WorldWideScience

Sample records for a-mode ultrasound devices

  1. Validity and Reliability of A-Mode Ultrasound for Body Composition Assessment of NCAA Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R; Cain, Dustin L; Clark, Nicolas W

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the BodyMetrix™ BX2000 A-mode ultrasound for estimating percent body fat (%BF) in athletes by comparing it to skinfolds and the BOD POD. Forty-five (22 males, 23 females) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-I athletes volunteered for this study. Subjects were measured once in the BOD POD then twice by two technicians for skinfolds and ultrasound. A one-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between body composition methods (F = 13.24, p BOD POD was large for females (~ 5% BF) but small for males (~ 1.5% BF). Linear regression using the %BF estimate from ultrasound to predict %BF from BOD POD resulted in an R2 = 0.849, SEE = 2.6% BF and a TE = 4.4% BF. The inter-rater intraclass correlation (ICC) for skinfold was 0.966 with a large 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.328 to 0.991. The inter-rater ICC for ultrasound was 0.987 with a much smaller 95% CI of 0.976 to 0.993. Both skinfolds and ultrasound had test-retest ICCs ≥ 0.996. The BX2000 ultrasound device had excellent test-retest reliability, and its inter-rater reliability was superior to the skinfold method. The validity of this method is questionable, particularly for female athletes. However, due to its excellent reliability, coaches and trainers should consider this portable and easy to use A-mode ultrasound to assess body composition changes in athletes.

  2. Validity and Reliability of A-Mode Ultrasound for Body Composition Assessment of NCAA Division I Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R.; Cain, Dustin L.; Clark, Nicolas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the BodyMetrix™ BX2000 A-mode ultrasound for estimating percent body fat (%BF) in athletes by comparing it to skinfolds and the BOD POD. Forty-five (22 males, 23 females) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-I athletes volunteered for this study. Subjects were measured once in the BOD POD then twice by two technicians for skinfolds and ultrasound. A one-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between body composition methods (F = 13.24, p BOD POD was large for females (~ 5% BF) but small for males (~ 1.5% BF). Linear regression using the %BF estimate from ultrasound to predict %BF from BOD POD resulted in an R2 = 0.849, SEE = 2.6% BF and a TE = 4.4% BF. The inter-rater intraclass correlation (ICC) for skinfold was 0.966 with a large 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.328 to 0.991. The inter-rater ICC for ultrasound was 0.987 with a much smaller 95% CI of 0.976 to 0.993. Both skinfolds and ultrasound had test-retest ICCs ≥ 0.996. The BX2000 ultrasound device had excellent test-retest reliability, and its inter-rater reliability was superior to the skinfold method. The validity of this method is questionable, particularly for female athletes. However, due to its excellent reliability, coaches and trainers should consider this portable and easy to use A-mode ultrasound to assess body composition changes in athletes. PMID:27073854

  3. Ultrasound-guided removal of Implanon devices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Persaud, T

    2008-11-01

    Our study has shown that ultrasound-guided localisation and removal of Implanon rods is safe, practical and highly successful. Over a 4-year period, 119 patients had successful, uncomplicated removal of their subdermal devices.The technique is particularly useful for removal of the device when it is not palpable or when an attempt at removal of a palpable device has not been successful.

  4. Ultrasound appearances of Implanon implanted contraceptive devices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNeill, G

    2009-09-01

    Subdermal contraceptive devices represent a popular choice of contraception. Whilst often removed without the use of imaging, circumstances exist where imaging is required. Ultrasound is the modality of choice. The optimal technique and typical sonographic appearances are detailed in this article.

  5. Integration of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers to Microfluidic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius

    2013-10-22

    The design and manufacturing flexibility of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) makes them attractive option for integration with microfluidic devices both for sensing and fluid manipulation. CMUT concept is introduced here by presentin

  6. Remote television viewing: an ultrasound teaching device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, M M; Vining, P E

    1979-07-01

    Remote viewing of ultrasound scans facilitates assessment of a student's technique while minimizing anxiety for both him and the patient. This method may also be effective for the busy physician who must monitor several procedures at the same time.

  7. Bladder wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight in healthy adults with portative ultrasound device

    OpenAIRE

    Selcen Kanyilmaz; Funda Atamaz Calis; Yasemin Cinar; Yesim Akkoc

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate bladder wall thickness (BWT) and ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW) values in healthy population with a portative ultrasound device and their relationship with demographic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Neurorehabilitation Clinic of Ege University Hospital. Ninety-five subjects (48 women and 47 men) aged between 18 and 56 were included in the study. BWT and UEBW were determined non-invasively with a ...

  8. Large area MEMS based ultrasound device for cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodnicki, Robert, E-mail: wodnicki@research.ge.com [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Thomenius, Kai [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Ming Hooi, Fong; Sinha, Sumedha P.; Carson, Paul L. [Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lin Dersong; Zhuang Xuefeng; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Woychik, Charles [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

    2011-08-21

    We present image results obtained using a prototype ultrasound array that demonstrates the fundamental architecture for a large area MEMS based ultrasound device for detection of breast cancer. The prototype array consists of a tiling of capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (cMUTs) that have been flip-chip attached to a rigid organic substrate. The pitch on the cMUT elements is 185 {mu}m and the operating frequency is nominally 9 MHz. The spatial resolution of the new probe is comparable to those of production PZT probes; however the sensitivity is reduced by conditions that should be correctable. Simulated opposed-view image registration and Speed of Sound volume reconstruction results for ultrasound in the mammographic geometry are also presented.

  9. Feasibility of A-mode ultrasound attenuation as a monitoring method of local hyperthermia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Noraida Abd; Aziz, Maizatul Nadwa Che; Ridzuan, Dzulfadhli Saffuan; Mohamad Salim, Maheza Irna; Wahab, Asnida Abd; Lai, Khin Wee; Hum, Yan Chai

    2016-06-01

    Recently, there is an increasing interest in the use of local hyperthermia treatment for a variety of clinical applications. The desired therapeutic outcome in local hyperthermia treatment is achieved by raising the local temperature to surpass the tissue coagulation threshold, resulting in tissue necrosis. In oncology, local hyperthermia is used as an effective way to destroy cancerous tissues and is said to have the potential to replace conventional treatment regime like surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, the inability to closely monitor temperature elevations from hyperthermia treatment in real time with high accuracy continues to limit its clinical applicability. Local hyperthermia treatment requires real-time monitoring system to observe the progression of the destroyed tissue during and after the treatment. Ultrasound is one of the modalities that have great potential for local hyperthermia monitoring, as it is non-ionizing, convenient and has relatively simple signal processing requirement compared to magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In a two-dimensional ultrasound imaging system, changes in tissue microstructure during local hyperthermia treatment are observed in terms of pixel value analysis extracted from the ultrasound image itself. Although 2D ultrasound has shown to be the most widely used system for monitoring hyperthermia in ultrasound imaging family, 1D ultrasound on the other hand could offer a real-time monitoring and the method enables quantitative measurement to be conducted faster and with simpler measurement instrument. Therefore, this paper proposes a new local hyperthermia monitoring method that is based on one-dimensional ultrasound. Specifically, the study investigates the effect of ultrasound attenuation in normal and pathological breast tissue when the temperature in tissue is varied between 37 and 65 °C during local hyperthermia treatment. Besides that, the total protein content measurement was also

  10. Bladder wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight in healthy adults with portative ultrasound device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcen Kanyilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate bladder wall thickness (BWT and ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW values in healthy population with a portative ultrasound device and their relationship with demographic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Neurorehabilitation Clinic of Ege University Hospital. Ninety-five subjects (48 women and 47 men aged between 18 and 56 were included in the study. BWT and UEBW were determined non-invasively with a portative ultrasound device; Bladder Scan BVM 6500 (Verathon Inc., WA, USA at a frequency of 3.7 MHz at functional bladder capacity. These values were compared by gender, and their relation was assessed with age, body mass index (BMI and parity. Results: Mean BWT was 2.0 ± 0.4 mm and UEBW was 44.6 ± 8.3 g at a mean volume of 338.0 ± 82.1 ml. Although higher results were obtained in men at higher bladder volumes, the results did not differ significantly by gender. Correlation analyses revealed statistically significant correlation between UEBW and age (r = 0.32. BWT was negatively correlated with volume (r = -0.50 and bladder surface area (r = -0.57. Also, statistically significant correlations were observed between UEBW and volume (r = 0.36, bladder surface area (r = 0.48 and BWT (r = 0.25. Conclusion: Determined values of BWT and UEBW in healthy population are estimated with portative ultrasound devices, which are future promising, for their convenient, easy, non-invasive, time-efficient hand-held use for screening.

  11. A review of Doppler Ultrasound Quality Assurance Protocols and Test Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Jacinta

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of Doppler ultrasound quality assurance (QA) testing will be presented in three sections. The first section will review the different Doppler ultrasound parameters recommended by professional bodies for use in QA protocols. The second section will include an evaluation and critique of the main test devices used to assess Doppler performance, while the final section of this paper will discuss which of the wide range of test devices have been found to be most suitable...

  12. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  13. An image-guided high intensity focused ultrasound device for uterine fibroids treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device was developed for treating uterine fibroid tumors. This prototype device enables image-guided therapy by aligning a commercially available abdominal ultrasound image probe to a vaginal HIFU transducer so the HIFU focus is in the image plane. The device was designed based on anatomical constraints of the female pelvic structures. HIFU was generated using a 3.5 MHz PZT-8 crystal, 25.4 mm in diameter, bonded to an aluminum lens. Computer simulations were performed to ensure that effective focusing was achievable at a fixed focal depth of 40 mm. Transducer efficiency was empirically determined to be 58%, and the half pressure maximum focal dimensions were 11 mm in length and 1.2 mm in width. A water-filled latex condom surrounding the transducer provided acoustic coupling, a stand-off, and allowed water circulation for transducer cooling. In vitro experiments in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom and in turkey breast demonstrated ultrasound image-guided lesion formation, or tissue necrosis, at the focus due to HIFU induced thermal and cavitation effects. The HIFU treatment site appeared as a hyperechoic spot on the ultrasound image at intensities above 1250 W/cm2. The results of in vitro experiments and in vivo ergonomic testing in six human volunteers indicated that the device has the potential of providing a nonsurgical approach for uterine fibroid treatment. Future in vivo studies in large animal models and fibroids patients are planned

  14. Bone status in rheumatoid arthritis assessed at peripheral sites by three different quantitative ultrasound devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, O R; Suetta, C; Egsmose, C;

    2004-01-01

    sites in 27 women with RA (mean disease duration 15 years) and in 36 healthy women matched for age, height and weight. Speed of sound (SOS, m/s), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz) and stiffness of the calcaneus were assessed by a Lunar Achilles device. Amplitude-dependent SOS (Ad-SOS, m...

  15. Evaluation of a hand carried cardiac ultrasound device in an outpatient cardiology clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); D. Poldermans (Don); G.E. Parharidis; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); J.W. Deckers (Jaap)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic potential of a hand carried cardiac ultrasound (HCU) device (OptiGo, Philips Medical Systems) in a cardiology outpatient clinic and to compare the HCU diagnosis with the clinical diagnosis and diagnosis with a full featured standar

  16. Acoustofluidics: theory and simulation of radiation forces at ultrasound resonances in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical analysis is combined with numerical simulations to optimize designs and functionalities of acoustofluidic devices, i.e. microfluidic devices in which ultrasound waves are used to anipulate biological particles. The resonance frequencies and corresponding modes of the acoustic fields...... the largest possible acoustic powers are obtained in the microfluidic system, the time-averaged acoustic radiation force on single particles is determined. Schemes for in situ calibration of this force are presented and discussed....

  17. Miniaturized Cell Lysis Device Using Spherically Focused Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 肖宏; 郭旻; 程京

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of a miniaturized cell lysis device developed using a concave spherical transducer is capable of lysing bacteria without added chemical denaturants, enzymes or microparticles and is capable of efficiently lysing yeast without any mechanical or enzymatic pretreatment.The device is designed for miniature bio-analysis systems where cell lysing is needed to obtain intracellular materials for further analysis such as DNA identification.The device lysis efficiency was evaluated using viable cell counts and microscopy.Additionally, the device efficiency was compared with that of traditional chemical cell lysis methods using standard molecular biological techniques such as agarose gels and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy.The results indicate that efficient bacteria and cell disruption can be achieved through a low-voltage-driven and spherically focused high-frequency ultrasonic device.

  18. Integrated Interventional Devices For Real Time 3D Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Lee, Warren; Gentry, Kenneth L.; Pua, Eric C.; Light, Edward D.

    2006-05-01

    Two recent advances have expanded the potential of medical ultrasound: the introduction of real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging with catheter, transesophageal and laparoscopic probes and the development of interventional ultrasound therapeutic systems for focused ultrasound surgery, ablation and ultrasound enhanced drug delivery. This work describes devices combining both technologies. A series of transducer probes have been designed, fabricated and tested including: 1) a 12 French side scanning catheter incorporating a 64 element matrix array for imaging at 5MHz and a piston ablation transducer operating at 10 MHz. 2) a 14 Fr forward-scanning catheter integrating a 112 element 2-D array for imaging at 5 MHz encircled by an ablation annulus operating at 10 MHz. Finite element modeling was then used to simulate catheter annular and linear phased array transducers for ablation. 3) Linear phased array transducers were built to confirm the finite element analysis at 4 and 8 MHz including a mechanically focused 86 element 9 MHz array which transmits an ISPTA of 29.3 W/cm2 and creates a lesion in 2 minutes. 4) 2-D arrays of 504 channels operating at 5 MHz have been developed for transesophageal and laparascopic 3D imaging as well as therapeutic heating. All the devices image the heart anatomy including atria, valves, septa and en face views of the pulmonary veins.

  19. 76 FR 43119 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Focused Ultrasound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... producing either localized heating for tissue coagulation or for mechanical cellular membrane disruption... expose the eye to ultrasound radiation, as well as specific directions intended to ensure complete... localized heating for tissue coagulation or for mechanical cellular membrane disruption intended...

  20. Acoustofluidics: Theory and simulation of streaming and radiation forces at ultrasound resonances in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in applying ultrasound waves to manipulate biological particles and liquids in microfluidic devices. To obtain optimized designs and functionalities of the acoustofluidic devices, more detailed theoretical studies and numerical...... simulations are called for. The basic second-order perturbation theory is presented for acoustic fields applied at ultrasound frequencies in silicon/glass systems containing water-filled microfluidic channels and chambers. For various specific device geometries, the resonance frequencies and corresponding...... fields, which are directly related to the acoustic radiation force on single particles and to the acoustic streaming of the liquid. For the radiation pressure effects, there is good agreement between theory and simulation, while the numeric results for the acoustic streaming effects are more problematic...

  1. The Feasibility of Thermal Imaging as a Future Portal Imaging Device for Therapeutic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloro, Piero; Civale, John; Rivens, Ian; Shaw, Adam

    2016-08-01

    This technical note describes a prototype thermally based portal imaging device that allows mapping of energy deposition on the surface of a tissue mimicking material in a focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) beam by using an infrared camera to measure the temperature change on that surface. The aim of the work is to explore the feasibility of designing and building a system suitable for rapid quality assurance (QA) for use with both ultrasound- and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided clinical therapy ultrasound systems. The prototype was tested using an MR-guided Sonalleve FUS system (with the treatment couch outside the magnet bore). The system's effective thermal noise was 0.02°C, and temperature changes as low as 0.1°C were easily quantifiable. The advantages and drawbacks of thermal imaging for QA are presented through analysis of the results of an experimental session. PMID:27174419

  2. 2D array transducers for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of interventional devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Edward D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-02-01

    We describe catheter ring arrays for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of devices such as vascular grafts, heart valves and vena cava filters. We have constructed several prototypes operating at 5 MHz and consisting of 54 elements using the W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. micro-miniature ribbon cables. We have recently constructed a new transducer using a braided wiring technology from Precision Interconnect. This transducer consists of 54 elements at 4.8 MHz with pitch of 0.20 mm and typical -6 dB bandwidth of 22%. In all cases, the transducer and wiring assembly were integrated with an 11 French catheter of a Cook Medical deployment device for vena cava filters. Preliminary in vivo and in vitro testing is ongoing including simultaneous 3D ultrasound and x-ray fluoroscopy.

  3. Comparison of the time required for removal of intraradicular cast posts using two Brazilian ultrasound devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Brito-Júnior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the time required for removal of intraradicular cast posts cemented with zinc phosphate (ZF or glass ionomer cement (GIC, using two Brazilian ultrasound devices (BUD. Seventy two human inferior premolars with single root canals were sectioned transversally at the cementoenamel junction. In each specimen, the root canal was endodontically treated, the post space was prepared to a depth of 9 mm and the canal was molded to obtain a post impression. After the casting procedures, the posts were randomly distributed into 2 groups (n = 36 according to the luting material used: G1 - ZF and G2 - GIC. The tooth and luted post set was then embedded in an acrylic resin block. The groups were then divided into 3 subgroups (n = 12 according to the ultrasound device used: A - Enac (Osada Electric, Japan, used as a control group; B - Profi II Ceramic (Dabi Atlante, Brazil and C - Jet Sonic Satelec (Gnatus, Brazil. The posts were submitted to the vibration process with maximum power set on all surrounding surfaces. Time of application was recorded with a chronometer until complete post dislodgment, and the data were analyzed by the ANOVA test (p < 0.05. The averages required for post removal in G1 and G2 were respectively 41.42 and 92.03 seconds, with significant statistical difference (p = 0.001. No statistical difference was observed among the three ultrasound devices (p = 0.088, and the BUD presented a performance similar to that of the international gold standard device (Enac. Moreover, the type of luting agent had a greater influence on the time required for post removal than the origin of the ultrasonic unit.

  4. Development of a confocal ultrasound device using an inertial cavitation control for transfection in-vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestas, J. L.; Chettab, K.; Roux, S.; Prieur, F.; Lafond, M.; Dumontet, C.; Lafon, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sonoporation using low-frequency high-pressure ultrasound (US) is a non-viral approach for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. We developed a new sonoporation device designed for spatial and temporal control of ultrasound cavitation. This device was evaluated for the in vitro transfection efficiency of a plasmid coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (peGFP- C1) in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. The frequency spectrum of the signal receive by a hydrophone is used to compute a cavitation index (CI) representative of the inertial cavitation activity. The influence of the CI on transfection efficiency, as well as reproducibility were determined. A real-time feedback loop control on CI was integrated in the process to regulate the cavitation level during sonoporation. In both adherent and non-adherent cell lines, the sonoporation device produced a highly efficient transfection of peGFP-C1 (40-80%), as determined by flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression, along with a low rate of mortality assessed by propidium iodide staining. Moreover, the sonoporation of non-adherent cell lines Jurkat and K562 was found to be equivalent to nucleofection in terms of efficiency and toxicity while these two cell lines were resistant to transfection with lipofection.

  5. A Numerical Analysis of Phononic-Assisted Control of Ultrasound Waves in Acoustofluidic Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The ability to precisely sort individual microparticles/cells/droplets in suspension is important for various chemical and biological applications such as cancer cell detection, drug screening etc. The past decade, label- free particle handling of particle suspensions by ultrasonic radiation forces...... and streaming has received much attention, since it relies solely on mechanical properties such as particle size and contrast in density and compressibility. We present a theoretical study of phononic-assisted control of ultrasound waves in acoustofluidic devices. We propose the use of phononic crystal...

  6. New Estimators and Guidelines for Better Use of Fetal Heart Rate Estimators with Doppler Ultrasound Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Voicu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing fetal wellbeing with a Doppler ultrasound device requires computation of a score based on fetal parameters. In order to analyze the parameters derived from the fetal heart rate correctly, an accuracy of 0.25 beats per minute is needed. Simultaneously with the lowest false negative rate and the highest sensitivity, we investigated whether various Doppler techniques ensure this accuracy. We found that the accuracy was ensured if directional Doppler signals and autocorrelation estimation were used. Our best estimator provided sensitivity of 95.5%, corresponding to an improvement of 14% compared to the standard estimator.

  7. A device for in vivo measurements of quantitative ultrasound variables at the human proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Laugier, Pascal; Moser, Urs; Dencks, Stefanie; Klausner, Michael; Padilla, Frédéric; Haïat, Guilleaume; Glüer, Claus-C

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus has similar power as a bone mineral density (BMD)- measurement using DXA for the prediction of osteoporotic fracture risk. Ultrasound equipment is less expensive than DXA and free of ionizing radiation. As a mechanical wave, QUS has the potential of measuring different bone properties than dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA,) which depends on X-ray attenuation and might be developed into a tool of comprehensive assessment of bone strength. However, site-specific DXA at the proximal femur shows best performance in the prediction of hip fractures. To combine the potential of QUS with measurements directly at the femur, we developed a device for in vivo QUS measurements at this site. Methods comprise ultrasound transmission through the bone, reflection from the bone surface, and backscatter from the inner trabecular structure. The complete area of the proximal femur can be scanned except at the femoral head, which interferes with the ilium. To avoid edge artifacts, a subregion of the proximal femur in the trochanteric region was selected as measurement region. First, in vivo measurements demonstrate a good signal to noise ratio and proper depiction of the proximal femur on an attenuation image. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo measurements. Further improvements can be expected by refinement of the scanning technique and data evaluation method to enhance the potential of the new method for the estimation of bone strength. PMID:18599408

  8. Predicting of parameters of reliability two-cascade thermoelectrical cooling device in a mode Q0max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khramova L. F.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The parities for an estimation of parameters of reliability two-cascade ТED of a various design depending on their basic parameters in a mode Q0max are received. The results of accounts for differences of temperature ΔТ=60, 70, 80 K in view of thermal loading and temperature dependence of parameters, and also in a mode of the thermal pump (at ΔТ=0 are given. The estimation maximal coldproductivity two-cascade TED of a various design for various conditions of operation is carried out.

  9. Positioning device for MRI-guided high intensity focused ultrasound system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damianou, Christakis [Frederick Institute of Technology (FIT), Limassol (Cyprus); MEDSONIC, LTD, Limassol (Cyprus); Ioannides, Kleanthis [Polikliniki Igia, Limassol (Cyprus); Milonas, Nicos [Frederick Institute of Technology (FIT), Limassol (Cyprus)

    2008-04-15

    A prototype magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- compatible positioning device was used to move an MRI-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer. The positioning device has three user-controlled degrees of freedom that allow access to various targeted lesions. The positioning device was designed and fabricated using construction materials selected for compatibility with high magnetic fields and fast switching magnetic field gradients encountered inside MRI scanners. The positioning device incorporates only MRI compatible materials such as piezoelectric motors, plastic sheets, brass screws, plastic pulleys and timing belts. The HIFU/MRI system includes the multiple subsystems (a) HIFU system, (b) MR imaging, (c) Positioning device (robot) and associate drivers, (d) temperature measurement, (e) cavitation detection, (f) MRI compatible camera, and (g) Soft ware. The MRI compatibility of the system was successfully demonstrated in a clinical high-field MRI scanner. The ability of the robot to accurately move the transducer thus creating discrete and overlapping lesions in biological tissue was tested successfully. A simple, cost effective, portable positioning device has been developed which can be used in virtually any clinical MRI scanner since it can be sited on the scanner's table. The propagation of HIFU can use either a lateral or superior-inferior approach. Discrete and large lesions were created successfully with reproducible results. (orig.)

  10. Positioning device for MRI-guided high intensity focused ultrasound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- compatible positioning device was used to move an MRI-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer. The positioning device has three user-controlled degrees of freedom that allow access to various targeted lesions. The positioning device was designed and fabricated using construction materials selected for compatibility with high magnetic fields and fast switching magnetic field gradients encountered inside MRI scanners. The positioning device incorporates only MRI compatible materials such as piezoelectric motors, plastic sheets, brass screws, plastic pulleys and timing belts. The HIFU/MRI system includes the multiple subsystems (a) HIFU system, (b) MR imaging, (c) Positioning device (robot) and associate drivers, (d) temperature measurement, (e) cavitation detection, (f) MRI compatible camera, and (g) Soft ware. The MRI compatibility of the system was successfully demonstrated in a clinical high-field MRI scanner. The ability of the robot to accurately move the transducer thus creating discrete and overlapping lesions in biological tissue was tested successfully. A simple, cost effective, portable positioning device has been developed which can be used in virtually any clinical MRI scanner since it can be sited on the scanner's table. The propagation of HIFU can use either a lateral or superior-inferior approach. Discrete and large lesions were created successfully with reproducible results. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of central corneal thickness measured by AS-OCT, Pentacam and A-mode ultrasound%前节OCT、Pentacam及A超测量中央角膜厚度的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方一明; 王世明; 李晓霞; 林淑贤; 叶翠芬; 陈阿娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of central corneal thickness (CCT) measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography(AS-OCT),Pentacam and A-mode ultrasound.Methods AS-OCT,Pentacam and A-mode ultrasound were used to measure the CCT on 102 myopic cases (204 eyes) undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK),and then compared the results.Resulls AS-OCT and Pentacam had better repeatability in measurement of CCT than A-mode ultrasound.The value of CCT measured by AS-OCT,Pentacam and A-mode ultrasound were (532-± 30)μm,(539 ±31)μm and (537 ±29)μm.There was a significant linear correlation in CCT measured by three measurements (P < 0.05).The regression equation of three measurements were CCT Pentacam =0.934 CCT AS-OCT +39.789,CCT Pentacam =0.875 CCT A-mode +70.194 and CCT AS-OCT =0.913 CCT Amode + 40.962.The CCT measured by AS-OCT was obvious lower than that measured by Pentacam and A-mode ultrasound,there were statistical differences (P < 0.05).Conclusions AS-OCT,Pentacam and A-mode ultrasound have different advantage of three measurements on clinical using,these instruments should not be used interchangeably for CCT measurement.%目的 比较前节OCT、Pentacam和A超测量中央角膜厚度(CCT)的差异.方法 选择近视患者102例(204眼),行角膜屈光手术前分别用前节OCT (AS-OCT) 、Pentacam和A超测量CCT,并进行统计分析.结果 前节OCT和Pentacam测量CCT的重复性高于A超;三者测得的CCT分别为(532±30) ìm、(539±31) μm和(537±29)μm;三者测量CCT均具有显著相关性(P<0.05);三者的回归方程分别为CCT Pentacam=0.934 CCT前节OCT+ 39.789、CCT Pentacam=0.875 CCT A超+70.194和CCT前节OCT=0.913 CCT A超+40.962.前节OCT测量角膜厚度的结果小于Pentacam与A超(P<0.05).结论 前节OCT、Pentacam和A超在测量角膜厚度方面各有优势,不能简单替代.

  12. Design and implementation of a smartphone-based portable ultrasound pulsed-wave Doppler device for blood flow measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Lee, Po-Yang; Chen, Pay-Yu; Liu, Ting-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Blood flow measurement using Doppler ultrasound has become a useful tool for diagnosing cardiovascular diseases and as a physiological monitor. Recently, pocket-sized ultrasound scanners have been introduced for portable diagnosis. The present paper reports the implementation of a portable ultrasound pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler flowmeter using a smartphone. A 10-MHz ultrasonic surface transducer was designed for the dynamic monitoring of blood flow velocity. The directional baseband Doppler shift signals were obtained using a portable analog circuit system. After hardware processing, the Doppler signals were fed directly to a smartphone for Doppler spectrogram analysis and display in real time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of this system for medical ultrasound Doppler signal processing. A Couette flow phantom, consisting of two parallel disks with a 2-mm gap, was used to evaluate and calibrate the device. Doppler spectrograms of porcine blood flow were measured using this stand-alone portable device under the pulsatile condition. Subsequently, in vivo portable system verification was performed by measuring the arterial blood flow of a rat and comparing the results with the measurement from a commercial ultrasound duplex scanner. All of the results demonstrated the potential for using a smartphone as a novel embedded system for portable medical ultrasound applications. PMID:22293750

  13. [Ultrasound bone densitometry in children and adolescents; Italian refence curves with multi-site device (Omnisense)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, L; Mora, R; Bertani, B; Tuvo, G; Galli, G B; Pazzano, S; Quattrini, F; Crivellari, I

    2007-01-01

    The values of bone density represent one of the best parameters for the prediction of the risk of fracture in the adult. Since the peak of bone mass depends over that on genetic factors also on modifiable environmental factors, the evaluation of the state of bone health in paediatric populations has assumed great importance; the ultrasound techniques seem to represent a potential alternative to DXA and QTC. Using Omnisense device (Omnisense, Sunlight Ultrasound Technologies) we have evaluated the bone strength in a champion of 652 children and teen-agers aged 6-18 (328 females, 324 males). The measurements have been made at the distal third of the radius and midshaft tibia. The purpose has been to record the values of SOS in a healthy paediatric population, building a normal database and to find a correlation between the SOS values and anthropometric data, dietary factors and physical activity. The comparison with an analogous study conducted by other Authors prompted us to conclude that in the paediatric population the construction of proper curves of reference, with which to compare the data of the patients, is essential to avoid errors in the evaluation of bone density, in agreement with how much already underlined in literature. Besides a correct interpretation of the data obtained with ultrasounds systems asks for a change of the thresholds values established by the OMS for the diagnosis of osteopenia/osteoporosis with the DXA. As already happened for the adult population in children also it will be therefore necessary to compare a great number of pathological subjects with the normal database, establishing so the new values of Z-Score and giving a clinical meaning to the effected measurements.

  14. Guideline for Technical Quality Assurance (TQA) of Ultrasound devices (B-Mode) - Version 1.0 (July 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollmann, C.; Korte, C.L. de; Dudley, N.J.; Gritzmann, N.; Martin, K.; Evans, D.H.

    2012-01-01

    The Technical Quality Assurance group was initiated by the EFSUMB Board in 2007 and met firstly in 2008 to discuss and evaluate methods and procedures published for performing technical quality assurance for diagnostic ultrasound devices. It is the aim of this group of experts to advise the EFSUMB B

  15. In vivo demonstration of ultrasound power delivery to charge implanted medical devices via acute and survival porcine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziemski, Leon; Makin, Inder Raj S

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies are an important step in proving the utility and safety of an ultrasound based implanted battery recharging system. To this end an Ultrasound Electrical Recharging System (USER™) was developed and tested. Experiments in vitro demonstrated power deliveries at the battery of up to 600 mW through 10-15 mm of tissue, 50 mW of power available at tissue depths of up to 50 mm, and the feasibility of using transducers bonded to titanium as used in medical implants. Acute in vivo studies in a porcine model were used to test reliability of power delivery, temperature excursions, and cooling techniques. The culminating five-week survival study involved repeated battery charging, a total of 10.5h of ultrasound exposure of the intervening living tissue, with an average RF input to electrical charging efficiency of 20%. This study was potentially the first long term cumulative living-tissue exposure using transcutaneous ultrasound power transmission to an implanted receiver in situ. Histology of the exposed tissue showed changes attributable primarily due to surgical implantation of the prototype device, and no damage due to the ultrasound exposure. The in vivo results are indicative of the potential safe delivery of ultrasound energy for a defined set of source conditions for charging batteries within implants.

  16. Modeling of endoluminal and interstitial ultrasound hyperthermia and thermal ablation: applications to device design, feedback control, and treatment planning

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Diederich, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Endoluminal and catheter-based ultrasound applicators are currently under development and are in clinical use for minimally invasive hyperthermia and thermal ablation of various tissue targets. Computational models play a critical role in in device design and optimization, assessment of therapeutic feasibility and safety, devising treatment monitoring and feedback control strategies, and performing patient-specific treatment planning with this technology. The critical aspect...

  17. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  18. Study of focusing characteristics of ultrasound for designing acoustic lens in ultrasonic moxibustion device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Bok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Traditional moxibustion therapy can cause severe pain and leave scarring burns at the moxibustion site as it relies on the practitioner's subjective and qualitative treatment. Recently, ultrasound therapy has received attention as an alternative to moxibustion therapy owing to its objectiveness and quantitative nature. However, in order to convert ultrasound energy into heat energy, there is a need to precisely understand the ultrasound-focusing characteristics of the acoustic lens. Therefore, in this study, an FEM simulation was performed for acoustic lenses with different geometries a concave lens and zone lens as the geometry critically influences ultrasound focusing. The acoustic pressure field, amplitude, and focal point were also calculated. Furthermore, the performance of the fabricated acoustic lens was verified by a sound pressure measurement experiment.

  19. Feasibility of Remote Real-Time Guidance of a Cardiac Examination Performed by Novices Using a Pocket-Sized Ultrasound Device

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, Tuan V; Ahn, David T.; Phillips, Colin T.; Agan, Donna L.; Kimura, Bruce J

    2013-01-01

    Background. The potential of pocket-sized ultrasound devices (PUDs) to improve global healthcare delivery is limited by the lack of a suitable imaging protocol and trained users. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of performing a brief, evidence-based cardiac limited ultrasound exam (CLUE) through wireless guidance of novice users. Methods. Three trainees applied PUDs on 27 subjects while directed by an off-site cardiologist to obtain a CLUE to screen for LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD...

  20. Duplex ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular ultrasound; Peripheral vascular ultrasound ... A duplex ultrasound combines traditional ultrasound with Doppler ultrasound . Traditional ultrasound uses sound waves that bounce off blood vessels to create ...

  1. Transfer standard device to improve the traceable calibration of physiotherapy ultrasound machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, R.T.; Richards, A.; Beissner, K.; Zeqiri, B.; Bezemer, R.A.; Hodnett, M.; Prout, G.; Cantrall, C.

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) physiotherapy as a clinical treatment is extremely common in the Western world. Internationally, regulation to ensure safe application of US physiotherapy by regular calibration ranges from nil to mandatory. The need for a portable power standard (PPS) has been addressed within a Eur

  2. A novel concept for continuous peripheral nerve blocks. Presentation of a new ultrasound-guided device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C; Steen-Hansen, C; Madsen, M H;

    2015-01-01

    concept and prototype for ultrasound-guided in-plane positioning and readjustment of peripheral nerve catheters (patent pending). The integrated catheter-needle prototype comprises three parts: a curved needle, a catheter with clear echogenic markings attached to the needle tail and a detachable hub...

  3. Fast Conformal Thermal Ablation in the Prostate with Transurethral Multi-Sectored Ultrasound Devices and MR Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Adam M.; Diederich, Chris J.; Nau, William H.; Ross, Anthony B.; Pauly, Kim Butts; Rieke, Viola; Sommer, Graham

    2007-05-01

    Transurethral ultrasound applicators incorporating an array of multisectored tubular transducers were evaluated in theoretical simulations and in vivo canine prostates under MR guidance as a method for fast, conformal thermal therapy of the prostate. Comprehensive simulations with a biothermal model investigated the effect on lesion creation of sector size, perfusion, treatment time, rectal cooling, prostate target dimensions, and feedback controller parameters (maximum temperature, pilot points at boundary, update times). In vivo canine prostates (n = 4) were treated with trisectored ultrasound transducers (3 mm OD) under MR temperature monitoring to contour the ablation zone (>52 C for 1-2 min) to the boundary of the prostate. Contiguous thermal lesions extended 2 cm in radius from the urethra in less than 15 min and independent sector control simultaneously allowed for conformal treatment in the angular dimension. Experiments investigated sequential translation of the transducer assembly within the catheter for tailoring heat treatments to different partitions in the prostate (base, apex) without changing the initial setup. This treatment method offered greater lesion shape control in three dimensions and slightly lengthened the overall treatment time. The MR temperature images correlated with post-treatment histology and accurately controlled the heating to the target boundary. MR-based control of transurethral ultrasound devices appeared more practical with multisectored transducers compared to rotating curvilinear and planar applicators due to less stringent requirements on spatial and temporal MR parameters. This study demonstrated the applicability of these devices in the prostate for anterior-lateral BPH treatment, and whole gland or quadrant target volumes for cancer treatment.

  4. A thermal technique for local ultrasound intensity measurement: part 2. Application to exposimetry on a medical diagnostic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acoustic output measurements on medical ultrasound equipment are usually performed using radiation force balances to determine the output power and using hydrophones to determine pressure and intensity parameters. The local temporal-average ultrasound intensity can be measured alternatively by thermal sensors. The technique was described and prototype sensors were characterized in a preceding paper. Here, the application of such a thermal intensity sensor to the output beam characterization of a typical medical diagnostic device is described. Two transducers, a 7.5 MHz linear array and a 3.5 MHz convex array were investigated in different operating modes. For comparison, hydrophone measurements were also performed. If the spatial averaging effect is taken into account, good agreement is found between both measurement methods. The maximum deviations of the spatial-peak temporal-average intensities ISPTA obtained with the thermal sensor from the corresponding hydrophone-based results were below 12%. The simple thermal technique offers advantages for intensity measurements especially in the case of scanning and combined modes of the diagnostic device, where the synchronization between hydrophone measurements and the complex pulse emission pattern can be difficult

  5. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of ultra-miniaturized pocket ultrasound device on cardiac function in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the diagnostic accuracy of a new ultra-miniaturized pocket ultrasound device (PUD (VscanTM, GE Healthcare, Wauwatosa, WI and conventional high-quality echocardiography system (Vivid qTM, GE Healthcare for a cardiac focused ultrasonography in critical patients. Methods  The patients admitted to our hospital and receiving transthoracic echocardiography (TTE using a PUD and a conventional echocardiography system were included in this study during the 10 months from December 2013 to October 2014. Each examination was performed independently by an intensive care unit (ICU physician and an experienced ultrasound doctor, unaware of the results found by the alternative device. The following parameters were assessed: global cardiac systolic function, identification of ventricular size, whether or not accompanying enlargement or hypertrophy, assessment for the morphology of cardiac valves and its function, pericardial effusion and estimation of the inferior vena cava (IVC diameter. The time-consuming of each device were recorded. Results  One hundred and twenty-eight patients were included in the study. Their left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, global left ventricular systolic dysfunction, pericardial effusion, IVC dilation were assessed by PUD and the assessment results were highly consistent with those by Vivid q (κ>0.84. The consistency was slightly lower in evaluating the left and right ventricular size. For evaluating the cardiac valves function, the agreement of two devices were relatively low (κ=0.69-0.84. Compared with Vivid q, PUD took less time (4.7±1.4min vs 6.3±2.6min; P<0.05. Conclusion  PUD can provide fast, reliable cardiac examination, thus being an effective method for ICU physicians to assess the cardiac f unction in critical patients. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.10

  6. Dual-modality image guided high intensity focused ultrasound device design for prostate cancer: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Dexter; Curiel, Laura; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Pichardo, Samuel

    2012-10-01

    In this study the feasibility of designing a multi-element prostate cancer treatment device using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and ultrasound imaging for guidance was determined. A parametric study was performed to determine the optimal focal length (L), operating frequency (f), element size (a) and central hole radius for lodging an imaging probe (r) of a device that would safely treat cancerous tissue within the prostate. Images from the Visible Human Project were used to determine simulated organ sizes and treatment locations. Elliptical tumors were placed throughout the simulated prostate and their lateral and axial limits were selected as test locations. Using Tesla C1060 (NVIDIA, Santa Clara, CA, USA) graphics processors, the Bio-Heat Transfer Equation was implemented to calculate the heating produced during the simulated treatment. L, f a and r were varied from 45 to 75mm, 2.25 to 3.00MHz, 1.5 to 8 times λ and 9 to 11mm, respectively. Results indicated that a device of 761 elements with a combination of L, f a and r of 68mm, 2.75MHz, 2.05λ and 9mm, respectively, could safely ablate tumors within the prostate and spare the surrounding organs.

  7. A phase separation method for analyses of fluoroquinones in meats based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction and a new integrated device

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H; Gao, M.; Xu, Y; W. Wang; Zheng, L; Dahlgren, RA; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted, salt-induced, liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones in meats by HPLC analysis. The novel integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE (high density polyethylene) parts that were used to separate the solvent from the aqueous solution prior to retrieving the extractant. The extraction parameters were optimized using the response surfa...

  8. Removal efficiency of a constructed wetland combined with ultrasound and UV devices for wastewater reuse in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Attilio; Hellio, Claire; Marzo, Alessia; Milani, Mirco; Lebret, Karen; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Langergraber, Günter

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the treatment efficiency of a chemical-free water treatment for treating the secondary effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant with the aim of reusing the water for agriculture. Urban wastewater was treated by three units run in series: a full-scale horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetland, a small pond with an ultrasound (US) system and a UV device. The treatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of the Italian wastewater limits for irrigation reuse, water quality improvement (removal percentage) and algae bloom control. The tolerable infection risk, associated with the use of wastewaters for irrigating crops, was also assessed by applying the microbial risk analyses proposed in the WHO guidelines for wastewater reuse. The constructed wetland was efficient in reducing physical-chemical and microbiological concentrations, and its efficiency was very steady over the investigation period. The UV system significantly improved water quality (p<0.05) in terms of pathogen concentration with a further average decrease from 0.35 to 1.23 log units, depending on the microbiological parameter. The US device was able to prevent algae bloom on a free water surface and maintain Chlorophyll-a concentration stable and low 2 months after activation.

  9. Devices for pre-sterilization treatment of endoscopes by ozone and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the article, the specially designed devices for pre-sterilization treatment of laparoscopic, endoscopic and other long-length surgical equipment from organic compounds (blood and alkali) in ultrasonic tank-container with ozone has been proposed. The first device was equipped with a bath (up to 30 l), ten ultrasonic emitters with a total power 300 W, and four modular ozone generators based on dielectric barrier discharges. The second device equipped with 3.5 liter volume bath was also designed having a glass pipe 1 meter long, 8 cm in diameter with one ozone module and immersion ultrasonic emitter. During treatment, the ozonized water was injected both into the internal and external surfaces of endoscopes. The output ozone concentration reached 30 mg/l with dry air flow rate 0.3 l/min. Phenolphthalein test and ''Delatest'' solution method determined the remains of alkali and blood, respectively.

  10. Measurement of Cervical Length Changes During Normal Pregnancy by Endovaginal Ultrasound Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Tahmasebi

    2009-01-01

    and multiparity with no preterm labor history, so it is safer if there is no preterm labor history in a multiparous pregnant woman. Keywords: Vaginal Ultrasound, Cervical Length, Pregnancy, Cervical Insufficiency, Preterm Labor  

  11. Twelve years' experience with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) using sonablate™ devices for the treatment of localized prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Toyoaki; Nakano, Muyura; Shoji, Sunao; Nagata, Yoshihiro; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2012-10-01

    To report on the long-term results of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0, biopsy proven, localized prostate cancer, with a serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of HIFU using the Sonablate™ (S) device and were required to have a minimal follow-up of 2 years after the last HIFU session to be included in this analysis. Four different generation HIFU devices, S200, S500, S500 version 4 and S500 TCM, have been used for this study. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition (PSA nadir+2ng/ml). Seven hundred and fifty-three men with prostate cancer were included. The patients were divided into two groups: in the Former group, 421 patients were treated with S200 and 500 from 1990 to 2005; in the Latter group, 332 patients were treated with S500 ver. 4 and TCM from 2005 to 2009. The mean age, PSA, Gleason score, operation time, and follow-up period in the Former and Latter groups were 68 and 67 years, 11.3 and 9.7 ng/ml, 6.2 and 6.6, 167 and 101 min, and 49 and 38 months, respectively. The biochemical disease-free rate (BDFR) in the groups at 5 years was, respectively, 67% and 53%, and was 50% at 10 years in the Former group (pprostate biopsy rate in the Former and Latter groups was 81% and 93%, respectively. Postoperative erectile dysfunction was noted in 45%, 38%, and 24% of patients at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years after HIFU. The results after long-term follow-up have indicated that HIFU is an efficient and safe treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer, especially low-and intermediate-risk patients.

  12. Multi-Angle Switched HIFU: A New Ultrasound Device for Controlled Non-Invasive Induction of Small Spherical Ablation Zones—Simulation and Ex-Vivo Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Petr; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Benson, Donny G.; Webber, Jessica S.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Shafirstein, Gal; Griffin, Robert J.

    2009-04-01

    Current HIFU devices produce elongated elliptical lesions (cigar shaped) in a single energy deposition. This prohibits the effective use of HIFU in small animal research as well as in clinical treatment where small volumes of tissue surrounded by critical structures need to be destroyed. We developed an ultrasound ablation device that non-invasively creates spheroidal lesions of an arbitrary diameter of up to 1 cm in a depth of up to 5 cm. The device consists of two focused ultrasound transducers aimed to the ablation target volume from two directions at a 90 degree angle. The operation of the transducers is switched back and forth so that only one transducer is energized at a time. A transient analysis of this ablation approach was performed using coupled simulations of acoustical pressure distributions, resulting temperature distributions, and thermal dose deposited to soft tissue. A prototype of the device was developed and tested in-vitro in a phantom and later in ex-vivo experiments in pig liver. The experimental results agreed with the numerical simulations and confirmed the ability of the multi-angle switched HIFU (MASH) device to create small spheroidal lesions in soft tissue within 2 minutes without significantly affecting the surrounding tissues.

  13. Improved cardiovascular diagnostic accuracy by pocket size imaging device in non-cardiologic outpatients: the NaUSiCa (Naples Ultrasound Stethoscope in Cardiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiattarella Pier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Miniaturization has evolved in the creation of a pocket-size imaging device which can be utilized as an ultrasound stethoscope. This study assessed the additional diagnostic power of pocket size device by both experts operators and trainees in comparison with physical examination and its appropriateness of use in comparison with standard echo machine in a non-cardiologic population. Three hundred four consecutive non cardiologic outpatients underwent a sequential assessment including physical examination, pocket size imaging device and standard Doppler-echo exam. Pocket size device was used by both expert operators and trainees (who received specific training before the beginning of the study. All the operators were requested to give only visual, qualitative insights on specific issues. All standard Doppler-echo exams were performed by expert operators. One hundred two pocket size device exams were performed by experts and two hundred two by trainees. The time duration of the pocket size device exam was 304 ± 117 sec. Diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities was made in 38.2% of cases by physical examination and in 69.7% of cases by physical examination + pocket size device (additional diagnostic power = 31.5%, p In conclusion, pocket size device showed a relevant additional diagnostic value in comparison with physical examination. Sensitivity and specificity were good in experts and suboptimal in trainees. Specificity was particularly influenced by the level of experience. Training programs are needed for pocket size device users.

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound ... limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? What is Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves ... the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound ... limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? What is Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  17. The use of a pocket-sized ultrasound device improves physical examination: results of an in- and outpatient cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Colli

    Full Text Available The performance of pocket mobile ultrasound devices (PUDs is comparable with that of standard ultrasonography, whereas the accuracy of a physical examination is often poor requiring further tests to assess diagnostic hypotheses. Adding the use of PUD to physical examination could lead to an incremental benefit.We assessed whether the use of PUD in the context of physical examination can reduce the prescription of additional tests when used by physicians in different clinical settings.We conducted a cohort impact study in four hospital medical wards, one gastroenterological outpatient clinic, and 90 general practices in the same geographical area. The study involved 135 physicians who used PUD, after a short predefined training course, to examine 1962 consecutive patients with one of 10 diagnostic hypotheses: ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, urinary retention, urinary stones, gallstones, biliary-duct dilation, splenomegaly, abdominal mass, abdominal aortic aneurysm. According to the physicians' judgment, PUD examination could rule out or in the diagnostic hypothesis or require further testing; the concordance with the final diagnosis was assessed. The main outcome was the proportion of cases in which additional tests were required after PUD. The PUD diagnostic accuracy was assessed in patients submitted to further testing.The 1962 patients included 37% in-patients, 26% gastroenterology outpatients, 37% from general practices. Further testing after PUD examination was deemed unnecessary in 63%. Only 5% of patients with negative PUD not referred for further testing were classified false negatives with respect to the final diagnosis. In patients undergoing further tests, the sensitivity was 91%, and the specificity 83%.After a simple and short training course, a PUD examination can be used in addition to a physical examination to improve the answer to ten common clinical questions concerning in- and outpatients, and can reduce the

  18. Therapeutic ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Lawrence A [Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, 1013 NE 40th Street, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  19. Therapeutic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  20. Guideline for Technical Quality Assurance (TQA) of ultrasound devices (B-Mode)--version 1.0 (July 2012): EFSUMB Technical Quality Assurance Group--US-TQA/B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, C; deKorte, C; Dudley, N J; Gritzmann, N; Martin, K; Evans, D H

    2012-12-01

    The Technical Quality Assurance group was initiated by the EFSUMB Board in 2007 and met firstly in 2008 to discuss and evaluate methods and procedures published for performing technical quality assurance for diagnostic ultrasound devices. It is the aim of this group of experts to advise the EFSUMB Board of effective and efficacious methods for routine use and to make recommendations regarding the technical aspects of EFSUMB by-law 9, parts 11.6. & 11.7. The group's work focused on new developments and related European projects to establish a common guideline. There is a great need of a well established protocol and dedicated processing software for the performance testing of medical ultrasound equipment. The measurements should be user independent as much as physically possible. Only if these goals are achieved in an international (firstly European) context, the optimal quality of ultrasound imaging can be offered and maintained to the medical community. This guideline aims to offer and summarize suitable procedures and evaluation processes to lend support for an optimal Technical Quality Assurance (TQA) scheme. The content of this guideline was presented to the EFSUMB Board of Directors (delegates) and approved by the EFSUMB Executive Board (ExB) at the regular meeting during EUROSON 2012 in Madrid April 2012. PMID:23160776

  1. Feasibility of Remote Real-Time Guidance of a Cardiac Examination Performed by Novices Using a Pocket-Sized Ultrasound Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan V. Mai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The potential of pocket-sized ultrasound devices (PUDs to improve global healthcare delivery is limited by the lack of a suitable imaging protocol and trained users. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of performing a brief, evidence-based cardiac limited ultrasound exam (CLUE through wireless guidance of novice users. Methods. Three trainees applied PUDs on 27 subjects while directed by an off-site cardiologist to obtain a CLUE to screen for LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD, LA enlargement (LAE, ultrasound lung comets (ULC+, and elevated CVP (eCVP. Real-time remote audiovisual guidance and interpretation by the cardiologist were performed using the iPhone 4/iPod (FaceTime, Apple, Inc. attached to the PUD and transmitted data wirelessly. Accuracy and technical quality of transmitted images were compared to on-site, gold-standard echo thresholds. Results. Novice versus sonographer imaging yielded technically adequate views in 122/135 (90% versus 130/135 (96% (. CLUE’s combined SN, SP, and ACC were 0.67, 0.96, and 0.90. Technical adequacy (% and accuracy for each abnormality ( were LVSD (85%, 0.93, , LAE (89%, 0.74, , ULC+ (100%, 0.94, , and eCVP (78%, 0.91, . Conclusion. A novice can perform the CLUE using PUD when wirelessly guided by an expert. This method could facilitate PUD use for off-site bedside medical decision making and triaging of patients.

  2. MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena J.; Jones, Peter; Hensley, Daniel; Holbrook, Andrew; Plata, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris J.

    2013-02-01

    Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13-14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1-3 cm diameter tumors located 2-10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally

  3. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Obstetric Ultrasound Obstetric ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of ... What are the limitations of Obstetrical Ultrasound Imaging? Obstetric ultrasound cannot identify all fetal abnormalities. Consequently, when ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients are more ... content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Images ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in ... exam may be part of a pelvic ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound is a special ultrasound technique that ...

  6. Intravascular Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nuclear Ventriculography Optical Coherence Tomography Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Stress Echocardiography Transesophageal Echocardiography Intravascular Ultrasound | Share Intravascular ultrasound ( ...

  7. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Using Sonablate® Devices for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Localized Prostate Cancer: 18-year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Toyoaki

    2011-09-01

    From 1993 to 2010, we have treated 156 patients benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 1,052 patients localized prostate cancer high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Four different HIFU devices, SonablateR-200, SonablateR-500, SonablateR-500 version 4 and Sonablate® TCM, have been used for this study. Clinical outcome of HIFU for BPH did not show any superior effects to transurethral resection of the prostate, laser surgery or transurethral vapolization of the prostate. However, HIFU appears to be a safe and minimally invasive therapy for patients with localized prostate cancer, especially low- and intermediate-risk patients. The rate of clinical outcome has significantly improved over the years due to technical improvements in the device.

  8. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  9. Circumferential lesion formation around the pulmonary veins in the left atrium with focused ultrasound using a 2D-array endoesophageal device: a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Hynynen, Kullervo [Imaging Research-Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Room C713, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-08-21

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently sustained cardiac arrhythmia affecting humans. The electrical isolation by ablation of the pulmonary veins (PVs) in the left atrium (LA) of the heart has been proven as an effective cure of AF. The ablation consists mainly in the formation of a localized circumferential thermal coagulation of the cardiac tissue surrounding the PVs. In the present numerical study, the feasibility of producing the required circumferential lesion with an endoesophageal ultrasound probe is investigated. The probe operates at 1 MHz and consists of a 2D array with enough elements (114 x 20) to steer the acoustic field electronically in a volume comparable to the LA. Realistic anatomical conditions of the thorax were considered from the segmentation of histological images of the thorax. The cardiac muscle and the blood-filled cavities in the heart were identified and considered in the sound propagation and thermal models. The influence of different conditions of the thermal sinking in the LA chamber was also studied. The circumferential ablation of the PVs was achieved by the sum of individual lesions induced with the proposed device. Different scenarios of lesion formation were considered where ultrasound exposures (1, 2, 5 and 10 s) were combined with maximal peak temperatures (60, 70 and 80 {sup 0}C). The results of this numerical study allowed identifying the limits and best conditions for controlled lesion formation in the LA using the proposed device. A controlled situation for the lesion formation surrounding the PVs was obtained when the targets were located within a distance from the device in the range of 26 {+-} 7 mm. When combined with a maximal temperature of 70 {sup 0}C and an exposure time between 5 and 10 s, this distance ensured preservation of the esophageal structures, controlled lesion formation and delivery of an acoustic intensity at the transducer surface that is compatible with existing materials. With a peak

  10. Feasibility of remote real-time guidance of a cardiac examination performed by novices using a pocket-sized ultrasound device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Tuan V; Ahn, David T; Phillips, Colin T; Agan, Donna L; Kimura, Bruce J

    2013-01-01

    Background. The potential of pocket-sized ultrasound devices (PUDs) to improve global healthcare delivery is limited by the lack of a suitable imaging protocol and trained users. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of performing a brief, evidence-based cardiac limited ultrasound exam (CLUE) through wireless guidance of novice users. Methods. Three trainees applied PUDs on 27 subjects while directed by an off-site cardiologist to obtain a CLUE to screen for LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD), LA enlargement (LAE), ultrasound lung comets (ULC+), and elevated CVP (eCVP). Real-time remote audiovisual guidance and interpretation by the cardiologist were performed using the iPhone 4/iPod (FaceTime, Apple, Inc.) attached to the PUD and transmitted data wirelessly. Accuracy and technical quality of transmitted images were compared to on-site, gold-standard echo thresholds. Results. Novice versus sonographer imaging yielded technically adequate views in 122/135 (90%) versus 130/135 (96%) (P < 0.05). CLUE's combined SN, SP, and ACC were 0.67, 0.96, and 0.90. Technical adequacy (%) and accuracy for each abnormality (n) were LVSD (85%, 0.93, n = 5), LAE (89%, 0.74, n = 16), ULC+ (100%, 0.94, n = 5), and eCVP (78%, 0.91, n = 1). Conclusion. A novice can perform the CLUE using PUD when wirelessly guided by an expert. This method could facilitate PUD use for off-site bedside medical decision making and triaging of patients. PMID:24024032

  11. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound is most often performed to evaluate the: uterus cervix ovaries fallopian tubes bladder Pelvic ultrasound exams ... to view the endometrium , the lining of the uterus, and the ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound also provides a ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ... Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures and organs ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  15. Intravascular ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    IVUS; Ultrasound - coronary artery; Endovascular ultrasound; Intravascular echocardiography ... A tiny ultrasound wand is attached to the top of a thin tube. This tube is called a catheter. The catheter ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: ...

  17. Basics of biomedical ultrasound for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Azhari, Haim

    2010-01-01

    "Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers is a structured textbook for university engineering courses in biomedical ultrasound and for researchers in the field. This book offers a tool for building a solid understanding of biomedical ultrasound, and leads the novice through the field in a step-by-step manner. The book begins with the most basic definitions of waves, proceeds to ultrasounds in fluids, and then delves into solid ultrasounds, the most complicated kind of ultrasound. It encompasses a wide range of topics within biomedical ultrasound, from conceptual definitions of waves to the intricacies of focusing devices, transducers, and acoustic fields"--Provided by publisher.

  18. A phase separation method for analyses of fluoroquinones in meats based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction and a new integrated device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Gao, Ming; Xu, Youqu; Wang, Wenwei; Zheng, Lian; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted, salt-induced, liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones in meats by HPLC analysis. The novel integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE (high density polyethylene) parts that were used to separate the solvent from the aqueous solution prior to retrieving the extractant. The extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on central composite design: 589μL of acetone solvent, pH2.1, 4.1min extraction time and 3.5g of Na2SO4. The limits of detection were 0.056-0.64 μgkg(-1) and recoveries were 87.2-110.6% for the five fluoroquinones in muscle tissue from fish, chicken, pork and beef. This method is easily constructed from inexpensive materials, extraction efficiency is high, and the approach is compatible with HPLC analysis. Thus, it has excellent prospects for sample pre-treatment and analysis of fluoroquinones in meat samples. PMID:25885797

  19. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) using Sonablate{trade mark, serif} devices for the treatment of localized prostate cancer: 13-year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Toyoaki; Tomonaga, Tetsuro; Shoji, Sunao; Kim, Hakushi; Nagata, Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    To report on the long-term results of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Eight hundred and eighty-four men with prostate cancer treated with Sonablate® (SB) devices were included. All patients were followed for more than 2 years. The patients were divided into three groups: in the first group, 419 patients were treated with SB200/500 from 1999 to 2006; in the second group, 263 patients were treated with SB 500 ver. 4 from 2005 to 2009: in the third group, 202 patients were treated with SB 500 TCM from 2007 up to present. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition (PSA nadir + 2 ng/ml). The mean age, PSA, Gleason score, operation time, and follow-up period in each group were 68, 66 and 67 years, 11.2, 9.7 and 9.3 ng/ml, 6.2, 6.6 and 6.7, 167, 101 and 106 min, and 56, 48 and 36 months, respectively. The biochemical disease-free rate (bDFR) in each group at 5 years was, respectively, 54%, 61% and 84%, and was 50% at 10 years in the SB200/500 group (pcultural and economic vectors have caused a shift from to minimally invasive techniques.

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... needles are used to extract a sample of cells from organs for laboratory testing. Doppler ultrasound images ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... help to distract the child and make the time pass quickly. The ultrasound exam room may have ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Prostate Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... investigation of the uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of the uterus and ovaries ... abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or sonohysterography for patients with infertility. Three- ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, and vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... is used to evaluate the: bladder seminal vesicles prostate Transrectal ultrasound, a special study usually done to view the prostate gland, involves inserting a specialized ultrasound transducer into ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal , endovaginal ) ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... in the lower abdomen and pelvis. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), ... physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal , ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... bladder seminal vesicles prostate Transrectal ultrasound, a special study usually done to view the prostate gland, involves ... time to the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, you may actually hear pulse-like ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams are also used to monitor the health and development of an embryo or fetus during pregnancy. See the Obstetrical Ultrasound page for more information . Ultrasound examinations can help diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic ...

  11. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the procedure performed? Head Ultrasound A head ultrasound is performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the infant's bedside. The infant is positioned lying face-up. A clear, water-based gel is applied ...

  12. Ultrasound physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Bedside ultrasound has become an important modality for obtaining critical information in the acute care of patients. It is important to understand the physics of ultrasound in order to perform and interpret images at the bedside. The physics of both continuous wave and pulsed wave sound underlies diagnostic ultrasound. The instrumentation, including transducers and image processing, is important in the acquisition of appropriate sonographic images. Understanding how these concepts interplay with each other enables practitioners to obtain the best possible images.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures ... limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures ... limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Vascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be ... either side or on occasion placed in a face down position to improve the quality ... (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on ...

  16. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examination table or a swivel chair. For other ultrasound exams, the patient is positioned lying face-up or face-down on an examination table. The radiologist or sonographer may ask you to move the extremity being examined or may ... ultrasound studies of infants and children are performed with ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids ovarian or uterine cancers A transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to view ... detect: uterine anomalies uterine scars endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... frequently used to evaluate the reproductive and urinary systems. Ultrasound is safe, ... the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ...

  19. Ultrasound - Scrotum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube immediately next to a testicle that collects sperm) and scrotum. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does ... tube immediately next to a testis that collects sperm made by the testicle) and scrotum. This study ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... tip of the transducer is smaller than the standard speculum used when performing a Pap test . A ... risks associated with x-ray exposure. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of the uterus and ovaries in planes that ... physicians with expertise in several radiologic areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... stable or changes over time. top of page Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles or ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  4. Hip Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infant ultrasound can be used to check the hips for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), which in infants can range from a shallow cup (bony acetabular dysplasia), to complete dislocation with the ball of the ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without even the minimal risks associated with x- ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... for men). These exams are frequently used to evaluate the reproductive and urinary systems. Ultrasound is safe, ... technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams are also used to monitor the health and development of an embryo or fetus during ... and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract the child ... time to the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, you may actually hear pulse-like ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... between the transducer and the skin that can block the sound waves from passing into your body. ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... frequently used to evaluate the reproductive and urinary systems. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and does not use ... and evaluate a variety of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without even the minimal ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the examination process. To ensure a smooth experience, it often helps to explain the procedure to the ... on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from ...

  12. Ultrasound induced by CW laser cavitation bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, N; Montero, P Rodriguez; Ramos-Garcia, R; Ramirez-San-Juan, J C; Padilla-Martinez, J P, E-mail: korneev@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apt. Postal 51 y 216 CP72000, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    The generation of ultrasound by a collapsing single cavitation bubble in a strongly absorbing liquid illuminated with a moderate power CW laser is described. The ultrasound shock wave is detected with hydrophone and interferometric device. To obtain a stronger pulse it is necessary to adjust a liquid absorption and a beam diameter. Their influence can be qualitatively understood with a simple model.

  13. Trauma Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures.

  14. In vitro comparison of two types of introcorporeal ultrasound lithotripsy device (CQS-01 and EMS)%CQS-01与EMS超声系统碎石清石效果的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓峰; 熊六林; 黄晓波; 于晋生; 费兴波; 姜克明; 李春升

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of stone fragmentation and clearance of this new intracorporeal ultrasound lithotripter (CQS-01) compared with currently available ultrasound units (EMS-Ⅲ/Ⅳ).Methods Twenty phantom stones composed of dental gypsum were randomly divided into four groups,and CQS-01 ultrasound lithotripter (70% power and 70% duty factor),EMS-Ⅲ ultrasound lithotripter (70% power and 70% duty factor),EMS-Ⅳ ultrasound lithotripter (type A,70% power and 70% duty factor) and EMS-Ⅳ ultrasound lithotripter (type B,70% power and 100% duty factor) were used to fragment and removepbantom stones.The mean stone breakdown time and fragment removal time and stone fragmental sizes for the standard ultrasound devices were compared to determine the completeness and efficiency of stone fragmentation and removal.Results The average time for stone breakdown was 7.4 ± 1.9 s,9.4 ± 1.6 s,82.2 ± 12.6 s and 51.4 ± 18.7 s,respectively.There was no significant difference between CQS-01 and EMS-Ⅲ (P > 0.05),but there was significant difference between CQS-01 and EMS-Ⅳ (A or B) (P < 0.001).The average time for stone clearance using the ultrasound devices was 387.8 ± 68.0 s,41 1.6 ± 57.6 s,568.0 ± 119.1 s and 383.6 ± 75.6 s,respectively.In addition,the average size of the largest fragments removed was the same among the groups (< 3 mm).Conclusion The ultrasound capabilities in a newly developed lithotriter (CQS-01) exhibited the same ability to fragment and clear phantom stones compared with standard ultrasound devices.%目的 比较CQS-01和EMS-Ⅲ 、EMS-Ⅳ超声碎石清石系统碎石清石效果. 方法自制标准石膏柱(直径20 mm,高10 mm,维氏硬度368 mPa)作为结石模型,共20枚,随机分为4组,每组5枚.将结石模型平放于60ml一次性注射器内,并浸没于水中,分别采用CQS-01、EMS-Ⅲ 、EMS-Ⅳ(A)超声碎石清石系统在相同条件下(70%功率、70%占空比、负压0.02 mPa)和EMS-

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart ... Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview ...

  16. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Noble, J

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time. PMID:27503078

  17. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Noble, J

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time.

  18. Hot topics in biomedical ultrasound: ultrasound therapy and its integration with ultrasonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everbach, E. Carr

    2005-09-01

    Since the development of biomedical ultrasound imaging from sonar after WWII, there has been a clear divide between ultrasonic imaging and ultrasound therapy. While imaging techniques are designed to cause as little change as possible in the tissues through which ultrasound propagates, ultrasound therapy typically relies upon heating or acoustic cavitation to produce a desirable therapeutic effect. Concerns over the increasingly high acoustic outputs of diagnostic ultrasound scanners prompted the adoption of the Mechanical Index (MI) and Thermal Index (TI) in the early 1990s. Therapeutic applications of ultrasound, meanwhile, have evolved from deep tissue heating in sports medicine to include targeted drug delivery, tumor and plaque ablation, cauterization via high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and accelerated dissolution of blood clots. The integration of ultrasonic imaging and therapy in one device is just beginning, but the promise of improved patient outcomes is balanced by regulatory and practical impediments.

  19. An implantable compound-releasing capsule triggered on demand by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeig, Olga; Chin, Sau Yin; Kim, Sohyun; Chitnis, Parag V; Sia, Samuel K

    2016-03-11

    Implantable devices have a large potential to improve human health, but they are often made of biofouling materials that necessitate special coatings, rely on electrical connections for external communication, and require a continuous power source. This paper demonstrates an alternative platform, which we call iTAG (implantable thermally actuated gel), where an implanted capsule can be wirelessly controlled by ultrasound to trigger the release of compounds. We constructed a millimeter-sized capsule containing a co-polymer gel (NiPAAm-co-AAm) that contracts above body temperature (i.e. at 45 °C) to release compounds through an opening. This gel-containing capsule is biocompatible and free of toxic electronic or battery components. An ultrasound hardware, with a focused ultrasound (FUS) transducer and a co-axial A-mode imaging transducer, was used to image the capsule (to monitor in real time its position, temperature, and effectiveness of dose delivery), as well as to trigger a rapid local rise in temperature, contraction of gel, and release of compounds in vitro and in vivo. The combination of this gel-based capsule and compact ultrasound hardware can serve as a platform for triggering local release of compounds, including potentially in deep tissue, to achieve tailored personalized therapy.

  20. An implantable compound-releasing capsule triggered on demand by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeig, Olga; Chin, Sau Yin; Kim, Sohyun; Chitnis, Parag V.; Sia, Samuel K.

    2016-03-01

    Implantable devices have a large potential to improve human health, but they are often made of biofouling materials that necessitate special coatings, rely on electrical connections for external communication, and require a continuous power source. This paper demonstrates an alternative platform, which we call iTAG (implantable thermally actuated gel), where an implanted capsule can be wirelessly controlled by ultrasound to trigger the release of compounds. We constructed a millimeter-sized capsule containing a co-polymer gel (NiPAAm-co-AAm) that contracts above body temperature (i.e. at 45 °C) to release compounds through an opening. This gel-containing capsule is biocompatible and free of toxic electronic or battery components. An ultrasound hardware, with a focused ultrasound (FUS) transducer and a co-axial A-mode imaging transducer, was used to image the capsule (to monitor in real time its position, temperature, and effectiveness of dose delivery), as well as to trigger a rapid local rise in temperature, contraction of gel, and release of compounds in vitro and in vivo. The combination of this gel-based capsule and compact ultrasound hardware can serve as a platform for triggering local release of compounds, including potentially in deep tissue, to achieve tailored personalized therapy.

  1. Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements at the Heel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugschies, M.; Brixen, K.; Hermann, P.;

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound can be used to predict osteoporotic fracture risk, but its ability to monitor therapy is unclear possibly because of its limited precision. We developed a quantitative ultrasound device (foot ultrasound scanner) that measures the speed of sound at the heel...... with the aim of minimizing common error sources like the position and penetration angle of the ultrasound beam, as well as the soft tissue temperature. To achieve these objectives, we used a receiver array, mechanics to adjust the beam direction and a foot temperature sensor. In a group of 60 volunteers, short......-term precision was evaluated for the foot ultrasound scanner and a commercial device (Achilles Insight, GE Medical, Fairfield, CT, USA). In a subgroup of 20 subjects, mid-term precision (1-mo follow-up) was obtained. Compared with measurement of the speed of sound with the Achilles Insight, measurement...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help ... that is being examined to the transducer (the device used to examine the patient), as well ... is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for ...

  4. Assess the discrimination of Achilles InSight calcaneus quantitative ultrasound device for osteoporosis in Chinese women: Compared with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Ningning, E-mail: ningning_jin@163.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100032 (China); Lin Shouqing, E-mail: Shouqing_Lin2003@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100032 (China); Zhang Ying, E-mail: steel_lee@sina.com.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100032 (China); Chen Fengling, E-mail: bjzqk@126.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100032 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Since the implementation of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technology may become a part of future clinical decision making to identify osteoporosis and prevent fractures, this study was initiated to evaluate the correlations of QUS parameters and axial bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to assess the discrimination of QUS measurements for osteoporosis and osteopenia defined by WHO criteria. 106 native Chinese women (aged 50.2 {+-} 10.9 SD, 21-74 years) were involved. Each subject received both QUS measurements at left calcaneus with Achilles InSight and DXA measurements with DPX-L at lumbar spine (L{sub 2-4}), total hip and femoral neck. Achilles InSight provided the stiffness index (SI) which derived from Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and Speed of Sound (SOS), and the T-scores of SI were calculated. We found that the QUS parameter SI was statistically significant but medium correlated (r = 0.458-0.587) with DXA at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck (P < 0.0001 for all correlations). With ROC analysis, the area under the ROC curve of diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia were 0.933 and 0.796, respectively. To identify osteoporosis, when the T-score threshold of SI was defined as -1.4, the sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 73.7%. Our study confirmed that QUS measurements performed with Achilles InSight were capable to identify osteoporosis defined by axial BMD using DXA in Chinese women.

  5. Assess the discrimination of Achilles InSight calcaneus quantitative ultrasound device for osteoporosis in Chinese women: Compared with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the implementation of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technology may become a part of future clinical decision making to identify osteoporosis and prevent fractures, this study was initiated to evaluate the correlations of QUS parameters and axial bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to assess the discrimination of QUS measurements for osteoporosis and osteopenia defined by WHO criteria. 106 native Chinese women (aged 50.2 ± 10.9 SD, 21-74 years) were involved. Each subject received both QUS measurements at left calcaneus with Achilles InSight and DXA measurements with DPX-L at lumbar spine (L2-4), total hip and femoral neck. Achilles InSight provided the stiffness index (SI) which derived from Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and Speed of Sound (SOS), and the T-scores of SI were calculated. We found that the QUS parameter SI was statistically significant but medium correlated (r = 0.458-0.587) with DXA at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck (P < 0.0001 for all correlations). With ROC analysis, the area under the ROC curve of diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia were 0.933 and 0.796, respectively. To identify osteoporosis, when the T-score threshold of SI was defined as -1.4, the sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 73.7%. Our study confirmed that QUS measurements performed with Achilles InSight were capable to identify osteoporosis defined by axial BMD using DXA in Chinese women.

  6. Safety Distance Monitoring Devices for Substation Based on the Ultrasound Principle%基于超声波原理的变电站安全距离监测装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凌霄

    2016-01-01

    为避免变电站运行人员、检修人员工作时无法与带电设备保持足够的安全距离而造成人员伤亡事故,设计了一种基于单片机的安全距离监测装置,笔者针对基于超声波原理的安全距离监测装置提出了在0.2~500 cm范围内实现准确测距的方法,该方法可对220 kV及35 kV系统的架空设备进行有效测距,测距的稳定性和准确性达到了100%,具有可靠性较高、实用性强、经济性强等优点。%In order to avoid the casualty accidents caused by unsafe distance between substation operator, maintenance per-sonnel and electrical equipment, a safe distance monitoring device based on the ultrasound principle is designed. The paper puts forward distance measuring method in the range 0.2 cm to 500 cm of the device, and the method can accurately mea-sure the distance of overhead equipment for 220 kV and 35 kV. It has the advantages of high reliability and strong practica-bility.

  7. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated. PMID:26486330

  8. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ... not stain or discolor clothing. In some ultrasound studies, the transducer is attached to a probe and ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the abdomen ... limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  12. Elucidation of the role of biological factors and device design in cerebral NIRS using an in vivo hematoma model based on high-intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianting; Huang, Stanley; Myers, Matthew; Chen, Yu; Welle, Cristin; Pfefer, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an emerging medical countermeasure for rapid, field detection of hematomas caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Bench and animal tests to determine NIRS sensitivity and specificity are needed. However, current animal models involving non-invasively induced, localized neural damage are limited. We investigated an in vivo murine hematoma model in which cerebral hemorrhage was induced noninvasively by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with calibrated positioning and parameters. To characterize the morphology of induced hematomas, we used skull-intact histological evaluation. A multi-wavelength fiber-optic NIRS system with three source-detector separation distances was used to detect hematoma A 1.1 MHz transducer produced consistent small-to-medium hematoma localized to a single hemisphere, along with bruising of the scalp, with a low mortality rate. A 220 kHz transducer produced larger, more diffuse hematomas, with higher variability in size and a correspondingly higher mortality rate. No skin bruising or blood accumulation between the skin and skull was observed following injury application with the 220 kHz transducer. Histological analysis showed higher sensitivity for larger hematomas (>4x4 mm2). NIRS optical density change after HIFU was able to detect all hematomas, with sensitivity dependent on wavelength and separation distance. While improvements in methods for validating cerebral blood distribution are needed, the HIFU hematoma model provided useful insights that will inform development of biologically relevant, performance test methods for cerebral NIRS systems.

  13. Acoustic Cavitation Enhances Focused Ultrasound Ablation with Phase-Shift Inorganic Perfluorohexane Nanoemulsions: An In Vitro Study Using a Clinical Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu-Yan; Zou, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Zong-Gui; Liu, Shan; Jiao, Jiao; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether acoustic cavitation could increase the evaporation of a phase-shift inorganic perfluorohexane (PFH) nanoemulsion and enhance high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Materials and Methods. PFH was encapsulated by mesoporous silica nanocapsule (MSNC) to form a nanometer-sized droplet (MSNC-PFH). It was added to a tissue-mimicking phantom, whereas phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was added as a control (PBS-control). HIFU (P ac = 150 W, t = 5/10 s) exposures were performed in both phantoms with various duty cycles (DC). US images, temperature, and cavitation emissions were recorded during HIFU exposure. HIFU-induced lesions were measured and calculated. Results. Compared to PBS-control, MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion could significantly increase the volume of HIFU-induced lesion (P cavitation was much stronger in the pulsed-HIFU than that in the continuous-wave HIFU exposure. Compared to 100%-DC exposure, the mean volume of lesion induced by 5 s exposure at 10%-DC was significantly larger, but smaller at 2%-DC. Conclusions. MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion can significantly enhance HIFU ablation. Appropriate pulsed-HIFU exposure could significantly increase the volume of lesion and reduce total US energy required for HIFU ablation. PMID:27419138

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, ...

  15. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  16. Acoustic Cavitation Enhances Focused Ultrasound Ablation with Phase-Shift Inorganic Perfluorohexane Nanoemulsions: An In Vitro Study Using a Clinical Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Yan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate whether acoustic cavitation could increase the evaporation of a phase-shift inorganic perfluorohexane (PFH nanoemulsion and enhance high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation. Materials and Methods. PFH was encapsulated by mesoporous silica nanocapsule (MSNC to form a nanometer-sized droplet (MSNC-PFH. It was added to a tissue-mimicking phantom, whereas phosphate buffered saline (PBS was added as a control (PBS-control. HIFU (Pac=150 W, t=5/10 s exposures were performed in both phantoms with various duty cycles (DC. US images, temperature, and cavitation emissions were recorded during HIFU exposure. HIFU-induced lesions were measured and calculated. Results. Compared to PBS-control, MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion could significantly increase the volume of HIFU-induced lesion (P<0.01. Peak temperatures were 78.16 ± 5.64°C at a DC of 100%, 70.17 ± 6.43°C at 10%, 53.17 ± 4.54°C at 5%, and 42.00 ± 5.55°C at 2%, respectively. Inertial cavitation was much stronger in the pulsed-HIFU than that in the continuous-wave HIFU exposure. Compared to 100%-DC exposure, the mean volume of lesion induced by 5 s exposure at 10%-DC was significantly larger, but smaller at 2%-DC. Conclusions. MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion can significantly enhance HIFU ablation. Appropriate pulsed-HIFU exposure could significantly increase the volume of lesion and reduce total US energy required for HIFU ablation.

  17. Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Klinting, M.;

    2011-01-01

    . Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors...... determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection...... of parasites for further study. The specific operational conditions may be tailored to control survival rates and collection efficiency....

  18. Ultrasound and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, Cyril

    This paper begins with an overview and a description of the interactions between ultrasound and biological tissues encountered during treatment protocols. In a second part of this seminar, two clinical applications of therapeutic ultrasound will be described in details: -Kidney stone destruction by ultrasound (lithotripsy) and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for treating prostate cancer (HIFU).

  19. Method and system to synchronize acoustic therapy with ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Neil (Inventor); Bailey, Michael R. (Inventor); Hossack, James (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Interference in ultrasound imaging when used in connection with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is avoided by employing a synchronization signal to control the HIFU signal. Unless the timing of the HIFU transducer is controlled, its output will substantially overwhelm the signal produced by ultrasound imaging system and obscure the image it produces. The synchronization signal employed to control the HIFU transducer is obtained without requiring modification of the ultrasound imaging system. Signals corresponding to scattered ultrasound imaging waves are collected using either the HIFU transducer or a dedicated receiver. A synchronization processor manipulates the scattered ultrasound imaging signals to achieve the synchronization signal, which is then used to control the HIFU bursts so as to substantially reduce or eliminate HIFU interference in the ultrasound image. The synchronization processor can alternatively be implemented using a computing device or an application-specific circuit.

  20. Ultrasound Backscattering Is Anisotropic in Bovine Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, Satu I; Liukkonen, Jukka; Tiitu, Virpi; Virén, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2015-07-01

    Collagen, proteoglycans and chondrocytes can contribute to ultrasound scattering in articular cartilage. However, anisotropy of ultrasound scattering in cartilage is not fully characterized. We investigate this using a clinical intravascular ultrasound device with ultrasound frequencies of 9 and 40 MHz. Osteochondral samples were obtained from intact bovine patellas, and cartilage was imaged in two perpendicular directions: through articular and lateral surfaces. At both frequencies, ultrasound backscattering was higher (p < 0.05) when measured through the lateral surface of cartilage. In addition, the composition and structure of articular cartilage were investigated with multiple reference methods involving light microscopy, digital densitometry, polarized light microscopy and Fourier infrared imaging. Reference methods indicated that acoustic anisotropy of ultrasound scattering arises mainly from non-uniform distribution of chondrocytes and anisotropic orientation of collagen fibers. To conclude, ultrasound backscattering in articular cartilage was found to be anisotropic and dependent on the frequency in use. PMID:25933711

  1. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  2. Clinical ultrasound physics

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Hefny, Ashraf F; Corr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the basic physics of ultrasound is essential for acute care physicians. Medical ultrasound machines generate and receive ultrasound waves. Brightness mode (B mode) is the basic mode that is usually used. Ultrasound waves are emitted from piezoelectric crystals of the ultrasound transducer. Depending on the acoustic impedance of different materials, which depends on their density, different grades of white and black images are produced. There are different methods that can contro...

  3. Interaction between ultrasound and proton spin in aqueous solutions; Wechselwirkung zwischen Ultraschall and Proton-Spin in waessriger Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehl, Christian Joachim

    2011-07-01

    First evidence is presented, that ultrasound on HNMR-Frequency can influence the proton-spin system in the presence of specially prepared magnetic nanoparticles. The reliability of T{sub 1}-measurements under the influence of resonant ultrasound with standard HNMR devices is discussed.The author presents a method to combine the ultrasound with an MRI device. (orig.)

  4. Ten-year Biochemical Disease-free Survival After High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for Localized Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Four Different Generation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Nakano, M.; Shoji, S.; Omata, T.; Harano, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Usui, Y.; Terachi, T.

    2010-03-01

    HIFU has been recognized as a minimally invasive treatment option for localized prostate cancer. The purpose of the study was to assess with a long-term outcome of HIFU for prostate cancer. From January 1999, a total of 657 patients who had HIFU with at least 2 year follow-up were treated with four different types of Sonablate® (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, USA) devices. Thirty-three patients were treated with Sonablate® 200 (S200) from 1999 to 2001, 406 patients with Sonablate® 500 (S500) from 2001 to 2005, 200 patients with Sonablate® 500 version 4 (V4) from 2005-2008 and 19 patients with Sonablate® 500 TCM (TCM) from 2007. Biochemical disease-free survival rate (bDFS) in all patients was 59% in 8 years. bDFS in 8 years in patients with S200 and S500 groups were 55% and 56%, and bDFS in 4 and 2 years in patients with V4 and TCM group were 72% and 84%, respectively. bDFS in low, intermediate, and high risk groups were 75%, 54%, and 43% in S200/S500 and 93%, 72%, and 58% in V4/TCM group. Negative prostate biopsy rate after HIFU was 97% in S200, 79% in S500, 94% in V4 and 100% in TCM group. HIFU as primary therapy for prostate cancer is indicated in patients with low- and intermediate-risk (T1-T2b N0M0 disease, a Gleason score of ⩽7, a PSA level of prostate volume of less than 40 mL. The rate of clinical outcome has significantly improved over the years due to technical improvements in the device.

  5. Aesthetic ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, Peter G.; Slayton, Michael H.

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound provides key benefits in aesthetic surgery compared to laser and RF based energy sources. We present results of research, development, pre-clinical and clinical studies, regulatory clearance and commercialization of a revolutionary non-invasive aesthetic ultrasound imaging and therapy system. Clinical applications for this platform include non-invasive face-lifts, brow-lifts, and neck-lifts achieved through fractionated treatment of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and subcutaneous tissue. Treatment consists of placing a grid of micro-coagulative lesions on the order of 1 mm3 at depths in skin of 1 to 6 mm, source energy levels of 0.1 to 3 J, and spacing on the order of 1.5 mm, from 4 to 10 MHz dual-mode image/treat transducers. System details are described, as well as a regulatory pathway consisting of acoustic and bioheat simulations, source characterization (hydrophone, radiation force, and Schlieren), pre-clinical studies (porcine skin ex vivo, in vivo, and human cadaver), human safety studies (treat and resect) and efficacy trials which culminated in FDA clearance (2009) under a new device classification and world-wide usage. Clinical before and after photographs are presented which validate the clinical approach.

  6. Ultrasound tomography of breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter J.; Holsapple, Earle; Babkin, Alex; Duncan, Robert; Kalinin, Arkady; Pevzner, Roman; Tokarev, Michael

    2003-05-01

    The Karmanos Cancer Institute is developing an ultrasound device for measuring and imaging acoustic parameters of human tissue. This paper discusses the experimental results relating to tomographic reconstructions of phantoms and tissue. The specimens were scanned by the prototype scanner at a frequency of 1.5 MHz using 2 microsecond pulses. The receivers and transmitters were positioned along a ring trajectory having a diameter of 20 cm. The ring plane is translated in the vertical direction allowing for 3-D reconstructions from stacked 2-D planes of data. All ultrasound scans were performed at 10 millimeter slice thickness to generate multiple tomographic images. In a previous SPIE paper we presented preliminary results of ultrasound tomographic reconstruction of formalin-fixed breast tissue. We now present new results from data acquired with the scanner. Images were constructed using both reflection-based and transmission based algorithms. The resulting images demonstrate the ability to detect sub-mm features and to measure acoustic properties such as sound speed. Comparison with conventional ultrasound indicates the potential for better margin definition and acoustic characterization of tissue.

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached to the scanner ...

  8. Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ultrasound-induced Cavitation on Human Skin Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Bani, MD; Alessandro Quattrini Li, MD; Giancarlo Freschi, MD; Giulia Lo Russo, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: In aesthetic medicine, the most promising techniques for noninvasive body sculpturing purposes are based on ultrasound-induced fat cavitation. Liporeductive ultrasound devices afford clinically relevant subcutaneous fat pad reduction without significant adverse reactions. This study aims at evaluating the histological and ultrastructural changes induced by ultrasound cavitation on the different cell components of human skin. Methods: Control and ultrasound-treated ex vivo abdom...

  9. Study on the repeatability and correlation of warm-air and solid coupled mode ultrasound bone strength device%热固耦合式超声骨强度仪的可重复性及相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 倪朝民; 陈焱焱; 马祖长; 孙怡宁; 金艳; 张勤良

    2012-01-01

    目的:评估一款国产热固耦合式超声骨强度仪的可重复性和有效性.方法:选择11名志愿者,用该仪器测得右跟骨的两个超声参数,分别是超声速度(SOS)和宽带超声衰减(BUA),计算每个参数的变异系数均方根百分比(CVRMS%),评估该仪器的短期可重复性;选择18名志愿者,用类似的方法评估该仪器的中期可重复性;选择29名志愿者,用双能X线吸收法(DEXA)测量腰椎骨密度(BMD),并与用该仪器测得的跟骨SOS,BUA值进行相关性分析,评估该仪器的有效性.结果:①超声参数SOS,BUA的短期CVRMS%分别为0.30,4.24;中期CVRMS%分别为0.41,4.20.②SOS与腰椎BMD的相关系数r=0.486(P< 0.01),BUA与腰椎BMD的相关系数r=0.629(P< 0.01).结论:与国际主流定量超声(QUS)检测仪器相比,热同耦合式超声骨强度仪具有较高的可重复性和准确性,可用于临床骨质状况评估.%Objective: To evaluate the repeatability and correlation of warm-air and solid coupled mode ultrasound bone strength device made in China.Method: Eleven and eighteen volunteers' right calcaneus ultrasound parameters, speed of sound (SOS) and broad-band ultrasound attenuation (BUA), were detected with the device, percentages of root-mean square of coefficient of variation (CVrms%) of ultrasound parameters were calculated respectively, and used to assess the short- and middle-term repeatability of the device; 29 volunteers' right calcaneus ultrasound parameters (SOS, BUA) were de-tected with the device and bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine were detected with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).Result: ?The short-term CVRMs% were 4.24% for BUA, and 0.30% for SOS; the middle-term CVRms% were 4.20% for BUA, and 0.41% for SOS. ?The correlations between BMD of lumbar spine were 0.629 (P<0.01) for BUA and 0.486 (P<0.01) for SOS.Conclusion: Compared to international top-grade quantitative ultrasound(QUS) testing device, the warm-air and solid coupled

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General Ultrasound Videos related to General Ultrasound About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... again. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  12. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series To use the sharing features on ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles ... procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, and vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the ... following illness. Ultrasound is used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is ...

  16. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  17. Transvaginal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transvaginal ultrasound is a method of imaging the genital tract in females. A hand held probe is inserted directly ... vaginal cavity to scan the pelvic structures, while ultrasound pictures are viewed on a monitor. The test ...

  18. Modeling of ultrasound transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David

    This Ph.D. dissertation addresses ultrasound transducer modeling for medical ultrasound imaging and combines the modeling with the ultrasound simulation program Field II. The project firstly presents two new models for spatial impulse responses (SIR)s to a rectangular elevation focused transducer...

  19. Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate arte

  20. Design of a 2D MRI compatible robot for performing prostate cancer treatment using therapeutic ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Yiallouras, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound is a promising treatment method for many common cancers, including prostate cancer. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) guidance of therapeutic ultrasound permits targeting and monitoring of therapy. In this thesis a prototype MRI compatible positioning device for the treatment of prostate cancer using therapeutic ultrasound is presented. The accuracy, MRI compatibility and functionality of the positioning device was evaluated in in vitro experiments (using gel phantoms and ...

  1. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  2. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative. PMID:22124008

  3. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative.

  4. An innovative technique for recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2013-08-01

    Many ultrasound educational products and ultrasound researchers present diagnostic and interventional ultrasound information using picture-in-picture videos, which simultaneously show the ultrasound image and transducer and patient positions. Traditional techniques for creating picture-in-picture videos are expensive, nonportable, or time-consuming. This article describes an inexpensive, simple, and portable way of creating picture-in-picture ultrasound videos. This technique uses a laptop computer with a video capture device to acquire the ultrasound feed. Simultaneously, a webcam captures a live video feed of the transducer and patient position and live audio. Both sources are streamed onto the computer screen and recorded by screen capture software. This technique makes the process of recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos more accessible for ultrasound educators and researchers for use in their presentations or publications. PMID:23887962

  5. Detection of breast microcalcifications using synthetic-aperture ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Lin, Youzuo; Zhang, Zhigang; Pohl, Jennifer; Sandoval, Daniel; Williamson, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Ultrasound could be an attractive imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications, but it requires significant improvement in image resolution and quality. Recently, we have used tissue-equivalent phantoms to demonstrate that synthetic-aperture ultrasound has the potential to detect small targets. In this paper, we study the in vivo imaging capability of a real-time synthetic-aperture ultrasound system for detecting breast microcalcifications. This LANL's (Los Alamos National Laboratory's) custom built synthetic-aperture ultrasound system has a maximum frame rate of 25 Hz, and is one of the very first medical devices capable of acquiring synthetic-aperture ultrasound data and forming ultrasound images in real time, making the synthetic-aperture ultrasound feasible for clinical applications. We recruit patients whose screening mammograms show breast microcalcifications, and use LANL's synthetic-aperture ultrasound system to scan the regions with microcalcifications. Our preliminary in vivo patient imaging results demonstrate that synthetic-aperture ultrasound is a promising imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications.

  6. Collagen and chondrocyte concentrations control ultrasound scattering in agarose scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, S; Liukkonen, J; Ylärinne, J H; Puhakka, P H; Lammi, M J; Virén, T; Jurvelin, J S; Töyräs, J

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasound imaging has been proposed for diagnostics of osteoarthritis and cartilage injuries in vivo. However, the specific contribution of chondrocytes and collagen to ultrasound scattering in articular cartilage has not been systematically studied. We investigated the role of these tissue structures by measuring ultrasound scattering in agarose scaffolds with varying collagen and chondrocyte concentrations. Ultrasound catheters with center frequencies of 9 MHz (7.1-11.0 MHz, -6 dB) and 40 MHz (30.1-45.3 MHz, -6 dB) were applied using an intravascular ultrasound device. Ultrasound backscattering quantified in a region of interest starting right below sample surface differed significantly (p < 0.05) with the concentrations of collagen and chondrocytes. An ultrasound frequency of 40 MHz, as compared with 9 MHz, was more sensitive to variations in collagen and chondrocyte concentrations. The present findings may improve diagnostic interpretation of arthroscopic ultrasound imaging and provide information necessary for development of models describing ultrasound propagation within cartilage. PMID:24972499

  7. Microfocused Ultrasound for Facial Photorejuvenation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulkan, Adam J; Fabi, Sabrina G; Green, Jeremy B

    2016-06-01

    Microfocused ultrasound is a unique technology to treat skin laxity of the brow, lower face, and the rhytides of the décolletage. Over the past several years, the efficacy and safety of this device has been well documented and its adoption widespread. By delivering focused acoustic energy, which is converted to heat, this device creates predictable and reproducible microcoagulative zones that initiate a concentrated inflammatory wound response. By targeting the deep reticular dermis and superficial muscle and fascial planes, such as the superficial musculoaponeurotic system, platysma, and pectoralis muscle fascia, this nonablative technology increases neocollagenesis and neoelastogenesis in a novel fashion, while avoiding many of the complications related to epidermal heating observed in several other nonablative devices. Although the results are not equivalent to those of a rhytidectomy, microfocused ultrasound provides an excellent noninvasive means to achieve a regenerative effect on the face, neck, and décolletage when performed in the appropriate patient population. PMID:27248024

  8. Neonatal cranial ultrasound: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arie Franco, Kristopher Neal Lewis Department of Radiology, Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USA Abstract: Ultrasound is the most common imaging tool used in the neonatal intensive care unit. It is portable, readily available, and can be used at bedside. It is the least expensive cross sectional imaging modality and the safest imaging device used in the pediatric population due to its lack of ionizing radiation. There are well established indications for cranial ultrasound in many neonatal patient groups including preterm infants and term infants with birth asphyxia, seizures, congenital infections, etc. Cranial ultrasound is performed with basic grayscale imaging, using a linear array or sector transducer via the anterior fontanel in the coronal and sagittal planes. Additional images can be obtained through the posterior fontanel in preterm newborns. The mastoid fontanel can be used for assessment of the posterior fossa. Doppler images may be obtained for screening of the vascular structures. The normal sonographic neonatal cranial anatomy and normal variants are discussed. The most common pathological findings in preterm newborns, such as germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, are described as well as congenital abnormalities such as holoprosencephaly and agenesis of the corpus callosum. New advances in sonographic equipment enable high-resolution and three-dimensional images, which facilitate obtaining very accurate measurements of various anatomic structures such as the ventricles, the corpus callosum, and the cerebellar vermis. Limited studies have been performed to predict that longitudinal measurements of these anatomic structures might predict the clinical outcome of high-risk preterm newborns. Hemodynamic Doppler studies may offer the potential for early intervention and treatment to counter the hazards of developmental delay and a moribund clinical outcome

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy uses sound waves ... Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast are often ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ... pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse- ...

  11. Medical ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to current medical ultrasound imaging systems. The basics of anatomic and blood flow imaging are described. The properties of medical ultrasound and its focusing are described, and the various methods for two- and three-dimensional imaging of the human anatomy...... are shown. Both systems using linear and non-linear propagation of ultrasound are described. The blood velocity can also be non-invasively visualized using ultrasound and the basic signal processing for doing this is introduced. Examples for spectral velocity estimation, color flow maging and the new vector...

  12. Wireless communication of real-time ultrasound data and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Richard J.

    2015-03-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to grow to 26 billion connected devices by 2020, plus the PC, smart phone, and tablet segment that includes mobile Health (mHealth) connected devices is projected to account for another 7.3 billion units by 2020. This paper explores some of the real-time constraints on the data-flow and control of a wireless connected ultrasound machine. The paper will define an ultrasound server and the capabilities necessary for real-time use of the device. The concept of an ultrasound server wirelessly (or over any network) connected to multiple lightweight clients on devices like an iPad, iPhone, or Android-based tablet, smartphone and other network-attached displays (i.e., Google Glass) is explored. Latency in the ultrasound data stream is one of the key areas to measure and to focus on keeping as small as possible (20 frames-per-second on a properly configured wireless network. The ultrasound server needs to be designed to accept multiple ultrasound data clients and multiple control clients. A description of the server and some of its key features will be described.

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  14. Breast ultrasound tomography with total-variation regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT.; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT

    2009-01-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.

  15. An overview of endoscopic ultrasound equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J K

    2008-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound imaging technology has significantly improved over the last decade. Innovative design of equipment and devices has broadened the utility of EUS as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Lesions as small as 3 mm can be imaged and targeted for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). EUS imaging with the latest generation electronic radial and linear scopes is excellent and does not vary significantly between models. Miniprobes should not be used in place of routine EUS echoendoscopes when available and technically feasible. The drawbacks of ultrasound miniprobes are the inability to perform fine needle aspiration and the limited depth of imaging. Transpapillary intraductal ultrasound (IDUS) improves staging of biliary tumors and improves imaging of biliary and pancreatic duct strictures. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis or block (EUS-CPN/CPB) can be performed with the EUS-FNA needle or a specially designed celiac plexus block needle which distributes the neurolytic agent into the celiac plexus in a radial fashion. Use of the core biopsy needle is safe and should be used with a therapeutic linear scope through the gastric wall. PMID:18319690

  16. Simulation of ultrasound in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large body of evidence supports the use of low intensity pulsed ultrasound to augment bone healing and similar therapeutic benefits have been observed with damaged joint cartilage. It is an objective of this work to find paths of propagation of ultrasound in the knee and hence the optimal position for the ultrasound device. Determining the above in real tissues is complex and hard to achieve in practical terms; one solution is the use of computer modelling. A number of ultrasound simulation packages are available. In this work, Wave2000Pro (CyberLogic[reg], Inc) has been used to model ultrasound pulses with a frequency of 1·5 MHz in geometries similar in size and shape to knee. These simulations are two dimensional and require a number of assumptions to be made including linear propagation, homogeneity and isotropy of the materials under investigation. Simulations have been performed using Perspex shapes so that the software package could be validated in the laboratory. The outcome of these simulations matches measurements made in the laboratory with two different diameter needle hydrophones

  17. Validity and reliability of an ultrasound system for estimating adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Barnes, Jeremy T; Wagganer, Jason D; Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Green, Cody E; Pujol, Thomas J

    2014-03-01

    When health professionals measure the fitness levels of clients, body composition is usually estimated. In field settings, body composition is commonly estimated with skinfolds or bioelectrical impedance analysis. Recently, a portable ultrasound device has been manufactured to estimate what percentage of body mass is composed of adipose tissue (AT%). A reported advantage of using ultrasound is that inter- and intrarater variations may be minimized when compared with the skinfold technique. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was twofold; 1) to determine the validity of a portable ultrasound device compared with skinfolds and 2) determine the reliability of the portable ultrasound device. Participants had their measurements taken in the following order: urine specific gravity, body mass, height, skinfolds and ultrasound determined. Participants had their urine specific gravity and ultrasound determined AT% estimates measured again 48 h later. The current pilot study found that the ultrasound was not a valid estimate of AT% when compared with the skinfold estimate (TE > 4%). In addition, the 1-site estimate from the ultrasound was more reliable than the 3-site estimate of AT%. These data are of importance to practitioners because it demonstrates that while the ultrasound is not a valid estimate compared with skinfolds, the 1-site estimate may be able to track changes in AT% over time, making the ultrasound an option for assessing changes in body composition. PMID:23879395

  18. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be ... either side or on occasion placed in a face down position to improve the quality ... (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on ...

  19. Ultrasound image of the skin, apparatus and imaging basics

    OpenAIRE

    Mlosek, Robert Krzysztof; Malinowska, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging of the skin is becoming more and more popular. Skin ultrasound examinations are used both in order to assess healthy skin and to evaluate pathological lesions. They are mainly performed in dermatology as well as in broadly understood aesthetic medicine and cosmetology. At present, skin imaging is enabled by high-frequency equipment and high-quality conventional devices. The introduction of high-frequency electronic transducers which are supported by conventional scanners ma...

  20. Broadband acoustic cloak for ultrasound waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Xia, Chunguang; Fang, Nicholas

    2011-01-14

    Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely, serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Because of the nonresonant nature of the building elements, this low-loss (∼6  dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz. Furthermore, our experimental study indicates that this design approach should be scalable to different acoustic frequencies and offers the possibility for a variety of devices based on coordinate transformation.

  1. Resolution enhancement in medical ultrasound imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ploquin, Marie; Basarab, Adrian; Kouamé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Image resolution enhancement is a problem of considerable interest in all medical imaging modalities. Unlike general purpose imaging or video processing, for a very long time, medical image resolution enhancement has been based on optimization of the imaging devices. Although some recent works purport to deal with image postprocessing, much remains to be done regarding medical image enhancement via postprocessing, especially in ultrasound imaging. We face a resolution improvement issue in the...

  2. Hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S;

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various...... of endoscopic ultrasound, thus not only providing an overview of utilization of endoscopic ultrasound in various liver conditions but also speculating its future role....

  3. Ultrasound assessment of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J; Botelho, M C; Holtfreter, M C; Akpata, R; El Scheich, T; Neumayr, A; Brunetti, E; Hatz, C; Dong, Y; Dietrich, C F

    2016-07-01

    In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued an ultrasound field protocol for assessing the morbidity due to Schistosoma (S.) haematobium and S. mansoni. The experience with this classification has recently been reviewed systematically. The WHO protocol was well accepted worldwide. Here we review the use of ultrasound to assess the morbidity due to schistosomiasis with emphasis on easy, quick, and reproducible ways that can be used in the field. Findings obtained with high-end ultrasound scanners in the hospital setting that might eventually have applications in the field are also described. PMID:27429103

  4. Bedside ocular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Pedro J; Hatch, Nicholas; Barr, Laurel; Wu, Teresa S

    2014-04-01

    Many ocular emergencies are difficult to diagnose in the emergency setting with conventional physical examination tools. Additionally, persistent efforts to re-examine the eye may be deleterious to a patient's overall condition. Ultrasound is an important tool because it affords physicians a rapid, portable, accurate, and dynamic tool for evaluation of a variety of ocular and orbital diseases. The importance of understanding orbital anatomy, with attention to the firm attachment points of the various layers of the eye, cannot be understated. This article describes the relevant eye anatomy, delves into the ultrasound technique, and illustrates a variety of orbital pathologies detectable by bedside ultrasound.

  5. Ultrasound transducer assembly and method for manufacturing an ultrasound transducer assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Henneken, V.A.; Louwerse, M.C.; Raganato, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasound transducer assembly (10), in particular for intravascular ultrasound systems. The ultrasound transducer assembly comprises at least one silicon substrate element (30) including an ultrasound transducer element (14) for emitting and receiving ultrasound

  6. Wireless ultrasound-powered biotelemetry for implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, Bruce C; Larson, Patrick J; Gulick, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A miniature piezoelectric receiver coupled to a diode is evaluated as a simple device for wireless transmission of bioelectric events to the body surface. The device converts the energy of a surface-applied ultrasound beam to a high frequency carrier current in solution. Bioelectrical currents near the implant modulate the carrier amplitude, and this signal is remotely detected and demodulated to recover the biopotential waveform. This technique achieves millivolt sensitivity in saline tank tests, and further attention to system design is expected to improve sensitivity. PMID:19964676

  7. Wireless ultrasound-powered biotelemetry for implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, Bruce C; Larson, Patrick J; Gulick, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A miniature piezoelectric receiver coupled to a diode is evaluated as a simple device for wireless transmission of bioelectric events to the body surface. The device converts the energy of a surface-applied ultrasound beam to a high frequency carrier current in solution. Bioelectrical currents near the implant modulate the carrier amplitude, and this signal is remotely detected and demodulated to recover the biopotential waveform. This technique achieves millivolt sensitivity in saline tank tests, and further attention to system design is expected to improve sensitivity.

  8. Compensated Row-Column Ultrasound Imaging System Using Fisher Tippett Multilayered Conditional Random Field Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Ben Daya; Albert I H Chen; Mohammad Javad Shafiee; Alexander Wong; John T. W. Yeow

    2015-01-01

    3-D ultrasound imaging offers unique opportunities in the field of non destructive testing that cannot be easily found in A-mode and B-mode images. To acquire a 3-D ultrasound image without a mechanically moving transducer, a 2-D array can be used. The row column technique is preferred over a fully addressed 2-D array as it requires a significantly lower number of interconnections. Recent advances in 3-D row-column ultrasound imaging systems were largely focused on sensor design. However, the...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of colors to show the speed and direction of blood ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biopsies , in which needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. It can ...

  12. Ultrasound Modulated Bioluminescence Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly-scattering medium from ultrasound modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deeper into the body. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see the outer surface ... children or adults). For visualizing internal structure of bones or certain joints, other imaging modalities such as ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles or ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between the transducer and the skin that can block the sound waves from passing into your body. ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  17. Ultrasound in pregnancy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultrasound has become a standard procedure used during pregnancy. It can demonstrate fetal growth and can detect increasing ... abnormalities, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, club feet, and other ... does not produce ionizing radiation and is considered ...

  18. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate biopsy uses imaging ... Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate biopsies are performed ...

  19. Assessment of coronary vasomotion by intracoronary ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy, Patrick J.; Dubois-Rande, Jean Luc; Pelle, Gabriel; Gallot, Dominique; Geschwind, Herbert J.

    1993-06-01

    Recently, new intravascular ultrasound devices for intracoronary use became available. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of intravascular ultrasound for the assessment of coronary artery vasomotion and endothelial function in patients with atherosclerosis. Twenty patients with luminal irregularities on coronary angiogram and a high cholesterol level (287 +/- 19 mg/dl) (group 1) and 6 patients with angiographically smooth arteries and a minimally elevated cholesterol level (197 +/- 12 mg/dl) (group 2) were studied. A mechanical intravascular ultrasound probe (4.3 French, 30 MHz, Cardiovascular Imaging Systems) was placed into the proximal segment of the coronary artery. Off-line measurements of the lumen area and calculation of mean intimal thickness indice was performed using digitized ultrasound images. Endothelial function was studied during a sympathetic stimulation by a cold pressor test and after intracoronary administration of papaverine and linsidomine. Mean intimal thickness was higher in group 1 than in group 2 (1.52 +/- 0.64 mm vs. 0.18 +/- 0.08 mm, p < 0.001). Linsidomine infusion induced a significant vasodilating effect in both groups (p < 0.001).

  20. Broadband Acoustic Cloak for Ultrasound Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shu; Fang, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. Such a device is proposed to render the hidden object undetectable under the flow of light or sound, by guiding and controlling the wave path through an engineered space surrounding the object. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Due to the non-resonant nature of the building elements, this low loss (~6dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits excellent invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz in the measurements. The low visibility of the cloaked object for underwater ultrasound shed a light on the fundamental understanding of ma...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be guided by ultrasound, are used to sample cells from organs for laboratory testing help identify the ... in which needles are used to extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles ... cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, and vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  5. Developing an emergency ultrasound app

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kim Thestrup; Subhi, Yousif; Aagaard, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    Focused emergency ultrasound is rapidly evolving as a clinical skill for bedside examination by physicians at all levels of education. Ultrasound is highly operator-dependent and relevant training is essential to ensure appropriate use. When supplementing hands-on focused ultrasound courses, e......-learning can increase the learning effect. We developed an emergency ultrasound app to enable onsite e-learning for trainees. In this paper, we share our experiences in the development of this app and present the final product....

  6. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke;

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... of SA imaging. Due to the complete data set, it is possible to have both dynamic transmit and receive focusing to improve contrast and resolution. It is also possible to improve penetration depth by employing codes during ultrasound transmission. Data sets for vector flow imaging can be acquired using...... short imaging sequences, whereby both the correct velocity magnitude and angle can be estimated. A number of examples of both phantom and in-vivo SA images will be presented measured by the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS to demonstrate the many benefits of SA imaging....

  7. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while others...... filters were damaged. The results of the laboratory experiments formed background for the final design of an ultrasound transducer module for use by foodstuff filtration plants. [This work was financed by the EU Project WAMBIO PL96-3257 (FAIR Programme).]...

  8. Ultrasound applications in electrodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Andrea J; Smith, Jay; Harper, C Michel

    2012-01-01

    This review article discusses the current scope of high-resolution diagnostic ultrasound in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease, both as a complementary tool to electrodiagnosis and in some cases as a stand-alone imaging modality. Indications, limitations, potential for research, and training and credentialing are discussed. Indications include needle guidance for nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography, diagnosis of nerve entrapment, diagnostic muscle imaging via grayscale analysis, and dynamic real-time imaging, including sonopalpation, to provide additional diagnostic information. The role of neuromuscular ultrasound in research is discussed, including the need to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and cost-effectiveness of these techniques when they are used alone or in combination. Training and credentialing are reviewed, specifically noting the challenge of the lack of formal training programs and the relatively long, flat learning curve of diagnostic ultrasound.

  9. Ultrasound Application in Audiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Rahimi

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic ultrasound is a beneficial technique which can be used the audiologists based on essential instruction. Although there are a lot of barriers in relation to the size of the probe and the resolution of the pictures which are obtained,with this method some kind of information can be gained that is impossible to get by any other method. The ability of real- time A and B modes for direct visualization makes them useful tools to study the changes of the ear structures. Ultrasound system is a useful method to evaluate dizzy patients, which can be potentially used along with vestibular tests.

  10. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  11. Cardiological Ultrasound Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, J.M.; Korte, C.L. de

    2014-01-01

    This review paper is intended for the interested outsider of the field of echocardiography and it presents a short introduction into the numerous ultrasound (US) methods and techniques for anatomical and functional diagnosis of the heart. The basic techniques are generally used for some time already

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly called an “echocardiogram” or “echo” for short. Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician to ... not an ideal imaging technique for air-filled bowel or organs obscured by the bowel. In most ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for ...

  15. [Ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliev, B G

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness and results of ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) for the treatment of patients with large stones in renal pelvis. The results of PNL in 138 patients who underwent surgery for kidney stones from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed. Seventy patients (Group 1) underwent surgery with combined ultrasound and radiological guidance, and 68 patients (Group 2)--only with ultrasound guidance. The study included patients with large renal pelvic stones larger than 2.2 cm, requiring the formation of a single laparoscopic approach. Using the comparative analysis, the timing of surgery, the number of intra- and postoperative complications, blood loss and length of stay were evaluated. Percutaneous access was successfully performed in all patients. Postoperative complications (exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis, gross hematuria) were observed in 14.3% of patients in Group 1 and in 14.7% of patients in Group 2. Bleeding requiring blood transfusion, and injuries of adjacent organs were not registered. Efficacy of PNL in the Group 1 was 95.7%; 3 (4.3%) patients required additional interventions. In Group 2, the effectiveness of PNL was 94.1%, 4 (5.9%) patients additionally underwent extracorporeal lithotripsy. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of PNL, the volume of blood loss and duration of hospitalization. Ultrasound guided PNL can be performed in large pelvic stones and sufficient expansion of renal cavities, thus reducing radiation exposure of patients and medical staff.

  16. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultrasound when they suspect a problem called developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) . DDH is a hip deformity that can ... THIS TOPIC X-Ray Exam: Leg Length Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip X-Ray Exam: Hip Contact Us Print Resources ...

  17. [Ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliev, B G

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness and results of ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) for the treatment of patients with large stones in renal pelvis. The results of PNL in 138 patients who underwent surgery for kidney stones from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed. Seventy patients (Group 1) underwent surgery with combined ultrasound and radiological guidance, and 68 patients (Group 2)--only with ultrasound guidance. The study included patients with large renal pelvic stones larger than 2.2 cm, requiring the formation of a single laparoscopic approach. Using the comparative analysis, the timing of surgery, the number of intra- and postoperative complications, blood loss and length of stay were evaluated. Percutaneous access was successfully performed in all patients. Postoperative complications (exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis, gross hematuria) were observed in 14.3% of patients in Group 1 and in 14.7% of patients in Group 2. Bleeding requiring blood transfusion, and injuries of adjacent organs were not registered. Efficacy of PNL in the Group 1 was 95.7%; 3 (4.3%) patients required additional interventions. In Group 2, the effectiveness of PNL was 94.1%, 4 (5.9%) patients additionally underwent extracorporeal lithotripsy. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of PNL, the volume of blood loss and duration of hospitalization. Ultrasound guided PNL can be performed in large pelvic stones and sufficient expansion of renal cavities, thus reducing radiation exposure of patients and medical staff. PMID:25807772

  18. Ultrasound of renal transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, G.M

    2001-10-01

    The most effective primary treatment of chronic renal failure is renal transplantation. A significant improvement in lifestyle and family life in conjunction with it being an extremely cost-effective procedure has resulted in an intense monitoring and imaging programme to help ensure a successful outcome. Ultrasound, both grey-scale and colour-flow Doppler, are useful monitoring techniques when interpreted in the clinical context, and in the delineation of peri-transplant collections, some of which can be drained under ultrasound guidance. After the early post-operative period it can also be utilized in the diagnosis of chronic vascular complications including transplant artery stenosis and arteriovenous fistula, although it is of limited use in the diagnosis of chronic rejection. This article will discuss the role of ultrasound in all its guises and how its efficacy in both the early transplant period in the monitoring of graft dysfunction and in the detection of the more chronic conditions including transplant artery stenosis and arteriovenous fistulae. A more limited role for ultrasound also exists in the long-term follow-up of patients and to aid the detection of complications including susceptibility to malignancy. Baxter, G.M. (2001)

  19. Deconvolution of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1992-01-01

    Based on physical models, it is indicated that the received pressure field in ultrasound B-mode images can be described by a convolution between a tissue reflection signal and the emitted pressure field. This result is used in a description of current image formation and in formulating a new...

  20. Recursive ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for recursive ultrasound imaging is presented. The method uses a Synthetic Transmit Aperture, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created at every pulse emission. In receive, parallel beam forming is implemented. The beam formed RF data is added to the previously...

  1. Simulation and training of ultrasound supported anaesthesia: a low-cost approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, T.; Lamontain, M.; Hilpert, J.; Schilling, F.; Tolxdorff, T.

    2010-03-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging technology during techniques of peripheral nerve blockade offers several clinical benefits. Here we report on a new method to educate residents in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. The daily challenge for the anesthesiologists is the 3D angle-depending handling of the stimulation needle and the ultrasound probe while watching the 2D ultrasound image on the monitor. Purpose: Our approach describes how a computer-aided simulation and training set for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia could be built based on wireless low-cost devices and an interactive simulation of a 2D ultrasound image. For training purposes the injection needle and the ultrasound probe are replaced by wireless Bluetooth-connected 3D tracking devices, which are embedded in WII-mote controllers (Nintendo-Brand). In correlation to the tracked 3D positions of the needle and transducer models the visibility and position of the needle should be simulated in the 2D generated ultrasound image. Conclusion: In future, this tracking and visualization software module could be integrated in a more complex training set, where complex injection paths could be trained based on a 3D segmented model and the training results could be part of a curricular e-learning module.

  2. Ultrasound-Assisted Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A. E.; Sun, Da-Wen

    Freezing is a well-known preservation method widely used in the food industry. The advantages of freezing are to a certain degree counterbalanced by the risk of damage caused by the formation and size of ice crystals. Over recent years new approaches have been developed to improve and control the crystallization process, and among these approaches sonocrystallization has proved to be very useful, since it can enhance both the nucleation rate and the crystal growth rate. Although ultrasound has been successfully used for many years in the evaluation of various aspects of foods and in medical applications, the use of power ultrasound to directly improve processes and products is less popular in food manufacturing. Foodstuffs are very complex materials, and research is needed in order to define the specific sound parameters that aid the freezing process and that can later be used for the scale-up and production of commercial frozen food products.

  3. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  4. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rene G.; Apfel, Robert E.; Brandsma, Janet L.

    2002-05-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of a variety of human diseases both inherited and acquired, such as cystic fibrosis and cancer. The lack of an effective, safe method for the delivery of foreign genes into the cells, a process known as transfection, limits this effort. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection is an attractive method for gene delivery since it is a noninvasive technique, does not introduce any viral particles into the host and can offer very good temporal and spatial control. Previous investigators have shown that sonication increases transfection efficiency with and without ultrasound contrast agents. The mechanism is believed to be via a cavitation process where collapsing bubble nuclei permeabilize the cell membrane leading to increased DNA transfer. The research is focused on the use of pulsed wave high frequency focused ultrasound to transfect DNA into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. A better understanding of the mechanism behind the transfection process is also sought. A summary of some in vitro results to date will be presented, which includes the design of a sonication chamber that allows us to model the in vivo case more accurately.

  5. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P. [Russian Radiology Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kotlyarov, Peter M. [Russian Center of Roentgenradiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V. [Yaroslavl Railway Clinic (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, Yury K. [State Medical Academy, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  6. Mobile Ultrasound Plane Wave Beamforming on iPhone or iPad using Metal- based GPU Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewener, Holger J.; Tretbar, Steffen H.

    Mobile and cost effective ultrasound devices are being used in point of care scenarios or the drama room. To reduce the costs of such devices we already presented the possibilities of consumer devices like the Apple iPad for full signal processing of raw data for ultrasound image generation. Using technologies like plane wave imaging to generate a full image with only one excitation/reception event the acquisition times and power consumption of ultrasound imaging can be reduced for low power mobile devices based on consumer electronics realizing the transition from FPGA or ASIC based beamforming into more flexible software beamforming. The massive parallel beamforming processing can be done with the Apple framework "Metal" for advanced graphics and general purpose GPU processing for the iOS platform. We were able to integrate the beamforming reconstruction into our mobile ultrasound processing application with imaging rates up to 70 Hz on iPad Air 2 hardware.

  7. Simulation of absolute amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker

    2007-10-01

    Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, absolute amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, absolute amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems. PMID:18019234

  8. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tao; Platel, Bram; Mann, Ritse M; Huisman, Henkjan; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method to segment the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images. Determining the location of the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images is necessary in computer-aided detection systems to remove automatically detected cancer candidates beyond the chest wall and it can be of great help for inter- and intra-modal image registration. We show that the visible part of the chest wall in an automated 3D breast ultrasound image can be accurately modeled by a cylinder. We fit the surface of our cylinder model to a set of automatically detected rib-surface points. The detection of the rib-surface points is done by a classifier using features representing local image intensity patterns and presence of rib shadows. Due to attenuation of the ultrasound signal, a clear shadow is visible behind the ribs. Evaluation of our segmentation method is done by computing the distance of manually annotated rib points to the surface of the automatically detected chest wall. We examined the performance on images obtained with the two most common 3D breast ultrasound devices in the market. In a dataset of 142 images, the average mean distance of the annotated points to the segmented chest wall was 5.59 ± 3.08 mm. PMID:23273891

  9. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tao; Platel, Bram; Mann, Ritse M; Huisman, Henkjan; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method to segment the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images. Determining the location of the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images is necessary in computer-aided detection systems to remove automatically detected cancer candidates beyond the chest wall and it can be of great help for inter- and intra-modal image registration. We show that the visible part of the chest wall in an automated 3D breast ultrasound image can be accurately modeled by a cylinder. We fit the surface of our cylinder model to a set of automatically detected rib-surface points. The detection of the rib-surface points is done by a classifier using features representing local image intensity patterns and presence of rib shadows. Due to attenuation of the ultrasound signal, a clear shadow is visible behind the ribs. Evaluation of our segmentation method is done by computing the distance of manually annotated rib points to the surface of the automatically detected chest wall. We examined the performance on images obtained with the two most common 3D breast ultrasound devices in the market. In a dataset of 142 images, the average mean distance of the annotated points to the segmented chest wall was 5.59 ± 3.08 mm.

  10. A Flexible Ultrasound Transducer Array with Micro-Machined Bulk PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications.

  11. Muscles alive: ultrasound detects fibrillations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillen, S.; Nienhuis, M.; Dijk, J.P. van; Arts, I.M.P.; Alfen, N. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Muscle ultrasound is capable of visualizing muscle movements. Recent improvements in ultrasound technology have raised the question whether it is also possible to detect small-scale spontaneous muscle activity such as denervation. In this study we investigated the ability of dynamic muscl

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be ... either side or on occasion placed in a face down position to improve the quality ... (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be ... either side or on occasion placed in a face down position to improve the quality ... (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on ...

  14. Biomedical engineering: A platform for research and innovation in ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2001-05-01

    An undergraduate or graduate degree in biomedical engineering prepares students to solve problems at the interface between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering encompasses evolving areas such as advanced medical imaging for diagnosis and treatment of disease, tissue engineering for designing and manufacturing biological implants for damaged or diseased tissues and organs, and bioinformatics for determining which genes play a major role in health and disease. Biomedical engineering academic programs produce graduates with the ability to pursue successful careers in the biomedical device industry or to obtain advanced degrees leading to careers in biomedical engineering research, medicine, law or business. Biomedical engineering majors take courses in biology, anatomy, physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and medical product design and value life-long learning. Students learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of individuals with diverse social, cultural and technical backgrounds. Biomedical engineering is becoming increasingly important in imaging and image-guided research. Some examples of innovative ultrasound technology under development are ultrasound devices to accelerate the dissolution of blood clots, advanced surgical instruments with ultrasound guidance and ultrasound contrast agents for targeted drug delivery. Biomedical engineering is a great career choice for technically minded individuals who endeavor to work on applied problems that are medically relevant.

  15. Temperature estimation with ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Matthew

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma is the fastest growing type of cancer in the United States. In addition, the survival rate after one year is approximately zero without treatment. In many instances, patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma may not be suitable candidates for the primary treatment options, i.e. surgical resection or liver transplantation. This has led to the development of minimally invasive therapies focused on destroying hepatocelluar by thermal or chemical methods. The focus of this dissertation is on the development of ultrasound-based image-guided monitoring options for minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation. Ultrasound-based temperature imaging relies on relating the gradient of locally estimated tissue displacements to a temperature change. First, a realistic Finite Element Analysis/ultrasound simulation of ablation was developed. This allowed evaluation of the ability of ultrasound-based temperature estimation algorithms to track temperatures for three different ablation scenarios in the liver. It was found that 2-Dimensional block matching and a 6 second time step was able to accurately track the temperature over a 12 minute ablation procedure. Next, a tissue-mimicking phantom was constructed to determine the accuracy of the temperature estimation method by comparing estimated temperatures to that measured using invasive fiber-optic temperature probes. The 2-Dimensional block matching was able to track the temperature accurately over the entire 8 minute heating procedure in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Finally, two separate in-vivo experiments were performed. The first experiment examined the ability of our algorithm to track frame-to-frame displacements when external motion due to respiration and the cardiac cycle were considered. It was determined that a frame rate between 13 frames per second and 33 frames per second was sufficient to track frame-to-frame displacements between respiratory cycles. The second experiment examined

  16. Environmental applications of ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, James Dean

    The application of ultrasound to environmental problems relies on the process of acoustic cavitation: the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles in a liquid. The collapse of such bubbles creates hot spots with temperatures as high as 5000 K, pressures up to 800 atm, and cooling rates in excess of 1010K/s. This thesis describes the use of ultrasound for the dissolution of gas into water, an investigation the sonochemistry of ionic liquids, and the sonochemical preparation of nanostructured materials for the catalytic hydrodehalogenation of organic halides. A variety of ultrasonic methods and configurations were designed and tested for the dispersion and dissolution of O2 in water. Ultrasonic methods examined include 20 kHz Ti horns, 336 to 1.41 MHz transducers, specially designed ultrasonic gas dispersion cell including the hollow horn extensions, Ti frits, and a modified 20 kHz cup horn. Most methods increased the dispersion rate when compared to non-ultrasonic control runs. Room-temperature ionic liquids were examined for their potential application as green solvents for sonochemical reactions. The effects of ultrasound on room-temperature ionic liquids were investigated using butylmethyl imidazolium chloride (BuMeImCl), butylmethyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BuMeImBF 4), and decylmethyl imidazolium tetraphenylborate. Gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry head-gas analysis and multibubble sonoluminescence were used to show that room-temperature ionic liquids decomposed in the presence of ultrasound. As previously reported, molybdenum carbonyl and tungsten carbonyl were decomposed sonochemically in hexadecane to form porous aggregates of 2--3 nm high surface area Mo2C and W2C particles. The activity of these materials was studied for the catalytic hydrodehalogenation of aliphatic and aromatic halocarbons at low temperatures (T = 200--300°C). Both catalysts were selective, active, and stable for all substrates tested. The HDH of substrates bearing

  17. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2014-01-01

    in the liver metastases. In addition, we prospectively compared contrast-enhanced ultrasound with CT scan in the detection of liver metastases.Results By transrectal ultrasound of polyps using the new AWS technique, a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 88% was found for cancer, whereas digital exploration...... to neoadjuvant chemoradiation of advanced rectal cancer.IOUS is a safe method with a significantly higher sensitivity in the detection of liver metastases than preoperative ultrasound and surgical palpation. Patients with liver metastases, which harboured power Doppler signal centrally, more often had advanced...... of rectal cancer, especially in early tumours. Screening for colorectal cancer will give rise to the detection of a number of early tumours. Contrast-enhanced liver ultrasound and intraoperative ultrasound has additional space in the detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer....

  18. Crystallization of glycine with ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Karjalainen, Milja; Rantanen, Jukka;

    2006-01-01

    Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound with an ultr......Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound...... with an ultrasound frequency of 20kHz at two temperature ranges 40-50 and 20-30 degrees C in a jacketed 250-ml cooling crystallizer equipped with a stirrer. The polymorph composition of the obtained crystals was analyzed with a temperature variable X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD). XRPD results showed that...... ultrasound power. This study also showed, the higher the ultrasound amplitude the smaller the crystals obtained....

  19. The missing intrauterine device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Devassy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUD is an acceptable and common form of contraception worldwide. The objective of this study was to report the case of an asymptomatic missing intrauterine contraceptive (IUD inserted to prevent intrauterine adhesions after synechiolysis. A patient presented with missing IUD threads. Ultrasound of the pelvis showed an empty uterine cavity with the missing IUD probably anterior to the uterus. We present a stepwise approach in the management of the and ldquo;lost IUD and rdquo;, where the strings of the device are not visible at the time of speculum examination. We suggest first determining sonographically whether the IUD is within the cavity. If it is in situ, options for retrieval are including hysteroscopic retrieval. If the IUD is not within the cavity, X-rays are recommended. The device will not be present on X-ray if expulsion has occurred. If the device is present on the X-ray, cystoscopic or laparoscopic retrieval is required. IUD-providers should not only screen potential users and insert IUD correctly, but also ensure adequate follow-up with localization. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3587-3589

  20. Statistical analysis of 14926 women with intrauterine device by ultrasound .imaging technology%14926例放置节育器妇女的超声随访分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅香; 雷蓉蓉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨放置宫内节育器(IUD )常见并发症发生的原因,提高IUD放置的安全性及成功率。方法:通过对14926例放置IUD妇女的超声随访,对出现IUD并发症的原因进行分析,指出放置IUD的最佳时间、选择适宜的IUD和定期检查的重要性。结果:14926例放置 IUD对象中,IUD正常者13508例(90.5%);IUD异常者1418例(9.5%) ,其中下移为1140例(80.4%) ,嵌顿275例(19.4%) ,子宫外异位3例(0.2%);带器妊娠99例(6.6%)。结论:临床应根据育龄妇女的具体情况选择适宜的IUD及放置时间,置器后应定期随访,及时发现IUD异常情况,及时处理,减少IUD并发症。%Objective ] To explore the causes of common complications and to improve safety and success ratio in placingbout riate cation Intrauterine Device (IUD) .[Method] Through statistical analysis of Ultrasonic examination on 14 ,926 women with IUD ,we explored causes of complications from IUD .The best time to place IUD ,selection of approporiate IUD and impor-tance of periodically examination were analyzed and evaluated .[Result] Among these 14 ,926 cases ,13 ,508 cases (90 .5% ) were normal and effective .1 ,418 cases (9.5% ) were abnormal of which 1 ,140 cases (80.4% ) with downward movement , 275 cases (19 ,4% ) incarceration in uterine wall ,3 cases (0.2% ) with misplacement outside of uterus and 99 cases (6.6% ) pregnancy with IUD .[Conclusion] In clinic practice ,the selection of IUD and time of setting IUD should be based on specific conditions of women of child-bearing age .After setting IUD patients should be examined periodically to detect any abnormal IUD in early stage ,get treatment on time and reduce the complications from the IUD eventually .

  1. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  2. Ultrasound call detection in capybara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene S.C. Nogueira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The vocal repertoire of some animal species has been considered a non-invasive tool to predict distress reactivity. In rats ultrasound emissions were reported as distress indicator. Capybaras[ vocal repertoire was reported recently and seems to have ultrasound calls, but this has not yet been confirmed. Thus, in order to check if a poor state of welfare was linked to ultrasound calls in the capybara vocal repertoire, the aim of this study was to track the presence of ultrasound emissions in 11 animals under three conditions: 1 unrestrained; 2 intermediately restrained, and 3 highly restrained. The ultrasound track identified frequencies in the range of 31.8±3.5 kHz in adults and 33.2±8.5 kHz in juveniles. These ultrasound frequencies occurred only when animals were highly restrained, physically restrained or injured during handling. We concluded that these calls with ultrasound components are related to pain and restraint because they did not occur when animals were free of restraint. Thus we suggest that this vocalization may be used as an additional tool to assess capybaras[ welfare.

  3. Ultrasound 3D positioning system for surgical instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Tatar, F.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents various aspects regarding the development of an ultrasound sensor systems for use in laparoscopic intervention. The accuracy achieved after using compensation technique for air flow disturbances or temperature variations remains in a convenient range of 200µm. Considering this high accuracy, the flexibility and the ergonomics achieved for this system, the final device may be adapted very easily and used also in other microsurgery applications.

  4. Facile synthesis of electroluminescence acridinedions by microwave and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various highly fluorescent acridinediones were synthesized by microwave and ultrasound irradiations, as well as by conventional thermal methods. It was found that most of the acridinedione derivatives could be obtained in very high yields (80-90%) in the microwave- assisted, solvent-free, one-pot synthesis process within minutes (∼2 min). These highly fluorescent acridinediones are potential new materials for electroluminescence (EL) devices. Copyright (2004) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  5. Enhanced ultrasound for advanced diagnostics, ultrasound tomography for volume limb imaging and prosthetic fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging methods hold the potential to deliver low-cost, high-resolution, operator-independent and nonionizing imaging systems - such systems couple appropriate algorithms with imaging devices and techniques. The increasing demands on general practitioners motivate us to develop more usable and productive diagnostic imaging equipment. Ultrasound, specifically freehand ultrasound, is a low cost and safe medical imaging technique. It doesn't expose a patient to ionizing radiation. Its safety and versatility make it very well suited for the increasing demands on general practitioners, or for providing improved medical care in rural regions or the developing world. However it typically suffers from sonographer variability; we will discuss techniques to address user variability. We also discuss our work to combine cylindrical scanning systems with state of the art inversion algorithms to deliver ultrasound systems for imaging and quantifying limbs in 3-D in vivo. Such systems have the potential to track the progression of limb health at a low cost and without radiation exposure, as well as, improve prosthetic socket fitting. Current methods of prosthetic socket fabrication remain subjective and ineffective at creating an interface to the human body that is both comfortable and functional. Though there has been recent success using methods like magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical modeling, a low-cost, streamlined, and quantitative process for prosthetic cup design and fabrication has not been fully demonstrated. Medical ultrasonography may inform the design process of prosthetic sockets in a more objective manner. This keynote talk presents the results of progress in this area.

  6. Students' Perceptions of Academic Writing as a Mode of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Mojdeh

    2005-01-01

    Adopting the social theory of writing and new rhetorical genre studies (Bakhtin, 1986; Dias, Freedman, Medway, & Pare, 1999; Freedman & Medway, 1994; Miller, 1984/1994) as the theoretical framework in this study I made an attempt to explore graduate students' perceptions of academic writing as a mode of communication in academia. I interviewed…

  7. Apprenticeship as a Mode of Learning and Model of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Apprenticeships are now usually seen as a model of education focused on occupational preparation, albeit manifested in different ways across nation states. However, throughout human history, the majority of occupational preparation has been premised upon apprenticeship as a mode of learning. That is, a preparation arising mainly through…

  8. Modelling leaky photonic wires: A mode solver comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bienstman, P.; Selleri, S.; Rosa, L.; Uranus, H.P.; Hopman, W.C.L.; Costa, R.; Melloni, A.; Andreani, L.C.; Hugonin, J.P.; Lalanne, P.; Pinto, D.; Obayya, S.S.A.; Dems, M.; Panajotov, K.

    2006-01-01

    We present results from a mode solver comparison held within the framework of the European COST P11 project. The structure modelled is a high-index contrast photonic wire in silicon-oninsulator subject to substrate leakage. The methods compared are both in-house developed and commercial, and range f

  9. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  10. Ultrasound despeckling for contrast enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Peter C; Garson, Christopher D; Acton, Scott T; Hossack, John A

    2010-07-01

    Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known despeckling filters. The evaluations of despeckling performance are based upon improvements to contrast enhancement, structural similarity, and segmentation results on a Field II simulated image and actual B-mode cardiac ultrasound images captured in vivo. PMID:20227984

  11. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... beamforming. This is achieved partly because synthetic aperture imaging removes the limitation of a fixed transmit focal depth and instead enables dynamic transmit focusing. Lately, the major ultrasound companies have produced ultrasound scanners using 2-D transducer arrays with enough transducer elements...

  12. How to learn and to perform endoscopic ultrasound and endobronchial ultrasound for lung cancer staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Colella, Sara; Vilmann, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The learning of transesophageal ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) (endoscopic ultrasound-FNA), and endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (endosonography) should be based on the following steps: Acquiring theoretical knowledge, training on simulators...

  13. Ultrasound of Sternal Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Lahham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old female was brought in by ambulance after being the restrained driver of a head-on motor vehicle collision at 40MPH. There was positive airbag deployment and intrusion from the other vehicle. During workup, the patient complained of midline chest pain, and left chest wall pain. The patient was not in acute respiratory distress, and had the following vital signs: temperature 37°C, heart rate 84, blood pressure of 150/64, respiratory rate 18, and oxygen saturation of 97% on two liters of oxygen. On physical exam, breath sounds were heard bilaterally, with no acute cardiopulmonary issues identified. A bruise was identified on the lower abdomen, which was thought to be a potential seatbelt sign. A focused assessment with sonography for trauma was negative, and an ultrasound of additional chest and mediastinal structures was performed for the chest tenderness.

  14. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Shrivastava; Kailash

    2004-08-01

    The presence of kidney stone in the kidney causes discomfort to patients. Hence, removal of such stones is important which is commonly done these days, non-destructively, with lithotripters without surgery. Commercially, lithotripters like extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripters (ESWL) made by Siemens etc are in routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment of the patients also takes comparatively more time because of more number of sittings. Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more disintegration efficiency of the lithotripters, which give better treatment to the patients.

  15. Fast integrated intravascular photoacoustic/ultrasound catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changhoon; Cho, Seunghee; Kim, Taehoon; Park, Sungjo; Park, Hyoeun; Kim, Jinmoo; Lee, Seunghoon; Kang, Yeonsu; Jang, Kiyuk; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    In cardiology, a vulnerable plaque is considered to be a key subject because it is strongly related to atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction. Because conventional intravascular imaging devices exhibit several limitations with regard to vulnerable plaque detection, the need for an effective lipid imaging modality has been continuously suggested. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a medical imaging technique with a high level of ultrasound (US) resolution and strong optical contrast. In this study, we successfully developed an integrated intravascular photoacoustic/ultrasound (IV-PAUS) imaging system with a catheter diameter of 1.2 mm for lipid-rich atherosclerosis imaging. An Nd:YAG pulsed laser with an excitation wavelength of 1064 nm was utilized. IV-PAUS offers 5-mm depth penetration and axial and lateral PA imaging resolutions of 94 μm and 203 μm, respectively, as determined by imaging a 6-μm carbon fiber. We initially obtained 3-dimensional (3D) co-registered PA/US images of metal stents. Subsequently, we successfully obtained 3D coregistered PA/US ex vivo images using an iliac artery from a rabbit atherosclerosis model. Accordingly, lipid-rich plaques were sufficiently differentiated from normal tissue in the ex vivo experiment. We validated these findings histologically to confirm the lipid content.

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  17. Ultrasound-modulated bioluminescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Guillaume; Schotland, John C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly scattering medium from ultrasound-modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles or ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  20. The Belfast musculoskeletal ultrasound course.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Taggart, Allister J

    2009-09-01

    To conduct a training course in musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) for rheumatologists in Northern Ireland with the aim of equipping the participants with a basic knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of MSUS as they are applied to rheumatology.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the ... the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between the transducer and the skin that can block the sound waves from passing into your body. ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  3. Ultrasound diagnostics of postpartum endometritis

    OpenAIRE

    Bratchikova О.А.; Chekhonatskaya M.L.; Yannaeva N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to present data on diagnostics of postpartum infectious diseases in women in childbirth. The aim of the conducted survey is to study modern ultrasound diagnostic methods of the given pathology.

  4. Ultrasound diagnostics of postpartum endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratchikova О.А.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present data on diagnostics of postpartum infectious diseases in women in childbirth. The aim of the conducted survey is to study modern ultrasound diagnostic methods of the given pathology.

  5. Image processing in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    This Ph.D project addresses image processing in medical ultrasound and seeks to achieve two major scientific goals: First to develop an understanding of the most significant factors influencing image quality in medical ultrasound, and secondly to use this knowledge to develop image processing...... methods for enhancing the diagnostic value of medical ultrasound. The project is an industrial Ph.D project co-sponsored by BK Medical ApS., with the commercial goal to improve the image quality of BK Medicals scanners. Currently BK Medical employ a simple conventional delay-and-sum beamformer to generate......-time data acquisition system. The system were implemented using the commercial available 2202 ProFocus BK Medical ultrasound scanner equipped with a research interface and a standard PC. The main feature of the system is the possibility to acquire several seconds of interleaved data, switching between...

  6. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... of the excitation signal. Although a gain in signal-to-noise ratio of about 20 dB is theoretically possible for the time-bandwidth product available in ultrasound, it is shown that the effects of transducer weighting and tissue attenuation reduce the maximum gain at 10 dB for robust compression with low sidelobes...... is described. Application of coded excitation in array imaging is evaluated through simulations in Field II. The low degree of the orthogonality among coded signals for ultrasound systems is first discussed, and the effect of mismatched filtering in the cross-correlation properties of the signals is evaluated...

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound and pancreas divisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    cholangiopancreatography is the gold standard for its diagnosis, but is invasive and associated with significant adverse effects. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allows the detailed evaluation of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system without injecting contrast in these ducts. Moreover, it provides detailed images...

  8. Despeckling of Medical Ultrasound Images

    OpenAIRE

    Michailovich, Oleg V.; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Speckle noise is an inherent property of medical ultrasound imaging, and it generally tends to reduce the image resolution and contrast, thereby reducing the diagnostic value of this imaging modality. As a result, speckle noise reduction is an important prerequisite, whenever ultrasound imaging is used for tissue characterization. Among the many methods that have been proposed to perform this task, there exists a class of approaches that use a multiplicative model of speckled image formation ...

  9. Ultrasound Despeckling for Contrast Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Tay, Peter C.; Garson, Christopher D.; Acton, Scott T.; Hossack, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known de...

  10. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek; Ola I. Saleh; Howida A. Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH) level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound throug...

  11. Ultrasound in environmental engineering. Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehm, A.; Neis, U. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    This book presents recent research and state-of-the-art information on the scientific basis, modes of use, and engineering developments of ultrasound application in the field of environmental protection. The information is loosely grouped into the following themes: ultrasound and sonochemistry, design of sonoreactors, applications in water, waste water and sludge treatment: aggregation of suspended particles, degradation of hazardous pollutants, disinfection, disintegration of biosolids. Ultrasound is generated and applied at frequencies from 20 kHz to several MHz. Reactor design, applied intensity, duration of sonication, and physico-chemical parameters of the sonicated media influence ultrasound effects. Thus, ultrasound, at a first glance, is a complex and probably confusing matter. This book has been compiled from presentations held at the first workshop 'Ultrasound in Environmental Engineering' on March 22nd and 23rd, 1999, at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg in cooperation with the German Association for the Water Environment (ATV) and the DECHEMA e.V. (orig.)

  12. Ultrasound-Mediated Polymeric Micelle Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue; Tong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of multi-functional nanocarriers and the design of new stimuli-responsive means are equally important for drug delivery. Ultrasound can be used as a remote, non-invasive and controllable trigger for the stimuli-responsive release of nanocarriers. Polymeric micelles are one kind of potential drug nanocarrier. By combining ultrasound and polymeric micelles, a new modality (i.e., ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery) has been developed and has recently received increasing attention. A major challenge remaining in developing ultrasound-responsive polymeric micelles is the improvement of the sensitivity or responsiveness of polymeric micelles to ultrasound. This chapter reviews the recent advance in this field. In order to understand the interaction mechanism between ultrasound stimulus and polymeric micelles, ultrasound effects, such as thermal effect, cavitation effect, ultrasound sonochemistry (including ultrasonic degradation, ultrasound-initiated polymerization, ultrasonic in-situ polymerization and ultrasound site-specific degradation), as well as basic micellar knowledge are introduced. Ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery has been classified into two main streams based on the different interaction mechanism between ultrasound and polymeric micelles; one is based on the ultrasound-induced physical disruption of the micelle and reversible release of payload. The other is based on micellar ultrasound mechanochemical disruption and irreversible release of payload.

  13. Morphological disintegration as a mode of morphological evolution of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya P. Savinykh

    2014-01-01

    Morphological disintegration evaluated as a mode of morphological evolution, condition and adaptation of plants to biotopes the conditions of with high humidity. The value of morphological disintegration and autonomization of the parts of organism in these conditions was shown. The life forms of oligoennial plants, as well as of annual aquatic and coastal-aquatic plants were clarified. The spectrum of biomorphes of oligoennial and annual plants of vegetative origin was represented.

  14. Antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles combined with ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), the present study investigated the antibacterial effect of ZnO nanoparticles both in the absence and presence of ultrasound stimulation. While the antibacterial effect of control nanoparticle chemistries (Al2O3) alone was either weak or unobservable under the conditions tested, the antibacterial effect of ZnO alone was significant, providing over a four log reduction (equivalent to antibiotics) compared to no treatment after just 8 h. The antibacterial effect was enhanced as ZnO particle diameter decreased. Specifically, when testing the antibacterial effect against bacteria populations relevant to infection, a 500 μg ml−1 dose of zinc oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm reduced S. aureus populations by four orders of magnitude after 8 and 24 h, compared to control groups with no nanoparticles. This was accomplished without the use of antibiotics, to which bacteria are developing a resistance anyway. The addition of ultrasound stimulation further reduced the number of viable colony-forming units present in a planktonic cell suspension by 76% compared to nanoparticles alone. Lastly, this study provided a mechanism for how ZnO nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasound decrease bacteria functions by demonstrating greater hydrogen peroxide generation by S. aureus compared to controls. These results indicated that small-diameter ZnO nanoparticles exhibited strong antibacterial properties that can be additionally enhanced in the presence of ultrasound and, thus, should be further studied for a wide range of medical device anti-infection applications. (paper)

  15. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  16. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  17. Flat HIFU transducer with a sawtooth-shaped ultrasound radiation face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Keon-Ho; Cho, Young-Ki; Kim, Dae-Seung; Kim, Myung-Deok; Kang, Kook-Jin

    2013-10-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers are spherically-curved in order to obtain a high intensity gain of the converged ultrasound energy at the geometrical focus. Ultrasound imaging devices monitor the procedure of HIFU treatment in ultrasound-guided HIFU systems where the image probe is positioned at the apex of the HIFU transducer, which has a spherical surface. However, the remote image probe's location yields a poor image quality compared to that obtained using conventional ultrasound imaging where the image probe is in direct contact with the surface. A phased array HIFU transducer with a new structure is suggested to overcome this limitation. The centers of the array elements are distributed over the flat surface of the transducer. However, the elements are tilted to form a geometrical focus, like a transducer with a spherically-curved surface, to obtain a high focal gain. The cross-section of the ultrasound radiation face of the transducer resembles the teeth of a saw. The acoustic field emitted from this transducer was simulated in order to design and produce the transducer. The simulation was compared with the measured sound field to verify that the transducer was correctly manufactured and designed; subsequently, the acoustic power was measured, and ultrasound images were obtained through the installation of an image probe on the transducer, which confirmed the application of this transducer to HIFU treatment.

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached to the scanner ...

  19. A 1D wavelet filtering for ultrasound images despeckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Dubois, Mathieu; Frenoux, Emmanuelle; Osorio, Angel

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound images appearance is characterized by speckle, shadows, signal dropout and low contrast which make them really difficult to process and leads to a very poor signal to noise ratio. Therefore, for main imaging applications, a denoising step is necessary to apply successfully medical imaging algorithms on such images. However, due to speckle statistics, denoising and enhancing edges on these images without inducing additional blurring is a real challenging problem on which usual filters often fail. To deal with such problems, a large number of papers are working on B-mode images considering that the noise is purely multiplicative. Making such an assertion could be misleading, because of internal pre-processing such as log compression which are done in the ultrasound device. To address those questions, we designed a novel filtering method based on 1D Radiofrequency signal. Indeed, since B-mode images are initially composed of 1D signals and since the log compression made by ultrasound devices modifies noise statistics, we decided to filter directly the 1D Radiofrequency signal envelope before log compression and image reconstitution, in order to conserve as much information as possible. A bi-orthogonal wavelet transform is applied to the log transform of each signal and an adaptive 1D split and merge like algorithm is used to denoise wavelet coefficients. Experiments were carried out on synthetic data sets simulated with Field II simulator and results show that our filter outperforms classical speckle filtering methods like Lee, non-linear means or SRAD filters.

  20. Compensated Row-Column Ultrasound Imaging System Using Fisher Tippett Multilayered Conditional Random Field Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ben Daya

    Full Text Available 3-D ultrasound imaging offers unique opportunities in the field of non destructive testing that cannot be easily found in A-mode and B-mode images. To acquire a 3-D ultrasound image without a mechanically moving transducer, a 2-D array can be used. The row column technique is preferred over a fully addressed 2-D array as it requires a significantly lower number of interconnections. Recent advances in 3-D row-column ultrasound imaging systems were largely focused on sensor design. However, these imaging systems face three intrinsic challenges that cannot be addressed by improving sensor design alone: speckle noise, sparsity of data in the imaged volume, and the spatially dependent point spread function of the imaging system. In this paper, we propose a compensated row-column ultrasound image reconstruction system using Fisher-Tippett multilayered conditional random field model. Tests carried out on both simulated and real row-column ultrasound images show the effectiveness of our proposed system as opposed to other published systems. Visual assessment of the results show our proposed system's potential at preserving detail and reducing speckle. Quantitative analysis shows that our proposed system outperforms previously published systems when evaluated with metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Coefficient of Correlation, and Effective Number of Looks. These results show the potential of our proposed system as an effective tool for enhancing 3-D row-column imaging.

  1. Glass-windowed ultrasound transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yddal, Tostein; Gilja, Odd Helge; Cochran, Sandy; Postema, Michiel; Kotopoulis, Spiros

    2016-05-01

    In research and industrial processes, it is increasingly common practice to combine multiple measurement modalities. Nevertheless, experimental tools that allow the co-linear combination of optical and ultrasonic transmission have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise a water-matched ultrasound transducer architecture using standard components, with a central optical window larger than 10 mm in diameter allowing for optical transmission. The window can be used to place illumination or imaging apparatus such as light guides, miniature cameras, or microscope objectives, simplifying experimental setups. Four design variations of a basic architecture were fabricated and characterised with the objective to assess whether the variations influence the acoustic output. The basic architecture consisted of a piezoelectric ring and a glass disc, with an aluminium casing. The designs differed in piezoelectric element dimensions: inner diameter, ID=10 mm, outer diameter, OD=25 mm, thickness, TH=4 mm or ID=20 mm, OD=40 mm, TH=5 mm; glass disc dimensions OD=20-50 mm, TH=2-4 mm; and details of assembly. The transducers' frequency responses were characterised using electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulse-echo measurements, the acoustic propagation pattern using acoustic pressure field scans, the acoustic power output using radiation force balance measurements, and the acoustic pressure using a needle hydrophone. Depending on the design and piezoelectric element dimensions, the resonance frequency was in the range 350-630 kHz, the -6 dB bandwidth was in the range 87-97%, acoustic output power exceeded 1 W, and acoustic pressure exceeded 1 MPa peak-to-peak. 3D stress simulations were performed to predict the isostatic pressure required to induce material failure and 4D acoustic simulations. The pressure simulations indicated that specific design variations could sustain isostatic pressures up to 4.8 MPa.The acoustic simulations were able to

  2. Glass-windowed ultrasound transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yddal, Tostein; Gilja, Odd Helge; Cochran, Sandy; Postema, Michiel; Kotopoulis, Spiros

    2016-05-01

    In research and industrial processes, it is increasingly common practice to combine multiple measurement modalities. Nevertheless, experimental tools that allow the co-linear combination of optical and ultrasonic transmission have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise a water-matched ultrasound transducer architecture using standard components, with a central optical window larger than 10 mm in diameter allowing for optical transmission. The window can be used to place illumination or imaging apparatus such as light guides, miniature cameras, or microscope objectives, simplifying experimental setups. Four design variations of a basic architecture were fabricated and characterised with the objective to assess whether the variations influence the acoustic output. The basic architecture consisted of a piezoelectric ring and a glass disc, with an aluminium casing. The designs differed in piezoelectric element dimensions: inner diameter, ID=10 mm, outer diameter, OD=25 mm, thickness, TH=4 mm or ID=20 mm, OD=40 mm, TH=5 mm; glass disc dimensions OD=20-50 mm, TH=2-4 mm; and details of assembly. The transducers' frequency responses were characterised using electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulse-echo measurements, the acoustic propagation pattern using acoustic pressure field scans, the acoustic power output using radiation force balance measurements, and the acoustic pressure using a needle hydrophone. Depending on the design and piezoelectric element dimensions, the resonance frequency was in the range 350-630 kHz, the -6 dB bandwidth was in the range 87-97%, acoustic output power exceeded 1 W, and acoustic pressure exceeded 1 MPa peak-to-peak. 3D stress simulations were performed to predict the isostatic pressure required to induce material failure and 4D acoustic simulations. The pressure simulations indicated that specific design variations could sustain isostatic pressures up to 4.8 MPa.The acoustic simulations were able to

  3. In-line positioning of ultrasound images using wireless remote display system with tablet computer facilitates ultrasound-guided radial artery catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masahiko; Mizutani, Koh; Funai, Yusuke; Nakamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound-guided procedures may be easier to perform when the operator's eye axis, needle puncture site, and ultrasound image display form a straight line in the puncture direction. However, such methods have not been well tested in clinical settings because that arrangement is often impossible due to limited space in the operating room. We developed a wireless remote display system for ultrasound devices using a tablet computer (iPad Mini), which allows easy display of images at nearly any location chosen by the operator. We hypothesized that the in-line layout of ultrasound images provided by this system would allow for secure and quick catheterization of the radial artery. We enrolled first-year medical interns (n = 20) who had no prior experience with ultrasound-guided radial artery catheterization to perform that using a short-axis out-of-plane approach with two different methods. With the conventional method, only the ultrasound machine placed at the side of the head of the patient across the targeted forearm was utilized. With the tablet method, the ultrasound images were displayed on an iPad Mini positioned on the arm in alignment with the operator's eye axis and needle puncture direction. The success rate and time required for catheterization were compared between the two methods. Success rate was significantly higher (100 vs. 70 %, P = 0.02) and catheterization time significantly shorter (28.5 ± 7.5 vs. 68.2 ± 14.3 s, P method as compared to the conventional method. An ergonomic straight arrangement of the image display is crucial for successful and quick completion of ultrasound-guided arterial catheterization. The present remote display system is a practical method for providing such an arrangement.

  4. Ultrasound Review of Metastatic Lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Ghanshyam Kachewar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic Lymphadenopathy is a common occurrence now with the earlier detection possible due to advances in imaging sciences. Although, at times the site of original malignancy is known; there are instances when the primary source of malignancy remains unknown. Ultrasound has the potential to non invasively evaluate the affected lymph nodes. Hence we reviewed the ultrasound findings in all fine needle aspiration cytology proven cases of metastatic lymphadenopathy that presented in the imaging department in the last 12 months. Multiple criteria on Grey Scale ultrasound imaging and on Color Doppler ultrasound imaging were used to label metastatic lymphadenopathy. Round nodes without any matting, presence of intranodal necrosis, intranodal calcifications, increased vascularity and elevated Doppler Pulsatility and Resisitivity Indices were the hallmarks of metastatic lymphadenopathy which enabled correct diagnosis with a sensitivity of 85.25% and a sensitivity of 98.36 %. In our review, the most sensitive and specific criteria was the Roundness Index on Gray scale imaging and Resistance to Perfusion on Color Doppler imaging. This review shows how, ultrasound can satisfactorily diagnose metastatic lymphadenopathy and can therefore be used in the diagnosis as well as follow up of such cases. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 196-201

  5. CONTRIBUTIONS ON THE ULTRASOUND USE IN FASTFINDING AND CREATING THE ACCES TO THE CALCIFIED CANNALS AND ABLATION OF THE PULPOLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Elena AMZA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment with ultrasounds, two categories of devices are used, which work on theprinciple of the magnetostriction phenomenon or the principle of pieso-electrictricity. The mostimportant part of an endodontic ultrasound device is the ultra-acoustic system which must becalculated, projected and made in such way so th exercise a certain type of ultrasound (asked bythat application which together with the endodontic instrument acoustically activated to worktogether in resonance regime. In order to find the hidden canals calcified and for an easiermaking of the acces to the root canals is suggested an endodontic instrument with an activespecific part and with a central canal which allows the penetration of a cooling fluid in the workarea and in order to create the phenomenon of ultrasound cavity

  6. Femur ultrasound (FemUS)-first clinical results on hip fracture discrimination and estimation of femoral BMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkmann, R; Dencks, S; Laugier, P;

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative ultrasound (QUS) device for measurements at the proximal femur was developed and tested in vivo (Femur Ultrasound Scanner, FemUS). Hip fracture discrimination was as good as for DXA, and a high correlation with hip BMD was achieved. Our results show promise for enhanced QUS......-based assessment of osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the femur is the best predictor of hip fractures, better than DXA measurements at other sites. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) can be used to estimate the general osteoporotic fracture risk, but no femoral QUS measurement...... has been introduced yet. We developed a QUS scanner for measurements at the femur (Femur Ultrasound Scanner, FemUS) and tested its in vivo performance. METHODS: Using the FemUS device, we obtained femoral QUS and DXA on 32 women with recent hip fractures and 30 controls. Fracture discrimination...

  7. ROLE OF ULTRASOUND IN THYROID DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Janani Parkkunam; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography has established itself has a useful tool in evaluating and managing thyroid disorders. This article provides an overview of basic principles of ultrasound, how it is used in different thyroid disorders, different sonographic pattern of thyroid disorders, comparative features of malignant and benign nodule, ultrasound features of diffuse thyroid disorders and congenital thyroid disorders, ultrasound guided FNAC, advanced techniques of ultrasound in thyroid imaging.

  8. Microfocused ultrasound for facial rejuvenation: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Doris Day Day Dermatology and Aesthetics, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In contrast with ultrasound imaging, therapeutic ultrasound uses high energy levels >5 W/cm2 and is tightly focused into a small point to rapidly heat and coagulate targeted tissues. The use of high intensity focused ultrasound has recently expanded from high-precision surgical procedures into the field of noninvasive cosmetic medicine. Microfocused ultrasound (MFU) differs from other energy technologies used for sk...

  9. A distributed implementation of a mode switching control program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdgaard, Michael; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Ravn, Anders P.;

    1995-01-01

    A distributed implementation of a mode switched control program for a robot is described. The design of the control program is given by a set of real-time automatons. One of them plans a schedule for switching between a fixed set of control functions, another dispatches the control functions...... according to the schedule, and a final one monitors the system for exceptions that shall lead to a halt. The implementation uses four transputers with a distribution of phases of the automatons over the individual processors. The main technical result of the paper is calculations that illustrate how...

  10. JSUM ultrasound elastography practice guidelines: liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Iijima, Hiroko; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Yada, Norihisa; Fujimoto, Kenji; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Hirooka, Masashi; Sumino, Yasukiyo; Kumada, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    In diffuse liver disease, it is extremely important to make an accurate diagnosis of liver fibrosis prior to determining indications for therapy or predicting treatment outcome and malignant potential. Although liver biopsy has long been the gold standard in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, it is still an invasive method. In addition, the sampling error is an intrinsic problem of liver biopsy. Non-invasive serological methods for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis can be affected by factors unrelated to the liver. Recently, after the introduction of FibroScan, it became possible to measure liver fibrosis directly and non-invasively by elastography, which has attracted attention as a non-invasive imaging diagnostic tool for liver fibrosis. In addition, real-time tissue elastography is currently being used to conduct clinical trials at many institutions. Moreover, virtual touch quantification enables the observation of liver stiffness at any location by simply observing B-mode images. Furthermore, the recently developed ShearWave elastography visualizes liver stiffness on a color map. Elastography is thought to be useful for all types of diffuse liver diseases. Because of its association with portal hypertension and liver carcinogenesis, elastography is expected to function as a novel prognostic tool for liver disease. Although various elastographic devices have been developed by multiple companies, each device has its own measurement principle, method, and outcome, creating confusion in clinical settings. Therefore, it is extremely important to understand the characteristics of each device in advance. The objective of this guideline, which describes the characteristics of each device based on the latest knowledge, is for all users to be able to make the correct diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis by ultrasound elastography.

  11. Determination of lesion size by ultrasound during radiofrequency catheter ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, S; Eick, O

    2003-01-01

    The catheter tip temperature that is used to control the radiofrequency generator output poorly correlates to lesion size. We, therefore, evaluated lesions created in vitro using a B-mode ultrasound imaging device as a potential means to assess lesion generation during RF applications non-invasively. Porcine ventricular tissue was immersed in saline solution at 37 degrees C. The catheter was fixed in a holder and positioned in a parallel orientation to the tissue with an array transducer (7.5 MHz) app. 3 cm above the tissue. Lesions were produced either in a temperature controlled mode with a 4-mm tip catheter with different target temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 degrees C, 80 W maximum output) or in a power controlled mode (25, 50 and 75 W, 20 ml/min irrigation flow) using an irrigated tip catheter. Different contact forces (0.5 N, 1.0 N) were tested, and RF was delivered for 60 s. A total of 138 lesions was produced. Out of these, 128 could be identified on the ultrasound image. The lesion depth and volume was on average 4.1 +/- 1.6 mm and 52 +/- 53 mm3 as determined by ultrasound and 3.9 +/- 1.7 mm and 52 +/- 55 mm3 as measured thereafter, respectively. A linear correlation between the lesion size determined by ultrasound and that measured thereafter was demonstrated with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.87 for lesion depth and r = 0.93 for lesion volume. We conclude that lesions can be assessed by B-mode ultrasound imaging. PMID:12910859

  12. The use of ink jets in ultrasound registrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, T; Nilsson, J; Almquist, L O; Holmer, N G

    1991-01-01

    The continuous ink jet method developed by Professor Hellmuth Hertz, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden, is today used in printers that print digitally stored high-quality images rapidly and at low cost. The development started in the late 1950s when there was a need for a direct registration method for ultrasound echocardiograms. The development steps are described from the early ultrasound registrations to the true halftone printing of digital images today. Images from ultrasonic color Doppler examinations have been printed by an ink jet printer at our laboratory. The color capabilities of the printer are further illustrated by the printing of pseudo-colored gray-scale images and an image where color is used to highlight differences between two gray-scale images. The results show that the printer based on continuous ink jets is an interesting alternative to the existing hard-copy devices for medical images.

  13. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  14. Ultrasound: From Earth to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Macbeth, Paul. B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a versatile imaging modality that offers many advantages over radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. On Earth, the use of ultrasound has become standard in many areas of medicine including diagnosis of medical and surgical diseases, management of obstetric and gynecologic conditions, assessment of critically ill patients, and procedural guidance. Advances in telecommunications have enabled remotely-guided ultrasonography for both geographically isolated populations and astronauts aboard the International Space Station. While ultrasound has traditionally been used in spaceflight to study anatomical and physiological adaptations to microgravity and evaluate countermeasures, recent years have seen a growth of applications adapted from terrestrial techniques. Terrestrial, remote, and space applications for ultrasound are reviewed in this paper. PMID:22399873

  15. Ultrasound: from Earth to space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Macbeth, Paul B

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasonography is a versatile imaging modality that offers many advantages over radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. On Earth, the use of ultrasound has become standard in many areas of medicine including diagnosis of medical and surgical diseases, management of obstetric and gynecologic conditions, assessment of critically ill patients, and procedural guidance. Advances in telecommunications have enabled remotely-guided ultrasonography for both geographically isolated populations and astronauts aboard the International Space Station. While ultrasound has traditionally been used in spaceflight to study anatomical and physiological adaptations to microgravity and evaluate countermeasures, recent years have seen a growth of applications adapted from terrestrial techniques. Terrestrial, remote, and space applications for ultrasound are reviewed in this paper.

  16. Non-linear Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang

    without iteration steps. The ASA is implemented in combination with Field II and extended to simulate the pulsed ultrasound fields. The simulated results from a linear array transducer are made by the ASA based on Field II, and by a released non-linear simulation program- Abersim, respectively....... The calculation speed of the ASA is increased approximately by a factor of 140. For the second harmonic point spread function the error of the full width is 1.5% at -6 dB and 6.4% at -12 dB compared to Abersim. To further investigate the linear and non-linear ultrasound fields, hydrophone measurements.......3% relative to the measurement from a 1 inch diameter transducer. A preliminary study for harmonic imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) has been demonstrated. A wire phantom underwater measurement is made by an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS...

  17. Adverse events of extracorporeal ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinghe Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is considered to be an alternative to surgery. Extracorporeal ultrasound-guided HIFU (USgFU has been clinically used to treat solid tumors. Preliminary trials in a small sample of a Western population suggested that this modality was safe. Most trials are performed in China thereby providing comprehensive data for understanding the safety profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate adverse events of USgFU therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clinical data were searched in 2 Chinese databases. Adverse events of USgFU were summarized and compared with those of magnetic resonance-guided HIFU (MRgFU; for uterine, bone or breast tumor and transrectal ultrasound-guided HIFU (for prostate cancer or benign prostate hyperplasia. USgFU treatment was performed using 7 types of device. Side effects were evaluated in 13262 cases. There were fewer adverse events in benign lesions than in malignant lesions (11.81% vs. 21.65%, p<0.0001. Rates of adverse events greatly varied between the disease types (0-280%, p<0.0001 and between the applied HIFU devices in both malignant (10.58-44.38%, p<0.0001 and benign lesions (1.67-17.57%, p<0.0001. Chronological analysis did not demonstrate a decrease in the rate of adverse events. Based upon evaluable adverse events, incidences in USgFU were consistent with those in MRgFU or transrectal HIFU. Some side effects frequently occurred following transrectal HIFU were not reported in USgFU. Several events including intrahepatic metastasis, intraoperative high fever, and occlusions of the superior mesenteric artery should be of particular concern because they have not been previously noted. The types of adverse events suggested that they were ultrasonic lesions. CONCLUSION: The frequency of adverse events depended on the location of the lesion and the type of HIFU device; however, side effects of USgFU were not yet understood. USgFU did not decrease the incidence of adverse events

  18. Comparison of Conventional and Ultrasound-assisted Extraction Techniques on Mass Fraction of Phenolic Compounds from Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M Dent; Dragović-Uzelac, V.; Elez Garofulić, I.; Bosiljkov, T.; Ježek, D.; Brnčić, M.

    2015-01-01

    An innovative ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is the rapid non-thermal extraction technique, which in comparison to conventional extraction (CE), offers high reproducibility in a short time with simplified manipulation, reduced solvent consumption and lower energy. Optimization of ultrasonic conditions was conducted for devices with nominal output power of 100 and 400 W, including the influence of geometrical parameters of probes regarding ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results show...

  19. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-03-01

    Heat therapy has long been used for treatments in dermatology and sports medicine. The use of laser, RF, microwave, and more recently, ultrasound treatment, for psoriasis, collagen reformation, and skin tightening has gained considerable interest over the past several years. Numerous studies and commercial devices have demonstrated the efficacy of these methods for treatment of skin disorders. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot effectively treat effectively because there is little or no control of the size, shape, and depth of the target zone. These limitations make it extremely difficult to obtain consistent treatment results. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility for using acoustic energy for controlled dose delivery sufficient to produce collagen modification for the treatment of skin tissue in the dermal and sub-dermal layers. We designed and evaluated a curvilinear focused ultrasound device for treating skin disorders such as psoriasis, stimulation of wound healing, tightening of skin through shrinkage of existing collagen and stimulation of new collagen formation, and skin cancer. Design parameters were examined using acoustic pattern simulations and thermal modeling. Acute studies were performed in 201 freshly-excised samples of young porcine underbelly skin tissue and 56 in-vivo treatment areas in 60- 80 kg pigs. These were treated with ultrasound (9-11MHz) focused in the deep dermis. Dose distribution was analyzed and gross pathology assessed. Tissue shrinkage was measured based on fiducial markers and video image registration and analyzed using NIH Image-J software. Comparisons were made between RF and focused ultrasound for five energy ranges. In each experimental series, therapeutic dose levels (60degC) were attained at 2-5mm depth. Localized collagen changes ranged from 1-3% for RF versus 8-15% for focused ultrasound. Therapeutic ultrasound applied at high

  20. Mixed Frequency Ultrasound Phased Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    香勇; 霍健; 施克仁; 陈以方

    2004-01-01

    A mixed frequency ultrasonic phased array (MPA) was developed to improve the focus, in which the element excitation frequencies are not all the same as in a normal constant frequency phased array. A theoretical model of the mixed frequency phased array based on the interference principle was used to simulate the array's sound distribution. The pressure intensity in the array focal area was enhanced and the scanning area having effective contrast resolution was enlarged. The system is especially useful for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with more powerful energy and ultrasound imaging diagnostics with improved signal to noise ratios, improved beam forming and more uniform imaging quality.

  1. Application of Ultrasound in Audiology

    OpenAIRE

    Farzad Rahimi

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is a beneficial technique which can be used the audiologists based on essential instruction. Although there are a lot of barriers in relation to the size of the probe and the resolution of the pictures which are obtained, with this method some kind of information can be gained that is impossible to get by any other method. The ability of real- time A and B modes for direct visualization makes them useful tools to study the changes of the ear structures. Ultrasound system...

  2. Diagnostic Ophthalmic Ultrasound for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Cynthia J; Prager, Thomas C; Cheng, Han; Gombos, Dan; Tang, Rosa A; Schiffman, Jade S

    2015-08-01

    Ophthalmic ultrasound is an invaluable tool that provides quick and noninvasive evaluation of the eye and the orbit. It not only allows the clinicians to view structures that may not be visible with routine ophthalmic equipment or neuroimaging techniques but also provides unique diagnostic information in various ophthalmic conditions. In this article, the basic principles of ophthalmic ultrasound and examination techniques are discussed. Its clinical application is illustrated through a variety of ocular pathologic abnormalities (eg, narrow angles, ciliary body tumor, detached retina, choroidal melanoma, and papilledema).

  3. Application of Ultrasound in Audiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Rahimi

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic ultrasound is a beneficial technique which can be used the audiologists based on essential instruction. Although there are a lot of barriers in relation to the size of the probe and the resolution of the pictures which are obtained, with this method some kind of information can be gained that is impossible to get by any other method. The ability of real- time A and B modes for direct visualization makes them useful tools to study the changes of the ear structures. Ultrasound system is a useful method to evaluate dizzy patients, which can be potentially used along with vestibular tests.

  4. Effect of ultrasound training of physicians working in the prehospital setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Charlotte Loumann; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rudolph, Søren Steemann;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in technology have made ultrasound (US) devices smaller and portable, hence accessible for prehospital care providers. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a four-hour, hands-on US training course for physicians working in the prehospital setting. The primary outcome...

  5. Virtual ultrasound sources in high-resolution ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    beamforming procedure for 3D ultrasound imaging. The position of the virtual source, and the created waveform are investigated with simulation, and with pulse-echo measurements. There is good agreement between the estimated wavefront and the theoretically tted one. Several examples of the use of virtual...

  6. CT and Ultrasound Guided Stereotactic High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the feasibility of CT and B-mode Ultrasound (US) targeted HIFU, a prototype coaxial focused ultrasound transducer was registered and integrated to a CT scanner. CT and diagnostic ultrasound were used for HIFU targeting and monitoring, with the goals of both thermal ablation and non-thermal enhanced drug delivery. A 1 megahertz coaxial ultrasound transducer was custom fabricated and attached to a passive position-sensing arm and an active six degree-of-freedom robotic arm via a CT stereotactic frame. The outer therapeutic transducer with a 10 cm fixed focal zone was coaxially mounted to an inner diagnostic US transducer (2-4 megahertz, Philips Medical Systems). This coaxial US transducer was connected to a modified commercial focused ultrasound generator (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN) with a maximum total acoustic power of 100 watts. This pre-clinical paradigm was tested for ability to heat tissue in phantoms with monitoring and navigation from CT and live US. The feasibility of navigation via image fusion of CT with other modalities such as PET and MRI was demonstrated. Heated water phantoms were tested for correlation between CT numbers and temperature (for ablation monitoring). The prototype transducer and integrated CT/US imaging system enabled simultaneous multimodality imaging and therapy. Pre-clinical phantom models validated the treatment paradigm and demonstrated integrated multimodality guidance and treatment monitoring. Temperature changes during phantom cooling corresponded to CT number changes. Contrast enhanced or non-enhanced CT numbers may potentially be used to monitor thermal ablation with HIFU. Integrated CT, diagnostic US, and therapeutic focused ultrasound bridges a gap between diagnosis and therapy. Preliminary results show that the multimodality system may represent a relatively inexpensive, accessible, and simple method of both targeting and monitoring HIFU effects. Small animal pre-clinical models may be translated to large

  7. [Abdominal ultrasound course an introduction to the ultrasound technique. Physical basis. Ultrasound language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Grau, A; Sáez-Fernández, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Díaz-Rodríguez, N

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive, accessible, and versatile diagnostic technique that uses high frequency ultrasound waves to define outline the organs of the human body, with no ionising radiation, in real time and with the capacity to visual several planes. The high diagnostic yield of the technique, together with its ease of uses plus the previously mentioned characteristics, has currently made it a routine method in daily medical practice. It is for this reason that the multidisciplinary character of this technique is being strengthened every day. To be able to perform the technique correctly requires knowledge of the physical basis of ultrasound, the method and the equipment, as well as of the human anatomy, in order to have the maximum information possible to avoid diagnostic errors due to poor interpretation or lack of information.

  8. Driver's condition control devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yashan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the various types of biotechnical systems of transport security, that often called by general title "Antison. Their main disadvantage is the uncertainty of detecting drowsiness phase of driver’s state and the absence of biological feedbacks, that providing control of functional parameters of a human-driver in a mode of adaptation. Structurally, these systems are complicated by the presence of contact with the driver of sensors that restrict the freedom of his movements. There is described experiment, which was carried out in Greece in 2008, and where tested different types of systems which include motion sensors, EEG monitoring for the eyes, the recognition of road markings, control automotive electrical system. The results showed the feasibility of using sleep prevent devices.

  9. Feasibility of Swept Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottenus, Nick; Long, Will; Zhang, Haichong K; Jakovljevic, Marko; Bradway, David P; Boctor, Emad M; Trahey, Gregg E

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound image quality is often inherently limited by the physical dimensions of the imaging transducer. We hypothesize that, by collecting synthetic aperture data sets over a range of aperture positions while precisely tracking the position and orientation of the transducer, we can synthesize large effective apertures to produce images with improved resolution and target detectability. We analyze the two largest limiting factors for coherent signal summation: aberration and mechanical uncertainty. Using an excised canine abdominal wall as a model phase screen, we experimentally observed an effective arrival time error ranging from 18.3 ns to 58 ns (root-mean-square error) across the swept positions. Through this clutter-generating tissue, we observed a 72.9% improvement in resolution with only a 3.75 dB increase in side lobe amplitude compared to the control case. We present a simulation model to study the effect of calibration and mechanical jitter errors on the synthesized point spread function. The relative effects of these errors in each imaging dimension are explored, showing the importance of orientation relative to the point spread function. We present a prototype device for performing swept synthetic aperture imaging using a conventional 1-D array transducer and ultrasound research scanner. Point target reconstruction error for a 44.2 degree sweep shows a reconstruction precision of 82.8 μm and 17.8 μm in the lateral and axial dimensions respectively, within the acceptable performance bounds of the simulation model. Improvements in resolution, contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio are demonstrated in vivo and in a fetal phantom. PMID:26863653

  10. Central corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth measurement by Sirius® Scheimpflug tomography and ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available J Jorge,1 JL Rosado,2 JA Díaz-Rey,1 JM González-Méijome11Clinical and Experimental Optometry Research Laboratory, Center of Physics (Optometry, School of Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, 2Opticlinic, Lisboa, PortugalBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new Sirius® Scheimpflug anterior segment examination device for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT and anterior chamber depth (ACD with that of CCT measurements obtained by ultrasound pachymetry and ACD measurements obtained by ultrasound biometry, respectively.Methods: CCT and ACD was measured in 50 right eyes from 50 healthy subjects using a Sirius Scheimpflug camera, SP100 ultrasound pachymetry, and US800 ultrasound biometry.Results: CCT measured with the Sirius was 546 ± 39 µm and 541 ± 35 µm with SP100 ultrasound pachymetry (P = 0.003. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference 4.68 ± 10.5 µm; limits of agreement −15.8 to 25.20 µm. ACD measured with the Sirius was 2.96 ± 0.3 mm compared with 3.36 ± 0.29 mm using US800 ultrasound biometry (P < 0.001. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference −0.40 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.72 to 0.07 mm. When the ACD values obtained using ultrasound biometry were corrected according to the values for CCT measured by ultrasound, the agreement increased significantly between both technologies for ACD measurements (mean difference 0.15 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.16 to 0.45 mm.Conclusion: CCT and ACD measured by Sirius and ultrasound methods showing good agreement between repeated measurements obtained in the same subjects (repeatability with either instrument. However, CCT and ACD values, even after correcting ultrasound ACD by subtracting the CCT value obtained with either technology should not be used interchangeably.Keywords: Scheimpflug corneal tomography, ultrasound biometry, ultrasound pachymetry, limits of agreement

  11. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Willmann, Jürgen K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound molecular imaging is a highly sensitive modality. • A clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent has entered first in human clinical trials. • Several new potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging are being explored. - Abstract: Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging.

  12. Endocavitary Ultrasound Applicator for Hyperthermia Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Jeffery; Chen, Xin; Juang, Titania; Rieke, Viola; Hsu, I.-Chow Joe; Diederich, Chris

    2009-04-01

    An endocavitary ultrasound applicator has been developed for targeted heat delivery to the cervix. The device has multiple sectored tubular transducers for truly 3-D heating control (angular and along the length) and is integrated with an intracavitary HDR brachytherapy applicator for sequential administration of conformal heat and radiation. Brachytherapy treatment planning data are inspected to determine target thermal treatment volumes. Heat treatments are simulated with an acoustic and biothermal model of cervical tissue. Power control to individual elements and sectors is implemented for global maximum and pilot point control to limit rectum and bladder temperature. A parametric analysis of device parameters, tissue properties, and catheter materials is conducted to assess their effects on heating patterns and inform device development. Acoustic output of all devices was characterized. MR thermal imaging is used to analyze 3-D conformal heating capabilities in ex vivo tissue and compare to theoretical predictions. Devices were fabricated with 1-3 transducers at 6.5-8 MHz with sectors from 90-180° and heating length from 15-35 mm housed within a 6 mm diameter water-cooled PET catheter. Directional heating from sectored transducers can extend lateral penetration of therapeutic heating (41° C)>2 cm while maintaining rectum and bladder temperatures within 12 mm below thermal damage thresholds. MR artifacts extended <2 mm beyond the device and real time thermal imaging was used to guide power selection to shape heating profiles in axial and coronal slices. Endocavitary delivery of ultrasound thermal therapy is feasible and 3-D conformal capabilities will benefit targeted cervical hyperthermia.

  13. Effect of Ultrasound on Desorption Equilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦炜; 原永辉; 戴猷元

    2001-01-01

    Effects of ultrasound on intensification of separation process were investigated through the experiment of desorption equilibrium behavior. Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) on NKA-X resin and phenol on a solvent impregnated resin, CL-TBP resin, were used for desorption processes. The desorption rate was measured with and without ultrasound. Desorption equilibrium was studied under various ultrasonic power densities or thermal infusion. Results showed that the desorption rate with ultrasound was much higher than that with normal thermal infusion. Both ultrasound and thermal infusion broke the desorption equilibrium existed at room temperature. However, after the systems were cooled down, the amount of solute desorbed in the liquid phase in the presence of ultrasound was much higher than that at the temperature corresponding to the same ultrasound power. It is proved that the initial desorption equilibrium was broken as a result of the spot energy effect of ultrasound.

  14. Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guanghui; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming; ZHU Yishu

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes play essential roles in the biological processes of sludge treatment. In this article, the ultrasound method to extract enzymes from sludge flocs was presented. Results showed that using ultrasound method at 20 kHz could extract more types of enzymes than that ultrasound at 40 kHz and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. The optimum parameters of ultrasound extraction at 20 kHz were duration of 10 min and power of 480 W. Under the condition, ultrasound could break the cells and extract both the extracellular and intercellular enzymes. Ultrasound power was apparently more susceptive to enzyme extraction than duration, suggesting that the control of power during ultrasound extraction was more important than that of duration. The Pearson correlation analysis between enzyme activities and cation contents revealed that the different types of enzymes had distinct cation binding characteristics.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients are more difficult to image by ultrasound because greater amounts of tissue attenuate (weaken) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body. top of page This page was reviewed on June ...

  16. Medical ultrasound education for bioengineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-04-01

    The widespread adoption of ultrasound technologies in medicine has necessitated the development of educational programs to address the growing demand for trained expertise in both academia and industry. The demand has been especially great in the field of therapeutic ultrasound that has experienced a significant level of research and development activities in the past decade. The applications cover a wide range including cancer treatment, hemorrhage control, cardiac ablation, gene therapy, and cosmetic surgery. A comprehensive educational program in ultrasound is well suited for bioengineering departments at colleges and universities. Our educational program for students in Bioengineering at the University of Washington includes a year-long coursework covering theory and practice of ultrasound, conducting research projects, attending and presenting at weekly seminars on literature survey, presentations at scientific meetings, and attending specialized workshops offered by various institutions for specific topics. An important aspect of this training is its multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing science, engineering, and medicine. The students are required to build teams with expertise in these disciplines. Our experience shows that these students are well prepared for careers in academia, conducting cutting edge research, as well as industry, being involved in the transformation of research end-products to commercially viable technology.

  17. Ultrasound Harmonic Classification of Microemboli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Palanchon

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe ultrasound community has experienced dramatic technical advances over the last decades, such as blood °ow measurements with elabo rate Doppler techniques or real time three-dimensional imaging with 2-D phased array transducers. This was partly ascribed to the advantages of ultraso

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... torsion or twisting of a testicle limiting proper blood flow into it. top of page How should we prepare? Your child should be dressed in comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for an ultrasound exam. Other preparation depends on the type of examination. For some scans, your doctor may ...

  20. Vascular ultrasound for atherosclerosis imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. de Korte (Chris); H.H.G. Hansen (Hendrik); A.F.W. van der Steen (Anton)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world. Therefore, detection and quantification of atherosclerotic disease is of paramount importance to monitor treatment and possible prevention of acute events. Vascular ultrasound is an excellent technique to assess the

  1. Ultrasound fields from triangular apertures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed field from a triangular aperture mounted in an infinite, rigidbaffle is calculated. The approach of spatial impulse responses,as developed by Tupholme and Stepanishen, is used. By this both the emitted and received pulsed ultrasound field can be found for any transducerexcitation...

  2. Nonparametric estimation of ultrasound pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Leeman, Sidney

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm for nonparametric estimation of 1D ultrasound pulses in echo sequences from human tissues is derived. The technique is a variation of the homomorphic filtering technique using the real cepstrum, and the underlying basis of the method is explained. The algorithm exploits a priori...

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound via the esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Clementsen, Paul; Annema, Jouke;

    2010-01-01

    "endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and lung cancer" in PubMed was conducted. Invasive procedures (mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy/-tomy) are the gold standard. The specificity of EUS was between 97 and 100%, and sensitivity 90 to 92%. The sensitivity was lower in studies published before 2000, and in computed...

  4. Ultrasound Imaging and its modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    Modern medical ultrasound scanners are used for imaging nearly all soft tissue structures in the body. The anatomy can be studied from gray-scale B-mode images, where the reflectivity and scattering strength of the tissues are displayed. The imaging is performed in real time with 20 to 100 images...

  5. Intensified recovery of valuable products from whey by use of ultrasound in processing steps - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendragadkar, Chinmay N; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-09-01

    The current review focuses on the analysis of different aspects related to intensified recovery of possible valuable products from cheese whey using ultrasound. Ultrasound can be used for process intensification in processing steps such as pre-treatment, ultrafiltration, spray drying and crystallization. The combination of low-frequency, high intensity ultrasound with the pre-heat treatment minimizes the thickening or gelling of protein containing whey solutions. These characteristics of whey after the ultrasound assisted pretreatment helps in improving the efficacy of ultrafiltration used for separation and also helps in preventing the blockage of orifice of spray dryer atomizing device. Further, the heat stability of whey proteins is increased. In the subsequent processing step, use of ultrasound assisted atomization helps to reduce the treatment times as well as yield better quality whey protein concentrate (WPC) powder. After the removal of proteins from the whey, lactose is a major constituent remaining in the solution which can be efficiently recovered by sonocrystallization based on the use of anti-solvent as ethanol. The scale-up parameters to be considered during designing the process for large scale applications are also discussed along with analysis of various reactor designs. Overall, it appears that use of ultrasound can give significant process intensification benefits that can be harnessed even at commercial scale applications.

  6. Intensified recovery of valuable products from whey by use of ultrasound in processing steps - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendragadkar, Chinmay N; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-09-01

    The current review focuses on the analysis of different aspects related to intensified recovery of possible valuable products from cheese whey using ultrasound. Ultrasound can be used for process intensification in processing steps such as pre-treatment, ultrafiltration, spray drying and crystallization. The combination of low-frequency, high intensity ultrasound with the pre-heat treatment minimizes the thickening or gelling of protein containing whey solutions. These characteristics of whey after the ultrasound assisted pretreatment helps in improving the efficacy of ultrafiltration used for separation and also helps in preventing the blockage of orifice of spray dryer atomizing device. Further, the heat stability of whey proteins is increased. In the subsequent processing step, use of ultrasound assisted atomization helps to reduce the treatment times as well as yield better quality whey protein concentrate (WPC) powder. After the removal of proteins from the whey, lactose is a major constituent remaining in the solution which can be efficiently recovered by sonocrystallization based on the use of anti-solvent as ethanol. The scale-up parameters to be considered during designing the process for large scale applications are also discussed along with analysis of various reactor designs. Overall, it appears that use of ultrasound can give significant process intensification benefits that can be harnessed even at commercial scale applications. PMID:27150751

  7. An adaptive Kalman filter for speckle reductions in ultrasound images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speckle is the term used to describe the granular appearance found in ultrasound images. The presence of speckle reduces the diagnostic potential of the echographic technique because it tends to mask small inhomogeneities of the investigated tissue. We developed a new method of speckle reductions that utilizes an adaptive one-dimensional Kalman filter based on the assumption that the observed image can be considered as a superimposition of speckle on a ''true images''. The filter adaptivity, necessary to avoid loss of resolution, has been obtained by statistical considerations on the local signal variations. The results of the applications of this particular Kalman filter, both on A-Mode and B-MODE images, show a significant speckle reduction

  8. Visualizing ultrasound through computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Theresa W.

    2004-01-01

    The Doppler Ultrasound Hematocrit Project (DHP) hopes to find non-invasive methods of determining a person s blood characteristics. Because of the limits of microgravity and the space travel environment, it is important to find non-invasive methods of evaluating the health of persons in space. Presently, there is no well developed method of determining blood composition non-invasively. This projects hopes to use ultrasound and Doppler signals to evaluate the characteristic of hematocrit, the percentage by volume of red blood cells within whole blood. These non-invasive techniques may also be developed to be used on earth for trauma patients where invasive measure might be detrimental. Computational modeling is a useful tool for collecting preliminary information and predictions for the laboratory research. We hope to find and develop a computer program that will be able to simulate the ultrasound signals the project will work with. Simulated models of test conditions will more easily show what might be expected from laboratory results thus help the research group make informed decisions before and during experimentation. There are several existing Matlab based computer programs available, designed to interpret and simulate ultrasound signals. These programs will be evaluated to find which is best suited for the project needs. The criteria of evaluation that will be used are 1) the program must be able to specify transducer properties and specify transmitting and receiving signals, 2) the program must be able to simulate ultrasound signals through different attenuating mediums, 3) the program must be able to process moving targets in order to simulate the Doppler effects that are associated with blood flow, 4) the program should be user friendly and adaptable to various models. After a computer program is chosen, two simulation models will be constructed. These models will simulate and interpret an RF data signal and a Doppler signal.

  9. Ultrasound monitoring of inter-knee distances during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel T H; Wrigley, Tim V; Palaniswami, M

    2009-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is an extremely common, debilitating disease associated with pain and loss of function. There is considerable interest in monitoring lower limb alignment due to its close association with joint overload leading to disease progression. The effects of gait modifications that can lower joint loading are of particular interest. Here we describe an ultrasound-based system for monitoring an important aspect of dynamic lower limb alignment, the inter-knee distance during walking. Monitoring this gait parameter should facilitate studies in reducing knee loading, a primary risk factor of knee osteoarthritis progression. The portable device is composed of an ultrasound sensor connected to an Intel iMote2 equipped with Bluetooth wireless capability. Static tests and calibration results show that the sensor possesses an effective beam envelope of 120 degrees, with maximum distance errors of 10% at the envelope edges. Dynamic walking trials reveal close correlation of inter-knee distance trends between that measured by an optical system (Optotrak Certus NDI) and the sensor device. The maximum average root mean square error was found to be 1.46 cm. Future work will focus on improving the accuracy of the device.

  10. Ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography using energy-scaled amplitude ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound attenuation of breast tumors is related to their types and pathological states, and can be used to detect and characterize breast cancer. Particularly, ultrasound scattering attenuation can infer the margin properties of breast tumors. Ultrasound attenuation tomography quantitatively reconstructs the attenuation properties of the breast. Our synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays records both ultrasound reflection and transmission signals. We develop an ultrasound attenuation tomography method using ultrasound energy-scaled amplitude decays of ultrasound transmission signals and conduct ultrasound attenuation tomography using a known sound-speed model. We apply our ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography method to a breast phantom dataset, and compare the ultrasound attenuation tomography results with conventional beamforming ultrasound images obtained using reflection signals. We show that ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography complements beamforming images in identifying breast lesions.

  11. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  12. WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelianov, S [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hall, T [University of WI-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Bouchard, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center and UTHSC at Houston Graduate School of Biomed, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement

  13. Integrated transrectal probe for translational ultrasound-photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kevan L.; Harrison, Tyler; Usmani, Nawaid; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-03-01

    A compact photoacoustic transrectal probe is constructed for improved imaging in brachytherapy treatment. A 192 element 5 MHz linear transducer array is mounted inside a small 3D printed casing along with an array of optical fibers. The device is fed by a pump laser and tunable NIR-optical parametric oscillator with data collected by a Verasonics ultrasound platform. This assembly demonstrates improved imaging of brachytherapy seeds in phantoms with depths up to 5 cm. The tuneable excitation in combination with standard US integration provides adjustable contrast between the brachytherapy seeds, blood filled tubes and background tissue.

  14. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  15. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balius, Ramon [Sport Catalan Council, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Rodas, Gil [F.C. Barcelona Medical Services, Barcelona (Spain); Pedret, Carles [Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Sports Medicine and Imaging Department, Barcelona (Spain); Centre de Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Capdevila, Lluis [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Laboratory of Sport Psychology, Barcelona (Spain); Alomar, Xavier [Clinica Creu Blanca, Barcelona (Spain); Bong, David A. [Instituto Poal de Reumatologia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  16. Treating resistant hypertension with new devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienemann, H; Meincke, F; Kaiser, L; Heeger, C H; Bergmann, M W

    2014-06-01

    Arterial hypertension is a frequent, chronic disease, which is one of the main risk factor for cardiovascular and renal diseases such as heart failure, chronic kidney disease, hypertensive heart disease, stroke as well as cardiac arrhythmias. In the clinical setting it remains challenging to accomplish the thresholds of guideline blood pressure (BP) levels now defined as office based BP to be below market. Newly developed devices try to focus on new strategies such as ultrasound or irrigated catheters, which might reduce the post-procedural complications and increase the success rate. The first generation SymplicityTM device (Medtronic, Palo Alto, CA, USA) was shown to be safe, with side effects rarely occurring. Clinical trials demonstrate that this procedure is successful in about 70% of patients. However current data from Simplicity HTN-3 with 25% african-americans and a massive BP-lowering effect in the control "sham" group was not able to find a significant effect in the overall patient cohort. Possibly devices which allow to safely destroy sympathetic renal innervation more efficiently might allow for a higher responder rate. Irrigated RDN and ultrasound devices could deliver more energy to deeper tissue levels. This article provides an overview of currently available data on devices. PMID:24831759

  17. Handheld probe integrating laser diode and ultrasound transducer array for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual modality imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daoudi, K.; Berg, van den P.J.; Rabot, O.; Kohl, A.; Tisserand, S.; Brands, P.J.; Steenbergen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound and photoacoustics can be utilized as complementary imaging techniques to improve clinical diagnoses. Photoacoustics provides optical contrast and functional information while ultrasound provides structural and anatomical information. As of yet, photoacoustic imaging uses large and expens

  18. Phased-array ultrasound technology enhances accuracy of dual frequency ultrasound measurements - towards improved ultrasound bone diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans; Malo, Markus K H; Liukkonen, Jukka; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Overlying soft tissues attenuate ultrasound backscattered from bone, complicating diagnostics of osteoporosis at the most important fracture sites. Dual-frequency ultrasound technique (DFUS) has been proposed to solve this problem through determination of thickness and composition of overlying soft tissue. This study applies DFUS technique for the first time with a phased-array transducer to investigate if the thickness of two interfering layers (oil and water) can be accurately determined in a variety of configurations. Results indicate that DFUS may be used with phased-array ultrasound systems, making them a suitable combination to consider in future development of clinical in vivo ultrasound methodologies. PMID:27187271

  19. Lung ultrasound: Present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saraogi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of lung ultrasound (LUS in emergency and critical care settings has been studied extensively. LUS is easily available at bedside, free of radiation hazard and real time. All these features make it useful in reducing need of bedside X-rays and CT scan of chest. LUS has been proven to be superior to the bedside chest X-ray and equal to chest CT in diagnosing many pleural and lung pathologies. The first International Consensus Conference on Lung Ultrasound (ICC-LUS has given recommendations for unified approach and language in major six areas of LUS. The LUS diagnosis is to be given after integration of findings of both lungs. The BLUE protocol is first LUS-based systematic approach in diagnosing pleural and lung pathologies. The protocol suggested in this article includes history and conventional clinical assessment along with LUS features.

  20. A View on Despeckling in Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Kalaivani Narayanan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging is a widely used and safe medical diagnostic technique, due to its noninvasive nature, low cost and capability of forming real time imaging. However the usefulness of ultrasound imaging is degraded by the presence of signal dependant noise knownas speckle. The speckle pattern depends on the structure of the image tissue and various imaging parameters. There are two main purposes for speckle reduction in medical ultrasound imaging (1 to improve the human interpretation of ultrasound images (2 despeckling is the preprocessing step for many ultrasound image processing tasks such as segmentation and registration. A number of methods have been proposed for speckle reduction in ultrasoundimaging. While incorporating speckle reduction techniques as an aid for visual diagnosis, it has to keep in mind that certain speckle contains diagnostic information and should be retained. The objective of this paper is to give an overview about types of speckle reduction techniques in ultrasound imaging.

  1. Towards Dynamic Contrast Specific Ultrasound Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    We report on the first study demonstrating the ability of a recently-developed, contrast-enhanced, ultrasound imaging method, referred to as cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI), to image and quantify ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) kinetics. Unlike standard ultrasound tomography, which exploits changes in speed of sound and attenuation, CPDI is based on a marker specific to UCAs, thus enabling dynamic contrast-specific ultrasound tomography (DCS-UST). For breast imaging, DCS-UST will lead to a more practical, faster, and less operator-dependent imaging procedure compared to standard echo-contrast, while preserving accurate imaging of contrast kinetics. Moreover, a linear relation between CPD values and ultrasound second-harmonic intensity was measured (coefficient of determination = 0.87). DCS-UST can find clinical applications as a diagnostic method for breast cancer localization, adding important features to multi-parametric ultrasound tomography of the breast.

  2. Surgical ablation devices for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Shelly C; Damiano, Ralph J

    2007-12-01

    The introduction of ablation technology has revolutionized the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). It has greatly simplified surgical approaches and has significantly increased the number of procedures being performed. Various energy sources have been used clinically, including cryoablation, radiofrequency, microwave, laser, and high-frequency ultrasound. The goal of these devices is to create conduction block to either block activation wavefronts or to isolate the triggers of AF. All present devices have been shown to have clinical efficacy in some patients. The devices each have their unique advantages and disadvantages. It is important that surgeons develop accurate dose-response curves for new devices in clinically relevant models on both the arrested and beating heart. This will allow the appropriate use of technology to facilitate AF surgery. PMID:18175210

  3. Ultrasound: From Earth to Space

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Jennifer; Macbeth, Paul. B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a versatile imaging modality that offers many advantages over radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. On Earth, the use of ultrasound has become standard in many areas of medicine including diagnosis of medical and surgical diseases, management of obstetric and gynecologic conditions, assessment of critically ill patients, and procedural guidance. Advances in telecommunications have enabled remotely-guided ultrasonography for both geographically is...

  4. Ultrasound evaluation of penile fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Kachewar, SG; Kulkarni, DS

    2011-01-01

    This short case report discusses the various aspects of penile fracture, which is a rare entity. Nevertheless, the incidence of penile fractures is on the rise due to the increased use of performance-enhancing drugs. An individual with a penile fracture should seek immediate medical referral. Prompt diagnosis and management is necessary to prevent undesirable after-effects as discussed. Emphasis is made on how imaging with ultrasound enables a quick and complete assessment of this mishap.

  5. Three-dimensional obstetric ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tache, Veronique; Tarsa, Maryam; Romine, Lorene; Pretorius, Dolores H

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound has gained a significant popularity in obstetrical practice in recent years. The advantage of this modality in some cases is in question, however. This article provides a basic review of volume acquisition, mechanical positioning, and display modalities. Multiple uses of this technique in obstetrical care including first trimester applications and its utility in clarification of fetal anatomy such as brain, face, heart, and skeleton is discussed. PMID:18450140

  6. Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Olafsson, Ragnar; Witte, Russell S.; Huang, Sheng-Wen; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Surgery to correct severe heart arrhythmias usually requires detailed maps of the cardiac activation wave prior to ablation. The pinpoint electrical mapping procedure is laborious and limited by its spatial resolution (5–10 mm). We propose ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), a direct 3-D imaging technique that potentially facilitates existing mapping procedures with superior spatial resolution. The technique is based on a pressure-induced change in resistivity known as the acou...

  7. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasatkin, A. A., E-mail: ant-kasatkin@yandex.ru; Nigmatullina, A. R. [Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Kommunarov street, 281, Izhevsk, Russia, 426034 (Russian Federation); Urakov, A. L., E-mail: ant-kasatkin@yandex.ru [Institute of Mechanics Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, T.Baramzinoy street 34, Izhevsk, Russia, 426067, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Kommunarov street, 281, Izhevsk, Russia, 426034 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  8. Ultrasound Techniques for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, James A.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasound has proven to be a safe non-invasive technique for imaging organs and measuring cardiovascular function. It has unique advantages for application to problems with man in space including evaluation of cardiovascular function both in serial studies and during critical operations. In addition, specialized instrumentation may be capable of detecting the onset of decompression sickness during EVA activities. A spatial location and three-dimensional reconstruction system is being developed to improve the accuracy and reproducibility for serial comparative ultrasound studies of cardiovascular function. The three-dimensional method permits the acquisition of ultrasonic images from many views that can be recombined into a single reconstruction of the heart or vasculature. In addition to conventional imaging and monitoring systems, it is sometimes necessary or desirable to develop instrumentation for special purposes. One example of this type of development is the design of a pulsed-Doppler system to monitor cerebral blood flow during critical operations such as re-entry. A second example is the design of a swept-frequency ultrasound system for the detection of bubbles in the circulatory system and/or soft tissues as an early indication of the onset of decompression sickness during EVA activities. This system exploits the resonant properties of bubbles and can detect both fundamental and second harmonic emissions from the insonified region.

  9. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  10. Colour Doppler ultrasound of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, C.J.; Sriprasad, S.; Sidhu, P.S. E-mail: paulsidhu@compuserve.com

    2003-07-01

    Because it is a superficial structure, the penis is ideally suited to ultrasound imaging. A number of disease processes, including Peyronie's disease, penile fractures and penile tumours, are clearly visualized with ultrasound. An assessment of priapism can also be made using spectral Doppler waveform technology. Furthermore, dynamic assessment of cavernosal arterial changes after pharmaco-stimulation allows diagnosis of arterial and venogenic causes for impotence. This pictorial review illustrates the range of diseases encountered with ultrasound of the penis.

  11. Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Bains, Vive K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic is a branch of acoustics concerned with sound vibrations in frequency ranges above audible level. Ultrasound uses the transmission and reflection of acoustic energy. A pulse is propagated and its reflection is received, both by the transducer. For clinical purposes ultrasound is generated by transducers, which converts electrical energy into ultrasonic waves. This is usually achieved by magnetostriction or piezoelectricity. Primary effects of ultrasound are thermal, mechanical (cav...

  12. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; S. Menna; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for predi...

  13. A View on Despeckling in Ultrasound Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    S.Kalaivani Narayanan; R.S.D.Wahidabanu

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a widely used and safe medical diagnostic technique, due to its noninvasive nature, low cost and capability of forming real time imaging. However the usefulness of ultrasound imaging is degraded by the presence of signal dependant noise knownas speckle. The speckle pattern depends on the structure of the image tissue and various imaging parameters. There are two main purposes for speckle reduction in medical ultrasound imaging (1) to improve the human interpretation of u...

  14. [Ultrasound diagnosis in patients with renal colic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyĭ, L E

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to ultrasonography of the upper urinary tract with reference to ultrasound semiotics of its acute obstruction, detection of hydronephrotic transformation of the kidneys, and methods for optimization of ultrasound diagnosis of urodynamics. Merits and demerits of ultrasound technique for the diagnosis of renal colic are discussed. Major difficulties encountered in dopplerographic diagnosis of disturbed urine passage and renal hemodynamics are described.

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  16. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  17. Ultrasound-assisted dealumination of zeolite Y

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Hosseini; M A Zanjanchi; B Ghalami-Choobar; H Golmojdeh

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a new procedure for dealumination of zeolite Y. The method employs a 28 KHz ultrasound bath and an ethanolic acetylacetone solution. Acetylacetone was used as chelating agent and ultrasound irradiation was used as extraction intensifier. Four types of samples, as-synthesized, ammoniumexchanged, acidic and neutralized zeolite were used for dealumination. Parts of the framework aluminumatoms are removed from their sites in the structure of zeolite Y upon the use of either acetylacetone on its own or simultaneous use of acetylacetone and ultrasound waves. Higher dealumination was observed for those samples subjected to both ultrasound irradiation and acetylacetone extraction.

  18. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Related Sites Buyers Guide Sound Waves Newsletter Ultrasound Awareness (MUAM) Member Directory Accreditation Application Instructions Frequently Asked Questions Access Accreditation Account Accredited ...

  19. Novel Ultrasound Tomograph for Anatomical Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouyer, Julien; Lasaygues, Philippe; Mensah, Serge

    A device for ultrasound computed tomography (UCT) is introduced here. An half-ring transducer array was designed in conformity with the breast anatomy and the cancer growth region to perform an early detection. The array comprises 1,024 elements set in a 190-degree circular arc with a radius of 100 mm. The nominal frequency is 3 MHz with a 79% -6 dB bandwidth. The front-end electronics incorporate 32 independent transmit/receive parallel channels and a 32-to-1,024 multiplexer unit. The acquisition circuitries have a variable sampling frequency of up to 80 MHz and a precision of 12 bits. Arbitrary waveforms are synthesized to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and to increase the in-depth resolution. Tomographic acquisitions were realized in diffraction mode using a restricted aperture. The backscattered field was recorded in the case of a string phantom (0.08-mm diameter steel threads) and a breast-shaped phantom containing inclusions. Data were processed with dedicated correction tools processes such as pulse compression. Objects were reconstructed with the ellipsoidal back-projection method.

  20. [Ultrasound artifacts and their diagnostic significance in internal medicine and gastroenterology - Part 1: B-mode artifacts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, J; Jenssen, C; Möller, K; Cui, X W; Kinkel, H; Uebel, S; Dietrich, C F

    2016-05-01

    Artifacts in ultrasonographic diagnostics are a result of the physical properties of the ultrasound waves and are caused by interaction of the ultrasound waves with biological structures and tissues and with foreign bodies. On the one hand, they may be distracting and may lead to misdiagnosis. On the other hand, they may be diagnostically helpful. Ultrasound imaging suffers from artifacts, because in reality, parameters assumed to be constant values, such as sound speed, sound rectilinear propagation, attenuation, etc., are often different from the actual parameters. Moreover, inadequate device settings may cause artifacts. Profound knowledge of the causes, avoidance, and interpretation of artifacts is a necessary precondition for correct clinical appraisal of ultrasound images. Part 1 of this review comments on the physics of artifacts and describes the most important B-mode artifacts. Pitfalls, as well as diagnostic chances resulting from B-mode artifacts, are discussed. PMID:27171335

  1. Diagnostic flow metering using ultrasound tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an accurate flow metering without considering the influences of flow control devices such as valves and elbows in closed conduits, velocity distribution in the cross-sectional area must be integrated. However, most flow meters, including multi-path ultrasonic, electromagnetic or Coriolis mass flow meters, require assumptions on the fully-developed turbulent flows to calculate flow rates from physical quantities of their own concern. Therefore, a long straight pipe has been a necessary element for accurate flow metering because the straight pipe can reduce flow disturbances caused by flow control devices. To reduce costs due to the installation of long straight pipes, another flow metering technique is required. For example, flow rates can be estimated by integrating velocity distributions in the cross section of conduits. In the present study, ultrasound tomography was used to find the velocity distribution in the cross-section of a closed conduit where flow was disturbed by a Coriolis mass flow meter or a butterfly valve. A commercial multi-path ultrasonic flow meter was installed in the pipeline to measure the line-averaged velocity distribution in the pipe flow. The ultrasonic flow meter was rotated 180 .deg. at intervals of 10 .deg. to construct line-averaged velocity distributions in Radon space. Flow images were reconstructed by using a backprojection algorithm (inverse Radon transform). Flow diagnostic parameters were defined by calculating statistical moments, i.e., average, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis, based on the normalized velocity distribution. The flow diagnostic parameters were applied to flow images to find whether the parameters could discern flow disturbances in the reconstructed velocity distribution

  2. Ultrasound-intensified mineral carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects of ultrasound-assisted mineral carbonation were investigated in this work. The objectives were to intensify the CO2 sequestration process to improve reaction kinetics and maximal conversion. Stainless steel slags, derived from the Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) and Continuous Casting/Ladle Metallurgy (CC/LM) refining steps, were used for assessing the technical feasibility of this concept, as they are potential carbon sinks and can benefit from reduction in alkalinity (pH) by mineral carbonation. Ultrasound was applied by use of an ultrasound horn into the reaction slurry, where mineral carbonation reaction took place at 50 °C for up to 4 h; comparison was made to solely mechanically mixed process. It was found that sonication increases the reaction rate after the initial stage, and permits achieving higher carbonate conversion and lower pH. AOD slag conversion increased from 30% to 49%, and pH decreased from 10.6 to 10.1; CC slag conversion increased from 61% to 73% and pH decreased from 10.8 to 9.9. The enhancement effect of ultrasound was attributed to the removal of passivating layers (precipitated calcium carbonate and depleted silica) that surround the unreacted particle core and inhibit mass transfer. Significant particle size reduction was observed for sonicated powders, compared to particle size growth in the case of stirring-only; D[4,3] values increased without sonication by 74% and 50%, and decreased with sonication by 64% and 52%, respectively for AOD and CC slags. Considerations on scale-up of this technology, particularly with regards to energy efficiency, are also discussed. Highlights: ► Ultrasound increased CaO, AOD and CC slags mineral carbonation rates and conversions. ► Enhancement effect linked to removal of mass transfer inhibiting passivating layers. ►Carbonated particle size grew with stirring-only, and decreased with sonication. ► Lower pH of slags with greater carbonation extent can reduce heavy metal leaching

  3. Carotid arterial blood pressure waveform monitoring using a portable ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joohyun Seo; Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Hae-Seung Lee; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a non-invasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform monitoring technique using ultrasound. A portable ultrasound system to excite ultrasound transducers and acquire data is designed with off-the-shelf components. The insonation angles are identified using a vector Doppler technique based on the cosine dependency of the Doppler signals. The pulse pressure of an estimated waveform at the left common carotid artery is compared to the standard sphygmomanometer measurement in a clinical test. The estimated carotid ABP waveform shows excellent agreement to the finger ABP waveform with expected discrepancy of the systolic peak shape due to different measurement sites. The proposed method also tracks slow blood pressure fluctuations. This validation on human subjects shows potential for a noninvasive blood pressure waveform monitoring device at central arterial sites. PMID:26737584

  4. Intrauterine contraceptive device embedded in the omentum – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolnierczyk P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Piotr Zolnierczyk, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Wlodzimierz Sawicki Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Oncology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: This report describes the case of a 29-year-old patient, female (nulliparous who had an intrauterine device (IUD inserted in 2010 and who has had no gynecological control since then (for 4 years. After this time, the asymptomatic patient had a gynecological appointment, during which a doctor did not find the strings of IUD in the speculum. Ultrasound examination did not reveal the presence of the IUD in the uterine cavity, which led to the suspicion of its presence outside the uterus. The patient was referred to a hospital, where she underwent ultrasound and X-ray examination of the pelvis that confirmed the presence of the IUD outside the uterus. Laparoscopy was performed during which the IUD was localized as being embedded in the omentum. It was removed by performing a resection of a part of the omentum with inflammatory infiltration. The patient was discharged home on the second postoperative day in a good condition. This case confirms the need for gynecological control and ultrasound examination shortly after insertion. An ultrasound or/and X-ray is mandatory in any case of absence of IUD strings previously visible in the vagina, if the patient did not observe its expulsion. Keywords: intrauterine device, myometrium, IUD threads, uterine cavity, ultrasound examination

  5. Separating device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.

    2001-01-01

    A sorting device (1) suitable for sorting wire from a waste stream, comprising a body (2) that moves when in use, and provided with spikes or similar projections. The body is embodied as a rotatable roll (2), which oscillates axially during its rotation. The roll is coupled to an oscillation engine

  6. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure cha

  7. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  8. Stratification devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    results in longer operation periods and improved utilization of the solar collector. Thermal stratification can be achieved, for example by using inlet stratification devices at all inlets to the storage tank. This paper presents how thermal stratification is established and utilized by means of inlet...

  9. Minimum training requirement in ultrasound imaging of peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Hansen, M A; Grønvall Rasmussen, J B;

    2008-01-01

    To demonstrate the minimum training requirement when performing ultrasound of peripheral arterial disease.......To demonstrate the minimum training requirement when performing ultrasound of peripheral arterial disease....

  10. Prediction of Outcome after Femoropopliteal Balloon Angioplasty by Intervascular Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith; Vogt, Katja; Just, S.;

    1997-01-01

    original, intravascular ultrasound, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, peripheral arteries, plaquemorphology, prediction of outcome......original, intravascular ultrasound, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, peripheral arteries, plaquemorphology, prediction of outcome...

  11. Practical recommendations for performing ultrasound scanning in the urological and andrological fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: US scanning has been defined as the urologist’s stethoscope. These recommendations have been drawn up with the aim of ensuring minimum standards of excellence for ultrasound imaging in urological and andrological practice. A series of essential recommendations are made, to be followed during ultrasound investigations in kidney, prostate, bladder, scrotal and penile diseases. Methods: Members of the Imaging Working Group of the Italian Society of Urology (SIU in collaboration with the Italian Society of Ultrasound in Urology, Andrology and Nephrology (SIEUN identified expert Urologists, Andrologists, Nephrologists and Radiologists. The recommendations are based on review of the literature, previously published recommendations, books and the opinions of the experts. The final document was reviewed by national experts, including members of the Italian Society of Radiology. Results: Recommendations are listed in 5 chapters, focused on: kidney, bladder, prostate and seminal vesicles, scrotum and testis, penis, including penile echo-doppler. In each chapter clear definitions are made of: indications, technological standards of the devices, the method of performance of the investigation. The findings to be reported are described and discussed, and examples of final reports for each organ are included. In the tables, the ultrasound features of the principal male uro-genital diseases are summarized. Diagnostic accuracy and second level investigations are considered. Conclusions: Ultrasound is an integral part of the diagnosis and follow-up of diseases of the urinary system and male genitals in patients of all ages, in both the hospital and outpatient setting. These recommendations are dedicated to enhancing communication and evidence-based medicine in an inter- and multi-disciplinary approach. The ability to perform and interpret ultrasound imaging correctly has become an integral part of clinical practice in uro-andrology, but intra and inter

  12. Design of a Thermoacoustic Sensor for Low Intensity Ultrasound Measurements Based on an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jida Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In therapeutic ultrasound applications, accurate ultrasound output intensities are crucial because the physiological effects of therapeutic ultrasound are very sensitive to the intensity and duration of these applications. Although radiation force balance is a benchmark technique for measuring ultrasound intensity and power, it is costly, difficult to operate, and compromised by noise vibration. To overcome these limitations, the development of a low-cost, easy to operate, and vibration-resistant alternative device is necessary for rapid ultrasound intensity measurement. Therefore, we proposed and validated a novel two-layer thermoacoustic sensor using an artificial neural network technique to accurately measure low ultrasound intensities between 30 and 120 mW/cm2. The first layer of the sensor design is a cylindrical absorber made of plexiglass, followed by a second layer composed of polyurethane rubber with a high attenuation coefficient to absorb extra ultrasound energy. The sensor determined ultrasound intensities according to a temperature elevation induced by heat converted from incident acoustic energy. Compared with our previous one-layer sensor design, the new two-layer sensor enhanced the ultrasound absorption efficiency to provide more rapid and reliable measurements. Using a three-dimensional model in the K-wave toolbox, our simulation of the ultrasound propagation process demonstrated that the two-layer design is more efficient than the single layer design. We also integrated an artificial neural network algorithm to compensate for the large measurement offset. After obtaining multiple parameters of the sensor characteristics through calibration, the artificial neural network is built to correct temperature drifts and increase the reliability of our thermoacoustic measurements through iterative training about ten seconds. The performance of the artificial neural network method was validated through a series of experiments. Compared

  13. Medical devices for the anesthetist: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrande J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jerry Ingrande, Hendrikus JM LemmensDepartment of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USAAbstract: Anesthesiologists are unique among most physicians in that they routinely use technology and medical devices to carry out their daily activities. Recently, there have been significant advances in medical technology. These advances have increased the number and utility of medical devices available to the anesthesiologist. There is little doubt that these new tools have improved the practice of anesthesia. Monitoring has become more comprehensive and less invasive, airway management has become easier, and placement of central venous catheters and regional nerve blockade has become faster and safer. This review focuses on key medical devices such as cardiovascular monitors, airway equipment, neuromonitoring tools, ultrasound, and target controlled drug delivery software and hardware. This review demonstrates how advances in these areas have improved the safety and efficacy of anesthesia and facilitate its administration. When applicable, indications and contraindications to the use of these novel devices will be explored as well as the controversies surrounding their use.Keywords: catheters, echocardiography, ultrasound, fiberoptic bronchoscope, laryngeal mask airway, closed-loop anesthesia

  14. Clinical trial of blood-brain barrier disruption by pulsed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Alexandre; Canney, Michael; Vignot, Alexandre; Reina, Vincent; Beccaria, Kevin; Horodyckid, Catherine; Karachi, Carine; Leclercq, Delphine; Lafon, Cyril; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Capelle, Laurent; Cornu, Philippe; Sanson, Marc; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2016-06-15

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the delivery of systemically administered drugs to the brain. Methods to circumvent the BBB have been developed, but none are used in standard clinical practice. The lack of adoption of existing methods is due to procedural invasiveness, serious adverse effects, and the complications associated with performing such techniques coincident with repeated drug administration, which is customary in chemotherapeutic protocols. Pulsed ultrasound, a method for disrupting the BBB, was shown to effectively increase drug concentrations and to slow tumor growth in preclinical studies. We now report the interim results of an ultrasound dose-escalating phase 1/2a clinical trial using an implantable ultrasound device system, SonoCloud, before treatment with carboplatin in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). The BBB of each patient was disrupted monthly using pulsed ultrasound in combination with systemically injected microbubbles. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated that the BBB was disrupted at acoustic pressure levels up to 1.1 megapascals without detectable adverse effects on radiologic (MRI) or clinical examination. Our preliminary findings indicate that repeated opening of the BBB using our pulsed ultrasound system, in combination with systemic microbubble injection, is safe and well tolerated in patients with recurrent GBM and has the potential to optimize chemotherapy delivery in the brain. PMID:27306666

  15. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  16. 3D Flow reconstruction using ultrasound PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelma, C.; Mari, J.M.; Foin, N.; Tang, M.-X.; Krams, R.; Caro, C.G.; Weinberg, P.D.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be used to obtain velocity fields in non-transparent geometries and/or fluids. In the current study, we use this technique to document the flow in a curved tube, using ultrasound contrast bubbles as flow tracer particles. The performance of the techniq

  17. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J.; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S;

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part...

  18. Linear description of ultrasound imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    These notes have been prepared for the international summer school on advanced ultrasound imaging sponsored by The Danish Research Academy. The notes should be read in conjunction with the notes prepared by Anderson and Trahey1. The intended audience is Ph.D. students working in medical ultrasound...

  19. [Lung ultrasound in the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, N

    2016-03-01

    Lung ultrasound (LU) is becoming a bedside point-of-care technique in critical care and emergency medicine as it is performed and immediately interpreted by the clinician. LU is quick, easy, relatively inexpensive, and provides accurate diagnostic information when compared with conventional lung imaging methods, such as CT scans and chest radiographs, with the additional advantage of being non-irradiating, adapted to bedside use, and easily repeatable with no side effects for the patient. LU is easy to learn, does not require sophisticated ultrasound machines or settings, and shows low intra- and interobserver variability when a standardized approach is used. A comprehensive and standardized ultrasound semiology has been described and validated in both adults and children. In summary, LU allows for quick easy recognition of a normally aerated lung in contrast to an interstitial or alveolar pattern. Recognition of these patterns may be even easier in neonates due to their small size and the absence of obesity and heavy musculature. Specific LU findings have been described for some types of neonatal lung injury, such as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of the neonate, meconium aspiration syndrome, and neonatal pneumonia. In the newborn, LU has proved its usefulness in predicting the need for hospital admission and/or intubation based on simple LU patterns. A recently proposed LU score, adapted for the neonate, correlates well with oxygenation status, independently of gestational age and underlying respiratory condition. The score reliably predicts the need for surfactant treatment in preterm babies less than 34 weeks gestation treated with nasal CPAP from birth. LU is a promising tool with numerous potential applications that warrant future studies. However, like every technique, LU has its limitations and should not completely replace standard radiography. LU can nevertheless largely reduce exposure to ionizing radiation by limiting the

  20. Polymer waveguide Fabry-Perot resonator for high-frequency ultrasound detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Mohammad Amin; Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2014-12-01

    Piezoelectric technology is the backbone of most medical ultrasound imaging arrays; however, signal transduction efficiency severely deteriorates in scaling the technology to element size smaller than 0.1 mm, often required for high-frequency operation (>20 MHz). Optical sensing and generation of ultrasound has been proposed and studied as an alternative technology for implementing sub-millimeter size arrays with element size down to 10 μm. The application of thin polymer film Fabry-Perot resonators has been demonstrated for high-frequency ultrasound detection; however, their sensitivity is limited by light diffraction loss. Here, we introduce a new method to increase the sensitivity of an optical ultrasound receiver by utilizing a waveguide between the mirrors of the Fabry-Perot resonator. This approach eliminates diffraction loss from the cavity, and therefore the finesse is only limited by mirror loss and absorption. By applying this method, we have achieved noise equivalent pressure of 178 Pa over a bandwidth of 30 MHz or 0.03 Pa/Hz1/2, which is about 20-fold better than a similar device without a waveguide. The finesse of the tested Fabry-Perot resonator was around 200. This result is 5 times higher than the finesse measured in the same device outside the waveguide region.

  1. Ultrasound in Acute Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Nalesso, Federico; Petrucci, Ilaria; Samoni, Sara; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys' imaging provides useful information in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and management. Today, several imaging techniques give information on kidneys anatomy, urinary obstruction, differential diagnosis between AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Ultrasound is a safe, non-invasive and repeatable imaging technique so it is widely used in the first level work-up of AKI. The utility of contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in AKI or in AKI during CKD is limited because of renal toxicity associated with contrast agents used. PMID:27169556

  2. Nursing ultrasound examination in catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Romei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US examination of the bladder can precisely determine the bladder volume and is a useful tool in estimating the residual urine volume. Its application is consequently recommended as an alternative to catheterization for the determination of residual urine. Moreover it represents a simple, noninvasive method to predict the outcome of a voiding trial following acute urine retention based on intravesical prostatic protrusion and on the US pattern of the bladder content. In this article, the Authors review the implementation and results of a bladder US program developed for non-medical caregivers at one Emergency Department.

  3. Testicular neoplasm diagnosed by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, B A; Stein, B S

    1986-06-01

    The diagnosis of testicular cancer is usually made by the findings of a testicular mass on physical examination. In rare cases a young man will present with retroperitoneal nodes and a normal testicular examination. In such cases a testicular ultrasound may localize the testis which harbors a subclinical neoplasm. In addition serum markers of B-HCG and AFP are essential. As a screening procedure a urine pregnancy test is helpful, since it can be obtained quickly while quantitative B-HCG and APF results are delayed. PMID:3523046

  4. Implementation of new echocardiographic modalities in routine practice in a general hospital – Pocket-size cardiac ultrasound and 3 dimensional echocardiography. Studies on feasibility and diagnostic accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based upon the implementation of pocket-size cardiac ultrasound (PCU) among medical students and residents in internal medicine and 3 dimensional echocardiography (3DE) in routine care at a general hospital. The introduction of widely available and handy ultrasound devices has represented a challenge to the medical community as implementation in clinical practice can be made by non-specialists. In view of favorable results from the non-expert use of the larger laptop-sized d...

  5. Ultrasound for the Anesthesiologists: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S. Terkawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is a safe, portable, relatively inexpensive, and easily accessible imaging modality, making it a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool in medicine. Anesthesiologists encounter a variety of emergent situations and may benefit from the application of such a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in their routine practice. This paper reviews current and potential applications of ultrasound in anesthesiology in order to encourage anesthesiologists to learn and use this useful tool as an adjunct to physical examination. Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade and vascular access represent the most popular ultrasound applications in anesthesiology. Ultrasound has recently started to substitute for CT scans and fluoroscopy in many pain treatment procedures. Although the application of airway ultrasound is still limited, it has a promising future. Lung ultrasound is a well-established field in point-of-care medicine, and it could have a great impact if utilized in our ORs, as it may help in rapid and accurate diagnosis in many emergent situations. Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD measurement and transcranial color coded duplex (TCCD are relatively new neuroimaging modalities, which assess intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Gastric ultrasound can be used for assessment of gastric content and diagnosis of full stomach. Focused transthoracic (TTE and transesophageal (TEE echocardiography facilitate the assessment of left and right ventricular function, cardiac valve abnormalities, and volume status as well as guiding cardiac resuscitation. Thus, there are multiple potential areas where ultrasound can play a significant role in guiding otherwise blind and invasive interventions, diagnosing critical conditions, and assessing for possible anatomic variations that may lead to plan modification. We suggest that ultrasound training should be part of any anesthesiology training program curriculum.

  6. The anaesthetist's SonoSite Probe - Successful adjunct to complex intradural spinal surgery or poor man's intraoperative ultrasound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, S P; White, B D

    2016-08-01

    The use of expensive, sophisticated, intraoperative ultrasound systems is established in cranial neurosurgery and less so in the realms of intradural spine. For units yet to acquire such costly devices, we demonstrate our experience of the readily available, anaesthetist's SonoSite™ probe in intradural spinal surgery. PMID:26742681

  7. Electrooptical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, C. E.

    1980-03-01

    This report covers work carried out with support of the Department of the Air Force during the period 1 October 1979 through 31 March 1980. A part of this support was provided by the Rome Air Development Center. CW operation at temperatures up to 55 C has been achieved for GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure (DH) lasers emitting at 1.5 micrometers, which were grown without a GaInAsP buffer layer. These devices are of interest for use as sources in fiber-optics communications systems, since the lowest transmission loss reported for fused-silica optical fibers occurs at 1.55 micrometers. Surface passivation techniques developed for InP and GaInAsP avalanche photodiodes have resulted in reductions of dark current as large as four orders of magnitude, to values as low as .0000016 A/sq cm at 0.9 V(b) where V(b) is the breakdown voltage. Devices consisting entirely of InP have been passivated with plasma-deposited Si3N4, and those with a GaInAsP layer but with the p-n junction in InP have been passivated with polyimide. Neither of these techniques successfully reduces dark currents in devices with the p-n junction in the GaInAsP, but a film of photoresist sprayed with SF6 as the propellant has given excellent results. The electrical characteristics in InP ion implanted with Sn, Ge, Si, and C have been investigated. All of these column IV elements yielded n-type conductivity and Sn, Ge, and Si showed high electrical activation; however, implanted C was found to have a net electrical activation of only about 5 percent.

  8. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel O. Igberase

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out.

  9. Quality assurance in diagnostic ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, Outi, E-mail: outi.sipila@hus.fi [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, 00029 HUS (Finland); Mannila, Vilma, E-mail: vilma.mannila@hus.fi [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, 00029 HUS (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki University (Finland); Vartiainen, Eija, E-mail: eija.vartiainen@hus.fi [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 750, 00029 HUS (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To setup a practical ultrasound quality assurance protocol in a large radiological center, results from transducer tests, phantom measurements and visual checks for physical faults were compared. Materials and methods: Altogether 151 transducers from 54 ultrasound scanners, from seven different manufacturers, were tested with a Sonora FirstCall aPerio{sup TM} system (Sonora Medical Systems, Inc., Longmont, CO, USA) to detect non-functional elements. Phantom measurements using a CIRS General Purpose Phantom Model 040 (CIRS Tissue Simulation and Phantom Technology, VA, USA) were available for 135 transducers. The transducers and scanners were also checked visually for physical faults. The percentages of defective findings in these tests were computed. Results: Defective results in the FirstCall tests were found in 17% of the 151 transducers, and in 16% of the 135 transducers. Defective image quality resulted with 15% of the transducers, and 25% of the transducers had a physical flaw. In 16% of the scanners, a physical fault elsewhere than in the transducer was found. Seven percent of the transducers had a concurrent defective result both in the FirstCall test and in the phantom measurements, 8% in the FirstCall test and in the visual check, 4% in the phantom measurements and in the visual check, and 2% in all three tests. Conclusion: The tested methods produced partly complementary results and seemed all to be necessary. Thus a quality assurance protocol is forced to be rather labored, and therefore the benefits and costs must be closely followed.

  10. Educational ultrasound nondestructive testing laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, Vladimir; Zagorski, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials course was developed for applied engineering technology students at Drexel University's Goodwin College of Professional Studies. This three-credit, hands-on laboratory course consists of two parts: the first part with an emphasis on the foundations of NDE, and the second part during which ultrasound NDE techniques are utilized in the evaluation of parts and materials. NDE applications are presented and applied through real-life problems, including calibration and use of the latest ultrasonic testing instrumentation. The students learn engineering and physical principles of measurements of sound velocity in different materials, attenuation coefficients, material thickness, and location and dimensions of discontinuities in various materials, such as holes, cracks, and flaws. The work in the laboratory enhances the fundamentals taught during classroom sessions. This course will ultimately result in improvements in the educational process ["The greater expectations," national panel report, http://www.greaterexpectations.org (last viewed February, 2008); R. M. Felder and R. Brent "The intellectual development of Science and Engineering Students. Part 2: Teaching to promote growth," J. Eng. Educ. 93, 279-291 (2004)] since industry is becoming increasingly reliant on the effective application of NDE technology and the demand on NDE specialists is increasing. NDE curriculum was designed to fulfill levels I and II NDE in theory and training requirements, according to American Society for Nondestructive Testing, OH, Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (2006).

  11. Accurate evaluation of viscoelasticity of radial artery wall during flow-mediated dilation in ultrasound measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasumasa; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, the viscoelasticity of the radial artery wall was estimated to diagnose endothelial dysfunction using a high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasound device. In the present study, we employed a commercial ultrasound device (7.5 MHz) and estimated the viscoelasticity using arterial pressure and diameter, both of which were measured at the same position. In a phantom experiment, the proposed method successfully estimated the elasticity and viscosity of the phantom with errors of 1.8 and 30.3%, respectively. In an in vivo measurement, the transient change in the viscoelasticity was measured for three healthy subjects during flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The proposed method revealed the softening of the arterial wall originating from the FMD reaction within 100 s after avascularization. These results indicate the high performance of the proposed method in evaluating vascular endothelial function just after avascularization, where the function is difficult to be estimated by a conventional FMD measurement.

  12. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  13. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To absorb fabrication errors in radial toroidal coils and a spacer and completely fill the gap between them by the provision of an expansion device between the coils and the supporting spacer by injecting fillers of a predetermined composition. Constitution: An expansion device comprising an expansion plate, packings inserted into grooves formed in the outer circumference of the expansion plate and a recessed pressure receiving plate is inserted between the wall surface of radial toroidal coils and a spacer for maintaining the gap between the toroidal coils. Then, filler comprising polyester resin and glass beads incorporated therein is injected from an injection aperture of the recessed pressure receiving plate having an exhaust aperture at the upper part. The filler is solidified and enables the fabrication error in the coils and the spacer to be absorbed. Since the gap between the coils and the spacer is completely filled, the tumbling force of the coils can surely be transmitted by way of the spacer to upper and lower racks. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Bedside gallbladder ultrasound for the primary care physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Brian J; Hoda, Nicholas E; Fromang, Graves; Stone, Mary

    2015-03-01

    Modern ultrasound machines are relatively inexpensive to own and simple to operate. Basic ultrasound exams can be easily learned and mastered. As with any clinical exam skill, practice makes perfect. Providers interested in learning ultrasound should seek hands-on guidance from an expert in the field. There are several quality hands-on ultrasound courses (http:// emergencyultrasound.com/) as well as free online videos (http:// emergency ultrasound teaching.com/index.html). The emergency ultrasound team at UMMC will be offering a hands-on ultrasound training course in the spring of 2015. Please contact Dr Brian Tollefson for specific dates and times of the course (btollefson@umc.edu).

  15. Endoscopic ultrasound for the characterization and staging of rectal cancer. Current state of the method. Technological advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersak, Mariana M; Badea, Radu; Graur, Florin; Hajja, Nadim Al; Furcea, Luminita; Dudea, Sorin M

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound is the most accurate type of examination for the assessment of rectal tumors. Over the years, the method has advanced from gray-scale examination to intravenous contrast media administration and to different types of elastography. The multimodal approach of tumors (transrectal, transvaginal) is adapted to each case. 3D ultrasound is useful for spatial representation and precise measurement of tumor formations, using CT/MR image reconstruction; color elastography is useful for tumor characterization and staging; endoscopic ultrasound using intravenous contrast agents can help study the amount of contrast agent targeted at the level of the tumor formations and contrast wash-in/wash-out time, based on the curves displayed on the device. The transvaginal approach often allows better visualization of the tumor than the transrectal approach. Performing the procedure with the rectal ampulla distended with contrast agent may be seen as an optimization of the examination methodology. All these aspects are additional methods for gray-scale endoscopic ultrasound, capable of increasing diagnostic accuracy. This paper aims at reviewing the progress of transrectal and transvaginal ultrasound, generically called endoscopic ultrasound, for rectal tumor diagnosis and staging, with emphasis on the current state of the method and its development trends.

  16. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Asha; Freeman, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Abnormalities in the spleen are less common than in most other abdominal organs. However, they will be regularly encountered by ultrasound practitioners, who carefully evaluate the spleen in their abdominal ultrasound studies. Conventional grey scale and Doppler ultrasound are frequently unable to characterise focal splenic abnormalities; even when clinical and laboratory information is added to the ultrasound findings, it is often not possible to make a definite diagnosis. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is easy to perform, inexpensive, safe and will usually provide valuable additional information about splenic abnormalities, allowing a definitive or short differential diagnosis to be made. It also identifies those lesions that may require further imaging or biopsy, from those that can be safely dismissed or followed with interval ultrasound imaging. CEUS is also indicated in confirming the nature of suspected accessory splenic tissue and in selected patients with abdominal trauma. This article describes the CEUS examination technique, summarises the indications for CEUS and provides guidance on interpretation of the CEUS findings in splenic ultrasound.

  17. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  18. HIFU Monitoring and Control with Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Andrew Jacob

    The biological effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) have been known and studied for decades. HIFU has been shown capable of treating a wide variety of diseases and disorders. However, despite its demonstrated potential, HIFU has been slow to gain clinical acceptance. This is due, in part, to the difficulty associated with robustly monitoring and controlling the delivery of the HIFU energy. The non-invasive nature of the surgery makes the assessment of treatment progression difficult, leading to long treatment times and a significant risk of under treatment. This thesis research develops new techniques and systems for robustly monitoring HIFU therapies for the safe and efficacious delivery of the intended treatment. Systems and algorithms were developed for the two most common modes of HIFU delivery systems: single-element and phased array applicators. Delivering HIFU with a single element transducer is a widely used technique in HIFU therapies. The simplicity of a single element offers many benefits in terms of cost and overall system complexity. Typical monitoring schemes rely on an external device (e.g. diagnostic ultrasound or MRI) to assess the progression of therapy. The research presented in this thesis explores using the same element to both deliver and monitor the HIFU therapy. The use of a dual-mode ultrasound transducer (DMUT) required the development of an FPGA based single-channel arbitrary waveform generator and high-speed data acquisition unit. Data collected from initial uncontrolled ablations led to the development of monitoring and control algorithms which were implemented directly on the FPGA. Close integration between the data acquisition and arbitrary waveform units allowed for fast, low latency control over the ablation process. Results are presented that demonstrate control of HIFU therapies over a broad range of intensities and in multiple in vitro tissues. The second area of investigation expands the DMUT research to an

  19. Breast tumour visualization using 3D quantitative ultrasound methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Raheem, Abdul; Tadayyon, Hadi; Liu, Simon; Hadizad, Farnoosh; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types accounting for 29% of all cancer cases. Early detection and treatment has a crucial impact on improving the survival of affected patients. Ultrasound (US) is non-ionizing, portable, inexpensive, and real-time imaging modality for screening and quantifying breast cancer. Due to these attractive attributes, the last decade has witnessed many studies on using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods in tissue characterization. However, these studies have mainly been limited to 2-D QUS methods using hand-held US (HHUS) scanners. With the availability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) technology, this study is the first to develop 3-D QUS methods for the ABUS visualization of breast tumours. Using an ABUS system, unlike the manual 2-D HHUS device, the whole patient's breast was scanned in an automated manner. The acquired frames were subsequently examined and a region of interest (ROI) was selected in each frame where tumour was identified. Standard 2-D QUS methods were used to compute spectral and backscatter coefficient (BSC) parametric maps on the selected ROIs. Next, the computed 2-D parameters were mapped to a Cartesian 3-D space, interpolated, and rendered to provide a transparent color-coded visualization of the entire breast tumour. Such 3-D visualization can potentially be used for further analysis of the breast tumours in terms of their size and extension. Moreover, the 3-D volumetric scans can be used for tissue characterization and the categorization of breast tumours as benign or malignant by quantifying the computed parametric maps over the whole tumour volume.

  20. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ... for your patients Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy makers Policies & positions State advocacy ...

  1. Compact beamforming in medical ultrasound scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2003-01-01

    compact implementation of the beamformer compared to the case where conventional A/D conversion is used. The compact and economic beamforming is a key aspect in the progress of medical ultrasound imaging. Currently, 64 or 128 channels are widely used in scanners, top-of-the-range scanners have 256...... with an introduction into medical ultrasound, its basic principles, system evolution and its place among medical imaging techniques. Then, ultrasound acoustics is introduced, as a necessary base for understanding the concepts of acoustic focusing and beamforming, which follow. The necessary focusing information...

  2. Therapeutic ultrasound and effectiveness in knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Ganidagli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, ultrasound is one of the most commonly used methods for physical therapy of knee osteoarthritis. Therapeutic ultrasound affects the cells and tissues by thermal and nonthermal ways. As well as being used as an agent for deep heating, it has effects like stimulation of tissue regeneration, soft tissue repair, regulation of blood flow in chronic ischemic tissues, protein synthesis and bone repair.In this manuscript, detailed technical information on ultrasound is given and studies on knee osteoarthritis in recent years are reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 170-183

  3. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, J; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S; Vejborg, I; Schäfer, F K W; Cosgrove, D; Bachmann Nielsen, M

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part of the article the techniques behind both strain- and shear-wave-elastography are explained and followed by a section on how to obtain adequate elastography images and measurements. In the second part of the article the application of elastography as an adjunct to B-mode ultrasound in clinical practice is described, and the potential diagnostic gains and limitations of elastography are discussed. PMID:26274379

  4. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, A; Dietrich, C F; Vilmann, P

    2012-01-01

    Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, and improving staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Although...... contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS based on a very low mechanical index (0.08 - 0.12). Quantification techniques based on dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound have been recommended for perfusion imaging and monitoring of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly based on time-intensity curve analysis. Most...

  5. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1961-08-22

    A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)

  6. Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma: efficacy of ultrasound-based screening score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The utility of ultrasound imaging in the screening of soft-part tumours (SPTs has been reported. We classified SPTs according to their blood flow pattern on Doppler ultrasound and re-evaluated the efficacy of this imaging modality as a screening method. Additionally, we combined Doppler ultrasound with several values to improve the diagnostic efficacy and to establish a new diagnostic tool.

  7. Conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluating the severity of Crohn’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chang; Xu, Xiao-rong; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Zhang, Yi-feng; Sun, Li-ping; Xu, Jun-Mei; Liu, Lin-Na; Guo, Le-Hang; Bo, Xiao-Wan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in determining the severity of active Crohn’s disease. Methods: Thirty-seven patients who were considered to be in active period of Crohn’s disease were included. Conventional ultrasound was employed to measure the thicknesses of interior, exterior and the whole bowel walls. Qualitative and quantitative CEUS analysis of the interior, exterior and the whole intestinal walls were also performed. ...

  8. Comparative evaluation of despeckle filtering in ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Christos P; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Christodoulou, Christodoulos I; Istepanian, Robert S H; Pantziaris, Marios; Nicolaides, Andrew

    2005-10-01

    It is well-known that speckle is a multiplicative noise that degrades the visual evaluation in ultrasound imaging. The recent advancements in ultrasound instrumentation and portable ultrasound devices necessitate the need of more robust despeckling techniques for enhanced ultrasound medical imaging for both routine clinical practice and teleconsultation. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative evaluation of despeckle filtering based on texture analysis, image quality evaluation metrics, and visual evaluation by medical experts in the assessment of 440 (220 asymptomatic and 220 symptomatic) ultrasound images of the carotid artery bifurcation. In this paper a total of 10 despeckle filters were evaluated based on local statistics, median filtering, pixel homogeneity, geometric filtering, homomorphic filtering, anisotropic diffusion, nonlinear coherence diffusion, and wavelet filtering. The results of this study suggest that the first order statistics filter lsmv, gave the best performance, followed by the geometric filter gf4d, and the homogeneous mask area filter lsminsc. These filters improved the class separation between the asymptomatic and the symptomatic classes based on the statistics of the extracted texture features, gave only a marginal improvement in the classification success rate, and improved the visual assessment carried out by the two experts. More specifically, filters lsmv or gf4d can be used for despeckling asymptomatic images in which the expert is interested mainly in the plaque composition and texture analysis; and filters lsmv, gf4d, or lsminsc can be used for the despeckling of symptomatic images in which the expert is interested in identifying the degree of stenosis and the plaque borders. The proper selection of a despeckle filter is very important in the enhancement of ultrasonic imaging of the carotid artery. Further work is needed to evaluate at a larger scale and in clinical practice the performance of the proposed

  9. Use of Ultrasound Elastography in the Assessment of the Musculoskeletal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Łukasz; Nawrocka-Laskus, Ewa; Wieczorek, Janusz; Mruk, Bartosz; Frel, Małgorzata; Walecki, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This article presents possible applications of ultrasound elastography in musculoskeletal imaging based on the available literature, as well as the possibility of extending indications for the use of elastography in the future. Ultrasound elastography (EUS) is a new method that shows structural changes in tissues following application of physical stress. Elastography techniques have been widely used to assess muscles and tendons in vitro since the early parts of the twentieth century. Only recently with the advent of new technology and creation of highly specialized ultrasound devices, has elastography gained widespread use in numerous applications. The authors performed a search of the Medline/PubMed databases for original research and reviewed publications on the application of ultrasound elastography for musculoskeletal imaging. All publications demonstrate possible uses of ultrasound elastography in examinations of the musculoskeletal system. The most widely studied areas include the muscles, tendons and rheumatic diseases. There are also reports on the employment in vessel imaging. The main limitation of elastography as a technique is above all the variability of applied pressure during imaging, which is operator-dependent. It would therefore be reasonable to provide clear guidelines on the technique applied, as well as clear indications for performing the test. It is important to develop methods for creating artifact-free, closed-loop, compression-decompression cycles. The main advantages include cost-effectiveness, short duration of the study, non-invasive nature of the procedure, as well as a potentially broader clinical availability. There are no clear guidelines with regard to indications as well as examination techniques. Ultrasound elastography is a new and still poorly researched method. We conclude, however, that it can be widely used in the examinations of musculoskeletal system. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct large, multi-center studies to

  10. Primary ovarian pregnancy with intrauterine contraceptive device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Saichandran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian pregnancy is a rare variant of extra-uterine pregnancies. However the cause for primary ovarian pregnancy is still obscure. Some studies have reported a strong correlation of this condition with intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD. The diagnosis of ovarian ectopic pregnancy is seldom made before surgery though ultrasound proves to be an invaluable tool for its diagnosis. We describe here about a case of primary ovarian pregnancy which was diagnosed only at the time of operation and was managed with wedge resection of the ovary. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1191-1193

  11. [Renal ultrasound in fat necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizki, S; Lasry, F; Elftoiki, F Z; Hadj Khalifa, H; Itri, M; Khadir, K; Benchikhi, H

    2013-07-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis is an uncommon disease that may be complicated with potentially fatal hypercalcemia or with nephrocalcinosis. We report on the case of a patient with a history of significant perinatal asphyxia, hospitalized for a urinary tract infection. Lesions of subcutaneous fat necrosis were noted, with asymptomatic hypercalcemia at 3.9mmol/L. A renal ultrasound was performed and showed echogenic medullary pyramids bilaterally, consistent with nephrocalcinosis and left nephrolithiasis. The treatment of hypercalcemia included hyperhydration, a diuretic and corticosteroids. Progression was characterized by the total regression of skin lesions and normalization of serum calcium. Hypercalcemia is a rare complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis. It develops within days to weeks after the appearance of skin lesions. Nephrocalcinosis appears after several weeks or months. Hypercalcemia must be treated in due time to avoid the impact on the kidney. PMID:23726682

  12. Simulator training for endobronchial ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul Frost; Ringsted, Charlotte;

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is very operator dependent and has a long learning curve. Simulation-based training might shorten the learning curve, and an assessment tool with solid validity evidence could ensure basic competency before unsupervised...... performance.A total of 16 respiratory physicians, without EBUS experience, were randomised to either virtual-reality simulator training or traditional apprenticeship training on patients, and then each physician performed EBUS-TBNA procedures on three patients. Three blinded, independent assessor assessed...... the video recordings of the procedures using a newly developed EBUS assessment tool (EBUSAT).The internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α=0.95); the generalisability coefficient was good (0.86), and the tool had discriminatory ability (ptrained novices were...

  13. Ultrasound diagnosis on the goiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igl, W.; Fink, V.; Leisner, B.; Gebauer, A.

    1981-03-04

    Sonography of the thyroid means facilitation to the differential diagnosis of the goiter, and if combined with the nuclear-medical methods, its accuracy is even increased. Cysts, thyreoditis de Quervain, morbus Basedow, and autonomous adenoma can be assumed due to the areals with low echo in the sonogram and they can be differentiated by the scintigram. In the case of iodine-free areals which can be manifested by fluorescence scintiscanning and normal echo pattern of the thyroid below a malignoma has to be suspected. The volume can be determined with an accuracy of +-10% by ultrasound, without needing long time. Knowing the thickness of the thyroid at places of increased storage in the scintigram, an impulse-thickness-quotient can be calculated which permits, in most cases, to diagnose an autonomous adenoma at a regional increased storage without suppression test.

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... guide the insertion of a catheter or other drainage device and helps assure safe and accurate placement and fluid drainage for diagnosis or relief of patient discomfort. Doppler ...

  15. Despeckling of medical ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailovich, Oleg V; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Speckle noise is an inherent property of medical ultrasound imaging, and it generally tends to reduce the image resolution and contrast, thereby reducing the diagnostic value of this imaging modality. As a result, speckle noise reduction is an important prerequisite, whenever ultrasound imaging is used for tissue characterization. Among the many methods that have been proposed to perform this task, there exists a class of approaches that use a multiplicative model of speckled image formation and take advantage of the logarithmical transformation in order to convert multiplicative speckle noise into additive noise. The common assumption made in a dominant number of such studies is that the samples of the additive noise are mutually uncorrelated and obey a Gaussian distribution. The present study shows conceptually and experimentally that this assumption is oversimplified and unnatural. Moreover, it may lead to inadequate performance of the speckle reduction methods. The study introduces a simple preprocessing procedure, which modifies the acquired radio-frequency images (without affecting the anatomical information they contain), so that the noise in the log-transformation domain becomes very close in its behavior to a white Gaussian noise. As a result, the preprocessing allows filtering methods based on assuming the noise to be white and Gaussian, to perform in nearly optimal conditions. The study evaluates performances of three different, nonlinear filters--wavelet denoising, total variation filtering, and anisotropic diffusion--and demonstrates that, in all these cases, the proposed preprocessing significantly improves the quality of resultant images. Our numerical tests include a series of computer-simulated and in vivo experiments. PMID:16471433

  16. Applications of ultrasound in electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Martinez, Susana

    1997-10-01

    The effect of the ultrasound on electrochemical processes has been investigated employing a microelectrode within the cavitating media. Transient mass transport was strongly enhanced in the presence of ultrasound. High rates of mass transfer of up to 1.5 cm s-1 were observed. These high rates of mass transfer were attributed to two cavitation processes. First, bubble collapse at or near the solid-liquid interface with the consequent formation of a high speed liquid microjet directed at the electrode surface. Second, bubble motion near or within the diffusion layer or the electrode. Single current transients were also recorded at high time resolution. These single current transients were attributed to the short-time perturbation of the diffusion field of the microelectrode due to impacts of cavitation bubble collapse followed by a long time relaxation of the diffusion field back to the steady state. The influence of the ultrasonic source to electrode separation, temperature of the bulk solution, electrode potential and electrode size on the magnitude of current transients was also studied. All of these parameters affected markedly the magnitude of the current transients recorded at microelectrode in the presence of ultrasound. An alternative approach is presented to characterise fast heterogeneous electron transfer reactions employing ultrasound as a mass transport enhancement tool. Two innovative techniques, sampled-current voltammetry and sampled-mean current voltammetry, were developed during the course of this thesis. The technique of sample-current voltammetry reported values of the standard rate constant of heterogeneous electron transfer of up to 1.2 cm s-1 in the presence of ultrasound. This technique focuses on the electrochemical phenomena under investigation at the point of impact of the ultrasonic event, produced by asymmetric cavitation bubble collapse near the electrode surface. Bubble dynamics were also examined under the experimental conditions

  17. Preoperative ultrasound mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Niels; Schroeder, T

    1997-01-01

    A prospective series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. Sixteen (17%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first week postoperatively. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was...

  18. Recent technological advancements in breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is becoming increasingly common as an imaging tool for the detection and characterization of breast tumors. This paper provides an overview of recent technological advancements, especially those that may have an impact in clinical applications in the field of breast ultrasound in the near future. These advancements include close to 100% fractional bandwidth high frequency (5-18MHz) 2D and 3D arrays, automated breast imaging systems to minimize the operator dependence and advanced processing techniques, such as those used for detection of microcalcifications. In addition, elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations that are expected to further enhance the clinical importance of ultrasound based breast tumor screening are briefly reviewed. These techniques have shown initial promise in clinical trials and may translate to more comprehensive clinical adoption in the future. PMID:27179143

  19. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous thoracoabdominal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalehto, M; Tikkakoski, T; Rissanen, T; Apaja-Sarkkinen, M

    2002-03-01

    This review will discuss the benefits and disadvantages of ultrasound-guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration and cutting needle biopsies. Clinical efficacy, cost-effectiveness, some controversies and safety will be reviewed. PMID:12010294

  20. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  1. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Ultrasound Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ultrasounds measuring the condition of juvenile seals at Laysan Island during 2009-2010, collected when seals were handled as part of the De-Worming Project

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation in pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seicean, Andrada; Tefas, Cristian; Ungureanu, Bogdan;

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation of the pancreas represents a more effective tumor-destruction method compared to other ablation techniques. The endoscopic ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation is indicated for locally advanced, non-metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, without the need of general...

  3. Ultrasound-induced encapsulated microbubble phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Michiel; Wamel, van Annemieke; Lancée, Charles T.; Jong, de Nico

    2004-01-01

    When encapsulated microbubbles are subjected to high-amplitude ultrasound, the following phenomena have been reported: oscillation, translation, coalescence, fragmentation, sonic cracking and jetting. In this paper, we explain these phenomena, based on theories that were validated for relatively big

  4. Nucleic acid delivery with microbubbles and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychak, Joshua J; Klibanov, Alexander L

    2014-06-01

    Nucleic acid-based therapy is a growing field of drug delivery research. Although ultrasound has been suggested to enhance transfection decades ago, it took a combination of ultrasound with nucleic acid carrier systems (microbubbles, liposomes, polyplexes, and viral carriers) to achieve reasonable nucleic acid delivery efficacy. Microbubbles serve as foci for local deposition of ultrasound energy near the target cell, and greatly enhance sonoporation. The major advantage of this approach is in the minimal transfection in the non-insonated non-target tissues. Microbubbles can be simply co-administered with the nucleic acid carrier or can be modified to carry nucleic acid themselves. Liposomes with embedded gas or gas precursor particles can also be used to carry nucleic acid, release and deliver it by the ultrasound trigger. Successful testing in a wide variety of animal models (myocardium, solid tumors, skeletal muscle, and pancreas) proves the potential usefulness of this technique for nucleic acid drug delivery. PMID:24486388

  5. Whole breast tissue characterization with ultrasound tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steve; Seamans, John; Wallen, Andrea; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    A number of clinical trials have shown that screening ultrasound, supplemental to mammography, detects additional cancers in women with dense breasts. However, labor intensity, operator dependence and high recall rates have limited adoption. This paper describes the use of ultrasound tomography for whole-breast tissue stiffness measurements as a first step toward addressing the issue of high recall rates. The validation of the technique using an anthropomorphic phantom is described. In-vivo applications are demonstrated on 13 breast masses, indicating that lesion stiffness correlates with lesion type as expected. Comparison of lesion stiffness measurements with standard elastography was available for 11 masses and showed a strong correlation between the 2 measures. It is concluded that ultrasound tomography can map out the 3 dimensional distribution of tissue stiffness over the whole breast. Such a capability is well suited for screening where additional characterization may improve the specificity of screening ultrasound, thereby lowering barriers to acceptance.

  6. Estimation of blood velocities using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    Ultrasound systems are especially useful in estimating blood velocities in the human body because they are noninvasive and can display an estimate in real time. This book offers a comprehensive treatment of this relatively new, important technology. The book begins with an introduction to ultraso......Ultrasound systems are especially useful in estimating blood velocities in the human body because they are noninvasive and can display an estimate in real time. This book offers a comprehensive treatment of this relatively new, important technology. The book begins with an introduction...... to ultrasound, flow physics, and the circulatory system. Next, the interaction of ultrasound with blood is discussed. The special contribution of the book lies in the remaining chapters, which offer a lucid, thorough description of continuous and pulsed wave systems, the latest systems for doing color flow...

  7. Cerebral ultrasound images in prenatal cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomà, P; Magnano, G M; Mezzano, P; Lazzini, F; Bonacci, W; Serra, G

    1989-01-01

    A male newborn with prenatal cytomegalovirus infection was referred for cranial ultrasound. The cranial ultrasound demonstrated areas of increased echogenicity in the thalamic and gray nuclei resembling "a branched candlestick". Doppler technique located the "branched candlestick" along the thalamostriate arteries. This image is particularly interesting because to our knowledge it has never before been described in congenital cytomegalovirus infection, but only in congenital rubella. PMID:2550848

  8. Twofold processing for denoising ultrasound medical images

    OpenAIRE

    P.V.V.Kishore; Kumar, K. V. V.; kumar, D. Anil; M.V.D.Prasad; Goutham, E. N. D.; Rahul, R.; Krishna, C. B. S. Vamsi; Sandeep, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound medical (US) imaging non-invasively pictures inside of a human body for disease diagnostics. Speckle noise attacks ultrasound images degrading their visual quality. A twofold processing algorithm is proposed in this work to reduce this multiplicative speckle noise. First fold used block based thresholding, both hard (BHT) and soft (BST), on pixels in wavelet domain with 8, 16, 32 and 64 non-overlapping block sizes. This first fold process is a better denoising method for reducing s...

  9. Development of High Frequency Miniature Ultrasound Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Manh, Tung

    2013-01-01

    Small, high frequency (≥ 10MHz) broadband ultrasound transducers are required in modern medical imaging systems to provide short range, high resolution images for studying of microstructures in soft tissues, such as the composition of small tumors or a vessel wall. The manufacturing of these probes using conventional methods, i.e. lapping and dicing, becomes difficult and expensive for high frequency applications and there is a need to produce small ultrasound transducers with low cost and hi...

  10. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  11. 3D Flow reconstruction using ultrasound PIV

    OpenAIRE

    Poelma, C.; Mari, J. M.; Foin, N.; Tang, M.-X.; Krams, R; Caro, C.G.; Weinberg, P.D.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be used to obtain velocity fields in non-transparent geometries and/or fluids. In the current study, we use this technique to document the flow in a curved tube, using ultrasound contrast bubbles as flow tracer particles. The performance of the technique is first tested in a straight tube, with both steady laminar and pulsatile flows. Both experiments confirm that the technique is capable of reliable measurements. A number of adaptations are int...

  12. Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Bains, Vivek K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound offers great potential in development of a noninvasive periodontal assessment tool that would offer great yield real time information, regarding clinical features such as pocket depth, attachment level, tissue thickness, histological change, calculus, bone morphology, as well as evaluation of tooth structure for fracture cracks. In therapeutics, ultrasonic instrumentation is proven effective and efficient in treating periodontal disease. When used properly, ultrasound-based instrum...

  13. Application of Ultrasound in Food Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Senem Tüfekçi; Sami Gökhan Özkal

    2015-01-01

    Drying has a privileged position in all food preservation methods by reducing of existing water content in food not allowing spoilage, providing a precise and cheap preservation opportunity. Sound waves with frequencies above human hearing are called as ultrasound. Ultrasound which is applied prior to drying as pretreatment or simultaneously is effective on drying performance of products. It is known that diffusion of water increased and total process time shortened in processes that ultrason...

  14. Detection Performance Theory for Ultrasound Imaging Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zemp, Roger J.; Parry, Mark D.; Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    A rigorous statistical theory for characterizing the performance of medical ultrasound systems for lesion detection tasks is developed. A design strategy for optimizing ultrasound systems should be to adjust parameters for maximum information content, which is obtained by maximizing the ideal observer performance. Then, given the radio-frequency data, image and signal processing algorithms are designed to extract as much diagnostically relevant information as possible. In this paper, closed-f...

  15. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Santacatalina Bonet, Juan Vicente; Carcel Carrión, Juan Andrés; García Pérez, José Vicente; Mulet Pons, Antonio; Simal, S.

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that pur...

  16. Epithelioma of Malherbe: new ultrasound patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Amantea Ada; Panetta Chiara; Drusco Alessandra; Elia Fulvia; Solivetti Francesco M; Di Carlo Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Backround Calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, or Pilomatricoma, is considered an uncommon cutaneous neoplasia, normally occurring in children as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, hard, subcutaneous, slowly growing nodule on the face, neck, or proximal upper extremity. In literature, two Pilomatricoma ultrasound patterns are described: the totally calcified nodule and the hypoechoic nodule with internal calcific foci. High frequency ultrasound has not yet been applied for routine diagno...

  17. A brief history of ultrasound in rheumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Terslev, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound is an evolving technique widely used in rheumatology thanks to the numerous advances and the improved work on standardisation. This article deals with the new developments in terms of technology and validation.......Musculoskeletal ultrasound is an evolving technique widely used in rheumatology thanks to the numerous advances and the improved work on standardisation. This article deals with the new developments in terms of technology and validation....

  18. Ultrasound contrast agents : optical and acoustical characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Sijl, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of the dynamics and the acoustic responses of single BR14 (Bracco Research S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) ultra- sound contrast agent microbubbles under the in°uence of ultrasound. In Ch. 2 of this thesis we investigate the small amplitude behavior of isolated microbubbles acoustically. To ensure that the measured acoustic response orig- inates from one bubble only, it requires the isolation of a single microbubble within an ultrasound beam. Furthermore ...

  19. Reconstructions in ultrasound modulated optical tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Allmaras, Moritz

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a mathematical model for ultrasound modulated optical tomography and present a simple reconstruction scheme for recovering the spatially varying optical absorption coefficient from scanning measurements with narrowly focused ultrasound signals. Computational results for this model show that the reconstruction of sharp features of the absorption coefficient is possible. A formal linearization of the model leads to an equation with a Fredholm operator, which explains the stability observed in our numerical experiments. © de Gruyter 2011.

  20. Practical sonochemistry power ultrasound uses and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, T J

    2002-01-01

    This updated version of Practical Sonochemistry for advanced students and teachers in chemistry and chemical engineering conveys the increasing growth in applications and equipment to power ultrasound. Equipment now on the market offers a wider range of frequencies with more reproducible experimentation and a variety of scale-up systems. The book provides detailed descriptions of newer ultrasonic equipment and its applications, and practical laboratory uses of ultrasound technology for industrial scale performance.Modern exercises familiarise readers with recent sonochemical operations

  1. Laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  2. Implementation of synthetic aperture imaging on a hand-held device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Larsen, Lee;

    2014-01-01

    implementation demonstrates that SASB can be executed in-time for real-time ultrasound imaging. The wireless communication between probe and processing device satisfies the required bandwidth for real-time data transfer with current 802.11ac technology. The implementation is evaluated using four different hand......This paper presents several implementations of Syn- thetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) on commer- cially available hand-held devices. The implementations include real-time wireless reception of ultrasound radio frequency sig- nals and GPU processing for B-mode imaging. The proposed...

  3. Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducer (PMUT Arrays for Integrated Sensing, Actuation and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Qiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of ultrasound for sensing, actuation and imaging require miniaturized and low power transducers and transducer arrays integrated with electronic systems. Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (PMUTs, diaphragm-like thin film flexural transducers typically formed on silicon substrates, are a potential solution for integrated transducer arrays. This paper presents an overview of the current development status of PMUTs and a discussion of their suitability for miniaturized and integrated devices. The thin film piezoelectric materials required to functionalize these devices are discussed, followed by the microfabrication techniques used to create PMUT elements and the constraints the fabrication imposes on device design. Approaches for electrical interconnection and integration with on-chip electronics are discussed. Electrical and acoustic measurements from fabricated PMUT arrays with up to 320 diaphragm elements are presented. The PMUTs are shown to be broadband devices with an operating frequency which is tunable by tailoring the lateral dimensions of the flexural membrane or the thicknesses of the constituent layers. Finally, the outlook for future development of PMUT technology and the potential applications made feasible by integrated PMUT devices are discussed.

  4. Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer (PMUT) arrays for integrated sensing, actuation and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongqiang; Gigliotti, James V; Wallace, Margeaux; Griggio, Flavio; Demore, Christine E M; Cochran, Sandy; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-04-03

    Many applications of ultrasound for sensing, actuation and imaging require miniaturized and low power transducers and transducer arrays integrated with electronic systems. Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (PMUTs), diaphragm-like thin film flexural transducers typically formed on silicon substrates, are a potential solution for integrated transducer arrays. This paper presents an overview of the current development status of PMUTs and a discussion of their suitability for miniaturized and integrated devices. The thin film piezoelectric materials required to functionalize these devices are discussed, followed by the microfabrication techniques used to create PMUT elements and the constraints the fabrication imposes on device design. Approaches for electrical interconnection and integration with on-chip electronics are discussed. Electrical and acoustic measurements from fabricated PMUT arrays with up to 320 diaphragm elements are presented. The PMUTs are shown to be broadband devices with an operating frequency which is tunable by tailoring the lateral dimensions of the flexural membrane or the thicknesses of the constituent layers. Finally, the outlook for future development of PMUT technology and the potential applications made feasible by integrated PMUT devices are discussed.

  5. INTRAOPERATIVE ULTRASOUND FOR HEPATIC NEOPLASM DURING SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于健春; 钟守先

    1999-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of intraoperative ultrasound(IOUS) on the management of patients with neoplasms of the liver. ethods. Forty-nlne patients operated on for liver or other pathologic processes were examined intraoperatively with .5.0 MHz special ultrasound transducers during surgical exploration of the abdomen. Subjects were evaluated because of known or suspected disease of the liver. Preoperative imaging studies izmluded percutaneotts ultrasound (n=49),magnetic resonance imaging(n= ll),and computed tomography(n=34). Intraoparative evaluation on all patients included inspection, bimanual palpation,and ultrasonography.Comparison between preoperative imagings and IOUS were analysed. Results. Sensitivity for detection of hepatic neoplasms showed in intraoperative ultrasound, percutaneotts ultrasound,magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography as 100%(23/23),74%(17/23),74%(14/19) and 75 % (6/8). Specificity showed 100% (26/26), 100% (26/26), 93 % (14/15) and 67 (2/3). In seveaa patlents(14%) ,the neoplasms were not found by inspection ,bimanual palpation,and identified only by IOUS. Conclusums. Intraoparative ultrasound is the most sensitive and specific method for detection and surgery of liver neoplasms,especially the occult neoplasms and small size lesion(<2cm).

  6. Ultrasound-mediated gastrointestinal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhammer, Carl M; Schroeder, Avi; Maa, Ruby; Lauwers, Gregory Yves; Swiston, Albert; Zervas, Michael; Barman, Ross; DiCiccio, Angela M; Brugge, William R; Anderson, Daniel G; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2015-10-21

    There is a significant clinical need for rapid and efficient delivery of drugs directly to the site of diseased tissues for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies, in particular, Crohn's and ulcerative colitis. However, complex therapeutic molecules cannot easily be delivered through the GI tract because of physiologic and structural barriers. We report the use of ultrasound as a modality for enhanced drug delivery to the GI tract, with an emphasis on rectal delivery. Ultrasound increased the absorption of model therapeutics inulin, hydrocortisone, and mesalamine two- to tenfold in ex vivo tissue, depending on location in the GI tract. In pigs, ultrasound induced transient cavitation with negligible heating, leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the delivery of mesalamine, as well as successful systemic delivery of a macromolecule, insulin, with the expected hypoglycemic response. In a rodent model of chemically induced acute colitis, the addition of ultrasound to a daily mesalamine enema (compared to enema alone) resulted in superior clinical and histological scores of disease activity. In both animal models, ultrasound treatment was well tolerated and resulted in minimal tissue disruption, and in mice, there was no significant effect on histology, fecal score, or tissue inflammatory cytokine levels. The use of ultrasound to enhance GI drug delivery is safe in animals and could augment the efficacy of GI therapies and broaden the scope of agents that could be delivered locally and systemically through the GI tract for chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Intravascular ultrasound imaging following balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobis, J M; Mahon, D J; Moriuchi, M; Honye, J; McRae, M

    1991-01-01

    Despite its long history and reliability, contrast angiography has several inherent limitations. Because it is a two-dimensional projection image of the lumen contour, the wall thickness cannot be measured and the plaque itself is not visualized. This results in an underestimation of the amount of atherosclerotic disease by angiography. An assessment of atherosclerosis could be improved by an imaging modality: (1) that has an inherent larger magnification than angiography and (2) that directly visualizes the plaque. Intravascular ultrasound fulfils these criteria. This presentation will provide evidence that intravascular ultrasound may prove complimentary or even superior to angiography as an imaging modality. Intravascular ultrasound demonstrates excellent representations of lumen and plaque morphology of in vitro specimens compared with histology. There is very close intraobserver and interobserver variability of measurements made from intravascular ultrasound images. Phantom studies of stenoses in a tube model demonstrate that angiography can misrepresent the severity of stenosis when the lumen contour is irregular and not a typical ellipse, whereas intravascular ultrasound reproduces the cross-sectional morphology more accurately since it images the artery from within. In vitro studies of the atherosclerotic plaque tissue characteristics compare closely with the echo representation of fibrosis, calcification, and lipid material. In addition, in vitro studies of balloon angioplasty demonstrate that intravascular ultrasound accurately represents the changes in the structure of artery segments following balloon dilatation. PMID:1833473

  8. Ultrasound detection of nonpalpable mammographically occult malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the prevalence of occult malignancy with screening breast ultrasound. All ultrasound-guided core needle breast biopsies performed between January 1, 1999, and June 30, 2001, were retrospectively reviewed. Lesions were identified during screening breast ultrasound in high-risk women with no mammographic or palpable abnormality in either breast, a unilateral mammographic or palpable abnormality in the contralateral breast, or a unilateral mammographic or palpable abnormality in a different quadrant of the same breast. All ultrasound-detected lesions were histologically verified. Six hundred and fifty-two women with a mean age of 49 years underwent 698 biopsies during the study period. Three hundred and forty-nine of these lesions were detected at screening breast ultrasound. Out of 349, 11 (3.2%) had a mammographically and clinically occult malignancy. Nine cancers were found in women with no mammographic or palpable abnormality. Two cancers were found in the same breast as the mammographic or palpable abnormality. None were found in the breast contralateral to a palpable or mammographic abnormality. Screening breast ultrasound of high-risk women has a similar detection rate for occult carcinoma as screening mammography, but has a low positive predictive value in cases where biopsy is performed. (author)

  9. [Ultrasound in oncology: screening and staging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, S

    2012-03-01

    This is a review on the role of ultrasound for early detection and staging of cancer. In breast cancer screening ultrasound serves to clarify mammographically unclear lesions and is a primary screening tool for hereditary breast cancer. Renal neoplasms are commonly diagnosed as incidental sonographic findings and in this case are more often in a curable stage than symptomatic neoplasms. In chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis the annual incidence of hepatocellular cancer is more than 2% and ultrasound is used as a screening tool with 60% sensitivity and 97% specificity. According to the literature the sensitivity of native ultrasound for detecting metastases is 60% and the sensitivity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is 79% or higher, i.e comparable with the sensitivity of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Its role in staging is, however, limited as CT and MRI are necessary for local staging of the primary tumor and also include the liver. In the differential diagnosis of liver lesions the specificity of CEUS ranges from 82% to 99% depending on the lesion entity and is thereby comparable to contrast-enhanced CT. For staging of cervical lymph node metastases ultrasound is preferable to CT or MRI as the sensitivity lies between 79% and 90% and specificity is reported to be 90%. PMID:22354462

  10. Epithelioma of Malherbe: new ultrasound patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amantea Ada

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, or Pilomatricoma, is considered an uncommon cutaneous neoplasia, normally occurring in children as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, hard, subcutaneous, slowly growing nodule on the face, neck, or proximal upper extremity. In literature, two Pilomatricoma ultrasound patterns are described: the totally calcified nodule and the hypoechoic nodule with internal calcific foci. High frequency ultrasound has not yet been applied for routine diagnosis of Pilomatricoma. The aim of the study was to retrospectively identify specific ultrasound features. Methods We retrieved 124 histologically Pilomatricoma cases: 28 patients with 32 lesions were preoperatively evaluated with ultrasound. Results 22/32 have shown a solid formation, hypoechoic, with a sharp outline. Of these 22, 10 lesions were completely calcifying and 12 partially calcified. In 3/32 lesions with uncertain diagnosis, ultrasounds showed a complex/mixed pattern with pseudo-fluid areas and microspots. 7/32 lesions with US different diagnosis included 3 complex lesions, 2 cystic lesions and 2 solid nodular lesions. Conclusion In addition to well-known ultrasound patterns (completely calcified and partially calcified we identified three new, not yet described, patterns that constitute the 31% of the cases: complex, pseudocistyc and pseudotumoral.

  11. INTRAOPERATIVE ULTRASOUND FOR HEPATIC NEOPLASM DURING SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Objective.Th purpose of this study was to determine the impact of intraoperative ultrasound(IOUS)on the management of patients with neoplasms of the liver.Methods.Forty-nine patients operated on for liver or other pathologic processes were examined intraopertively with 5.0 MHz special ultrasound transducers during surgical exploration of the abdomen.Subjects were evaluated because of known or suspected disease of the liver.Preoperative imaging studies included percutaneous ultrasound(n=49),magnetic resonance imaging(n=11),and computed tomography(n=34).Intraoperative evaluation on all patients included inspection,bimanual palpation,and ultrasnography.Comparison between preoperative imagings and IOUS were analysed.Results.Sensitivity for detection of hepatic neoplasms showed in intraoperative ultrasound,percutaneous ultrasound,magnetic resonance imaging andcomputed tomography as 100%(23/23),74%(17/23),74%(14/19) and 75%(6/8).Specificity showed 100%(26/26),100%(26/26),93%(14/15) and 67(2/3).In seven patients(14%),the neoplasms were not found by inspection,bimanual palpation,and identified only by IOUS.Conclusions.Intraoperative ultrasound is the most sensitive and specific method for detection and surgery of liver neoplasms,especially the occult neoplasms and small size lesion(<2cm).

  12. Use of ultrasound to assess Cheddar cheese characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Sanjuan, N; Mulet, A

    2000-03-01

    Blocks of Cheddar cheese were matured in temperature-controlled chambers at 5 and 12 degrees C. The ultrasonic velocity increased during maturation ranging from 1657 to 1677 ms-1 at 12 degrees C and from 1684 to 1693 ms-1 at 5 degrees C. The ultrasonic velocity was related to the square root of the deformability modulus and the slope in puncture. The increase of velocity during maturation shows the feasibility of using an ultrasonic device to non-destructively monitor Cheddar cheese maturity. Ultrasound velocity was measured at different temperatures. The velocity decreased with increasing temperature, and from the slope of the first part of the temperature-velocity curves it was possible to non-destructively assess the moisture content of different types of cheese. PMID:10829761

  13. Breast ultrasound tomography with two parallel transducer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Shin, Junseob; Chen, Ting; Lin, Youzuo; Gao, Kai; Intrator, Miranda; Hanson, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is an emerging imaging modality to reconstruct the sound speed, density, and ultrasound attenuation of the breast in addition to ultrasound reflection/beamforming images for breast cancer detection and characterization. We recently designed and manufactured a new synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography prototype with two parallel transducer arrays consisting of a total of 768 transducer elements. The transducer arrays are translated vertically to scan the breast in a warm water tank from the chest wall/axillary region to the nipple region to acquire ultrasound transmission and reflection data for whole-breast ultrasound tomography imaging. The distance of these two ultrasound transducer arrays is adjustable for scanning breasts with different sizes. We use our breast ultrasound tomography prototype to acquire phantom and in vivo patient ultrasound data to study its feasibility for breast imaging. We apply our recently developed ultrasound imaging and tomography algorithms to ultrasound data acquired using our breast ultrasound tomography system. Our in vivo patient imaging results demonstrate that our breast ultrasound tomography can detect breast lesions shown on clinical ultrasound and mammographic images.

  14. IPEM Report No 84: Guidelines for the Testing and Calibration of Physiotherapy Ultrasound Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duck, Francis A

    2003-01-21

    Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine York: IPEM (2001) 67 pp, 20.00 British Pounds, ISBN: 0-904181-98-7. This 67-page soft-cover report has been prepared by an expert group within the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) to provide detailed guidance on the testing and calibration of ultrasound therapy devices. Physiotherapists have long used external energy sources to supplement massage and manipulation for musculo-skeletal therapy. Whilst, recently, there has been a general reduction in use of electrotherapy using radio-frequency radiation, microwaves and interferential devices, ultrasound therapy still remains central to physiotherapy practice. There is now robust evidence that, at least for some injuries, ultrasound accelerates the repair of injured tissue. This has been particularly well demonstrated for bone fracture repair. Managed therapy relies on well-calibrated radiation sources. Unfortunately, there has been less than adequate management of ultrasound output in the past. Several well-documented situations have occurred for which faulty ultrasound equipment has continued in clinical use, either generating no output at all, or, more seriously, operating at maximum power all the time. This report reminds those responsible for managing ultrasound equipment of the need for testing and calibration, and gives detailed advice on procedures for carrying this out. These details are contained in 12 annexes forming the majority of the text. Each annex presents a self-contained aspect of one aspect of testing or calibration, such as the measurement of acoustic power, or an example protocol for machine testing. Each is sufficiently detailed to allow novice technical staff to follow the recommended procedure, or to allow a department to plan to introduce ultrasound field calibration into its practice. Other annexes contain useful additional material, not included in the earlier IPSM Report 58. A procedure for the measurement of effective

  15. Verification and compensation of respiratory motion using an ultrasound imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao, E-mail: hchuang@mail.ntut.edu.tw; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Chiu, Wei-Hung; Tien, Der-Chi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Number 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Road, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ren-Hong; Hsu, Chung-Hsien [Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Number 95, Wen-Chang Road, Shih-Lin District, Taipei 11101, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to use ultrasound imaging as an aid for moving the treatment couch during diagnosis and treatment procedures associated with radiation therapy, in order to offset organ displacement caused by respiratory motion. A noninvasive ultrasound system was used to replace the C-arm device during diagnosis and treatment with the aims of reducing the x-ray radiation dose on the human body while simultaneously being able to monitor organ displacements. Methods: This study used a proposed respiratory compensating system combined with an ultrasound imaging system to monitor the compensation effect of respiratory motion. The accuracy of the compensation effect was verified by fluoroscopy, which means that fluoroscopy could be replaced so as to reduce unnecessary radiation dose on patients. A respiratory simulation system was used to simulate the respiratory motion of the human abdomen and a strain gauge (respiratory signal acquisition device) was used to capture the simulated respiratory signals. The target displacements could be detected by an ultrasound probe and used as a reference for adjusting the gain value of the respiratory signal used by the respiratory compensating system. This ensured that the amplitude of the respiratory compensation signal was a faithful representation of the target displacement. Results: The results show that performing respiratory compensation with the assistance of the ultrasound images reduced the compensation error of the respiratory compensating system to 0.81–2.92 mm, both for sine-wave input signals with amplitudes of 5, 10, and 15 mm, and human respiratory signals; this represented compensation of the respiratory motion by up to 92.48%. In addition, the respiratory signals of 10 patients were captured in clinical trials, while their diaphragm displacements were observed simultaneously using ultrasound. Using the respiratory compensating system to offset, the diaphragm

  16. A study of pipe flow rate measurement using air-coupled ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-contact flow meter employing air-coupled ultrasound is developed in this research. Ultrasonic flow meter is applied to the higher accuracy flow rate measurement, compared with pressure difference flow meter. However, ultrasonic flow meter has difficulty to measure in severe conditions such as in the condition of high temperature, high pressure condition, and radioactive materials in fluid. Especially, in high temperature condition, piezoelectric device in ultrasonic sensors lose the piezoelectricity, and it becomes difficult to transmit or detect ultrasound. Thus, in this research, ultrasonic sensors are fixed in the air. Ultrasonic sensors transmit and detect ultrasound through air, and measure the flow rate in the pipe. However, most of ultrasound is refracted and reflected at the boundaries between air and the pipe. And detected signals are weak. To increase the signal level, we developed focusing ultrasonic sensors that was optimized for the pipe flow measurement. And employing these focusing sensors the flow rate measurement has been done in order to evaluate the air-coupled ultrasonic flow meter by the ultrasonic beam focusing technique. (author)

  17. A new way to apply ultrasound in cross-flow ultrafiltration: application to colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengl, N; Jin, Y; Pignon, F; Baup, S; Mollard, R; Gondrexon, N; Magnin, A; Michot, L; Paineau, E

    2014-05-01

    A new coupling of ultrasound device with membrane process has been developed in order to enhance cross-flow ultrafiltration of colloidal suspensions usually involved in several industrial applications included bio and agro industries, water and sludge treatment. In order to reduce mass transfer resistances induced by fouling and concentration polarization, which both are main limitations in membrane separation process continuous ultrasound is applied with the help of a vibrating blade (20 kHz) located in the feed channel all over the membrane surface (8mm between membrane surface and the blade). Hydrodynamic aspects were also taking into account by the control of the rectangular geometry of the feed channel. Three colloidal suspensions with different kinds of colloidal interaction (attractive, repulsive) were chosen to evaluate the effect of their physico-chemical properties on the filtration. For a 90 W power (20.5 W cm(-2)) and a continuous flow rate, permeation fluxes are increased for each studied colloidal suspension, without damaging the membrane. The results show that the flux increase depends on the initial structural properties of filtered dispersion in terms of colloidal interaction and spatial organizations. For instance, a Montmorillonite Wyoming-Na clay suspension was filtered at 1.5 × 10(5)Pa transmembrane pressure. Its permeation flux is increased by a factor 7.1, from 13.6 L m(-2)h(-1) without ultrasound to 97 L m(-2)h(-1) with ultrasound.

  18. Rayleigh-maximum-likelihood filtering for speckle reduction of ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysal, Tuncer C; Barner, Kenneth E

    2007-05-01

    Speckle is a multiplicative noise that degrades ultrasound images. Recent advancements in ultrasound instrumentation and portable ultrasound devices necessitate the need for more robust despeckling techniques, for both routine clinical practice and teleconsultation. Methods previously proposed for speckle reduction suffer from two major limitations: 1) noise attenuation is not sufficient, especially in the smooth and background areas; 2) existing methods do not sufficiently preserve or enhance edges--they only inhibit smoothing near edges. In this paper, we propose a novel technique that is capable of reducing the speckle more effectively than previous methods and jointly enhancing the edge information, rather than just inhibiting smoothing. The proposed method utilizes the Rayleigh distribution to model the speckle and adopts the robust maximum-likelihood estimation approach. The resulting estimator is statistically analyzed through first and second moment derivations. A tuning parameter that naturally evolves in the estimation equation is analyzed, and an adaptive method utilizing the instantaneous coefficient of variation is proposed to adjust this parameter. To further tailor performance, a weighted version of the proposed estimator is introduced to exploit varying statistics of input samples. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated and compared to well-accepted methods through simulations utilizing synthetic and real ultrasound data. PMID:17518065

  19. Transducer combination for high-quality ultrasound tomography based on speed of sound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hun; Park, Kwan Kyu [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The type of ultrasound transducer used influences the quality of a reconstructed ultrasound image. This study analyzed the effect of transducer type on ultrasound computed tomography (UCT) image quality. The UCT was modeled in an ultrasound simulator by using a 5 cm anatomy model and a ring-shape 5 MHz 128 transducer array, which considered attenuation, refraction, and reflection. Speed-of-sound images were reconstructed by the Radon transform as the UCT image modality. Acoustic impedance images were also reconstructed by the delayand-sum (DAS) method, which considered the speed of sound information. To determine the optimal combination of transducers in observation, point-source, flat, and focused transducers were tested in combination as trasmitters and receivers; UCT images were constructed from each combination. The combination of point-source/flat transducer as transmitting and receiving devices presented the best reconstructed image quality. In UCT implementation, the combination of a flat transducer for transmitting and a point transducer for receiving permitted acceptable image quality.

  20. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part II Diagnostic Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures (Long Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidhu, P. S.; Brabrand, K.; Cantisani, V.;

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part of the series on interventional ultrasound guidelines of the Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB). It deals with the diagnostic interventional procedure. General points are discussed which are pertinent to all patients, followed by organ-...

  1. [Ultrasound diagnostics in ophthalmology (standardized echography): part 2: diseases of the orbit - ultrasound biomicroscopy diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenfratz, G; Mardin, C

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound diagnostics have been one of the most important noninvasive supplementary diagnostic procedures in ophthalmology for many decades and are indispensable for many intraocular and orbital diseases. When the echography examination and analysis of the echograms obtained are correctly carried out, ultrasound diagnostics are characterized by a high measure of specificity and sensitivity.

  2. Ultrasonic scores of conventional ultrasound and ultrasound elastography in the diagnosis of thyroid nodular lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢曹鑫

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the values of total ultrasonic scores of conventional ultrasound and ultrasound elastography in the diagnosis of thyroid nodular lesions.Methods A total of 347 thyroid nodules proved by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and surgery underwent

  3. Enhancement or Reduction of Sonochemical Activity of Pulsed Ultrasound Compared to Continuous Ultrasound at 20 kHz?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the efficacy of pulsed ultrasound compared with continuous ultrasound. Previous studies on the efficacy of pulsed ultrasound were not systematic and gave different results. In this study, the effects of pulse length, pulse interval, pulse length × pulse intervals, and treatment time on sonochemical activity were investigated using a simple oxidation of iodide method and a comparison of the efficacy of pulsed ultrasound and continuous ultrasound is made. The results showed that the main factor in the efficacy of pulsed ultrasound was pulse length when pulse length varied from 0.1 to 1 s. However, the main factors were pulse length, the pulse length × pulse interval, and pulse interval when pulse length varied from 1 to 9 s. Pulsed ultrasound had no effect when the pulse length was 0.1 s; however, the sonochemical activity of pulsed ultrasound decreased compared to continuous ultrasound as the pulse length varied from 0.1 to 1 s. The sonochemical activity of pulsed ultrasound either increased or decreased compared to continuous ultrasound when pulse length varied from 1 to 9 s, but the increase or decrease had no clear trend. The sonochemical activity was constant at Ton/Toff = 2 s/2 s and slightly decreased at Ton/Toff = 3 s/2 s with time, whereas the sonochemical activity of continuous ultrasound significantly decreased with time. Enhancement or reduction of sonochemical activity of pulsed ultrasound compared to continuous ultrasound depended on the pulse length and pulse interval.

  4. Controlled Study of Traditional Ultrasound and Ultrasound Elastography on the Diagnosis of Breast Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Wang, Ling; Wu, Haojie; Wei, Xiangkun; Duan, Yajie; Xu, Lingyao; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Liu

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to explore the application values of traditional ultrasound (contrast ultrasound [CUS]) and ultrasound elastography (UE) (including gray-scale ultrasound, color Doppler flow imaging, spectral Doppler ultrasound) in the diagnosis of breast masses. Postoperative histopathological diagnosis was used as the gold standard. One hundred seventy benign and malignant breast lesions from our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy differences of breast malignancy diagnosed by UE and CUS were compared. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy rates of breast malignancy diagnosed by UE were 98.7%, 90.2%, and 97.7%, whereas that by CUS were 93.6%, 76.1%, and 78.9%, respectively. The specificity and diagnosis rate of UE in the differential diagnosis of malignant breast lesions are superior to those of CUS and have an important clinical value.

  5. Photoacoustics meets ultrasound: micro-Doppler photoacoustic effect and detection by ultrasound

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, photoacoustics has attracted intensive research for both anatomical and functional biomedical imaging. However, the physical interaction between photoacoustic generated endogenous waves and an exogenous ultrasound wave is a largely unexplored area. Here, we report the initial results about the interaction of photoacoustic and external ultrasound waves leading to a micro-Doppler photoacoustic (mDPA) effect, which is experimentally observed and consistently modelled. It is based on a simultaneous excitation on the target with a pulsed laser and continuous wave (CW) ultrasound. The thermoelastically induced expansion will modulate the CW ultrasound and leads to transient Doppler frequency shift. The reported mDPA effect can be described as frequency modulation of the intense CW ultrasound carrier through photoacoustic vibrations. This technique may open the possibility to sensitively detect the photoacoustic vibration in deep optically and acoustically scattering medium, avoiding acoustic distor...

  6. Elaboration of protocols as a guide in musculoskeletal ultrasound for radiology service of the Hospital Doctor Rafael A. Calderon Guardia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol to guide residents and attending physicians at the Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia has been provided for regulating the work in the field the ultrasound of muscles, tendons and sonography. The staff has handled the ultrasound devices must understand the basis of the interaction of acoustic energy to the tissues and to know the methods and instruments have been used to produce and improve the quality of the image obtained. The guide ultrasound normal locomotor allowed to have a model for service members and medical imaging radiology hospital; it has been prepared through a comprehensive literature review based on textbooks and current articles concerning the most important theoretical bases of the Doppler study, which covers the assessment of shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee and ankle. The data obtained in the study process, facilitated access to printed and digital information, which has led to diagnostic certainty and reliability of results. (author)

  7. Synchronization of Fourier-Synthesized Optical Pulses to a Mode-Locked Optical Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaharu; Hyodo; Kazi; Sarwal; Abedin; Noriaki; Onodera; Masayoshi; Watanabe

    2003-01-01

    A Fourier-synthesized 40-GHz optical pulse train was successfully synchronized to an 8-GHz optical clock generated from a mode-locked fiber ring laser. The measured timing jitter of the synchronization was 0.43 ps.

  8. Ultrasound biomicroscopy measurement of skin thickness change induced by cosmetic treatment with ultrasound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tak-Man; Huang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Li-Ke; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Moisturizing creams and lotions are commonly used in daily life for beauty and treatment of different skin conditions such as dryness and wrinkling, and ultrasound stimulation has been used to enhance the delivery of ingredients into skin. However, there is a lack of convenient methods to study the effect of ultrasound stimulation on lotion absorption by skin in vivo. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was adopted as a viable tool in this study to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound stimulation on the enhancement of lotion delivery into skin. The forearm skin of 10 male and 10 female young subjects was tested at three different sites, including two lotion treatment sites with (Ultrasound Equipment - UE ON) and without (UE OFF) ultrasound stimulation and a control site without any lotion treatment. 1 MHz ultrasound with a duty cycle of 1.7%, a spatial peak temporal peak pressure of 195 kPa and an average power of 0.43 W was used for the stimulation. The skin thickness before, immediately after (0 min), and 15 and 30 min after the treatment was measured by an ultrasound biomicroscopic system (55 MHz). It was found that the skin thickness significantly increased immediately after the lotion treatment for both UE ON (from 1.379 ± 0.187 mm to 1.466 ± 0.182 mm, pultrasound stimulation was more effective for the female subjects than the male subjects (7.6 ± 2.3% vs. 5.4 ± 2.0% immediately after treatment, p=0.017). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that ultrasound biomicroscopy was a feasible method for studying the effectiveness of lotion treatment in vivo, and ultrasound stimulation was effective to enhance the rate of lotion absorption into skin.

  9. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes - bursts - that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing - the auditory receptor - already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2's sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  10. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  11. Dual-frequency ultrasound focal therapy for MRI-guided transurethral treatment of the prostate: Study in gel phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Djin, W. Apoutou; Mougenot, Charles; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Ramsay, Elizabeth; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasound thermal therapy of localized prostate cancer offers a minimally-invasive non-ionizing alternative [1-3] to surgery and radiotherapy. MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound prostate therapy [4-6] has previously been investigated in a pilot human feasibility study [7], by treating a small sub-volume of prostate tissue. In this study, the feasibility of transurethral dual-frequency ultrasound focal therapy has been investigated in gel phantom. A database of pelvic anatomical models of human prostate cancer patients have been created using MR clinical images. The largest prostate boundary (47 cm3) was used to fabricate an anatomical gel phantom which included various MR characteristics to mimic prostate tissues, 4 localized tumors and surrounding prostate tissues. A 9-element transurethral ultrasound applicator working in dual-frequency mode (f = 4.6/14.5 MHz) was evaluated to heat: (i) the entire prostate volume (Full prostate treatment strategy), (ii) a prostate region restricted to tumors (Focal therapy). Acoustic power of each element and rotation rate of the device were adjusted in realtime based on MR-thermometry feedback control (nine thermal slices updated every 6.2s). Experiments have been performed using dual-frequency ultrasound exposures (surface Pmax: 20W.cm-2). (i) For full prostate heating, 7 elements of the device were used to cover the entire prostate length. The heating process was completed within 35 min. Ultrasound exposures at the fundamental frequency allowed full heating of the largest prostate radii (>18 mm), while exposures at the 3rd harmonic ensured homogeneous treatment of the smallest radii. Undertreated and overtreated regions represented respectively 2% and 17% of the prostate volume. (ii) For focal therapy, the target region was optimized to maintain safe regions in the prostate and to cover all tumor-mimics. Only 5 ultrasound elements were used to treat successfully all tumor-mimics within 26 min. Undertreated and

  12. Endoscopic Ultrasound and Pancreas Divisum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder Singh Rana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is the gold standard for its diagnosis, but is invasive and associated with significant adverse effects. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS allows the detailed evaluation of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system without injecting contrast in these ducts. Moreover, it provides detailed images of the parenchyma also. Therefore EUS, both radial and linear, has potential for being a minimally invasive diagnostic modality for pancreas divisum. A number of EUS criteria have been suggested for the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. These criteria have varying sensitivity and specificity and hence there is a need for objective and uniform criteria that have the best diagnostic accuracy. Secretin EUS has a potential for diagnosing minor papilla stenosis and thus help in planning appropriate therapy. EUS guided pancreatic duct interventions can help in draining dorsal duct in symptomatic patients with failed minor papilla cannulation. But these techniques are technically demanding and associated with potential severe complications.

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventional procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as animportant diagnostic and therapeutic modality in thefield of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides accessto many organs and lesions which are in proximity tothe gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunityto target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.This modality also provides a real time opportunityto target the required area while avoiding adjacentvascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS hasfound role in management of pancreatic fluid collections,biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failedendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage,drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscessesand collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapyand radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emergedas the therapy of choice for management of pancreaticpseudocysts and recent innovations like fully coveredremovable metallic stents have improved resultsin patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUSguided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic ducthelps drainage of these systems in patients with failedcannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUSguided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergentprocedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who arenot fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysisand blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-visthe percutaneous technique. The field of interventionalEUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventionsare being continuously added. This review focuses onthe current status of evidence vis-à-vis the establishedindications of therapeutic EUS.

  14. Image-guided endobronchial ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, William E.; Zang, Xiaonan; Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Byrnes, Patrick; Kuhlengel, Trevor; Bascom, Rebecca; Toth, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is now recommended as a standard procedure for in vivo verification of extraluminal diagnostic sites during cancer-staging bronchoscopy. Yet, physicians vary considerably in their skills at using EBUS effectively. Regarding existing bronchoscopy guidance systems, studies have shown their effectiveness in the lung-cancer management process. With such a system, a patient's X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan is used to plan a procedure to regions of interest (ROIs). This plan is then used during follow-on guided bronchoscopy. Recent clinical guidelines for lung cancer, however, also dictate using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for identifying suspicious ROIs and aiding in the cancer-staging process. While researchers have attempted to use guided bronchoscopy systems in tandem with PET imaging and EBUS, no true EBUS-centric guidance system exists. We now propose a full multimodal image-based methodology for guiding EBUS. The complete methodology involves two components: 1) a procedure planning protocol that gives bronchoscope movements appropriate for live EBUS positioning; and 2) a guidance strategy and associated system graphical user interface (GUI) designed for image-guided EBUS. We present results demonstrating the operation of the system.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached to the scanner ...

  16. New Complication Associated With All-Inside Meniscal Repair Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Lucian C.; Bollier, Matthew J.; Hoffman, Douglas F.; Cummins, Justin S.; Hall, Mederic M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of meniscal preservation has become widely accepted, and meniscal repair techniques have evolved over recent years. With new techniques come new complications, which are critical to recognize. Purpose: To describe a new complication of foreign body reaction from a nonabsorbable suture anchor associated with improper placement of the all-inside meniscal device. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This study was a retrospective review of 3 patients who developed pain associated with a foreign body reaction from a misplaced all-inside meniscal device. Results: All patients had a delayed diagnosis (6 months to 8 years) and negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diagnostic ultrasound identified the misplaced suture with foreign body reaction and was used to guide a diagnostic injection of local anesthetic prior to surgical intervention. Intraoperative ultrasound guidance was utilized to precisely localize and excise the suture material and associated reactive tissue. Conclusion: Foreign body reaction from a misplaced all-inside meniscal device is a previously unreported complication. Diagnosis is challenging as MRI and arthroscopy can be unrevealing. Diagnostic ultrasound was able to identify the foreign body reaction, confirm the diagnosis by facilitating diagnostic local anesthetic injection, and guide surgical excision. Sonographic evaluation should be considered in patients presenting with ongoing knee pain after all-inside meniscus repair. PMID:27635413

  17. Ultrasound-enhanced nanotherapy of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, N.; Nam, K.-H.; Christensen, D. A.; Kennedy, A. M.; Shea, J. E.; Scaife, C. L.

    2010-03-01

    The paper reports in vivo results of ultrasonic nanotherapy of orthotopically grown pancreatic cancer. Phase-shift paclitaxel (PTX) loaded perfluoropentane (PFP) nanoemusions combined with tumor-directed ultrasound have been used with a considerable success for tumor-targeted chemotherapy of gemcitabin (GEM)-refractory pancreatic cancer (PC). The GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer proved sensitive to treatment by a micellar PTX formulation Genexol PM (GEN) andor nanodroplet PTX formulation ndGEN. Due to increased permeability of tumor blood vessels, drug-loaded nanodroplets accumulated in the tumor via passive targeting, which was confirmed by ultrasound imaging. Nanodroplets converted into microbubbles in situ under the action of tumor-directed 1-MHz therapeutic ultrasound. The strongest therapeutic effect was observed for the combination therapy by PTX-loaded nanodroplets, GEM and ultrasound (ndGEN+GEM+ultrasound). This combination therapy resulted in a spectacular tumor regression and in some cases complete tumor resolution. Moreover, formation of metastases was dramatically decreased and ascitis generation was completely suppressed. However for all animal groups, local tumor recurrence was observed after the completion of the treatment indicating that some cancer cells survived the treatment. The recurrent tumors proved more resistant to the repeated therapy than initial tumors.

  18. Diagnostic significance of ultrasound in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Utilization of 20 MHz ultrasound probes provided application of ultrasound in dermatology - dermatosonography. As a diagnostic tool, ultrasound was first registered in the early fifties of the past century. Great progress of dermatosonography occurred in the mid-nineties with introduction of the first 20 MHz scanner. Methods of ultrasonography in dermatology Several methods of ultrasonography have been developed: method A, method B, scanning C method and Doppler ultrasound. They were based on different acoustic features of various tissues. Ultrasound in diagnostics Today, dermatosonography is used in diagnosing: cutaneous neoplasms, inflammatory skin diseases and skin diseases of unknown etiology. Apart from that, it is used in differentiating benign and malignant tumors and may be helpful in monitoring morphea, dermatomyositis, cutaneous sarcoidosis, erythema nodosum, allergic diseases, postthrombotic syndrome, physiologic aging and aging due to sun exposure. It can be used in noninvasive monitoring of local treatment, therapeutic responses and adverse effects. Conclusion Dermatosonography offers valuable possibilities in assessing skin morphology at an intermediate level: between clinical assessment and microscopy.

  19. Lung Ultrasound May Be Best to Spot Pneumonia in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Lung Ultrasound May Be Best to Spot Pneumonia in Kids: Study Avoided radiation exposure of standard ... effective, alternative to chest X-rays for diagnosing pneumonia in children, researchers report. "Ultrasound is portable, cost- ...

  20. Ultrasound-guided locoregional anaesthesia for carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martusevicius, Robertas; Swiatek, F; Joergensen, L G;

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound guidance is increasingly used for invasive anaesthetic procedures to improve efficacy, facilitate performance and reduce risk of complications. Herein, we present a simple approach to ultrasound-guided locoregional anaesthesia for patients undergoing eversion carotid endarterectomy....

  1. Prediction of outcome after femoropopliteal balloon angioplasty by intravascular ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Just, S; Rasmussen, John Bøje Grønvall;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) as a control procedure after femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and compare it with arteriography. DESIGN: Descriptive study. MATERIAL: Arteriographic and intravascular ultrasound data obtained from 18 patients (20...

  2. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of digestive tract lesions; Biopsia percutanea de lesiones del tubo digestivo guiada por ecografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, S.; Martin, I.; Ballesteros, J. M.; Gomez, C. [Hospital General Universitario de Alicante (Spain); Marco, S. F.; Fernandez, P. [Hospital Gneral de Castellon (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To present our experience in ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of lesions located in the digestive tract. We performed ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy in 14 patients (10 men and 4 women) ranging in age from 7 to 71 years (mean; 519 years). The lesions were located throughout the digestive tract, from the pyriform sinus to the sigmoid colon. The biopsy was carried out with a 5 MHz convex probe equipped with a device to direct the needle. An 18G automatic needle or a 20G Chiba needle was used to obtain specimens for histological study in every case, and additional samples were collected with a 22G needle for cytological examination in 13 of the patients. The ultrasound images corresponded to pseudokidney in 9 cases and extrinsic masses in 5. The diagnosis was obtained from the histological examination in every case (100%) and from cytology in 6 (44.4%), the latter results were less specific. The only complication corresponded to a case of bilioperitoneum. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy is a suitable technique for the histological diagnosis of those lesions of the digestive tract that are visible in ultrasound images, but that for some reason can not be examined by endoscopic biopsy. (Author) 20 refs.

  3. Ultrasound in sports medicine-A critical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article will discuss the aspects of sports medicine where ultrasound imaging has advantages when compared to MRI looking at the strengths and weaknesses of ultrasound in the context of diagnosis and management. It will also assess the use of ultrasound in therapy including guided injections and current thoughts on novel forms of treatment. We will particularly emphasise the role of ultrasound imaging in the management of injuries of tendon, ligament and muscle

  4. Ultrasound in sports medicine-A critical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Gina M. [University Hospitals Birmingham, Radiology Department, Selly Oak Hospital, Raddlebarn Road, Selly Oak, Birmingham B29 6JD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gina_m_allen@btinternet.com; Wilson, David J. [Department of Radiology, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This article will discuss the aspects of sports medicine where ultrasound imaging has advantages when compared to MRI looking at the strengths and weaknesses of ultrasound in the context of diagnosis and management. It will also assess the use of ultrasound in therapy including guided injections and current thoughts on novel forms of treatment. We will particularly emphasise the role of ultrasound imaging in the management of injuries of tendon, ligament and muscle.

  5. Implementation of Vibro-acoustography on a Clinical Ultrasound System

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Matthew W.; Chalek, Carl; Kinnick, Randall R.; Kinter, Thomas M.; Haider, Bruno; Greenleaf, James F.; Thomenius, Kai E.; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Vibro-acoustography is an ultrasound-based imaging modality that uses two ultrasound beams of slightly different frequencies to produce images based on the acoustic response due to harmonic ultrasound radiation force excitation at the difference frequency between the two ultrasound frequencies. Vibro-acoustography has demonstrated feasibility and usefulness in imaging of breast and prostate tissue. However, previous studies have been performed either in controlled water tank settings or a pro...

  6. Power and color Doppler ultrasound settings for inflammatory flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Christensen, Robin; Szkudlarek, Marcin;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how settings for power and color Doppler ultrasound sensitivity vary on different high- and intermediate-range ultrasound machines and to evaluate the impact of these changes on Doppler scoring of inflamed joints. METHODS: Six different types of ultrasound machines were used...... on the quantification of inflammation by ultrasound in RA patients, and this must be taken into account in multicenter studies....

  7. Endoscopic retrieval of intrauterine contraceptive device from urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Rajendra Changede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is the need of hour in a developing country like India. Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs are amongst the most frequently used spacing method of contraception. The patients with misplaced IUCDs may present with and lsquo;lost strings', pregnancies or they may remain asymptomatic. The case report describes successful endoscopic retrieval of intrauterine contraceptive device from urinary bladder. X-ray, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT urography of the pelvis showed IUCD to be lying outside the uterus and on cystoscopy IUCD was removed from urinary bladder. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1593-1597

  8. Ultrasound guidance for central vascular access in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sofyani Khouloud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Percutaneous central venous cannulation (CVC in infants and children is a challenging procedure, and it is usually achieved with a blinded, external landmark-guided technique. Recent guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE recommend the use of ultrasound guidance for central venous catheterization in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this method in a pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit, assessing the number of attempts, access time (skin to vein, incidence of complication, and the ease of use for central venous access in the neonatal age group. Methods: After approval by the local departmental ethical committee, we evaluated an ultrasound-guided method over a period of 6 months in 20 critically ill patients requiring central venous access in a pediatric intensive care unit and a neonatal intensive care unit (median age 9 (0-204 months and weight 9.3 (1.9-60 kg. Cannulation was performed after locating the puncture site with the aid of an ultrasound device (8 MHz transducer, Vividi General Electrics® Burroughs, USA covered by a sterile sheath. Outcome measures included successful insertion rate, number of attempts, access time, and incidence of complications. Results: Cannulation of the central vein was 100% successful in all patients. The right femoral vein was preferred in 60% of the cases. The vein was entered on the first attempt in 75% of all patients, and the median number of attempts was 1. The median access time (skin to vein for all patients was 64.5 s. No arterial punctures or hematomas occurred using the ultrasound technique. Conclusions: In a sample of critically ill patients from a pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit, ultrasound-guided CVC compared with published reports on traditional technique required fewer attempts and less time. It improved the overall success rate, minimized the occurrence of complications during vein cannulation and was easy to apply in

  9. The evaluation Genotoxic Risks in Medical Personnel Occupationally Exposed to Ultrasound: the Alkaline Comet Assay Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ultrasound devices in medical diagnosis has experienced a phenomenal growth in recent years. Therefore it has become important to check its genetic harmlessness, especially in occupationally exposed medical personnel. In the present study, the alkaline comet assay was selected as a sensitive bio marker of exposure to evaluate the levels of primary DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of ultrasound-exposed and corresponding control subjects. Exposed and control groups comprised of 30 subjects of similar age and smoking habits. The venous blood samples were processed by standard come assay procedure; they were embedded into agarose microgel, subjected to lysis, denaturation and electrophoresis in alkaline conditions. The extent of DNA migration in leukocytes was assessed by measuring of comet tail length and tail moment. A total of 100 randomly captured comets from each slide were examined using an epifluorescent microscope connected through a black and white camera to an computerising image system. The results obtained indicate potentially geonotixic effects of daily occupational exposure to ultrasound with significant increased values of comet tail length and tail moment measured in leukocytes of the exposed subjects compared to control. Within exposed group significant inter-individual differences in DNA damage were assessed, indicating different genome sensitivity. It was also observed that smoking habits influenced the levels of primary DNA damage in some control and exposed subjects. In spite of their limitations, results of present comet assay study indicate that individuals occupationally exposed to ultrasound may experience an increased genotoxic risk and strongly emphasize the need for more research into the nature and extent of the biological consequences to medical personnel working with ultrasound. (Author) 43 refs

  10. Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography in reflection mode with ring-shaped light illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chulhong; Song, Kwang Hyun; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-03-01

    We have succeeded in implementing ring-shaped light illumination ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) in reflection mode. The system used intense acoustic bursts and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera-based speckle contrast detection method. In addition, the implementation allows placing the tissue sample below (not within) an acoustic coupling water tank and scanning the tissue without moving the sample. Thus, the UOT system is more clinically applicable than previous transmission-mode systems. Furthermore, we have successfully imaged an ex vivo methylene-blue-dyed sentinel lymph node (SLN) embedded at a depth of 13 mm in chicken breast tissue. This UOT system offers several advantages: noninvasiveness, nonionizing radiation, portability, cost effectiveness, and the possibility of combination with ultrasound pulse-echo imaging and photoacoustic imaging. One potential application of the UOT system is mapping SLNs in axillary staging for breast cancer patients.

  11. Three-Dimensional Quantitative Optical Measurement of Asymmetrically Focused Ultrasound Pressure Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yuta; Harigane, Soichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2012-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is used for the treatment of tumors such as prostate cancer. In the development of this technique, an accurate and fast measurement of the HIFU pressure field is important. A hydrophone is generally used for the measurement, but it might disturb the pressure field and scanning it in the field takes a long time. On the other hand, optical ultrasonic field mapping has the advantages of speed and its nature of not by interfering with the acoustic field. In this study, we reconstructed an asymmetric ultrasound field by optical measurement using a computed tomography (CT) algorithm. The asymmetric field was generated by a focused transducer with four elements. Also, the absolute measurement of ultrasonic pressure was checked by measuring the center of the field of the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The results showed overall agreement with those of hydrophone measurement.

  12. Effects of microstructure and water on the electrical potentials in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneda, H.; Matsukawa, S.; Takayanagi, S.; Matsukawa, M., E-mail: mmatsuka@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Wave Electronics Research Center, Laboratory of Ultrasonic Electronics, Doshisha University, 1-3, Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Mizuno, K. [Underwater Technology Collaborative Research Center, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Yanagitani, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-02-16

    The healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity pulse ultrasound is yet to be fully understood. There have been many discussions regarding how the high frequency dynamic stress can stimulate numerous cell types through various pathways. As one possible initial process of this mechanism, we focus on the piezoelectricity of bone and demonstrate that bone can generate electrical potentials by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. We have fabricated ultrasonic bone transducers using bovine cortical bone as the piezoelectric device. The ultrasonically induced electrical potentials in the transducers change as a function of time during immersed ultrasonic pulse measurements and become stable when the bone is fully wet. In addition, the magnitude of the induced electrical potentials changes owing to the microstructure in the cortical bone. The potentials of transducers with haversian structure bone are higher than those of plexiform structure bone, which informs about the effects of bone microstructure on the piezoelectricity.

  13. Ultrasound beamforming using compressed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yen-Feng; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    The rapid advancements in electronics technologies have made software-based beamformers for ultrasound array imaging feasible, thus facilitating the rapid development of high-performance and potentially low-cost systems. However, one challenge to realizing a fully software-based system is transferring data from the analog front end to the software back end at rates of up to a few gigabits per second. This study investigated the use of data compression to reduce the data transfer requirements and optimize the associated trade-off with beamforming quality. JPEG and JPEG2000 compression techniques were adopted. The acoustic data of a line phantom were acquired with a 128-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.5 MHz, and the acoustic data of a cyst phantom were acquired with a 64-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.33 MHz. The receive-channel data associated with each transmit event are separated into 8 × 8 blocks and several tiles before JPEG and JPEG2000 data compression is applied, respectively. In one scheme, the compression was applied to raw RF data, while in another only the amplitude of baseband data was compressed. The maximum compression ratio of RF data compression to produce an average error of lower than 5 dB was 15 with JPEG compression and 20 with JPEG2000 compression. The image quality is higher with baseband amplitude data compression than with RF data compression; although the maximum overall compression ratio (compared with the original RF data size), which was limited by the data size of uncompressed phase data, was lower than 12, the average error in this case was lower than 1 dB when the compression ratio was lower than 8. PMID:22434817

  14. Infrared criminalistic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Savkov, E. V.; Popov, Pavel G.

    1996-12-01

    We are presenting the devices of near-IR spectral range in this report. The devices may be used in criminalistics, in bank business, in restoration works, etc. the action principle of these devices is describing briefly.

  15. Intrauterine devices (IUD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007635.htm Intrauterine devices (IUD) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device used ...

  16. Medical Device Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep ...

  17. Applications of power ultrasound in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Sandra; Feng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic energy as a form of physical energy has drawn the interests of both industry and scientific communities for its potential use as a food processing and preservation tool. Currently, most such applications deal with ultrasonic waves with relatively high intensities and acoustic power densities and are performed mostly in liquids. In this review, we briefly discuss the fundamentals of power ultrasound. We then summarize the physical and chemical effects of power ultrasound treatments based on the actions of acoustic cavitation and by looking into several ultrasound-assisted unit operations. Finally, we examine the biological effects of ultrasonication by focusing on its interactions with the miniature biological systems present in foods, i.e., microorganisms and food enzymes, as well as with selected macrobiological components. PMID:24422590

  18. Bedside ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jason A; Noble, Vicki E

    2008-05-01

    Bedside emergency ultrasound has been used by emergency physicians for >20 years for a variety of conditions. In adult centers, emergency ultrasound is routinely used in the management of victims of blunt abdominal trauma, in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and biliary disease, and in women with first-trimester pregnancy complications. Although its use has grown dramatically in the last decade in adult emergency departments, only recently has this tool been embraced by pediatric emergency physicians. As the modality advances and becomes more available, it will be important for primary care pediatricians to understand its uses and limitations and to ensure that pediatric emergency physicians have access to the proper training, equipment, and experience. This article is meant to review the current literature relating to emergency ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine, as well as to describe potential pediatric applications.

  19. [ULTRASOUND MONITORING FEATURES OF POSTOPERATIVE HEPATIC ECHINOCOCCOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Kh; Kokaia, N; Manjgaladze, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate ultrasound features (US) of liver after post operative anti-parasite recurrence treatment of patients with echinococcosis. The clinical analyses of 50 patients were carried out. It was concluded that the use of ultrasound can provide valuable data to the clinician to assess and monitor anti parasitic therapy echinococcosis of liver in post operative period. During the monitoring the positive dynamics of disease was observed in 94,5% of cases, in 5% оf cases toxic hepatites with septic complication was diagnosed, and in 0,5% of cases the disease recurrence was revealed. Ultrasound semiotics of liver after post operative anti-parasite recurrence treatment of patients with echinococcosis was presented. Control and monitoring of patients in the postoperative period echinococcosis with appropriate antirelapse antiparasitic therapy should be held not less than 1-5 years. PMID:26870968

  20. Emergency Physician Performed Ultrasound for DVT Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Christian Fox

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis is a common condition that is often difficult to diagnose and may be lethal when allowed to progress. However, early implementation of treatment substantially improves the disease prognosis. Therefore, care must be taken to both acquire an accurate differential diagnosis for patients with symptoms as well as to screen at-risk asymptomatic individuals. Many diagnostic tools exist to evaluate deep vein thrombosis. Compression ultrasonography is currently the most effective diagnostic tool in the emergency department, shown to be highly accurate at minimal expense. However, limited availability of ultrasound technicians may result in delayed imaging or in a decision not to image low-risk cases. Many studies support emergency physiciansas capable of accurately diagnosing deep vein thrombosis using bedside ultrasound. Further integration of ultrasound into the training of emergency physicians for use in evaluating deep vein thrombosis will improve patient care and cost-effective treatment.