 subjects aged 30 years or older, 5,020 were selected after excluding the data of fasting time <8 hours, missing values from fasting glucose or HbA1c level, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by physicians, or current use of antidiabetic medications. Diabetes was defined as FPG ≥126 mg/dL, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by a medical doctor, current use of antidiabetic medications, and/or HbA1c ≥6.5%. Prediabetes was defined as FPG of 100 to 125 mg/dL and/or HbA1c of 5.7% to 6.4%.ResultsWhen we used FPG only, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes were 10.5% (men, 12.6%; women, 8.5% and 19.3% (men, 23.8%; women, 14.9%, respectively. When HbA1c was included as a diagnostic test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes increased to 12.4% (men, 14.5%; women, 10.4% and 38.3% (men, 41%; women, 35.7%, respectively. Participants with HbA1c ≥6.5% and fasting glucose level <126 mg/dL were older and had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate.ConclusionWe concluded that using fasting glucose level only may result in an underestimation of diabetes and prediabetes. HbA1c is an acceptable complementary diagnostic test for diabetes in Korean patients. However, national standardization is needed to order to use HbA1c as a diagnostic method of diabetes and prediabetes.

  4. The relationship between HbA(1c) and fasting plasma glucose in patients with increased plasma liver enzyme measurements

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    Christiansen, R; Rasmussen, L Melholt; Nybo, H

    2012-01-01

    levels of increased liver enzyme concentrations. Methods:  Data from 10 065 patients with simultaneous measurement of HbA(1c) , venous fasting plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase were extracted from our laboratory database. Correlations were investigated in four patient...

  5. Accuracy of hemoglobin A1c imputation using fasting plasma glucose in diabetes research using electronic health records data

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    Stanley Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In studies that use electronic health record data, imputation of important data elements such as Glycated hemoglobin (A1c has become common. However, few studies have systematically examined the validity of various imputation strategies for missing A1c values. We derived a complete dataset using an incident diabetes population that has no missing values in A1c, fasting and random plasma glucose (FPG and RPG, age, and gender. We then created missing A1c values under two assumptions: missing completely at random (MCAR and missing at random (MAR. We then imputed A1c values, compared the imputed values to the true A1c values, and used these data to assess the impact of A1c on initiation of antihyperglycemic therapy. Under MCAR, imputation of A1c based on FPG 1 estimated a continuous A1c within ± 1.88% of the true A1c 68.3% of the time; 2 estimated a categorical A1c within ± one category from the true A1c about 50% of the time. Including RPG in imputation slightly improved the precision but did not improve the accuracy. Under MAR, including gender and age in addition to FPG improved the accuracy of imputed continuous A1c but not categorical A1c. Moreover, imputation of up to 33% of missing A1c values did not change the accuracy and precision and did not alter the impact of A1c on initiation of antihyperglycemic therapy. When using A1c values as a predictor variable, a simple imputation algorithm based only on age, sex, and fasting plasma glucose gave acceptable results.

  6. Comparison of the Current Diagnostic Criterion of HbA1c with Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose Concentration

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    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Huang, Jean; Feng, Wei; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% in diagnosing diabetes compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dL and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥ 200 mg/dL in a previously undiagnosed diabetic cohort, we included 5,764 adult subjects without established diabetes for whom HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, and BMI measurements were collected. Compared to the FPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 43.3% (106 subjects). Compared to the 2hPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 28.1% (110 subjects). Patients who were diabetic using 2hPG criterion but had HbA1c HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The diagnostic agreement in the clinical setting revealed the current HbA1c ≥ 6.5% is less likely to detect diabetes than those defined by FPG and 2hPG. HbA1c ≥ 6.5% detects less than 50% of diabetic patients defined by FPG and less than 30% of diabetic patients defined by 2hPG. When the diagnosis of diabetes is in doubt by HbA1c, FPG and/or 2hPG should be obtained. PMID:27597979

  7. Discordance in the diagnosis of diabetes: Comparison between HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose.

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    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Nguyen, Uyen D T; Tran, Truong X; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2017-01-01

    HbA1c has been introduced as a complementary diagnostic test for diabetes, but its impact on disease prevalence is unknown. This study evaluated the concordance between HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in the diagnosis of diabetes in the general population. The study was designed as a population based investigation, with participants being sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting and analyzed within 4 hours after collection. HbA1c was measured with high pressure liquid chromatography (Arkray Adams, Japan). FPG was measured by the hexokinase method (Advia Autoanalyzer; Bayer Diagnostics, Germany). Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L. Prediabetes was classified as HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4%. The study included 3523 individuals (2356 women) aged 30 years and above. Based on the HbA1c test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was 9.7% (95%CI, 8.7-10.7%; n = 342) and 34.6% (33.0-36.2; n = 1219), respectively. Based on the FPG test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was 6.3% (95%CI, 5.5-7.2%; n = 223) and 12.1% (11.1-13.2; n = 427). Among the 427 individuals identified by FPG as "pre-diabetes", 28.6% were classified as diabetes by HbA1c test. The weighted kappa statistic of concordance between HbA1c and FPG was 0.55, with most of the discordance being in the prediabetes group. These data indicate that there is a significant discordance in the diagnosis of diabetes between FPG and HbA1c measurements, and the discordance could have significant impact on clinical practice. FPG appears to underestimate the burden of undiagnosed diabetes.

  8. Elevated HbA1c and Fasting Plasma Glucose in Predicting Diabetes Incidence Among Older Adults

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    Lipska, Kasia J.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Gill, Thomas M.; Kanaya, Alka; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Koster, Annemarie; Johnson, Karen C.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Harris, Tamara; De Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine which measures—impaired fasting glucose (IFG), elevated HbA1c, or both—best predict incident diabetes in older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, we selected individuals without diabetes, and we defined IFG (100–125 mg/dL) and elevated HbA1c (5.7–6.4%) per American Diabetes Association guidelines. Incident diabetes was based on self-report, use of antihyperglycemic medicines, or HbA1c ≥6.5% during 7 years of follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, site, BMI, smoking, blood pressure, and physical activity. Discrimination and calibration were assessed for models with IFG and with both IFG and elevated HbA1c. RESULTS Among 1,690 adults (mean age 76.5, 46% men, 32% black), 183 (10.8%) developed diabetes over 7 years. Adjusted odds ratios of diabetes were 6.2 (95% CI 4.4–8.8) in those with IFG (versus those with fasting plasma glucose [FPG] HbA1c (versus those with HbA1c HbA1c were considered together, odds ratios were 3.5 (1.9–6.3) in those with IFG only, 8.0 (4.8–13.2) in those with elevated HbA1c only, and 26.2 (16.3–42.1) in those with both IFG and elevated HbA1c (versus those with normal FPG and HbA1c). Addition of elevated HbA1c to the model with IFG resulted in improved discrimination and calibration. CONCLUSIONS Older adults with both IFG and elevated HbA1c have a substantially increased odds of developing diabetes over 7 years. Combined screening with FPG and HbA1c may identify older adults at very high risk for diabetes. PMID:24135387

  9. HbA1c, fasting and 2 h plasma glucose in current, ex- and never-smokers

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    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Herman, William H

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The relationships between smoking and glycaemic variables have not been well explored. We compared HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current, ex- and never-smokers. METHODS: This meta-analysis used individual data from 16,886 men and 18,539 women......, there was no significant difference between current and never-smokers (-0.004 mmol/l [-0.03, 0.02]) but FPG was higher in ex-smokers (0.12 mmol/l [0.09, 0.14]). In comparison with never-smokers, 2H-PG was lower (-0.44 mmol/l [-0.52, -0.37]) in current smokers, with no difference for ex-smokers (0.02 mmol/l [-0.06, 0...... as screened by 2H-PG, in comparison with never-smokers. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Across this heterogeneous group of studies, current smokers had a higher HbA1c and lower 2H-PG than never-smokers. This will affect the chances of smokers being diagnosed with diabetes....

  10. Hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour plasma glucose distributions in U.S. population subgroups: NHANES 2005-2010.

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    Menke, Andy; Rust, Keith F; Savage, Peter J; Cowie, Catherine C

    2014-02-01

    Although mean concentrations of hemoglobin A1c (A1C), fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour plasma glucose differ by demographics, it is unclear what other characteristics of the distributions may differ, such as the amount of asymmetry of the distribution (skewness) and shift left or right compared with another distribution (shift). Using kernel density estimation, we created smoothed plots of the distributions of fasting plasma glucose (N = 7250), 2-hour plasma glucose (N = 5851), and A1C (N = 16,209) by age, race-ethnicity, and sex in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults including people with and without diabetes. We tested differences in distributions using cumulative logistic regression. The distributions were generally unimodal and right-skewed. All distributions were shifted higher and more right-skewed for older age groups (P Mexican-Americans (P = .01), whereas the distribution of A1C was shifted higher for non-Hispanic blacks (P rights reserved.

  11. Fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1c in pregnancy and the postpartum risk of diabetes among Chinese women with gestational diabetes.

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    Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Leishen; Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqin; Li, Nan; Li, Min; Qiao, Yijuan; Tian, Huiguang; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yang, Xilin; Yu, Zhijie; Hu, Gang

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have assessed the association of fasting and 2h glucose, and HbA1c during pregnancy with postpartum diabetes risk among women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We assessed the association of fasting glucose, 2h glucose and HbA1c at 26-30 gestational weeks with postpartum diabetes risk among women with prior GDM. A cohort study in 1263 GDM women at 1-5 years after delivery was performed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association of fasting and 2h plasma glucose, and HbA1c at 26-30 gestational weeks with the risk of diabetes at postpartum. The multivariable-adjusted (age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, current body mass index, family history of diabetes, marital status, education, family income, smoking status, passive smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol drinking, and intake of energy, saturated fat, and dietary fiber) hazard ratios of postpartum diabetes were 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.91) for each 1 mmol/l increase in fasting glucose during pregnancy, 1.63 (95% CI: 1.45-1.84) for each 1 mmol/l increase in 2h glucose during pregnancy, 2.11 (95% CI: 1.50-2.97) for each 1 unit (%) increase in HbA1c during pregnancy. When fasting glucose, 2h glucose and HbA1c during pregnancy were entered multivariable-adjusted model simultaneously, 2h glucose and HbA1c but not fasting glucose remained to be significant and positive predictors for postpartum diabetes. For women with prior GDM, 2h plasma glucose and HbA1c during pregnancy are independent predictors of postpartum diabetes, but fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy is not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative study of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis

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    Aftab, H.; Ambreen, A.; Jamil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To compare HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Methods: Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital...... in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. Results: The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39...... the two tests (P=0.07). Conclusions: HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood...

  13. Associations of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose with incident diabetes: Implications for pre-diabetes thresholds in a Japanese population.

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    Nakagami, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yuki; Oya, Junko; Kurita, Moritoshi; Isago, Chisato; Hasegawa, Yukiko; Ito, Arata; Hirota, Naoki; Tsuzura, Reika; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed pre-diabetes (pre-DM) cutoffs for HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) that were associated with an increased risk of incident DM. We evaluated 2267 non-diabetic Japanese health-check examinees (HbA1c: HbA1c of ≥6.5% (≥48mmol/mol), FPG of ≥7.0mmol/L, or physician-diagnosed DM. During 11047 person-years, we identified 99 incident DM cases (4.3%). The incidence of DM increased with increasing baseline HbA1c or FPG levels, and the change points (95% confidence intervals) were 5.7% (5.6-5.7%; 39mmol/mol [38-39mmol/mol]) for HbA1c and 5.5mmol/L (5.5-5.6mmol/L) for FPG. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident DM per one standard deviation-increase in HbA1c and FPG were 5.5 (4.4-6.8) and 4.0 (3.2-4.8), respectively. The adjusted HRs for incident DM were significantly higher at HbA1c of 5.7-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol) or FPG of 5.5-6.9mmol/L, compared to HbA1c of HbA1c and 5.5mmol/L for FPG in this Japanese population. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk of progression to diabetes from prediabetes defined by HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose criteria in Koreans.

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    Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Hee; Bae, Sung-Jin; Choe, Jaewon; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-08-01

    To examine the abilities of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria predicting 5-year progression rate to diabetes in Korean adults with prediabetes. Participants included 17,971 Koreans (aged 20-79years) who underwent routine medical check-ups at a mean interval of 5.2years (3.1-6.7years). Prediabetes was defined as FPG 5.6-6.9mmol/l or HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol). Incident diabetes was defined as FPG⩾7.0mmol/l, HbA1c⩾6.5% (48mmol/mol), or initiation of antidiabetic medications. At baseline, the prevalence of prediabetes was 30.6% (n=5495) by FPG and 20.4% (n=3664) by HbA1c criteria. The 5-year progression rate to diabetes was significantly higher in prediabetes identified by HbA1c than by FPG tests (14.7% vs. 10.4%, Pprediabetes by only one test, those by HbA1c alone had a higher risk of progression to diabetes than those diagnosed by FPG alone (6.0% vs. 3.9%, Pprediabetes identified by HbA1c (OR 9.91, 8.24-11.9) than by FPG (OR 7.29, 5.97-8.89) (P=0.026). Although fewer individuals with prediabetes were identified by HbA1c than by FPG criteria, the ability to predict progression to diabetes was stronger for HbA1c than for FPG in Koreans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum Trace Elements and Electrolytes Are Associated with Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V; Yurasov, Vasily V; Demidov, Vasily A; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Radysh, Ivan V; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of the research was to assess the level of trace elements and electrolytes in serum of postmenopausal diabetic women. Sixty-four postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 64 age- and body mass index-matched controls were examined. Serum trace elements were assessed using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels were evaluated using Randox kits. The obtained data demonstrate that DM2 patients were characterized by 42 and 34 % higher FPG and HbA 1c levels, respectively (p women was increased by 10 and 15 % in comparison to the respective control values (p = 0.002 and DM2 pathogenesis. Further studies are required to assess the intimate mechanisms of the observed differences.

  16. Visit-to-Visit Variations in Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c Associated With an Increased Risk of Alzheimer Disease: Taiwan Diabetes Study.

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    Li, Tsai-Chung; Yang, Chun-Pai; Tseng, Shih-Ting; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Yang, Sing-Yu; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between glycemic variability and the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine visit-to-visit variations in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) represented by the coefficient of variation (CV) and to determine whether they were independently associated with AD, irrespective of HbA 1c and other traditional risk factors in such patients. Patients with T2DM enrolled in the National Diabetes Care Management Program, age ≥60 years, and without diagnosis of AD ( n = 16,706) were included in the study. Potential risk factors were analyzed using extended Cox proportional hazards regression models for competing risk of mortality on AD incidence. During a median follow-up of 8.88 years, 831 incident cases of AD were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 3.5/1,000 person-years. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle behaviors, diabetes-related variables, FPG and HbA 1c , drug-related variables, and comorbidities, both FPG CV and HbA 1c CV were found to be significant predictors of AD, with corresponding hazard ratios of 1.27 (95% CI 1.06-1.52) for the third tertile in FPG CV and 1.32 (95% CI 1.11-1.58) for the third tertile in HbA 1c CV. FPG CV and HbA 1c CV are independently associated with AD. The associations between glycemic variability and AD demonstrated in this study suggest a linked pathophysiological mechanism, which is worthy of further investigation. Further research is required to confirm our results and to evaluate whether FPG CV and HbA 1c CV can be valuable therapeutic targets for patients with T2DM at risk. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) and fasting plasma glucose relationships in sea-level and high-altitude settings.

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    Bazo-Alvarez, J C; Quispe, R; Pillay, T D; Bernabé-Ortiz, A; Smeeth, L; Checkley, W; Gilman, R H; Málaga, G; Miranda, J J

    2017-06-01

    Higher haemoglobin levels and differences in glucose metabolism have been reported among high-altitude residents, which may influence the diagnostic performance of HbA 1c . This study explores the relationship between HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in populations living at sea level and at an altitude of > 3000 m. Data from 3613 Peruvian adults without a known diagnosis of diabetes from sea-level and high-altitude settings were evaluated. Linear, quadratic and cubic regression models were performed adjusting for potential confounders. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and concordance between HbA 1c and FPG was assessed using a Kappa index. At sea level and high altitude, means were 13.5 and 16.7 g/dl (P > 0.05) for haemoglobin level; 41 and 40 mmol/mol (5.9% and 5.8%; P < 0.01) for HbA 1c ; and 5.8 and 5.1 mmol/l (105 and 91.3 mg/dl; P < 0.001) for FPG, respectively. The adjusted relationship between HbA 1c and FPG was quadratic at sea level and linear at high altitude. Adjusted models showed that, to predict an HbA 1c value of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%), the corresponding mean FPG values at sea level and high altitude were 6.6 and 14.8 mmol/l (120 and 266 mg/dl), respectively. An HbA 1c cut-off of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) had a sensitivity for high FPG of 87.3% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 76.5 to 94.4) at sea level and 40.9% (95% CI 20.7 to 63.6) at high altitude. The relationship between HbA 1c and FPG is less clear at high altitude than at sea level. Caution is warranted when using HbA 1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus in this setting. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  18. Combined use of fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1c in a stepwise fashion to detect undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

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    Nakagami, Tomoko; Tominaga, Makoto; Nishimura, Rimei; Daimon, Makoto; Oizumi, Toshihide; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Tajima, Naoko

    2007-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common and serious condition related with considerable morbidity. Screening for DM is one strategy for reducing this burden. In Japan National Diabetes Screening Program (JNDSP) guideline, the combined use of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in a stepwise fashion has been recommended to identify the group of people needing life-style counseling or medical care. However, the efficacy of this program has not been fully evaluated, as an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not mandatory in the guideline. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the screening test scenario, in which an OGTT would be applied to people needing life-style counseling or medical care on this guideline: FPG 110-125 mg/dl and HbA1c over 5.5%. Subjects were 1,726 inhabitants without a previous history of DM in the Funagata study, which is a population-based survey conducted in Yamagata prefecture to clarify the risk factors, related conditions, and consequences of DM. DM was diagnosed according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. The prevalence of undiagnosed DM was 6.6%. The tested screening scenario gave a sensitivity of 55.3%, a specificity of 98.4%, a positive predictive value of 70.8%, and a negative predictive value of 96.9% for undiagnosed DM. In conclusion, the screening test scenario, in which an OGTT would be followed by the combined use of FPG and HbA1c in a stepwise fashion according to the JNDSP guideline, was not effective in identifying people with undiagnosed DM.

  19. Modelling the Relative Contribution of Fasting and Post-Prandial Plasma Glucose to HbA1c in Healthy and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

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    Ollerton, Richard L.; Luzio, Steven D.; Owens, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is regarded as the gold standard of glucose homeostasis assessment in diabetes. There has been much discussion in recent medical literature of experimental results concerning the relative contribution of fasting and post-prandial glucose levels to the value of HbA1c. A mathematical model of haemoglobin glycation is…

  20. C-Peptide Level in Fasting Plasma and Pooled Urine Predicts HbA1c after Hospitalization in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Remi Sonoda

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate how measures of insulin secretion and other clinical information affect long-term glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Between October 2012 and June 2014, we monitored 202 diabetes patients who were admitted to the hospital of Asahi Life Foundation for glycemic control, as well as for training and education in diabetes management. We measured glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c six months after discharge to assess disease management. In univariate analysis, fasting plasma C-peptide immunoreactivity (F-CPR and pooled urine CPR (U-CPR were significantly associated with HbA1c, in contrast to ΔCPR and C-peptide index (CPI. This association was strongly independent of most other patient variables. In exploratory factor analysis, five underlying factors, namely insulin resistance, aging, sex differences, insulin secretion, and glycemic control, represented patient characteristics. In particular, insulin secretion and resistance strongly influenced F-CPR, while insulin secretion affected U-CPR. In conclusion, the data indicate that among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, F-CPR and U-CPR may predict improved glycemic control six months after hospitalization.

  1. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes with fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test and A1C level: A1C based screening may be a better diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    , Mehmet Ozgur Niflioglu, Mithat Bahceci,; Bahceci, Mithat; Aslan, Sakine Leyla; Shawcross, James S.; Tutuncuoglu, Aliye Pelin; Harman, Ece

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 285 million people around the world have diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has proposed hemoglobin A1C 6.5% (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes, and 5.7-6.4% as a risk factor for progression to diabetes. This new criterions accuracy is controversial and has not yet been adopted internationally. We aimed to clarify the power of A1C in diagnosis of diabetes and pre-diabetes.

  2. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes with fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test and A1C level: A1C based screening may be a better diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    , Mehmet Ozgur Niflioglu, Mithat Bahceci,

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 285 million people around the world have diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has proposed hemoglobin A1C 6.5% (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes, and 5.7-6.4% as a risk factor for progression to diabetes. This new criterions accuracy is controversial and has not yet been adopted internationally. We aimed to clarify the power of A1C in diagnosis of diabetes and pre-diabetes.

  3. Comparing incident diabetes as defined by fasting plasma glucose or by HbA(1c). The AusDiab, Inter99 and DESIR studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soulimane, S.; Simon, D.; Shaw, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    by the corresponding criteria. Despite Diabetes Control and Complications Trial-alignment of the three HbA(1c) assays, there was a large difference in the HbA(1c) distributions between these studies, conducted some 10 years ago. Thus, it is difficult to compare absolute values of diabetes prevalence and incidence...... based on HbA(1c) measurements from that time....

  4. Fasting plasma glucose and variation in cardiometabolic risk factors in people with high-risk HbA1c-defined prediabetes: A cross-sectional multiethnic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanichakorn, Weerachai; Godsland, Ian F; Thomson, Hazel; Misra, Shivani; Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; Pramyothin, Pornpoj; Washirasaksiri, Chaiwat; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Ramachandran, Ambady; Alberti, K George M M; Johnston, Desmond G; Oliver, Nick S

    2017-12-01

    Variation in cardiometabolic risk in prediabetes and any impacts of ethnicity on such variation have been little studied. In an ethnically diverse dataset, selected according to a high-risk HbA1c-based definition of prediabetes, we have investigated relationships between glycaemia and cardiometabolic risk factors and the influence of ethnicity on these relationships. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a diabetes prevention study in the UK and a chronic care clinic in Thailand, selected for people without diabetes (fasting plasma glucose fasting plasma glucose (FPG), blood pressure (BP), lipids and insulin resistance-related risk factors (IRFs). Independently of individual characteristics including ethnicity, only systolic BP was weakly associated with FPG (beta coefficient 1.76 (95%CI 0.10-3.42), p 0.03) and only LDL-c with IFG (FPG 5.6 to fasting glucose (FPG ≥ 6.1 to <7.0 mmol/L) were considered. Relative to White, South Asian ethnicity was independently associated with lower systolic and diastolic BP, Black with lower triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and having 2 or more IRFs, and Thai with lower cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and all three non-white ethnicities with lower total and LDL cholesterol. In high-risk HbA1c-defined prediabetes additional measurement of FPG will add little to evaluation of cardiometabolic risk. Additionally, UK Whites tend to have the most adverse cardiometabolic profile of any ethnic group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and phenotype of diabetes and prediabetes using fasting glucose vs HbA1c in a Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel; Howitt, Christina; Rose, Angela Mc; Samuels, T Alafia; Hennis, Anselm Jm; Hambleton, Ian R

    2017-12-01

    Both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c are recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and for diabetes by the World Health Organization. The ADA guidance is influential on clinical practice in many developing countries, including in the Caribbean and Latin America. We aimed to compare the prevalence and characteristics of individuals identified as having diabetes and prediabetes by FPG and HbA1c in a predominantly African ancestry Caribbean population. A representative population-based sample of 1234 adults (≥25 years of age) resident in Barbados was recruited. Standard methods with appropriate quality control were used to collect data on height, weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and history of diagnosed diabetes, and to measure fasting glucose and HbA1c. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 192) were excluded from the analyses. Diabetes was defined as: FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥6.5%; prediabetes as: FPG ≥5.6 to prediabetes was higher by HbA1c compared to FPG: 41.7% (37.9, 45.6) vs 15.0% (12.8, 17.5). Overall 558 individuals had prediabetes by either measure, but only 107 on both. HbA1c, but not FPG, was significantly higher in women than men; and FPG, but not HbA1c, was significantly associated with raised triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol. The agreement between FPG and HbA1c defined hyperglycaemia is poor. In addition, there are some differences in the phenotype of those identified, and HbA1c gives a much higher prevalence of prediabetes. The routine use of HbA1c for screening and diagnosis in this population would have major implications for clinical and public health policies and resources. Given the lack of robust evidence, particularly for prediabetes, on whether intervention in the individuals identified would improve outcomes, this approach to screening and diagnosis cannot be currently recommended for this population.

  6. Association of plasma PCB levels and HbA1c concentration in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Sahar; Aminian, Omid; Moinfar, Zeinab; Schettgen, Thomas; Kaifie, Andrea; Felten, Michael; Kraus, Thomas; Esser, André

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the last decades warrants more attention to the effects of environmental and occupational exposures on glucose metabolism. Our study aimed to assess the association between the plasma levels of various congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the serum concentration of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Our study population consisted of 140 Iranian adults from seven different occupational groups and a group of non-occupationally exposed female participants. The plasma concentration of PCBs were determined at the laboratory of occupational toxicology at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. We considered an HbA1c concentration of 5.7% and more as indicating a disturbed glucose metabolism. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between quartiles of concentrations of PCB congeners and serum HbA1c. Participants with an increased HbA1c value had higher plasma levels of PCB 138, 153, 180 and the PCB sum, although this association was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the levels of PCB 138, 153, 180, the sum of these congeners, and PCB 118 in their quartiles when comparing with HbA1c concentrations. For our cohort, we could not demonstrate a significant association between PCB and HbA1c concentrations indicating a disturbance of glucose metabolism.

  7. Association between HbA1c and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly Koreans with normal fasting glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Won Lee

    Full Text Available We examined whether glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c is associated to carotid atherosclerosis in an elderly Korean population with normal fasting glucose.Using data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1,133 participants (335 men and 798 women with a mean age of 71.8 years. All participants had fasting blood glucose less than 100mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L and HbA1c level below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol. They were also free from a history of cardiovascular disease, known type 2 diabetes mellitus or use of anti-diabetes medications. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT using ultrasonography. The association between HbA1c and carotid IMT was investigated using multivariable linear regression analysis.HbA1c levels were independently and positively associated with carotid IMT (β = 0.020, p = 0.045 after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, smoking and alcohol intake. However, fasting insulin and glucose levels were not associated with carotid IMT.HbA1c levels were positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis, as assessed by carotid IMT, in an elderly population with normoglycemia. Our study suggested that higher HbA1c level is an effective and informative marker of carotid atherosclerosis in an elderly population.

  8. Relationship between glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Musenge

    2016-07-30

    Jul 30, 2016 ... Relationship between glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose ... major stakeholders in the management of diabetes mellitus to consider FPG as an ..... HbA1c among customers of health examination services.

  9. Reduction of Fasting Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c Using Oral Aloe Vera: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, William R; Fletcher, Emily A; Shah, Sachin A

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Additional medications that are novel, affordable, and efficacious are needed to treat this rampant disease. This meta-analysis was performed to ascertain the effectiveness of oral aloe vera consumption on the reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). PubMed, CINAHL, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard databases were searched. Studies of aloe vera's effect on FBG, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin, fructosamine, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in prediabetic and diabetic populations were examined. After data extraction, the parameters of FBG and HbA1c had appropriate data for meta-analyses. Extracted data were verified and then analyzed by StatsDirect Statistical Software. Reductions of FBG and HbA1c were reported as the weighted mean differences from baseline, calculated by a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analyses to determine clinical and statistical heterogeneity were also performed. Publication bias was assessed by using the Egger bias statistic. Nine studies were included in the FBG parameter (n = 283); 5 of these studies included HbA1c data (n = 89). Aloe vera decreased FBG by 46.6 mg/dL (p aloe vera for significantly reducing FBG (46.6 mg/dL) and HbA1c (1.05%). Further clinical studies that are more robust and better controlled are warranted to further explore these findings.

  10. Use of HbA(1C) testing to diagnose pre-diabetes in high risk African American children: a comparison with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushma; Fleming, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the discriminating power of HbA(1C) with other pre-diabetes diagnostic tests specifically in high-risk African American children. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sample of 172 children (70 boys and 102 girls) aged 9-11 years with BMI's above the 85th percentile. Fasting glucose, insulin and HbA(1C) were analyzed from the plasma samples. Of the 172 participants included in this analysis, 21 (12.2%) had HbA(1C) concentrations above the cutoff of 5.7 used to identify pre-diabetes. None (0%) of these 21 participants, however, were observed to have a glucose concentration above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 110 mg/dl, and only 13 of 21 participants had HOMA-IR above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 2.5. When compared to the previously identified glucose cutoff of 110 mg/dl and HOMA-IR cutoff of 2.5 for pre-diabetes, HbA(1C) showed high specificity (88 and 93%, respectively) but very low sensitivity (0 and 21%, respectively). Glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly interrelated, but HbA(1C) was not significantly correlated with these biochemical prediabetes assessment variables, nor with anthropometric (BMIz, WC) risk factors. Our results suggest that HbA(1C) had poor discrimination power to identify prediabetes in overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old African American children. Future studies are recommended to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and predictive power of different screening tests currently recommended to avoid inadequacy when screening for prediabetes and diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening for pre-diabetes to predict future diabetes using various cut-off points for HbA(1c) and impaired fasting glucose: the Toranomon Hospital Health Management Center Study 4 (TOPICS 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heianza, Y; Arase, Y; Fujihara, K; Tsuji, H; Saito, K; Hsieh, S D; Kodama, S; Shimano, H; Yamada, N; Hara, S; Sone, H

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate various screening criteria for pre-diabetes to identify which combination of impaired fasting glucose and elevated HbA(1c) values performs most effectively in predicting future diabetes in a large cohort of Japanese individuals. The study included 4670 men and 1571 women without diabetes (diabetes: fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, HbA(1c) ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5%), or self-reported clinician-diagnosed diabetes). Pre-diabetes was diagnosed by a combination of impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l or 6.1-6.9 mmol/l) and elevated HbA(1c) [39-46 mmol/mol (5.7-6.4%) or 42-46 mmol/mol (6.0-6.4%)]. During a 5-year follow-up, 338 incident cases of diabetes occurred. The combination of HbA(1c) 39-46 mmol/mol (5.7-6.4%) and fasting plasma glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l yielded the highest sensitivity (86%) and generated a large population-attributable per cent risk (78%) for predicting development of diabetes. Among individuals classified as having pre-diabetes by any of the four combined criteria, 20.5-32.0% reverted to the normoglycaemic state as having neither elevated HbA(1c) nor impaired fasting glucose at the last follow-up examination. At 5.6 years after the baseline examination, however, pre-diabetic individuals who fulfilled both HbA(1c) 42-46 mmol/mol (6.0-6.4%) and fasting plasma glucose 6.1-6.9 mmol/l had a 100% cumulative risk of developing diabetes. The combination of HbA(1c) 39-46 mmol/mol (5.7-6.4%) and fasting plasma glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l would have the best performance in reducing the likelihood of missing future cases of diabetes. Identifying pre-diabetic individuals who strictly fulfil HbA(1c) 42-46 mmol/mol (6.0-6.4%) and fasting plasma glucose 6.1-6.9 mmol/l would predict definite progression to diabetes. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  12. Association of prediabetes, defined by fasting glucose, HbA1c only, or combined criteria, with the risk of cardiovascular disease in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Jung Bok; Kim, Seon Ha; Jo, Min-Woo; Kim, Eun Hee; Hwang, Jenie Yoonoo; Bae, Sung Jin; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol; Park, Gyung-Min; Kim, Young-Hak; Choe, Jaewon

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the association between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and prediabetes defined by either fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, or their combination in a Korean population. In all, 76 434 South Koreans who voluntarily underwent a general health examination in the Health Screening & Promotion Center (Asan Medical Center) were analyzed after excluding patients with a previous history of CVD. Cardiovascular events and death due to CVD during a median follow-up period of 3.1 years (interquartile range 1.9-4.3 years) were identified from the Nationwide Health Insurance Claims Database and death certificates using ICD-10 codes. Age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for overall CVD events were significantly greater for subjects with prediabetes defined by FPG only (HR 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.31), HbA1c only (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.16-1.42), and combined criteria (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.09-1.32) compared with the normoglycemic group. After adjusting for multiple conventional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking status, family history of CVD, and BMI), the HRs for overall CVD were significantly increased only for participants with prediabetes defined by HbA1c. Age- and sex-adjusted HRs for major ischemic heart disease events were significantly increased for subjects with prediabetes defined either by HbA1c or combined criteria. Similarly, age- and sex-adjusted HRs for percutaneous coronary intervention were significantly higher for subjects with prediabetes defined by HbA1c only. For diabetes, the multivariate-adjusted HRs for all outcomes were significantly increased by all three criteria. Adding an HbA1c criterion when defining prediabetes in Koreans can help identify individuals with an increased risk of CVD. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Effect of Ramadan fasting on glucose level, lipid profile, HbA1c and uric acid among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazeer; Rasheed, Abdur; Ahmed, Hassaan; Aslam, Faiza; Kanwal, Fatima

    2017-06-14

    To assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, body mass index, body adiposity index and visceral adiposity index among fasting medical students, 35 students were recorded before, during and after Ramadan (August) 2011, for their blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, questionnaire response and blood sample. A blood sample was taken at each visit for glucose, lipid profile and HbA1c. Total physical activity, weight-to-height ratio, body adiposity index and visceral adiposity index were calculated for insulin sensitivity. Changes in anthropometric measurements were not statistically significant. However, physical activities increased significantly after Ramadan. Changes in blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, HbA1c, uric acid and triglyceride were not statistically significant. Mean high density lipoprotein decreased significantly in Ramadan, while low density lipoprotein increased significantly.

  14. Physical activity and change in fasting glucose and HbA1c: a quantitative meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniol, Mathieu; Dragomir, Miruna; Autier, Philippe; Boyle, Peter

    2017-11-01

    A systematic review was conducted of randomized trials which evaluated the impact of physical activity on the change in fasting glucose and HbA1c. A literature search was conducted in PubMed until December 2015. Studies reporting glucose or HbA1c at baseline and at the end of study were included, and the change and its variance were estimated from studies with complete data. Mixed-effect random models were used to estimate the change of fasting glucose (mg/dl) and HbA1c (%) per additional minutes of physical activity per week. A total of 125 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Based on 105 studies, an increase of 100 min in physical activity per week was associated with an average change of -2.75 mg/dl of fasting glucose (95% CI -3.96; -1.55), although there was a high degree of heterogeneity (83.5%). When restricting the analysis on type 2 diabetes and prediabetes subjects (56 studies), the average change in fasting glucose was -4.71 mg/dl (95% CI -7.42; -2.01). For HbA1c, among 76 studies included, an increase of 100 min in physical activity per week was associated with an average change of -0.14% of HbA1c (95% CI -0.18; -0.09) with heterogeneity (73%). A large degree of publication bias was identified (Egger test p HbA1c was -0.16% (95% CI -0.21; -0.11). This analysis demonstrates that moderate increases in physical activity are associated with significant reductions in both fasting glucose and HbA1c.

  15. Do non-glycaemic markers add value to plasma glucose and hemoglobin a1c in predicting diabetes? Yuport health checkup center study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Kashima

    Full Text Available Many markers have been indicated as predictors of type 2 diabetes. However, the question of whether or not non-glycaemic (blood biomarkers and non-blood biomarkers have a predictive additive utility when combined with glycaemic (blood biomarkers is unknown. The study aim is to assess this additive utility in a large Japanese population.We used data from a retrospective cohort study conducted from 1998 to 2002 for the baseline and 2002 to 2006 for follow-up, inclusive of 5,142 men (mean age of 51.9 years and 4,847 women (54.1 years at baseline. The cumulative incidence of diabetes [defined either as a fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥7.00 mmol/l or as clinically diagnosed diabetes] was measured. In addition to glycaemic biomarkers [FPG and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c], we examined the clinical usefulness of adding non-glycaemic biomarkers and non-blood biomarkers, using sensitivity and specificity, and the area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristics.The AUCs to predict diabetes were 0.874 and 0.924 for FPG, 0.793 and 0.822 for HbA1c, in men and women, respectively. Glycaemic biomarkers were the best and second-best for diabetes prediction among the markers. All non-glycaemic markers (except uric acid in men and creatinine in both sexes predicted diabetes. Among these biomarkers, the highest AUC in the single-marker analysis was 0.656 for alanine aminotransferase (ALT in men and 0.740 for body mass index in women. The AUC of the combined markers of FPG and HbA1c was 0.895 in men and 0.938 in women, which were marginally increased to 0.904 and 0.940 when adding ALT, respectively.AUC increments were marginal when adding non-glycaemic biomarkers and non-blood biomarkers to the classic model based on FPG and HbA1c. For the prediction of diabetes, FPG and HbA1c are sufficient and the other markers may not be needed in clinical practice.

  16. CLD (chronic liver diseases)-HbA1C as a suitable indicator for estimation of mean plasma glucose in patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Masafumi; Kasayama, Soji; Kanehara, Hideo; Bando, Yukihiro

    2008-08-01

    In patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD), turnover of erythrocytes is increased whereas that of serum albumin is decreased. Thus, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1C)) and glycated albumin (GA) cannot be used as adequate indicators for chronic plasma glucose control in diabetic patients with CLD. In this investigation, we have proposed CLD-HbA(1C), a novel long-term glycemic control marker by using measured HbA(1C) and GA. We studied 82 patients with CLD in whom glycemic control was regarded as to be stable. Daily plasma glucose profiles were monitored and estimated levels of HbA(1C) were calculated on the conversion formula established by Rohlfing et al. [C.L. Rohlfing, J.D. England, H.M. Wiedmeyer, A. Tennill, R.R. Little, D.E. Goldstein, Defining the relationship between plasma glucose and HbA1c, Diabetes Care 25 (2002) 275-278]. Cholinesterase (ChE) as an indicator for hepatic function was determined at the same time when HbA(1C) and GA levels were measured. CLD-HbA(1C) was defined as the average of measured HbA(1C) and GA/3, based upon the results that among healthy individuals, GA levels were roughly estimated at approximately threefold higher than HbA(1C) levels. While measured HbA(1C) levels in patients with CLD were generally lower than estimated HbA(1C) levels, GA/3 values were generally higher than estimated HbA(1C) levels. Such discrepancies lineally increased in accordance with a decrease in ChE levels. On the other hand, CLD-HbA(1C) levels were highly correlated with estimated HbA(1C) levels (R=0.883), while no significant correlation between CLD-HbA(1C) and ChE was noted. In conclusion, CLD-HbA(1C) has been found a superior chronic glycemic control marker than HbA(1C) or GA in diabetic patients with chronic liver diseases.

  17. Two prospective studies found that elevated 2-hr glucose predicted male mortality independent of fasting glucose and HbA1c.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, Q.; Dekker, J.M.; Vegt, F. de; Nijpels, G.; Nissinen, A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relative contribution of elevated 2-hr glucose, fasting glucose (FPG), and HbA1c to all-cause mortality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A joint analysis of two prospective studies with baseline glycemia measurements. RESULTS: The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs)

  18. Two prospective studies found that elevated 2-hr glucose predicted male mortality independent of fasting glucose and HbA1c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, Qing; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vegt, Femmie; Nijpels, Giel; Nissinen, Aulikki; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Bouter, Lex M; Heine, Robert J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relative contribution of elevated 2-hr glucose, fasting glucose (FPG), and HbA1c to all-cause mortality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A joint analysis of two prospective studies with baseline glycemia measurements. RESULTS: The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs)

  19. The effect of nano-curcumin on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in diabetic subjects: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rahimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both or insulin resistance. Curcumin inhibits NF-κB signaling pathway. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of Nano-curcumin on HbA1C, fast blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy type-2 diabetic patients (fasting blood glucose (FBG ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hr postprandial blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl randomly receivedeither Curcumin (as nano-micelle 80 mg/day or placebo for 3 months in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, and lipids profile were checked before and after the intervention. Data analyses, including parametric and nonparametric tests were done using the SPSS 11.5 software. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. (RCT registration code: IRCT2013081114330N1 Results: Mean age, BMI, FBG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, LDL, HDL, HbA1c , and  sex and had no significant difference at the baseline between the groups. In Nano-curcumin group, a significant decrease was found in HbA1C, FBG, TG, and BMI comparing results of each subject before and after the treatment (p

  20. Effect of once-weekly dulaglutide on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose in patient subpopulations by gender, duration of diabetes and baseline HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallwitz, Baptist; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Thieu, Vivian; Garcia-Perez, Luis-Emilio; Pavo, Imre; Yu, Maria; Robertson, Kenneth E; Zhang, Nan; Giorgino, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 1.5 and 0.75 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes by subgroups of gender, duration of diabetes and baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the dulaglutide clinical development programme (AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 clinical trials). Change in HbA1c was analysed by gender, duration of diabetes (baseline HbA1c (baseline in weight, hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal adverse events were evaluated for individual trials. In the pooled analysis of patients treated with dulaglutide 1.5 mg at 6 months, the reductions in HbA1c from baseline were similar across gender (men: least squares [LS] mean -1.26% [95% confidence interval {CI} -1.36, -1.16]; women: LS mean -1.33% [95% CI -1.43, -1.24]) and among duration of diabetes subgroups (baseline HbA1c ≥8.5% had greater HbA1c reductions than patients with baseline HbA1c baseline HbA1c subgroups, respectively; women had a numerically greater weight loss or less weight gain than men with both dulaglutide doses. There was no clinically meaningful difference in hypoglycaemia trends by gender or duration of diabetes. Hypoglycaemia incidence and rate were generally lower in patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8.5% than in those with baseline HbA1c, with greater HbA1c and FBG reductions in patients with a higher baseline HbA1c. Dulaglutide was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Use of HbA1c for Diagnoses of Diabetes and Prediabetes: Comparison with Diagnoses Based on Fasting and 2-Hr Glucose Values and Effects of Gender, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moellering, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been advocated for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes. Its performance has been commonly assessed in corroboration with elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG), but not the combination of FPG and 2-hr glucose values. This study assesses receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves of HbA1c pertaining to the diagnoses of prediabetes and diabetes by FPG and/or 2-hr glucose, and the effects of age, gender, and race. Methods: We assessed the utility of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes among 5395 adults without known diabetes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2010. Results: Current cutoffs of HbA1c for diabetes (6.5%) or prediabetes (5.7%) exhibited low sensitivity (0.249 and 0.354, respectively) and high specificity in identifying patients diagnosed using both FPG and 2-hr glucose, resulting in large false-negative rates (75.1% and 64.9%). Misdiagnosis rates increased with age and in non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans. When HbA1c was combined with FPG for diagnoses, the false-negative rate remained high for diabetes (45.7%), but was reduced for prediabetes (9.2%). Conclusions: When assessed against diagnoses using both FPG and 2-hr glucose, HbA1c had low sensitivity and high specificity for identifying diabetes and prediabetes, which varied as a function of age and race. Regarding recently released American Diabetes Association (ADA) and joint European guidelines, it is important to consider that HbA1c values below 6.5% and 5.7% do not reliably exclude the presence of diabetes and prediabetes, respectively. Overall, the data argue for greater use of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and both FPG and 2-hr glucose values for diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes. PMID:24512556

  2. Changing from glucose to HbA1c for diabetes diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Aneta Aleksandra; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Green, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the use of HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes was adopted from March 2012. We evaluated the change in the number of diabetes cases diagnosed by haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) versus fasting venous plasma glucose (FPG), and estimated the influence of analytical variation and bias ...

  3. Pleiotropic effects of lipid genes on plasma glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Naishi; van der Sijde, Marijke R; Bakker, Stephan J L; Dullaart, Robin P F; van der Harst, Pim; Gansevoort, Ron T; Elbers, Clara C; Wijmenga, Cisca; Snieder, Harold; Hofker, Marten H; Fu, Jingyuan

    Dyslipidemia is strongly associated with raised plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance (IR), and genome-wide association studies have identified 95 loci that explain a substantial proportion of the variance in blood lipids. However, the loci's effects on glucose-related traits are largely

  4. A Mediterranean diet improves HbA1c but not fasting blood glucose compared to alternative dietary strategies: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P; Achana, F; Troughton, J; Gray, L J; Khunti, K; Davies, M J

    2014-06-01

    Overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes are encouraged to lose weight for optimal glucose management, yet many find this difficult. Determining whether alterations in dietary patterns irrespective of weight loss can aid glucose control has not been fully investigated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aiming to determine the effects of a Mediterranean diet compared to other dietary interventions on glycaemic control irrespective of weight loss. Electronic databases were searched for controlled trials that included a Mediterranean diet intervention. The interventions included all major components of the Mediterranean diet and were carried out in free-living individuals at high risk or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Network meta-analysis compared all interventions with one another at the same time as maintaining randomisation. Analyses were conducted within a Bayesian framework. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, seven examined fasting blood glucose (n = 972), six examined fasting insulin (n = 1330) and three examined HbA1c (n = 487). None of the interventions were significantly better than the others in lowering glucose parameters. The Mediterranean diet reduced HbA1c significantly compared to usual care but not compared to the Palaeolithic diet. The effect of alterations in dietary practice irrespective of weight loss on glycaemic control cannot be concluded from the present review. The need for further research in this area is apparent because no firm conclusions about relative effectiveness of interventions could be drawn as a result of the paucity of the evidence. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Percentiles of fasting serum insulin, glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR in pre-pubertal normal weight European children from the IDEFICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, J; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Savva, S C; Buck, C; Günther, K; Fraterman, A; Russo, P; Iacoviello, L; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; De Henauw, S; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to present age- and sex-specific reference values of insulin, glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and the homeostasis model assessment to quantify insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for pre-pubertal children. The reference population consists of 7074 normal weight 3- to 10.9-year-old pre-pubertal children from eight European countries who participated in at least one wave of the IDEFICS ('identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants') surveys (2007-2010) and for whom standardised laboratory measurements were obtained. Percentile curves of insulin (measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were calculated as a function of age stratified by sex using the general additive model for location scale and shape (GAMLSS) method. Levels of insulin, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR continuously show an increasing trend with age, whereas HbA1c shows an upward trend only beyond the age of 8 years. Insulin and HOMA-IR values are higher in girls of all age groups, whereas glucose values are slightly higher in boys. Median serum levels of insulin range from 17.4 and 13.2 pmol l(-1) in 3-HOMA-IR, median values range from 0.5 and 0.4 in 3-<3.5-year-old girls and boys to 1.7 and 1.4 in 10.5-<11-year-old girls and boys, respectively. Our study provides the first standardised reference values for an international European children's population and provides the, up to now, largest data set of healthy pre-pubertal children to model reference percentiles for markers of insulin resistance. Our cohort shows higher values of Hb1Ac as compared with a single Swedish study while our percentiles for the other glucose metabolic markers are in good accordance with previous studies.

  6. Relationships between hemoglobin A1c and spot glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c is the most acceptable measure of chronic glycemia. It is not widely available and/or affordable in Nigeria. The mean of the monthly fasting plasma glucose (MFPG) of the preceding 3 months is often used as surrogate for assessing chronic glycemia. Objective: To determine the ...

  7. The role of genetic variants in CYP2C8, LPIN1, PPARGC1A and PPARγ on the trough steady-state plasma concentrations of rosiglitazone and on glycosylated haemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Christensen, Mette M H; Feddersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2C8, LPIN1, PPARGC1A and PPARγ on rosiglitazone's (i) trough steady-state plasma concentration (C(ss,min)), (ii) on glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and (iii) the risk of developing adverse eve...

  8. Fast determination of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijnands, T.J.; Parlange, F.; Joffrin, E.

    1995-01-01

    Fast analysis of diagnostic signals of a tokamak discharge is demonstrated by using 4 fundamentally different techniques. A comparison between Function Parametrization (FP), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and a particular Neural Network (NN) configuration known as the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) is carried out, thereby taking a unique linear model based on a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) as a reference. The various techniques provide all functional representations of characteristic plasma parameters in terms of the values of the measurements and are based on an analysis of a large, experimentally achieved database. A brief mathematical description of the various techniques is given, followed by two particular applications to Tore Supra diagnostic data. The first problem is concerned with the identification of the plasma boundary parameters using the poloidal field and differential poloidal flux measurements. A second application involves the interpretation of line integrated data from the multichannel interfero-polarimeter to obtain the central value of the safety factor. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Effects of aerobic training on FBS, HbA1C, Fructosamine and plasma lipid profile in male with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Ghalavand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise represents an effective strategy to prevent and treat type 2 Diabetes.The present study examined the effects of aerobic exercise on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in men with type 2 diabetes.20 men with type 2 diabetes (age:45.05 ± 3.8 were randomly div ided into aerobic exercise group (n=10 and control group(n=10. Exercise Group participated in aerobic training program at 50 -70 % HRR for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Fasting blood sugar (FBS,Fructosamine, HbA1C, Triglyceride (TG, cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL, low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL were measured before and after 8 weeks. Paired and independent t tests were used for data analysis ( P0.05.Also there was a significant difference in FBS (p=0.03 and HDL levels (p=0.04 between 2 groups.Aerobic trainings effectively improve lipid profile and lead to better glycemic control in men with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Effect of fasting ramadan in diabetes control status - application of extensive diabetes education, serum creatinine with HbA1c statistical ANOVA and regression models to prevent hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Kamran M A

    2013-09-01

    Ramadan fasting is an obligatory duty for Muslims. Unique physiologic and metabolic changes occur during fasting which requires adjustments of diabetes medications. Although challenging, successful fasting can be accomplished if pre-Ramadan extensive education is provided to the patients. Current research was conducted to study effective Ramadan fasting with different OHAs/insulins without significant risk of hypoglycemia in terms of HbA1c reductions after Ramadan. ANOVA model was used to assess HbA1c levels among different education statuses. Serum creatinine was used to measure renal functions. Pre-Ramadan diabetes education with alteration of therapy and dosage adjustments for OHAs/insulin was done. Regression models for HbA1c before Ramadan with FBS before sunset were also synthesized as a tool to prevent hypoglycemia and successful Ramadan fasting in future. Out of 1046 patients, 998 patients fasted successfully without any episodes of hypoglycemia. 48 patients (4.58%) experienced hypoglycemia. Χ(2) Test for CRD/CKD with hypoglycemia was also significant (p-value Ramadan diabetes management. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this paper.

  11. The Correlation of Hemoglobin A1c to Blood Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Sikaris, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The understanding that hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) represents the average blood glucose level of patients over the previous 120 days underlies the current management of diabetes. Even in making such a statement, we speak of “average blood glucose” as though “blood glucose” were itself a simple idea. When we consider all the blood glucose forms—arterial versus venous versus capillary, whole blood versus serum versus fluoride-preserved plasma, fasting versus nonfasting—we can start to see that this ...

  12. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  13. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giray Bozkaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, also known as glycated hemoglobin, determines how well a patient's blood glucose level has been controlled over the previous 8-12 weeks. HbA1c levels help patients and doctors understand whether a particular diabetes treatment is working and whether adjustments need to be made to the treatment. Because the HbA1c level is a marker of blood glucose for the previous 120 days, average blood glucose levels can be estimated using HbA1c levels. Our aim in the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated average glucose levels, as calculated by HbA1c levels, and fasting plasma glucose levels. METHODS: The fasting plasma glucose levels of 3891 diabetic patient samples (1497 male, 2394 female were obtained from the laboratory information system used for HbA1c testing by the Department of Internal Medicine at the Izmir Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. These samples were selected from patient samples that had hemoglobin levels between 12 and 16 g/dL. The estimated glucose levels were calculated using the following formula: 28.7 x HbA1c - 46.7. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined using hexokinase and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods, respectively. RESULTS: A strong positive correlation between fasting plasma glucose levels and estimated average blood glucose levels (r=0.757, p<0.05 was observed. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Reporting the estimated average glucose level together with the HbA1c level is believed to assist patients and doctors determine the effectiveness of blood glucose control measures.

  14. Impact of corpulence parameters and haemoglobin A1c on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients: comparison of apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio with fasting and postprandial conventional lipid ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Diaf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The incidence of diabetes co-morbidities could probably be better assessed by studying its associations with major corpulence parameters and glycaemic control indicators. We assessed the utility of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels in metabolic control for type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected from 238 type 2 diabetic patients aged 57.4±11.9 years. The sera were analysed for glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, and apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB. Ratios of lipids and apolipoproteins were calculated and their associations with BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels were analysed. Results: Our investigation showed increases in most fasting and postprandial lipid parameters according to BMI and WC. In men, postprandial HDL-c and TG levels were significantly higher (p<0.05 in overweight and obese patients, respectively, as well as in patients with abdominal obesity. Contrariwise, postprandial TC levels were significantly higher (p<0.01 in overweight and abdominal obese women. However, elevations of apoA-I and apoB levels were according to BMI and WC in both genders. There was a strong influence of BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels on the apoB/apoA-I ratio compared to traditional fasting and postprandial lipid ratios in both men and women. The apoB/apoA-I ratio was more correlated with postprandial TC/HDL and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios in men and with postprandial TG/HDL-c in women. Conclusion: The apoB/apoA-I ratio is helpful in assessing metabolic risk caused by overall obesity, abdominal obesity and impaired glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients.

  15. Relationship between Hb and HbA1c in Japanese adults: an analysis of the 2009 Japan Society of Ningen Dock database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiko; Moriyama, Kengo; Yamakado, Minoru

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of Hb on HbA1c levels in 265,427 Japanese individuals. The divergence between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels increased with lower Hb, resulting in HbA1c levels that were higher in relation to than the FPG levels. Similarly, the correlation between FPG and HbA1c levels, stratified by Hb, weakened as Hb decreased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The changing relationship between HbA1c and FPG according to different FPG ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, X; Zheng, L; Sun, G; Guo, X; Li, Y; Song, H; Tian, F; Sun, Y

    2016-05-01

    Since the American Diabetes Association included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the diagnostic criteria for diabetes in 2010, the clinical use of HbA1c has remained controversial. We explored the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia in comparison with fasting plasma glucose (FPG). We screened 3710 adult subjects (mean age = 55.24 years) comprising 1704 males and 2006 females. We drew an receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the ability of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia according to FPG. We used Kappa coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient to evaluate the relationship between HbA1c and FPG in different FPG ranges. The areas under ROC curve to diagnose diabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia were 0.859 (95 % CI 0.827-0.892) and 0.633 (95 % CI 0.615-0.651). The kappa coefficients between FPG and HbA1c for diagnosis of diabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia were 0.601 (P HbA1c was 0.640 (P HbA1c and FPG changed according to the different FPG ranges. When FPG was higher, the relationship was stronger. HbA1c and FPG were highly consistent in diagnosing diabetes, but they were not in predicting intermediate hyperglycemia.

  17. FAST Plasma Scenarios and Equilibrium Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Ramogida, G.; Cardinali, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Maddaluno, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Tuccillo, A.A.; Zonca, F.; Albanese, R.; Granucci, G.; Nowak, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) plasma scenarios and equilibrium configurations, designed to reproduce the ITER ones (with scaled plasma current) and suitable to fulfil plasma conditions for integrated studies of burning plasma physics, Plasma Wall interaction, ITER relevant operation problems and Steady State scenarios. The attention is focused on FAST flexibility in terms of both performance and physics that can be investigated: operations are foreseen at a wide range of parameters from high performance H-Mode (toroidal field, B T , up to 8.5 T; plasma current, I P , up to 8 MA) to advanced tokamak (AT) operation (I P =3 MA) as well as full non inductive current scenario (I P =2 MA). The coupled heating power is provided with 30MW delivered by an Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system (30-90MHz), 6 MW by a Lower Hybrid (LH) system (3.7 or 5 GHz) for the long pulse AT scenario, 4 MW by an Electron Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ECRH) system (170 GHz-B T =6T) for MHD and electron heating localized control and, eventually, with 10 MW by a Negative Ion Beam (NNBI), which the ports are designed to accommodate. In the reference H-mode scenario FAST preserves (with respect to ITER) fast ions induced as well as turbulence fluctuation spectra, thus, addressing the cross-scale couplings issue of micro- to meso-scale physics. The noninductive scenario at I P =2MA is obtained with 60-70 % of bootstrap and the remaining by LHCD. Predictive simulations of the H-mode scenarios described above have been performed by means of JETTO code, using a semi-empirical mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm transport model. Plasma position and Shape Control studies are also presented for the reference scenario

  18. Fast wave evanescence in filamentary boundary plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency waves for heating and current drive of plasmas in tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices must first traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) before they can be put to their intended use. The SOL plasma is strongly turbulent and intermittent in space and time. These turbulent properties of the SOL, which are not routinely taken into account in wave propagation codes, can have an important effect on the coupling of waves through an evanescent SOL or edge plasma region. The effective scale length for fast wave (FW) evanescence in the presence of short-scale field-aligned filamentary plasma turbulence is addressed in this paper. It is shown that although the FW wavelength or evanescent scale length is long compared with the dimensions of the turbulence, the FW does not simply average over the turbulent density; rather, the average is over the exponentiation rate. Implications for practical situations are discussed

  19. Haemoglobin A1c : Historical overview and current concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; Schindhelm, Roger K.; Bilo, Henk J.; Slingerland, Robbert J.

    Since the discovery of the relation between increased concentrations of fast haemoglobin fractions in patients with diabetes mellitus compared to concentrations in subjects without diabetes mellitus by Samuel Rahbar and co-workers in 1969, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has become a "gold

  20. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels in a rural tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Reddy P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, also known as glycated hemoglobin, determines how well a patient’s blood glucose level has been controlled over the previous 8-12 weeks. HbA1c levels help patients and doctors understand whether a particular diabetes treatment is working and whether adjustments need to be made to the treatment. Because the HbA1c level is a marker of blood glucose for the previous 60- 90 days, average blood glucose levels can be estimated using HbA1c levels. Aim in the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated average glucose levels, as calculated by HbA1c levels, and fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods: Type 2 diabetes patients attending medicine outpatient department of RL Jalappa hospital, Kolar between March 2010 and July 2012 were taken. The estimated glucose levels (mg/dl were calculated using the following formula: 28.7 x HbA1c-46.7. Glucose levels were determined using the hexokinase method. HbA1c levels were determined using an HPLC method. Correlation and independent t- test was the test of significance for quantitative data. Results: A strong positive correlation between fasting plasma glucose level and estimated average blood glucose levels (r=0.54, p=0.0001 was observed. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Reporting the estimated average glucose level together with the HbA1c level is believed to assist patients and doctors determine the effectiveness of blood glucose control measures.

  1. Role of HbA1c in the Screening of Diabetes Mellitus in a Korean Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Kim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecently, the measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c was recommended as an alternative to fasting plasma glucose or oral glucose tolerance tests for diagnosing diabetes mellitus (DM. In this study, we analyzed HbA1c levels for diabetes mellitus screening in a Korean rural population.MethodsWe analyzed data from 10,111 subjects from a Korean Rural Genomic Cohort study and generated a receiver operating characteristic curve to determine an appropriate HbA1c cutoff value for diabetes.ResultsThe mean age of the subjects was 56.3±8.1 years. Fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose after 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests were 97.5±25.6 and 138.3±67.1 mg/dL, respectively. The mean HbA1c level of the subjects was 5.7±0.9%. There were 8,809 non-DM patients (87.1% and 1,302 DM patients (12.9%. A positive relationship between HbA1c and plasma glucose levels and between HbA1c and 2-hour plasma glucose levels after oral glucose tolerance tests was found in a scatter plot of the data. Using Youden's index, the proper cutoff level of HbA1c for diabetes mellitus screening was 5.95% (sensitivity, 77%; specificity, 89.4%.ConclusionOur results suggest that the optimal HbA1c level for DM screening is 5.95%.

  2. A1C Test and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis The A1C Test & Diabetes The A1C Test & Diabetes On this page: What is the A1C test? ... the A1C test used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Health care professionals can use the ...

  3. Laser–plasma interactions for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.J.; Fiuza, F.; Patel, P.K.; Debayle, A.; Johzaki, T.; Mori, W.B.; Sentoku, Y.; Silva, L.O.

    2014-01-01

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition (FI) approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser–plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to FI. Increases in computational and modelling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modelling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modelling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the comparison of simulation results with experimental observables. In particular, we address the question of surrogacy of today's experiments for the full-scale FI problem. (special topic)

  4. Laser-plasma interactions for fast ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A. J.; Fiuza, F.; Debayle, A.; Johzaki, T.; Mori, W. B.; Patel, P. K.; Sentoku, Y.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-05-01

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition (FI) approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser-plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to FI. Increases in computational and modelling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modelling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modelling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the comparison of simulation results with experimental observables. In particular, we address the question of surrogacy of today's experiments for the full-scale FI problem.

  5. Fast Plasma Investigation for Magnetospheric Multiscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C.; Moore, T.; Coffey, V.; Dorelli J.; Giles, B.; Adrian, M.; Chandler, M.; Duncan, C.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Garcia, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) was developed for flight on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to measure the differential directional flux of magnetospheric electrons and ions with unprecedented time resolution to resolve kinetic-scale plasma dynamics. This increased resolution has been accomplished by placing four dual 180-degree top hat spectrometers for electrons and four dual 180-degree top hat spectrometers for ions around the periphery of each of four MMS spacecraft. Using electrostatic field-of-view deflection, the eight spectrometers for each species together provide 4pi-sr-field-of-view with, at worst, 11.25-degree sample spacing. Energy/charge sampling is provided by swept electrostatic energy/charge selection over the range from 10 eVq to 30000 eVq. The eight dual spectrometers on each spacecraft are controlled and interrogated by a single block redundant Instrument Data Processing Unit, which in turn interfaces to the observatory's Instrument Suite Central Instrument Data processor. This paper described the design of FPI, its ground and in-flight calibration, its operational concept, and its data products.

  6. Plasma-ring, fast-opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss a fast-opening switch concept based on magnetically confined plasma rings, PROS (for Plasma Ring Opening Switch). In PROS, the plasma ring, confined by Bθ /sub and B/poloidal /sub fields of a compact torus, provide a low mass, localized conduction path between coaxial electrodes. To operate the switch, driver current is passed across the electrodes through the ring, storing inductive energy in external inductance and between the electrodes on the driver side of the ring. The ring is accelerated away from the driver by the field of the driver current and passes over a load gap transferring the current to the load. The authors distinguish two configurations in PROS, straight PROS where the electrodes are coaxial cylinders, and cone PROS with conical electrodes. In straight PROS ring acceleration takes place during the inductive store period as in foil switches, but with the localized ring providing the current path. Increased performance is predicted for the cone PROS (see figure) which employs compression of the ring in the cone during the inductive store period. Here, the B/θ /sub field of the driver forces the ring towards the apex of the cone but the force is in near balance with the opposing component of the radial equilibrium force of the ring along the cone. As a result, the ring undergoes a slow, quasistatic compression limited only by resistive decay of the ring field. Slow compression allows inductive storage with low-power drivers (homopoloar, magneto cumulative generators, high C-low V capacitor banks, etc.). Near the apex of the cone, near peak compression, the ring is allowed to enter a straight coaxial section where, because of low-mass, it rapidly accelerates to high velocity and crosses the load gap

  7. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobina1chba1ctest.html Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test? A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures ...

  8. Hemorheological alterations in adults with prediabetes identified by hemoglobin A1c levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, M A; Fiorentino, T V; Andreozzi, F; Mannino, G C; Succurro, E; Sciacqua, A; Perticone, F; Sesti, G

    2017-07-01

    A link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes has been previously reported. Herein, we investigated the association of blood viscosity with prediabetes, identified by glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) according to the new American Diabetes Association criteria, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The study cohort includes 1136 non-diabetic adults submitted to anthropometrical evaluation, an oral glucose tolerance test and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Whole blood viscosity was estimated using a validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins. After adjusting for age, and gender, individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4% [39-47 mmol/mol]) exhibited significantly higher values of hematocrit, and predicted blood viscosity as compared with controls. Increased levels of IMT were observed in subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes in comparison to controls. Predicted blood viscosity was positively correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting insulin, IMT and inversely correlated with HDL and Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity. Of the three glycemic parameters, i.e. HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose, only HbA1c showed a significant correlation with predicted blood viscosity (β = 0.054, P = 0.04) in a multivariate regression analysis model including multiple atherosclerosis risk factors. The study shows that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes have increased predicted blood viscosity and IMT. The HbA1c criterion may be helpful to capture individuals with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease who may benefit from an intensive lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical

  9. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes has a high hemoglobin A1c level, it may ...

  10. Hemoglobin A1C: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldasouqi, Saleh A.; Gossain, Ved V.

    2008-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) has been used for decades to monitor the controlof glycemia in diabetes. Although HbA1Cis currently undergoing a reassessmentand major developments have been underway in recent years, HbA1C is notrecommended at present for diabetes screening or diagnosis. The object ofthis review is to summarize the recent developments and to review a potentialdiagnostic role for HbA1C .Implementation of changes in HbA1C results andunits of measurements have been suggested for the purpose of teststandardization. These include lower reference ranges (by about 1.5-2 points)and measurement units expressed in percentage (%), as mg/dL (mmol/L) ormmol/mol (or a combination of these units). In diabetes screening anddiagnosis, the current diagnostic guidelines use measurement of plasmaglucose either fasting or after glucose load. These diagnostic methods haveshortcomings warranting a potential diagnostic role for HbA1C. While recentdevelopments in HbA1C methodologies are acknowledged, it is not yet knownwhich changes will be implemented and how soon. Given the recent literaturesupporting HbA1C diagnostic abilities and given the shortcomings of thecurrent guidelines, globally. Very recently, the first of suchrecommendations has been proposed by an expert panel as announced by the USEndocrine Society. (author)

  11. Efficacy of acarbose and metformin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients stratified by HbA1c levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Na; Xing, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Zhao-Jun; Wang, Xin; Yang, Wen-Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of acarbose and metformin is correlated with baseline HbA1c levels in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data for 711 subjects were retrieved from the MARCH (Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as initial Hypoglycemic treatment) trial database and reviewed retrospectively. Patients were grouped according to baseline HbA1c levels (8%) and the results for these three groups were compared between acarbose and metformin treatments. Acarbose and metformin treatment significantly improved T2DM-associated parameters (weight, fasting plasma glucose [FPG], postprandial glucose [PPG], glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol) across all HbA1c levels. Acarbose decreased PPG and HOMA-β significantly more than metformin, but only in subjects with lower baseline HbA1c (PPG in the HbA1c levels (P HbA1c groups (all P HbA1c levels, whereas metformin induced greater reductions in FPG. These results may help guide selection of initial therapy based on baseline HbA1c. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Incompatibility between fasting and postprandial plasma glucose in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Michio; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Tamada, Daisuke; Tabuchi, Yukiko; Mukai, Kosuke; Morita, Shinya; Kasayama, Soji; Shimomura, Iichiro; Koga, Masafumi

    2016-11-30

    It is shown that glucocorticoids have discordant effects on plasma glucose concentration through their effects on hepatic glycogen deposition, gluconeogenesis and peripheral insulin resistance. Cushing's syndrome caused by cortisol overproduction is frequently accompanied with diabetes mellitus, but fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and post-glucose load plasma glucose levels are not examined in patients with Cushing's syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate FPG, HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h PG and their relationship in patients with Cushing's syndrome, in comparison with control subjects. Sixteen patients with Cushing's syndrome (ACTH-dependent 31%, ACTH-independent 69% and diabetes mellitus 50%) and 64 controls (32 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 32 non-diabetic subjects matched for age, sex and BMI) were enrolled in this study. HbA1c and FPG in the patients with Cushing's syndrome were not different from the controls, whereas the FPG/HbA1c ratio was significantly lower in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. OGTT 2-h PG was significantly higher in the non-diabetic patients with Cushing's syndrome than the non-diabetic controls, while HbA1c was not different between both groups and FPG was significantly lower in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. HOMA-β but not HOMA-R was significantly higher in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. In conclusion, FPG was rather lower in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. Postprandial PG or post-glucose loaded PG, but not FPG, is useful to evaluate the abnormality of glucose metabolism in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

  13. Recombination of a fast expanding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvat, M.

    1979-05-01

    The goal of the following calculations is to determine numerically the recombination of dense plasmas (for instance of laser-produced plasmas). The recombination is computed for plasmas with initial densities of 10 24 27 [m -3 ] and with initial temperatures >= 50 eV. The ionization of the plasma remains essentially constant during the early phase of expansion. The time for which the ionization is 'frozen-in' grows with decreasing initial density and with increasing initial temperature. (orig.) [de

  14. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)

  15. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)

  16. Fasting Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide as a Risk Marker of Poor Renal Outcomes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Mortality in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes with Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Signe Abitz; Øllgaard, Jens Christian; Parving, Hans-Henrik Dyring

    pressure, cholesterol, HbA1c and u-AER (p ≤ 0.014). After further adjustment for baseline eGFR significance was lost for all endpoints, except for CVD events (HR per doubling: 1.22, [1.05-1.41]; p=0.010). Conclusion In type 1 diabetes patients with diabetic nephropathy, higher fasting plasma TMAO level...

  17. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6...

  18. Analysis of tokamak plasma confinement modes using the fast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Fourier analysis is a satisfactory technique for detecting plasma confinement modes in tokamaks. The confinement mode of tokamak plasma was analysed using the fast Fourier transformation (FFT). For this purpose, we used the data of Mirnov coils that is one of the identifying tools in the IR-T1 tokamak, with and ...

  19. Relativistic laser channeling in plasmas for fast ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, A. L.; Pukhov, A.; Kodama, R.; Yabuuchi, T.; Adumi, K.; Endo, K.; Freeman, R. R.; Habara, H.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kondo, K.; Kumar, G. R.; Matsuoka, T.; Mima, K.; Nagatomo, H.; Norimatsu, T.; Shorokhov, O.; Snavely, R.; Yang, X. Q.; Zheng, J.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    We report an experimental observation suggesting plasma channel formation by focusing a relativistic laser pulse into a long-scale-length preformed plasma. The channel direction coincides with the laser axis. Laser light transmittance measurement indicates laser channeling into the high-density plasma with relativistic self-focusing. A three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation reproduces the plasma channel and reveals that the collimated hot-electron beam is generated along the laser axis in the laser channeling. These findings hold the promising possibility of fast heating a dense fuel plasma with a relativistic laser pulse.

  20. HbA1c and the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Pavithra; Nelson, Robert G; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Sinha, Madhumita

    2017-01-01

    Long-term data validating glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) in assessing the risk of type 2 diabetes in children are limited. HbA 1c , fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-h postload plasma glucose (2hPG) concentrations were measured in a longitudinal study of American Indians to determine their utility in predicting incident diabetes, all of which is thought to be type 2 in this population. Incident diabetes (FPG ≥126 mg/dL [7.0 mmol/L], 2hPG ≥200 mg/dL [11.1 mmol/L], HbA 1c ≥6.5% [8 mmol/mol], or clinical diagnosis) was determined in 2,095 children without diabetes ages 10-19 years monitored through age 39, and in 2,005 adults ages 20-39 monitored through age 59. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for HbA 1c , FPG, and 2hPG in predicting diabetes within 10 years were compared. During long-term follow-up of children and adolescents who did not initially have diabetes, the incidence rate of subsequent diabetes was fourfold (in boys) as high and more than sevenfold (in girls) as high in those with HbA 1c ≥5.7% as in those with HbA 1c ≤5.3%-greater rate ratios than experienced by adults in the same HbA 1c categories. Analyses of ROCs revealed no significant differences between HbA 1c , FPG, and 2hPG in sensitivity and specificity for identifying children and adolescents who later developed diabetes. HbA 1c is a useful predictor of diabetes risk in children and can be used to identify prediabetes in children with other type 2 diabetes risk factors with the same predictive value as FPG and 2hPG. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Leclert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal. (authors)

  2. Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal

  3. Factors associated with reaching or not reaching target HbA1c after initiation of basal or premixed insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J; Schmitt, H; Jiang, H H; Ivanyi, T

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate factors associated with reaching or not reaching target glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels by analysing the respective contributions of fasting hyperglycaemia (FHG), also referred to as basal hyperglycaemia, vs postprandial hyperglycaemia (PHG) before and after initiation of a basal or premixed insulin regimen in patients with type 2 diabetes. This post-hoc analysis of insulin-naïve patients in the DURABLE study randomised to receive either insulin glargine or insulin lispro mix 25 evaluated the percentages of patients achieving a target HbA 1c of <7.0% (<53mmol/mol) per baseline HbA 1c quartiles, and the effect of each insulin regimen on the relative contributions of PHG and FHG to overall hyperglycaemia. Patients had comparable demographic characteristics and similar HbA 1c and FHG values at baseline in each HbA 1c quartile regardless of whether they reached the target HbA 1c . The higher the HbA 1c quartile, the greater was the decrease in HbA 1c , but also the smaller the percentage of patients achieving the target HbA 1c . HbA 1c and FHG decreased more in patients reaching the target, resulting in significantly lower values at endpoint in all baseline HbA 1c quartiles with either insulin treatment. Patients not achieving the target HbA 1c had slightly higher insulin doses, but lower total hypoglycaemia rates. Smaller decreases in FHG were associated with not reaching the target HbA 1c , suggesting a need to increase basal or premixed insulin doses to achieve targeted fasting plasma glucose and improve patient response before introducing more intensive prandial insulin regimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol consumption reduces HbA1c and glycated albumin concentrations but not 1,5-anhydroglucitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Shinya; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-11-01

    Background The effect of alcohol consumption on glycaemic control indicators is not well known. In this study, we studied the effect of alcohol consumption on the plasma glucose and glycaemic control indicators in non-diabetic men. Methods The study enrolled 300 non-diabetic men who received a complete medical checkup (age: 52.8 ± 6.5 years, body mass index: 24.4 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ). The subjects were divided into four groups by the amount of alcohol consumed, and the plasma glucose, HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA) and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) concentrations of the groups were compared. Results As the level of alcohol consumption increased, significantly high concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were observed, and the oral glucose tolerance test 2-h plasma glucose concentrations tended to rise. While no significant effect of alcohol consumption on HbA1c, 1,5-AG, and the 1,5-AG/FPG ratio was observed, the HbA1c/FPG ratio, GA and the GA/FPG ratio exhibited significantly low values as the level of alcohol consumption increased. In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, alcohol consumption was a significant negative independent variable for HbA1c and GA, but not for 1,5-AG. Conclusions As the level of alcohol consumption increased, the plasma glucose concentrations rose, but the HbA1c and GA concentrations were lower compared with the plasma glucose concentrations. These findings suggest that alcohol consumption may reduce HbA1c and GA concentrations, but not 1,5-AG.

  5. Fast Plasma Potential Measurements Using an Emissive Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Amanda; Clark, Michael; Endrizzi, Douglass; Forest, Cary; Peterson, Ethan

    2017-10-01

    A heated emissive probe was developed for making direct plasma potential (Vp) measurements in rapidly fluctuating plasmas. Previous experiments on the Big Red Ball (BRB) were hindered by sudden potential drops, making Langmuir measurements of the plasma potential difficult. DC heating of a tungsten filament to emission allowed for fast (4 MHz) floating potential measurements that closely matched Vp. Two BRB experiments currently use the emissive probe. The investigation of unmagnetized, collisionless shocks used plasma potential measurements to study the sub-structure of strong plasma shocks. A separate investigation of emulated magnetospheres in laboratory plasmas used the plasma potential to map the equilibria and instabilities in the electric field of such structures. Results showing electric field measurements and comparison with cold Langmuir measurements will be presented. Future plans for probe modifications and applications to other experiments on the BRB will also be shown.

  6. EVOLUTION OF FAST MAGNETOACOUSTIC PULSES IN RANDOMLY STRUCTURED CORONAL PLASMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, D.; Li, B.; Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Keppens, R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of fast magnetoacoustic pulses in randomly structured plasmas, in the context of large-scale propagating waves in the solar atmosphere. We perform one-dimensional numerical simulations of fast wave pulses propagating perpendicular to a constant magnetic field in a low-β plasma with a random density profile across the field. Both linear and nonlinear regimes are considered. We study how the evolution of the pulse amplitude and width depends on their initial values and the parameters of the random structuring. Acting as a dispersive medium, a randomly structured plasma causes amplitude attenuation and width broadening of the fast wave pulses. After the passage of the main pulse, secondary propagating and standing fast waves appear. Width evolution of both linear and nonlinear pulses can be well approximated by linear functions; however, narrow pulses may have zero or negative broadening. This arises because narrow pulses are prone to splitting, while broad pulses usually deviate less from their initial Gaussian shape and form ripple structures on top of the main pulse. Linear pulses decay at an almost constant rate, while nonlinear pulses decay exponentially. A pulse interacts most efficiently with a random medium with a correlation length of about half of the initial pulse width. This detailed model of fast wave pulses propagating in highly structured media substantiates the interpretation of EIT waves as fast magnetoacoustic waves. Evolution of a fast pulse provides us with a novel method to diagnose the sub-resolution filamentation of the solar atmosphere

  7. Hemoglobin A1c measurement for the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapadia Chirag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory measurements of hemoglobin A1c above 6.5% were approved as an additional diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus by the American Diabetes Association in 2010. Several recent pediatric studies have cast HbA1c measurement in children in an unfavorable light in the pediatric population, by comparing HbA1c measurements to results on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT or fasting plasma glucose (FPG. However, many of these studies do not recognize that diabetes diagnostic criteria are based upon long-term health outcomes. In this sense, OGTT and FPG have themselves never been validated in the pediatric population. Studies to validate diagnostic tests for diabetes in pediatric populations may take a substantial period of time, and may prove unfeasible. However, studies that tie diagnostic results as a child to diagnostic results as an adult may be more feasible and may provide the data needed to determine which pediatric diagnostic criteria to use. Thus, for the time being, except for cases of hemoglobinopathy, cystic fibrosis, and a few other exceptions, describing HbA1c as ‘lacking in sensitivity or specificity’ in the pediatric population because of lack of correlation with OGTT is not scientifically sound.

  8. Evaluation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c for diagnosing type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among Palestinian Arab population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram T Kharroubi

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to compare the potential of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes among Palestinian Arabs compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG. A cross-sectional sample of 1370 Palestinian men (468 and women (902 without known diabetes and above the age of 30 years were recruited. Whole blood was used to estimate HbA(1c and plasma for FPG and total lipid profile. Fasting plasma glucose was used as a reference to diagnose diabetes (≥ 126 mg/dL and prediabetes (100-125 mg/dL. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC for HbA(1c was 81.9% to diagnose diabetes and 63.9% for prediabetes. The agreement between HbA(1c and diabetes as diagnosed by FPG was moderate (ĸ  =  0.498 and low with prediabetes (ĸ = 0.142. The optimal cut-off value for HbA1c to diagnose diabetes was ≥ 6.3% (45 mmol/mol. The sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 65.6% (53.1-76.3%, 94.5% (93.1-95.6%, 80.0% (72.8-87.3%, respectively. However, using cut-off value of ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol improved specificity. At this cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 57.4% (44.9-69.0%, 97.1% (96.0-97.9% and 77.3% (71.0-83.5%. For diagnosing prediabetes with HbA1c between 5.7-6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol, the sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 62.7% (57.1-67.9%, 56.3% (53.1-59.4% and 59.5% (56.3-62.5%, respectively. HbA(1c at cut-off value of ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol by itself diagnosed 5.3% and 48.3% as having diabetes and prediabetes compared to 4.5% and 24.2% using FPG, respectively. Mean HbA(1c and FPG increase significantly with increasing body mass index. In conclusion, the ROC curves showed HbA1c could be used for diagnosing diabetes when compared to FPG but not for prediabetes in Palestinians Arabs even though only about 50% of the diabetic subjects were identified by the both HbA1c and FPG.

  9. Fast Magnetic Reconnection: Bridging Laboratory and Space Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava [University New Hampshire- Durham

    2012-02-16

    Recent developments in experimental and theoretical studies of magnetic reconnection hold promise for providing solutions to outstanding problems in laboratory and space plasma physics. Examples include sawtooth crashes in tokamaks, substorms in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, eruptive solar flares, and more recently, fast reconnection in laser-produced high energy density plasmas. In each of these examples, a common and long-standing challenge has been to explain why fast reconnection proceeds rapidly from a relatively quiescent state. In this talk, we demonstrate the advantages of viewing these problems and their solutions from a common perspective. We focus on some recent, surprising discoveries regarding the role of secondary plasmoid instabilities of thin current sheets. Nonlinearly, these instabilities lead to fast reconnection rates that are very weakly dependent on the Lundquist number of the plasma.

  10. HbA1c and Glycated Albumin Levels Are High in Gastrectomized Subjects with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Shinya; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    We report that glycated albumin (GA) is higher relative to HbA1c in non-diabetic, gastrectomized subjects without anemia, and thus is a sign of oxyhyperglycemia. It is known that gastrectomized subjects are prone to iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), and that the HbA1c levels of subjects with IDA are falsely high. In the present study, the HbA1c and GA levels of gastrectomized subjects with IDA were compared with gastrectomized subjects without anemia. Seven non-diabetic gastrectomized subjects with IDA were enrolled in the present study. Twenty-eight non-diabetic gastrectomized subjects without anemia matched with the subjects with IDA in terms of age, gender, and body mass index were used as the controls. Although there were no significant differences in fasting plasma glucose and OGTT 2-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG) between the two groups, the HbA1c and GA levels in gastrectomized subjects with IDA were significantly higher than the controls. For all of the gastrectomized subjects (n=35), ferritin exhibited a significant negative correlation with HbA1c and GA, and a significant positive correlation with 2-h PG. In addition, the HbA1c and GA levels exhibited a significant negative correlation with the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and hemoglobin. The HbA1c and GA levels in gastrectomized subjects with IDA were significantly higher than those in controls. The high GA levels are attributed to a tendency in which patients with total gastrectomy, who are prone to IDA, are susceptible to postprandial hyperglycemia and reactive hypoglycemia, which in turn leads to large fluctuations in plasma glucose. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  11. Trimester-specific reference intervals for haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Catherine

    2011-11-26

    Abstract Background: Diabetes in pregnancy imposes additional risks to both mother and infant. These increased risks are considered to be primarily related to glycaemic control which is monitored by means of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)). The correlation of HbA(1c) with clinical outcomes emphasises the need to measure HbA(1c) accurately, precisely and for correct interpretation, comparison to appropriately defined reference intervals. Since July 2010, the HbA(1c) assay in Irish laboratories is fully metrologically traceable to the IFCC standard. The objective was to establish trimester-specific reference intervals in pregnancy for IFCC standardised HbA(1c) in non-diabetic Caucasian women. Methods: The authors recruited 311 non-diabetic Caucasian pregnant (n=246) and non-pregnant women (n=65). A selective screening based on risk factors for gestational diabetes was employed. All subjects had a random plasma glucose <7.7 mmol\\/L and normal haemoglobin level. Pregnancy trimester was defined as trimester 1 (T1, n=40) up to 12 weeks +6 days, trimester 2 (T2, n=106) 13-27 weeks +6 days, trimester 3 (T3, n=100) >28 weeks to term. Results: The normal HbA(1c) reference interval for Caucasian non-pregnant women was 29-37 mmol\\/mol (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial; DCCT: 4.8%-5.5%), T1: 24-36 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.3%-5.4%), T2: 25-35 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.4%-5.4%) and T3: 28-39 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.7%-5.7%). HbA(1c) was significantly decreased in trimesters 1 and 2 compared to non-pregnant women. Conclusions: HbA(1c) trimester-specific reference intervals are required to better inform the management of pregnancies complicated by diabetes.

  12. How does CKD affect HbA1c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary; Handelsman, Yehuda

    2018-04-01

    HOW DOES CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AFFECT HBA1C?: A number of factors determine HbA1c other than the level of glucose exposure alone. In an subset analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study of 941 diabetic people with varying degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as 724 who did not have CKD, and mean age in the eighth decade, Jung et al. ask whether HbA1c is reliable as an indicator of glycemia in people with kidney disease (CKD) to the same degree as in those not having kidney disease, and, if not, whether measures of glycated serum proteins may be more useful. The only available measure of glycemia for comparison was a single fasting glucose level, and the authors acknowledge that this gives an incomplete measure, particularly in people with relatively mild diabetes, whose mean HbA1c was 6.4%, with most having levels of 7.5% or lower. In patients of this sort, postprandial glucose levels may better explain variations in mean HbA1c. Recognizing that the dataset may be limited, Jung et al. nevertheless give an intriguingly negative answer to the first question, of the reliability of HbA1c with kidney disease. Using Deming regression analysis, Jung et al. showed that the correlation between HbA1c and fasting glucose weakens as renal function worsens, and, moreover, that this appears particularly to be the case in people with anemia (hemoglobin men and women, respectively), confirming earlier observations. Among those diabetic people with neither anemia nor CKD, the correlation coefficient between HbA1c and fasting glucose was r = 0.70, compared with r = 0.35 among those with both anemia and very severe CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] perform SMBG to more adequately interpret HbA1c results. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Effect of chromium supplementation on glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Raynold V; Phung, Olivia J

    2015-02-13

    Chromium (Cr) is a trace element involved in glucose homeostasis. We aim to evaluate and quantify the effects of Cr supplementation on A1C and FPG in patients with T2DM. A systematic literature search of Pubmed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library (from database inception to 11/2014) with no language restrictions sought RCTs or cohort studies evaluating Cr supplementation in T2DM vs control and reporting either change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Meta-analysis was conducted on each subtype of Cr supplement separately, and was analyzed by random effects model to yield the weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed by using the I(2) statistic. A total of 14 RCTs (n=875 participants, mean age range: 30 to 83 years old, 8 to 24 weeks of follow-up) were identified (Cr chloride: n=3 study, Cr picolinate: n=5 study, brewer's yeast: n=4 study and Cr yeast: n=3 study). Compared with placebo, Cr yeast, brewer's yeast and Cr picolinate did not show statistically significant effects on A1C. Furthermore, compared to control, Cr chloride, Cr yeast and Cr picolinate showed no effect on FPG, however, brewer's yeast showed a statistically significant decrease in FPG -19.23 mg/dL (95% CI=-35.30 to -3.16, I(2)=21%, n=137). Cr supplementation with brewer's yeast may provide marginal benefits in lowering FPG in patients with T2DM compared to placebo however it did not have any effect on A1C.

  14. Oxidized LDL but not total LDL is associated with HbA1c in individuals without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessatto, Débora; Brum, Liz Marina Bueno Dos Passos; Camargo, Joíza Lins

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the association between HbA1c, LDL and oxi-LDL in individuals without diabetes (DM). One hundred and ninety-six individuals, without DM, were enrolled and divided into three groups according to HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose values. HbA1c, oxi-LDL, LDL, and other biochemical measurements of lipid profile were also carried out. oxi-LDL levels showed significant differences among all groups and group 3 presented higher values [34U/L (27-46); 44U/L (37-70); and 86U/L (49-136); pHbA1c showed moderate positive associations with oxi-LDL (r=0.431; pHbA1c and TC (r=0.142; p=0.048), triglycerides (r=0.155; p=0.030), LDL (r=0.148; p=0.039), non-HDL (r=0.192; p=0.007) and Apo B (r=0.171, pHbA1c and oxi-LDL, oxi-LDL/HDL and oxi-LDL/LDL ratios remained significant even after adjustment by multiple linear regression analysis for the variables alcohol consumption, use of medicine, BMI, and age. oxi-LDL levels are significantly associated with HbA1c in non-diabetic individuals. However, the levels of traditional atherogenic lipids only showed a weak association with HbA1c levels. Those at high risk of developing DM or cardiovascular disease have higher levels of oxi-LDL. These data favor to the use of HbA1c as a biomarker to identify individuals at risk of developing complications even in non-diabetic glycemic levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fast-ion stabilization of tokamak plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Siena, A.; Görler, T.; Doerk, H.; Poli, E.; Bilato, R.

    2018-05-01

    A significant reduction of the turbulence-induced anomalous heat transport has been observed in recent studies of magnetically confined plasmas in the presence of a significant fast-ion fractions. Therefore, the control of fast-ion populations with external heating might open the way to more optimistic scenarios for future fusion devices. However, little is known about the parameter range of relevance of these fast-ion effects which are often only highlighted in correlation with substantial electromagnetic fluctuations. Here, a significant fast ion induced stabilization is also found in both linear and nonlinear electrostatic gyrokinetic simulations which cannot be explained with the conventional assumptions based on pressure profile and dilution effects. Strong wave-fast particle resonant interactions are observed for realistic parameters where the fast particle trace approximation clearly failed and explained with the help of a reduced Vlasov model. In contrast to previous interpretations, fast particles can actively modify the Poisson field equation—even at low fast particle densities where dilution tends to be negligible and at relatively high temperatures, i.e. T  <  30T e . Further key parameters controlling the role of the fast ions are identified in the following and various ways of further optimizing their beneficial impact are explored. Finally, possible extensions into the electromagnetic regime are briefly discussed and the relevance of these findings for ITER standard scenarios is highlighted.

  16. A Midsize Tokamak As Fast Track To Burning Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain ((ge) 10) with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This could be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a more efficient magnetic divertor than those of present tokamaks is discussed.

  17. A midsize tokamak as a fast track to burning plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mazzucato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptual design of a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain (≥ 10 with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER. This can be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a different magnetic divertor from those currently employed in present experiments is discussed.

  18. Beyond HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-12-01

    It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience. The diaTribe Foundation convened a meeting on the topic of glycemic outcomes beyond HbA1c on 21 July 2017, in Bethesda (MD, USA), focusing on potential uses of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Understanding patterns of glycemia in people with diabetes has long been a focus of approaches to improving treatment, and over the past few years this has become an available modality for clinical practice. Glucose levels are not the only biologic parameters affecting HbA1c levels; HbA1c changes with anemia or, more subtly, with changes in rates of erythrocyte turnover not reflected in hemoglobin levels outside the normal range. Renal disease often is associated with lower HbA1c than would be predicted based on an individual's glycemic levels. Furthermore, HbA1c levels tend to increase with age and are higher in some ethnic groups; for example, people of African ethnicity have higher HbA1c levels than people of Northern European descent. Indeed, we have argued that even as a measure of mean glycemia HbA1c is inherently imprecise. Overall, for some 20% of people with diabetes, HbA1c levels are substantially higher, or substantially lower, than those that would be predicted from mean blood glucose levels. If one recognizes that HbA1c is, at best, a partial measure of mean glycemic exposure, one must surely accept that HbA1c does not reflect variability within a day, from day to day, and from period to period. Many glucose-lowering medicines, particularly the sulfonylureas and insulin, cause hypoglycemia, with consequent negative effects on quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, as well as association with weight gain and adverse macrovascular outcome; hypoglycemia will, of course, not be captured by HbA1c measurement. Based on these

  19. Fast determination of plasma parameters through function parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Jilge, W.; Lackner, K.

    1985-09-01

    The method of function parametrization, developed by H. Wind for fast data evaluation in high energy physics, is demonstrated in the context of controlled fusion research. This method relies on a statistical analysis of a large data base of simulated experiments in order to obtain a functional representation for intrinsic physical parameters of a system in terms of the values of the measurements. Rapid determination of characteristic equilibrium parameters of a tokamak discharge is shown to be a particularly indicated application. The method is employed on the ASDEX experiment to determine the following parameters of the plasma: position of the magnetic axis, geometric center, and current center; minor radius, elongation, and area of the plasma column; a normalized safety factor at the plasma boundary; the Shafranov parameter βsub(p)+lsub(i)/2; the flux difference between the plasma boundary and an external reference value; the position of the lower and upper saddle points, and the intersections of the separatrix with the four divertor plates. The relevant measurements consist of three differential poloidal flux measurements, four poloidal field measurements, the current through the multipole shaping coils, and the total plasma current. Function parametrization supplies a very accurate interpretation of these data, which is now used for online data analysis, and is also sufficiently fast to be suitable for real-time control of the plasma. (orig.)

  20. Use of HbA1c to diagnose type 2 diabetes mellitus among high risk Sri Lankan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M M; Weerarathna, T P; Dahanayake, M U; Weerasinghe, N P

    Even though, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was found to be effective in predicting diabetes especially in Caucasians there is limited evidence of its diagnostic utility in high risk Sri Lankan adults. This study aimed to determine the optimal HbA1c cut-off points for detecting diabetes in a high risk population in Sri Lanka. This community based study consisted of 254 previously healthy adults with history of diabetes in one or more first-degree relatives. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) , glucose tolerance test (GTT) and HbA1c were measured in all and GTT was used as a reference to diagnose diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic curve was created to find the optimum HbA1c cut-off value to predict diabetes. Prevalence of diabetes was 12.2% (n=31) with FPG and 16.1% (n=41) with GTT. Prevalence rose to 27.6% (PHbA1c with cut-off of ≥6.5% was used as the diagnostic test. The ROC curves showed the HbA1c threshold of 6.3% provided the optimum balance between sensitivity (80.5%) and specificity (79%). In compared to GTT, FPG had only a modest sensitivity (65%) in diagnosing diabetes in this high risk population. Our study showed that optimum HbA1C cut-off for detecting diabetes was 6.3% and it had better sensitivity, but lower specificity than FPG. This study further showed that the prevalence of diabetes would become double if HbA1c is used over FPG to screen this high risk population. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  2. Performance of HbA1c as an early diagnostic indicator of type 1 diabetes in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehik, Kendra; Cuthbertson, David; Boulware, David; Beam, Craig A; Rodriguez, Henry; Legault, Laurent; Hyytinen, Mila; Rewers, Marian J; Schatz, Desmond A; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate HbA(1c) as an alternative criterion for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 1 diabetes (T1D) in high-risk subjects TrialNet Natural History (TrialNet) studies and had an HbA(1c) within 90 days of an OGTT with a 2-h plasma glucose (2-hPG) measure were included. An OGTT of 140-199 mg/dL defined IGT, and an OGTT with 2-hPG ≥200 mg/dL or fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL defined diabetes. HbA(1c) ≥5.7% defined IGT, and HbA(1c) ≥ 6.5% defined diabetes. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess diagnostic accuracy of HbA(1c) compared with OGTT. There were 587 subjects from DPT-1, 884 from TrialNet, 91 from TEDDY, and 420 from TRIGR. As an indicator for IGT, HbA(1c) sensitivity was very low across the studies (8-42%), and specificity was variable (64-95%). With HbA(1c) ≥6.5% threshold used for T1D diagnosis, the sensitivity was very low and specificity was high (sensitivity and specificity: DPT-1 24 and 98%, TrialNet 28 and 99%, TEDDY 34 and 98%, and TRIGR 33 and 99%, respectively). The positive predictive value of HbA(1c) ≥6.5% for the development of T1D was variable (50-94%) across the four studies. HbA(1c) ≥6.5% is a specific but not sensitive early indicator for T1D in high-risk subjects <21 years of age diagnosed by OGTT or asymptomatic hyperglycemia. Redefining the HbA(1c) threshold is recommended if used as an alternative criterion in diagnosing T1D.

  3. Augmented Plasma Adiponectin after Prolonged Fasting During Ramadan in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Feizollahzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intermittent fasting during Ramadan entails major changes in metabolism and energy expenditure. This study sought to determine effect of the Ramadan fasting on serum levels of adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as two inter-related peptides involved in cells sensitivity to insulin and glucose metabolism. Methods: Total of seventy healthy men, with age range equal or greater than 30, with at least three type2 diabetes mellitus (DM risk factors were selected. Serum lipid profile, anthropometric indices and plasma glucose levels were determined using conventional methods. Also, serum adiponectin and TNF- α concentrations were assessed using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data were analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Ramadan fasting resulted in a significant increase of serum adiponectin (P< 0.000, fasting glucose (P< 0.000 and triglycride (P< 0.001. Body mass index was lowered during the fasting (P< 0.000. Finally, no remarkable decrease was found in serum TNF-α levels (P= 0.100. Conclusion: Ramadan fasting resulted in augmented adiponectin levels which may help in improving metabolic stress induced by insulin resistance in men with predisposing factors of type2 DM.

  4. Estimation of post disruption plasma temperature for fast current quench Aditya plasma shots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, S.; Chowdhuri, M.B.; Joisa, Y.S.; Raval, J.V.; Ghosh, J.; Jha, R.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of tokamak current quenches are an important issue for the determination of electromagnetic forces that act on the in-vessel components and vacuum vessel during major disruptions. It is observed that thermal quench is followed by a sharp current decay. Fast current quench disruptive plasma shots were investigated for ADITYA tokamak. The current decay time was determined for the selected shots, which were in the range of 0.8 msec to 2.5 msec. This current decay information was then applied to L/R model, frequently employed for the estimation of the current decay time in tokamak plasmas, considering plasma inductance and plasma resistivity. This methodology was adopted for the estimation of the post disruption plasma temperature using the experimentally observed current decay time for the fast current quench disruptive ADITYA plasma shots. The study reveals that for the identified shots there is a constant increase in the current decay time with the post disruption plasma temperature. The investigations also explore the behavior post disruption plasma temperature and the current decay time as a function of the edge safety factor, Q. Post disruption plasma temperature and the current decay time exhibits a decrease with the increase in the value Q. (author)

  5. Fast Fermi acceleration in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.S.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1989-01-01

    A longstanding question in the field of magnetospheric physics is the source of the energetic particles which are commonly observed along the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). Several models have been suggested for the acceleration of these particles. We suggest a means by which the fast Fermi acceleration mechanism [Wu, 1984] can accelerate electrons at the plasma sheet and perhaps account for some of the observations. We propose the following: A localized hydromagnetic disturbance propagating through the tail lobe region impinges upon the PSBL deforming it and displacing it in towards the central plasma sheet. The boundary layer can then act like a moving magnetic mirror. If the disturbance is propagating nearly perpendicular to the layer then its velocity projected parallel to the layer (and the magnetic field) can be very large resulting in significant acceleration of reflected particles. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  6. Ethnic dependent differences in diagnostic accuracy of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Ronald A; Jiang, Ying; Morrison, Howard; Orpana, Heather; Rogers Van Katwyk, Susan; Lemieux, Chantal

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown varying sensitivity and specificity of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to identify diabetes and prediabetes, compared to 2-h oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), in different ethnic groups. Within the Canadian population, the ability of HbA1c to identify prediabetes and diabetes in First Nations, Métis and Inuit, East and South Asian ethnic groups has yet to be determined. We collected demographic, lifestyle information, biochemical results of glycemic status (FPG, OGTT, and HbA1c) from an ethnically diverse Canadian population sample, which included a purposeful sampling of First Nations, Métis, Inuit, South Asian and East Asian participants. Sensitivity and specificity using Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) recommended cut-points varied between ethnic groups, with greater variability for identification of prediabetes than diabetes. Dysglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes) was identified with a sensitivity and specificity ranging from 47.1% to 87.5%, respectively in Caucasians to 24.1% and 88.8% in Inuit. Optimal HbA1c ethnic-specific cut-points for dysglycemia and diabetes were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Our sample showed broad differences in the ability of HbA1c to identify dysglycemia or diabetes in different ethnic groups. Optimal cut-points for dysglycemia or diabetes in all ethnic groups were substantially lower than CDA recommendations. Utilization of HbA1c as the sole biochemical diagnostic marker may produce varying degrees of false negative results depending on the ethnicity of screened individuals. Further research is necessary to identify and validate optimal ethnic specific cut-points used for diabetic screening in the Canadian population. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preoperative Fasting Plasma C-Peptide Levels as Predictors of Remission of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus after Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenmao; Bai, Rixing; Yan, Ming; Song, Maomin

    2017-12-01

    The study evaluated the predictive role of preoperative fasting C-peptide, hemoglobin (Hb)A1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) levels on diabetes remission in patients with type 2 diabetes following bariatric surgery. Medline, PubMed, Central, and Google Scholar databases of up to September 7, 2016 were searched using the following terms: type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y, anastomosis, C-peptide, weight loss, HbA/HbA1c, predictive/predictor. Meta-analysis of the pooled data indicated that fasting C-peptide was predictive of increased chance of remission of type 2 diabetes (pooled difference in means = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61 to 1.25, p fasting plasma C-peptide was associated with increased type 2 diabetes remission after bariatric surgery, whereas baseline HbA1c and FPG levels were associated with reduced chance of remission. These parameters may be used as a guideline in weighing the risks and benefits for surgical intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere Derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of approximately 3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  9. Role of HbA1c in post-partum screening of women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Claesson

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Proposed thresholds of HbA1c had low diagnostic sensitivity. Combined with a fasting glucose test, the performance was no better than with using a fasting glucose test alone. Combining a fasting glucose test with a lower HbA1c cut-point may be an alternative approach for selection of women for an OGTT.

  10. Fasting plasma glucose levels and coronary artery calcification in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Young-Mi; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the association of impaired glucose tolerance with CVD has been shown in many studies, the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and CVD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of participants with normal fasting glucose versus those with IFG, according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and to assess whether differences in CAC scores were independent of important confounders. Retrospective study. Health Promotion Center of the University Hospital (Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), during the period 2010-2014. Participants were enrolled from the general population who visited for a medical check-up. CAC was assessed in asymptomatic individuals by multidetector computed tomography. Anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles were also recorded. Subjects were divided into four fasting glucose groups. Participants with a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Correlation between FPG and CAC scores, CAC score categories, and association between CAC score and FPG categories. Of 1112 participants, 346 (34.2%) had a CAC score > 0. FPG values in the IFG patients were positively but weakly correlated with CAC scores (r=0.099, P=.001). The incidence of CAC differed according to FPG level (P =110 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk of CAC than did subjects with normal fasting glucose (110.

  11. Impact of Mean Cell Hemoglobin on Hb A1c-Defined Glycemia Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Segade, Santiago; Garcia, Javier Rodriguez; García-López, José M; Gude, Francisco; Casanueva, Felipe F; Rs-Alonso, Santiago; Camiña, Félix

    2016-12-01

    Several hematological alterations are associated with altered hemoglobin A 1c (Hb A 1c ). However, there have been no reports of their influence on the rates of exceeding standard Hb A 1c thresholds by patients for whom Hb A 1c determination is requested in clinical practice. The initial data set included the first profiles (complete blood counts, Hb A 1c , fasting glucose, and renal and hepatic parameters) of all adult patients for whom such a profile was requested between 2008 and 2013 inclusive. After appropriate exclusions, 21844 patients remained in the study. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic, hematological, and biochemical variables excluded from the predictors. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) correlated negatively with Hb A 1c . Fasting glucose, MCH, and age emerged as predictors of Hb A 1c in a stepwise regression that discarded sex, hemoglobin, MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum creatinine, and liver disease. Mean Hb A 1c in MCH interdecile intervals fell from 6.8% (51 mmol/mol) in the lowest (≤27.5 pg) to 6.0% (43 mmol/mol) in the highest (>32.5 pg), with similar results for MCV. After adjustment for fasting glucose and other correlates of Hb A 1c , a 1 pg increase in MCH reduced the odds of Hb A 1c -defined dysglycemia, diabetes and poor glycemia control by 10%-14%. For at least 25% of patients, low or high MCH or MCV levels are associated with increased risk of an erroneous Hb A 1c -based identification of glycemia status. Although causality has not been demonstrated, these parameters should be taken into account in interpreting Hb A 1c levels in clinical practice. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  12. Fasting plasma triglycerides predict the glycaemic response to treatment of Type 2 diabetes by gastric electrical stimulation. A novel lipotoxicity paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, H E; Ludvik, B; Yaniv, I; Haddad, W; Schwartz, T; Aviv, R

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-stimulatory, meal-mediated electrical stimulation of the stomach (TANTALUS-DIAMOND) improves glycaemic control and causes modest weight loss in patients with Type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled on oral anti-diabetic medications. The magnitude of the glycaemic response in clinical studies has been variable. A preliminary analysis of data from patients who had completed 6 months of treatment indicated that the glycaemic response to the electrical stimulation was inversely related to the baseline fasting plasma triglyceride level. Method An analysis of 40 patients who had had detailed longitudinal studies for 12 months. Results Twenty-two patients with fasting plasma triglycerides ≤ 1.7 mmol/l had mean decreases in HbA1c after 3, 6 and 12 months of gastric contraction modulation treatment of −15 ± 2.1 mmol/mol (−1.39 ± 0.20%), −16 ± 2.2 mmol/mol (−1.48 ± 0.20%) and −14 ± 3.0 mmol/mol (−1.31 ± 0.26%), respectively. In contrast, 18 patients with fasting plasma triglyceride > 1.7 mmol/l had mean decreases in HbA1c of −7 ± 1.7 mmol/mol (−0.66 ± 0.16%), −5 ± 1.6 mmol/mol (−0.44 ± 0.18%) and −5 ± 1.7 mmol/mol (−0.42 ± 0.16%), respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient between fasting plasma triglyceride and decreases in HbA1c at 12 months of treatment was 0.34 (P triglycerides, while it progressively improved in patients with low fasting plasma triglycerides. Patients with low fasting plasma triglycerides had a tendency to lose more weight than those with high fasting plasma triglycerides, but this did not achieve statistical significance. Conclusions The data presented suggest the existance of a triglyceride lipotoxic mechanism that interferes with gastric/neural mediated pathways that can regulate glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The data suggest the existence of a triglyceride lipotoxic pathway that interferes with gastric/neural mediated pathways that can regulate glycaemic control

  13. Serum Uric Acid Levels were Dynamically Coupled with Hemoglobin A1c in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fengjiang; Chang, Baocheng; Yang, Xilin; Wang, Yaogang; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to decipher the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and normal subjects. A total of 2,250 unrelated T2DM patients and 4,420 Han Chinese subjects from a physical examination population were recruited for this study. In T2DM patients SUA levels were negatively correlated with HbA1c (rs = -0.109, P = 0.000) and 2 h plasma glucose levels (rs = -0.178, P = 0.000). In the physical examination population, SUA levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c (rs = -0.175, P = 0.000) and FPG (rs = -0.131, P = 0.009) in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c (rs = 0.040, P = 0.012) and FPG (rs = 0.084, P = 0.000) in normal-glucose subjects. Multivariate analyses showed that HbA1c was significantly negatively associated with HUA both in T2DM patients (OR = 0.872, 95% CI: 0.790~0.963) and in the physical examination T2DM patients (OR = 0.722, 95% CI: 0.539~0.968). Genetic association studies in T2DM patients showed that alleles of two glucose-uric acid transporter genes, ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were significantly associated with SUA levels (P < 0.05). SUA level is inversely correlated with HbA1c in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c in normal-glucose subjects. The reverse transporting of uric acid and glucose in renal tubules might be accounted for these associations.

  14. Collimated fast electron beam generation in critical density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwawaki, T., E-mail: iwawaki-t@eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Habara, H.; Morita, K.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Baton, S.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S. [LULI, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CEA, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Nakatsutsumi, M. [LULI, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CEA, 91128 Palaiseau (France); European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility (XFEL) GmbH (Germany); Rousseaux, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Filippi, F. [La SAPIENZA, University of Rome, Dip. SBAI, 00161 Rome (Italy); Nazarov, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Significantly collimated fast electron beam with a divergence angle 10° (FWHM) is observed when an ultra-intense laser pulse (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 300 fs) irradiates a uniform critical density plasma. The uniform plasma is created through the ionization of an ultra-low density (5 mg/c.c.) plastic foam by X-ray burst from the interaction of intense laser (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 600 ps) with a thin Cu foil. 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation well reproduces the collimated electron beam with a strong magnetic field in the region of the laser pulse propagation. To understand the physical mechanism of the collimation, we calculate energetic electron motion in the magnetic field obtained from the 2D PIC simulation. As the results, the strong magnetic field (300 MG) collimates electrons with energy over a few MeV. This collimation mechanism may attract attention in many applications such as electron acceleration, electron microscope and fast ignition of laser fusion.

  15. Comparison of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, HbA1c, and fructosamine for detection of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, T; Akanuma, Y; Toyota, T; Kuzuya, T; Kawai, T; Kawazu, S; Yoshioka, S; Kanazawa, Y; Ohta, M; Baba, S

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the use of serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (AG) levels in screening for diabetes mellitus, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c, fructosamine (FA), and AG in 1620 randomly selected subjects in 11 institutions throughout Japan. Most individuals were receiving diet and/or drug therapy for diabetes. Subjects were separated into four groups based on World Health Organization criteria: nondiabetic control subjects, subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), patients with diabetes, and patients with other disorders without IGT. The overlap of AG values between each group was less than that of HbA1c or FA values. AG levels were significantly correlated with fasting plasma glucose (r = -0.627), HbA1c (r = -0.629), and FA (r = -0.590) levels. If we took 14 micrograms/ml as the normal lower limit, AG level was highly specific (93.1%), and a decreased AG level indicated diabetes mellitus (84.2% sensitivity). According to the selectivity index (sensitivity value times specificity value), AG determinations were superior to both HbA1c and FA measurements for diabetes screening. When combinations of these tests were used, only AG and HbA1c together were slightly better than AG alone. Thus, together with other advantages of AG, e.g., its wide variance with relatively fair glycemic control and the negligible influence of the sampling conditions, AG level has more potential than HbA1c or FA level as a screening criterion for diabetes.

  16. Fast Particle Interaction With Waves In Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breizman, Boris

    2006-01-01

    There are two well-known motivations for theoretical studies of fast particle interaction with waves in magnetic confinement devices. One is the challenge of avoiding strong collective losses of alpha particles and beam ions in future burning plasma experiments. The other one is the compelling need to quantitatively interpret the large amount of experimental data from JET, TFTR, JT-60U, DIII-D, and other machines. Such interpretation involves unique diagnostic opportunities offered by MHD spectroscopy. This report discusses how the present theory responds to the stated challenges and what theoretical and computational advances are required to address the outstanding problems. More specifically, this paper deals with the following topics: predictive capabilities of linear theory and simulations; theory of Alfven cascades; diagnostic opportunities based on linear and nonlinear properties of unstable modes; interplay of kinetic and fluid nonlinearities; fast chirping phenomena for non-perturbative modes; and global transport of fast particles. Recent results are presented on some of the listed topics, although the main goal is to identify critical issues for future work

  17. A proposed method for fast determination of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Lackner, K.

    1984-09-01

    The method of function parametrization, developed and applied by H. Wind for fast data evaluation in high energy physics, is presented in the context of controlled fusion research. This method relies on statistical analysis of a data base of simulated experiments in order to obtain a functional representation for the intrinsic physical parameters of a system in terms of the values of the measurements. Some variations on Wind's original procedure are suggested. A specific application for tokamak experiments would be the determination of certain global parameters of the plasma, characterizing the current profile, shape of the cross-section, plasma pressure, and the internal inductance. The relevant measurements for this application include values of the poloidal field and flux external to the plasma, and a diamagnetic measurement. These may be combined with other diagnostics, such as electron-cyclotron emission and laser interferometry, in order to obtain also density and temperature profiles. There appears to be a capability for on-line determination of basic physical parameters, in a millisecond timescale on a minicomputer instead of in seconds on a large mainframe. (orig.)

  18. Hamiltonian analysis of fast wave current drive in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becoulet, A; Fraboulet, D; Giruzzi, G; Moreau, D; Saoutic, B [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Chinardet, J [CISI Ingenierie, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1993-12-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism is used to analyze the direct resonant interaction between the fast magnetosonic wave and the electrons in a tokamak plasma. The intrinsic stochasticity of the electron phase space trajectories is derived, and together with extrinsic de-correlation processes, assesses the validity of the quasilinear approximation for the kinetic studies of fast wave current drive (FWCD). A full-wave resolution of the Maxwell-Vlasov set of equations provides the exact pattern of the wave fields in a complete tokamak geometry, for a realistic antenna spectrum. The local quasilinear diffusion tensor is derived from the wave fields, and is used for a computation of the driven current and deposited power profiles, the current drive efficiency, including possible non-linear effects in the kinetic equation. Several applications of FWCD on existing and future machines are given, as well as results concerning combination of FWCD with other non inductive current drive methods. An analytical expression for the current drive efficiency is given in the high single-pass absorption regimes. (authors). 20 figs., 1 tab., 26 refs.

  19. Hamiltonian analysis of fast wave current drive in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Giruzzi, G.; Moreau, D.; Saoutic, B.

    1993-12-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism is used to analyze the direct resonant interaction between the fast magnetosonic wave and the electrons in a tokamak plasma. The intrinsic stochasticity of the electron phase space trajectories is derived, and together with extrinsic de-correlation processes, assesses the validity of the quasilinear approximation for the kinetic studies of fast wave current drive (FWCD). A full-wave resolution of the Maxwell-Vlasov set of equations provides the exact pattern of the wave fields in a complete tokamak geometry, for a realistic antenna spectrum. The local quasilinear diffusion tensor is derived from the wave fields, and is used for a computation of the driven current and deposited power profiles, the current drive efficiency, including possible non-linear effects in the kinetic equation. Several applications of FWCD on existing and future machines are given, as well as results concerning combination of FWCD with other non inductive current drive methods. An analytical expression for the current drive efficiency is given in the high single-pass absorption regimes. (authors). 20 figs., 1 tab., 26 refs

  20. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K

    2015-12-24

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.

  1. Fast-wave heating of a two-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, T.H.

    1975-02-01

    The use of the compressional hydromagnetic mode (also called the magnetosonic or, simply, the fast wave) is examined in some detail with respect to the heating of a tritium plasma containing a few percent deuterium. Efficient absorption of wave energy by the deuteron component is found when ω = ω/sub c/ (deuterons), with Q/sub wave/ greater than or equal to 100. The dominant behavior of the high-energy deuteron distribution function is found to be f(v) approximately exp[3/2) ∫/sup v/ dv less than Δv greater than/less than(Δv/sub perpendicular to/) 2 greater than], where [Δv] is the Chandrasekhar-Spitzer drag coefficient, and [(Δv/sub perpendicular to/) 2 sigma] is the Kennel-Englemann quasilinear diffusion coefficient for wave--particle interaction at the deuteron cyclotron frequency. An analytic solution to the one-dimensional Fokker--Planck equation, with rf-induced diffusion, is developed, and using this solution together with Duane's fit to the D-T fusion cross-section, it is found that the nuclear fusion power output from an rf-produced two-component plasma can significantly exceed the incremental (radiofrequency) power input. (auth)

  2. Edge plasma density reconstruction for fast monoenergetic lithium beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Takamura, S.; Ueda, M.; Iguchi, H.; Fujita, J.; Kadota, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two different electron density reconstruction methods for 8-keV neutral lithium beam probing have been developed for the Compact Helical System (CHS). Density dependences on emission and ionization processes are included by using effective rate coefficients obtained from the collisional radiative model. Since the two methods differ in the way the local beam density in the plasma is determined, the methods have different applicable electron densities. The beam attenuation is calculated by iteration from the electron density profile in method I. In method II, the beam remainder at the observation point z is determined by integrating the Li I emission intensity from z toward the position of emission tail-off. At the emission tail-off, the fast lithium beam is completely attenuated. Selecting an appropriate method enables us to obtain edge electron density profile well inside the last closed flux surface for various ranges of plasma densities (10 12 --5x10 13 cm -3 ). The electron density profiles reconstructed by these two different methods are in good agreement with each other and are consistent with results from ruby laser Thomson scattering

  3. Fasting plasma glucose and lipid profiles of diabetic patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Corresponding author: ... management, along with diet and medication.4,5 ... Ghana, endorsed educational intervention as preventive measure. ..... ing blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein.

  4. Hemoglobin A1c May Be an Inadequate Diagnostic Tool for Diabetes Mellitus in Anemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Il Son

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecently, a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c level of 6.5% has been determined to be a criterion for diabetes mellitus (DM, and it is a widely used marker for the diagnosis of DM. However, HbA1c may be influenced by a number of factors. Anemia is one of the most prevalent diseases with an influence on HbA1c; however, its effect on HbA1c varies based on the variable pathophysiology of anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anemia on HbA1c levels.MethodsAnemic subjects (n=112 and age- and sex-matched controls (n=217 who were drug naive and suspected of having DM were enrolled. The subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and HbA1c simultaneously. We compared mean HbA1c and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DM between each subgroup.ResultsClinical characteristics were found to be similar between each subgroup. Also, when glucose levels were within the normal range, the difference in mean HbA1c was not significant (P=0.580. However, when plasma glucose levels were above the diagnostic cutoff for prediabetes and DM, the mean HbA1c of the anemic subgroup was modestly higher than in the nonanemic group. The specificity of HbA1c for diagnosis of DM was significantly lower in the anemic subgroup (P<0.05.ConclusionThese results suggest that the diagnostic significance of HbA1c might be limited in anemic patients.

  5. Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Gribkov, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V.N.; Maslyaev, S.A. [Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G.G. [National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Vilemova, M.; Matejicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Materials perspective for use in mainstream nuclear fusion facilities were studied. • Powerful streams of hot plasma and fast ions were used to induce irradiation. • High temporal, spatial, angular and spectral resolution available in experiments. • Results of irradiation were investigated by number of analysis techniques. - Abstract: A process of irradiating and ablating solid-state targets with hot plasma and fast ion streams in two Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices – PF-6 and PF-1000 was examined by applying a number of diagnostics of nanosecond time resolution. Materials perspective for use in chambers of the mainstream nuclear fusion facilities (mainly with inertial plasma confinement like NIF and Z-machine), intended both for the first wall and for constructions, have been irradiated in these simulators. Optical microscopy, SEM, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, images in secondary electrons and in characteristic X-ray luminescence of different elements, and X-ray elemental analysis, gave results on damageability for a number of materials including low-activated ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, β-alloy of Ti, as well as two types of W and a composite on its base. With an increase of the number of shots irradiating the surface, its morphology changes from weakly pronounced wave-like structures or ridges to strongly developed ones. At later stages, due to the action of the secondary plasma produced near the target materials they melted, yielding both blisters and a fracturing pattern: first along the grain and then “in-between” the grains creating an intergranular net of microcracks. At the highest values of power flux densities multiple bubbles appeared. Furthermore, in this last case the cracks were developed because of microstresses at the solidification of melt. Presence of deuterium within the irradiated ferritic steel surface nanolayers is explained by capture of deuterons in lattice defects of the types of impurity atoms

  6. Dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels induced by fasting and sunflower oil challenge test in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. C.; de Almeida, I. T.; Jakobs, C.; Poll-The, B. T.; Duran, M.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels in 1- to 7-y-old children during fasting and after the ingestion of sunflower oil were studied. Glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, FFA, and individual plasma acylcarnitine levels were monitored in both conditions. Fasting experiments lasted

  7. Evaluation of glycated albumin (GA) and GA/HbA1c ratio for diagnosis of diabetes and glycemic control: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Sara; Rabiee, Mohammad; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Abdolrahim, Mojgan; Rajab, Asadollah; Jazayeri, Hossein E; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic high blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). When it is left untreated or improperly managed, it can lead to acute complications including diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma. In addition, possible long-term complications include impotence, nerve damage, stroke, chronic kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, foot ulcers, and retinopathy. Historically, universal methods to measure glycemic control for the diagnosis of diabetes included fasting plasma glucose level (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2HP), and random plasma glucose. However, these measurements did not provide information about glycemic control over a long period of time. To address this problem, there has been a switch in the past decade to diagnosing diabetes and its severity through measurement of blood glycated proteins such as Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA). Diagnosis and evaluation of diabetes using glycated proteins has many advantages including high accuracy of glycemic control over a period of time. Currently, common laboratory methods used to measure glycated proteins are high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunoassay, and electrophoresis. HbA1c is one of the most important diagnostic factors for diabetes. However, some reports indicate that HbA1c is not a suitable marker to determine glycemic control in all diabetic patients. GA, which is not influenced by changes in the lifespan of erythrocytes, is thought to be a good alternative indicator of glycemic control in diabetic patients. Here, we review the literature that has investigated the suitability of HbA1c, GA and GA:HbA1c as indicators of long-term glycemic control and demonstrate the importance of selecting the appropriate glycated protein based on the patient's health status in order to provide useful and modern point-of-care monitoring and treatment.

  8. Microwave receivers for fast-ion detection in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtula, V.

    2012-02-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to determine fundamental properties of a millimeter wave radiometer used to detect radiation associated with dynamics of fast ions and to investigate possibilities for improvements and new designs. The detection of fast ions is based on a principle called collective Thomson scattering (CTS). The Danish CTS group has been involved in fusion plasma experiments for more than 10 years and the future plans will most probably include the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current CTS systems designed by the Danish group are specified for the frequency range from 100 to 110 GHz. In this thesis we follow the path of the radiation from a fusion plasma to the data acquisition unit. Firstly, the scattered radiation passes through the quasi-optical system. Quasi-optical elements required to be installed on the high field side (HFS) on the ITER are assessed. For the ITER HFS receiver we have designed and measured the quasi-optical components that form a transmission link between the plasma and the radio frequency (RF) electronics. This HFS receiver is required to resolve the near parallel velocity components created by the alpha particles. Secondly, the radiation will encounter the RF part. This part is not yet designed for ITER, but instead the solution is addressed to the CTS receiver installed at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG).We have put effort to thoroughly examine and evaluate the performance of the receiver components and the receiver as an assembled unit. We have measured and analyzed all the receiver components starting from the two notch filters to the fifty square-law detector diodes. The receiver sensitivity is calculated from the system measurements and compared with the expected sensitivity based on the individual component measurements. Besides the system considerations we have also studied improvements of two critical components of the receiver. The first component is the notch filter, which is needed to block

  9. Effects of sex, age, and fasting conditions on plasma lipidomic profiles of fasted Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Saito

    Full Text Available Circulating lipid molecules reflect biological processes in the body and, thus, are useful tools for preclinical estimation of the efficacy and safety of newly developed drugs. However, background information on profiles of circulating lipid molecules in preclinical animal models is limited. Therefore, we examined the effects of multiple factors such as sex (fasted male vs. female, age (fasted 10 vs. 30 weeks old, and feeding conditions (feeding vs. fasting, 16 vs. 22 hr fasting, 10 AM vs. 4 PM blood collection, on the global profiles of lipid molecules in plasma from Sprague-Dawley rats by using a lipidomic approach. Our assay platform determined 262 lipid molecules (68 phospholipids, 20 sphingolipids, 138 neutral lipids, and 36 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in rat plasma. Multivariate discriminant analysis (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and heat maps of statistically significant lipid molecules revealed that the plasma lipid profiles in rats are predominantly influenced by feeding conditions, followed by sex and age. In addition, the fasting duration (16 vs. 22 hr fasting or the time of blood collection (10 AM vs. 4 PM blood collection has limited or no contribution on the profiles of lipid molecules in rat plasma. Our results provide useful, fundamental information for exploring and validating biomarkers in future preclinical studies and may help to establish regulatory standards for such studies.

  10. Should haemoglobin A1C be used for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... duration of contact of the red blood cells with glucose in the blood. Thus, decreased erythropoiesis ... individuals with a normal red blood cell lifespan, the level of. HbA1c is related to the circulating plasma .... Pani LN, Korenda L, Meigs JB, Driver C, Chamany S, Fox CS, et al. Effect of aging on A1C levels in ...

  11. A1C as a diagnostic criteria for diabetes in low- and middle-income settings: evidence from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Stanojevic, Sanja; Malaga, German; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam

    2011-03-25

    To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in three groups of Peruvian adults, using fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C). This study included adults from the PERU MIGRANT Study who had fasted ≥ 8 h. Fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL and A1C ≥ 6.5% were used, separately, to define diabetes. Subjects with a current diagnosis of diabetes were excluded. 964 of 988 subjects were included in this analysis. Overall, 0.9% (95%CI 0.3-1.5) and 3.5% (95%CI 2.4-4.7) had diabetes using fasting glucose and A1C criteria, respectively. Compared to those classified as having diabetes using fasting glucose, newly classified subjects with diabetes using A1C (n = 25), were older, poorer, thinner and more likely to come from rural areas. Of these, 40% (10/25) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG). This study shows that the use of A1C as diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus identifies people of different characteristics than fasting glucose. In the PERU MIGRANT population using A1C to define diabetes tripled the prevalence; the increase was more marked among poorer and rural populations. More than half the newly diagnosed people with diabetes using A1C had normal fasting glucose.

  12. Research status of fast flows and shocks in laboratory plasmas. Supersonic plasma flow and shock waves in various magnetic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inutake, Masaaki; Ando, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Fast plasma flow is produced by Magneto-Plasma-Dynamic Arcjet (MPDA). The properties of fast flow and shock wave in various magnetic channels are reported by the experiment results. Fast plasma flow by MPDA, shocked flow in the magnetic channel, supersonic plasma flow in the divergence magnetic nozzle, ion acoustic wave in the mirror field, transonic flow and sonic throat in the magnetic Laval nozzle, fast flow in the helical magnetic channel, and future subjects are reported. Formation of the supersonic plasma flow by the divergence magnetic nozzle and effects of background gas, helical-kink instability in the fast plasma jet, and formation of convergence magnetic nozzle near outlet are described. From the phase difference of azimuthal and axial probe array signals, the plasma has twisted structure and it rotates in the same direction of the twist. Section of MPDA, principle of magnetic acceleration of MPDA, HITOP, relation among velocities, temperature, and Mach number of He ion and atom and the discharge current, distribution of magnetic-flux density in the direction of electromagnetic field, measurement of magnetic field near MPDA exit are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  13. Partitioning the variability of fasting plasma glucose levels in pedigrees. Genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, M; Moll, P P; Kottke, B A; Weidman, W H

    1987-04-01

    Fasting plasma glucose measurements made in 1972-1977 on normoglycemic individuals in three-generation Caucasian pedigrees from Rochester, Minnesota were analyzed. The authors determined the contributions of polygenic loci and environmental factors to fasting plasma glucose variability in these pedigrees. To that end, fasting plasma glucose measurements were normalized by an inverse normal scores transformation and then regressed separately for males and females on measured concomitants including age, body mass index (weight/height2), season of measurement, sex hormone use, and diuretic use. The authors found that 27.7% of the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose in these pedigrees is explained by these measured concomitants. Subsequent variance components analysis suggested that unmeasured polygenic loci and unmeasured shared environmental factors together account for at least an additional 36.7% of the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose, with genes alone accounting for at least 27.3%. These results are consistent with the known familiality of diabetes, for which fasting plasma glucose level is an important predictor. Further, these familial factors provide an explanation for at least half the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose which remains after regression on known concomitants.

  14. The 1-hour post-load glucose level is more effective than HbA1c for screening dysglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Ram; Sevick, Mary Ann; Fink, Dorothy; Dankner, Rachel; Chetrit, Angela; Roth, Jesse; Buysschaert, Martin; Bergman, Michael

    2016-08-01

    To assess the performance of HbA1c and the 1-h plasma glucose (PG ≥ 155 mg/dl; 8.6 mmol/l) in identifying dysglycemia based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) from a real-world clinical care setting. This was a diagnostic test accuracy study. For this analysis, we tested the HbA1c diagnostic criteria advocated by the American Diabetes Association (ADA 5.7-6.4 %) and International Expert Committee (IEC 6.0-6.4 %) against conventional OGTT criteria. We also tested the utility of 1-h PG ≥ mg/dl; 8.6 mmol/l. Prediabetes was defined according to ADA-OGTT guidelines. Spearman correlation tests were used to determine the relationships between HbA1c, 1-h PG with fasting, 2-h PG and indices of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. The levels of agreement between diagnostic methods were ascertained using Cohen's kappa coefficient (Κ). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the performance of the HbA1c and 1-h PG test in identifying prediabetes considering OGTT as reference diagnostic criteria. The diagnostic properties of different HbA1c thresholds were contrasted by determining sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios (LR). Of the 212 high-risk individuals, 70 (33 %) were identified with prediabetes, and 1-h PG showed a stronger association with 2-h PG, insulin sensitivity index, and β-cell function than HbA1c (P HbA1c criteria 0.1[0.03-0.16] and IEC criteria (0.17[0.04-0.30]). The ROC (AUC[95 % CI]) for HbA1c and 1-h PG were 0.65[0.57-0.73] and 0.79[0.72-0.85], respectively. Importantly, 1-h PG ≥ 155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) showed good sensitivity (74.3 % [62.4-84.0]) and specificity 69.7 % [61.5-77.1]) with a LR of 2.45. The ability of 1-h PG to discriminate prediabetes was better than that of HbA1c (∆AUC: -0.14; Z value: 2.5683; P = 0.01022). In a real-world clinical practice setting, the 1-h PG ≥ 155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) is superior for detecting high-risk individuals compared with HbA1c

  15. A two-step screening, measurement of HbA1c in association with FPG, may be useful in predicting diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Nomura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: We compared the usefulness of fasting plasma glucose (FPG, or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, or both in predicting type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study investigated 9,322 Japanese adults (4,786 men and 4,536 women, aged 19-69 yrs, free of diabetes at baseline. Usefulness was assessed by predictive values (PV, sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC maximised under the best cut-off point. RESULTS: During the average 6 years of follow-up, 221 men (4.6% and 92 women (2% developed diabetes. The best cut-off points for FPG (i.e., 5.67 mmol/l for men and 5.5 mmol/l for women gave excellent AUROC, and the highest positive PV (13% for men and 9% for women in predicting diabetes. In high risk subjects with FPG 6.1-6.9 mmol/l, 119 men (26.8% and 39 women (28.3% developed diabetes. Under the best cut-off points of FPG 6.39 mmol/l and A1c 5.8, AUROC and positive PV for FPG slightly decreased indicating FPG became less useful and were statistically indistinguishable from those for HbA1c in men. In fact, HbA1c was the most useful in women: HbA1c of 6.0% gave the highest positive likelihood ratio of 2.74 and larger AUROC than did FPG. Although AUROC for HbA1c was acceptable and indistinguishable from that for the combined use, HbA1c had higher specificity and positive LR than did the combined use. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that FPG was the most useful to predict diabetes in the general population. However, in subjects with FPG 6.1-6.9 mmol/l, FPG became less useful and diagnostic performance of FPG was indistinguishable from that of HbA1c in men whereas HbA1c was the most useful in women. Thus, a two-step screening, measurement of HbA1c in association with FPG, may be useful in predicting diabetes.

  16. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Zhou, Na; Teng, Fei; Zou, Caiyan; Xue, Ying; Yang, Manqing; Song, Huaidong; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT). The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend trend = 0.004) and had higher blood pressure (≥120 [systolic blood pressure]/80 mmHg [diastolic blood pressure]; P for trend = 0.028) than those who were younger and had lower blood pressure (P for trend >0.05). HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  17. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The American Diabetes Association (ADA recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  18. Drugs affecting HbA1c levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Unnikrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is an important indicator of glycemic control in diabetes mellitus, based on which important diagnostic and therapeutic decisions are routinely made. However, there are several situations in which the level of HbA1c may not faithfully reflect the glycemic control in a given patient. Important among these is the use of certain non-diabetic medications, which can affect the HbA1c levels in different ways. This review focuses on the non-diabetic medications which can inappropriately raise or lower the HbA1c levels, and the postulated mechanisms for the same.

  19. Diagnostics of plasma jet instabilities using fast shutter imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chumak, Oleksiy; Hrabovský, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl.B (2006), B767-B773 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma jet * jet instabilities * plasma fluctuation * visualization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  20. Red cell distribution width is associated with hemoglobin A1C elevation, but not glucose elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue; Wan, Min; Gu, Yeqing; Song, Yanqi; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Shi, HongBin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Fei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun; Wang, Guolin; Yu, Ming; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between red cell distribution width (RDW) and elevation of glucose/glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). An analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of adults. People without prediabetes or diabetes (n=7,795) were followed for a mean of 2.90years (range: 1-7years, 95% confidence interval: 2.86-2.94years). Glucose elevation is defined as fasting glucose levels exceeding 5.6mmol/l, or 2-hour glucose values in the oral glucose tolerance test exceeding 7.8mmol/l. HbA1c elevation is defined as a HbA1c value exceeding a normal limit of 39mmol/mol (5.7%). Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between RDW quartiles and elevation of HbA1c/glucose. The multiple-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of HbA1c elevation for increased quartiles of RDW were 1.00 (reference), 1.08 (0.89, 1.30), 1.28 (1.07, 1.54), and 1.54 (1.29, 1.85) (P for trend<0.0001). However, no significant association was observed between RDW and blood glucose (fasting and postprandial). Elevated RDW is independently related to future HbA1c elevation, but not to glucose elevation. This suggests that RDW may associate with HbA1c through a non-glycemic way, which should be taken into consideration when using HbA1c as a diagnostic criterion of prediabetes or diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HbA1c Identifies Subjects With Prediabetes and Subclinical Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pino, Antonino; Mangiafico, Sarah; Urbano, Francesca; Scicali, Roberto; Scandura, Salvatore; D'Agate, Veronica; Piro, Salvatore; Tamburino, Corrado; Purrello, Francesco; Rabuazzo, Agata Maria

    2017-10-01

    Prediabetes is associated with subclinical cardiac changes associated with heart failure development. We investigated diastolic function and its association with markers of glycation and inflammation related to cardiovascular disease in patients with prediabetes. We focused on individuals with prediabetes identified only by glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c; 5.7% to 6.4% and normal fasting glucose (NFG) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)]. Cross-sectional study. Departments of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Cardiology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. HbA1c, OGTT, Doppler echocardiography, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGEs), and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were evaluated. We recruited 167 subjects with NFG/NGT who were stratified according to HbA1c level: controls (HbA1c prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7% to 6.4%). Patients with HbA1c prediabetes (n = 106) showed a lower peak mitral inflow in early diastole (E wave) to late diastolic atrial filling velocity (A wave) ratio (E/A ratio) than controls (n = 61) (1.10 ± 0.24 vs 1.18 ± 0.23; P prediabetes exhibited subclinical cardiac alterations associated with sRAGE, esRAGE, and HbA1c. These subjects would not have been classified as having prediabetes on the basis of fasting glycemia or post-OGTT values. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  2. One-Hour Postload Hyperglycemia Confers Higher Risk of Hepatic Steatosis to HbA1c-Defined Prediabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Pedace, Elisabetta; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)-defined prediabetes (HbA1c value of 5.7-6.4%) and 1-hour plasma glucose ≥155 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the degree to which HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL individually and jointly associate with hepatic steatosis and related biomarkers. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 1108 White individuals. Ambulatory care. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics including hepatic steatosis assessed by ultrasonography. Compared with the normal group (HbA1c prediabetic and diabetic individuals exhibit higher values of fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour postload glucose; fasting and 2-hour postload insulin; triglycerides; uric acid; homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance; liver insulin resistance index; liver enzymes; and inflammatory biomarkers; and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and IGF-1. Prediabetic and diabetic subjects have increased risk of hepatic steatosis (1.5- and 2.46-fold, respectively). Stratifying participants according to HbA1c and 1-hour postload glucose, we found that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL have significantly higher risk of hepatic steatosis as compared with individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes but 1-hour postload glucose prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL exhibit higher values of liver enzymes; fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour postload glucose; insulin; triglycerides; uric acid; and inflammatory biomarkers; and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and IGF-1. These data suggest that a value of 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL may be helpful to identify a subset of individuals within HbA1c-defined glycemic categories at higher risk of hepatic steatosis.

  3. Edge plasma diagnostics in the compact helical system (CHS) device using fast neutral lithium beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Mario

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports the research activities of the author on using fast neutral lithium beam edge plasma diagnostic, at the Japanese National Institute for Fusion Science compact helical system (CHS). (author). 20 figs.

  4. Proposed neutral-beam diagnostics for fast confined alpha particles in a burning plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Cooper, W.S.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnostic methods for fast confined alpha particles are essential for a burning plasma experiment. Several methods which use energetic neutral beams have been proposed. We review these methods and discuss system considerations for their implementation

  5. Nonlocal effects in a bounded low-temperature plasma with fast electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeJoseph, C. A. Jr.; Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    Effects associated with nonlocality of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a bounded, low-temperature plasma containing fast electrons, can lead to a significant increase in the near-wall potential drop, leading to self-trapping of fast electrons in the plasma volume, even if the density of this group is only a small fraction (∼0.001%) of the total electron density. If self-trapping occurs, the fast electrons can substantially increase the rate of stepwise excitation, supply additional heating to slow electrons, and reduce their rate of diffusion cooling. Altering the source terms of these fast electrons will, therefore, alter the near-wall sheath and, through modification of the EEDF, a number of plasma parameters. Self-trapping of fast electrons is important in a variety of plasmas, including hollow-cathode discharges and capacitive rf discharges, and is especially pronounced in an afterglow plasma, which is a key phase of any pulse-modulated discharge. In the afterglow, the electron temperature is less than a few tenths of an electron volt, and the fast electrons will have energies typically greater than an electron volt. It is shown that in the afterglow plasma of noble gases, fast electrons, arising from Penning ionization of metastable atoms, can lead to the above condition and significantly change the plasma and sheath properties. Similar effects can be important in technologically relevant electronegative gas plasmas, where fast electrons can arise due to electron detachment in collisions of negative ions with atomic species. Both experimental and modeling results are presented to illustrate these effects

  6. Spectroscopic interpretation and velocimetry analysis of fluctuations in a cylindrical plasma recorded by a fast camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenbürger, S.; Brandt, C.; Brochard, F.; Lemoine, N.; Bonhomme, G.

    2010-06-01

    Fast visible imaging is used on a cylindrical magnetized argon plasma produced by thermionic discharge in the Mirabelle device. To link the information collected with the camera to a physical quantity, fast camera movies of plasma structures are compared to Langmuir probe measurements. High correlation is found between light fluctuations and plasma density fluctuations. Contributions from neutral argon and ionized argon to the overall light intensity are separated by using interference filters and a light intensifier. Light emitting transitions are shown to involve a metastable neutral argon state that can be excited by thermal plasma electrons, thus explaining the good correlation between light and density fluctuations. The propagation velocity of plasma structures is calculated by adapting velocimetry methods to the fast camera movies. The resulting estimates of instantaneous propagation velocity are in agreement with former experiments. The computation of mean velocities is discussed.

  7. Spectroscopic interpretation and velocimetry analysis of fluctuations in a cylindrical plasma recorded by a fast camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenbuerger, S.; Brandt, C.; Brochard, F.; Lemoine, N.; Bonhomme, G.

    2010-01-01

    Fast visible imaging is used on a cylindrical magnetized argon plasma produced by thermionic discharge in the Mirabelle device. To link the information collected with the camera to a physical quantity, fast camera movies of plasma structures are compared to Langmuir probe measurements. High correlation is found between light fluctuations and plasma density fluctuations. Contributions from neutral argon and ionized argon to the overall light intensity are separated by using interference filters and a light intensifier. Light emitting transitions are shown to involve a metastable neutral argon state that can be excited by thermal plasma electrons, thus explaining the good correlation between light and density fluctuations. The propagation velocity of plasma structures is calculated by adapting velocimetry methods to the fast camera movies. The resulting estimates of instantaneous propagation velocity are in agreement with former experiments. The computation of mean velocities is discussed.

  8. HbA1c as a Predictor of Diabetes and as an Outcome in the Diabetes Prevention Program: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a standard measure of chronic glycemia for managing diabetes, has been proposed to diagnose diabetes and identify people at risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a 3.2-year randomized clinical trial of preventing type 2 diabetes with a 10-year follow-up study, the DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS). We evaluated baseline HbA1c as a predictor of diabetes and determined the effects of treatments on diabetes defined by an HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We randomized 3,234 nondiabetic adults at high risk of diabetes to placebo, metformin, or intensive lifestyle intervention and followed them for the development of diabetes as diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postload glucose (2hPG) concentrations (1997 American Diabetes Association [ADA] criteria). HbA1c was measured but not used for study eligibility or outcomes. We now evaluate treatment effects in the 2,765 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline according to FPG, 2hPG, or HbA1c (2010 ADA criteria). RESULTS Baseline HbA1c predicted incident diabetes in all treatment groups. Diabetes incidence defined by HbA1c ≥6.5% was reduced by 44% by metformin and 49% by lifestyle during the DPP and by 38% by metformin and 29% by lifestyle throughout follow-up. Unlike the primary DPP and DPPOS findings based on glucose criteria, metformin and lifestyle were similarly effective in preventing diabetes defined by HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS HbA1c predicted incident diabetes. In contrast to the superiority of the lifestyle intervention on glucose-defined diabetes, metformin and lifestyle interventions had similar effects in preventing HbA1c-defined diabetes. The long-term implications for other health outcomes remain to be determined. PMID:25336746

  9. Fasting and prolonged exercise increase vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Hilsted, J; Fahrenkrug, J

    1979-01-01

    and maximal exercise. During 59 h of fasting, VIP increased from 3.6 (0.6--6.6) to 10.2 (6.6--13.8) pmol.1(-1) (p less than 0.05). The concentration of glucose in plasma decreased significantly during the prolonged exercise as well as during fasting. The known metabolic actions of VIP and the demonstrated...

  10. A1c Gear: Laboratory quality HbA1c measurement at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejilemele, Adetoun; Unabia, Jamie; Ju, Hyunsu; Petersen, John R

    2015-05-20

    HbA1c is an important part of assessing the diabetic control and since the use of point-of-care devices for monitoring HbA1c is increasing, it is important to determine how these devices compare to the central laboratory. One hundred and twenty patient samples were analyzed on the Bio-Rad Variant™II and one POC analyzer (Sakae A1c Gear). Three patient sample pools containing ~5%, ~7%, and ~10% HbA1c levels were run over 20 days. Three reagent lots and three instruments were evaluated for the A1c Gear. The 120 patient samples showed strong correlation (R(2)>0.989) when compared to the Variant™II with means=8.06% and 7.81%, for Variant IIand A1c Gear, respectively. Changing reagent lots or instruments had no impact for the A1c Gear. The ~5%, ~7%, and ~10% pools within-run and between-run imprecision was between 0.87-1.33% and 1.03-1.32%, and 1.41-2.35% and 1.24-1.89% with total imprecision of 1.67-2.35% and 1.61-2.31% for the A1c Gear and Variant II, respectively. The A1c Gear showed a small negative bias (0.25% HbA1c) across HbA1c measurement ranges of Gear meets the criteria of total CV Gear can give results as precise as the laboratory at the POC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Measurements of Prompt and MHD-Induced Fast Ion Loss from National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Darrow; S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore; W.W. Heidbrink; A. Alekseyev; F.E. Cecil; J. Egedal; V.Ya. Goloborod' ko; N.N. Gorelenkov; M. Isobe; S. Kaye; M. Miah; F. Paoletti; M.H. Redi; S.N. Reznik; A. Rosenberg; R. White; D. Wyatt; V.A. Yavorskij

    2002-10-15

    A range of effects may make fast ion confinement in spherical tokamaks worse than in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Data from neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer, and a fast ion loss diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that neutral beam ion confinement is consistent with classical expectations in quiescent plasmas, within the {approx}25% errors of measurement. However, fast ion confinement in NSTX is frequently affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity, and the effect of MHD can be quite strong.

  12. Interaction of Fast Ions with Global Plasma Modes in the C-2 Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Artem; Dettrick, Sean; Clary, Ryan; Korepanov, Sergey; Thompson, Matthew; Trask, Erik; Tuszewski, Michel

    2012-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime [1] with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment [2, 3]. We present experimental and computational results on the interaction of fast ions with the n=2 rotational and n=1 wobble modes in the C-2 FRC. It is found that the n=2 mode is similar to quadrupole magnetic fields in its detrimental effect on the fast ion transport due to symmetry breaking. The plasma gun generates an inward radial electric field, thus stabilizing the n=2 rotational instability without applying the quadrupole magnetic fields. The resultant FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The NBI further suppresses the n=2 mode, improves the plasma confinement characteristics, and increases the plasma configuration lifetime [4]. The n=1 wobble mode has relatively little effect on the fast ion transport, likely due to the approximate axisymmetry about the displaced plasma column. [4pt] [1] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012).[0pt] [2] M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010).[0pt] [3] H.Y. Guo et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056110 (2011).[0pt] [4] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056108 (2012)

  13. [About the HbA1c in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcet, Anaïs; Delalande, Géraldine; Oliver, Charles; Retornaz, Frédérique

    2016-03-01

    HbA1c product of non enzymatic glycation of HbA increases in relation with the mean blood glucose level during the former 2-3 months. HbA1c levels are correlated with the development of diabetic complications and HbA1c assessment is now the gold standard for evaluation of diabetes control. HbA1c level should not be higher than 7% to avoid these complications. However, in aged peoples, the objectives of diabetes control vary according to their health status. It must be good with HbA1c lower than 7-7.5% in healthy subjects and more relax in subjects with symptoms of frailty and risks of non perceived and self corrected hypoglycemia. Under these conditions, HbA1c values lower than 8 to 9% are advised. Nevertheless, hypoglycemia episodes may occur in patients with high HbA1c and capillary glucose follow-up is necessary for detection of such complications.

  14. Hemoglobin A1c and arterial and ventricular stiffness in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Zieman

    Full Text Available Arterial and ventricular stiffening are characteristics of diabetes and aging which confer significant morbidity and mortality; advanced glycation endproducts (AGE are implicated in this stiffening pathophysiology. We examined the association between HbA(1c, an AGE, with arterial and ventricular stiffness measures in older individuals without diabetes.Baseline HbA(1c was measured in 830 participants free of diabetes defined by fasting glucose or medication use in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥ 65 years. We performed cross-sectional analyses using baseline exam data including echocardiography, ankle and brachial blood pressure measurement, and carotid ultrasonography. We examined the adjusted associations between HbA(1c and multiple arterial and ventricular stiffness measures by linear regression models and compared these results to the association of fasting glucose (FG with like measures.HbA(1c was correlated with fasting and 2-hour postload glucose levels (r = 0.21; p<0.001 for both and positively associated with greater body-mass index and black race. In adjusted models, HbA(1c was not associated with any measure of arterial or ventricular stiffness, including pulse pressure (PP, carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, end-arterial elastance, or left ventricular mass (LVM. FG levels were positively associated with systolic, diastolic and PP and LVM.In this sample of older adults without diabetes, HbA(1c was not associated with arterial or ventricular stiffness measures, whereas FG levels were. The role of AGE in arterial and ventricular stiffness in older adults may be better assessed using alternate AGE markers.

  15. Fast potential change in sawteeth in JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1994-12-01

    Fast changes of electric potential with different polarities are observed during sawtooth oscillation in a core region of a tokamak plasma using a heavy ion beam probe. The potential change inside the inversion radius is found to be positive. The change is negative outside the inversion radius and shows clearly a propagation nature. The observed potential can be interpreted by the mixture of the potentials of two origins. One of them drives the fast MHD plasma motion through E/B drift and the other is a barrier potential induced by mixing of hot and cold plasmas at sawtooth crash. (author)

  16. Fast wave current drive in H mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Grassie, J.S. de; Baity, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Current driven by fast Alfven waves is measured in H mode and VH mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak for the first time. Analysis of the poloidal flux evolution shows that the fast wave current drive profile is centrally peaked but sometimes broader than theoretically expected. Although the measured current drive efficiency is in agreement with theory for plasmas with infrequent ELMs, the current drive efficiency is an order of magnitude too low for plasmas with rapid ELMs. Power modulation experiments show that the reduction in current drive with increasing ELM frequency is due to a reduction in the fraction of centrally absorbed fast wave power. The absorption and current drive are weakest when the electron density outside the plasma separatrix is raised above the fast wave cut-off density by the ELMs, possibly allowing an edge loss mechanism to dissipate the fast wave power since the cut-off density is a barrier for fast waves leaving the plasma. (author)

  17. Liver and Muscle Contribute Differently to the Plasma Acylcarnitine Pool During Fasting and Exercise in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.; Hansen, J S; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma acylcarnitine levels are elevated by physiological conditions such as fasting and exercise but also in states of insulin resistance and obesity. AIM: To elucidate the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to plasma acylcarnitines in the fasting state and during exercise...... in humans. METHODS: In 2 independent studies, young healthy males were fasted overnight and performed an acute bout of exercise to investigate either acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle biopsies and arterial-to-venous plasma differences over the exercising and resting leg (n = 9) or the flux over the hepato......-splanchnic bed (n = 10). RESULTS: In the fasting state, a pronounced release of C2- and C3-carnitines from the hepato-splanchnic bed and an uptake of free carnitine by the legs were detected. Exercise further increased the release of C3-carnitine from the hepato-splanchnic bed and the uptake of free carnitine...

  18. Fast reconnection of magnetic fields in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Reconnection process of magnetic fields in a plasma is analytically studied by perturbing the boundary conditions on a slab of incompressible plasma with a resonant surface inside. It is found, for small resistivity, that the reconnection takes place on Alfven time scale and continues into a slow time scale t 1 = eta/sup 1/3/t. Both time scales are faster than the usual tearing time scale. Furthermore, the plasma evolves globally from its initial equilibrium on the slow time scale and settles down to a different final equilibrium

  19. Study of plasma discharge evolution and edge turbulence with fast visible imaging in the Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Manchanda, R.; Chowdhuri, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Study of discharge evolution through the different phases of a tokamak plasma shot viz., the discharge initiation, current ramp-up, current flat-top and discharge termination, is essential to address many inherent issues of the operation of a Tokamak. Fast visible imaging of the tokamak plasma can provide valuable insight in this regard. Further, edge turbulence is considered to be one of the quintessential areas of tokamak research as the edge plasma is at the immediate vicinity of the plasma core and plays vital role in the core plasma confinement. The edge plasma also bridges the core and the scrape off layer (SOL) of the tokamak and hence has a bearing on the particle and heat flux escaping the plasma column. Two fast visible imaging systems are installed on the Aditya tokamak. One of the system is for imaging the plasma evolution with a wide angle lens covering a major portion of the vacuum vessel. The imaging fiber bundle along with the objective lens is installed inside a radial re-entrant viewport, specially designed for the purpose. Another system is intended for tangential imaging of the plasma column. Formation of the plasma column and its evolution are studied with the fast visible imaging in Aditya. Features of the ECRH and LHCD operations on Aditya will be discussed. 3D filaments can, be seen at the plasma edge all along the discharge and they get amplified in intensity at the plasma termination phase. Statistical analysis of these filaments, which are essentially plasma blobs will be presented. (author)

  20. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Demaris, Kendra M; Goo, Roy; Mnatzaganian, Christina Louise; Wong Smith, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47) in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.

  1. Cross-tail velocity component in the plasma sheet fast flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dmitrieva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The flux transfer in the magnetotail plasma sheet is mainly provided by the tail-aligned fast plasma flows (Bursty Bulk Flows – BBFs. In this paper we study the events with a large cross-tail velocity component, including their occurrence and relationship to the standard BBFs. We found out that a significant part of large Vy events are a subgroup connected with the BBFs propagation. The maximal deviation of the velocity vector from the X direction (about 40–50 degrees, on average is observed near the BBFs' leading front in the sheath, where the fast flow interacts with surrounding plasma. The average variation of the velocity direction in the vicinity of the BBF resembles a plasma vortex. Our results support the model, in which the BBF represents a polarized, bubble-like flux tube, propagating through the plasma sheet.

  2. Experimental study of fast electron transport in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaisseau, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The framework of this PhD thesis is the inertial confinement fusion for energy production, in the context of the electron fast ignition scheme. The work consists in a characterization of the transport mechanisms of fast electrons, driven by intense laser pulses (10 19 - 10 20 W/cm 2 ) in both cold-solid and warm-dense matter. The first goal was to study the propagation of a fast electron beam, characterized by a current density ≥ 10 11 A/cm 2 , in aluminum targets initially heated close to the Fermi temperature by a counter-propagative planar shock. The planar compression geometry allowed us to discriminate the energy losses due to the resistive mechanisms from collisional ones by comparing solid and compressed targets of the same initial areal densities. We observed for the first time a significant increase of resistive energy losses in heated aluminum samples. The confrontation of the experimental data with the simulations, including a complete characterization of the electron source, of the target compression and of the fast electron transport, allowed us to study the time-evolution of the material resistivity. The estimated resistive electron stopping power in a warm-compressed target is of the same order as the collisional one. We studied the transport of the fast electrons generated in the interaction of a high-contrast laser pulse with a hollow copper cone, buried into a carbon layer, compressed by a counter-propagative planar shock. A X-ray imaging system allowed us to visualize the coupling of the laser pulse with the cone at different moments of the compression. This diagnostic, giving access to the fast electron spatial distribution, showed a fast electron generation in the entire volume of the cone for late times of compression, after shock breakout from the inner cone tip. For earlier times, the interaction at a high-contrast ensured that the source was contained within the cone tip, and the fast electron beam was collimated into the target depth by

  3. Empirically establishing blood glucose targets to achieve HbA1c goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nancy; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the average fasting, postprandial, and bedtime self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) concentrations associated with specified HbA1c levels using data from the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The ADAG study was a multicenter observational study that used continuous glucose monitoring and SMBG testing to determine the relationship between mean average glucose and HbA1c. We used the SMBG data from 470 of the ADAG study participants (237 with type 1 diabetes and 147 with type 2 diabetes) to determine the average fasting, premeal, 90-min postmeal, and bedtime blood glucose (BG) for predefined target HbA1c groups between 5.5 and 8.5% (37-69 mmol/mol). t Tests were used to compare mean BG values between type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups. RESULTS The average fasting BG needed to achieve predefined HbA1c target levels of 5.5-6.49% (37-47 mmol/mol), 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol), 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol), 7.5-7.99% (58-64 mmol/mol), and 8.0-8.5% (64-69 mmol/mol) were 122 mg/dL with 95% CI 117-127, 142 mg/dL (135-150), 152 mg/dL (143-162), 167 mg/dL (157-177), and 178 mg/dL (164-192), respectively. Postmeal BG to achieve the HbA1c level of 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol) and 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol) were 139 mg/dL (134-144) and 152 mg/dL (147-157), respectively. Bedtime BG was 153 mg/dL (145-161) and 177 mg/dL (166-188), respectively. CONCLUSIONS We have determined the average BG at premeal, postmeal, and bedtime to achieve a variety of HbA1c targets. These results, based on empirical data, will help patients and providers set realistic day-to-day SMBG targets to achieve individualized HbA1c goals.

  4. The effect of plasma parameter on the bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qianhong; Gong Xueyu; Cao Jinjia; Yang Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effect of plasma parameters on the distribution of net current density of fast ions produced by neutral beam injection is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio Tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. Numerical results show that the value of net current density increases with the temperature of plasma increasing and decreases with the density of plasma increasing. The value of net current density is weakly affected by the effective charge number, but the peak of net current density moves towards edge plasma with effective charge number increasing. (authors)

  5. Using hemoglobin A1C as a predicting model for time interval from pre-diabetes progressing to diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ling Huang

    Full Text Available The early identification of subjects at high risk for diabetes is essential, thus, random rather than fasting plasma glucose is more useful. We aim to evaluate the time interval between pre-diabetes to diabetes with anti-diabetic drugs by using HbA1C as a diagnostic tool, and predicting it using a mathematic model.We used the Taipei Medical University Affiliated Hospital Patient Profile Database (AHPPD from January-2007 to June-2011. The patients who progressed and were prescribed anti-diabetic drugs were selected from AHPPD. The mathematical model used to predict the time interval of HbA1C value ranged from 5.7% to 6.5% for diabetes progression.We predicted an average overall time interval for all participants in between 5.7% to 6.5% during a total of 907 days (standard error, 103 days. For each group found among 5.7% to 6.5% we determined 1169.3 days for the low risk group (i.e. 3.2 years, 1080.5 days (i.e. 2.96 years for the increased risk group and 729.4 days (i.e. 1.99 years for the diabetes group. This indicates the patients will take an average of 2.49 years to reach 6.5%.This prediction model is very useful to help prioritize the diagnosis at an early stage for targeting individuals with risk of diabetes. Using patients' HbA1C before anti-diabetes drugs are used we predicted the time interval from pre-diabetes progression to diabetes is 2.49 years without any influence of age and gender. Additional studies are needed to support this model for a long term prediction.

  6. Fast electron generation and transport in a turbulent, magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneking, W.R.

    1994-05-01

    The nature of fast electron generation and transport in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated using two electron energy analyzer (EEA) probes and a thermocouple calorimeter. The parallel velocity distribution of the fast electron population is well fit by a drifted Maxwellian distribution with temperature of about 100 eV and drift velocity of about 2 x 10 6 m/s. Cross-calibration of the EEA with the calorimeter provides a measurement of the fast electron perpendicular temperature of 30 eV, much lower than the parallel temperature, and is evidence that the kinetic dynamo mechanism (KDT) is not operative in MST. The fast electron current is found to match to the parallel current at the edge, and the fast electron density is about 4 x 10 11 cm -3 independent of the ratio of the applied toroidal electric field to the critical electric field for runaways. First time measurements of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport are reported. By correlating electron current fluctuations with radial magnetic fluctuations the transported flux of electrons is found to be negligible outside r/a∼0.9, but rises the level of the expected total particle losses inside r/a∼0.85. A comparison of the measured diffusion coefficient is made with the ausilinear stochastic diffusion coefficient. Evidence exists that the reduction of the transport is due to the presence of a radial ambipolar electric field of magnitude 500 V/m, that acts to equilibrate the ion and electron transport rates. The convective energy transport associated with the measured particle transport is large enough to account for the observed magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport in MST

  7. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Pereg, David; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf

    2005-10-06

    The normal fasting plasma glucose level was recently defined as less than 100 mg per deciliter (5.55 mmol per liter). Whether higher fasting plasma glucose levels within this range independently predict type 2 diabetes in young adults is unclear. We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examinations, and medical and lifestyle information from men in the Israel Defense Forces who were 26 to 45 years of age. A total of 208 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 74,309 person-years of follow-up (from 1992 through 2004) among 13,163 subjects who had baseline fasting plasma glucose levels of less than 100 mg per deciliter. A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter [4.5 mmol per liter], P for trend <0.001). In multivariate models, men with serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per deciliter (1.69 mmol per liter) or more, combined with fasting plasma glucose levels of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter (5.05 to 5.50 mmol per liter), had a hazard ratio of 8.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.6 to 19.0) for diabetes, as compared with men with a combined triglyceride level of less than 150 mg per deciliter and fasting glucose levels of less than 86 mg per deciliter (4.77 mmol per liter). The joint effect of a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or more and a fasting plasma glucose level of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter resulted in a hazard ratio of 8.29 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 17.8), as compared with a body-mass index of less than 25 and a fasting plasma glucose level of less than 86 mg per deciliter. Higher fasting plasma glucose

  8. Communication through a plasma sheet around a fast moving vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V. I.; Mudaliar, S.; Genoni, T.; Rose, D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2011-10-01

    Investigation of the complicated problem of scattering of electromagnetic waves on turbulent pulsations induced by a sheared flow inside a plasma sheath is important for many applications including communication with hypersonic and re-entry vehicles. Theoretical and computational work aimed at improving the understanding of electromagnetic wave scattering processes in such turbulent plasmas is presented. We analyze excitation of low frequency ion-acoustic type oscillations in a compressible plasma flow with flow velocity shear and influence of such turbulent pulsations on scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves used for communication purposes. We have appropriately included in our analysis the presence of electron and ion collisions with neutrals as well as electron - ion collisions. Results of numerical solutions for plasma density and electric field perturbations for different velocity profiles have been used in the derived expressions for scattered wave energy and scattering cross section. Work supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory and Air Force Office Of Scientific Research Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, A Lockheed Martin Company, under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia in pregnant Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Cai, Jing; Liu, Shujuan; Huang, Mingwei; Chen, Yao; Lai, Xiaolan; Chen, Yuyu; Zhao, Zhongwen; Wu, Fangzhen; Wu, Dongmei; Miu, Haiyan; Lai, Shenghan; Chen, Gang

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the optimal cut-off point of fasting plasma glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant Chinese women. This study investigates the relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and several variables: neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia rate of pregnant women. In this study, we hoped to provide a useful tool to screen gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant Chinese women. For 1058 pregnant women enrolled in our hospital at pregnancy weeks 22-30, fasting plasma glucose, neonatal birth weight and prenatal blood pressure, as well as dystocia conditions, were examined. We analysed the correlations between the following: gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight; prenatal blood pressure and gestational fasting plasma glucose as well as dystocia rate and gestational fasting plasma glucose group. A modest correlation was observed between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight (r = 0.093, p = 0.003). The macrosomia rate was smallest when the gestational fasting plasma glucose was in the range 3.51-5.5 mmol/L. Prenatal blood pressure increased linearly with increasing gestational fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.000). There was a significant difference between the dystocia rates in different fasting plasma glucose groups (chi-squared = 13.015, p = 0.043). The results showed that the dystocia rate significantly increased when gestational fasting plasma glucose was >4.9 mmol/L; p = 0.03, OR = 2.156 (95% CI, 1.077-4.318). We suggest that the optimal range of gestational fasting plasma glucose for pregnant Chinese women is in the range 3.5-4.9 mmol/L. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effects of α-Thalassemia on HbA1c Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Anping; Ji, Ling; Chen, Weidong; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Yu

    2016-11-01

    α-Thalassemia is a benign condition that is often present in patients with diabetes mellitus. Here, we evaluated the effects of different genotypes α-thalassemia on HbA 1c measurement. A total of 189 samples from nondiabetic patients were analyzed. HbA 1c analysis was performed by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity HPLC, immunoassay, and capillary electrophoresis. Fasting glucose, fructosamin, and HbA 2 were also performed. All samples were confirmed by genotyping for thalassemia. In patients with two or three functional α-genes, HbA 1c values were not significantly different from those of controls (P > 0.05); however, in individuals with α-thalassemia with one functional α-gene (i.e., HbH disease), HbA 1c levels were significantly different from those of controls (P 0.05). In this study, HbA 1c values in samples from individuals with two or three functional α-genes basically reflected the normal mean blood glucose level, while those in samples from individuals with one functional α-gene did not. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Two and three dimensional imaging of compact toroid plasmas using fast photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, S.E.; Bell, D.E.; Coffey, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    As is discussed in a companion paper, Degnan el al, fast photography is used as a visual diagnostic tool for high energy plasma research at the Phillips Laboratory. Both, two dimensional and three dimensional images, are gathered by using nanosecond and microsecond range fast photography techniques. A set of microchannel plate cameras and a fast framing camera are used to record images of a compact toroid plasma during formation and acceleration stages. These images are subsequently digitized and enhanced to bring out detailed information of interest. This spatial information is combined with other diagnostic results as well as theoretical models in order to build a more complete picture of the fundamental physics associated with high-energy plasmas

  12. Current Status of HbA1c Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Yi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is formed via non-enzymatic glycosylation reactions at the α–amino group of βVal1 residues in the tetrameric Hb, and it can reflect the ambient glycemic level over the past two to three months. A variety of HbA1c detection methods, including chromatography, immunoassay, enzymatic measurement, electrochemical sensor and capillary electrophoresis have been developed and used in research laboratories and in clinics as well. In this review, we summarize the current status of HbA1c biosensors based on the recognition of the sugar moiety on the protein and also their applications in the whole blood sample measurements. PMID:28777351

  13. Microwave Receivers for Fast-Ion Detection in Fusion Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Vedran

    for the frequency range from 100 to 110 GHz. In this thesis we follow the path of the radiation from a fusion plasma to the data acquisition unit. Firstly, the scattered radiation passes through the quasi-optical system. Quasi-optical elements required to be installed on the high field side (HFS) on the ITER...... are assessed. For the ITER HFS receiver we have designed and measured the quasioptical components that form a transmission link between the plasma and the radio frequency (RF) electronics. This HFS receiver is required to resolve the near parallel velocity components created by the alpha particles. Secondly...... is the mixer. The conversion loss of the mixer, together with loss in waveguide components and quasi-optic parts, is the main contributor to the noise and thereby degrades the signal to-noise ratio. The architecture of the mixer is a subharmonic type, optimized to be driven by a double local oscillator (LO...

  14. Density and energy distribution of epithermal secondary electrons in a plasma with fast charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The production of intermediate energy secondary electrons in plasmas through collisions with fast charged particles is investigated. The density and the distribution of the secondary electrons are obtained by calculating the generation, slow down and diffusion rates, using basic Rutherford collision cross sections. It is shown that the total density of secondaries is much smaller than the fast particle density and that the energy distribution has roughly a 1/√E dependence. The higher generation secondary populations are also obtained. (orig.)

  15. Charge state and slowing of fast ions in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, E.; Zinamon, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The charge state of a projectile ion traveling through a plasma target under conditions relevant to ion-beam fusion is calculated. It is found that, at the projectile energies and target parameters considered, the projectile ionization is significantly higher than that of the same projectile species in a cold target. The resulting strong effects on the range and on the shape of the energy deposition profile are shown in several examples of full dynamic calculations

  16. [Assays of HbA1c and Amadori products in human biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillery, P

    2014-09-01

    Different Amadori products, formed during the early steps of the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, may be assayed in current practice in human biology. The most important marker is HbA1c, resulting from the binding of glucose to the N-terminal extremity of HbA beta chains. HbA1c may be evaluated by various techniques (ion exchange or affinity high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, immunoassay, enzymatic technique) and is considered the best marker of diabetic patient survey. Due to its irreversible and cumulative formation, it provides a retrospective information on the glycemic balance over the four to eight weeks preceding blood collection. It benefits from an international standardization, based on a reference method using liquid chromatography coupled to capillary electrophoresis or mass spectrometry, maintained by an international network of reference laboratories. When HbA1c assay cannot be used (anemia, hemolysis, hemoglobinopathy) or when a shorter period of glycemic equilibrium must be evaluated (child and adolescent, pregnancy, therapeutic changes), other Amadori products may be assayed, like plasma fructosamine (all plasma glycated proteins) or glycated albumin. Nevertheless, these assays are less used in practice, because their semiological value has been less evidenced. Besides, fructosamine assay lacks specificity, and glycated albumin assay has been described recently. An expanding use of HbA1c assay is expected, especially for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and the evaluation of other risks, especially cardiovascular ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Liquid jets for fast plasma termination in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbluth, M.N.; Putvinskij, S.V.; Parks, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Recent simulations by Putvisnkij et al. (PSI Conference, 1996) have shown that introducing impurities into the plasma in order to mitigate adverse disruption effects in ITER may actually be deleterious because of a potentially unwelcome phenomenon: generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons by the collisional avalanche mechanism (Rosenbluth, M.N., et al., in Fusion Energy 1996 (Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Montreal, 1996) Vol. 2, IAEA, Vienna (in press) Paper FP-26). The injection of a liquid hydrogen jet to deliver a massive density increase is proposed as a means of avoiding runaways, while providing the same beneficial effects as impurities. A discussion of many jet related topics, such as ablation/penetration, jet breakup time and stability, is presented. Owing to an ablation pressure instability, it is predicted that the jet will quickly break up into a regular chain of droplets with dimensions of approximately the size of the jet radius. It is found that while deep penetration in the plasma can easily be achieved, bubble growth and disruptive boiling (flashing) during the propagation in the vacuum gap between the nozzle exit and the plasma are the main processes limiting the jet survival time. Calculations indicate that for ITER reference parameters, the jet can remain coherent in vacuum for a distance ∼ 1 m before disintegrating. On the basis of this present understanding, the prospect for the safe termination of ITER discharges by high density liquid jet injection appears promising. (author). 20 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Can HbA1c be Used to Screen for Glucose Abnormalities Among Adults with Severe Mental Illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, A J; Letendre, E; Akrass, Z; Avignon, A; Karelis, A D; Sultan, A; Abdel-Baki, A

    2017-04-01

    Aim: Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are highly prevalent among individuals with serious mental illness and increased by antipsychotic medication. Although widely recommended, many obstacles prevent these patients from obtaining a proper screening for dysglycemia. Currently, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, and 2-hour glucose levels from the oral glucose tolerance test are used for screening prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate if HbA1c could be used as the only screening test among individuals with serious mental illness. Methods: Cross sectional study comparing the sensitivity of HbA1c, fasting glucose, and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to detect dysglycemias in serious mental illness participants referred for metabolic complications. Results: A total of 84 participants (43 female; aged: 38.5±12.8 years; BMI: 35.0±6.8 kg/m²) was included. Regarding prediabetes, 44, 44 and 76% were identified by HbA1c, fasting glucose, and 2 h- oral glucose tolerance test respectively and for type 2 diabetes, 60, 53 and 66% were identified by HbA1c, fasting glucose and 2 h-oral glucose tolerance test. The overlap between the 3 markers was low (8% of participants for prediabetes and 26% for Type 2 diabetes). Sensitivity of HbA1c were moderate (range 40-62.5%), while its specificity was excellent (92-93%). Conclusion: The present study indicates a low agreement between HbA1c, fasting glucose and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. It appears that these markers do not identify the same participants. Thus, HbA1c may not be used alone to detect all glucose abnormalities among individuals with serious mental illness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Arbitrary amplitude fast electron-acoustic solitons in three-electron component space plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbuli, L. N.; Maharaj, S. K. [South African National Space Agency (SANSA) Space Science, P.O. Box 32, Hermanus 7200, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape (UWC), Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape (UWC), Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (West), Navi Mumbai 410218 (India); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape (UWC), Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535, Republic of South Africa (South Africa)

    2016-06-15

    We examine the characteristics of fast electron-acoustic solitons in a four-component unmagnetised plasma model consisting of cool, warm, and hot electrons, and cool ions. We retain the inertia and pressure for all the plasma species by assuming adiabatic fluid behaviour for all the species. By using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique, the allowable Mach number ranges for fast electron-acoustic solitary waves are explored and discussed. It is found that the cool and warm electron number densities determine the polarity switch of the fast electron-acoustic solitons which are limited by either the occurrence of fast electron-acoustic double layers or warm and hot electron number density becoming unreal. For the first time in the study of solitons, we report on the coexistence of fast electron-acoustic solitons, in addition to the regular fast electron-acoustic solitons and double layers in our multi-species plasma model. Our results are applied to the generation of broadband electrostatic noise in the dayside auroral region.

  20. Physics and applications of micro and fast z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi

    2003-07-01

    This is the proceedings of symposium on 'Physics and Application of Micro and Fast z-Pinch Plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. Recent progress of experimental and theoretical works on high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power is presented. Separate abstracts were presented for 4 of the papers in this report. The remaining 14 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  1. Impact of corpulence parameters and haemoglobin A1c on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the utility of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in metabolic control for type 2 diabetic patients. ... The apoB/apoA-I ratio was more correlated with postprandial TC/HDL and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios in men and with postprandial TG/HDL-c in women.

  2. Electromagnetic Fluctuations during Fast Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantao Ji; Stephen Terry; Masaaki Yamada; Russell Kulsrud; Aleksey Kuritsyn; Yang Ren

    2003-01-01

    Clear evidence for a positive correlation is established between the magnitude of magnetic fluctuations in the lower-hybrid frequency range and enhancement of reconnection rates in a well-controlled laboratory plasma. The fluctuations belong to the right-hand polarized whistler wave branch, propagating obliquely to the reconnecting magnetic field, with a phase velocity comparable to the relative drift velocity between electrons and ions. The short coherence length and large variation along the propagation direction indicate their strongly nonlinear nature in three dimensions

  3. Size and shape of the associations of glucose, HbA1c, insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijgrok, Carolien; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Beulens, Joline W; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Coupé, Veerle M H; Heymans, Martijn W; Sijtsma, Femke P C; Mela, David J; Zock, Peter L; Olthof, Margreet R; Alssema, Marjan

    2018-01-01

    Glycaemic markers and fasting insulin are frequently measured outcomes of intervention studies. To extrapolate accurately the impact of interventions on the risk of diabetes incidence, we investigated the size and shape of the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-load glucose (2hPG), HbA 1c , fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study population included 1349 participants aged 50-75 years without diabetes at baseline (1989) from a population-based cohort in Hoorn, the Netherlands. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined by the WHO 2011 criteria or known diabetes at follow-up. Logistic regression models were used to determine the associations of the glycaemic markers, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes. Restricted cubic spline logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the shape of the associations. After a mean follow-up duration of 6.4 (SD 0.5) years, 152 participants developed diabetes (11.3%); the majority were screen detected by high FPG. In multivariate adjusted models, ORs (95% CI) for incident type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile in comparison with the lowest quintile were 9.0 (4.4, 18.5) for FPG, 6.1 (2.9, 12.7) for 2hPG, 3.8 (2.0, 7.2) for HbA 1c , 1.9 (0.9, 3.6) for fasting insulin and 2.8 (1.4, 5.6) for HOMA-IR. The associations of FPG and HbA 1c with incident diabetes were non-linear, rising more steeply at higher values. FPG was most strongly associated with incident diabetes, followed by 2hPG, HbA 1c , HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. The strong association with FPG is probably because FPG is the most frequent marker for diabetes diagnosis. Non-linearity of associations between glycaemic markers and incident type 2 diabetes should be taken into account when estimating future risk of type 2 diabetes based on glycaemic markers.

  4. Dietary fiber intake is associated with HbA1c level among prevalent patients with type 2 diabetes in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary factors play an important role in glycemic control in diabetic patients. However, little is known about their effects among Chinese diabetic patients, whose diets are typically abundant in fiber and high in glycemic index (GI values. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 934 patients with type 2 diabetes and 918 healthy volunteers from Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China, were interviewed during the period of Oct-Dec, 2006 to elicit demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, bio-specimen collection and biochemical assays were conducted at the interview according to a standard protocol. In this population, diabetic patients consumed lower levels of energy and macronutrients but had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG, glycolated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, triglyceride and body mass index than healthy adults. While the average consumption levels of the nutrients among diabetic patients did not vary along duration of the disease, the average levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with increasing duration. Regardless of diabetes duration, HbA1c level was observed lower in patients having a higher fiber or lower GI intake. Compared with those with the lowest tertile intake of fiber, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs for poor glycemic control reduced from 0.75 (95%CI: 0.54-1.06 to 0.51 (95%CI: 0.34-0.75 with increasing tertile intake (P for trend <0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary fiber may play an important role in reducing HbA1c level. Increasing fiber intake may be an effective approach to improve glycemic control among Chinese diabetic patients.

  5. Research on imploded plasma heating by short pulse laser for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.

    2001-01-01

    Since the peta watt module (PWM) laser was constructed in 1995, investigated are heating processes of imploded plasmas by intense short pulse lasers. In order to heat the dense plasma locally, a heating laser pulse should be guided into compressed plasmas as deeply as possible. Since the last IAEA Fusion Conference, the feasibility of fast ignition has been investigated by using the short pulse GEKKO MII glass laser and the PWM laser with GEKKO XII laser. We found that relativistic electrons are generated efficiently in a preformed plasma to heat dense plasmas. The coupling efficiency of short pulse laser energy to a solid density plasma is 40% when no plasmas are pre-formed, and 20% when a large scale plasma is formed by a long pulse laser pre-irradiation. The experimental results are confirmed by numerical simulations using the simulation code 'MONET' which stands for the Monte-Carlo Electron Transport code developed at Osaka. In the GEKKO XII and PWM laser experiments, intense heating pulses are injected into imploded plasmas. As a result of the injection of heating pulse, it is found that high energy electrons and ions could penetrate into imploded core plasmas to enhance neutron yield by factor 3∼5. (author)

  6. Effects of Sleep Disorders on Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Keskin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have reported the presence of sleep disorders in approximately 50-70% of diabetic patients, and these may contribute to poor glycemic control, diabetic neuropathy, and overnight hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sleep disorders in diabetic patients, and to investigate possible relationships between scores of these sleep disorders and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and diabetic parameters (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], and lipid levels. Methods: We used the Berlin questionnaire (BQ for OSAS, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI to determine the frequency of sleep disorders and their possible relationships with fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and lipid levels. Results: The study included 585 type 2 diabetic patients admitted to family medicine clinics between October and December 2014. Sleep, sleep quality, and sleep scores were used as the dependent variables in the analysis. The ESS scores showed that 54.40% of patients experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, and according to the PSQI, 64.30% experienced poor-quality sleep. The BQ results indicated that 50.20% of patients were at high-risk of OSAS. HbA1c levels correlated significantly with the ESS and PSQI results (r = 0.23, P < 0.001 and r = 0.14, P = 0.001, respectively, and were significantly higher in those with high-risk of OSAS as defined by the BQ (P < 0.001. These results showed that HbA1c levels were related to sleep disorders. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common in diabetic patients and negatively affect the control of diabetes. Conversely, poor diabetes control is an important factor disturbing sleep quality. Addressing sleep disturbances in patients who have difficulty controlling their blood glucose has dual benefits: Preventing diabetic complications caused by sleep disturbance and improving diabetes control.

  7. Interpretation of fast measurements of plasma potential, temperature and density in SOL of ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horacek, J.; Adamek, J.; Müller, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on interpretation of fast (1 µs) and local (2–4 mm) measurements of plasma density, potential and electron temperature in the edge plasma of tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. Steady-state radial profiles demonstrate the credibility of the ball-pen probe. We demonstrate that floating...... potential fluctuations measured by a Langmuir probe are dominated by plasma electron temperature rather than potential. Spatial and temporal scales are found consistent with expectations based on interchange-driven turbulence. Conditionally averaged signals found for both potential and density are also...

  8. HbA1c levels in individuals heterozygous for hemoglobin variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ricardo Silva; Souza, Fábio Oliveira de; Francescantonio, Isabel Cristina Carvalho Medeiros; Soares, Weslley Carvalho; Mesquita, Mauro Meira

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients heterozygous for hemoglobin variants and compare the results of this test with those of a control group. This was an experimental study based on the comparison of HbA1c tests in two different populations, with a test group represented by individuals heterozygous for hemoglobin variants (AS and AC) and a control group consisting of people with electrophoretic profile AA. The two populations were required to meet the following inclusion criteria: Normal levels of fasting glucose, hemoglobin, urea and triglycerides, bilirubin > 20 mg/dL and non-use of acetylsalicylic acid. 50 heterozygous subjects and 50 controls were evaluated between August 2013 and May 2014. The comparison of HbA1c levels between heterozygous individuals and control subjects was performed based on standard deviation, mean and G-Test. The study assessed a test group and a control group, both with 39 adults and 11 children. The mean among heterozygous adults for HbA1c was 5.0%, while the control group showed a rate of 5.74%. Heterozygous children presented mean HbA1c at 5.11%, while the controls were at 5.78%. G-Test yielded p=0.93 for children and p=0.89 for adults. Our study evaluated HbA1c using ion exchange chromatography resins, and the patients heterozygous for hemoglobin variants showed no significant difference from the control group.

  9. The dynamic current-voltage characteristic as a powerful tool to analyze fast phenomena in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, L. M.; Mihai-Plugaru, M.; Amarandei, G.; Aflori, M.; Dimitriu, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    The static current-voltage characteristic of an electrode immersed in plasma is obtained by slowly increasing and subsequently decreasing the potential on the electrode with respect to the plasma potential or the ground. This characteristic can give us important information about the phenomena that take place in front of the electrode. Current jumps can be evidenced which were often associated with an hysteresis effect, regions with S-type or N-type negative differential resistance, etc. The method is always used when we investigate the appearance of complex space charge configurations (CSCC) in front of an electrode immersed in plasma. However, to investigate the dynamics of such structures or other fast phenomena (like instabilities) which take place in plasma devices with frequencies of tenth, hundred kHz or more, complex investigation techniques must be used. One of the most efficient methods to investigate fast phenomena in plasma devices is the dynamic current-voltage characteristic. This is obtained by recording the time series of the current collected by the electrode when the voltage applied on it is very fast modified (most likely increased) by using a signal generator. In this way, very fast oscillations of the current can be recorded and new phenomena can be evidenced. We used this technique to study the phenomena which take place at the onset of electrostatic instabilities in Q-machine plasma, namely the potential relaxation instability (PRI) and the electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability (EICI). The obtained experimental results prove that the negative differential resistance region in the static current-voltage characteristic is the result of a nonlinear dynamics of a CSCC in form of a double layer (DL) which takes place just before the onset of the instabilities. In the case of the PRI we emphasized current jumps related with the DL appearance, which are not present in the static current-voltage characteristic at high plasma density. (authors)

  10. A study of far-infrared Michelson interferometry based on fast plasma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.V.; Hewitt, G.L.; Robinson, L.C.; Tait, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    Fast far-infrared multiplex spectroscopy based on a plasma-scanned Michelson interferometer is studied. Our experiments show that the interferometer has sub-millisecond time response and high spectral resolving power. In addition to a description of the experimental performance of the interferometer, we develop and discuss two different methods of interferogram inversion. (author)

  11. Fast-acting calorimeter measures heat output of plasma gun accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefson, R.; Larson, A. V.; Liebing, L.

    1967-01-01

    Calorimeter measures the exhaust energy from a shot of a pulsed plasma gun accelerator. It has a fast response time and requires only one measurement to determine the total energy. It uses a long ribbon of copper foil wound around a glass frame to form a reentrant cavity.

  12. Independent prognostic value of left ventricular mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Leósdóttir, Margrét

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the independent prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the prediction of incident cardiac events in a random population sample. DESIGN AND METHOD: 415 women and 999 men aged 56-79 years, included between 2002...

  13. Variability of fasting and post-menthionine plasma homocysteine levels in normo- and hyperhomocysteinaemic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; de Jong, S.C.; Devilli, W.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Pals, G.; Boers, G.H.J.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the variability of plasma homocysteine levels, fasting and post-methionine homocysteine levels were measured twice, at baseline and after follow-up of 1-4 months, in 16 individuals with normal and 26 with elevated homocysteine levels after methionine loading. The intra-individual

  14. Fast nanostructured carbon microparticle synthesis by one-step high-flux plasma processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aussems, D. U. B.; Bystrov, K.; Dogan, I.; Arnas, C.; Cabié, M.; Neisius, T.; Rasinski, M.; Zoethout, E.; Lipman, P.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Morgan, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates a fast one-step synthesis method for nanostructured carbon microparticles on graphite samples using high-flux plasma exposure. These structures are considered as potential candidates for energy applications such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The samples were

  15. Fast nanostructured carbon microparticle synthesis by one-step high-flux plasma processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aussems, D.U.B.; Bystrov, K.E.; Doǧan, I.; Arnas, C.; Cabié, M.; Neisius, T.; Rasinski, M.; Lipman, P.J.L.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.; Morgan, T.W.

    This study demonstrates a fast one-step synthesis method for nanostructured carbon microparticles on graphite samples using high-flux plasma exposure. These structures are considered as potential candidates for energy applications such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The samples were

  16. Lensing of Fast Radio Bursts by Plasma Structures in Host Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, J.M.; Wasserman, I.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Lazio, T.J.W.; Chatterjee, S.; Wharton, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    The amplitudes of fast radio bursts (FRBs) can be strongly modulated by plasma lenses in their host galaxies, including that of the repeating FRB 121102 at ∼1 Gpc luminosity distance. Caustics require the lens’ dispersion measure depth ({{DM}}{\\ell }), scale size (a), and distance from the source

  17. A study of far-infrared Michelson interferometry based on fast plasma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.V.; Hewitt, R.G.L.; Robinson, L.C.; Tait, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    Fast far infrared (FIR) muliplex spectroscopy based on a plasma-scanned Michelson interferometer is studied. Experiments show that the interferometer has sub-millisecond time response and high spectral resolving power. In addition to the description of the experimental performance of the interferometer, two different methods of interferogram inversion are developed and discussed. (author)

  18. To Mars and beyond, fast! how plasma propulsion will revolutionize space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Chang Díaz, Franklin

    2017-01-01

    As advanced space propulsion moves slowly from science fiction to achievable reality, the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, or VASIMR, is a leading contender for making 'Mars in a month' a possibility. Developed by Ad Astra Rockets, which was founded by astronaut Franklin Chang-Diaz and backed by NASA, its first commercial tests are imminent. VASIMR heats plasma to extreme temperatures using radio waves. Strong magnetic fields then funnel this plasma out the back of the engine, creating thrust. The continuous propulsion may place long, fast interplanetary journeys within reach in the near future. While scientists dream of the possibilities of using fusion or well-controlled matter-antimatter interactions to propel spacecraft fast and far, that goal is still some way over the horizon. VASIMR provides a more attainable propulsion technology that is based on the matter-antimatter concept. The book describes a landmark technology grounded in plasma physics and offering a practical technological solu...

  19. Effect of electron degeneracy on fast-particles energy deposition in dense plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johzaki, T.; Nakao, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Kudo, K.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of electron degeneracy on fast-particles energy deposition in dense plasmas are investigated by making transport calculations for the fast particles. It is found that the degeneracy substantially affects the profiles of energy deposition of 3.52-MeV α-particles. On the other hand, the effect on the energy deposition of 14.1-MeV neutrons is negligibly small because the recoil ions, which transfer the neutron energy to the plasma constituents, are produced in a whole plasma volume due to the long mean-free-path of neutrons. The coupled transport-hydrodynamic calculations show that these effects of degeneracy are negligible in the ignition and burn characteristics of central ignition D-T targets. (author)

  20. Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R J; Carroll, D C; Yuan, X H; Brenner, C M; Coury, M; Quinn, M N; Tresca, O; McKenna, P; Burza, M; Wahlström, C-G; Lancaster, K L; Neely, D; Lin, X X; Li, Y T

    2014-01-01

    Laser energy absorption to fast electrons during the interaction of an ultra-intense (10 20 W cm −2 ), picosecond laser pulse with a solid is investigated, experimentally and numerically, as a function of the plasma density scale length at the irradiated surface. It is shown that there is an optimum density gradient for efficient energy coupling to electrons and that this arises due to strong self-focusing and channeling driving energy absorption over an extended length in the preformed plasma. At longer density gradients the laser filaments, resulting in significantly lower overall energy coupling. As the scale length is further increased, a transition to a second laser energy absorption process is observed experimentally via multiple diagnostics. The results demonstrate that it is possible to significantly enhance laser energy absorption and coupling to fast electrons by dynamically controlling the plasma density gradient. (paper)

  1. Evaluation of the hemoglobin A1c-analyzer TOSOH HLC-723 G7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmels, Heinz-Detlef; Richter, Anja; Watzke, Ivonne

    2003-01-01

    The TOSOH HLC-723 G7 is a compact analyzer designed for the measurement of HbA1c under routine laboratory conditions. The analyzer has an automatic blood tube supply and positive sample identification. Samples are transported automatically via racks in a continuous-load mode, cap piercing is optional. Tests devoted to the assessment of reproducibility and accuracy of analytical results indicated that over a test period of 17 days, the intra-assay variation (CV) was 1.79%, and the inter-assay variation 2.60%, respectively. A comparison with the predecessor model G5 showed a very good correlation (r = 0.997, y = 1.0041x - 0.00172; n = 149). The presence of high triglyceride, bilirubin or urea concentrations in patient samples did not influence the analytical precision. The labile HbA1c fraction (L-A1c) is clearly separated during chromatography and thus does not compromise HbA1c analysis. With a protocol of 1.2 minutes, the TOSOH G7 is a very fast analyzer, designed for laboratories with a high throughput of samples.

  2. Fast wave current drive in neutral beam heated plasmas on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Forest, C.B.; Pinsker, R.I.

    1997-04-01

    The physics of non-inductive current drive and current profile control using the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak. In non-sawtoothing discharges formed by neutral beam injection (NBI), the radial profile of the fast wave current drive (FWCD) was determined by the response of the loop voltage profile to co, counter, and symmetric antenna phasings, and was found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. The application of counter FWCD increased the magnetic shear reversal of the plasma and delayed the onset of sawteeth, compared to co FWCD. The partial absorption of fast waves by energetic beam ions at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency was also evident from a build up of fast particle pressure near the magnetic axis and a correlated increase in the neutron rate. The anomalous fast particle pressure and neutron rate increased with increasing NBI power and peaked when a harmonic of the deuterium cyclotron frequency passed through the center of the plasma. The experimental FWCD efficiency was highest at 2 T where the interaction between the fast waves and the beam ions was weakest; as the magnetic field strength was lowered, the FWCD efficiency decreased to approximately half of the maximum theoretical value

  3. Continuous glucose monitoring and its relationship to hemoglobin A1c and oral glucose tolerance testing in obese and prediabetic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine L; Pyle, Laura; Newnes, Lindsey; Nadeau, Kristen J; Zeitler, Philip S; Kelsey, Megan M

    2015-03-01

    The optimal screening test for diabetes and prediabetes in obese youth is controversial. We examined whether glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a better predictor of free-living glycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This was a cross-sectional study of youth 10-18 years old, body mass index (BMI) 85th percentile or greater, with diabetes risk factors. Participants (n = 118) with BMI 85th percentile or greater, not on medications for glucose management, were recruited from primary care and pediatric endocrinology clinics around Denver, Colorado. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour glucose were collected and all participants wore a blinded CGM for 72 hours. CGM outcomes were determined and descriptive statistics calculated. Performance characteristics at current American Diabetes Association cutpoints were compared with CGM outcomes. CGM data were successfully collected on 98 obese youth. Those with prediabetes had significantly higher average glucose, area under the curve (AUC), peak glucose, and time greater than 120 and greater than 140 mg/dL (P obese youth, HbA1c and 2-hour glucose performed equally well at predicting free-living glycemia on CGM, suggesting that both are valid tests for dysglycemia screening.

  4. Development and Benchmarking of a Hybrid PIC Code For Dense Plasmas and Fast Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Welch, Dale R. [Voss Scientific, LLC; Thompson, John R. [FAR-TECH, Inc.; MacFarlane, Joeseph J. [Prism Computational Sciences Inc.; Phillips, Michael W. [Advanced Energy Systems, Inc.; Bruner, Nicki [Voss Scientific, LLC; Mostrom, Chris [Voss Scientific, LLC; Thoma, Carsten [Voss Scientific, LLC; Clark, R. E. [Voss Scientific, LLC; Bogatu, Nick [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Kim, Jin-Soo [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Galkin, Sergei [FAR-TECH, Inc.; Golovkin, Igor E. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc.; Woodruff, P. R. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc.; Wu, Linchun [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Messer, Sarah J. [HyperV Technologies Corp.

    2014-05-20

    Radiation processes play an important role in the study of both fast ignition and other inertial confinement schemes, such as plasma jet driven magneto-inertial fusion, both in their effect on energy balance, and in generating diagnostic signals. In the latter case, warm and hot dense matter may be produced by the convergence of a plasma shell formed by the merging of an assembly of high Mach number plasma jets. This innovative approach has the potential advantage of creating matter of high energy densities in voluminous amount compared with high power lasers or particle beams. An important application of this technology is as a plasma liner for the flux compression of magnetized plasma to create ultra-high magnetic fields and burning plasmas. HyperV Technologies Corp. has been developing plasma jet accelerator technology in both coaxial and linear railgun geometries to produce plasma jets of sufficient mass, density, and velocity to create such imploding plasma liners. An enabling tool for the development of this technology is the ability to model the plasma dynamics, not only in the accelerators themselves, but also in the resulting magnetized target plasma and within the merging/interacting plasma jets during transport to the target. Welch pioneered numerical modeling of such plasmas (including for fast ignition) using the LSP simulation code. Lsp is an electromagnetic, parallelized, plasma simulation code under development since 1995. It has a number of innovative features making it uniquely suitable for modeling high energy density plasmas including a hybrid fluid model for electrons that allows electrons in dense plasmas to be modeled with a kinetic or fluid treatment as appropriate. In addition to in-house use at Voss Scientific, several groups carrying out research in Fast Ignition (LLNL, SNL, UCSD, AWE (UK), and Imperial College (UK)) also use LSP. A collaborative team consisting of HyperV Technologies Corp., Voss Scientific LLC, FAR-TECH, Inc., Prism

  5. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rácz, R.; Biri, S.; Hajdu, P.; Pálinkás, J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the “big” ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper

  6. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Hajdu, P; Pálinkás, J

    2014-02-01

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the "big" ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper.

  7. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rácz, R., E-mail: rracz@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/c (Hungary); Department of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/c (Hungary); Hajdu, P.; Pálinkás, J. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 (Hungary)

    2014-02-15

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the “big” ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper.

  8. Beams of fast neutral atoms and molecules in low-pressure gas-discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metel, A. S., E-mail: ametel@stankin.ru [Moscow State University of Technology ' Stankin,' (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    Fast neutral atom and molecule beams have been studied, the beams being produced in a vacuum chamber at nitrogen, argon, or helium pressure of 0.1-10 Pa due to charge-exchange collisions of ions accelerated in the sheath between the glow discharge plasma and a negative grid immersed therein. From a flat grid, two broad beams of molecules with continuous distribution of their energy from zero up to e(U + U{sub c}) (where U is voltage between the grid and the vacuum chamber and U{sub c} is cathode fall of the discharge) are propagating in opposite directions. The beam propagating from the concave surface of a 0.2-m-diameter grid is focused within a 10-mm-diameter spot on the target surface. When a 0.2-m-diameter 0.2-m-high cylindrical grid covered by end disks and composed of parallel 1.5-mm-diameter knitting needles spaced by 4.5 mm is immersed in the plasma, the accelerated ions pass through the gaps between the needles, turn inside the grid into fast atoms or molecules, and escape from the grid through the gaps on its opposite side. The Doppler shift of spectral lines allows for measuring the fast atom energy, which corresponds to the potential difference between the plasma inside the chamber and the plasma produced as a result of charge-exchange collisions inside the cylindrical grid.

  9. Influence of fast waves on the collective scattering of microwaves in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave scattering by the fluctuations of fusion plasmas is one of the most promising α-diagnostic techniques. Previous investigations have concentrated on the fluctuations near the slow wave branch in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. The small signal and the lack of sensitivity to the contribution of α-particles to the total cross-section near the slow branch severely limits the effectiveness of this technique. In this paper, we report results of investigations of scattering by fluctuations in the lower hybrid range of frequencies near the fast branch. Surprisingly, when both fast and slow branches exist, the scattering amplitudes are comparable. More important, the α-contribution is larger for the fast branch and the fast branch has a larger parameter space where it exists. Specifically, the slow branch exists only above the lower hybrid frequency, while the fast branch can exist at all frequencies up to the electron cyclotron range of frequencies. We find numerically that the scattering amplitudes near the fast branch below the lower hybrid frequency are several orders of magnitude larger than those near the slow branch above that frequency where it can exist. This may make microwave scattering by fast waves a more attractive α-diagnostic technique. (orig.)

  10. Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chernyshova, M.; Gribkov, V. A.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E.; Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Maslyaev, S. A.; Bondarenko, G.G.; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, December (2016), s. 109-118 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Radiation damageability * Materials tests * Plasma focus * Plasma streams * Ion beams * Laser interferometrya Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379616306858

  11. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract increases plasma antioxidant status associated with reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentration without hypoglycemia in fasting healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Khannongpho, Teerawat; Siriwatanapaiboon, Marent; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Dahlan, Winai; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2016-12-29

    To investigate the effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on plasma glucose concentration and antioxidant status in healthy volunteers. A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mL of warm water (10 cases) or 200 mL of MOLE (500 mg dried extract, 10 cases). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FPG concentration was not signifificantly different between warm water and MOLE. The consumption of MOLE acutely improved both FRAP and TEAC, with increases after 30 min of 30 μmol/L FeSO 4 equivalents and 0.18 μmol/L Trolox equivalents, respectively. The change in MDA level from baseline was signifificantly lowered after the ingestion of MOLE at 30, 60, and 90 min. In addition, FRAP level was negatively correlated with plasma MDA level after an intake of MOLE. MOLE increased plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in human. The consumption of MOLE may reduce the risk factors associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  12. The properties of fast and slow oblique solitons in a magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. F.; Doyle, T. B.

    2002-01-01

    This work builds on a recent treatment by McKenzie and Doyle [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4367 (2001)], on oblique solitons in a cold magnetized plasma, to include the effects of plasma thermal pressure. Conservation of total momentum in the direction of wave propagation immediately shows that if the flow is supersonic, compressive (rarefactive) changes in the magnetic pressure induce decelerations (accelerations) in the flow speed, whereas if the flow is subsonic, compressive (rarefactive) changes in the magnetic pressure induce accelerations (decelerations) in the flow speed. Such behavior is characteristic of a Bernoulli-type plasma momentum flux which exhibits a minimum at the plasma sonic point. The plasma energy flux (kinetic plus enthalpy) also shows similar Bernoulli-type behavior. This transonic effect is manifest in the spatial structure equation for the flow speed (in the direction of propagation) which shows that soliton structures may exist if the wave speed lies either (i) in the range between the fast and Alfven speeds or (ii) between the sound and slow mode speed. These conditions follow from the requirement that a defined, characteristic "soliton parameter" m exceeds unity. It is in this latter slow soliton regime that the effects of plasma pressure are most keenly felt. The equilibrium points of the structure equation define the center of the wave. The structure of both fast and slow solitons is elucidated through the properties of the energy integral function of the structure equation. In particular, the slow soliton, which owes its existence to plasma pressure, may have either a compressive or rarefactive nature, and exhibits a rich structure, which is revealed through the spatial structure of the longitudinal speed and its corresponding transverse velocity hodograph.

  13. The properties of fast and slow oblique solitons in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.F.; Doyle, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    This work builds on a recent treatment by McKenzie and Doyle [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4367 (2001)], on oblique solitons in a cold magnetized plasma, to include the effects of plasma thermal pressure. Conservation of total momentum in the direction of wave propagation immediately shows that if the flow is supersonic, compressive (rarefactive) changes in the magnetic pressure induce decelerations (accelerations) in the flow speed, whereas if the flow is subsonic, compressive (rarefactive) changes in the magnetic pressure induce accelerations (decelerations) in the flow speed. Such behavior is characteristic of a Bernoulli-type plasma momentum flux which exhibits a minimum at the plasma sonic point. The plasma energy flux (kinetic plus enthalpy) also shows similar Bernoulli-type behavior. This transonic effect is manifest in the spatial structure equation for the flow speed (in the direction of propagation) which shows that soliton structures may exist if the wave speed lies either (i) in the range between the fast and Alfven speeds or (ii) between the sound and slow mode speed. These conditions follow from the requirement that a defined, characteristic 'soliton parameter' m exceeds unity. It is in this latter slow soliton regime that the effects of plasma pressure are most keenly felt. The equilibrium points of the structure equation define the center of the wave. The structure of both fast and slow solitons is elucidated through the properties of the energy integral function of the structure equation. In particular, the slow soliton, which owes its existence to plasma pressure, may have either a compressive or rarefactive nature, and exhibits a rich structure, which is revealed through the spatial structure of the longitudinal speed and its corresponding transverse velocity hodograph

  14. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez DT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Taira Juarez, Kendra M Demaris, Roy Goo, Christina Louise Mnatzaganian, Helen Wong SmithDaniel K Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Honolulu, HI, USAAbstract: The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47 in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diagnosis, glycosylated hemoglobin, USA

  15. The influence of feeding and fasting on plasma metabolites in the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Walsh, Patrick J; Kajimura, Makiko; McClelland, Grant B; Chew, Shit F

    2010-04-01

    Dogfish sharks are opportunistic predators, eating large meals at irregular intervals. Here we present a synthesis of data from several previous studies on responses in plasma metabolites after natural feeding and during prolonged fasting (up to 56days), together with new data on changes in plasma concentrations of amino acids and non-esterified fatty acids. Post-prandial and long-term fasting responses were compared to control sharks fasted for 7days, a typical inter-meal interval. A feeding frenzy was created in which dogfish were allowed to feed naturally on dead teleosts at two consumed ration levels, 2.6% and 5.5% of body weight. Most responses were more pronounced at the higher ration level. These included increases in urea and TMAO concentrations at 20h, followed by stability through to 56days of fasting. Ammonia levels were low and exhibited little short-term response to feeding, but declined to very low values during the extended fast. Glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate both fell after feeding, the latter to a greater and more prolonged extent (up to 60h), whereas acetoacetate did not change. During prolonged fasting, glucose concentrations were well regulated, but beta-hydroxybutyrate increased to 2-3-fold control levels. Total plasma amino acid concentrations increased in a biphasic fashion, with peaks at 6-20h, and 48-60h after the meal, followed by homeostasis during the extended fast. Essential and non-essential amino acids generally followed this same pattern, though some exhibited different trends after feeding: taurine, beta-alanine, and glycine (decreases or stability), alanine and glutamine (modest prolonged increases), and threonine, serine, asparagine, and valine (much larger short-term increases). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations declined markedly through 48h after the 2.6% meal. These data are interpreted in light of companion studies showing elevations in aerobic metabolic rate, urea production, rectal gland function, metabolic

  16. Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laville Martine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest a novel role for bile acids (BAs in modulating metabolic homeostasis. BA treatment has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and to increase energy expenditure in mice. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting plasma BAs concentrations and metabolic parameters in humans. Findings Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in 14 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and 22 non-diabetic abdominally obese subjects. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the determination of the glucose infusion rate (GIR during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a subgroup of patients (9 healthy and 16 T2D subjects. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Plasma cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA concentrations were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. In univariable analysis, a positive association was found between HOMA-IR and plasma CDCA (β = 0.09, p = 0.001, CA (β = 0.03, p = 0.09 and DCA concentrations (β = 0.07, p Conclusions Both plasma CDCA, CA and DCA concentrations were negatively associated with insulin sensitivity in a wide range of subjects.

  17. Oblique Propagation of Fast Surface Waves in a Low-Beta Hall-Magnetohydrodynamics Plasma Slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelyazkov, I.; Mann, G.

    1999-01-01

    The oblique propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab in the low-beta plasma limit is studied considering the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. It is found that the combined action of the Hall effect and oblique wave propagation makes possible the existence of multivalued solutions to the wave dispersion relations - some of them corresponding to positive values of the transfer wave number, k y , undergo a 'propagation stop' at specific (numerically found) full wave numbers. It is also shown that with growing wave number the waves change their nature - from bulk modes to pseudosurface or pure surface waves. (author)

  18. Exit points, on plasma, of lost fast ions during NBI in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-09-01

    The distribution of the exit points, on plasma border, for the lost fast ions during tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator is theoretically analysed, as well for direct as for delayed losses. The link between the position of those exit points and the corresponding at birth, orbits and drifts is analysed also, it is shown that such relation is rather independent of beam energy and plasma density and is mainly related to the magnetic configuration characteristics. This study is a needed intermediate step to the analysis of impacts of those ions on the vacuum vessel of TJ-II

  19. Slowing of a fast electron beam in a plasma in an intense electromagnetic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, R.V.; Fedorov, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    The slowing of a fast electron beam as it penetrates into a plasma in a strong external electromagnetic field is studied. The effective collision frequency ..nu../sub p/ which is responsible for the slowing is derived in the dipole approximation; many-photon stimulated bremsstrahlung and inverse bremsstrahlung are taken into account. The asymptotic behavior of ..nu../sub p/ in strong wave fields E/sub 0/ is found. The results show that ..nu../sub p/ falls off with increasing E/sub 0/, because of a decrease in the frequency of collisions with plasma ions proportional to E/sub 0//sup -1/.

  20. Exit points, on plasma, of lost fast ions during NBI in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of the exit points, on plasma border, for the lost fast ions during tangential balanced NBI in TJ-II helical axis Stellarator is theoretically analysed, as well for direct as for delayed losses. The link between, the position of those exit points and the corresponding at birth, orbits and drifts is analysed also. It is shown that such relation is rather independent of beam energy and plasma density and is mainly related to the magnetic configuration characteristics. This study is a needed intermediate step to the analysis of impacts of those ions on the vacuum vessel of TJ-II. (Author) 2 refs

  1. Association of Postbreakfast Triglyceride and Visit-to-Visit Annual Variation of Fasting Plasma Glucose with Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kitaoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR was measured at baseline and after a median follow-up of 6.0 years in 161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Intrapersonal means and SD of HbA1c, systolic BP, fasting, and postmeal plasma glucose (FPG and PMPG, resp. and serum triglycerides (FTG and PMTG, resp. were calculated in each patient during the first 12 months after enrollment. Associations of these variables with nephropathy progression (15 patients with progression of albuminuric stages and 5 with ACR doubling within the microalbuminuric range were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis providing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Patients with nephropathy progression, compared with those without nephropathy progression, had higher HbA1c (p<0.01. They also had higher means and SD of FPG (both p<0.05, FTG (both p<0.05, and PMTG (p=0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that SD-FPG (1.036, 1.001–1.073, p=0.04 and PMTG (1.013, 1.008–1.040, p=0.001 were significant predictors of progression of nephropathy even after adjustment for mean FPG and SD-FTG, age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration and therapy, means and SDs of HbA1c, PPG, FTG and systolic BP, baseline ACR, smoking status, and uses of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. Consistency of glycemic control and management of postmeal TG may be important to prevent nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetic patients.

  2. The non-resonant decay of the fast magnetosonic wave during ICRH of a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Core, W.G.; Hellsten, T.; Farrell, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The non-resonant decay of the fast magnetosonic wave into an Ion Bernstein wave and a quasi-mode is investigated from the point of view of assessing the importance of this process for the observed direct heating of the edge plasma during ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). Starting from the Maxwell-Vlasov equations, expressions for the threshold electric field and the growth rates of the decay process are obtained. For JET like parameters, the thresholds for the decay are easily exceeded and the growth time for typical fast wave electric field strengths is of the order of a microsecond. The parametric dependence of the threshold on magnetic field, temperature, the density of the various ion species, and electron-ion collisions is studied. Finally the relevance of this process to the heating of plasma edge during ICRH is discussed. (author)

  3. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during......, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Conclusion Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition...... childhood obesity treatment. Methods 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6±21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3±5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0...

  4. Asymmetric double Langmuir probe for fast and automatic measurements of plasma temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1987-11-01

    We present a fast technique for determining the plasma electron temperature T/sub e/ automatically from the small signal application of the asymmetric double Langmuir probe when it is operated in the region where -1 < eV/sub a/T/sub e/ < 1. The method described here is based on simple time and rms averages of the probe current that results from a sinusoidally varying applied voltage V/sub a/. 4 refs., 2 figs

  5. Disintegration of fast magnetoacoustic oscillation spectra in non-uniform current-loaded plasma cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girka, I.A.; Stepanov, K.N.

    1990-01-01

    Dispersion equation for fast plasma cylinder with longitudinal current including a weak azimuthal magnetic field β 0v is obtained and analyzed on the basis of perturbation theory. Simple asymptotic expressions for S w , S n and σ k are derived under different limiting cases (propagation of small-scale waves with high values of radial wave number, wave in the uniform cylinder, surface mode etc.). 10 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pobesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.

  7. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile.

  8. Prognostic implications of fasting plasma glucose in subjects with echocardiographic abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG) modifies the prognostic role of left ventricular (LV) mass, geometric pattern, and diastolic function, for prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Population-based cohort study comprising of 1047 men and 456 women...... proportional-hazards regression with interaction analysis was used to evaluate the risk associated with FPG and LV structure and function. RESULTS: Median age was 67years, and 31% had impaired fasting glucose, 31% diabetes, 17% LV hypertrophy, and 40% diastolic dysfunction. During a median follow-up duration.......001), and with the association between diastolic dysfunction and event risk (P=0.02), including grade 2 or 3 dysfunction (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic abnormalities were more strongly associated with an adverse prognosis among subjects with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes....

  9. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile

  10. Numerical studies of fast ion slowing down rates in cool magnetized plasma using LSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eugene S.; Kolmes, Elijah; Cohen, Samuel A.; Rognlien, Tom; Cohen, Bruce; Meier, Eric; Welch, Dale R.

    2016-10-01

    In MFE devices, rapid transport of fusion products from the core into the scrape-off layer (SOL) could perform the dual roles of energy and ash removal. The first-orbit trajectories of most fusion products from small field-reversed configuration (FRC) devices will traverse the SOL, allowing those particles to deposit their energy in the SOL and be exhausted along the open field lines. Thus, the fast ion slowing-down time should affect the energy balance of an FRC reactor and its neutron emissions. However, the dynamics of fast ion energy loss processes under the conditions expected in the FRC SOL (with ρe code, to examine the effects of SOL density and background B-field on the slowing-down time of fast ions in a cool plasma. As we use explicit algorithms, these simulations must spatially resolve both ρe and λDe, as well as temporally resolve both Ωe and ωpe, increasing computation time. Scaling studies of the fast ion charge (Z) and background plasma density are in good agreement with unmagnetized slowing down theory. Notably, Z-scaling represents a viable way to dramatically reduce the required CPU time for each simulation. This work was supported, in part, by DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Plasma physics study and laser development for the fast ignition realization experiment (FIREX) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azechi, H.; Mima, K.; Fujimoto, Y.

    2008-10-01

    Since the approval of the first phase of Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX-I), we have devoted our efforts on designing advanced targets and constructing the world highest-energy Peta Watt laser. The new target design has the following features. The coupling efficiency from the heating laser to the thermal energy of the compressed core plasma can be increased by the two ways:1) Low-Z foam layer on the inner surface of the cone for optimum absorption. 2) Double cone. Electrons generated in the inner surface of the double cone will return by sheathe potential generated between two cones. The implosion performance can be improved by three ways: 3) Low-Z plastic layer on the outer surface of the cone may suppress the expansion of the Au cone that flows into the interior of the compressed core. 4) Br doped plastic ablator may significantly moderate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, making implosion more stable. 5) Evacuation of the target center to prevent gas jets from destroying the cone tip. For project robustness, we also explore 6) impact ignition scheme that eliminates complexity of laser-plasma interaction while keeping the compactness advantage of fast ignition. The fully integrated fast ignition experiment is scheduled on 2009. If subsequent FIREX-II will start as proposed, the ignition and burn will be demonstrated shortly after the ignition at NIF and LMJ, providing a scientific database of both central and fast ignition. (author)

  12. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.E.; Hershkowitz; Intrator, T.

    1985-01-01

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (α 20 μs) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device an on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  13. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.E.; Hershkowitz, N.; Intrator, T.

    1985-01-01

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (≅ 20 μs) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device and on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  14. Professional flash continuous glucose monitoring as a supplement to A1C in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Irl B

    2017-11-01

    Decreasing glycated hemoglobin (A1C) is the primary goal of current diabetes management due to intervention studies in type 1 and type 2 diabetes associating levels <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) with lower complication risk. Strategic self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is also recommended to achieve greater time in range, with fewer extremes of hypo- or hyperglycemia. Unlike A1C, SMBG can distinguish among fasting, prandial, and postprandial hyperglycemia; uncover glycemic variability, including potentially dangerous hypoglycemia; and provide feedback to patients about the effects of behavior and medication on glycemic control. However, it has the drawback of capturing only static glucose readings and users are often dependent on time-pressed clinicians to interpret numerous data points. A novel flash continuous glucose monitoring (FCGM) device used for a single 2-week period with a readily interpretable data report know as the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) has the potential to overcome limitations of conventional technologies, with less cost and greater convenience. This review summarizes the rationale for using intermittent FCGM as a supplement to A1C in primary care, and provides a stepwise approach to interpreting the AGP visual display for efficient individualized therapy.

  15. Nanoparticle Plasma Jet as Fast Probe for Runaway Electrons in Tokamak Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Successful probing of runaway electrons (REs) requires fast (1 - 2 ms) high-speed injection of enough mass able to penetrate through tokamak toroidal B-field (2 - 5 T) over 1 - 2 m distance with large assimilation fraction in core plasma. A nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) from a plasma gun is a unique combination of millisecond trigger-to-delivery response and mass-velocity of 100 mg at several km/s for deep direct injection into current channel of rapidly ( 1 ms) cooling post-TQ core plasma. After C60 NPPJ test bed demonstration we started to work on ITER-compatible boron nitride (BN) NPPJ. Once injected into plasma, BN NP undergoes ablative sublimation, thermally decomposes into B and N, and releases abundant B and N high-charge ions along plasma-traversing path and into the core. We present basic characteristics of our BN NPPJ concept and first results from B and N ions on Zeff > 1 effect on REs dynamics by using a self-consistent model for RE current density. Simulation results of BNQ+ NPPJ penetration through tokamak B-field to RE beam location performed with Hybrid Electro-Magnetic code (HEM-2D) are also presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE SBIR Grant.

  16. Radial plasma profile and neutron yield in an adiabatic trap with fast atom injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Radial profiles of ion densities depending on two dimensionless parameters, which values are determined by the trap, plasma and injected beam parameters are found in dimensionless units for a plasma generated by fast atom injection in an adiabatic trap. The calculated profiles are used for determining the neutron yield. Simple approximated dimensional relations permitting to estimate quickly neutron yield, required injection power, flux of charge exchange atoms on the wall around the plasma in a wide energy range of injected atoms, trap field modulud, injection angle, trap radius and length are determined. The energetic efficiency of neutron production is estimated and it is shown that it grows with the injection energy. 7 refs.; 7 figs

  17. HbA1c Alone Is a Poor Indicator of Cardiometabolic Risk in Middle-Aged Subjects with Pre-Diabetes but Is Suitable for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Seán R.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement is recommended as an alternative to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, evidence suggests discordance between HbA1c and FPG. In this study we examine a range of metabolic risk features, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute-phase response proteins, coagulation factors and white blood cell counts to determine which assay more accurately identifies individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,047 men and women aged 46-73 years. Binary and multinomial logistic regression were employed to examine risk feature associations with pre-diabetes [either HbA1c levels 5.7-6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol) or impaired FPG levels 5.6-6.9 mmol/l] and type 2 diabetes [either HbA1c levels >6.5% (>48 mmol/mol) or FPG levels >7.0 mmol/l]. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the ability of HbA1c to discriminate pre-diabetes and diabetes defined by FPG. Results Stronger associations with diabetes-related phenotypes were observed in pre-diabetic subjects diagnosed by FPG compared to those detected by HbA1c. Individuals with type 2 diabetes exhibited cardiometabolic profiles that were broadly similar according to diagnosis by either assay. Pre-diabetic participants classified by both assays displayed a more pro-inflammatory, pro-atherogenic, hypertensive and insulin resistant profile. Odds ratios of having three or more metabolic syndrome features were also noticeably increased (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.8-5.8) when compared to subjects diagnosed by either HbA1c (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8) or FPG (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7-5.1) separately. Conclusions In middle-aged Caucasian-Europeans, HbA1c alone is a poor indicator of cardiometabolic risk but is suitable for diagnosing diabetes. Combined use of HbA1c and FPG may be of additional benefit for detecting individuals at highest odds of

  18. Impact of demographics and disease progression on the relationship between glucose and HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Anetta; Møller, Jonas B; Kristensen, Niels R; Klim, Søren; Kjellsson, Maria C; Ingwersen, Steen H; Karlsson, Mats O

    2017-06-15

    Several studies have shown that the relationship between mean plasma glucose (MPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) may vary across populations. Especially race has previously been referred to shift the regression line that links MPG to HbA1c at steady-state (Herman & Cohen, 2012). To assess the influence of demographic and disease progression-related covariates on the intercept of the estimated linear MPG-HbA1c relationship in a longitudinal model. Longitudinal patient-level data from 16 late-phase trials in type 2 diabetes with a total of 8927 subjects was used to study covariates for the relationship between MPG and HbA1c. The analysed covariates included age group, BMI, gender, race, diabetes duration, and pre-trial treatment. Differences between trials were taken into account by estimating a trial-to-trial variability component. Participants included 47% females and 20% above 65years. 77% were Caucasian, 9% were Asian, 5% were Black and the remaining 9% were analysed together as other races. Estimates of the change in the intercept of the MPG-HbA1c relationship due to the mentioned covariates were determined using a longitudinal model. The analysis showed that pre-trial treatment with insulin had the most pronounced impact associated with a 0.34% higher HbA1c at a given MPG. However, race, diabetes duration and age group also had an impact on the MPG-HbA1c relationship. Our analysis shows that the relationship between MPG and HbA1c is relatively insensitive to covariates, but shows small variations across populations, which may be relevant to take into account when predicting HbA1c response based on MPG measurements in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. "SERUM FERRITIN IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH HbA1c"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sharifi Sh. Sazandeh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 is one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting more than 135 million people in the world. The etiology of the disease is not fully understood, but recently subclinical hemochromatosis has been considered as one of the probable causes of DM. This study was carried out to examine the relationship between serum ferritin as a marker of iron overload with DM and HbA1c. This study was conducted on 97 patients with type 2 DM who were referred to Zanjan Diabetes Clinic. Ninety-four normal age-matched individuals were included in the study as the control group. Ferritin, hemoglobin, HbA1c, and fasting blood sugar were measured in blood samples. Exclusion criteria included anemia, or any other disease or drug that could affect ferritin levels. Results were analyzed statistically by Chi-square test, t-test and Pearson regression coefficient test. One hundred ninety-one cases including 97 diabetics (37 males and 60 females and 94 normal individuals were studied. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding age, hemoglobin and body mass index. Mean serum ferritin was significantly higher in diabetics than in the control group (101±73 mg/ml vs. 43.5+42 mg/ml, p<0.001. There was no correlation between serum ferritin and HbA1c in diabetic patients of either sex. Ferritin levels in patients with DM is high, but not related to levels of HbA1c and blood glucose control.

  20. Electron Generation and Transport in Intense Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions Relevant to Fast Ignition ICF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tammy Yee Wing [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The reentrant cone approach to Fast Ignition, an advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion scheme, remains one of the most attractive because of the potential to efficiently collect and guide the laser light into the cone tip and direct energetic electrons into the high density core of the fuel. However, in the presence of a preformed plasma, the laser energy is largely absorbed before it can reach the cone tip. Full scale fast ignition laser systems are envisioned to have prepulses ranging between 100 mJ to 1 J. A few of the imperative issues facing fast ignition, then, are the conversion efficiency with which the laser light is converted to hot electrons, the subsequent transport characteristics of those electrons, and requirements for maximum allowable prepulse this may put on the laser system. This dissertation examines the laser-to-fast electron conversion efficiency scaling with prepulse for cone-guided fast ignition. Work in developing an extreme ultraviolet imager diagnostic for the temperature measurements of electron-heated targets, as well as the validation of the use of a thin wire for simultaneous determination of electron number density and electron temperature will be discussed.

  1. Concept of a staged FEL enabled by fast synchrotron radiation cooling of laser-plasma accelerated beam by solenoidal magnetic fields in plasma bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryi, Andrei; Lesz, Zsolt; Andreev, Alexander; Konoplev, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    A novel method for generating GigaGauss solenoidal fields in a laser-plasma bubble, using screw-shaped laser pulses, has been recently presented. Such magnetic fields enable fast synchrotron radiation cooling of the beam emittance of laser-plasma accelerated leptons. This recent finding opens a novel approach for design of laser-plasma FELs or colliders, where the acceleration stages are interleaved with laser-plasma emittance cooling stages. In this concept paper, we present an outline of what a staged plasma-acceleration FEL could look like, and discuss further studies needed to investigate the feasibility of the concept in detail.

  2. Fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations in monozygotic twins discordant for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskelä, Piia; Ukkola, Olavi; Vartiainen, Johanna; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bouchard, Claude; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-02-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that is involved in the regulation of food intake. Neuronal, endocrine, and genetic factors have been shown to regulate plasma ghrelin levels; but the determinants of fasting ghrelin concentrations are not yet fully understood. The main aim was to explore the roles of adiposity and genetic differences in determining fasting plasma total ghrelin levels. We measured total ghrelin levels in a population of 23 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for obesity. In addition, 2 variants of ghrelin gene, namely, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met, were genotyped in 3 populations of monozygotic twin pairs: 23 obesity-discordant, 43 lean-concordant, and 46 obesity-concordant twin pairs. In discordant twins, lean co-twins had higher fasting plasma total ghrelin levels (950 pg/mL, SD = 328 pg/mL) than obese twins (720 pg/mL, SD = 143 pg/mL; P = .003). Arg51Gln-polymorphism of the ghrelin gene was equally distributed between the twin groups. However, there were significant differences in genotype frequencies at the Leu72Met polymorphism between the discordant and obese-concordant groups (P = .003) and between the discordant and lean-concordant groups (P = .011), but not between the 2 concordant groups. In the discordant group, there were fewer Met carriers (4%) than among the obese (17%) or the lean-concordant groups (15%). Plasma total ghrelin levels are affected by acquired obesity independent of genetic background. The Leu72 allele is particularly common among monozygotic twins discordant for obesity, suggesting that this ghrelin allele is more permissive in the regulation of energy balance. The ghrelin gene may thus play a role in the regulation of variability of body weight, such that Leu72 allele carriers are more prone to weight variability in response to environmental factors.

  3. Differences in cardiovascular risk profile based on relationship between post-load plasma glucose and fasting plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Elena; Marini, Maria Adelaide; Grembiale, Alessandro; Lugarà, Marina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    It has been shown that subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whose plasma glucose (PG) levels do not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (Group I), have a significantly higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes than NGT subjects whose 2-h glucose returns to, or drops below, the fasting level (Group I). However, it is still unsettled whether individuals in Group II have a more atherogenic profile than Group I subjects. To address this issue, we examined 266 non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients, recruited in the context of EUGENE2 cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent an euglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were evaluated. Individuals in Group II exhibited significantly higher waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, 2-h post-load PG, hsC-reactive protein, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IMT, and lower insulin sensitivity than subjects in Group I. Subjects with NGT, whose PG concentration does not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during OGTT, have an atherogenic profile, suggesting that performing OGTT with measurement of PG every 30 min may be useful to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease in glucose-tolerant subjects.

  4. ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] edge plasma turbulence studies using a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Bell, J.D.; Harris, J.H.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Wilgen, J.B.; Ritz, C.P.; Wootton, A.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Carter, K.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic turbulence on the edge of the Advanced Torodial Facility (ATF) torsatron is investigated experimentally with a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe (FRLP) array. Initial measurements of plasma electron density n e and temperature T e and fluctuations in density (n e ) and plasma floating potential (φ f ) are made in ECH plasmas at 1 T. At the last closed flux surface (LCFS, r/bar a ∼1), T e ∼ 20--40 eV and n e ∼ 10 12 cm -3 for a line-averaged electron density bar n e = (3--6) x 10 12 cm -3 . Relative fluctuation levels, as the FRLP is moved into core plasma where T e > 20 eV, are n e /n e ∼ 5%, and e φ f /T e ∼ 2n e /n e about 2 cm inside the LCFS. The observed fluctuation spectra are broadband (40--300 kHz) with bar kρ s ≤ 0.1, where bar k is the wavenumber of the fluctuations and ρ s is the ion Larmor radius at the sound speed. The propagation direction of the fluctuations reverses to the electron diamagnetic direction around r/bar a ph ∼ v de ). The fluctuation-induced particle flux is comparable to fluxes estimated from the particle balance using the H α spectroscopic measurements. Many of the features seen in these experiments resemble the features of ohmically heated plasmas in the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). 17 refs., 10 figs

  5. A novel glycated hemoglobin A1c-lowering traditional Chinese medicinal formula, identified by translational medicine study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Lo

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that has a significant impact on the health care system. The reduction of glycated hemoglobin A1c is highly associated with the improvements of glycemic control and diabetic complications. In this study, we identified a traditional Chinese medicinal formula with a HbA1c-lowering potential from clinical evidences. By surveying 9,973 diabetic patients enrolled in Taiwan Diabetic Care Management Program, we found that Chu-Yeh-Shih-Kao-Tang (CYSKT significantly reduced HbA1c values in diabetic patients. CYSKT reduced the levels of HbA1c and fasting blood glucose, and stimulated the blood glucose clearance in type 2 diabetic mice. CYSKT affected the expressions of genes associated with insulin signaling pathway, increased the amount of phosphorylated insulin receptor in cells and tissues, and stimulated the translocation of glucose transporter 4. Moreover, CYSKT affected the expressions of genes related to diabetic complications, improved the levels of renal function indexes, and increased the survival rate of diabetic mice. In conclusion, this was a translational medicine study that applied a "bedside-to-bench" approach to identify a novel HbA1c-lowering formula. Our findings suggested that oral administration of CYSKT affected insulin signaling pathway, decreased HbA1c and blood glucose levels, and consequently reduced mortality rate in type 2 diabetic mice.

  6. Nonlinear interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.; Borba, D.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical algorithm to study the nonlinear, resonant interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in tokamak geometry has been developed. The scope of the formalism is wide enough to describe the nonlinear evolution of fishbone modes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmodes, driven by both passing and trapped fast ions. When the instability is sufficiently weak, it is known that the wave-particle trapping nonlinearity will lead to mode saturation before wave-wave nonlinearities are appreciable. The spectrum of linear modes can thus be calculated using a magnetohydrodynamic normal-mode code, then nonlinearly evolved in time in an efficient way according to a two-time-scale Lagrangian dynamical wave model. The fast particle kinetic equation, including the effect of orbit nonlinearity arising from the mode perturbation, is simultaneously solved of the deviation, δf = f - f 0 , from an initial analytic distribution f 0 . High statistical resolution allows linear growth rates, frequency shifts, resonance broadening effects, and nonlinear saturation to be calculated quickly and precisely. The results have been applied to an ITER instability scenario. Results show that weakly-damped core-localized modes alone cause negligible alpha transport in ITER-like plasmas--even with growth rates one order of magnitude higher than expected values. However, the possibility of significant transport in reactor-type plasmas due to weakly unstable global modes remains an open question

  7. High Voltage, Fast-Switching Module for Active Control of Magnetic Fields and Edge Plasma Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia

    2016-10-01

    Fast, reliable, real-time control of plasma is critical to the success of magnetic fusion science. High voltage and current supplies are needed to mitigate instabilities in all experiments as well as disruption events in large scale tokamaks for steady-state operation. Silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs offer many advantages over IGBTs including lower drive energy requirements, lower conduction and switching losses, and higher switching frequency capabilities; however, these devices are limited to 1.2-1.7 kV devices. As fusion enters the long-pulse and burning plasma eras, efficiency of power switching will be important. Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. developing a high voltage SiC MOSFET module that operates at 10 kV. This switch module utilizes EHT gate drive technology, which has demonstrated the ability to increase SiC MOSFET switching efficiency. The module will allow more rapid development of high voltage switching power supplies at lower cost necessary for the next generation of fast plasma feedback and control. EHT is partnering with the High Beta Tokamak group at Columbia to develop detailed high voltage module specifications, to ensure that the final product meets the needs of the fusion science community.

  8. Plasma chemistry of the chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica during fasting periods: A case of poor adaptation to food deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Álvarez, Carlos; Ferrer, Miguel; Viñuela, Javier; Amat, Juan A.

    2003-01-01

    The chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) is the smallest penguin species to be used to study the physiology of fasting. We analysed body-mass change and plasma chemistry of five non-breeding chinstraps during an experimental fasting period in the breeding season. We also analysed the same parameters in six fasting birds under natural conditions (during an incubation shift, which lasts about 10 days). Both groups presented similar patterns of change, showing a rapid increase in urea and u...

  9. Effect of the systemic inflammatory response, as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery, on HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadburn, Andrew J; Garman, Elizabeth; Abbas, Raad; Modupe, Anu; Ford, Clare; Thomas, Osmond L; Chugh, Sanjiv; Deshpande, Shreeram; Gama, Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    Background In acutely ill patients with new onset hyperglycaemia, plasma glucose cannot reliably distinguish between stress hyperglycaemia and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. We, therefore, investigated the diagnostic reliability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in acute illness by prospectively evaluating the effect of the systemic inflammatory response, as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery, on HbA 1c . Methods HbA 1c and serum C-reactive protein concentrations were compared before and two days after elective knee or hip surgery in 30 patients without diabetes. C-reactive protein was used to assess the systemic inflammatory response. Results The mean (standard deviation) serum C-reactive protein increased following surgery (4.8 [7.5] vs. 179.7 [61.9] mg/L; P<0.0001). HbA 1c was similar before and after surgery (39.2 [5.4] vs. 38.1 [5.1] mmol/moL, respectively; P = 0.4363). Conclusions HbA 1c is unaffected within two days of a systemic inflammatory response as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery. This suggests that HbA 1c may be able to differentiate newly presenting type 2 diabetes mellitus from stress hyperglycaemia in acutely ill patients with new onset hyperglycaemia.

  10. Should haemoglobin A 1c be used for the diagnosis of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes is an important medical problem in sub-Saharan Africa. It has traditionally been diagnosed by means of fasting plasma glucose, random blood glucose or an oral glucose tolerance test. Each of these has limitations and, in 2009, an expert committee of the American Diabetes Association recommended using the ...

  11. Isotope and fast ions turbulence suppression effects: Consequences for high-β ITER plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.

    2018-05-01

    The impact of isotope effects and fast ions on microturbulence is analyzed by means of non-linear gyrokinetic simulations for an ITER hybrid scenario at high beta obtained from previous integrated modelling simulations with simplified assumptions. Simulations show that ITER might work very close to threshold, and in these conditions, significant turbulence suppression is found from DD to DT plasmas. Electromagnetic effects are shown to play an important role in the onset of this isotope effect. Additionally, even external ExB flow shear, which is expected to be low in ITER, has a stronger impact on DT than on DD. The fast ions generated by fusion reactions can additionally reduce turbulence even more although the impact in ITER seems weaker than in present-day tokamaks.

  12. Fast surface waves in an ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelyazkov, I.; Debosscher, A.; Goossens, M.

    1996-01-01

    The propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab is studied taking into account the Hall term in the generalized Ohm close-quote s law. It is found that the Hall effect modifies the dispersion characteristics of MHD surface modes when the Hall term scaling length is not negligible (less than, but comparable to the slab thickness). The dispersion relations for both modes have been derived for parallel propagation (along the ambient equilibrium magnetic field lines).The Hall term imposes some limits on the possible wave number range. It turns out that the space distribution of almost all perturbed quantities in sausage and kink surface waves with Hall effect is rather complicated as compared to that of usual fast MHD surface waves. The applicability to solar wind aspects of the results obtained, is briefly discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. A1C as a diagnostic criteria for diabetes in low- and middle-income settings: evidence from Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    J Jaime Miranda; Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz; Sanja Stanojevic; German Malaga; Robert H Gilman; Liam Smeeth

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in three groups of Peruvian adults, using fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C). Methodology/Principal Findings This study included adults from the PERU MIGRANT Study who had fasted ≥8 h. Fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL and A1C≥6.5% were used, separately, to define diabetes. Subjects with a current diagnosis of diabetes were excluded. 964 of 988 subjects were included in this analysis. Overall, 0.9% (95%CI 0.3–1.5) and...

  14. Acute regulation of plasma leptin by isoprenaline in lean and obese fasted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, K C R; Nicholas, M D; Shojaee-Moradie, F; Umpleby, A M; Giannoulis, M G

    2006-07-01

    In human obesity, there is some evidence for impaired adrenergic sensitivity with respect to catecholamine-induced lipolysis. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline has been shown to suppress plasma leptin levels in lean humans in vivo. We hypothesized that a reduced adrenergic sensitivity in obese humans would result in impaired suppression of leptin secretion. Eight obese [Ob, body mass index (BMI) = 33.3 kg/m2] and seven lean (Ln, BMI = 21.8 kg/m2) men were studied after an overnight fast. Intravenous isoprenaline infusion was initiated at a rate of 8 ng/kg/min, titrated up to 24 ng/kg/min over 30 min and continued at this rate for a further 120 min with continuous electrocardiogram monitoring. Baseline fasting plasma leptin was higher in obese compared with lean subjects (Ob 12.2 +/- 1.8, Ln 2.6 +/- 0.6 ng/ml, p fasting glycerol as a measure of lipolysis was similar in both groups (Ob 62.9 +/- 7.6, Ln 42.4 +/- 8.9 micromol/l) and increased from baseline to 150 min by equivalent amounts (Ob +66.9%, Ln +81.2%, p = NS). Plasma leptin decreased from baseline to 150 min with similar relative changes in both groups (Ob -29.2%, Ln -27.8%). Obese subjects show a similar lipolytic and leptin response to acute isoprenaline infusion compared with lean subjects. Impaired beta-adrenergic-induced inhibition of leptin secretion does not appear to contribute to hyperleptinaemia in obese human subjects.

  15. Four-dimensional imaging of the initial stage of fast evolving plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Pengfei; Wang Weimin; Zhang Zhongchao; Chen Long; Zheng Jun; Li Runze; Qian Dong; Li Junjie; Wang Xuan; Cao Jianming; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie

    2010-01-01

    Using an ultrafast electron probe capable of four-dimensional diagnosis, the initial stage of fast evolving plasmas produced by a 10 14 W/cm 2 laser irradiation of a metal target was investigated in real time with picosecond time resolution. The associated strong transient electric field was identified to have two components, which either focus or defocus the probe electron beam. The effects of this field on the probe electron beam can be reproduced by a self-expanding charge cloud containing about 5x10 7 suprathermal electrons with the outermost layer expanding at an average speed of 1.2x10 7 m/s.

  16. Laser heating and magnetic compression of plasma in a fast solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoida, H.W.; Vlases, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A low-β plasma column a few mm in diameter by 22 cm in length is heated by an axially directed CO 2 laser to a high-β state in a fast rising solenoidal field. Successful heating depends on proper timing between the laser pulse and rising field. Typical conditions attained are a line energy density of 6 J/cm, T-barapprox. =40 eV, and n/sub e/approx. =3 x 10 17 e - /cm 3 , with conditions quite uniform along the length. The heating suppresses instabilities which appear under certain conditions in the non-laser-heated case

  17. Photoconductive Detectors with Fast Temporal Response for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. J. May; C. Halvorson; T. Perry; F. Weber; P. Young; C. Silbernagel

    2008-01-01

    Processes during laser plasma experiments typically have time scales that are less than 100 ps. The measurement of these processes requires X-ray detectors with fast temporal resolution. We have measured the temporal responses and linearity of several different X-ray sensitive Photoconductive Detectors (PCDs). The active elements of the detectors investigated include both diamond (natural and synthetic) and GaAs crystals. The typical time responses of the GaAs PCDs are approximately 60 ps, respectively. Some characterizations using X-ray light from a synchrotron light source are presented

  18. Thermonuclear-driven fast magnetosonic-wave heating in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.R. III.

    1982-01-01

    A thermonuclear driven fast magnetosonic wave instability is investigated in tokamak plasmas for propagation transverse to the external magnetic field at frequencies of several times the alpha particle gyro rate: ω approx. = L Ω/sub α/ = k/sub perpendicular/ v/sub A/, L approx. 4 to 8, k/sub parallel/ << k/sub perpendicular/. The 2-D differential quasi-linear diffusion equation is derived in circular cylindrical, v/sub perpendicular/-v/sub parallel/ geometry. We perform an expansion in the small parameter k/sub parallel/k/sub perpendicucular/ of the quasi-linear diffusion coefficients

  19. The development of 128 ch fast multi channel pulse height analyzer for a tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hisato; Matoba, Tohru; Ogawa, Toshihide; Kawakami, Tomohide

    1985-02-01

    A high counting rate multi channel pulse height analyzer was developed and tested to measure the detailed time evolution of X-ray energy spectrun radiated from a tokamak plasmas. Main developing objects of this analyzer are as follows. 1. The maximum counting rate and the minimum time resolution are 4 Mcps and 10 ms, respectively. 2. The energy resolution has ability to distinguish the characterisitic X-ray line. 3. Computer has to be used for operating system. This fast multi channel analyzer is using to measure the Soft X-ray spectrum on JFT-2M tokamak, and is confirmed to be useful for a practical measuring system. (author)

  20. Fast ion generation in femto- and picosecond laser plasma at low fluxes of heating radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Magunov, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray spectra from fluoroplastic targets irradiated by laser pulses with duration of 60 fs to 1 ps have been investigated experimentally. It is shown that, when the contrast of the laser pulse is sufficiently low, the effect of self-focusing of the main laser pulse in the plasma produced by the prepulse can significantly enhance the generation efficiency of fast particles. In this case, ions with energies as high as ∼1 MeV are observed at relatively low laser intensities [ru

  1. Shear flow instability in a partially-ionized plasma sheath around a fast-moving vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, V. I.; Mudaliar, S.; Genoni, T. C.; Rose, D. V.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The stability of ion acoustic waves in a sheared-flow, partially-ionized compressible plasma sheath around a fast-moving vehicle in the upper atmosphere, is described and evaluated for different flow profiles. In a compressible plasma with shear flow, instability occurs for any velocity profile, not just for profiles with an inflection point. A second-order differential equation for the electrostatic potential of excited ion acoustic waves in the presence of electron and ion collisions with neutrals is derived and solved numerically using a shooting method with boundary conditions appropriate for a finite thickness sheath in contact with the vehicle. We consider three different velocity flow profiles and find that in all cases that neutral collisions can completely suppress the instability.

  2. Be Foil ''Filter Knee Imaging'' NSTX Plasma with Fast Soft X-ray Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.C. Stratton; S. von Goeler; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; L.E. Zakharov

    2005-01-01

    A fast soft x-ray (SXR) pinhole camera has been implemented on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This paper presents observations and describes the Be foil Filter Knee Imaging (FKI) technique for reconstructions of a m/n=1/1 mode on NSTX. The SXR camera has a wide-angle (28 o ) field of view of the plasma. The camera images nearly the entire diameter of the plasma and a comparable region in the vertical direction. SXR photons pass through a beryllium foil and are imaged by a pinhole onto a P47 scintillator deposited on a fiber optic faceplate. An electrostatic image intensifier demagnifies the visible image by 6:1 to match it to the size of the charge-coupled device (CCD) chip. A pair of lenses couples the image to the CCD chip

  3. A fast spatial scanning combination emissive and mach probe for edge plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmer, R.D.; LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-04-01

    A fast spatially scanning emissive and mach probe has been developed for the measurement of plasma profiles in the PISCES facility at UCLA. A pneumatic cylinder is used to drive a multiple tip probe along a 15cm stroke in less than 400msec, giving single shot profiles while limiting power deposition to the probe. A differentially pumped sliding O-ring seal allows the probe to be moved between shots to infer two and three dimensional profiles. The probe system has been used to investigate the plasma potential, density, and parallel mach number profiles of the presheath induced by a wall surface and scrape-off-layer profile modifications in biased limiter simulation experiments. Details of the hardware, data acquisition electronics, and tests of probe reliability are discussed. 30 refs., 24 figs

  4. Plasma sheet fast flows and auroral dynamics during substorm: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Borodkova

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Interball-1 observations of a substorm development in the mid-tail on 16 December 1998 are compared with the auroral dynamics obtained from the Polar UV imager. Using these data, the relationship between plasma flow directions in the tail and the location of the auroral activation is examined. Main attention is given to tailward and earth-ward plasma flows, interpreted as signatures of a Near Earth Neutral Line (NENL. It is unambiguously shown that in the mid-plasma sheet the flows were directed tailward when the auroral bulge developed equatorward of the spacecraft ionospheric footprint. On the contrary, when active auroras moved poleward of the Interball-1 projection, earthward fast flow bursts were observed. This confirms the concept that the NENL (or flow reversal region is the source of auroras forming the poleward edge of the auroral bulge. The observed earthward flow bursts have all typical signatures of Bursty Bulk Flows (BBFs, described by Angelopolous et al. (1992. These BBFs are related to substorm activations starting at the poleward edge of the expanded auroral bulge. We interpret the BBFs as a result of reconnection pulses occurring tail-ward of Interball-1. In addition, some non-typically observed phenomena were detected in the plasma sheet during this substorm: (i tailward/earthward flows were superimposed on a very strong duskward flow, and (ii wavy structures of both magnetic field and plasma density were registered. The latter observation is probably linked to the filamentary structure of the current sheet.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; plasma sheet; storms and substorms

  5. Edge Plasma Physics Issues for the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) in Reactor Relevant Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaluno, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Apicella, M.L.; Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Cucchiaro, A.; Ramogida, G.; Zagorski, R.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of First wall materials and compatibility with ITER /DEMO relevant plasmas is among the RD missions for possible new European plasma fusion devices that the FAST project will address. FAST can operate with ITER relevant values of P/R (up to 22 MW/m, against the ITER 24 MW/m, inclusive of the α particles power), thanks to its compactness; thus it can investigate the physics of large heat loads on divertor plates. The FAST divertor will be made of bulk W tiles, for basic operations, but also fully toroidal divertor targets made of liquid lithium (L-Li) are foreseen. To have reliable predictions of the thermal loads on the divertor plates and of the core plasma purity a number of numerical self-consistent simulations have been made for the H-mode and steady-state scenario by using the code COREDIV. This code, already validated in the past on experimental data (namely JET, FTU, Textor), is able to describe self-consistently the core and edge plasma in a tokamak device by imposing the continuity of energy and particle fluxes and of particle densities and temperatures at the separatrix. In the present work the results of such calculations will be illustrated, including heat loads on the divertor. The overall picture shows that, marginally in the intermediate and, necessarily in the high density H-mode scenarios ( e >=2 and 5·10 20 m -3 respectively), impurity seeding should be foreseen with W as target material: however, only a small amount of Ar (0.03% atomic concentration), not affecting the core purity, is sufficient to maintain the divertor peak loads below 18 MW/m 2 , that represents the safety limit for the W mono block technology, presently accepted for the ITER divertor tiles. Li always needs additional impurities for decreasing divertor heat loads, the Z eff value being ≤ than 1.8. At low plasma densities (but ≥ 1.3·10 20 m -3 ), typical of steady state regimes, W by alone is effective in dissipating the input power by radiative losses, without

  6. Suppression of fast electron leakage from large openings in a plasma neutralizer for N-NB systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Yamana, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    To produce highly ionized plasmas at low operating pressure in a plasma neutralizer of negative ion based neutral beam (N-NB) systems, it is a critical issue to suppress leakage of fast electrons through large openings as the beam entrance/exit. The authors propose to form weak transverse magnetic fields without a significant beam deflection, called the shield field, across the large openings of the neutralizer. A numerical study showed that the shield field of only few tens of Gauss is sufficient to suppress the fast electron leakage from the openings. By measuring of an electron energy distribution function (EEDF), it was confirmed that such a weak magnetic field is enough to repel the fast electrons back into the neutralizer plasma. As the result, the plasma density increased with the shield field strength and saturated at 30 G. The plasma density reached 50% higher value than that without the shield field. Thus it was found that reflected fast electrons by the shield field of only 30 G work effectively for the plasma generation. It was also estimated that such a weak magnetic field sufficiently suppresses the deflection of a 1 MeV beam. This weak magnetic field would be applicable to the plasma neutralizer for the fusion demonstration (DEMO) plant

  7. Measurements and computer modeling of fast ion emission from plasma accelerators of the rod plasma injector type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Karol; Sadowski, Marek J; Skladnik-Sadowska, Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of experimental studies and computer simulations of the emission of fast ion streams from so-called rod plasma injectors (RPI). Various RPI facilities have been used at the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ) for basic plasma studies as well as for material engineering. In fact, the RPI facilities have been studied experimentally for many years, particularly at the Institute for Nuclear Sciences (now the NCBJ), and numerous experimental data have been collected. Unfortunately, the ion emission characteristics have so far not been explained theoretically in a satisfactory way. In this paper, in order to explain these characteristics, use was made of a single-particle model. Taking into account the stochastic character of the ion emission, we applied a Monte Carlo method. The performed computer simulations of a pinhole image and energy spectrum of deuterons emitted from RPI-IBIS, which were computed on the basis of the applied model, appeared to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. (paper)

  8. Effect of dietary glycemic index on food intake, adiposity, and fasting plasma ghrelin levels in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculati, M; Rossi, F; Cena, H; Roggi, C

    2010-04-01

    An increase in lipid storage as a consequence of feeding animals with high-glycemic index (GI) diets has been observed by many authors. Ghrelin is one of the most important orexigenic hormones, and curiously, its fasting plasma levels are decreased in human obesity. As ghrelin secretion is affected by insulin concentration, we hypothesized that carbohydrates with different glycemic responses might influence fasting plasma ghrelin levels. Twenty rats were divided into two groups and fed ad libitum a low-GI or a high-GI diet for 21 days. In rats fed a high- vs low-GI diet we observed: increased food intake (18.9+/-0.6 vs 16.4+/-2.0 g/day; pfasting ghrelin levels (41.1+/-10.7 vs 59.5+/-9.8 pg/ml; p=0.05). Ghrelin appeared to be downregulated in rats fed a high-GI diet; this observation could be related to the higher food intake and fat mass observed in these rats and to the effects of insulin response on ghrelin levels.

  9. Analysis of two colliding laser-produced plasmas by emission spectroscopy and fast photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Ake, C., E-mail: citlali.sanchez@ccadet.unam.m [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Mustri-Trejo, D. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Garcia-Fernandez, T. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Prolongacion San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, Mexico DF, C.P. 09790 (Mexico); Villagran-Muniz, M. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    In this work two colliding laser-induced plasmas (LIP) on Cu and C were studied by means of time resolved emission spectroscopy and fast photography. The experiments were performed using two opposing parallel targets of Cu and C in vacuum, ablated with two synchronized ns lasers. The results showed an increased emission intensity from copper ions Cu II (368.65, 490.97, 493.16, 495.37 and 630.10 nm) and Cu III (374.47 and 379.08 nm) due to the ionization that occurs during collisions of Cu and C species. It was found that the optimum delay between pulses, which yields the maximum emission enhancement of Cu ions, depends on the sampling distance. On the other hand, the emission intensity of C lines, C II (426.70 nm), C III (406.99 and 464.74 nm) and C IV (465.83 nm), decreased and the formation of C{sub 2} molecules was observed. A comparison between the temporal evolution of the individual plasmas and their collision performed by combining imaging and the time resolved emission diagnostics, revealed an increase of the electron temperature and electron density and the splitting of the plume into slow and fast components.

  10. Using Serum Advanced Glycation End Products-Peptides to Improve the Efficacy of World Health Organization Fasting Plasma Glucose Criterion in Screening for Diabetes in High-Risk Chinese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Sun

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using fasting plasma glucose (FPG alone as a preferred screening test for diabetes has been questioned. This study was aimed to evaluate whether the use of serum advanced glycation end products-peptides (sAGEP would help to improve the efficacy of FPG in diabetes screening among high-risk Chinese subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. FPG, 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG, serum glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and sAGEP were measured in 857 Chinese subjects with risk factors for diabetes. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves generated by logistic regression models were assessed and compared to find the best model for diabetes screening in subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. The optimal critical line was determined by maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Among the enrolled subjects, 730 of them had FPG <7.0 mmol/L, and only 41.7% new diabetes cases were identified using the 1999 World Health Organization FPG criterion (FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L. The area under ROC curves generated by the model on FPG-sAGEP was the largest compared with that on FPG-HbA1c, sAGEP, HbA1c or FPG in subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. By maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity, the optimal critical line was determined as 0.69×FPG + 0.14×sAGEP = 7.03, giving a critical sensitivity of 91.2% in detecting 2h-PG ≥11.1 mmol/L, which was significantly higher than that of FPG-HbA1c or HbA1c. The model on FPG-sAGEP improves the efficacy of using FPG alone in detecting diabetes among high-risk Chinese subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L, and is worth being promoted for future diabetes screening.

  11. Fast Plasma from a Coaxial Gun; Plasma Rapide Produit par un Canon Coaxial; Bystraya plazma iz koaksial'nogo inzhektora; Produccion de Plasma Rapido Mediante un Inyector Coaxial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, J.; Henins, I. [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1966-04-15

    The coaxial gun in use here is a source or two different plasmas produced by separate mechanisms. Abundant slow ( Tilde-Operator 10{sup 7} cm/sec) deuterium plasma is produced directly by the j x B interaction of the radial plasma current and the magnetic field of the feed current along the centre electrode. The current disturbance moves through the injected gas toward the gun muzzle at Tilde-Operator 2.5 x 10{sup 7} cm/sec, storing energy behind it in magnetic field and plasma motion. The gun, with its stored energy, functions as a high power low impedance electrical generator to drive into the vacuum beyond the gun muzzle a jet of current which is the source of the fast plasma ( Tilde-Operator 5 x 10{sup 17} deuterons, Tilde-Operator 10{sup 8} cm/sec). The current jet and the plasma it produces are the subjects of these experiments. The mechanism of acceleration is complicated and imperfectly understood, but considerable insight has been gained by an extensive series of experiments, using as diagnostics the following: external diamagnetic pickup loops, intra vacuo Rogowsky loops, electric probes, external capacitive pickup electrodes, magnetic and electrostatic particle deflection analysis, spectroscopy, target light photography, time of flight with and without a guide field, d-d neutrons from the plasma volume and other methods. The picture which emerges is one of a complicated magneto-electric process taking place in front of the gun muzzle. The acceleration process depends on low gas density there as contrasted'with high density inside the gun. The fast plasma is largely derived from gas adsorbed on the electrodes. This makes necessary a clean vacuum so as to avoid contamination with highly ionized fast impurity ions (C{sup 5+}, 10{sup 8} cm/sec). Electrode material evaporates but appears not to be a serious contaminant because it comes late. The high voltage actually accelerating the ions is associated with the rapid expansion into vacuum of a magnetic flux

  12. ATF edge plasma turbulence studies using a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Bell, J.D.; Harris, J.H.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Wilgen, J.B.; Ritz, C.P.; Wootton, A.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Carter, K.

    1991-01-01

    Electrostatic turbulence on the edge of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron is investigated experimentally with a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe (FRLP) array. Initial measurements of plasma electron density n e and temperature T e and fluctuations in density (n e ) and plasma floating potential (φ f ) are made in electron cyclotron heated plasmas at 1 T. At the last closed flux surface (LCFS, r√a ∼ 1), T e ∼ 20--40 eV and n e ∼ 10 12 cm -3 for a line-averaged electron density bar n e = (3--6) x 10 12 cm -3 . Relative fluctuation levels, as the FRLP is moved into core plasma where T e > 20 eV, are n e /n e ∼ 5% and eφ f /T e ∼ 2n e /n e about 2 cm inside the LCFS. The observed fluctuation spectra are broadband (40--300 kHz) with bar kρ s ≤ 0.1, where bar k is the wavenumber of the fluctuations and ρ s is the ion Larmor radius at the sound speed. The propagation direction of the fluctuations reverses to the electron diamagnetic direction around r√a ph ∼ v de ). The fluctuation-induced particle flux is comparable to fluxes estimated from the particle balance using the H α spectroscopic measurements. Many of the features seen in these experiments resemble the features of ohmically heated plasmas in the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). 18 refs., 10 figs

  13. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment.876 children and adolescents (498 girls with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7, and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7 were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4. Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG were available in 469 individuals (264 girls. Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations.At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4 and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6. Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (p<2*10-16 and percent truncal body fat (p<2*10-16. Furthermore, reductions in BMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p <0.0001. Changes in body fat percentage seemed to mediate the changes in plasma concentrations of TC, LDL, and non-HDL, but could not alone explain the changes in HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio or TG. Among 81 individuals with available lipid concentrations, who increased their BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations.Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma

  14. Analytical and Numerical Studies of the Complex Interaction of a Fast Ion Beam Pulse with a Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma neutralization of an intense ion beam pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, high energy physics, etc. Comprehensive analytical, numerical, and experimental studies are underway to investigate the complex interaction of a fast ion beam with a background plasma. The positively charged ion beam attracts plasma electrons, and as a result the plasma electrons have a tendency to neutralize the beam charge and current. A suite of particle-in-cell codes has been developed to study the propagation of an ion beam pulse through the background plasma. For quasi-steady-state propagation of the ion beam pulse, an analytical theory has been developed using the assumption of long charge bunches and conservation of generalized vorticity. The analytical results agree well with the results of the numerical simulations. The visualization of the data obtained in the numerical simulations shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry into and ex it from the plasma

  15. A study of fast electron energy transport in relativistically intense laser-plasma interactions with large density scalelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R. H. H.; Norreys, P. A. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Perez, F.; Baton, S. D. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7605, CNRS/CEA/UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Santos, J. J.; Nicolai, Ph.; Hulin, S. [Univ. Bordeaux/CNRS/CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); Ridgers, C. P. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Davies, J. R. [GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lancaster, K. L.; Trines, R. M. G. M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bell, A. R.; Tzoufras, M. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Rose, S. J. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    A systematic experimental and computational investigation of the effects of three well characterized density scalelengths on fast electron energy transport in ultra-intense laser-solid interactions has been performed. Experimental evidence is presented which shows that, when the density scalelength is sufficiently large, the fast electron beam entering the solid-density plasma is best described by two distinct populations: those accelerated within the coronal plasma (the fast electron pre-beam) and those accelerated near or at the critical density surface (the fast electron main-beam). The former has considerably lower divergence and higher temperature than that of the main-beam with a half-angle of {approx}20 Degree-Sign . It contains up to 30% of the total fast electron energy absorbed into the target. The number, kinetic energy, and total energy of the fast electrons in the pre-beam are increased by an increase in density scalelength. With larger density scalelengths, the fast electrons heat a smaller cross sectional area of the target, causing the thinnest targets to reach significantly higher rear surface temperatures. Modelling indicates that the enhanced fast electron pre-beam associated with the large density scalelength interaction generates a magnetic field within the target of sufficient magnitude to partially collimate the subsequent, more divergent, fast electron main-beam.

  16. Edge turbulence effect on ultra-fast swept reflectometry core measurements in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadvitskiy, G. V.; Heuraux, S.; Lechte, C.; Hacquin, S.; Sabot, R.

    2018-02-01

    Ultra-fast frequency-swept reflectometry (UFSR) enables one to provide information about the turbulence radial wave-number spectrum and perturbation amplitude with good spatial and temporal resolutions. However, a data interpretation of USFR is quiet tricky. An iterative algorithm to solve this inverse problem was used in past works, Gerbaud (2006 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77 10E928). For a direct solution, a fast 1D Helmholtz solver was used. Two-dimensional effects are strong and should be taken into account during data interpretation. As 2D full-wave codes are still too time consuming for systematic application, fast 2D approaches based on the Born approximation are of prime interest. Such methods gives good results in the case of small turbulence levels. However in tokamak plasmas, edge turbulence is usually very strong and can distort and broaden the probing beam Sysoeva et al (2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 033016). It was shown that this can change reflectometer phase response from the plasma core. Comparison between 2D full wave computation and the simplified Born approximation was done. The approximated method can provide a right spectral shape, but it is unable to describe a change of the spectral amplitude with an edge turbulence level. Computation for the O-mode wave with the linear density profile in the slab geometry and for realistic Tore-Supra density profile, based on the experimental data turbulence amplitude and spectrum, were performed to investigate the role of strong edge turbulence. It is shown that the spectral peak in the signal amplitude variation spectrum which rises with edge turbulence can be a signature of strong edge turbulence. Moreover, computations for misaligned receiving and emitting antennas were performed. It was found that the signal amplitude variation peak changes its position with a receiving antenna poloidal displacement.

  17. Fasting and exercise increase plasma cannabinoid levels in THC pre-treated rats: an examination of behavioural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Keats, Kirily; Rooney, Kieron; Hicks, Callum; Allsop, David J; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-10-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses of THC followed by a washout would show elevated plasma cannabinoids and altered behaviour following fasting or exercise manipulations designed to increase fat utilisation. Behavioural impairment was measured as an inhibition of spontaneous locomotor activity or a failure to successfully complete a treadmill exercise session. Fat utilisation was indexed by plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels with plasma concentrations of THC and its terminal metabolite (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) also measured. Rats given daily THC (10 mg/kg) for 5 days followed by a 4-day washout showed elevated plasma THC-COOH when fasted for 24 h relative to non-fasted controls. Fasted rats showed lower locomotor activity than controls suggesting a behavioural effect of fat-released THC. However, rats fasted for 20 h after a single 5-mg/kg THC injection did not show locomotor suppression, despite modestly elevated plasma THC-COOH. Rats pre-treated with THC (5 mg/kg) and exercised 20 h later also showed elevated plasma THC-COOH but did not differ from controls in their likelihood of completing 30 min of treadmill exercise. These results confirm that fasting and exercise can increase plasma cannabinoid levels. Behavioural consequences are more clearly observed with pre-treatment regimes involving repeated rather than single THC dosing.

  18. Effect of the long-term regular intake of virgin olive oil on the phenolic metabolites in human fasting plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa-Maria; Soler, Aranzazu; Girona, Josefa; Heras, Mercedes; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Masana, Lluis; Motilva, Maria-Jose

    2010-09-21

    The effect of repeated consumption of virgin olive oil on endogenous phenolic metabolites of fasting plasma is unknown. For this reason, we hypothesized that regular long-term virgin olive oil intake could have an indirect protection effect on the endogenous phenols. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the phenolic profile of human plasma in a fasting state of long-term regular virgin olive oil consumers, using the fasting plasma of non-consumers as a natural control. Forty participants living in the area of Reus (Catalonia, Spain) were selected, 20 life-long regular consumers of virgin olive oil and a natural control of 20 non-consumers, the latter being Rumanians who dislike the taste of olive oil. The diet was obtained from 3-day food records. The results showed similar phenolic composition of fasting plasmas of the two volunteer groups. Of special interest is that more of the compounds quantified showed higher concentration in fasting plasma from habitual virgin olive oil consumers. The compounds were semi-quantified using caffeic acid as the calibration standard. The quantification of fasting consumer's plasma showed higher concentration of a hydroxyflavanone type compound (2.90+/-0.04 microM vs 1.5+/-0.04 microM) and a catecholamine derivative (0.70+/-0.03 microM vs 0.56+/-0.03 microM) than the plasma of non-consumers (P<0.05). The results suggest an indirect protective mechanism of long-term regular virgin olive oil consumption related to the protection of the endogenous antioxidant system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of tokamak plasma confinement modes using the fast Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirmoeini, S.R.; Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Fourier analysis is a satisfactory technique for detecting plasma confinement modes in tokamaks. The confinement mode of tokamak plasma was analysed using the fast Fourier transformation (FFT). For this purpose, we used the data of Mirnov coils that is one of the identifying tools in the IR-T1 tokamak, with and without external field (electric biasing), and then compared it with each other. After the Fourier analysis of Mirnov coil data, the diagram of power spectrum density was depicted in different angles of Mirnov coils in the 'presence of external field' as well as in the 'absence of external field'. The power spectrum density (PSD) interprets the manner of power distribution of a signal with frequency. In this article, the number of plasma modes and the safety factor q were obtained by using the mode number of q = m/n (m is the mode number). The maximum MHD activity was obtained in 30-35 kHz frequency, using the density of the energy spectrum. In addition, the number of different modes across 0-35 ms time was compared with each other in the presence and absence of the external field. (author)

  20. Radiation yield from SHIVA Star plasma flow switch driven fast liner implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degnan, J.H.; Baker, W.L.; Beason, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A 2.5 Terawatt 0.5 MJ isotropic equivalent radiation yield was obtained in a SHIVA Star plasma flow switch driven fast liner implosion. The 1313 μF 80 kV discharge delivered 13 MA to a coaxial vacuum inductive store with a plasma armature. Over 9.4 MA current was plasma flow switched to the implosion load (>90% of the gun muzzle current at that time). The load wa a 5 cm radius, 2 cm tall, 200 μg/cm/sup 2/ aluminum plated Formvar cylindrical foil. The radiation pulse was measured with an array of seven X-ray diodes (XRDs). The XRDs all had aluminum photocathodes, a variety of filters and nickel mesh to reduce the incident X-ray photon flux to avoid Child-Langmuir saturation. The filters were chosen so that the authors had seven different diode response functions covering the energy range from 15 eV to about 3 keV. The filters were mounted remote (about 30 cm) from the XRDs. The anode mesh served as part of the mesh array. The distance between meshes was greater than 10 cm. Each XRD had a 5 cm diameter cathode with an aperture limited to a 2 cm diameter. The XRD anode-cathode gap was 1 cm and the bias was 5 kV. The theoretical Child-Langmuir saturation signal was 125 V with 50 Ω termination. The maximum observed signal was 75 V

  1. Plasma facing components: a conceptual design strategy for the first wall in FAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, C.; Di Gironimo, G.; Renno, F.

    2015-09-01

    Satellite tokamaks are conceived with the main purpose of developing new or alternative ITER- and DEMO-relevant technologies, able to contribute in resolving the pending issues about plasma operation. In particular, a high criticality needs to be associated to the design of plasma facing components, i.e. first wall (FW) and divertor, due to physical, topological and thermo-structural reasons. In such a context, the design of the FW in FAST fusion plant, whose operational range is close to ITER’s one, takes place. According to the mission of experimental satellites, the FW design strategy, which is presented in this paper relies on a series of innovative design choices and proposals with a particular attention to the typical key points of plasma facing components design. Such an approach, taking into account a series of involved physical constraints and functional requirements to be fulfilled, marks a clear borderline with the FW solution adopted in ITER, in terms of basic ideas, manufacturing aspects, remote maintenance procedure, manifolds management, cooling cycle and support system configuration.

  2. Measurements of fast deuterons from plasma accelerator by means of PM-355 track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Malinowski, K., E-mail: k.malinowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J.; Czaus, K. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    This paper reports on studies of fast ions (mostly deuterons) emitted from an RPI (Rod-Plasma-Injector) plasma accelerator. The first aim was the verification of applicability of PM-355 track detectors for dosimetry of lower-energy (<200 KeV) deuterons. The second aim was information about energy spectra of deuterons from RPI-IBIS device in different operational modes. Mass- and energy spectra of ions were investigated with a Thomson-analyzer and PM-355 detectors. On the recorded deuteron-parabolas we chose points, and from numbers of tracks we determined the deuteron energy distribution. In the slow-mode the energy distribution peak was observed at about 40 keV, while the maximum energy amounted to about 150 keV. Those measurements confirmed an influence of the initial gas-conditions on energy distributions of the deuteron streams. The results are of importance for plasma-physics and applications. Another result was the confirmation that PM-355 detectors might be used for accurate measurements of low-energy (<200 keV) deuterons.

  3. Fasting plasma C-peptide, glucagon stimulated plasma C-peptide, and urinary C-peptide in relation to clinical type of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjessing, H J; Matzen, L E; Faber, O K

    1989-01-01

    with a fasting plasma C-peptide value less than 0.20 nmol/l, a glucagon stimulated plasma C-peptide value less than 0.32 nmol/l, and a urinary C-peptide value less than 3.1 nmol/l, or less than 0.54 nmol/mmol creatinine/24 h, or less than 5.4 nmol/24 h mainly were Type 1 diabetic patients; while patients with C...

  4. A study assessing the association of glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) associated variants with HbA1C, chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in populations of Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ali, Mohammad; Xu, Haiyan; Suo, Chen; Liu, Jianjun; Chia, Kee-Seng; Vithana, Eranga; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Tai, E-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study.

  5. A study assessing the association of glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C associated variants with HbA1C, chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in populations of Asian ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study.

  6. Numerical study of the electron heating and current drive by the fast waves in the JFT-2M tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Kawashima, Hisato; Ohtsuka, Hideo

    1986-08-01

    A 200 MHz fast wave experiment for the JET-2M tokamak is examined. Noticeable single-path electron Landau damping of the fast waves with the parallel refractive index of N // = 4 is expected in the plasma with electron temperature more than 2.5 keV at the electron density of n e = 1.5 x 10 19 m -3 . Furthermore, it is shown that 8 kA of the plasma current is driven by the fast waves with N //≅ 2 at n e = 3 x 10 19 m -3 in the single-path damping when 100 kW of the rf power radiates into the plasma in the presence of the hot electrons with the temperature of 19 keV and the fraction of the density of 2 %. (author)

  7. [Change and correlated factors of fasting level of the plasma endotoxin in subjects with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Zhao, Tie-Yun; Hou, Li-Qiong

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the change of the levels of fasting plasma endotoxin (ET) and assess its correlated factors in individuals with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices. The levels of fasting plasma ET were assayed by the endpoint chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate method in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The height, body mass, waist, hips, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured with the conventional methods; body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. All groups were divided into obesity (BMI>or=25 kg/m2) and non-obesity (BMIfasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours plasma glucose (2 hPG), fasting insulin (FINS), postprandial insulin (PINS), hemoglobin Alc (HbAlc), blood lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also analyzed, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The relationship of the levels of plasma ET with age, BMI, WHR, blood pressure, FBG, 2 hPG, FINS, PINS, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, blood lipids, FFA, AST and ALT were also analyzed. (1) The levels of plasma ET in T2DM group (n=37) was significantly higher than that in NGT group (n=37) [7. 1 (3. 7-11. 8) EU/mL vs. 4. 5 (2.2-6.3) EU/mL, P0. 05). (2) The levels of plasma ET in the obesity T2DM subgroup was higher than that in the non-obesity T2DM subgroup but the differences were not significant [7. 3 (3. 8-13. 3) EU/mL vs. 7.0 (3. 6-10. 4) EU/mL, P>0. 05]. There was a remarkable difference in the levels of plasma ET between obesity and non-obesity subgroup of IGR (6.8 (2.9-13.2) EU/mL vs. 2.7 (1.6-5. 5) EU/mL, Pobesity and non-obesity subgroup of NGT (6.2 (3. 4-12. 7) EU/mL vs. 2. 8 (1. 8-4. 9) EU/mL, P<0. 05). (3) Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that ET wasn' t the important factor influencing FBG and 2 hPG. But BMI and FBG were the important factors

  8. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes over time among adolescent and young adult participants in the T1D exchange clinic registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Mark A; Foster, Nicole C; Maahs, David M; Schatz, Desmond A; Olson, Beth A; Tsalikian, Eva; Lee, Joyce M; Burt-Solorzano, Christine M; Tamborlane, William V; Chen, Vincent; Miller, Kellee M; Beck, Roy W

    2016-08-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) influence the longitudinal risk for diabetes-related complications. Few studies have examined HbA1c trends across time in children, adolescents, and young adults with T1D. This study examines changes in glycemic control across the specific transition periods of pre-adolescence-to-adolescence and adolescence-to-young adulthood, and the demographic and clinical factors associated with these changes. Available HbA1c lab results for up to 10 yr were collected from medical records at 67 T1D Exchange clinics. Two retrospective cohorts were evaluated: the pre-adolescent-to-adolescent cohort consisting of 85 016 HbA1c measurements from 6574 participants collected when the participants were 8-18 yr old and the adolescent-to-young adult cohort, 2200 participants who were 16-26 yr old at the time of 17 279 HbA1c measurements. HbA1c in the 8-18 cohort increased over time after age 10 yr until ages 16-17; followed by a plateau. HbA1c levels in the 16-26 cohort remained steady from 16-18, and then gradually declined. For both cohorts, race/ethnicity, income, health insurance, and pump use were all significant in explaining individual variations in age-centered HbA1c (p HbA1c trajectory. Glycemic control among patients 8-18 yr old worsens over time, through age 16. Elevated HbA1c levels observed in 18 yr-olds begin a steady improvement into early adulthood. Focused interventions to prevent deterioration in glucose control in pre-adolescence, adolescence, and early adulthood are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Fast plasma sintering delivers functional graded materials components with macroporous structures and osseointegration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, R F; Coathup, M J; Blunn, G W; Alves, A L; Robotti, P; Goodship, A E

    2016-04-13

    We explored the osseointegration potential of two macroporous titanium surfaces obtained using fast plasma sintering (FPS): Ti macroporous structures with 400-600 µmØ pores (TiMac400) and 850-1000 µmØ pores (TiMac850). They were compared against two surfaces currently in clinical use: Ti-Growth® and air plasma spray (Ti-Y367). Each surface was tested, once placed over a Ti-alloy and once onto a CoCr bulk substrate. Implants were placed in medial femoral condyles in 24 sheep. Samples were explanted at four and eight weeks after surgery. Push-out loads were measured using a material-testing system. Bone contact and ingrowth were assessed by histomorphometry and SEM and EDX analyses. Histology showed early osseointegration for all the surfaces tested. At 8 weeks, TiMac400, TiMac850 and Ti-Growth® showed deep bone ingrowth and extended colonisation with newly formed bone. The mechanical push-out force was equal in all tested surfaces. Plasma spray surfaces showed greater bone-implant contact and higher level of pores colonisation with new bone than FPS produced surfaces. However, the void pore area in FPS specimens was significantly higher, yet the FPS porous surfaces allowed a deeper osseointegration of bone to implant. FPS manufactured specimens showed similar osseointegration potential to the plasma spray surfaces for orthopaedic implants. FPS is a useful technology for manufacturing macroporous titanium surfaces. Furthermore, its capability to combine two implantable materials, using bulk CoCr with macroporous titanium surfaces, could be of interest as it enables designers to conceive and manufacture innovative components. FPS delivers functional graded materials components with macroporous structures optimised for osseointegration.

  10. Fasting Plasma Glucose, Self-Appraised Diet Quality and Depressive Symptoms: A US-Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hoare

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D contribute significantly to global burden of disease and often co-occur. Underpinning type 2 diabetes is poor glycaemic control and glucose is also an obligatory substrate for brain metabolism, with potential implications for cognition, motivation and mood. This research aimed to examine the relationships between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms in a large, population representative sample of US adults, controlling for other demographic and lifestyle behavioural risk factors. Using the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data, this study first investigated the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and mental disorders at a population-level, accounting for demographic, health behavioural and weight-related factors known to co-occur with both type 2 diabetes and mental disorders. Depressive symptoms were derived from the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Fasting plasma glucose was obtained through medical examination and demographic (age, household income, sex and health characteristics (perceived diet quality, daily time sedentary were self-reported. Body mass index was calculated from objectively measured height and weight. In the univariate model, higher fasting plasma glucose was associated with greater depressive symptoms among females (b = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.43, p < 0.05, but not males. In the final fully adjusted model, the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms was non-significant for both males and females. Of all independent variables, self-appraised diet quality was strongly and significantly associated with depressive symptoms and this remained significant when individuals with diabetes were excluded. Although diet quality was self-reported based on individuals’ perceptions, these findings are consistent with a role for poor diet in the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms.

  11. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu...

  12. Effects of gas chamber geometry and gas flow on the neutron production in a fast plasma focus neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    This work reports that gas chamber geometry and gas flow management substantially affect the neutron production of a repetitive fast plasma focus. The gas flow rate is the most sensitive parameter. An appropriate design of the gas chamber combined with a suitable flow-rate management can lead to improvements in the neutron production of one order of magnitude working in a fast repetitive mode. (paper)

  13. Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Mette Vinther; Sandbæk, Annelli; Kristensen, Jette Kolding

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of mortality with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability and with absolute change in HbA1c. DESIGN: A population-based prospective observational study with a median follow-up time of 6 years. METHODS: Based on a validated algorithm, 11 205 Danish individua...

  14. Dyslipidemia and reference values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations in Danish/North-European White children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is reported in 27 - 43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood. The objec......BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is reported in 27 - 43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood....... The objective of this cross-sectional study was to generate fasting plasma lipid references for a Danish/North-European White population-based cohort of children and adolescents, and investigate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this cohort as well as in a cohort with overweight/obesity. METHODS: A population......, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were measured on all participants. Smoothed reference curves and percentiles were generated using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape package in the statistical software R. RESULTS: In the population-based cohort, plasma concentrations of total...

  15. Examining the prevalence of Hemoglobin A1C level di sorder in women affected with polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS at Imam Ali Hospital, Karaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PCOS in commonly associated with metabolic disorders, therefore it, is reasonable and timely action to identify and manage the disorders. Accordingly in this study we decided to determine, the prevalence of abnormal hemoglobin A1C levels in women with signs and symptoms at PCOS .so 50 women with PCOS, based on clinical symptoms and laboratory results, were studied. Then hemoglobin A1C levels were assessed (by a blood test. The data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Chi-Square test didn't show the significant relationship between BMI and HbA1C levels (P>0.05. Chi-Square test didn't show the significant relationship between age and HbA1C levels (P>0.05. Independent T-test showed, there is significant relationship between fasting blood glucose and HbA1C levels (P<0.05.

  16. The Long and Winding Road to Optimal HbA1c Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Randie R.; Rohlfing, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The importance of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as an indicator of mean glycemia and risks for complications in patients with diabetes mellitus was established by the results of long-term clinical trials, most notably the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), published in 1993 and 1998 respectively. However, clinical application of recommended HbA1c targets that were based on these studies was difficult due to lack of comparability of HbA1c results among assay methods and laboratories. Thus, the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) was initiated in 1996 with the goal of standardizing HbA1c results to those of the DCCT/UKPDS. HbA1c standardization efforts have been highly successful; however, a number of issues have emerged on the “long and winding road” to better HbA1c, including the development of a higher-order HbA1c reference method by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), recommendations to use HbA1c to diagnose as well as monitor diabetes, and point-of-care (POC) HbA1c testing. Here, we review the past, present and future of HbA1c standardization and describe the current status of HbA1c testing, including limitations that healthcare providers need to be aware of when interpreting HbA1c results. PMID:23318564

  17. Experimental studies of fast deuterons, impurity- and admixture-ions emitted from a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozer, A.; Sadowski, M.; Herold, H.; Schmidt, H.

    1982-01-01

    The energy and mass analysis of ions emitted from a 50-kJ, 18-kV, plasma focus machine was performed with a Thomson analyzer. Energy distribution functions of fast deuterons (E> or =350 keV) and those of impurity ions have been determined. The energy distributions of the O, N, and C impurity ions in different ionization states have similar character. They usually increase exponentially and after reaching the maximum at E/Zroughly-equal1.0 MeV they decrease exponentially to E/Zroughly-equal1.8 MeV. For deuterons at lower operating pressures (p 0 + -Ar 7+ ions of energy from 0.5 to 14 MeV are produced

  18. Study of fast wave current drive in a KT-2 tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, B.G.; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka

    1996-02-01

    Global analysis of fast wave current drive in a KT-2 tokamak plasma is performed by using the code, TASKW1, developed by JAERI and Okayama University (Dr. Fukuyama), which solves the kinetic wave equation in a one dimensional slab geometry. A phase-shifted antenna array is used to inject toroidal momentum to electrons. To find guidelines of optimum antenna design for efficient current drive, accessibility conditions are derived. The dependence of the current drive efficiency on launching conditions such as the total number of antennas, phase and spacing is investigated for two cases of wave frequency; f=30 MHz ( cH ) and f=225 MHz (=5f cH ). (author)

  19. Control of highly vertically unstable plasmas in TCV with internal coils and fast power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, A.; Moret, J.M.; Chavan, R.; Fasel, D.; Hofmann, F.; Lister, J.B.; Mayor, J.M.; Perez, A.; Elkjaer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of TCV (Tokamak a Configuration Variable) is to investigate effects of plasma shape, in particular high elongation (up to 3), on tokamak physics. Such elongated configurations (I p ≅1 MA) are highly vertically unstable with growth rates up to γ=4000 s -1 . Control of the vertical position using the poloidal coils located outside the vessel is limited to γ≤1000 s -1 because of the shielding effect of the conductive vessel and because of the relative slow time response of their power supplies (0.8 ms thyristor 12 pulse switching at 120 Hz). This dictated the necessity to install a coil set inside the vacuum vessel fed with a Fast Power Supply (FPS). The choice and design of the system with a special attention to the mechanical and electrical constraints in TCV tokamak, as the results and real performances, will be presented. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 2 refs

  20. Fast photography of XeCl laser-induced plasma of graphite in vacuum and in nitrogen atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaviva, S; De Giorgi, M L

    2003-01-01

    Fast photography with a gated intensified close-coupled device camera was applied to provide a visualization of the temporal and spatial evolution of chemical species in a plasma induced by a 308 nm laser during graphite ablation, in vacuum and in nitrogen atmosphere. A sequence of frames of the luminous plume was recorded, using narrow interference filters, and plasma expansion velocity was estimated from the acquired images. Present observations agree with optical emission spectroscopic investigations performed under the same experimental conditions

  1. The geometric factor of electrostatic plasma analyzers: A case study from the Fast Plasma Investigation for the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinson, Glyn A.; Dorelli, John C.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pollock, Craig; Mariano, Al; Shappirio, Mark D.; Adrian, Mark L.; Avanov, Levon A.; Lewis, Gethyn R.; Kataria, Dhiren O.; Bedington, Robert; Owen, Christopher J.; Walsh, Andrew P.; Arridge, Chris S.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Gliese, Ulrik; Barrie, Alexander C.; Tucker, Corey

    2012-01-01

    We report our findings comparing the geometric factor (GF) as determined from simulations and laboratory measurements of the new Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as part of the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. Particle simulations are increasingly playing an essential role in the design and calibration of electrostatic analyzers, facilitating the identification and mitigation of the many sources of systematic error present in laboratory calibration. While equations for laboratory measurement of the GF have been described in the literature, these are not directly applicable to simulation since the two are carried out under substantially different assumptions and conditions, making direct comparison very challenging. Starting from first principles, we derive generalized expressions for the determination of the GF in simulation and laboratory, and discuss how we have estimated errors in both cases. Finally, we apply these equations to the new DES instrument and show that the results agree within errors. Thus we show that the techniques presented here will produce consistent results between laboratory and simulation, and present the first description of the performance of the new DES instrument in the literature.

  2. Predicting glucose intolerance with normal fasting plasma glucose by the components of the metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, D.; Lin, J.; Kuo, S.; Wu, D.; Li, J.; Hsieh, C.; Wu, C.; Hung, Y.; Kuo, K.

    2007-01-01

    Surprisingly it is estimated that about half of type 2 diabetics remain undetected. The possible causes may be partly attributable to people with normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) but abnormal postprandial hyperglycemia. We attempted to develop an effective predictive model by using the metabolic syndrome (MeS) components as parameters to identify such persons. All participants received a standard 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test which showed that 106 had normal glucose tolerance, 61 had impaired glucose tolerance and 6 had diabetes on isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia. We tested five models which included various MeS components. Model 0: FPG; Model 1 (Clinical history model): family history (FH), FPG, age and sex; Model 2 (MeS model): Model 1 plus triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; Model 3: Model 2 plus fasting plasma insulin (FPI); Model 4: Model 3 plus homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the predictive discrimination of these models. The area under the ROC curve of the Model 0 was significantly larger than the area under the diagonal reference line. All the other 4 models had a larger area under the ROC curve than Model 0. Considering the simplicity and lower cost of Model 2, it would be the best model to use. Nevertheless, Model 3 had the largest area under the ROC curve. We demonstrated that Model 2 and 3 have a significantly better predictive discrimination to identify persons with normal FPG at high risk for glucose intolerance. (author)

  3. Effect of body mass index on diabetogenesis factors at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, An-Tsz; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Yen-Lin; Pei, Dee; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2018-01-01

    The present study evaluated the relative influence of body mass index (BMI) on insulin resistance (IR), first-phase insulin secretion (FPIS), second-phase insulin secretion (SPIS), and glucose effectiveness (GE) at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level in an older ethnic Chinese population. In total, 265 individuals aged 60 years with a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.56 mmol/L were enrolled. Participants had BMIs of 20.0-34.2 kg/m2. IR, FPIS, SPIS, and GE were estimated using our previously developed equations. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to assess the correlations between the four diabetogenesis factors and BMI. A general linear model was used to determine the differences in the percentage of change among the four factor slopes against BMI. Significant correlations were observed between BMI and FPIS, SPIS, IR, and GE in both women and men, which were higher than those reported previously. In men, BMI had the most profound effect on SPIS, followed by IR, FPIS, and GE, whereas in women, the order was slightly different: IR, followed by FPIS, SPIS, and GE. Significant differences were observed among all these slopes, except for the slopes between FPIS and SPIS in women (p = 0.856) and IR and FPIS in men (p = 0.258). The contribution of obesity to all diabetes factors, except GE, was higher than that reported previously. BMI had the most profound effect on insulin secretion in men and on IR in women in this 60-year-old cohort, suggesting that lifestyle modifications for obesity reduction in women remain the most important method for improving glucose metabolism and preventing future type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Measurements of fast electron beams and soft X-ray emission from plasma-focus experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surała Władysław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports results of the recent experimental studies of pulsed electron beams and soft X-rays in plasma-focus (PF experiments carried out within a modified PF-360U facility at the NCBJ, Poland. Particular attention was focused on time-resolved measurements of the fast electron beams by means of two different magnetic analyzers, which could record electrons of energy ranging from about 41 keV to about 715 keV in several (6 or 8 measuring channels. For discharges performed with the pure deuterium filling, many strong electron signals were recorded in all the measuring channels. Those signals were well correlated with the first hard X-ray pulse detected by an external scintillation neutron-counter. In some of the analyzer channels, electron spikes (lasting about dozens of nanoseconds and appearing in different instants after the current peculiarity (so-called current dip were also recorded. For several discharges, fast ion beams, which were emitted along the z-axis and recorded with nuclear track detectors, were also investigated. Those measurements confirmed a multibeam character of the ion emission. The time-integrated soft X-ray images, which were taken side-on by means of a pinhole camera and sensitive X-ray films, showed the appearance of some filamentary structures and so-called hot spots. The application of small amounts of admixtures of different heavy noble gases, i.e. of argon (4.8% volumetric, krypton (1.6% volumetric, or xenon (0.8% volumetric, decreased intensity of the recorded electron beams, but increased intensity of the soft X-ray emission and showed more distinct and numerous hot spots. The recorded electron spikes have been explained as signals produced by quasi-mono-energetic microbeams emitted from tiny sources (probably plasma diodes, which can be formed near the observed hot spots.

  5. Glycated hemoglobin HbA1c, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio in overweight and obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysa Nur Safrida

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Central obesity has been associated with a high risk of insulin resistance. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are anthropometric indices for determining central obesity and have been associated with increased blood pressure, cholesterol, and insulin levels. In adults, fat distribution around the waist is a valid predictor of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1clevels, and is currently recommended by experts as a diagnostic tool for diabetes. Central obesity measurement has advantages over fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance tests, as it is simple and inexpensive to perform. Objective To assess for correlations between HbA1c level and waist circumference as well as waist-to-height ratio and to assess factors potentially associated with HbA1c levels in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in four junior high schools in Yogyakarta, which were obtained by cluster sampling. Overweight and obese students who were generally healthy were included in the study. Subjects underwent waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio measurements, as well as blood tests for HbA1clevels. Results Sixty-seven children participated in the study, with 48 girls (71.6% and 19 boys (28.4%. Waist circumference and HbA1c levels were not significantly associated (r=0.178; P=0.15. However, waist-to-height ratio and HbA1c levels had a weak positive correlation (r=0.21; P=0.04. Linear regression analysis revealed that waist-to-height ratio had a significant association with HbA1c level (P=0.02, but age, sex, and nutritional status did not. Conclusion Waist-to-height ratio is correlated with HbA1c levels in overweight and obese adolescents.

  6. The Glycated Albumin (GA) to HbA1c Ratio Reflects Shorter-Term Glycemic Control than GA: Analysis of Patients with Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Masafumi; Inada, Shinya; Nakao, Taisei; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kasayama, Soji

    2017-01-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) reflects shorter-term glycemic control than HbA1c. We have reported that HbA1c is paradoxically increased in diabetic patients whose glycemic control deteriorated before ameliorating. In this study, we analyzed paradoxical increases of glycemic control indicators after treatment in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D). We also investigated whether the GA/HbA1c ratio may reflect shorter-term glycemic control than GA. Five FT1D patients whose post-treatment HbA1c and GA levels were measured were enrolled. We also used a formula to estimate HbA1c and GA from the fictitious models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients. In this model, the periods during which HbA1c, GA, and the GA/HbA1c ratio were higher than at the first visit were compared. In addition, the half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was calculated in accordance with the half-lives for HbA1c and GA (36 and 14 days, respectively). In all FT1D patients, HbA1c levels 2-4 weeks after treatment were increased, with three patients (60%) experiencing an increase of GA levels. In contrast, an increase of the GA/HbA1c ratio was observed in only one patient. In all of the different models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients, the length of time during which the values were higher than at the first visit was in the order of HbA1c > GA > GA/HbA1c ratio. The half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was 9 days, shorter than GA. These findings suggest that the GA/HbA1c ratio reflects shorter-term glycemic control than GA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pinching evidences in a miniature plasma focus with fast pseudospark switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S M; Zhang, T; Patran, A; Rawat, R S; Springham, S V; Tan, T L; Wong, D; Wang, W; Lee, S; Gribkov, V A; Mohanty, S R; Lee, P

    2006-01-01

    We report the observations of pinching in a miniature plasma focus (PF) (58-160 J) operated in repetitive mode using fast pseudospark switch (PSS). The size of the device, which includes the capacitor bank, PSS and the focus chamber, is of the order of 22 cm x 22 cm x 38 cm. Several diagnostic tools, the gated imager, streak camera, current and voltage probe, are employed simultaneously to confirm the occurrence of pinching in this fast miniature PF device. The device is optimized for operation in neon and hydrogen as the working gas. The best focus formation was obtained at pressures between 0.5 to 8.0 mbar for neon and between 7.0 to 15.0 mbar for hydrogen. When the system was operated at 100 J with hydrogen as the filling gas, the typical dip in the current derivative signal and the typical peak in the voltage signal associated with pinch compression, are observed to be most intense indicating efficient pinching in the miniature PF device

  8. Fast ions and hot electrons in the laser--plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitomer, S.J.; Jones, R.D.; Begay, F.; Ehler, A.W.; Kephart, J.F.; Kristal, R.

    1986-01-01

    Data on the emission of energetic ions produced in laser--matter interactions have been analyzed for a wide variety of laser wavelengths, energies, and pulse lengths. Strong correlation has been found between the bulk energy per AMU for fast ions measured by charge cups and the x-ray-determined hot electron temperature. Five theoretical models have been used to explain this correlation. The models include (1) a steady-state spherically symmetric fluid model with classical electron heat conduction, (2) a steady-state spherically symmetric fluid model with flux limited electron heat conduction, (3) a simple analytic model of an isothermal rarefaction followed by a free expansion, (4) the lasneX hydrodynamics code [Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 85 (1975)], calculations employing a spherical expansion and simple initial conditions, and (5) the lasneX code with its full array of absorption, transport, and emission physics. The results obtained with these models are in good agreement with the experiments and indicate that the detailed shape of the correlation curve between mean fast ion energy and hot electron temperature is due to target surface impurities at the higher temperatures (higher laser intensities) and to the expansion of bulk target material at the lower temperatures (lower laser intensities)

  9. KINETIC PLASMA TURBULENCE IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND MEASURED BY CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, O. W.; Li, X.; Li, B.

    2013-01-01

    The k-filtering technique and wave polarization analysis are applied to Cluster magnetic field data to study plasma turbulence at the scale of the ion gyroradius in the fast solar wind. Waves are found propagating in directions nearly perpendicular to the background magnetic field at such scales. The frequencies of these waves in the solar wind frame are much smaller than the proton gyrofrequency. After the wavevector k is determined at each spacecraft frequency f sc , wave polarization property is analyzed in the plane perpendicular to k. Magnetic fluctuations have δB > δB ∥ (here the ∥ and refer to the background magnetic field B 0 ). The wave magnetic field has right-handed polarization at propagation angles θ kB 90°. The magnetic field in the plane perpendicular to B 0 , however, has no clear sense of a dominant polarization but local rotations. We discuss the merits and limitations of linear kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) and coherent Alfvén vortices in the interpretation of the data. We suggest that the fast solar wind turbulence may be populated with KAWs, small-scale current sheets, and Alfvén vortices at ion kinetic scales.

  10. Peripheral plasma measurement during SMBI in Heliotron J using fast cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, N.; Mizuuchi, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Mukai, K.; Takabatake, Y.; Nagasaki, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Okada, H.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Minami, T.; Hanatani, K.; Konoshima, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Sano, F.

    2011-01-01

    Since fueling technique is very important for maintaining fusion plasma, supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) was studied using mainly fast cameras, Hα measurement, Langmuir/magnetic probes, and electron density/diamagnetic measurement in Heliotron J. Using a fast camera with a tangential view a very bright stripe along the magnetic field line was observed during SMBI. Time-dependent FFT analysis of data from each pixel showed that the low frequency waves rotated around the magnetic field line in a left-handed sense at the initial stage of SMBI. After a few milliseconds they propagated towards the SMBI region along the magnetic field line, and their phase velocities were almost the same. Experimental evidence is consistent with the interpretation as the ion acoustic wave, and the peak frequency of these waves was the same as that of the power spectra of the magnetic probe signals. It suggests the slow magnetoacoustic wave may convert into the ion acoustic wave due to collisions with neutrals.

  11. DPP-4 inhibitor treatment: β-cell response but not HbA1c reduction is dependent on the duration of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlovski P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plamen Kozlovski,1 Vaishali Bhosekar,2 James E Foley3 1Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 2Novartis Healthcare Private Limited, Hyderabad, India; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors reduce hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM by enhancing insulin and suppressing glucagon secretion. Since T2DM is associated with progressive loss of β-cell function, we hypothesized that the DPP-4 inhibitor action to improve β-cell function would be attenuated with longer duration of T2DM.Methods: Data from six randomized, placebo-controlled trials of 24 weeks duration, where β-cell response to vildagliptin 50 mg twice daily was assessed, were pooled. In each study, the insulin secretory rate relative to glucose (ISR/G 0–2h during glucose load (standard meal or oral glucose tolerance test was assessed at baseline and end of study. The mean placebo-subtracted difference (PSD in the change in ISR/G 0–2h from baseline for each study was evaluated as a function of age, duration of T2DM, baseline ISR/G 0–2h, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, body mass index, and mean PSD in the change in HbA1c from baseline, using univariate model.Results: There was a strong negative association between the PSD in the change from baseline in ISR/G 0–2h and duration of T2DM (r= −0.89, p<0.02. However, there was no association between the PSD in the change from baseline in ISR/G 0–2h and the PSD in the change from baseline in HbA1c (r=0.33, p=0.52. None of the other characteristics were significantly associated with mean PSD change in ISR/G 0–2h.Conclusion: These findings indicate that the response of the β-cell, but not the HbA1c reduction, with vildagliptin is dependent on duration of T2DM. Further, it can be speculated that glucagon suppression may become the predominant mechanism via which glycemic control is improved when treatment with a

  12. n-3 PUFA Esterified to Glycerol or as Ethyl Esters Reduce Non-Fasting Plasma Triacylglycerol in Subjects with Hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedengran, Anne; Szecsi, Pal B; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this st......To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA on non-fasting triacylglycerol levels and to compare the effects of n-3 PUFA formulated as acylglycerol (AG-PUFA) or ethyl esters (EE-PUFA). The study was a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled interventional trial, and included 120...... subjects with non-fasting plasma triacylglycerol levels of 1.7-5.65 mmol/L (150-500 mg/dL). The participants received approximately 3 g/day of AG-PUFA, EE-PUFA, or placebo for a period of eight weeks. The levels of non-fasting plasma triacylglycerols decreased 28 % in the AG-PUFA group and 22 % in the EE...

  13. Device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive fast liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region are described. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises dt, dd, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 1017 to 1020 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 mev, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy and momentum into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. Fast liners disposed in the high-density target plasma are explosively or ablatively driven to implosion by a heated annular plasma surrounding the fast liner which is generated by an annular relativistic electron beam. An azimuthal magnetic field produced by axial current flow in the annular plasma, causes the energy in the heated annular plasma to converge on the fast liner

  14. Triglycerides produced in the livers of fasting rabbits are predominantly stored as opposed to secreted into the plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Chinkes, David L.; Wang, Lijian; Wu, Zhanpin; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Herndon, David N.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The liver plays a central role in regulating fat metabolism; however, it is not clear how the liver distributes the synthesized triglycerides (TGs) to storage and to the plasma. Materials and Methods We have measured the relative distribution of TGs produced in the liver to storage and the plasma by means of U-13C16-palmitate infusion in anesthetized rabbits after an overnight fast. Results The fractional synthesis rates of TGs stored in the liver and secreted into the plasma were not significantly different (Stored vs. Secreted: 31.9 ± 0.8 vs. 27.7 ± 2.6 %•h−1, p > 0.05. However, the absolute synthesis rates of hepatic stored and secreted TGs were 543 ± 158 and 27 ± 7 nmol·kg−1·min−1 respectively, indicating that in fasting rabbits the TGs produced in the liver were predominately stored (92±3%) rather than secreted (8±3%) into the plasma. This large difference was mainly due to the larger pool size of the hepatic TGs which was 21±9-fold that of plasma TGs. Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) contributed 47±1% of the FA precursor for hepatic TG synthesis, and the remaining 53±1% was derived from hepatic lipid breakdown and possibly plasma TGs depending on the activity of hepatic lipase. Plasma palmitate concentration significantly correlated with hepatic palmitoyl-CoA and TG synthesis. Conclusion In rabbits, after an overnight fast, the absolute synthesis rate of hepatic stored TGs was significantly higher than that of secreted due to the larger pool size of hepatic TGs. The net synthesis rate of TG was approximately half the absolute rate. Plasma FFA is a major determinant of hepatic TG synthesis, and therefore hepatic TG storage. PMID:25682063

  15. Fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in Crohn's and pancreatic cancer patients compared to control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drai, J; Borel, P; Faure, H; Galabert, C; Le Moël, G; Laromiguière, M; Fayol, V

    2009-03-01

    Carotenoids are colored molecules that are widespread in the plant kingdom, but animals cannot synthesize them. Carotenes are long, apolar molecules which require fully functioning digestive processes to be absorbed properly. Hence they could be interesting markers of intestinal absorption and digestion. Indeed, only few tests are available to assess these processes and only the D-xylose tolerance test is routinely used. However D-xylose is a sugar that tests only the absorption of water-soluble compounds and it only tests duodenal absorption. In this study, we have evaluated carotenoids as markers of digestion and absorption. We compared fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in 21 control subjects, 20 patients with Crohn's disease, and 18 patients with pancreatic cancer. Crohn's disease alters intestinal absorption while pancreatic cancer decreases pancreatic enzyme secretion thus impairing digestion. Results show that all carotenoids are significantly lower in Crohn's and cancer patients as compared to control subjects and the multifactorial analysis shows that this decrease is mostly independent of dietary intake. Interestingly, maldigestion as seen in pancreatic cancer more strongly influences plasma lutein and lycopene concentrations while malabsorption in Crohn's disease acts on other carotenoids. Thus carotenoids could be interesting alternatives for testing and following patients that are suspected of having malabsorption or maldigestion syndromes.

  16. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A(1c)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Angelique; Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA(1c) in both

  17. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A1c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Angelique; Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA1c in both non-diabetic blood donors

  18. HbA1c measurements from dried blood spots : validation and patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Margaretha; Bakker, Andries J; de Boer, Fokje; Kooistra, Jeltsje; de Vries, Sifra; Wolthuis, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates HbA1c measurements from dried blood spots collected on filter paper and compares HbA1c from filter paper (capillary blood) with HbA1c measured in venous blood. Methods: Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a questionnaire. The performance with the filter paper

  19. Higher Pretransplantation Hemoglobin A1c Is Associated With Greater Risk of Posttransplant Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Im Shin

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Higher pretransplantation HbA1c above 5.4% is independently associated with greater risk of PTDM among kidney transplant recipients. A continuous relationship between pretransplantation HbA1c and risk of PTDM suggests that increased risk starts at HbA1c levels well below current thresholds for prediabetes.

  20. Association of glycated albumin to HbA1c ratio with diabetic retinopathy but not diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umayahara, Yutaka; Fujita, Yohei; Watanabe, Hirotaka; Kasai, Noriko; Fujiki, Noritaka; Hatazaki, Masahiro; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-04-01

    The ratio of glycated albumin to HbA1c (GA/HbA1c ratio) is a known indicator that reflects fluctuations in plasma glucose. In this study, the association of the GA/HbA1c ratio to diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes was investigated. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, 613 patients (364 males and 249 females, aged 63.2±12.5, body mass index (BMI) 25.4±4.8kg/m 2 ) were enrolled. Patients with overt proteinuria, reduced renal function, or anemia were excluded. In a comparison between patients with and without diabetic nephropathy, significance was observed in insulin therapy, HbA1c, and GA. In addition, in a comparison between patients with and without diabetic retinopathy, the GA/HbA1c ratio along with insulin therapy, HbA1c, and GA showed significant differences. When the GA/HbA1c ratios were divided into three groups and compared, the rates of diabetic nephropathy did not show any significance, while the rate of diabetic retinopathy increased significantly as the GA/HbA1c ratio increased. In multivariable analyses, while insulin therapy and BMI were the significant independent variables for diabetic nephropathy, insulin therapy and the GA/HbA1c ratios were the significant independent variable for diabetic retinopathy. The GA/HbA1c ratio was associated with diabetic retinopathy, but not with diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is associated with plasma glucose fluctuations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations and urinary orotic acid excretion during long-term fasting in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V; Groff, J M; Fisher, C; Bee, D; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the changes in nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations, urinary orotic acid excretion and body weight during long-term fasting in adult obese cats. Results from eight cats that fasted rather than eat an unpalatable diet are reported. After 5 to 6 wk of weight loss, six of the eight cats developed signs of hepatic lipidosis, and the livers of all cats were severely infiltrated with lipids. Cats lost (mean +/- SE) 33.2 +/- 1.4% of their pre-fasting body weight. Mean nitrogen balance (+/- SE) was -547 +/- 54 mg.d-1.kg-2/3 for the first week, and then the net nitrogen losses decreased to a plateau (-303 +/- 52 mg.d-1.kg-2/3) after 4 wk. Fasting was associated with a decrease in plasma concentration of essential amino acids. When plasma amino acid concentrations were considered individually, concentrations of alanine, methionine, taurine, citrulline, arginine and tryptophan decreased the most (> or = 50%), whereas concentrations of glutamine, glutamate and ornithine significantly increased. Orotic acid was not detected in the urine during the fast. After 1 wk of fasting, obese cats had reduced nitrogen excretion, but not to the same extent as has been shown in obese humans or obese rats. It is suggested that the availability of several amino acids may become limiting for liver protein synthesis during fasting and that these deficiencies may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis. Orotic acid was not linked to hepatic lipidosis caused by fasting in cats.

  2. Fast-scanning heterodyne receiver for measurement of the electron cyclotron emission from high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.; Bitzer, R.; Campbell, L.; Hosea, J.C.

    1979-03-01

    A fast-scanning heterodyne receiver was developed that measures the fundamental cyclotron emission from the PLT plasma and thus ascertains the time evolution of the electron temperature profile. The receiver scans 60 to 90 GHz every 10 milliseconds and is interfaced to a computer for completely automated calibrated temperature measurements

  3. Association of Hemoglobin A1c and Wound Healing in Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesseha, Betiel K; Abularrage, Christopher J; Hines, Kathryn F; Sherman, Ronald; Frost, Priscilla; Langan, Susan; Canner, Joseph; Likes, Kendall C; Hosseini, Sayed M; Jack, Gwendolyne; Hicks, Caitlin W; Yalamanchi, Swaytha; Mathioudakis, Nestoras

    2018-04-16

    This study evaluated the association between hemoglobin A 1c (A1C) and wound outcomes in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). We conducted a retrospective analysis of an ongoing prospective, clinic-based study of patients with DFUs treated at an academic institution during a 4.7-year period. Data from 270 participants and 584 wounds were included in the analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the incidence of wound healing at any follow-up time in relation to categories of baseline A1C and the incidence of long-term (≥90 days) wound healing in relation to tertiles of nadir A1C change and mean A1C change from baseline, adjusted for potential confounders. Baseline A1C was not associated with wound healing in univariate or fully adjusted models. Compared with a nadir A1C change from baseline of -0.29 to 0.0 (tertile 2), a nadir A1C change of 0.09 to 2.4 (tertile 3) was positively associated with long-term wound healing in the subset of participants with baseline A1C healing was seen with the mean A1C change from baseline in this group. Neither nadir A1C change nor mean A1C change were associated with long-term wound healing in participants with baseline A1C ≥7.5%. There does not appear to be a clinically meaningful association between baseline or prospective A1C and wound healing in patients with DFUs. The paradoxical finding of accelerated wound healing and increase in A1C in participants with better baseline glycemic control requires confirmation in further studies. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. Dyslipidemia and reference values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations in Danish/North-European White children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is reported in 27-43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood. The objective...... of this cross-sectional study was to generate fasting plasma lipid references for a Danish/North-European White population-based cohort of children and adolescents, and investigate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this cohort as well as in a cohort with overweight/obesity. Methods: A population-based cohort...... of 2141 (1275 girls) children and adolescents aged 6-19 (median 11.5) years was recruited from 11 municipalities in Denmark. Additionally, a cohort of children and adolescents of 1421 (774 girls) with overweight/obesity aged 6-19years (median 11.8) was recruited for the study. Height, weight, and fasting...

  5. Hyperuricemia Is a Risk Factor for the Onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Men with a High Plasma Glucose Level: A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Furukawa, Shinya; Hirooka, Masashi; Kawasaki, Keitarou; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether elevated uric acid is a risk factor for the onset of impaired fasting glucose after stratifying by baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. We conducted a community-based retrospective longitudinal cohort study to clarify the relationship between uric acid levels and the onset of impaired fasting glucose, according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods We enrolled 6,403 persons (3,194 men and 3,209 women), each of whom was 18–80 years old and had >2 annual check-ups during 2003–2010. After excluding persons who had fasting plasma glucose levels ≥6.11 mM and/or were currently taking anti-diabetic agents, the remaining 5,924 subjects were classified into quartiles according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. The onset of impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥6.11 mM during the observation period. Results In the quartile groups, 0.9%, 2.1%, 3.4%, and 20.2% of the men developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively, and 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 5.6% of the women developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively (P trend fasting glucose in men with highest-quartile fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.0001–1.005, P = 0.041). Conclusions Among men with high fasting plasma glucose, hyperuricemia may be independently associated with an elevated risk of developing impaired fasting glucose. PMID:25237894

  6. Turbulent transport stabilization by ICRH minority fast ions in low rotating JET ILW L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Di Siena, A.; Delabie, E.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T.; Lerche, E.; Menmuir, S.; Tsalas, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET

    2018-05-01

    The first experimental demonstration that fast ion induced stabilization of thermal turbulent transport takes place also at low values of plasma toroidal rotation has been obtained in JET ILW (ITER-like wall) L-mode plasmas with high (3He)-D ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) power. A reduction of the gyro-Bohm normalized ion heat flux and higher values of the normalized ion temperature gradient have been observed at high ICRH power and low NBI (neutral beam injection) power and plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic simulations indicate that ITG (ion temperature gradient) turbulence stabilization induced by the presence of high-energetic 3He ions is the key mechanism in order to explain the experimental observations. Two main mechanisms have been identified to be responsible for the turbulence stabilization: a linear electrostatic wave-fast particle resonance mechanism and a nonlinear electromagnetic mechanism. The dependence of the stabilization on the 3He distribution function has also been studied.

  7. HbA1c in relation to incident diabetes and diabetes-related complications in non-diabetic adults at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Patricia Anne; Kyle, Cam; Kenealy, Tim; Jackson, Rod T

    2017-05-01

    We compared the utility of glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) and oral glucose tolerance (oGTT) in non-diabetic patients for identifying incident diabetes; all-cause mortality; cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality; CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke events; and diabetes microvascular complications. Data from a New Zealand community setting were prospectively linked to hospitalization, mortality, pharmaceutical and laboratory test results data. After applying exclusion criteria (prior laboratory diagnosis or history of drug treatment for diabetes or hospitalization for diabetes or CVD event), there were 31,148 adults who had an HbA 1c and 2-h 75g oGTT. HbA 1c was measured by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, and glucose using a commercial enzymatic method. We compared glycemic measures and outcomes using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. The median follow-up time was 4years (range 0 to 13). The mean age was 57·6years and 53·0% were male. After adjusting for other glycemic measures (fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and/or HbA 1c where relevant) in addition to age, sex, ethnicity and smoking habit, the hazard ratios for incident diabetes and diabetes complications of retinopathy and nephropathy were highest for 2-h glucose levels, followed by HbA 1c and lastly by fasting glucose. However, all-cause mortality and CHD were significantly associated with HbA 1c concentrations only, and ischemic stroke and CVD events with 2-h glucose only. Circulatory complications showed a stronger association with HbA 1c . Apart from neuropathy, HbA 1c showed stronger associations with outcomes compared to fasting glucose and provides a convenient alternative to an oGTT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fasting plasma glucose in the screening for type 2 diabetes in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsø, Dag; Jenssen, Trond; Hager, Helle; Røislien, Jo; Hjelmesaeth, Jøran

    2010-03-01

    Higher mortality rates among morbidly obese (BMI of > or =40 or > or =35 kg/m2 with weight-related comorbidities) subjects are mainly explained by comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. As bariatric surgery ameliorates diabetes, obese diabetic subjects will receive great benefits from bariatric surgery. Screening for diabetes prior to surgical referral is therefore crucial. We studied 1,253 consecutively recruited (2005-2008) morbidly obese subjects (67% women). Among subjects without known diabetes, 70% (670/961) performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Screen-detected diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (fPG) > or =7.0 mmol/l and/or 2-h glucose concentration (2hPG) > or = 11.1 mmol/l. Within the study population, 31% had diabetes, of which 8% were screen-detected. Eighty percent of those with screen-detected diabetes were diagnosed by fPG. In subjects with nondiabetic fPG concentrations, elevating the fPG cutoff value from 5.2 mmol/l to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) recommended value of 6.1 mmol/l reduced the percentage of the population needing an OGTT considerably (78-23%), but only slightly reduced the sensitivity of fPG in detecting a diabetic 2hPG concentration (100-77%). Only 7% of the patients with fPG between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/l had a diabetic 2hPG concentration. Following the WHO's recommendations, we found that 95% of all subjects with unknown diabetes were identified. Fasting glucose identified four out of five morbidly obese subjects with unknown diabetes. A supplemental OGTT in selected persons identified the majority of the remaining diabetic cases.

  9. Measurements of plasma profiles using a fast swept Langmuir probe in the VINETA-II magnetic reconnection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shesterikov, I.; Von Stechow, A.; Grulke, O.; Stenzel, R.; Klinger, T.

    2017-07-01

    A fast-swept Langmuir probe capable to be biased at a high voltages has been constructed and successfully operated at the VINETA-II magnetic reconnection experiment. The presented circuit has two main features beneficial for fast transient parameter changes in laboratory experiments as, e.g., plasma guns or magnetic reconnection: the implementation simplicity and the high voltage sweep range. This work presents its design and performance for time-dependent measurements of VINETA-II plasmas. The probe is biased with a sinusoidal voltage at a fixed frequency. Current - voltage characteristics are measured along the falling and rising slopes of the probe bias. The sweep frequency is fsweep= 150 kHz. The spatiotemporal evolution of radial plasma profiles is obtained by evaluation of the probe characteristics. The plasma density measurements agree with those derived from a microwave interferometer, demonstrating the reliability of the measurements. As a model plasma system, a plasma gun discharge with typical pulse times of 60 μ s is chosen.

  10. Bitter gourd reduces elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in an intervention study among prediabetics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawinkel, Michael B; Ludwig, Christine; Swai, Mark E; Yang, Ray-Yu; Chun, Kwok Pan; Habicht, Sandra D

    2018-04-24

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2.5g powder over the course of eight weeks among prediabetic individuals. In a randomized placebo-controlled single blinded clinical trial, 52 individuals with prediabetes were studied after consuming a bitter gourd or a cucumber juice. For reducing the impact of between subject differences in the study population, a crossover design was chosen with eight weeks for each study period and four weeks washout in between. Fasting plasma glucose was chosen as the primary outcome variable. Comparing the different exposures, the CROS analysis (t=-2.23, p=0.031, r=0.326) revealed a significant difference in the change of FPG of 0.31mmol/L (5.6mg/dL) with a trend (R 2 =0,42387). The number of 44 finally complete data sets achieved a power of 0.82, with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d 0.62). The effect was also proven by a general linear mixed model (estimate 0.31; SE: 0.12; p: 0.01; 95%CI: 0.08; 0.54). Not all participants responded, but the higher the initial blood glucose levels were, the more pronounced the effect was. No serious adverse effects were observed. Bitter gourd supplementation appeared to have benefits in lowering elevated fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes. The findings should be replicated in other intervention studies to further investigate glucose lowering effects and the opportunity to use bitter gourd for dietary self-management, especially in places where access to professional medical care is not easily assured. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quench detection of fast plasma events for the JT-60SA central solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Kamiya, Koji; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    the quench detection system remains open question because the fast plasma events, such as disruption, mini collapse and ELM (edge localized mode), directly influences on the voltage of pick-up coil making the quench signal undetectable. Consequently, a new analysis model proposed in the present paper was designed to avoid this difficulty by introducing the passive coil series such as vacuum vessel and stabilizer. The influence of fast plasma events is absorbed by passive coil series like real system, and the evaluation of applicability can be examined in detail. The analysis results show that the disk-shaped pick-up coil is applicable whenever the standard operation, disruption, mini collapse and ELM.

  12. Fasting plasma glucose in young adults free of diabetes is associated with cognitive function in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Manheim, Irit; Sinnreich, Ronit; Doniger, Glen M; Simon, Ely S; Pinchas-Mizrachi, Ronit; Kark, Jeremy D

    2018-06-01

    Evidence for an association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with cognitive function in adults free of diabetes is scarce and based on middle-aged and older adults. We examined the association of FPG, measured at age 30, and of change in FPG from age 30 to 43, with cognitive function at age 50. 505 nondiabetic participants of the population-based Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic (LRC) cohort study had baseline FPG, 2-h post-oral challenge plasma glucose (OGTT) and insulin determined at ages 28-32, and FPG and OGTT again at ages 41-46. Subsequently at ages 48-52, global cognitive function and its five specific component domains were assessed with a NeuroTrax computerized test battery, using multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic models. Hyperglycemia (FPG ≥ 5.6 mmol/l vs. <5.6 mmol/l) at baseline was associated with poorer global cognitive function in midlife (predominantly in the visual spatial and attention domains), independent of socio-demographic characteristics, life style variables, body mass index (BMI), and inflammatory and biochemical variables (standardized Beta = -0.121, P = 0.002, plinear trend(FPG continuous) =0.016). Similarly, increased odds for low-ranked (lowest fifth) global cognition was evident (ORper mmol/l FPG=2.31, 95% CI = 1.30-4.13, P = 0.005). Baseline OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and change in FPG and OGTT over 13 years were not associated with cognition. A higher FPG in young adults was associated with lower cognitive performance in midlife. Although we cannot dismiss the possibility of reverse causation, hyperglycemia at a young age may be a modifiable risk factor for low-ranked cognitive function in midlife.

  13. Plasma leptin and growth hormone levels in the fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) increase gradually during fasting and decline rapidly after refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Kling, Peter; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Alvarez, Marco; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2012-05-15

    In fish, recent studies have indicated an anorexigenic role of leptin and thus its possible involvement in regulation of energy balance and growth. In the present study, the effects of fasting and refeeding periods on plasma leptin levels were studied in the fine flounder, a flatfish with remarkably slow growth. To further assess the endocrine status of the fish during periods of catabolism and anabolism, plasma growth hormone (GH) levels were also analyzed. Under normal feeding condition, plasma leptin and GH levels remained stable and relatively high in comparison with other teleost species. For the three separate groups of fish, fasted for 2, 3, and 4 weeks, respectively, plasma leptin levels increase gradually, becoming significantly elevated after 3 weeks, and reaching highest levels after 4-week fasting. Plasma GH levels were significantly elevated after 2-week fasting. At the onset of refeeding, following a single meal, leptin levels decline rapidly to lower than initial levels within 2 h, irrespective of the length of fasting. Plasma GH also decline, the decrease being significant after 4, 24 and 2 h for the 2, 3 and 4-week fasted groups, respectively. This study shows that plasma leptin levels in the fine flounder are strongly linked to nutritional status and suggests that leptin secretion is regulated by fast-acting mechanisms. Elevated leptin levels in fasted fish may contribute to a passive survival strategy of species which experience natural food shortage periods by lowering appetite and limiting physical foraging activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cutoff value of HbA1c for predicting diabetes and prediabetes in a Chinese high risk population aged over 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruyi; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Jinhua; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Rui; Cai, Dehong; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cutoff value of HbA1c for predicting diabetes and prediabetes in a Chinese high risk population aged over 45. A total of 619 people aged over 45 without diabetes were randomly recruited to complete Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire. 208 high-risk individuals (defined by Diabetes Risk Score >=9) had OGTT and HbA1c determined at the same time. In a Chinese population aged over 45, the best cutoff value of HbA1c for detecting diabetes and prediabetes was 5.8% and 5.4% respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of HbA1c for detecting diabetes was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80-0.90) and prediabetes was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54-0.70). The combined use of HbA1c and fasting blood glucose (FPG) had larger AUROC than HbA1c alone (0.88, 95%CI: 0.83-0.92 in detecting diabetes vs 0.75, 95% CI: 0.67-0.82 in prediabetes), and had a higher sensitivity in predicting diabetes and higher specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) in predicting prediabetes. However, the AUROC between HbA1c alone and combined use in predicting diabetes was not significantly different (p=0.173). FINDRISC is feasible tool to screen people who are at high risk of diabetes. The cutoff values of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in a Chinese high risk population aged over 45 were 5.8% and 5.4%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c for detecting diabetes and prediabetes was relatively low, so that the combined use of HbA1c and FPG may be more effective in prediction.

  15. Structured education using Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) reduces long-term HbA1c and HbA1c variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G S; Chen, J Y; Hopkinson, H; Sainsbury, C A R; Jones, G C

    2018-06-01

    Previous evidence has demonstrated that participation in the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) education programme can reduce HbA 1c and severe hypoglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes. In a number of studies, increased HbA 1c variability has been associated with higher diabetic morbidity and mortality. No studies have examined the impact of structured education on HbA 1c variability in Type 1 diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes who had attended DAFNE were identified for inclusion from the Scottish Care Information-Diabetes dataset. HbA 1c median and variability, expressed as coefficient of variation (CV) before and after DAFNE was calculated. Some 1061 individuals participated in DAFNE education and 687 met the inclusion criteria. A significant median reduction in HbA 1c [-3.5 mmol/mol (-0.3%)] was seen at 12 months with a significant reduction [-1.5 mmol/mol (-0.1%)] still seen at 60 months of follow-up. HbA 1c variability as measured by CV was significantly lower during the post-DAFNE period: 0.08 (IQR 0.05-0.12) reduced to 0.07 (IQR 0.05-0.10); P = 0.002. The data confirm that DAFNE participation improves glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes with benefits being sustained for 5 years. This study is the first to demonstrate reduced HbA 1c variability after completion of structured education. This is new evidence of the beneficial impact of DAFNE on glycaemic profile. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  16. Fast pyrobolometers for measurements of plasma heat fluxes and radiation losses in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Frank, J.; Holly, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two types of fast bolometers are described for the plasma energy transport study in the Madison Symmetric Torus plasma confinement device. Both types use pyrocrystals of LiTaO 3 or LiNbO 3 as the sensors. One type is used for measurements of the radiated heat losses and is situated at the vacuum shell inner surface. Another type is insertable in the plasma and measures the plasma particle heat flux. The frequency response of the bolometers is measured to be in the 150--200 kHz range. The range of the measured power fluxes is 0.1 W/cm 2 10 kW/cm 2 and can be adjusted by changing the size of the entrance aperture. The lower limit is determined by the amplifier noise and the frequency bandwidth, the higher limit by destruction of the bolometer sensor

  17. High-throughput fractionation of human plasma for fast enrichment of low- and high-abundance proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Lucas; Cao, Lulu; Eom, Kirsten; Srajer Gajdosik, Martina; Camara, Lila; Giacometti, Jasminka; Dupuy, Damian E; Josic, Djuro

    2012-05-01

    Fast, cost-effective and reproducible isolation of IgM from plasma is invaluable to the study of IgM and subsequent understanding of the human immune system. Additionally, vast amounts of information regarding human physiology and disease can be derived from analysis of the low abundance proteome of the plasma. In this study, methods were optimized for both the high-throughput isolation of IgM from human plasma, and the high-throughput isolation and fractionation of low abundance plasma proteins. To optimize the chromatographic isolation of IgM from human plasma, many variables were examined including chromatography resin, mobile phases, and order of chromatographic separations. Purification of IgM was achieved most successfully through isolation of immunoglobulin from human plasma using Protein A chromatography with a specific resin followed by subsequent fractionation using QA strong anion exchange chromatography. Through these optimization experiments, an additional method was established to prepare plasma for analysis of low abundance proteins. This method involved chromatographic depletion of high-abundance plasma proteins and reduction of plasma proteome complexity through further chromatographic fractionation. Purification of IgM was achieved with high purity as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and IgM-specific immunoblot. Isolation and fractionation of low abundance protein was also performed successfully, as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis followed by label-free quantitative spectral analysis. The level of purity of the isolated IgM allows for further IgM-specific analysis of plasma samples. The developed fractionation scheme can be used for high throughput screening of human plasma in order to identify low and high abundance proteins as potential prognostic and diagnostic disease biomarkers.

  18. Efficacy of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in lowering fasting plasma glucose: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göke, R; Eschenbach, P; Dütting, E D

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the efficacy of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in lowering fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as single-pill combinations (SPCs) with metformin. The randomized crossover, open-label, active-controlled study design assessed the FPG-lowering abilities of a vildagliptin/metformin (50/1000 mg twice daily) SPC compared with a sitagliptin/metformin (50/1000 mg twice daily) SPC after 2 weeks of treatment in 99 type 2 diabetes patients uncontrolled by stable metformin therapy (1000-2000 mg/day). The change in FPG from baseline to day 14 was significantly greater (P vildagliptin [-21.9 mg/dL (SD 27.0)] than with sitagliptin [-14.5 mg/dL (SD 23.0)]. After 14 days of treatment, the mean FPG was 137.8 mg/dL (SD 28.5) with vildagliptin and 140.1mg/dL (SD 26.5) with sitagliptin (P vildagliptin produced a significantly greater reduction in FPG vs baseline compared with sitagliptin, which may translate into clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Fasting plasma insulin and the default mode network in women at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Heather; Hoeft, Fumiko; Kelley, Ryan; Wroolie, Tonita; DeMuth, Bevin; Reiss, Allan; Rasgon, Natalie

    2013-03-01

    Brain imaging studies in Alzheimer's disease research have demonstrated structural and functional perturbations in the hippocampus and default mode network (DMN). Additional evidence suggests risk for pathological brain aging in association with insulin resistance (IR). This study piloted investigation of associations of IR with DMN-hippocampal functional connectivity among postmenopausal women at risk for Alzheimer's disease. Twenty middle-aged women underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were dichotomized relative to fasting plasma insulin levels (i.e., > 8 μIU/mL [n = 10] and < 8 μIU/mL [n = 10]), and functional connectivity analysis contrasted their respective blood oxygen level-dependent signal correlation between DMN and hippocampal regions. Higher-insulin women had significantly reduced positive associations between the medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral parahippocampal regions extending to the right hippocampus, and conversely, between the left and right hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychological data (all within normal ranges) also showed significant differences with respect to executive functioning and global intelligence. The results provide further evidence of deleterious effects of IR on the hippocampus and cognition. Further imaging studies of the IR-related perturbations in DMN-hippocampal functional connectivity are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Particle-in-cell studies of fast-ion slowing-down rates in cool tenuous magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eugene S.; Cohen, Samuel A.; Welch, Dale R.

    2018-04-01

    We report on 3D-3V particle-in-cell simulations of fast-ion energy-loss rates in a cold, weakly-magnetized, weakly-coupled plasma where the electron gyroradius, ρe, is comparable to or less than the Debye length, λDe, and the fast-ion velocity exceeds the electron thermal velocity, a regime in which the electron response may be impeded. These simulations use explicit algorithms, spatially resolve ρe and λDe, and temporally resolve the electron cyclotron and plasma frequencies. For mono-energetic dilute fast ions with isotropic velocity distributions, these scaling studies of the slowing-down time, τs, versus fast-ion charge are in agreement with unmagnetized slowing-down theory; with an applied magnetic field, no consistent anisotropy between τs in the cross-field and field-parallel directions could be resolved. Scaling the fast-ion charge is confirmed as a viable way to reduce the required computational time for each simulation. The implications of these slowing down processes are described for one magnetic-confinement fusion concept, the small, advanced-fuel, field-reversed configuration device.

  1. Should Studies of Diabetes Treatment Stratification Correct for Baseline HbA1c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angus G.; Lonergan, Mike; Henley, William E.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Shields, Beverley M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to determine whether studies of predictors of response should adjust for baseline HbA1c. Methods We assessed the relationship between baseline HbA1c and glycaemic response in 257 participants treated with GLP-1R agonists and assessed whether it reflected measurement error and regression to the mean using duplicate ‘pre-baseline’ HbA1c measurements not included in the response variable. In this cohort and an additional 2659 participants treated with sulfonylureas we assessed the relationship between covariates associated with baseline HbA1c and treatment response with and without baseline adjustment, and with a bias correction using pre-baseline HbA1c to adjust for the effects of error in baseline HbA1c. Results Baseline HbA1c was a major predictor of response (R2 = 0.19,β = -0.44,pHbA1c were associated with response, however these associations were weak or absent after adjustment for baseline HbA1c. Bias correction did not substantially alter associations. Conclusions Adjustment for the baseline HbA1c measurement is a simple and effective way to reduce bias in studies of predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy. PMID:27050911

  2. Use of Fructosyl Peptide Oxidase for HbA1c Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonehara, Satoshi; Inamura, Norio; Fukuda, Miho; Sugiyama, Koji

    2015-01-01

    ARKRAY, Inc developed the world’s first automatic glycohemoglobin analyzer based on HPLC (1981). After that, ARKRAY developed enzymatic HbA1c assay “CinQ HbA1c” with the spread and diversification of HbA1c measurement (2007). CinQ HbA1c is the kit of Clinical Chemistry Analyzer, which uses fructosyl peptide oxidase (FPOX) for a measurement reaction. This report mainly indicates the developmental background, measurement principle, and future of the enzymatic method HbA1c reagent. PMID:25633966

  3. Analysis of HbA1c on an automated multicapillary zone electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollborn, Niclas; Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn; Nordin, Gunnar; Xu, Xiao Yan; Mandic-Havelka, Aleksandra; Hansson, Lars-Olof; Larsson, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a frequently requested laboratory test and there is thus a need for high throughput instruments for this assay. We evaluated a new automated multicapillary zone electrophoresis instrument (Capillarys 3 Tera, Sebia, Lisses, France) for analysis of HbA1c in venous samples. Routine requested HbA1c samples were analyzed immunologically on a Roche c6000 instrument (n = 142) and then with the Capillarys 3 Tera instrument. The Capillarys 3 Tera instrument performed approximately 70 HbA1c tests/hour. There was a strong linear correlation between Capillarys 3 Tera and Roche Tina-Quant HbA1c Gen 3 assay (y = 1.003x - 0.3246 R 2  = .996). The total CV for the 12 capillaries varied between 0.8 and 2.2% and there was a good agreement between duplicate samples (R 2  = .997). In conclusion, the Capillarys 3 Tera instrument has a high assay capacity for HbA1c. It has a good precision and agreement with the Roche Tina-Quant HbA1c method and is well suited for high volume testing of HbA1c.

  4. Hb A1c Separation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Hemoglobinopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekar, Vani

    2016-01-01

    Hb A1c measurement is subject to interference by hemoglobin traits and this is dependent on the method used for determination. In this paper we studied the difference between Hb A1c measured by HPLC in hemoglobin traits and normal chromatograms. We also studied the correlation of Hb A1c with age. Hemoglobin analysis was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. Spearman's rank correlation was used to study correlation between A1c levels and age. Mann-Whitney U test was used to st...

  5. Recent Progress in Electrochemical HbA1c Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress made in the development of electrochemical glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c sensors for the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Electrochemical HbA1c sensors are divided into two categories based on the detection protocol of the sensors. The first type of sensor directly detects HbA1c by binding HbA1c on the surface of an electrode through bio-affinity of antibody and boronic acids, followed by an appropriate mode of signal transduction. In the second type of sensor, HbA1c is indirectly determined by detecting a digestion product of HbA1c, fructosyl valine (FV. Thus, the former sensors rely on the selective binding of HbA1c to the surface of the electrodes followed by electrochemical signaling in amperometric, voltammetric, impedometric, or potentiometric mode. Redox active markers, such as ferrocene derivatives and ferricyanide/ferrocyanide ions, are often used for electrochemical signaling. For the latter sensors, HbA1c must be digested in advance by proteolytic enzymes to produce the FV fragment. FV is electrochemically detected through catalytic oxidation by fructosyl amine oxidase or by selective binding to imprinted polymers. The performance characteristics of HbA1c sensors are discussed in relation to their use in the diagnosis and control of diabetic mellitus.

  6. Analytical performances of a new enzymatic assay for hemoglobin A1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisson, Stéphane; Desmons, Aurore; Renard, Benoît; Chevelle, Benjamin; Leroy, Nathalie; Gillery, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    HbA1c is considered the gold standard for the follow-up of diabetic patients and a new diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus, which implies the availability of reliable assay methods. We have evaluated a new assay developed by Abbott Laboratories, based on the enzymatic quantification of HbA1c by a fructosyl dipeptide oxidase using Architect analyzers. Precision, linearity, correlation with a HPLC method, accuracy and potential impact interferences on HbA1c measurement have been evaluated. Intra-day and between-day CVs were lower than 1.2% and linearity was excellent from 19 mmol/mol (3.9%) to 163 mmol/mol (17.1%). The results were well correlated with those obtained by the HPLC (Variant II device, kit NU - BioRad): HbA1c [Architect, mmol/mol]=0.986×HbA1c [Variant II, mmol/mol]+0.713 (r=0.998, n=109). This method provided consistent results with IFCC titrated quality control samples. Classical interferences in HbA1c assays (i.e. labile HbA1c, carbamylated hemoglobin, triglycerides or bilirubin) did not have an impact on HbA1c quantification by this method. This new enzymatic assay proved to be a robust and reliable method for HbA1c measurement suitable for routine practice in clinical chemistry laboratories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlations between fasting plasma C-peptide, glucagon-stimulated plasma C-peptide, and urinary C-peptide in insulin-treated diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjessing, H J; Matzen, L E; Frøland, A

    1987-01-01

    This study correlated fasting plasma C-peptide (CP), plasma CP 6 min after stimulation with 1 mg glucagon i.v., and the mean of three 24-h urinary excretions of C-peptide (UCP)/creatinine in 132 insulin-treated diabetics. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1, stimulated CP less than 0.......06 nM (n = 51); group 2, stimulated CP 0.06-0.60 nM (n = 48); and group 3, stimulated CP greater than 0.60 nM (n = 33). In all patients fasting CP was closely correlated to stimulated CP (r = .988, P less than .001), whereas the correlations between UCP and both fasting CP (r = .904, P less than .001......) and stimulated CP r = .902, P less than .001) were slightly less pronounced. The associations between UCP and both fasting CP (r = .716, P less than .001) and stimulated CP (r = .731, P less than .001) were modest in group 2, and even more so in group 3 (r = .557, P less than .001 and r = .641, P less than .001...

  8. Positive-column plasma studied by fast-flow glow discharge mass spectrometry: Could it be a 'Rydberg gas?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Rod S.; Miller, Pat D.; Mortimer, Ifor; Mitchell, David J.; Dash, Neil A.

    2003-01-01

    Ions created from the fast-flowing positive column plasma of a glow discharge were monitored using a high voltage magnetic sector mass spectrometer. Since the field gradient and sheath potentials created by the plasma inside the source opposed cation transfer, it is inferred that the ions detected were the field-ionized Rydberg species. This is supported by the mass spectral changes which occurred when a negative bias was applied to the sampling aperture and by the contrasting behavior when attached to a quadrupole analyzer. Reaction with H 2 (titrated into the flowing plasma) quenched not only the ionization of discharge gas Rydberg atoms but also the passage of electric current through the plasma, without significant changes to the field and sheath potentials. Few 'free' ions were present and the lifetimes of the Rydberg atoms detected were much longer than seen in lower pressure experiments, indicating additional stabilization in the plasma environment. The observations support the model of the flowing plasma, given previously [R. S. Mason, P. D. Miller, and I. P. Mortimer, Phys. Rev. E 55, 7462 (1997)] as mainly a neutral Rydberg atom gas, rather than a conventional ion-electron plasma

  9. Performance of a Discrete Wavelet Transform for Compressing Plasma Count Data and its Application to the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Alexander C.; Yeh, Penshu; Dorelli, John C.; Clark, George B.; Paterson, William R.; Adrian, Mark L.; Holland, Matthew P.; Lobell, James V.; Simpson, David G.; Pollock, Craig J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Plasma measurements in space are becoming increasingly faster, higher resolution, and distributed over multiple instruments. As raw data generation rates can exceed available data transfer bandwidth, data compression is becoming a critical design component. Data compression has been a staple of imaging instruments for years, but only recently have plasma measurement designers become interested in high performance data compression. Missions will often use a simple lossless compression technique yielding compression ratios of approximately 2:1, however future missions may require compression ratios upwards of 10:1. This study aims to explore how a Discrete Wavelet Transform combined with a Bit Plane Encoder (DWT/BPE), implemented via a CCSDS standard, can be used effectively to compress count information common to plasma measurements to high compression ratios while maintaining little or no compression error. The compression ASIC used for the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on board the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) is used for this study. Plasma count data from multiple sources is examined: resampled data from previous missions, randomly generated data from distribution functions, and simulations of expected regimes. These are run through the compression routines with various parameters to yield the greatest possible compression ratio while maintaining little or no error, the latter indicates that fully lossless compression is obtained. Finally, recommendations are made for future missions as to what can be achieved when compressing plasma count data and how best to do so.

  10. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG 2 group, respectively, compared with the NFG1 group. In conclusion, a higher range of IFG levels as well as diabetes, were positively associated with chronic periodontitis in a representative sample of Korean adults. This study suggests that individuals with a higher range of IFG levels before diabetes are at risk of periodontitis, and may benefit from dental screening. PMID:27057854

  11. Beyond HbA1c and glucose: the role of nontraditional glycemic markers in diabetes diagnosis, prognosis, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M.; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are the standard measures for diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. There has been recent interest in nontraditional markers of hyperglycemia, including fructosamine, glycated albumin and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), as alternatives or adjuncts to standard measures. There is a growing literature linking these nontraditional markers with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Fructosamine and glycated albumin have also been shown to improve identification of persons with diabetes. However, long-term prospective studies with clinical outcomes are lacking. Some modern laboratory assays for fructosamine, glycated albumin and 1,5-AG have excellent performance. Expanded use of these tests has the potential to improve diabetes care as these measures may overcome limitations of HbA1c in certain patients, complement traditional measures by providing additional information on shorter-term glycemic control, and improve risk stratification for diabetes and its complications. Nonetheless, studies are needed to demonstrate if their routine use will benefit patients and improve outcomes. PMID:25249070

  12. Significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1C in impaired glucose tolerant Pakistani subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasat, Tasnim; Sharif, Saima; Naz, Shagufta; Fazal, Sabiha

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the serum concentration of creatinine and determine its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes in Impaired Glucose tolerance subjects. This cross sectional study was conducted on 100 IGT patients who attended Amin Hayat diabetic center in Lahore from January 2011- June 2011. Patients with age group 34-67 years, (both sexes) were included in the study. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, WHR, B.P, personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed. The biochemical parameters including HbA1c, lipid profile, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin level were measured by chemistry analyzer. A strong correlation between creatinine and HbA1c was observed. The level of creatinine was also significantly associated with age in IGT subjects. Creatinine is non-significantly correlated with Cholesterol, LDL-Chol and TG while negatively significantly associated with BMI, fasting blood glucose and HDL-Chol. The present study concluded significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1c, BMI and HDL cholesterol.

  13. Fast-electron self-collimation in a plasma density gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X. H.; Borghesi, M.; Robinson, A. P. L.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical and numerical study of fast electron transport in solid and compressed fast ignition relevant targets is presented. The principal aim of the study is to assess how localized increases in the target density (e.g., by engineering of the density profile) can enhance magnetic field generation and thus pinching of the fast electron beam through reducing the rate of temperature rise. The extent to which this might benefit fast ignition is discussed.

  14. High maternal HbA1c is associated with overweight in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria R.; Nielsen, Sigrid Bruun; Stage, E

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) not obtaining HbA1c within the normal range (= 5.6%) before delivery and to examine whether elevated HbA1c values are associated with an increased risk of large for gestational age (LGA) infa...

  15. Distinct HbA1c trajectories in a type 2 diabetes cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, I.; Mast, M.R.; Hoekstra, T.; Jansen, A.P.D.; van der Heijden, A.A.W.A.; Rauh, S.P.; Rutters, F.; van 't Riet, E.; Elders, P.J.M.; Moll, A.C.; Polak, B.C.P.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with distinct hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) trajectories. Subgroup characteristics were determined and the prevalence of microvascular complications over time was investigated. Study design and setting: Data from a

  16. Investigation and Analysis of Hemoglobin A1c Measurement Systems' Performance for 135 Laboratories in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jian Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study indicated that, although participating laboratories were laboratories with better performance in China, the performances were still unsatisfactory. Actions should be taken to improve HbA1c measurement performance before we can include HbA1c assays in diabetes diagnosis in China.

  17. In vitro determination of hemoglobin A1c for diabetes diagnosis and management: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emma English,1 Elise T Milosevich,1 W Garry John2 1School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital, Derby, United Kingdom; 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, United Kingdom Abstract: It is fascinating to consider the analytical improvements that have occurred since glycated hemoglobin was first used in routine clinical laboratories for diabetes monitoring around 1977; at that time methods displayed poor precision, there were no calibrators or material with assayed values for quality control purposes. This review outlines the major improvements in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c measurement that have occurred since its introduction, and reflects on the increased importance of this hemoglobin fraction in the monitoring of glycemic control. The use of HbA1c as a diagnostic tool is discussed in addition to its use in monitoring the patient with diabetes; the biochemistry of HbA1c formation is described, and how these changes to the hemoglobin molecule have been used to develop methods to measure this fraction. Standardization of HbA1c is described in detail; the development of the IFCC Reference Measurement Procedure for HbA1c has enabled global standardization to be achieved which has allowed global targets to be set for glycemic control and diagnosis. The importance of factors that may interfere in the measurement of HbA1c are highlighted. Keywords: glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c, IFCC

  18. Two novel haemoglobin variants that affect haemoglobin A1c measurement by ion-exchange chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, Michael; Stroobants, An K.; Delzenne, Barend; Soeters, Maarten R.; de Vries, Johan E.; Weykamp, Cas W.; Norg, Roelf J. C.; Veldthuis, Martijn; van Zwieten, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) variants are well-known factors interfering with accurate HbA1c testing. This report describes two novel Hb variants leading to inappropriate quantification of HbA1c by ion-exchange chromatography. Glycated forms of novel Hb variants were recognised in the blood of two patients with

  19. Hb A1c Separation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Hemoglobinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Chandrashekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hb A1c measurement is subject to interference by hemoglobin traits and this is dependent on the method used for determination. In this paper we studied the difference between Hb A1c measured by HPLC in hemoglobin traits and normal chromatograms. We also studied the correlation of Hb A1c with age. Hemoglobin analysis was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to study correlation between A1c levels and age. Mann-Whitney U test was used to study the difference in Hb A1c between patients with normal hemoglobin and hemoglobin traits. A total of 431 patients were studied. There was positive correlation with age in patients with normal chromatograms only. No correlation was seen in Hb E trait or beta thalassemia trait. No significant difference in Hb A1c of patients with normal chromatograms and patients with hemoglobin traits was seen. There is no interference by abnormal hemoglobin in the detection of A1c by high performance liquid chromatography. This method cannot be used for detection of A1c in compound heterozygous and homozygous disorders.

  20. Three-dimensional earthward fast flow in the near-Earth plasma sheet in a sheared field: comparisons between simulations and observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kondoh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional configuration of earthward fast flow in the near-Earth plasma sheet is studied using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD simulations on the basis of the spontaneous fast reconnection model. In this study, the sheared magnetic field in the plasma sheet is newly considered in order to investigate the effects of it to the earthward fast flow, and the results are discussed in comparison with no-shear simulations. The virtual probes located at different positions in our simulation domain in shear/no-shear cases could explain different behavior of fast flows in the real observations.

  1. Fast screening of analytes for chemical reactions by reactive low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Guangming

    2015-11-15

    Approaches for analyte screening have been used to aid in the fine-tuning of chemical reactions. Herein, we present a simple and straightforward analyte screening method for chemical reactions via reactive low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry (reactive LTP-MS). Solution-phase reagents deposited on sample substrates were desorbed into the vapor phase by action of the LTP and by thermal desorption. Treated with LTP, both reagents reacted through a vapor phase ion/molecule reaction to generate the product. Finally, protonated reagents and products were identified by LTP-MS. Reaction products from imine formation reaction, Eschweiler-Clarke methylation and the Eberlin reaction were detected via reactive LTP-MS. Products from the imine formation reaction with reagents substituted with different functional groups (26 out of 28 trials) were successfully screened in a time of 30 s each. Besides, two short-lived reactive intermediates of Eschweiler-Clarke methylation were also detected. LTP in this study serves both as an ambient ionization source for analyte identification (including reagents, intermediates and products) and as a means to produce reagent ions to assist gas-phase ion/molecule reactions. The present reactive LTP-MS method enables fast screening for several analytes from several chemical reactions, which possesses good reagent compatibility and the potential to perform high-throughput analyte screening. In addition, with the detection of various reactive intermediates (intermediates I and II of Eschweiler-Clarke methylation), the present method would also contribute to revealing and elucidating reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. FAST MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: GROWTH OF COLLISIONLESS PLASMA INSTABILITIES IN TURBULENT MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, G. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil)

    2015-07-20

    In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.

  3. Magnetic-field generation and electron-collimation analysis for propagating fast electron beams in overdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Hongbo; Zhu Shaoping; Chen Mo; Wu Sizhong; He, X. T.; Mima, Kunioki

    2011-01-01

    An analytical fluid model is proposed for artificially collimating fast electron beams produced in the interaction of ultraintense laser pulses with specially engineered low-density-core-high-density-cladding structure targets. Since this theory clearly predicts the characteristics of the spontaneously generated magnetic field and its dependence on the plasma parameters of the targets transporting fast electrons, it is of substantial relevance to the target design for fast ignition. The theory also reveals that the rapid changing of the flow velocity of the background electrons in a transverse direction (perpendicular to the flow velocity) caused by the density jump dominates the generation of a spontaneous interface magnetic field for these kinds of targets. It is found that the spontaneously generated magnetic field reaches as high as 100 MG, which is large enough to collimate fast electron transport in overdense plasmas. This theory is also supported by numerical simulations performed using a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. It is found that the simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis.

  4. Effects of fast monoenergetic electrons on the ion dynamics near the cathode in a pulsed direct current plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifian, M.; Shokri, B.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed one-dimensional simulation of the ion dynamics of the plasma sheath near a substrate (cathode) in the presence of fast monoenergetic electrons has been carried out in this article. The sheath evolution is investigated by using a fluid model assuming that the ions, plasma electrons and monoenergetic, fast electrons act as three fluids (fluid approach). The effect of the density of fast electrons on the ion density, ion velocity, and ion energy near the cathode and the evolution of the sheath boundary in front of the cathode are separately explored. Also, the variation of the ion velocity and ion density at the vicinity of the cathode as a function of time is investigated in the absence and presence of the electron beam. Results indicate that the presence of fast electrons in the sheath causes significant change in the sheath thickness and therefore basically changes the ion velocity, ion density, and ion impact energy on the cathode compared to the absence of the electron beam case

  5. Elevated Hemoglobin A1C Levels Correlate with Blood Glucose Elevation in Diabetic Patients following Local Corticosteroid Injection in the Hand: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Schroeder, Jake; Hoffler, C Edward; Matzon, Jonas L; Lutsky, Kevin F; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic patients develop hand conditions that are managed with local corticosteroid injections. Injections can result in a transient elevation in serum glucose in diabetic patients. Hemoglobin A1c is the accepted measure of long-term plasma glucose control in diabetics (levels ≥7 percent reflect poor blood glucose control). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels and increased blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injections. Twenty-five diabetic patients were evaluated prospectively. One milliliter containing 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide was used. The most recent hemoglobin A1c level and normal average blood glucose levels were obtained. Glucose levels were obtained from patient recall of their daily blood glucose self- monitoring on the day of the injection. Postinjection blood glucose levels were recorded until levels returned to preinjection baseline. Twenty patients (80 percent) had elevation of their blood glucose level from baseline. No patient had elevated blood glucose levels after 5 days. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent had a higher blood glucose elevation and maintained this for longer than those who had a lower hemoglobin A1c level. Patients in the higher hemoglobin A1c group also had a higher number of hyperglycemic events. There was a strong or moderate correlation between hemoglobin A1c and elevated blood glucose levels during days 1 to 4. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent have elevations in blood glucose that are higher and last longer than patients with lower levels. Hemoglobin A1c levels can be used to roughly predict the degree of blood glucose elevation after corticosteroid injections into the hands of diabetic patients.

  6. Trajectories of HbA1c Levels in Children and Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Hamiel, Uri; Boyko, Valentina; Graph-Barel, Chana; Reichman, Brian; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To illustrate the distribution of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels according to age and gender among children, adolescents and youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Methods Consecutive HbA1c measurements of 349 patients, aged 2 to 30 years with T1DM were obtained from 1995 through 2010. Measurement from patients diagnosed with celiac disease (n = 20), eating disorders (n = 41) and hemoglobinopathy (n = 1) were excluded. The study sample comprised 4815 measurements of HbA1c from 287 patients. Regression percentiles of HbA1c were calculated as a function of age and gender by the quantile regression method using the SAS procedure QUANTREG. Results Crude percentiles of HbA1c as a function of age and gender, and the modeled curves produced using quantile regression showed good concordance. The curves show a decline in HbA1c levels from age 2 to 4 years at each percentile. Thereafter, there is a gradual increase during the prepubertal years with a peak at ages 12 to 14 years. HbA1c levels subsequently decline to the lowest values in the third decade. Curves of females and males followed closely, with females having HbA1c levels about 0.1% (1.1 mmol/mol) higher in the 25th 50th and 75th percentiles. Conclusion We constructed age-specific distribution curves for HbA1c levels for patients with T1DM. These percentiles may be used to demonstrate the individual patient's measurements longitudinally compared with age-matched patients. PMID:25275650

  7. Monitoring HIV-infected Patients with Diabetes: Hemoglobin A1c, Fructosamine, or Glucose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Published studies report inappropriately low hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c values that underestimate glycemia in HIV patients. Methods We reviewed the charts of all HIV patients with diabetes mellitus (DM at our clinic. Fifty-nine patients had HbA1c data, of whom 26 patients also had fructosamine data. We compared the most recent HbA1c to finger-stick (FS glucose averaged over three months, and fructosamine to FS averaged over six weeks. Predicted average glucose (pAG was calculated as reported by Nathan et al: pAG (mg/dL = 28.7 × A1C% – 46.7. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS and Kruskal–Wallis test. Results HbA1c values underestimated (UE actual average glucose (aAG in 19% of these patients and overestimated (OE aAG in 27%. HbA1c estimated aAG within the established range in only 54% of the patients. There were no statistical differences in the types of HIV medication used in patients with UE, OE, or accurately estimated (AE glycemia. A Spearman correlation coefficient between HbA1c and aAG was r = 0.53 ( P < 0.0001. Correlation between fructosamine and aAG was r = 0.47 ( P = 0.016. Conclusions The correlations between HbA1c and aAG and between fructosamine and aAG were weaker than expected, and fructosamine was not more accurate than HbA1c.

  8. Fast quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Li, Xituo; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Dai, Jieyu; Wang, Guiming; Cheng, Yu; Yan, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrates in biosamples are frequently highlighted as the most differential metabolites in many metabolomics studies. A simple, fast, simultaneous quantitative method for 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma has been developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. In order to quantify 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma, various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometry conditions, and plasma preparation methods, were investigated. Different conditions in this quantified analysis were performed and optimized. The reproducibility, precision, recovery, matrix effect, and stability of the method were verified. The results indicated that a methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture could effectively and reproducibly precipitate rat plasma proteins. Cold organic solvents coupled with vortex for 1 min and incubated at -20°C for 20 min were the most optimal conditions for protein precipitation and extraction. The results, according to the linearity, recovery, precision, matrix effect, and stability, showed that the method was satisfactory in the quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma. The quantified analysis of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma performed excellently in terms of sensitivity, high throughput, and simple sample preparation, which met the requirement of quantification in specific expanded metabolomic studies after the global metabolic profiling research. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Measurements of plasma termination in ICRF heated long pulse discharges with fast framing cameras in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Mamoru; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    The termination process of long pulse plasma discharges in the Large Helical Device (LHD) have been observed with fast framing cameras, which shows that the reason for the termination of the discharged has been changed with increased plasma heating power, improvements of plasma heating systems and change of the divertor configuration, etc. For long pulse discharges in FYs2010-2012, the main reason triggering the plasma termination was reduction of ICRF heating power with rise of iron ion emission due to electric breakdown in an ICRF antenna. In the experimental campaign in FY2013, the duration time of ICRF heated long pulse plasma discharges has been extended to about 48 minutes with a plasma heating power of ∼1.2 MW and a line-averaged electron density of ∼1.2 × 10"1"9 m"-"3. The termination of the discharges was triggered by release of large amounts of carbon dusts from closed divertor regions, indicating that the control of dust formation in the divertor regions is indispensable for extending the duration time of long pulse discharges. (author)

  10. Study of the fast electron distribution function in lower hybrid and electron cyclotron current driven plasmas in the WT-3 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, K.; Tanaka, H.; Ide, S.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution function f(p-vector) of fast electrons produced by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is investigated in the WT-3 tokamak, using a combination of measurements of the hard X-ray (HXR) angular distribution with respect to the toroidal magnetic field and observations of the HXR radial profile. The data obtained indicate the formation of a plateau-like region in f(p-vector) which corresponds to a region of resonant interaction between the lower hybrid (LH) wave and the electrons. The energy of the fast electrons in the peripheral plasma region is observed to be higher than that in the central plasma region under operational conditions with a high plasma current (I p ≥ 80 kA). At low current (I p < or approx. 50 kA), however, the energy of fast electrons is constant along the plasma radius. In the current ramp-up phase, fast electrons are generated in the directions normal to and opposite to the LH wave propagation. The latter case is ascribed to a negatively biased toroidal electric field induced by the current ramp-up. To study the characteristic change of f(p-vector) for various current drive mechanisms, HXR measurements are performed in electron cyclotron current driven (ECCD) plasma and in Ohmic heating (OH) plasma. In ECCD plasma, the perpendicular energy of fast electrons increases, which indicates that fast electrons are accelerated perpendicularly by electron cyclotron heating. In both LHCD and ECCD plasmas, fast electrons flow in the direction opposite to the wave propagation, while no such fast electrons are formed in OH plasma. (author). 33 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  11. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns and picosecond (ps lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS using He ambient gas.

  12. Effects of Ramadan fasting on plasma free fatty acids in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Arabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a global disease which its prevalence is about 10-35%. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fasting during Ramadan on plasma free fatty acids in patients with NAFLD.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed during the month of Ramadan in June-July, 2014 (Islamic year: 1435 with 50 patients who were living in Mashhad, Iran. The participants were recruited from 18-65 years old patients. The inclusion criteria were 1 patients with NAFLD that diagnosed fatty liver by ultrasonography and 2 being at least 10 hours fasting. Levels of plasma free fatty acids (Palmitic, Elaidic and Oleic fatty acid were analyzed in blood sample of all patients by gas chromatography apparatus equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID.Result: results indicated that there was no significant changes were observed in plasma levels of Palmitic, Elaidic and Oleic fatty acids in overweight patients (BMI 25-30 , but plasma levels of Elaidic acid significantly increased in obese patients (P

  13. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyanto, Hery [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, Rawamangun, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia); Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha,Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuo 2 chome, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE) mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using He ambient gas.

  14. Plasma shut-down with fast impurity puff on ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Fuchs, C.J.; Gruber, O.; Maggi, C.F.; Maraschek, M.; Puetterich, T.; Rohde, V.; Wittmann, C.; Wolfrum, E.; Cierpka, P.; Beck, M.

    2007-01-01

    The massive injection of impurity gas into a plasma has been proved to reduce forces and localized thermal loads caused by disruptions in tokamaks. This mitigation system is routinely used on ASDEX Upgrade to shut down plasmas with a locked mode. The plasma response to impurity injection and the mechanism of reduction of the mechanical forces is discussed in the paper

  15. Parametric Excitations of Fast Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.; Fisch, N.J.

    2001-01-01

    Short- and long-wavelength plasma waves can become strongly coupled in the presence of two counter-propagating laser pump pulses detuned by twice the cold plasma frequency. What makes this four-wave interaction important is that the growth rate of the plasma waves occurs much faster than in the more obvious co-propagating geometry

  16. Is insulin the preferred treatment for HbA1c >9%?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-09-01

    The algorithms and guidelines of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Diabetes Association recommend that insulin administration be strongly considered for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with HbA1c levels exceeding 9.0% and 10%, respectively. Although the caveat is given in both sets of recommendations that this is particularly appropriate when patients are "symptomatic," referring to urinary frequency with increased thirst and appetite, weight loss, and ketosis, the clinical definition of such presentations may be ill-defined, and it is noteworthy that both documents consider insulin to offer particular benefit under such circumstances. However, with multiple options for glycemic treatment, it is of interest to reconsider this argument for insulin use. It should be recalled that in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, diet alone was associated with a reduction in HbA1c from 9% to 7%. Drug-naïve people with T2D do often show surprisingly strong reductions in HbA1c with metformin-based dual-agent oral treatment approaches; a recent report showed that even with baseline HbA1c >11%, the combination of metformin with a sulfonylurea, pioglitazone, or sitagliptin was associated with reduction in HbA1c from 11.6% to 6.0%. A 32-week study of the combination of rosiglitazone with metformin in patients with mean baseline HbA1c 8.9% showed a mean HbA1c reduction of 2.3%, and an open-label cohort with baseline HbA1c 11.8% had a reduction in HbA1c to 7.8%. With metformin plus sitagliptin, a mean placebo-adjusted HbA1c reduction of 2.1% from a baseline of 8.8% was reported, with those patients with baseline HbA1c >9% having a 2.6% reduction in HbA1c, and an open-label cohort with baseline HbA1c 11.2% having a 2.9% reduction in HbA1c. Similar 2% HbA1c reductions from baseline levels of 9.1% were seen with metformin in initial combination with the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin. Although such dual oral agent

  17. Java project on periodontal diseases: effect of vitamin C/calcium threonate/citrus flavonoids supplementation on periodontal pathogens, CRP and HbA1c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaliya, A.; Laine, M.L.; Loos, B.G.; van der Velden, U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess in a periodontally diseased rural population deprived from regular dental care and having poor dietary conditions, the effect of vitamin C/calcium threonate/citrus flavonoids (VitC/Ca/Fl) supplementation on subgingival microbiota and plasma levels of vitamin C, HbA1c and hsCRP.

  18. Anticorrelated Emission of High Harmonics and Fast Electron Beams From Plasma Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocoum, Maïmouna; Thévenet, Maxence; Böhle, Frederik; Beaurepaire, Benoît; Vernier, Aline; Jullien, Aurélie; Faure, Jérôme; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo

    2016-05-06

    We report for the first time on the anticorrelated emission of high-order harmonics and energetic electron beams from a solid-density plasma with a sharp vacuum interface-plasma mirror-driven by an intense ultrashort laser pulse. We highlight the key role played by the nanoscale structure of the plasma surface during the interaction by measuring the spatial and spectral properties of harmonics and electron beams emitted by a plasma mirror. We show that the nanoscale behavior of the plasma mirror can be controlled by tuning the scale length of the electron density gradient, which is measured in situ using spatial-domain interferometry.

  19. Influence of insulin sensitivity and secretion on glycated albumin and hemoglobin A1c in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jiemin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Yuqian; Tao, Minfang; Jia, Weiping

    2013-06-01

    To examine the differential effects of insulin sensitivity and secretion on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) at 24-32weeks of pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional, sequential case series study was performed in pregnant women with an abnormal 50-g oral glucose-screening test. Hemoglobin A1c and GA measurements were taken during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%β), insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), and modified insulinogenic index were calculated to assess insulin sensitivity and secretory function. A total of 713 pregnant women were enrolled. The GDM group had lower ISOGTT and insulinogenic index scores, and a higher HOMA-IR score. Hemoglobin A1c was positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Glycated albumin was negatively correlated with insulinogenic index and HOMA-%β. Multiple regression analysis revealed that HbA1c was independently associated with diastolic pressure, 0- and 120-minute glucose, and HOMA-IR; GA was independently associated with 0- and 120-minute glucose. Compared with HbA1c, GA is more closely correlated with fasting and postprandial glucose, regardless of insulin resistance and blood pressure, and might be a better monitoring index in women with GDM. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hemoglobin A1c can be helpful in predicting progression to diabetes after Whipple procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lisa; Jeyarajah, D Rohan

    2007-01-01

    Normoglycemic patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) often inquire whether they will be diabetic postoperatively. There is limited information on this issue. We therefore looked at a more subtle measurement of long-term glycemic control, hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c), as a prognostic tool in predicting progression to diabetes post Whipple. A retrospective review over a 6-year period of all patients undergoing Whipple procedures at a single institution was conducted. In all, 27 patients had no prior history of diabetes, complete follow-up, and measured preoperative HgbA1c values. Postoperative diabetes was defined as the need for oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. These charts were analyzed for progression to diabetes after Whipple. Of the 27 patients, 10 were considered to have postoperative diabetes. The average preoperative HgbA1c value for these patients was 6.3+/-0.66. This was statistically different from the 17 patients without postoperative diabetes (average HgbA1c 5.2+/-0.39, pWhipple operation if the preoperative HgbA1c value is in the normal range. The apparent utility of HgbA1c in predicting postoperative diabetes in this small study suggests that this laboratory test may be very helpful in counseling patients for Whipple operation.

  1. Fast solar electrons, interplanetary plasma and km-wave type-III radio bursts observed from the IMP-6 spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Lin, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    IMP-6 spacecraft observations of low frequency radio emission, fast electrons, and solar wind plasma are used to examine the dynamics of the fast electron streams which generate solar type-III radio bursts. Of twenty solar electron events observed between April 1971 and August 1972, four were found to be amenable to detailed analysis. Observations of the direction of arrival of the radio emission at different frequencies were combined with the solar wind density and velocity measurements at 1 AU to define an Archimedean spiral trajectory for the radio burst exciter. The propagation characteristics of the exciter and of the fast electrons observed at 1 AU were then compared. It is found that: (1) the fast electrons excite the radio emission at the second harmonic; (2) the total distance travelled by the electrons was between 30 and 70% longer than the length of the smooth spiral defined by the radio observations; (3) this additional distance travelled is the result of scattering of the electrons in the interplanetary medium; (4) the observations are consistent with negligible true energy loss by the fast electrons.(Auth.)

  2. Fasting plasma zeaxanthin response to Fructus barbarum L. (wolfberry; Kei Tze) in a food-based human supplementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chung Yuen; Chung, Wai Yuen; Szeto, Yim Tong; Benzie, Iris F F

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disorder that causes irreversible loss of central vision. Increased intake of foods containing zeaxanthin may be effective in preventing AMD because the macula accumulates zeaxanthin and lutein, oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and blue light-absorbing properties. Lycium barbarum L. is a small red berry known as Fructus lycii and wolfberry in the West, and Kei Tze and Gou Qi Zi in Asia. Wolfberry is rich in zeaxanthin dipalmitate, and is valued in Chinese culture for being good for vision. The aim of this study, which was a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, human intervention trial of parallel design, was to provide data on how fasting plasma zeaxanthin concentration changes as a result of dietary supplementation with whole wolfberries. Fasting blood was collected from healthy, consenting subjects; fourteen subjects took 15 g/d wolfberry (estimated to contain almost 3 mg zeaxanthin) for 28 d. Repeat fasting blood was collected on day 29. Age- and sex-matched controls (n 13) took no wolfberry. Responses in the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. After supplementation, plasma zeaxanthin increased 2.5-fold: mean values on day 1 and 29 were 0.038 (sem 0.003) and 0.096 (sem 0.009) micromol/l (P0.05), respectively, for the control group. This human supplementation trial shows that zeaxanthin in whole wolfberries is bioavailable and that intake of a modest daily amount markedly increases fasting plasma zeaxanthin levels. These new data will support further study of dietary strategies to maintain macular pigment density.

  3. Predictors of HbA1c levels in patients initiating metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martono, Doti P; Hak, Eelko; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo; Wilffert, Bob; Denig, Petra

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to assess demographic and clinical factors as predictors of short (6 months) and long term (18 months) HbA1c levels in diabetes patients initiating metformin treatment. We conducted a cohort study including type 2 diabetes patients who received their first metformin prescription between 2007 and 2013 in the Groningen Initiative to Analyze Type 2 Diabetes Treatment (GIANTT) database. The primary outcome was HbA1c level at follow-up adjusted for baseline HbA1c; the secondary outcome was failing to achieve the target HbA1c level of 53 mmol/mol. Associations were analyzed by linear and logistic regression. Multiple imputation was used for missing data. Additional analyses stratified by dose and adherence level were conducted. The cohort included 6050 patients initiating metformin. Baseline HbA1c at target consistently predicted better HbA1c outcomes. Longer diabetes duration and lower total cholesterol level at baseline were predictors for higher HbA1c levels at 6 months. At 18 months, cholesterol level was not a predictor. Longer diabetes duration was also associated with not achieving the target HbA1c at follow-up. The association for longer diabetes duration was especially seen in patients starting on low dose treatment. No consistent associations were found for comorbidity and comedication. Diabetes duration was a relevant predictor of HbA1c levels after 6 and 18 months of follow-up in patients initiating metformin treatment. Given the study design, no causal inference can be made. Our study suggests that prompt treatment intensification may be needed in patients who have a longer diabetes duration at treatment initiation.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c in diabetes between Eastern and Western.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuang; Liu, Siying; Zhao, Yashuang; Zhang, Wencui; Sun, Xiaohui; Li, Jianing; Jiang, Fuli; Ju, Jiaming; Lang, Ning; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhou, Weiyu; Li, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, the American Diabetes Association recommended the use of HbA1c as a diagnostic criterion for diabetes. However, HbA1c is not an accepted diagnostic tool for diabetes in Eastern Asia, because genetic differences compromise the standardization of the diagnostic cut-off point. This study evaluated differences in the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in Eastern and Western populations and investigated whether HbA1c cut-off point of ≥ 6.5% is diagnostic of diabetes in patients from Eastern Asia. Literature was obtained from MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of each HbA1c cut-off point were extracted and compared between Western and Eastern populations. Differences in the cut-off point for diagnosing diabetes in each region were compared by examining differences in the area under summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. Twelve publications from Eastern countries (n = 59,735) and 13 from Western countries (n = 22,954) were included in the analysis. Areas under SROC curves in the Eastern and Western groups were 0.9331 and 0.9120, respectively (P = 0.98). The cut-off point of the highest Youden index was 6.0%. At the HbA1c cut-off point of 6.5%, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 58.7% and 98.4% for Eastern countries and 65.5% and 98.1% for Western countries, respectively. HbA1c exhibits the same diagnostic value for diabetes in Eastern and Western populations. In both populations, HbA1c levels > 6.0% identify the population at high risk of diabetes, and HbA1c > 6.5% is diagnostic of clinically established diabetes. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Dyslipidemia and reference values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations in Danish/North-European White children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, Christine; Pedersen, Lise; Bratholm, Palle Skov; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-04-28

    Dyslipidemia is reported in 27 - 43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to generate fasting plasma lipid references for a Danish/North-European White population-based cohort of children and adolescents, and investigate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this cohort as well as in a cohort with overweight/obesity. A population-based cohort of 2141 (1275 girls) children and adolescents aged 6 - 19 (median 11.5) years was recruited from 11 municipalities in Denmark. Additionally, a cohort of children and adolescents of 1421 (774 girls) with overweight/obesity aged 6 - 19 years (median 11.8) was recruited for the study. Height, weight, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were measured on all participants. Smoothed reference curves and percentiles were generated using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape package in the statistical software R. In the population-based cohort, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) (P dyslipidemia was 6.4% in the population-based cohort and 28.0% in the cohort with overweight/obesity. The odds ratio for exhibiting dyslipidemia in the cohort with overweight/obesity compared with the population-based cohort was 6.2 (95% CI: 4.9 - 8.1, P dyslipidemia. The study is part of The Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank; ClinicalTrials.gov ID-no.: NCT00928473 retrospectively registered on June 25th 2009.

  6. Impact of HbA1c Testing at Point of Care on Diabetes Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Oliver; Crocker, J. Benjamin; Weng, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a highly prevalent disease also implicated in the development of several other serious complications like cardiovascular or renal disease. HbA1c testing is a vital step for effective diabetes management, however, given the low compliance to testing frequency and, commonly, a subsequent delay in the corresponding treatment modification, HbA1c at the point of care (POC) offers an opportunity for improvement of diabetes care. In this review, based on data from 1999 to 2016, we summarize the evidence supporting a further implementation of HbA1c testing at POC, discuss its limitations and propose recommendations for further development. PMID:27898388

  7. Rydberg gas theory of a glow discharge plasma: I. Application to the electrical behaviour of a fast flowing glow discharge plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rod S; Mitchell, David J; Dickinson, Paul M

    2010-04-21

    Current-voltage (I-V) curves have been measured, independent of the main discharge, for electricity passing through the steady state fast flowing 'afterglow' plasma of a low power dc glow discharge in Ar. Voltage profiles along the axial line of conduction have been mapped using fixed probes and potentiometry, and the mass spectra of cations emerging from the downstream sampling Cone, also acting as a probe anode, were recorded simultaneously. Floating double probe experiments were also carried out. The electrical behavior is consistent with the well established I-V characteristics of such discharges, but does not comply with classical plasma theory predictions. The plasma decays along the line of conduction, with a lifetime of approximately 1 ms, despite carrying a steady state current, and its potential is below that of the large surface area anode voltage; a situation which cannot exist in the presence of a conventional free ion-electron plasma, unless the electron temperature is super cold. Currents, large by comparison with the main discharge current, and independent of it, are induced to flow through the downstream plasma, from the Anode (acting as a cathode) to the anodic ion exit Cone, induced by electron impact ionisation at the anode, but without necessarily increasing the plasma density. It appears to be conducted by direct charge transfer between a part of the anode surface (acting as cathode to the auxiliary circuit) and the plasma, without secondary electron emission or heating, which suggests the direct involvement of Rydberg atom intermediates. The reaction energy defect (= the work function of the electrode surface) fits with the plasma potential threshold observed for the cathodic reaction to occur. A true free ion-electron plasma is readily detected by the observation of cations at the anode surface, when induced at the downstream anode, at high bias voltages, by the electron impact ionisation in the boundary region. In contrast to the classical

  8. Fast Plasma Investigation for MMS: Simulation of the Burst Triggering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, A. C.; Dorelli, J. C.; Winkert, G. E.; Lobell, J. V.; Holland, M. P.; Adrian, M. L.; Pollock, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will study small-scale reconnection structures and their rapid motions from closely spaced platforms using instruments capable of high angular, energy, and time resolution measurements. To meet these requirements, the Fast Plasma Instrument (FPI) consists of eight (8) identical half top-hat electron sensors and eight (8) identical ion sensors and an Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). The sensors (electron or ion) are grouped into pairs whose 6 degree x 180 degree fields-of-view (FOV) are set 90 degrees apart. Each sensor is equipped with electrostatic aperture steering to allow the sensor to scan a 45 degree x 180 degree fan about the its nominal viewing (0 deflection) direction. Each pair of sensors, known as the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) and the Dual Ion Spectrometer (DIS), occupies a quadrant on the MMS spacecraft and the combination of the eight electron/ion sensors, employing aperture steering, image the full-sky every 30-ms (electrons) and 150-ms (ions), respectively. To probe the diffusion regions of reconnection, the highest temporal/spatial resolution mode of FPI results in the DES complement of a given spacecraft generating 6.5-Mb (raised dot) per second of electron data while the DIS generates 1.1-Mb (raised dot) per second of ion data yielding an FPI total data rate of 6.6-Mb (raised dot) per second. The FPI electron/ion data is collected by the IDPU then transmitted to the Central Data Instrument Processor (CIDP) on the spacecraft for science interest ranking. Only data sequences that contain the greatest amount of temporal/spatial structure will be intelligently down-linked by the spacecraft. This requires a data ranking process known as the burst trigger system. The burst trigger system uses pseudo physical quantities to approximate the local plasma environments. As each pseudo quantity will have a different value, a set of two scaling factors is employed for each pseudo term. These pseudo

  9. Frontiers of beam diagnostics in plasma accelerators: Measuring the ultra-fast and ultra-cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchi, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bisesto, F.; Chiadroni, E.; Curcio, A.; Ferrario, M.; Giribono, A.; Marocchino, A.; Pompili, R.; Scifo, J.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Mostacci, A.; Bacci, A.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Zigler, A.

    2018-05-01

    Advanced diagnostics are essential tools in the development of plasma-based accelerators. The accurate measurement of the quality of beams at the exit of the plasma channel is crucial to optimize the parameters of the plasma accelerator. 6D electron beam diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on emittance measurement, which is particularly complex due to large energy spread and divergence of the emerging beams, and on femtosecond bunch length measurements.

  10. Plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine responses to different nutritional conditions (fasting/postprandial) in patients with phenylketonuria: effect of sample timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spronsen, F J; van Rijn, M; van Dijk, T; Smit, G P; Reijngoud, D J; Berger, R; Heymans, H S

    1993-10-01

    To evaluate the adequacy of dietary treatment in patients with phenylketonuria, the monitoring of plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations is of great importance. The preferable time of blood sampling in relation to the nutritional condition during the day, however, is not known. It was the aim of this study to define guidelines for the timing of blood sampling with a minimal burden for the patient. Plasma concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine were measured in nine patients with phenylketonuria who had no clinical evidence of tyrosine deficiency. These values were measured during the day both after a prolonged overnight fast, and before and after breakfast. Phenylalanine showed a small rise during prolonged fasting, while tyrosine decreased slightly. After an individually tailored breakfast, phenylalanine remained stable, while tyrosine showed large fluctuations. It is concluded that the patient's nutritional condition (fasting/postprandial) is not important in the evaluation of the phenylalanine intake. To detect a possible tyrosine deficiency, however, a single blood sample is not sufficient and a combination of a preprandial and postprandial blood sample on the same day is advocated.

  11. Association of fibrinogen with HbA1C in diabetic foot ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, M. A.; Gatot, D.; Lindarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Fibrinogen is one of the inflammatory markers of vascular changes and endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients. The aim of this study to associate serum fibrinogen levels with HbA1C in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). This study was cross-sectional and retrospective in DFU patients from January to July 2017 in Haji Adam Malik Central General Hospital. The patients enrolled in the study were T2DM with DFU as a complication. The grading of DFU was evaluated according to the Wagner’s Classification. Serum fibrinogen level, HbA1C and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were carried out directly in the patients. Fibrinogen serum levels were found significantly with HbA1C (P=0.001, r=0.387) and ABI (P=0.008, r=-0.454). Fibrinogen serum levels in DFU patients were positively correlated with HbA1C and significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control.

  12. Hemoglobine A1c. Ontwikkeling van een bepalingsmethode en enige klinische toepassingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Kornelis

    1981-01-01

    In dit proefschrift wordt een kolomchromatografische bepalingsmethode van het HbA1c beschreven. Het belang van deze bepaling voor de controle van patiënten met diabetes mellites wordt in een aantal klinische studies nagegaan. ... Zie: Samenvatting

  13. Fast mega pixels video imaging of a toroidal plasma in KT5D device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Min; Wang Zhijiang; Lu Ronghua; Sun Xiang; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Wang Jun; Xiao Delong; Yu Yi; Zhu Zhenghua; Hu Linyin

    2005-01-01

    A direct imaging system, viewing visible light emission from plasmas tangentially or perpendicularly, has been set up on the KT5D toroidal device to monitor the real two-dimensional profiles of purely ECR generated plasmas. This system has a typical spatial resolution of 0.2 mm (1280x1024 pixels) when imaging the whole cross section. Interesting features of ECR plasmas have been found. Different from what classical theories have expected, a resonance layer with two or three bright spots, rather than an even vertical band, has been observed. In addition, images also indicate an intermittent splitting and drifting character of the plasmas

  14. Barriers to A1C testing among a managed care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaronde, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore reasons adults with diabetes do not receive at least 2 A1C tests per year as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). ConnectiCare, a regional managed care company based in Farmington, Connecticut, identified adult members with diabetes who did not have a medical claim for an A1C laboratory test from their physician. A questionnaire was sent to 740 randomly selected members asking them to report the number of A1C tests they received in the past 12 months and reasons for not receiving the number of tests recommended by the ADA. After sending an automated telephone reminder to nonrespondents, a 26% (n = 192) response rate was achieved. Thirty-three percent of respondents (n = 63) reported having diabetes and receiving fewer than 2 A1C tests in the past year. Respondents were equally divided between men and women, with a mean age of 58 years. The primary reasons given for not obtaining at least 2 A1C tests as recommended by the ADA were that respondents were unaware that the test is recommended (49%), not informed of the need for the test by their physician (38%), never heard of the A1C test (33%), and not seen regularly by their physician (19%). Diabetes self-management education remains an important means of encouraging adherence to important ADA recommendations such as regular A1C testing. Barriers to A1C testing can be addressed in multiple settings, including individual and group education, disease management programs, and physician education.

  15. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes and trajectories of change in episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Colleen; Andel, Ross; Infurna, Frank J; Seetharaman, Shyam

    2017-02-01

    As the ageing population grows, it is important to identify strategies to moderate cognitive ageing. We examined glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and diabetes in relation to level and change in episodic memory in older adults with and without diabetes. Data from 4419 older adults with (n=950) and without (n=3469) diabetes participating in a nationally representative longitudinal panel study (the Health and Retirement Study) were examined. Average baseline age was 72.66 years and 58% were women. HbA1c was measured in 2006 and episodic memory was measured using immediate and delayed list recall over 4 biennial waves between 2006 and 2012. Growth curve models were used to assess trajectories of episodic memory change. In growth curve models adjusted for age, sex, education, race, depressive symptoms and waist circumference, higher HbA1c levels and having diabetes were associated with poorer baseline episodic memory (p=0.036 and HbA1c on episodic memory decline was smaller than the effect of age. The results were stronger for women than men and were not modified by age or race. When the main analyses were estimated for those with and without diabetes separately, HbA1c was significantly linked to change in episodic memory only among those with diabetes. Higher HbA1c and diabetes were both associated with declines in episodic memory, with this relationship further exacerbated by having diabetes and elevated HbA1c. HbA1c appeared more important for episodic memory performance among women than men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c assay performance on two different commercial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Ćorić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is formed by non-enzymatic binding of glucose to the free amino group of the N-terminal end of the ß-chain of hemoglobin A. HbA1c is representative of the mean blood glucose level over three months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hemoglobin A1c immunoturbidimetric assay performance on two different commercial systems.Methods: We evaluated the precision and trueness for determination of HbA1c in whole blood. Concentrations of total hemoglobin and HbA1c were evaluated on Dimension Xpand (Siemens and Cobas 501 (Roche analyzers. HbA1c was measured in a latex agglutination inhibition test. Commercial controls Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 1 and Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 2 (Bio Rad at two levels were used for quality control. Analytical validation of HbA1c included: within-run imprecision, between-day imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison determination on the human samples on 2 systems: Dimension Xpand and Cobas 501 analyzers. Results: Within-run imprecision on the commercially controls for Level 1 is 4.5% and Level 2 is 3.2% between-day imprecision on commercially controls is 6.1% Level 1 and 5.1% Level 2 for respectively inac- curacy on commercially controls for Level 1 is 1.8% and Level 2 is 4.8%. Method comparison on human samples shows the correlation coefficient of 0.99.Conclusion: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HbA1c showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  17. Lipid and liver abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanna, S; Scicali, R; Di Pino, A; Knop, F K; Piro, S; Rabuazzo, A M; Purrello, F

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and liver steatosis in patients with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to individuals with HbA1c-defined normoglycaemia. Ninety-one subjects with prediabetes according to HbA1c, i.e. from 5.7 to 6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol), 50 newly diagnosed patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48 mmol/mol]), and 67 controls with HbA1c lower than 5.7% (prediabetes were characterised by: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure, triglycerides levels and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, similar BARD score, and higher total body fat mass. In comparison to subjects with diabetes, subjects with prediabetes exhibited: similar blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, similar FLI, reduced prevalence of and less severe hepatic steatosis, lower BARD score, increased percent fat and lower total body muscle mass. In comparison to controls, subjects with diabetes showed: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure and triglycerides levels, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, higher BARD score, and higher total body muscle mass. Moreover, HbA1c was correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, AST, and ALT. Subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively, are characterised by abnormalities in lipid profile and liver steatosis, thus exhibiting a severe risk profile for cardiovascular and liver diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing risk profiles of individuals diagnosed with diabetes by OGTT and HbA1c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, R.; Vistisen, D.; Witte, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has been proposed as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes. We compared the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals identified by these two alternative methods.......Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has been proposed as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes. We compared the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals identified by these two alternative methods....

  19. Stability study for magnetic reagent assaying Hb and HbA1c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin [Actherm Inc., Hsinchu 200, Taiwan (China); Chieh, J.J.; Yang, C.C. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yang, S.Y. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); MagQu Co., Ltd., Sindian Dist., New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Yu; Huang, Yu-Hao [Actherm Inc., Hsinchu 200, Taiwan (China); Hong, Y.W. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Horng, H.E., E-mail: phyfv001@ntnu.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Reagents for magnetically labeled immunoassay on human Hb and human HbA1c have been synthesized. The reagents consist of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic particles biofunctionalized with antibodies against Hb and HbA1c. It has been demonstrated that the reagents can be applied to quantitatively detect Hb and HbA1c by using immunomagnetic reduction assay. In addition to characterizing the assay properties, such as the standard curve and the low-detection limit, the stability of reagents is investigated. To do this, the temporal dependence of particle sizes and the bio-activity of reagents are monitored. The results show that the reagents are highly stable when stored at 2-8 Degree-Sign C. This means that the reagents synthesized in this work are promising for practical applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of assaying Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies are highly stable in solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant mutual interference between Hb and HbA1c in assays is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-sensitivity assays on Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are achieved.

  20. Stability study for magnetic reagent assaying Hb and HbA1c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Chieh, J.J.; Yang, C.C.; Yang, S.Y.; Chen, Po-Yu; Huang, Yu-Hao; Hong, Y.W.; Horng, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    Reagents for magnetically labeled immunoassay on human Hb and human HbA1c have been synthesized. The reagents consist of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic particles biofunctionalized with antibodies against Hb and HbA1c. It has been demonstrated that the reagents can be applied to quantitatively detect Hb and HbA1c by using immunomagnetic reduction assay. In addition to characterizing the assay properties, such as the standard curve and the low-detection limit, the stability of reagents is investigated. To do this, the temporal dependence of particle sizes and the bio-activity of reagents are monitored. The results show that the reagents are highly stable when stored at 2–8 °C. This means that the reagents synthesized in this work are promising for practical applications. - Highlights: ► The properties of assaying Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are studied. ► The magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies are highly stable in solutions. ► No significant mutual interference between Hb and HbA1c in assays is observed. ► High-sensitivity assays on Hb and HbA1c using immunomagnetic reduction are achieved.

  1. Evaluation of the DCA Vantage analyzer for HbA 1c assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymezak, Jean; Leroy, Nathalie; Lavalard, Emmanuelle; Gillery, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of HbA 1c is key in monitoring diabetic patients in both laboratories and clinical units, where HbA 1c results are used as part of patient education. We have evaluated the DCA Vantage, a new device for immunological assay of HbA 1c. HbA 1c results obtained were evaluated in terms of precision, linearity, specificity and practicability, and were compared with results obtained by a Variant II HPLC method. The method exhibited intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation lower than 2.6% and 4.0%, respectively, and good correlation with the comparison HPLC method (r2=0.9776). No interference was noted in the presence of labile HbA 1c or carbamylated hemoglobin. The new device exhibited improved practicability characteristics and allowed better sample identification, better management of quality control routines and greater connectivity possibilities compared to the previous DCA 2000 analyzer. This new analyzer exhibited analytical and practical characteristics very suitable for HbA 1c assay for laboratory or point-of-care use according to good laboratory practice.

  2. Fast tomographic measurements of temperature in an air plasma cutting torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Jan; Šonský, Jiří; Gruber, Jan; Cressault, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 10 (2016), č. článku 105202. ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : air plasma * cutting torch * tomography Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  3. HbA1c for diagnosis and prognosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Sung; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong-Won; Kim, Young-Han; Lim, Jong-Baeck

    2015-10-01

    HbA1c is a widely used marker in diagnosing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but its clinical utility in diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is not established. Here, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of HbA1c in diagnosing GDM and predicting the risk of future type 2 DM development among GDM patients. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 321 subjects who underwent 100-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) during pregnancy. HbA1c and other variables were analyzed to evaluate their diagnostic performance for GDM. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of HbA1c in predicting future type 2 DM development, we classified GDM subjects who had more than 3 months of follow-up data into two subgroups: those who developed postpartum type 2 DM (PDM) and those who did not. HbA1c was significantly higher in the GDM group than in the normal control group. With the 100-g OGTT as reference, HbA1c showed 91.3% sensitivity and 62% specificity at a cut-off value of 5.05% (32 mmol/mol) for GDM diagnosis. At a cut-off value of 5.25% (34 mmol/mol), sensitivity was 73.6% and specificity was 77.2%. HbA1c levels during pregnancy were higher in those with PDM than in those without PDM (5.91 [41 mmol/mol] vs. 5.44% [36 mmol/mol], p<0.001). The prognostic value of HbA1c for PDM was evaluated by ROC curve analysis, with sensitivity of 78.6% and specificity of 72.5% at a cut-off value of 5.55% (37 mmol/mol). HbA1c showed high sensitivity with relatively low specificity for diagnosis of GDM in pregnant women and was a potential predictor of PDM. HbA1c may be able to be used as a simple and less invasive alternative screening test for OGTT in GDM patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. HbA1c Test as a Tool in the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Breitenbach Renz

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a prevalent and potentially serious condition which may put both mothers and neonates at risk. The current recommendation for diagnosis is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. This study aimed to determine the usefulness of HbA1c test as a diagnostic tool for GDM as compared to the traditional criteria based on the OGTT.This was a diagnostic test accuracy study. We performed OGTT and HbA1c test in women attending prenatal visits at a tertiary hospital. GDM was defined according to WHO1999 or ADA/WHO 2013 criteria. ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of HbA1c. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios for different HbA1c cut-off points were calculated.Of the 262 women in the third trimester of gestation enrolled in the study, 86 (33% were diagnosed with GDM. Only five of these women presented HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%. This cut-off point presented 100% specificity but very low sensitivity (7%. Based on ROC curve, and considering OGTT as the reference criterion, HbA1c ≥40 mmol/mol (5.8% showed adequate specificity in diagnosing GDM (94.9% but low sensitivity (26.4%. Unlike, HbA1c values of 31 mmol/mol (5.0% presented adequate sensitivity (89.7% but low specificity (32.6% to detect GDM. For women with HbA1c ≥40 mmol/mol (5.8%, the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.14 (95%CI 2.49-10.63 and 0.78 (0.68-0.88, respectively. The post-test probability of GDM was about 40%, representing a 4.0-fold increase in the mean pre-test probability. This cut-off point could eliminate the need for the unpleasant and laborious OGTT tests in almost one third of cases, as 38% of patients with GDM may be diagnosable by HbA1c test alone.Our results show that combined HbA1c and OGTT measurements may be useful in diagnosing GDM.

  5. Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Lindeberg, Staffan; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that a Palaeolithic diet consisting of the typical food groups that our ancestors ate during the Palaeolithic era, improves cardiovascular disease risk factors and glucose control compared to the currently recommended diabetes diet in patients with type 2...... diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned...

  6. Two Dual Ion Spectrometer Flight Units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi

    2014-01-01

    Two Dual Ion Spectrometer flight units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have returned to MSFC for flight testing. Anticipated to begin on June 30, tests will ensue in the Low Energy Electron and Ion Facility of the Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office (ZP13), managed by Dr. Victoria Coffey of the Natural Environments Branch of the Engineering Directorate (EV44). The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft, whose purpose is to study magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere.

  7. Ions and electrons thermal effects on the fast-slow mode conversion process in a three components plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Gomberoff, L.

    1977-07-01

    Fast-slow mode conversion in a deuterium plasma with a small amount of hydrogen impurity, for frequencies close to the two-ion hybrid frequency, is investigated. It is shown that while electron thermal effects tend to inhibit the wave conversion process, ion thermal effects tend to restore, qualitatively, the cold plasma properties, favouring therefore, the energy exchange between the two modes. The aforementioned effects are competitive for zetasub(o)sup(e)=1/nsub(parall).vsub(e)>=1. For zetasub(o)sup(e)<=1, electron thermal effects, in particular Landau damping, dominate over ion Larmor radius effects, drastically diminishing the wave conversion efficacy. For zetasub(o)sup(e)<<1, the coupling between the modes disappears altogether

  8. Study, realization and operation of a fast amplitude selector for X-ray spectrometry in thermonuclear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, P.

    1986-06-01

    A semiconductor diode detector is here used to measure soft X radiation emitted by a plasma. Energetic resolution, in this case, is enough for electron study to improve time resolution - for use on Petula - a fast amplitude selector has been used with a good channel number. The Si(Li) diode X spectrometry system is detailed. For amplitude coder, ''video coders'' have been chosen which are parallel coders in integrated circuits. The different modules (coder rock memory one, visualization, Camac interface) of the multichannel analyzer are presented. Amplitude, selector characteristics are detailed, they are measured with pulses directly applied to the coder stage. Measurements made with the complete spectrometry system are shown; they are made successively with radioactive sources ( 55 Fe and 93 Nb), with a simulation generator and with the X radiation of Petula plasma [fr

  9. Space and velocity distributions of fast ions in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Lutsenko, V.V.; Lisak, M.; Wising, F.

    1994-01-01

    General expressions in terms of the orbit averaged distribution function are obtained for local characteristic quantities of fast ions, such as the velocity distribution, energy density and power deposition. The resulting expressions are applied to the case of a very peaked production profile of fast ions, characterized by particularly strong orbital effects. It is shown that in this case the radial profiles of the fast ions can be qualitatively different from the source profile, being e.g. strongly non-monotonic. The analysis is carried out for a straight as well as for a tokamak magnetic field. It is predicted that marginally co-passing and semi-trapped particles (i.e. particles that are trapped in only one azimuthal direction) can be transformed to trapped and circulating particles due to electron drag. This leads to e.g. different distribution functions of fast ions in the cases of co- or counter-injection. Collisional constants of motion are obtained

  10. HbA1c as a predictor of diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Rickard; Ignell, Claes; Shaat, Nael; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2017-02-01

    We wanted to investigate third-trimester HbA1c as a predictor of diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Women with GDM were followed up prospectively for five years from pregnancy to detect the development of diabetes. The ability of HbA1c to predict diabetes was evaluated with receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression analysis. By five years, 73 of 196 women had been diagnosed with diabetes. An optimal cut-off point for HbA1c of 36mmol/mol (5.4%) could predict diabetes with 45% sensitivity and 92% specificity. For HbA1c ≥39mmol/mol (≥5.7%), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 30%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. In logistic regression analysis, adjusting for the diagnostic glucose concentration during pregnancy, HbA1c levels in the upper quartile (≥36mmol/mol) were associated with a 5.5-fold increased risk of diabetes. Third-trimester HbA1c levels in the pre-diabetes range revealed women with post-partum diabetes with high specificity and high positive predictive value. HbA1c testing could be used as a strategy to select high-risk women for lifestyle interventions aimed at prevention of diabetes starting during pregnancy. The results should encourage further validation in other populations using new diagnostic criteria for GDM. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of HbA1c in predicting risk for congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Sahar Ali Ibrahim; Hakeem, Rubina

    2015-12-01

    Association between conventionally identified hyperglycemias and rates of congenital abnormalities is known; however there is less information about role of HbA1c in determining gestational hyperglycemias and associated risks. This study tried to explore the association between HbA1c in women without known diabetes at first antenatal visit and risk of congenital malformations (CM) among Saudi women living at Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. Eleven hundred and eighty (1180), healthy, first-trimester pregnant Saudi females without known diabetes, were selected from various antenatal care clinics of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah city. General clinical and biochemical data was collected for this study by researchers at first visit and the time of delivery. Nearly one fifth (19.6%) of mothers had above normal HbA1c (>5.7) at first visit. Rates of CM had significant positive association with level of HbA1c. Rate of CM among those who had HbA1c in diabetes range, pre-diabetes range or normal range was 27.8%, 9.8% and 3.0%, respectively. The difference was significant between normal and pre-diabetes at the level P=0.000 and between pre-diabetes and diabetes at level P=0.038. In this study HbA1c is found to be a valuable predictor of risk of congenital malformations. This observation calls for further studies and establishment of policies for care of pregnant mothers having higher than normal HbA1c at first visit. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ITER Plasma at Ion Cyclotron Frequency Domain: The Fusion Alpha Particles Diagnostics Based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Fast Magnetosonic Wave off High Harmonic Ion Bernstein Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-10-01

    A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.

  13. Ion acceleration in non-equilibrium plasmas driven by fast drifting electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S.Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Di Bartolo, F., E-mail: fdibartolo@unime.it [Università di Messina, V.le F. Stagno D’Alcontres 31, 98166, Messina (Italy); Gambino, N. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per L’ingegneria, Viale A.Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F.P. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IBAM Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Anzalone, A.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Di Giugno, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S.Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanaia, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Miracoli, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S.Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serafino, T. [CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Tudisco, S. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    We hereby present results on ion acceleration mechanisms in non equilibrium plasmas generated by microwaves or high intensity laser pulses. Experiments point out that in magnetized plasmas X–B conversion takes place for under resonance values of the magnetic field, i.e. an electromagnetic mode is converted into an electrostatic wave. The strong self-generated electric field, of the order of 10{sup 7} V/m, causes a E × B drift which accelerates both ions and electrons, as it is evident by localized sputtering in the plasma chamber. These fields are similar (in magnitude) to the ones obtainable in laser generated plasmas at intensity of 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}. In this latter case, we observe that the acceleration mechanism is driven by electrons drifting much faster than plasma bulk, thus generating an extremely strong electric field ∼10{sup 7} V/m. The two experiments confirm that ions acceleration at low energy is possible with table-top devices and following complementary techniques: i.e. by using microwave-driven (producing CW beams) plasmas, or non-equilibrium laser-driven plasmas (producing pulsed beams). Possible applications involve ion implantation, materials surface modifications, ion beam assisted lithography, etc.

  14. Fast waves mode conversion and energy deposition in simulated, pre-heated, neoclassical, tight aspect ratio tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics and Astronomy; Coll. of Judea and Samaria, Ariel (Israel); Cuperman, S. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics and Astronomy

    2000-11-01

    Some basic aspects of wave-plasma interaction of special interest for tight aspect ratio (spherical) tokamaks (ST's) are investigated numerically; these aspects include fast mode conversion and energy deposition. The study is based on the numerical solution of the full electro-magnetic (e.m.) wave equation which includes a quite general two-fluid, resistive MHD dielectric tensor, with consideration of equilibrium current and neoclassical effects. A generalized expression for the power absorption appropriate for the above scenario, with consideration of all the basic effects also present in the dielectric tensor-operator, was derived and used. The current-carrying ST-plasma has a circular cross-section and toroidicity effects are simulated by a Grad-Shafranov type, radially dependent axial magnetic field and its shear; however, the Shafranov shift is not considered. Actually, the equilibrium parameters and radial profiles (magnetic field, pressure and current) observed in the low field side (LFS) of spherical tokamaks (viz., START at Culham, UK) are used. Fast magnetosonic waves are launched from an external antenna into this simulated spherical tokamak plasma; these waves are converted to Alfven waves at points (layers) satisfying the Alfven resonance condition. Quantitative-results concerning (i) the structure and space dependence of the mode-converted Alfven waves and (ii) the basic features of the deposited power are presented. Their dependence on the equilibrium plasma current, neoclassical resistivity and electron inertia as well as on those of the antenna launched wave (wave numbers, frequency and current intensity) is systematically studied and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Fast waves mode conversion and energy deposition in simulated, pre-heated, neoclassical, tight aspect ratio tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Some basic aspects of wave-plasma interaction of special interest for tight aspect ratio (spherical) tokamaks (ST's) are investigated numerically; these aspects include fast mode conversion and energy deposition. The study is based on the numerical solution of the full electro-magnetic (e.m.) wave equation which includes a quite general two-fluid, resistive MHD dielectric tensor, with consideration of equilibrium current and neoclassical effects. A generalized expression for the power absorption appropriate for the above scenario, with consideration of all the basic effects also present in the dielectric tensor-operator, was derived and used. The current-carrying ST-plasma has a circular cross-section and toroidicity effects are simulated by a Grad-Shafranov type, radially dependent axial magnetic field and its shear; however, the Shafranov shift is not considered. Actually, the equilibrium parameters and radial profiles (magnetic field, pressure and current) observed in the low field side (LFS) of spherical tokamaks (viz., START at Culham, UK) are used. Fast magnetosonic waves are launched from an external antenna into this simulated spherical tokamak plasma; these waves are converted to Alfven waves at points (layers) satisfying the Alfven resonance condition. Quantitative-results concerning (i) the structure and space dependence of the mode-converted Alfven waves and (ii) the basic features of the deposited power are presented. Their dependence on the equilibrium plasma current, neoclassical resistivity and electron inertia as well as on those of the antenna launched wave (wave numbers, frequency and current intensity) is systematically studied and discussed. (orig.)

  16. Development of fast video recording of plasma interaction with a lithium limiter on T-11M tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarev, V.B., E-mail: v_lazarev@triniti.ru [SSC RF TRINITI Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dzhurik, A.S.; Shcherbak, A.N. [SSC RF TRINITI Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belov, A.M. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The paper presents the results of the study of tokamak plasma interaction with lithium capillary-porous system limiters and PFC by high-speed color camera. • Registration of emission near the target in SOL in neutral lithium light and e-folding length for neutral Lithium measurements. • Registration of effect of MHD instabilities on CPS Lithium limiter. • A sequence of frames shows evolution of lithium bubble on the surface of lithium limiter. • View of filament structure near the plasma edge in ohmic mode. - Abstract: A new high-speed color camera with interference filters was installed for fast video recording of plasma-surface interaction with a Lithium limiter on the base of capillary-porous system (CPS) in T-11M tokamak vessel. The paper presents the results of the study of tokamak plasma interaction (frame exposure time up to 4 μs) with CPS Lithium limiter in a stable stationary phase, unstable regimes with internal disruption and results of processing of the image of the light emission around the probe, i.e. e-folding length for neutral Lithium penetration and e-folding length for Lithium ion flux in SOL region.

  17. Fast Waves Mode Conversion and Energy Deposition in Simulated, Pre-Heated, Neoclassical, Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C.; Cuperman, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    1999-01-01

    Some basic aspects of wave-plasma interaction of interest for tight aspect ratio spherical tokamaks are investigated theoretically. The following scenario is considered: A. Fast magnetosonic waves are launched by an external antenna into a simulated spherical Tokamak plasma; these waves are converted to Alfven waves at points (layer) satisfying the Alfven resonance condition. B. The simulated spherical tokamaks-plasma has a circular cross-section and toroidicity effects are simulated by Grad-Shafranov type, radially dependent axial magnetic field and its shear. (J. Actual equilibrium profiles (magnetic field, pressure and current) observed in the low field side (LFS) of spherical tokamaks (viz., START at Culham, UK) are used. D. The study is based on the numerical solution of the full e.m. wave equation which includes a quite general resistive MHD dielectric tensor, with consideration of equilibrium current and neoclassical effects. Two kinds of results will be presented: I. Proofs validating the computational algorithm used and including convergence and energy conservation. II. Exact quantitative results concerning (i) the structure and space dependence of the mode-converted Alfven waves and (ii) the basic features of the deposited p over . The dependence of the results on the launched wave characteristics (wave numbers, frequency and intensity) as well as on those of the equilibrium plasma (equilibrium current, neoclassical resistivity and electron inertia) will be discussed

  18. The Role of Metformin Response in Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Recent-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: HbA1c Level as a Criterion for Designating Patients as Responders or Nonresponders to Metformin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kashi

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated whether response to metformin, the most frequently drug for diabetes treatment, influences the therapeutic effects of antilipidemic medication in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.A total of 150 patients with T2DM were classified into two groups following 3 months of metformin therapy (1000 mg twice daily: responders (patients showing ≥1% reduction in HbA1c from baseline and nonresponders (patients showing <1% reduction in HbA1c from baseline. The patients received atorvastatin 20 mg, gemfibrozil 300 mg, or atorvastatin 20 mg and gemfibrozil 300 mg daily.HbA1c and fasting glucose levels were significantly different between baseline and 3 months among responders receiving atorvastatin; however, these differences were not statistically significant in nonresponders. Atherogenic ratios of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C; p = 0.002, total cholesterol to HDL-C (TC/HDL-C; p<0.001 and AIP (the atherogenic index of plasma; p = 0.004 decreased significantly in responders receiving atorvastatin than in nonresponders. Moreover, responders receiving atorvastatin showed a significant increase in HDL-C levels but nonresponders receiving atorvastatin did not (p = 0.007. The multivariate model identified a significant association between metformin response (as the independent variable and TG, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C (dependent variables; Wilk's λ = 0.927, p = 0.036.Metformin response affects therapeutic outcomes of atorvastatin on atherogenic lipid markers in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM. Metformin has a greater impact on BMI in responders of metformin compared to nonresponders. Adoption of better therapeutic strategies for reducing atherogenic lipid markers may be necessary for metformin nonresponders.

  19. Kinetic magnetization by fast electrons in laser-produced plasmas at sub-relativistic intensities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pisarczyk, T.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Chodukowski, T.; Dudžák, Roman; Korneev, Ph.; Demchenko, N. N.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dostál, Jan; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Borodziuk, S.; Juha, Libor; Cikhardt, Jakub; Krása, Josef; Klír, Daniel; Cikhardtová, B.; Kubeš, P.; Krouský, Eduard; Krůs, Miroslav; Ullschmied, Jiří; Jungwirth, Karel; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš; Golasowski, Jiří; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Renner, Oldřich; Singh, Sushil K.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 102711. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * femtosecond polaro-interferometry * spontaneous magnetic fiel * spatial and temporal electron density distribution Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016

  20. Neue biosensorische Prinzipien für die Hämoglobin-A1c Bestimmung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöllner, Daniela

    2002-06-01

    Hämoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) ist ein Hämoglobin (Hb)-Subtypus, der durch nicht-enzymatische Glykierung des N-terminalen Valinrestes der Hämoglobin-beta-Kette entsteht. Das gemessene Verhältnis von HbA1c zum Gesamt-Hämoglobin (5-20 % bei Diabetikern) repräsentiert den Mittelwert der Blutglucosekonzentration über einen zweimonatigen Zeitraum und stellt zur Beurteilung der diabetischen Stoffwechsellage eine Ergänzung zur Akutkontrolle der Glukosekonzentration dar. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, einen amperometrischen Biosensor für die Bestimmung des medizinisch relevanten Parameters HbA1c zu entwickeln. Durch Selektion geeigneter Bioerkennungselemente und deren Immobilisierung unter Erhalt der Bindungsfunktion für die Zielmoleküle Hämoglobin bzw. HbA1c wurden spezifische, hochaffine und regenerationsstabile Sensoroberflächen geschaffen. Für die Entwicklung des HbA1c-Biosensors wurden zwei Konzepte - Enzymsensor und Immunosensor - miteinander verglichen. Die enzymatische Umsetzung von HbA1c erfolgte mit der Fructosylamin Oxidase (FAO) aus Pichia pastoris N 1-1 unter Freisetzung von H2O2, welches sowohl optisch über eine Indikatorreaktion als auch elektrochemisch nach Einschluss der FAO in PVA-SbQ und Fixierung des Immobilisats vor einer H2O2-Elektrode nachgewiesen wurde. Die Kalibration des Enzymsensors mit der HbA1c-Modellsubstanz Fructosyl-Valin ergab Nachweisgrenzen, die ausserhalb des physiologisch relevanten HbA1c-Konzentrationsbereich lagen. Aus der Umsetzung von glykierten Peptiden mit einer nicht HbA1c analogen Aminosäurensequenz, z.B. Fructosyl-Valin-Glycin wurde zudem eine geringe HbA1c-Spezifität abgeleitet. Für den Immunosensor wurden zwei heterogene Immunoassay-Formate unter Verwendung von hochaffinen und spezifischen Antikörpern in Kombination mit Glucose Oxidase (GOD) als Markerenzym zum Nachweis von HbA1c untersucht. Beim indirekt-kompetitiven Immunoassay wurde anstelle des kompletten HbA1c-Moleküls das glykierte Pentapeptid

  1. Effects of common hemoglobin variants on HbA1c measurements in China: results for α- and β-globin variants measured by six methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Anping; Chen, Weidong; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Yu; Ji, Ling

    2018-04-07

    HbA1c is a widely used biomarker for diabetes mellitus management. Here, we evaluated the accuracy of six methods for determining HbA1c values in Chinese patients with common α- and β-globin chains variants in China. Blood samples from normal subjects and individuals exhibiting hemoglobin variants were analyzed for HbA1c, using Sebia Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing (C2FP), Bio-Rad Variant II Turbo 2.0, Tosoh HLC-723 G8 (ver. 5.24), Arkray ADAMS A1c HA-8180V fast mode, Cobas c501 and Trinity Ultra2 systems. DNA sequencing revealed five common β-globin chain variants and three common α-globin chain variants. The most common variant was Hb E, followed by Hb New York, Hb J-Bangkok, Hb G-Coushatta, Hb Q-Thailand, Hb G-Honolulu, Hb Ube-2 and Hb G-Taipei. Variant II Turbo 2.0, Ultra2 and Cobas c501 showed good agreement with C2FP for most samples with variants. HLC-723 G8 yielded no HbA1c values for Hb J-Bangkok, Hb Q-Thailand and Hb G-Honolulu. Samples with Hb E, Hb G-Coushatta, Hb G-Taipei and Hb Ube-2 produced significant negative biases for HLC-723 G8. HA-8180V showed statistically significant differences for Hb E, Hb G-Coushatta, Hb G-Taipei, Hb Q-Thailand and Hb G-Honolulu. HA-8180V yielded no HbA1c values for Hb J-Bangkok. All methods showed good agreement for samples with Hb New York. Some common hemoglobin variants can interfere with HbA1c determination by the most popular methods in China.

  2. Diagnosing high density, fast-evolving plasmas using x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    As x-ray laser (XRL) research has matured, it has become possible to reliably utilize XRLs for applications in the laboratory. Laser coherence, high brightness and short pulse duration all make the XRL a unique tool for the diagnosis of laboratory plasmas. The high brightness of XRLs makes them well-suited for imaging and for interferometry when used in conjunction with multilayer mirrors and beamsplitters. We have utilized a soft x-ray laser in such an imaging system to examine laser-produced plasmas using radiography, moire deflectometry, and interferometry. Radiography experiments yield 100-200 ps snapshots of laser driven foils at a resolution of 1-2 μm. Moire deflectometry with an XRL has been used to probe plasmas at higher density than by optical means. Interferograms, which allow direct measurement of electron density in laser plasmas, have been obtained with this system

  3. Fast magnetic energy dissipation in relativistic plasma induced by high order laser modes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gu, Yanjun; Yu, Q.; Klimo, Ondřej; Esirkepov, T.Z.; Bulanov, S.V.; Weber, Stefan A.; Korn, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, Jun (2016), 1-5, č. článku e19. ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high order laser mode * laser–plasma interaction * magnetic annihilation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  4. Rapid further heating of tokamak plasma by fast-rising magnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, N.; Nihei, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Ichimura, M.; Morikawa, J.; Hoshino, K.; Uchida, T.

    1977-01-01

    The object of the experiment was to study the rapid further heating of a tokamak plasma and its influence on confinement. For this purpose, a high-voltage theta-pinch pulse was applied to a tokamak plasma and production of a high-temperature (keV) plasma was ensured within a microsecond. The magnetic pulse is applied at the plasma current maximum parallel or antiparallel to the study toroidal field. In either case, the pulsed field quickly penetrates the plasma and the plasma resistivity estimated from the penetration time is about 100 times larger than the classical. A burst of energetic neutrals of approximately 1 μs duration was observed and the energy distribution had two components of the order of 1 keV and 0.1 keV in the antiparallel case. Doppler broadening measurement shows heating of ions to a temperature higher than 200 eV; however, the line profile is not always Maxwellian distribution. The X-rays disappear at the moment of applying the magnetic pulse and reappear about 100 μs later with an intensive burst, while both energy levels are the same (approximately 100 keV). (author)

  5. The effects of long term fasting in Ramadan on glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatoprak, C; Yolbas, S; Cakirca, M; Cinar, A; Zorlu, M; Kiskac, M; Cikrikcioglu, M A; Erkoc, R; Tasan, E

    2013-09-01

    For Ramadan fasting, observing Muslims do not eat or drink between sunrise and sunset during Ramadan, Islam's holy month of the year according to the lunar calendar. In 2011, fasting patients with diabetes fasted for an average of 16.5 hours per day, having 2 meals between sunset and sunrise for a month. We aimed to evaluate the impact of extended fasting on glucose regulation and observe possible complications of extended fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We conducted a randomized, retrospective, observational study. Patients who presented at the Diabetes Clinic during the 15 days before and after Ramadan in August 2011 Istanbul, whose hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, weight and height value examinations and follow-up were completed were included in the study. Seventy-six diabetes patients who fasted during Ramadan (fasting group) and 71 patients with diabetes who did not fast (non-fasting group) were included in the study. These two groups with similar demographic characteristics were compared before and after Ramadan. HbA1c, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, body mass index, weight and adverse events were evaluated. No statistically significant difference was observed among the fasting and the non-fasting groups. There was no difference between the pre and post-Ramadan values of the fasting group. We could not find any negative effects of extended fasting on glucose regulation of patients with diabetes who are using certain medications. No serious adverse event was observed. We failed to demonstrate benefits of increasing the number of meals in patients with diabetes.

  6. Lipid and liver abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calanna, S; Scicali, R; Di Pino, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and liver steatosis in patients with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to individuals with HbA1c-defined normoglycaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-one subjects with prediabetes according to HbA1c, i.e. from 5...... of the liver, and BARD (body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes) score for evaluation of liver fibrosis, were performed in all subjects. In comparison to controls, subjects with prediabetes were characterised by: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels......, higher blood pressure, triglycerides levels and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, similar BARD score, and higher total body fat mass. In comparison to subjects with diabetes, subjects with prediabetes exhibited: similar blood...

  7. KADAR HbA1c DAN RASIO LIPID PADA WANITA DEWASA DENGAN OBESITAS SENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Sudaryanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Central obesity was accumulation of fat in the abdominal region. Many studies showed correlations between central obesity and cardiovascular diseases, e.g. diabetes and dyslipidemia.  This study was conducted to know the difference between HbA1c and lipid profil between the women with and without central obesity. This study was an analytic observational study with cross-sectional design. Subjects of 52 respondents were healthy adult women staff in campus I, II, III Sanata Dharma University in Yogyakarta and selected using purposive sampling technique. The data of waist circumference, pelvic/hip circumference, HbA1c and lipid profile were collected among the subjects and analyzed with computer with 95% confidence interval. The results of this study showed HbA1c levels and lipid profile were different between the women with and without central obesity, although the difference was not statistically significant.

  8. Effect of age on the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly population: The Shanghai Changfeng Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Lin, Huandong; Gao, Jian; Li, Xiaoming; Xia, Mingfeng; Wang, Dan; Aleteng, Qiqige; Ma, Hui; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥6.5% (or 48mmol/mol) has been recommended as a new diagnostic criterion for diabetes; however, limited literature is available regarding the effect of age on the HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and the causes for this age effect remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether and why age affects the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes in a community-based Chinese population. In total, 4325 participants without previously known diabetes were enrolled in this study. Participants were stratified by age. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted for each age group and the area under the curve (AUC) represented the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes defined by the plasma glucose criteria. The area under the ROC curve in each one-year age group was defined as AUCage. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify factors inducing the association between age and AUCage based on the changes in the β and P values of age. The current threshold of HbA1c (≥6.5% or 48mmol/mol) showed low sensitivity (35.6%) and high specificity (98.9%) in diagnosing diabetes. ROC curve analyses showed that the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c in the ≥75 years age group was significantly lower than that in the 45-54 years age group (AUC: 0.755 vs. 0.878; PHbA1c was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.557, P = 0.001). When adjusting the red blood cell (RBC) count in the multiple regression model, the negative association between age and AUCage disappeared, with the regression coefficient of age reversed to 0.001 and the P value increased to 0.856. The diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes decreased with aging, and this age effect was induced by the decreasing RBC count with age. HbA1c is unsuitable for diagnosing diabetes in elderly individuals because of their physiologically decreased RBC count.

  9. Effect of age on the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly population: The Shanghai Changfeng Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ≥6.5% (or 48mmol/mol has been recommended as a new diagnostic criterion for diabetes; however, limited literature is available regarding the effect of age on the HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and the causes for this age effect remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether and why age affects the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes in a community-based Chinese population.In total, 4325 participants without previously known diabetes were enrolled in this study. Participants were stratified by age. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC was plotted for each age group and the area under the curve (AUC represented the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes defined by the plasma glucose criteria. The area under the ROC curve in each one-year age group was defined as AUCage. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify factors inducing the association between age and AUCage based on the changes in the β and P values of age.The current threshold of HbA1c (≥6.5% or 48mmol/mol showed low sensitivity (35.6% and high specificity (98.9% in diagnosing diabetes. ROC curve analyses showed that the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c in the ≥75 years age group was significantly lower than that in the 45-54 years age group (AUC: 0.755 vs. 0.878; P<0.001. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the AUCage of HbA1c was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.557, P = 0.001. When adjusting the red blood cell (RBC count in the multiple regression model, the negative association between age and AUCage disappeared, with the regression coefficient of age reversed to 0.001 and the P value increased to 0.856.The diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes decreased with aging, and this age effect was induced by the decreasing RBC count with age. HbA1c is unsuitable for diagnosing diabetes in elderly individuals because of their physiologically decreased RBC count.

  10. Alternate site testing for HbA1c using the Primus CLC330 GHb analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipov, G; Charles, P; Beng, C; Phillips, P J

    1997-04-01

    To determine whether the Primus high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is suited to alternate site testing (AST) for HbA1c in a hospital diabetes outpatient clinic. Patients were attending the clinic for routine management of their diabetes. A number of diabetic patients with uremia (n = 11) were also investigated. HbA1c levels were measured in the outpatient setting by the Primus HPLC and in a more limited study the DCA-2000 instrument using the new 6-min assay cartridge. HbA1c measurements were also performed with Pierce affinity minicolumns and a Bio-Rad Variant HPLC. The Primus HPLC assay had low imprecision of 2.3, 1.6, and 1.0% for HbA1c levels of 4.7, 7.3, and 11.1%, respectively, and was not prone to interference by carbamylated hemoglobin as found for the ion-exchange Variant HPLC method. Method comparison studies showed that the bias and proportional error between the Pierce affinity minicolumn procedure (standardized with respect to an external quality control program) and the Primus HPLC (Y) was -0.4 and 1.2% respectively (n = 32). Similarly the bias and proportional error between the Primus and DCA-2000 methods was 0.7 and -2.5%. The Primus was shown to give falsely elevated HbA1c concentrations if the time between sequential injections was > 28 min. The Primus HPLC has a decided advantage over specialty AST instruments, like the DCA-2000, in not only meeting AST requirements but also allowing rapid automated batch processing of all laboratory HbA1c samples.

  11. K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA Greiner Tubes for HbA1c Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtaric, Alen; Filipi, Petra; Hemar, Marina; Nikolac, Nora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and K3-EDTA Greiner tubes could be used interchangeably for glycosylated hemoglobin, type A1C (HbA1c) measurement via the Abbott Laboratories ARCHITECT chemiluminescent microparticle HbA1c assay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR immunoanalyzer at our university hospital. We drew blood from a total of 45 outpatients into plastic Greiner Vacuette tubes, some of which were lined with K2-EDTA and others with K3-EDTA anticoagulant. Data are presented as median and interquartile range values. We used the Wilcoxon test and Passing-Bablok regression for tube comparison. For K2-EDTA tubes median HbA1c concentration was 54 mmol/mol (41 to 71 mmol/mol) and for K3-EDTA tubes 56 mmol/mol (43 to 69 mmol/mol). There was no statistically significant difference between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA (bias= -1.29 mmol/mol; P = 0.24). Passing-Bablok regression showed that there is no constant and proportional error: y = -0.23 (95% CI[-3.52 to 0.69]) + 1.00( 95% CI[0.98 to 1.06]) x. In this study, we provide evidence for the lack of any clinically and statistically significant bias between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA HbA1c measurements. Thus, Greiner tubes lined with K2-EDTA and those lined with K3-EDTA can safely be used interchangeably to measure HbA1c via the Abbott Laboratories ARCHITECT assay. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Hb variants in Korea: effect on HbA1c using five routine methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo-Min; Ji, Misuk; Ko, Dae-Hyun; Chun, Sail; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Lee, Kyunghoon; Song, Sang Hoon; Seong, Moon Woo; Park, Sung Sup; Song, Junghan

    2017-07-26

    Quantification of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a challenge in patients with hemoglobin (Hb) variants. We evaluated the impact of various Hb variants on five routine HbA1c assays by comparing with the IFCC reference measurement procedure (RMP). Whole blood samples showing warning flags or no results on routine HPLC HbA1c assays were confirmed for Hb variants and were submitted to HbA1c quantification using Sebia Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing, Roche Tina-quant HbA1c Gen. 2, Bio-Rad Variant II Turbo 2.0, ADAMS HA-8180, Tosoh G8 standard mode, and IFCC RMP using LC-MS. Among 114 samples, the most common variants were Hb G-Coushatta (n=47), Queens (n=41), Ube-4 (n=11), Chad (n=4), Yamagata (n=4), G-His-Tsou (n=2), G-Taipei (n=1), Fort de France (n=1), Hoshida (n=1), and two novel variants (Hb α-globin, HBA 52 Gly>Cys and Hb β-globin, HBB 146 His>Asn). In terms of control samples, all the result of HbA1c were "acceptable", within the criteria of ±7% compared to IFCC RMP target values. However, percentage of "unacceptable" results of samples with Hb variants were 16% for Capillarys 2, 7% for Tina-quant, 51% for Variant II Turbo 2.0, 95% for G8 standard mode, and 89% for HA-8180. The Capillarys 2 and HA-8180 assay did not provide the results in 5 and 40 samples with Hb variants, respectively. HbA1c results from five routine assays in patients with relatively common Hb variants in Korea showed various degrees of bias compared to those of IFCC RMP. Therefore, laboratories should be aware of the limitation of their methods with respect to interference from Hb variants found commonly in their local population and suggest an alternative HbA1c quantification method.

  13. Entsymaattisen Abbott Architect c8000 HbA1c -menetelmän validointi

    OpenAIRE

    Karjalainen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö suoritettiin THL:n Tautiriskiyksikön analyyttisen biokemian laboratoriossa (TLAB). Työssä validoitiin uusi entsymaattinen Abbott Architect c8000 HbA1c -menetelmä, jota käytetään diabetekseen liittyvissä tutkimuksissa. Validoinnilla haluttiin varmistaa uuden mittaustekniikaltaan erilaisen menetelmän toimivuus. Menetelmävertailussa komparatiivisena menetelmänä oli laboratoriossa rutiinikäytössä ollut Abbottin immunoturbidimetrinen HbA1c-menetelmä. Uusi entsymaattinen menetelmä peru...

  14. Fast 2D Fluid-Analytical Simulation of IEDs and Plasma Uniformity in Multi-frequency CCPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Graves, D. B.

    2014-10-01

    A fast 2D axisymmetric fluid-analytical model using the finite elements tool COMSOL is interfaced with a 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) code to study ion energy distributions (IEDs) in multi-frequency argon capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs). A bulk fluid plasma model which solves the time-dependent plasma fluid equations is coupled with an analytical sheath model which solves for the sheath parameters. The fluid-analytical results are used as input to a PIC simulation of the sheath region of the discharge to obtain the IEDs at the wafer electrode. Each fluid-analytical-PIC simulation on a moderate 2.2 GHz CPU workstation with 8 GB of memory took about 15-20 minutes. The 2D multi-frequency fluid-analytical model was compared to 1D PIC simulations of a symmetric parallel plate discharge, showing good agreement. Fluid-analytical simulations of a 2/60/162 MHz argon CCP with a typical asymmetric reactor geometry were also conducted. The low 2 MHz frequency controlled the sheath width and voltage while the higher frequencies controlled the plasma production. A standing wave was observable at the highest frequency of 162 MHz. Adding 2 MHz power to a 60 MHz discharge or 162 MHz to a dual frequency 2 MHz/60 MHz discharge enhanced the plasma uniformity. This work was supported by the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Science Contract DE-SC000193, and in part by gifts from Lam Research Corporation and Micron Corporation.

  15. [11C]palmitate kinetics across the splanchnic bed in arterial, portal and hepatic venous plasma during fasting and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiducci, Letizia; Jaervisalo, Mikko; Kiss, Jan; Nagren, Kjell; Viljanen, Antti; Naum, Alexandru G.; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Savunen, Timo; Knuuti, Juhani; Salvadori, Piero A.; Ferrannini, Ele; Nuutila, Pirjo; Iozzo, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The liver is fundamental in regulating lipid metabolism, and it supplies fatty acids (FA) to the rest of the body in the form of triglycerides (TG); the time-related relevance of this process is incompletely defined. The aim of the study was to investigate the appearance of labeled TG in the hepatic vascular bed after [ 11 C]palmitate injection during fasting and insulin stimulation. Methods: Plasma [ 11 C]palmitate kinetics in arterial, portal and hepatic venous lipid fractions was studied in eight anesthetized pigs during fasting or euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Plasma analyses were conducted at 10 and 40 min after tracer injection. Corresponding liver positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired for the semiquantitative determination of hepatic FA uptake. Results: At 10 min, plasma levels of unchanged [ 11 C]palmitate were lower in hyperinsulinemic than in fasting experiments in the artery and in the portal vein (P≤.03), suggesting faster clearance. Levels of unmetabolized [ 11 C]palmitate did not differ between portal and arterial plasma. In the fasting state, a tendency to a positive arterial and portal vs. hepatic venous gradient was observed, indicative of net hepatic [ 11 C]palmitate extraction. Labeled TG were already detectable at 10 min (fasting vs. hyperinsulinemia, ns) and were higher in fasting than in hyperinsulinemic animals at 40 min (92±1% and 82±6% of arterial plasma radioactivity). Higher proportions of labeled TG were recovered in portal vein plasma, suggesting release by the gut. The portal and the arterial-portal vs. hepatic venous TG gradient tended to be positive. Accordingly, hepatic FA uptake was higher, but declined more rapidly during fasting than during hyperinsulinemia. Conclusion: The study indicates that the redistribution of [ 11 C]palmitate between different lipid pools occurs within the short time interval of most PET experiments and is strongly influenced by insulin. Labeled TG constitute an additional

  16. [{sup 11}C]palmitate kinetics across the splanchnic bed in arterial, portal and hepatic venous plasma during fasting and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiducci, Letizia [SSSUP Medical Sciences Branch, Pisa 56100 (Italy); Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Jaervisalo, Mikko [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Kiss, Jan [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Department of Surgery, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Nagren, Kjell [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Viljanen, Antti [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Naum, Alexandru G. [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Gastaldelli, Amalia [PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Savunen, Timo [Department of Surgery, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Knuuti, Juhani [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Salvadori, Piero A. [PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Ferrannini, Ele [PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa School of Medicine, Pisa 56100 (Italy); Nuutila, Pirjo [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Iozzo, Patricia [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland) and PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: patricia.iozzo@ifc.cnr.it

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: The liver is fundamental in regulating lipid metabolism, and it supplies fatty acids (FA) to the rest of the body in the form of triglycerides (TG); the time-related relevance of this process is incompletely defined. The aim of the study was to investigate the appearance of labeled TG in the hepatic vascular bed after [{sup 11}C]palmitate injection during fasting and insulin stimulation. Methods: Plasma [{sup 11}C]palmitate kinetics in arterial, portal and hepatic venous lipid fractions was studied in eight anesthetized pigs during fasting or euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Plasma analyses were conducted at 10 and 40 min after tracer injection. Corresponding liver positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired for the semiquantitative determination of hepatic FA uptake. Results: At 10 min, plasma levels of unchanged [{sup 11}C]palmitate were lower in hyperinsulinemic than in fasting experiments in the artery and in the portal vein (P{<=}.03), suggesting faster clearance. Levels of unmetabolized [{sup 11}C]palmitate did not differ between portal and arterial plasma. In the fasting state, a tendency to a positive arterial and portal vs. hepatic venous gradient was observed, indicative of net hepatic [{sup 11}C]palmitate extraction. Labeled TG were already detectable at 10 min (fasting vs. hyperinsulinemia, ns) and were higher in fasting than in hyperinsulinemic animals at 40 min (92{+-}1% and 82{+-}6% of arterial plasma radioactivity). Higher proportions of labeled TG were recovered in portal vein plasma, suggesting release by the gut. The portal and the arterial-portal vs. hepatic venous TG gradient tended to be positive. Accordingly, hepatic FA uptake was higher, but declined more rapidly during fasting than during hyperinsulinemia. Conclusion: The study indicates that the redistribution of [{sup 11}C]palmitate between different lipid pools occurs within the short time interval of most PET experiments and is strongly influenced by insulin. Labeled TG

  17. Fast-ion transport in low density L-mode plasmas at TCV using FIDA spectroscopy and the TRANSP code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Karpushov, A.; Duval, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments with the new neutral beam injection source of TCV have been performed with high fast-ion fractions (>20%) that exhibit a clear reduction of the loop voltage and a clear increase of the plasma pressure in on- and off-axis heating configurations. However, good quantitative......, a newly installed fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy system measures strong passive radiation and, hence, indicates the presence of high background neutral densities such that charge-exchange losses are substantial. Also the active radiation measured with the FIDA diagnostic, as well as data from...... a neutral particle analyzer, suggest strong fast-ion losses and large neutral densities. The large neutral densities can be justified since high electron temperatures (3–4 keV), combined with low electron densities (about 2 X 1019 m−3) yield long mean free paths of the neutrals which are penetrating from...

  18. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  19. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period-The Da Qing Children Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan Chen

    Full Text Available The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance.To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood.424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight. Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001 in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001 in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and triglycerides at 10 years of age.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin.

  20. Fast transient transport phenomena measured by soft X-ray emission in TCV tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furno, I. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-08-01

    Energy and particle transport during sawtooth activity in TCV plasmas has been studied in this thesis with high temporal resolution many chord diagnostics. We indicated the influence of sawteeth on plasma profiles in ohmic conditions and in the presence of auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. A 2-dimensional model for heat transport, including localised heat source and a magnetic island, has been used to interpret the experimental observations. These results provided a new interpretation of a coupled heat and transport phenomenon which is potentially important for plasma confinement. The observations validate the applicability and show the possibility of improvement of a 2-dimensional theoretic a1 model for the study of heat transport in the presence of localised heat source and a magnetic island. Furthermore, the TCV results showed a new possibility for the interpretation of a coupled heat and particle transport phenomenon previously understood only in stellarators. (author)

  1. Kinetic effects in the conversion of fast waves in pre-heated, low aspect ratio tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kommoshvili, K [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Cuperman, S [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Bruma, C [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2003-03-01

    Kinetic effects in the conversion of fast waves to Alfven waves and their subsequent deposition in low aspect ratio (spherical) tokamaks (LARTs) have been investigated theoretically. More specifically, we have considered the consequences of incorporation of kinetic effects in the electron parallel (to the ambient magnetic field) dynamics derived by following the drift-tearing mode analysis of Chen et al (Chen L, Rutherford P H and Tang W M 1977 Phys. Rev. Lett. 39 460), and particle-conserving Krook collision operator for the passing electrons involved (Mett R R and Mahajan S M 1992 Phys. Fluids B 4 2885). The perpendicular plasma dynamics is described by a quite general resistive two-fluid (2F) model based dielectric tensor-operator (Cuperman S, Bruma C and Komoshvili K 2002 Solution of the resistive 2F wave equations for Alfvenic modes in spherical tokamak plasmas J. Plasma Phys. accepted for publication). The full-wave electromagnetic equations, formulated in terms of the vector and scalar potentials, have been solved by the aid of an advanced finite elements numerical code (Sewell G 1993 Adv. Eng. Software 17 105). Detailed solutions of the full-wave equations are obtained and compared with those corresponding to a pure resistive 2F model, this, for the illustrative pre-heated START-type device (Sykes 1994). Our results quantitatively confirm the general theory of the conversion of fast waves with subsequent power dissipation for the conditions of spherical tokamaks thus providing the required auxiliary energy source for the successful operation of LARTs. Moreover, these results indicate the absolute necessity of using a full model for the parallel electron dynamics, i.e. including both kinetic and collisional effects.

  2. Kinetic effects in the conversion of fast waves in pre-heated, low aspect ratio tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kommoshvili, K; Cuperman, S; Bruma, C

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic effects in the conversion of fast waves to Alfven waves and their subsequent deposition in low aspect ratio (spherical) tokamaks (LARTs) have been investigated theoretically. More specifically, we have considered the consequences of incorporation of kinetic effects in the electron parallel (to the ambient magnetic field) dynamics derived by following the drift-tearing mode analysis of Chen et al (Chen L, Rutherford P H and Tang W M 1977 Phys. Rev. Lett. 39 460), and particle-conserving Krook collision operator for the passing electrons involved (Mett R R and Mahajan S M 1992 Phys. Fluids B 4 2885). The perpendicular plasma dynamics is described by a quite general resistive two-fluid (2F) model based dielectric tensor-operator (Cuperman S, Bruma C and Komoshvili K 2002 Solution of the resistive 2F wave equations for Alfvenic modes in spherical tokamak plasmas J. Plasma Phys. accepted for publication). The full-wave electromagnetic equations, formulated in terms of the vector and scalar potentials, have been solved by the aid of an advanced finite elements numerical code (Sewell G 1993 Adv. Eng. Software 17 105). Detailed solutions of the full-wave equations are obtained and compared with those corresponding to a pure resistive 2F model, this, for the illustrative pre-heated START-type device (Sykes 1994). Our results quantitatively confirm the general theory of the conversion of fast waves with subsequent power dissipation for the conditions of spherical tokamaks thus providing the required auxiliary energy source for the successful operation of LARTs. Moreover, these results indicate the absolute necessity of using a full model for the parallel electron dynamics, i.e. including both kinetic and collisional effects

  3. Kinetic effects in the conversion of