WorldWideScience

Sample records for a-kinase anchoring protein-membrane

  1. A kinase-anchoring proteins and adenylyl cyclase in cardiovascular physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, Riad; Dessauer, Carmen W

    2011-10-01

    3'-5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), generated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), serves as a second messenger in signaling pathways regulating many aspects of cardiac physiology, including contraction rate and action potential duration, and in the pathophysiology of hypertrophy and heart failure. A kinase-anchoring proteins localize the effect of cAMP in space and time by organizing receptors, AC, protein kinase A, and other components of the cAMP cascade into multiprotein complexes. In this review, we discuss how the interaction of A kinase-anchoring proteins with distinct AC isoforms affects cardiovascular physiology.

  2. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase A-A-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Pepijn P; van der Heyden, MAG; Kok, Bart; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present

  3. Crucial Role for Prion Protein Membrane Anchoring in the Neuroinvasion and Neural Spread of Prion Infection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Klingeborn, Mikael; Race, Brent; Meade-White, Kimberly D.; Rosenke, Rebecca; Striebel, James F.; Chesebro, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    In nature prion diseases are usually transmitted by extracerebral prion infection, but clinical disease results only after invasion of the central nervous system (CNS). Prion protein (PrP), a host-encoded glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein, is necessary for prion infection and disease. Here, we investigated the role of the anchoring of PrP on prion neuroinvasion by studying various inoculation routes in mice expressing either anchored or anchorless PrP. In contr...

  4. Fatal transmissible amyloid encephalopathy: a new type of prion disease associated with lack of prion protein membrane anchoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Chesebro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals characterized by gray matter spongiosis and accumulation of aggregated, misfolded, protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres. PrPres can be deposited in brain in an amyloid-form and/or non-amyloid form, and is derived from host-encoded protease-sensitive PrP (PrPsen, a protein normally anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI. Previously, using heterozygous transgenic mice expressing only anchorless PrP, we found that PrP anchoring to the cell membrane was required for typical clinical scrapie. However, in the present experiments, using homozygous transgenic mice expressing two-fold more anchorless PrP, scrapie infection induced a new fatal disease with unique clinical signs and altered neuropathology, compared to non-transgenic mice expressing only anchored PrP. Brain tissue of transgenic mice had high amounts of infectivity, and histopathology showed dense amyloid PrPres plaque deposits without gray matter spongiosis. In contrast, infected non-transgenic mice had diffuse non-amyloid PrPres deposits with significant gray matter spongiosis. Brain graft studies suggested that anchored PrPsen expression was required for gray matter spongiosis during prion infection. Furthermore, electron and light microscopic studies in infected transgenic mice demonstrated several pathogenic processes not seen in typical prion disease, including cerebral amyloid angiopathy and ultrastructural alterations in perivascular neuropil. These findings were similar to certain human familial prion diseases as well as to non-prion human neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  5. A Kinase Anchoring Protein 9 Is a Novel Myosin VI Binding Partner That Links Myosin VI with the PKA Pathway in Myogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Karolczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myosin VI (MVI is a unique motor protein moving towards the minus end of actin filaments unlike other known myosins. Its important role has recently been postulated for striated muscle and myogenic cells. Since MVI functions through interactions of C-terminal globular tail (GT domain with tissue specific partners, we performed a search for MVI partners in myoblasts and myotubes using affinity chromatography with GST-tagged MVI-GT domain as a bait. A kinase anchoring protein 9 (AKAP9, a regulator of PKA activity, was identified by means of mass spectrometry as a possible MVI interacting partner both in undifferentiated and differentiating myoblasts and in myotubes. Coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay confirmed that both proteins could interact. MVI and AKAP9 colocalized at Rab5 containing early endosomes. Similarly to MVI, the amount of AKAP9 decreased during myoblast differentiation. However, in MVI-depleted cells, both cAMP and PKA levels were increased and a change in the MVI motor-dependent AKAP9 distribution was observed. Moreover, we found that PKA phosphorylated MVI-GT domain, thus implying functional relevance of MVI-AKAP9 interaction. We postulate that this novel interaction linking MVI with the PKA pathway could be important for targeting AKAP9-PKA complex within cells and/or providing PKA to phosphorylate MVI tail domain.

  6. A Kinase Anchoring Protein 9 Is a Novel Myosin VI Binding Partner That Links Myosin VI with the PKA Pathway in Myogenic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolczak, Justyna; Sobczak, Magdalena; Skowronek, Krzysztof; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI (MVI) is a unique motor protein moving towards the minus end of actin filaments unlike other known myosins. Its important role has recently been postulated for striated muscle and myogenic cells. Since MVI functions through interactions of C-terminal globular tail (GT) domain with tissue specific partners, we performed a search for MVI partners in myoblasts and myotubes using affinity chromatography with GST-tagged MVI-GT domain as a bait. A kinase anchoring protein 9 (AKAP9), a regulator of PKA activity, was identified by means of mass spectrometry as a possible MVI interacting partner both in undifferentiated and differentiating myoblasts and in myotubes. Coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay confirmed that both proteins could interact. MVI and AKAP9 colocalized at Rab5 containing early endosomes. Similarly to MVI, the amount of AKAP9 decreased during myoblast differentiation. However, in MVI-depleted cells, both cAMP and PKA levels were increased and a change in the MVI motor-dependent AKAP9 distribution was observed. Moreover, we found that PKA phosphorylated MVI-GT domain, thus implying functional relevance of MVI-AKAP9 interaction. We postulate that this novel interaction linking MVI with the PKA pathway could be important for targeting AKAP9-PKA complex within cells and/or providing PKA to phosphorylate MVI tail domain.

  7. Cytoplasmic anchoring of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) is required for meiotic arrest of porcine full-grown and growing oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takanori; Fujii, Wataru; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian growing oocytes (GOs) lack the ability to resume meiosis, although the molecular mechanism of this limitation is not fully understood. We previously hypothesized that the meiotic incompetence of porcine GOs was attributed to complex spatial-temporal regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs), but found that AKAP1 is not involved in the meiotic incompetence of porcine GOs. In the present study, we cloned porcine cDNAs of AKAP5 and AKAP7alpha, and found that inhibiting the expression of these AKAPs induced PKA translocation into the nucleus and promoted meiotic resumption of porcine GOs without affecting the total PKA activity of GOs, whereas overexpressing these AKAPs had no effect. Because AKAPs regulate PKA localization through binding with regulatory subunits of PKA (PKA-Rs), PKA-R binding with AKAPs was inhibited by AKAP-binding inhibition peptides or PKA-R expression inhibition by antisense RNAs. We found that the expression inhibition and binding inhibition of PRKAR1A, an isoform of mammalian PKA-R, promoted meiotic resumption of porcine GOs, whereas these inhibitions of PRKAR2A, another PKA-R isoform, had no effect. In contrast, the expression inhibition and binding inhibition of PRKAR2A had higher effects than those of PRKAR1A on meiotic resumption of porcine full-grown oocytes. These results suggest that cytoplasmic anchoring of PKA by AKAPs is required for meiotic arrest of oocytes and that the PKA-R isoform working for the maintenance of meiotic arrest changed from PRKAR1A to PRKAR2A during the acquisition of meiotic competence. PMID:24501172

  8. The Scaffold Protein Muscle A-Kinase Anchoring Protein β Orchestrates Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophic Signaling Required for the Development of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, Michael D.; Li, Jinliang; Passariello, Catherine L.; Gayanilo, Marjorie; Thakur, Hrishikesh; Dayan, Joseph; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Kapiloff, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy is regulated by an extensive intracellular signal transduction network. In vitro evidence suggests that the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein β (mAKAPβ) serves as a nodal organizer of hypertrophic signaling. However, the relevance of mAKAPβ signalosomes to pathological remodeling and heart failure in vivo remains unknown. Methods and Results Using conditional, cardiac myocyte–specific gene deletion, we now demonstrate that mAKAPβ expression in mice is important for the cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and catecholamine toxicity. mAKAPβ targeting prevented the development of heart failure associated with long-term transverse aortic constriction, conferring a survival benefit. In contrast to 29% of control mice (n=24), only 6% of mAKAPβ knockout mice (n=31) died in the 16 weeks of pressure overload (P=0.02). Accordingly, mAKAPβ knockout inhibited myocardial apoptosis and the development of interstitial fibrosis, left atrial hypertrophy, and pulmonary edema. This improvement in cardiac status correlated with the attenuated activation of signaling pathways coordinated by the mAKAPβ scaffold, including the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase D1 and histone deacetylase 4 that we reveal to participate in a new mAKAP signaling module. Furthermore, mAKAPβ knockout inhibited pathological gene expression directed by myocyte-enhancer factor-2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell transcription factors that associate with the scaffold. Conclusions mAKAPβ orchestrates signaling that regulates pathological cardiac remodeling in mice. Targeting of the underlying physical architecture of signaling networks, including mAKAPβ signalosome formation, may constitute an effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of pathological remodeling and heart failure. PMID:24812305

  9. Identification of cAMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzymes in preantral- and preovulatory-follicle-enriched ovaries, and their association with A-kinase-anchoring proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, D W; Cutler, R E; Cottom, J E; Salvador, L M; Fraser, I D; Scott, J D; Hunzicker-Dunn, M

    1999-12-01

    Undifferentiated cells from preantral (PA) follicles respond to high levels of cAMP in a different manner than do differentiated cells from preovulatory (PO) follicles. We hypothesized that this differential response of PA and PO cells to cAMP could be due, in part, to either a difference in the profile of isoforms that comprise the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) holoenzymes and/or a difference in the interaction of PKA with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs). To test these hypotheses, PKA activity, PKA holoenzymes, PKA subunits and AKAPs from PA and PO ovaries were compared. Soluble PKA holoenzymes and regulatory (R) subunits were separated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. PKA R subunits were distinguished by photoaffinity labelling, autophosphorylation, size, isoelectric point and immunoreactivity. AKAPs were identified by RII subunit overlay assays and immunoreactivity. The results showed that extracts from PA and PO ovaries exhibited equivalent PKA holoenzyme profiles and activities, characterized by low levels of PKA type I (PKAI) holoenzyme and two distinct PKAII holoenzyme peaks, one containing only RIIbeta subunits (PKAIIbeta) and one containing both PKAIIbeta and PKAIIalpha holoenzymes. Both PA and PO ovarian extracts also contained PKA catalytic (C)-subunit-free RIalpha, while only PO ovaries exhibited C-subunit-free RIIbeta. Consistent with the elevated levels of C-subunit-free RIIbeta in PO cells, PKA activation in PO cells required higher concentrations of forskolin than that in PA cells. While extracts of PA and PO ovaries exhibited a number of similar AKAPs, including four prominent ones reactive with anti-AKAP-KL antisera (where AKAP-KL is an AKAP especially abundant in kidney and liver), cAMP-agarose affinity chromatography revealed two major differences in AKAP binding to purified R subunits. PO ovaries contained increased levels of AKAP80 (AKAP of 80 kDa) bound selectively to R subunits in DEAE

  10. Anchor reinforcements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Sal' nikov, V.K.; Savich, N.S.

    1980-11-30

    An anchor reinforcement includes an anchor shaft, an elastic jig with a separator wall having compartments placed parallely along it and filled with reinforcement material and a device for destroying the jig wall separator. To quickly put the anchor in place and increase the reliability of the reinforcement by mixing the reinforcement material components better, the device for destroying the jig separator wall was made in the shape of a shovel, fastened to the anchor shaft and the separator wall has a longitudinal hollow for holding the anchor shaft/shovel.

  11. A Proteomics Investigation of Anchored PKA-RI Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovanich, D.

    2013-01-01

    Compartmentalization of kinases and phosphatases plays an important role in the specificity of second messenger mediated signaling events. Localization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase is mediated by interaction of its regulatory subunit (PKA-R) with the versatile family of A-kinase anchoring pr

  12. Hypersensitivity to Suture Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity to suture anchor is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case in which hypersensitivity to suture anchor was strongly suspected. The right rotator cuff of a 50-year-old woman was repaired with a metal suture anchor. Three weeks after the surgery, she developed erythema around her face, trunk, and hands, accompanied by itching. Infection was unlikely because no abnormalities were detected by blood testing or by medical examination. Suspicious of a metallic allergy, a dermatologist performed a patch testing 6 months after the first surgery. The patient had negative reactions to tests for titanium, aluminum, and vanadium, which were the principal components of the suture anchor. The anchor was removed 7 months after the first surgery, and the erythema disappeared immediately. When allergic symptoms occur and persist after the use of a metal anchor, removal should be considered as a treatment option even if the patch test result is negative.

  13. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  14. Anchoring visions in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the term 'anchoring' within systems development: Visions, developed through early systems design within an organization, need to be deeply rooted in the organization. A vision's rationale needs to be understood by those who decide if the vision should be implemented as well...... anchoring is considered to be a main activity, is outlined. The task of anchoring visions is described, and techniques and activities are suggested with respect to those actors that have to act on the visions and the recommendations from a design proposal. The paper concludes that obtaining appropriate...

  15. Anchor Trial Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  16. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    OpenAIRE

    Todd McElroy; Keith Dowd

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously p...

  17. Solid-state NMR spectra of lipid-anchored proteins under magic angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kaoru; Harada, Erisa; Sugase, Kenji; Shimamoto, Keiko

    2014-03-01

    Solid-state NMR is a promising tool for elucidating membrane-related biological phenomena. We achieved the measurement of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra for a lipid-anchored protein embedded in lipid bilayers under magic angle spinning (MAS). To date, solid-state NMR measurements of lipid-anchored proteins have not been accomplished due to the difficulty in supplying sufficient amount of stable isotope labeled samples in the overexpression of lipid-anchored proteins requiring complex posttranslational modification. We designed a pseudo lipid-anchored protein in which the protein component was expressed in E. coli and attached to a chemically synthesized lipid-anchor mimic. Using two types of membranes, liposomes and bicelles, we demonstrated different types of insertion procedures for lipid-anchored protein into membranes. In the liposome sample, we were able to observe the cross-polarization and the (13)C-(13)C chemical shift correlation spectra under MAS, indicating that the liposome sample can be used to analyze molecular interactions using dipolar-based NMR experiments. In contrast, the bicelle sample showed sufficient quality of spectra through scalar-based experiments. The relaxation times and protein-membrane interaction were capable of being analyzed in the bicelle sample. These results demonstrated the applicability of two types of sample system to elucidate the roles of lipid-anchors in regulating diverse biological phenomena.

  18. The effect of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions on membrane fouling in ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, I.H.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2000-01-01

    It was studied how protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions influence the filtration performance during the ultrafiltration of protein solutions over polymeric membranes. This was done by measuring flux, streaming potential, and protein transmission during filtration of bovine serum albumin

  19. Scaffolding during the cell cycle by A-kinase anchoring proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Han, B.; Poppinga, W J; Schmidt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Cell division relies on coordinated regulation of the cell cycle. A process including a well-defined series of strictly regulated molecular mechanisms involving cyclin-dependent kinases, retinoblastoma protein, and polo-like kinases. Dysfunctions in cell cycle regulation are associated with disease such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Compartmentalization of cellular signaling is a common strategy used to ensure the accuracy and efficiency of cellular responses. Compartmentalizati...

  20. Scaffolding during the cell cycle by A-kinase anchoring proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B; Poppinga, W J; Schmidt, M

    2015-01-01

    Cell division relies on coordinated regulation of the cell cycle. A process including a well-defined series of strictly regulated molecular mechanisms involving cyclin-dependent kinases, retinoblastoma protein, and polo-like kinases. Dysfunctions in cell cycle regulation are associated with disease

  1. Epstein on Anchors and Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guala Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between anchors and grounds is one of the most innovative contributions of The Ant Trap. In this commentary I will argue that the distinction suffers from an ambiguity between tokens and types. This leads Epstein to endorse pluralism about anchors and grounds, a position that is not justified in the book and to which there are plausible alternatives.

  2. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skin to allow removal of some of the soft tissue where the screwlike fixture will be anchored. The ... screen, acting as a hinge. Beneath that the soft tissue consisting of fat and some muscle is removed. ...

  3. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Baha system consists of a bone-anchored titanium fixture that is implanted in the mastoid bone, ... the -- great. I'm going to grab the titanium implant. And what I want you to notice ...

  4. Anchoring: A "Cure" for Epy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalgott, Mary R.

    1986-01-01

    Anchoring, a neurolinguistic programing technique, was successful in helping a sixth grader with learning disabilities reduce his anxiety reaction to math tasks. Other uses for the approach are noted and guidelines offered. (CL)

  5. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1812 RIN 2700-AD64 Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy AGENCY... multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial space goods or services. Anchor Tenancy means ``an.... Background NASA's FAR Supplement currently includes an incorrect statement that anchor tenancy contracts...

  6. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  7. Permanent ground anchors: Nicholson design criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. J.; Uranowski, D. D.; Wycliffe-Jones, P. T.

    1982-09-01

    The methods used by Nicholson Construction Company in the design of permanent ground anchors specifically as related to retaining walls are discussed. Basic soil parameters, design concepts, drilling and grouting methods for ground anchors are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on anchors founded in soil rather than rock formations. Also, soil properties necessary for the proper design of anchored retaining walls are detailed. The second chapter of the report is devoted to a general discussion of retaining wall and anchor design. In addition, a design example of an anchored retaining wall is presented in a step by step manner.

  8. 77 FR 65496 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background NASA published a proposed rule in the Federal Register at 76 FR 30301... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1812 RIN 2700-AD64 Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy AGENCY... limited conditions, to issue Anchor Tenancy contracts. Anchor Tenancy means ``an arrangement in which...

  9. INTERFACIAL SELF-ASSEMBLY OF A HYDROPHOBIN INTO AN AMPHIPATHIC PROTEIN MEMBRANE MEDIATES FUNGAL ATTACHMENT TO HYDROPHOBIC SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOSTEN, HAB; SCHUREN, FHJ; WESSELS, JGH

    1994-01-01

    The SC3p hydrophobin of Schizophyllum commune is a small hydrophobic protein (100-101 amino acids with eight cysteine residues) that self-assembles at a water/air interface and coats aerial hyphae with an SDS-insoluble protein membrane, at the outer side highly hydrophobic and with a typical rodlet

  10. Anchoring in numeric judgments of visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eLangeborg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with source credibility or cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  11. Inconspicuous anchoring effects generated by false information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qu; Jun Wang; Yuejia Luo

    2008-01-01

    The impact of false information on numerical judgments was examined on young normal subjects by an event-related potential (ERP) experiment. To imitate the judgments in real world, we ensured the subjects acknowledged of the target task. The behavioral results found that both uncertain information and false information assimilated the final estimates: higher after higher anchors and lower after lower anchors; and false information caused a weaker anchoring bias than uncertain information. ERP results provided further electrophysiological evidence for the mechanism of anchoring. In the early phrase, it was an accessibility-dominated process in which two kinds of anchors elicited an N300 component related to the accessibility of anchors propositions. The knowledge relevant to targets joined the process in the late phrase, which caused a larger amplitude of late positive component (LPC) for implausible lower anchors than that for plausible higher anchors. Source analysis showed that medial frontal gyrus, whose activity was suggested to signal the need of adjustment, was more reliable to explain the LPC elicited by implausible lower anchors. Therefore, we suggest that accessibility is facilitated when the external anchor is consistent with the world knowledge, and adjustment is initiated when the external anchor is inconsistent.

  12. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  13. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  14. Shifting Nominal Anchors: The Experience of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Leiderman; Nissan Liviatan; Alfredo Thorne

    1995-01-01

    In the mid-1980’s Mexico successfully brought down its high rate of inflation by using the exchange rate as nominal anchor in combination with strict fiscal discipline, tight monetary policy, and incomes policy. This paper discusses the role of exchange rate policy as nominal anchor in Mexico and develops the inflation target as the monetary framework for anchoring prices. It also describes how Mexico is applying this frame work while shifting to a more flexible exchange regime and discusses ...

  15. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  16. Capital Asset Pricing Model Adjusted for Anchoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    I show that adjusting CAPM for anchoring provides a unified explanation for the size, value, and momentum effects. Anchoring adjusted CAPM (ACAPM) predicts that stock splits are associated with positive abnormal returns and an increase in return volatility, whereas the reverse stock-splits are associated with negative abnormal returns and a fall in return volatility. Existing empirical evidence strongly supports these predictions. Anchoring has the effect of pushing up the equity premium, a ...

  17. Anchored Lagrangian submanifolds and their Floer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of (graded) anchored Lagrangian submanifolds and use it to study the filtration of Floer' s chain complex. We then obtain an anchored version of Lagrangian Floer homology and its (higher) product structures. They are somewhat different from the more standard non-anchored version. The anchored version discussed in this paper is more naturally related to the variational picture of Lagrangian Floer theory and so to the likes of spectral invariants. We also discuss rationality of Lagrangian submanifold and reduction of the coefficient ring of Lagrangian Floer cohomology of thereof.

  18. Observed Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and an Anchor with Less Spread of Difficulty: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Two different types of anchors are investigated in this study: a mini-version anchor and an anchor that has a less spread of difficulty than the tests to be equated. The latter is referred to as a midi anchor. The impact of these two different types of anchors on observed score equating are evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error…

  19. Link Anchors in Images: Is there Truth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aly, Robin; McGuinness, Kevin; Kleppe, Martijn; Ordelman, Roeland; O'Connor, Noel; Jong, de Franciska

    2012-01-01

    While automatic linking in text collections is well understood, little is known about links in images. In this work, we investigate two aspects of anchors, the origin of a link, in images: 1) the requirements of users for such anchors, e.g. the things users would like more information on, and 2) pos

  20. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  1. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  2. Anchoring of proteins to lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, K; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The anchoring of proteins to the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using genetic techniques is an exciting and emerging research area that holds great promise for a wide variety of biotechnological applications. This paper reviews five different types of anchoring domains that have been exp

  3. Suction anchors for floating production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjelta, T.I.; Rusas, P. [Statoil a.s. (Norway); Edvardsen, G. [HEX a.s. (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Since the suction anchor is a recent development in its current use, this work provides a brief historical background. It is shown that the suction anchor throughout evolution today is a competitive foundation solution for many applications. Examples from these categories are included in this paper. Also several installation methods are discussed. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Ringstone anchors from Gujarat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    of Dwarka and Somanath have yielded several ringstone anchors along with other stone anchors such as triangular and grapnel types. The raw material used for these ring stones comprises basalt, sandstone and limestone. Earlier, these anchors were identified...

  5. Azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal on a grooved interface with anisotropic polar anchoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuan; Zhang Zhi-Dong; Ye Wen-Jiang; Xuan Li

    2012-01-01

    Zhang Y Jet al.[Zhang Y J,Zhang Z D,Zhu L Z and Xuan L 2011 Liquid Cryst.38 355] investigated the effects of finite polar anchoring on the azimuthal anchoring energy at a grooved interface,in which polar anchoring was isotropic in the local tangent plane of the surface.In this paper,we investigate the effects of both isotropic and anisotropic polar anchoring on the surface anchoring energy in the frame of Fukuda et al.'s theory.The results show that anisotropic polar anchoring strengthens the azimuthal anchoring of grooved surfaces.In the one-elastic-constant approximation (K11 =K22 =K33 =K),the surface-groove-induced azimuthal anchoring energy is entirely consistent with the result of Faetti,and it reduces to the original result of Berreman with an increase in polar anchoring.Moreover,the contribution of the surface-like elastic term to the Rapini-Papoular anchoring energy is zero.

  6. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  7. Anchoring Adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    An anchoring adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model (ACAPM) is developed in which the payoff volatilities of well-established stocks are used as starting points that are adjusted to form volatility judgments about other stocks. Anchoring heuristic implies that such adjustments are typically insufficient. ACAPM converges to CAPM with correct adjustment, so CAPM is a special case of ACAPM. The model provides a unified explanation for the size, value, and momentum effects in the stock market. A ke...

  8. FRP-to-concrete joint assemblies anchored with multiple FRP anchors: experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H.; Smith, ST

    2010-01-01

    Higher strains can be developed in fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites which are bonded to the surfaces of concrete members if the FRP is anchored. Anchors made from FRP (also known as FRP spike anchors but herein referred to as FRP anchors) are a promising type of anchorage as they can be applied to a variety of different shaped structural elements and they have been shown to be effective in en-hancing the strain capacity of externally bonded FRP. Limited research, however, has been co...

  9. Improving performance by anchoring movement and "nerves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E; Dotson, Charles O; Jagodinsky, Adam E; Clark, Lily C; Smallwood, Lorraine L; Wilburn, Christopher; Weimar, Wendi H; Miller, Matthew W

    2016-10-01

    Golf's governing bodies' recent decision to ban all putting styles "anchoring one end of the club against the body" bridges an important practical problem with psychological theory. We report the first experiment testing whether anchoring provides technical and/or psychological advantage in competitive performance. Many "greats" of professional golf from Arnold Palmer and Jack Nicklaus to Tiger Woods have argued against anchoring, believing that it takes "nerves" out of competitive performance and therefore artificially levels the playing field. To shed more light on the issue, we tested participants' performance with anchored and unanchored putters under low and high pressure when controlling for the putter length. We found no statistically significant evidence for a technical advantage due to anchoring but a clear psychological advantage: participants who anchored their putters significantly outperformed unanchored counterparts under high, but not low, pressure. Results provide tentative evidence for the ban's justification from a competitive standpoint. However, before any definite conclusions can be made, more research is needed when using high-level golfers. PMID:27459587

  10. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  11. Curcumin Protects Neurons from Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity by Membrane Anchored AKAP79-PKA Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now stimulation of AMPA receptor as well as its downstream pathways is considered as potential central mediators in antidepressant mechanisms. As a signal integrator which binds to AMPA receptor, A-kinase anchoring protein 79-(AKAP79- PKA complex is regarded as a potential drug target to exert neuroprotective effects. A well-tolerated and multitarget drug curcumin has been confirmed to exert antidepressant-like effects. To explore whether AKAP79-PKA complex is involved in curcumin-mediated antiexcitotoxicity, we detected calcium signaling, subcellular location of AKAP79-PKA complex, phosphorylation of glutamate receptor, and ERK and AKT cascades. In this study, we found that curcumin protected neurons from glutamate insult by reducing Ca2+ influx and blocking the translocation of AKAP79 from cytomembrane to cytoplasm. In parallel, curcumin enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor and its downstream pathways in PKA-dependent manner. If we pretreated cells with PKA anchoring inhibitor Ht31 to disassociate PKA from AKAP79, no neuroprotective effects were observed. In conclusion, our results show that AKAP79-anchored PKA facilitated the signal relay from AMPA receptor to AKT and ERK cascades, which may be crucial for curcumin-mediated antiexcitotoxicity.

  12. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  13. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Li, Diandian; Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  14. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbany, Z., E-mail: zdrobbany@gmail.com; Handayani, G., E-mail: gunawanhandayani@gmail.com [Earth Physics and Complex System Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  15. Polymer's anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    The current dissertation mainly discusses about the polymers anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells in two aspects: surface interaction and bulk interaction. The goal of the research is to understand the fundamental physics of anchoring strength and apply the knowledge to liquid crystal display devices. Researchers proposed two main contributors to the surface anchoring strength: the micro grooves generated by external force and the polymer chain's alignment. Both of them has experimental proofs. In the current study, explorations were made to understand the mechanisms of surface anchoring strength and easy axis of surface liquid crystal provided by rubbed polymer alignment layer. The work includes not only the variation of the alignment layer itself such as thickness(Chapter 3) and polymer side chain (Chapter 5), but also the variation of external conditions such as temperature (Chapter 4) and rubbing condition (Chapter 6). To determine the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths, Rapini-Papoular's expression was applied. However, it was discovered that higher order terms may be required in order to fit the experimental result or theoretically predict unique anchoring behaviors (Chapter 2, Chapter 6). SEM and AFM technologies were introduced to gather the actual structures of polymer alignment layer and extrapolate the alignment of liquid crystal in a micro scale. The result shows that the anchoring strength can be adjusted by the layer thickness, side chain structure, while the easy axis direction can be adjusted by a second rubbing direction. In addition, different anchoring conditions combined with liquid crystal's elastic energy can generate quite different forms of liquid crystals (Chapter 7). In the study of bulk alignment, the main contrition from the current dissertation is applying the understanding of anchoring behavior to optimizing actual switchable devices. Conventional PDLC performance can be tuned with the knowledge of the polymer and the liquid

  16. Role of interfacial protein membrane in oxidative stability of vegetable oil substitution emulsions applicable to nutritionally modified sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2015-11-01

    The potential health risk associated with excessive dietary intake of fat and cholesterol has led to a renewed interest in replacing animal fat with nutritionally-balanced unsaturated oil in processed meats. However, as oils are more fluid and unsaturated than fats, one must overcome the challenge of maintaining both physical and chemical (oxidative) stabilities of prepared emulsions. Apart from physical entrapments, an emulsion droplet to be incorporated into a meat protein gel matrix (batter) should be equipped with an interactive protein membrane rather than a small surfactant, and the classical DLVO stabilization theory becomes less applicable. This review paper describes the steric effects along with chemical roles (radical scavenging and metal ion chelation) of proteins and their structurally modified derivatives as potential interface-building materials for oxidatively stable meat emulsions.

  17. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  18. Fibre-Reinforced Adhesive for Structure Anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnat, J.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The topic of this paper is the glue-concrete interface of bonded anchors loaded by tension force. The paper is closely focused on bond strength experiments using high strength concrete up to class C50/60 or higher together with pure epoxy resin and fibre-reinforced resin. The goal of this research is to find the limits of the effective use of such glue types in high performance concrete, and also to verify the most commonly used design methods for bonded anchors. The presented research includes experimental analysis of the glue-concrete interface and the influence of its parameters on anchor behaviour. The presented analysis shows some problems of the 'separated failure modes' approach and also presents experimentally verified bond strength values obtained for the currently most widespread glue types. Results of fibre reinforced epoxy resin are also presented in this paper.

  19. ANCHORING EFFECT ANALYSIS OF TENSIONED BOLTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建中

    1997-01-01

    The paper analyses quantitatively the anchoring effect of tensioned bolts on surrounding rock strength, and defines two concepts: one is the surrounding rock strength increased amount △τ13 and the other is the strength influence factor k. The anchoring effect of tensioned bolts is considered to increase a strength increased amount △τ13 where △τ13 is the product k and tensioned load p, i. e. △τ13= kp, where k is a function of two variables x and y. The distributive properties both △τ13 and k are also discussed in the paper, obtaining some useful results for designing bolting support parameters.

  20. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation of prefere......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...

  1. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Tsung Fei; Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams's K mult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  2. The "Anchor" Method: Principle and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgin, Paul

    This report discusses the "anchor" language learning method that is based upon derivation rather than construction, using Italian as an example of a language to be learned. This method borrows from the natural process of language learning as it asks the student to remember whole expressions that serve as vehicles for learning both words and rules,…

  3. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  4. Anchor Stress Checking of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the calculating is to check the anchor stresses of the security injection tank to know whether the stress is satisfied the code requirements on the basis of all the reaction forces gained in the static, seismic and thermal stress results.

  5. The bone-anchored hearing aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The bone-anchored hearing aid (Baha) was introduced in 1977 by Tjellström and colleagues and has now been used clinically for over 30 years. Generally, the outcomes are good, and several studies have shown improved audiological- and quality of life outcomes. The principle of the Baha is, that sound...

  6. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  7. Predicting Anchor Links between Heterogeneous Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadmanesh, Sina; Khodadadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    People usually get involved in multiple social networks to enjoy new services or to fulfill their needs. Many new social networks try to attract users of other existing networks to increase the number of their users. Once a user (called source user) of a social network (called source network) joins a new social network (called target network), a new inter-network link (called anchor link) is formed between the source and target networks. In this paper, we concentrated on predicting the formation of such anchor links between heterogeneous social networks. Unlike conventional link prediction problems in which the formation of a link between two existing users within a single network is predicted, in anchor link prediction, the target user is missing and will be added to the target network once the anchor link is created. To solve this problem, we use meta-paths as a powerful tool for utilizing heterogeneous information in both the source and target networks. To this end, we propose an effective general meta-pat...

  8. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  9. Stone anchors from the Okhamandal region, Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    During marine archaeological explorations since 1983, off Dwarka, a large number of stone anchors were discovered and dated to 1400 BC, comparing with anchors found in Mediterranean waters. In recent archaeological explorations off Dwarka, Bet...

  10. Susceptibility to anchoring effects: How openness-to-experience influences responses to anchoring cues

    OpenAIRE

    Todd McElroy; Keith Dowd

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously p...

  11. Career Paths, Images and Anchors: A Study with Brazilian Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimnik, Zelia Miranda; de Oliveira, Luiz Claudio Vieira; Sant'anna, Anderson De Souza; Barros, Delba Teixeira Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses career anchors changes associated to images and professionals trajectories. Its main question: Do anchors careers change through time? We conducted twelve interviews involving professionals from the Administration Area, applying Schein's Career Anchors Inventory (1993). We did the same two years later. In both of them, the…

  12. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  13. A STUDY ON LOAD CAPACITY OF HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED PLATE ANCHORS IN SANDY SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    BALESHWAR SINGH; BIRJUKUMAR MISTRI

    2011-01-01

    Foundations of structures which are subjected to uplift loading require anchoring systems to resist pullout loads. Such anchors can be broadly classified as gravity anchors, pile anchors and plate anchors. Plate anchors can be circular, square or strip in shape. The loading applied on plate anchors can be vertical, inclined or horizontal depending on the anchor orientation. In this study, various experimental, theoretical and numerical approaches for estimation of load capacity of horizontal ...

  14. Geodesic defect anchoring on nematic shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirantsev, Leonid V; Sonnet, André M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2012-08-01

    Nematic shells are colloidal particles coated with nematic liquid crystal molecules, which may freely glide and rotate on the colloid's surface while keeping their long axis on the local tangent plane. Molecular dynamics simulations on a nanoscopic spherical shell indicate that under appropriate adhesion conditions for the molecules on the equator, the equilibrium nematic texture exhibits at each pole a pair of +1/2 defects so close to one another to be treated as one +1 defect. Spirals connect the polar defects, though the continuum limit of the interaction potential would not feature any elastic anisotropy. A molecular averaging justifies an anchoring defect energy that feels the geodesics emanating from the defect. All our observations are explained by such a geodesic anchoring, which vanishes on flat manifolds. PMID:23005713

  15. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  16. An Analytical Method for Positioning Drag Anchors in Seabed Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 刘海笑; 李新仲; 李清平; 曹静

    2015-01-01

    Positioning drag anchors in seabed soils are strongly influenced not only by the properties of the anchor and soil, but also by the characteristics of the installation line. The investigation on the previous prediction methods related to anchor positioning demonstrates that the prediction of the anchor position during dragging has inevitably introduced some key and unsubstantiated hypotheses and the applicability of these methods is limited. In the present study, the interactional system between the drag anchor and installation line is firstly introduced for the analysis of anchor positioning. Based on the two mechanical models for embedded lines and drag anchors, the positioning equations for drag anchors have been derived both for cohesive and noncohesive soils. Since the drag angle at the shackle is the most important parameter in the positioning equations, a novel analytical method that can predict both the variation and the exact value of the drag angle at the shackle is proposed. The analytical method for positioning drag anchors which combines the interactional system between the drag anchor and the installation line has provided a reasonable theoretic approach to investigate the anchor behaviors in soils. By comparing with the model flume experiments, the sensitivity, effectiveness and veracity of the positioning method are well verified.

  17. Recent Study of Drag Embedment Plate Anchors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haixiao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of drag embedment plate anchors recently carried out in Tianjin University are summarized in this research paper,which involve a series of important topics relevant to the study of drag anchors.The techniques for measuring the trajectory and movement direction of drag anchors in soils,the techniques for measuring the moving embedment point and reverse catenary shape of the embedded drag line,the penetration mechanism and kinematic behavior of drag anchors,the ultimate embedment depth of drag anchors,the movement direction of the anchor with an arbitrary fluke section,the reverse catenary properties of the embedded drag line,the interactional properties between drag anchor and installation line,the kinematic model of drag anchors in seabed soils,and the analytical method for predicting the anchor trajectory in soils will all be examined.The present work remarkably reduces the uncertainties in design and analysis of drag embedment plate anchors,and is beneficial to improving the application of this new type of drag anchor in offshore engineering.

  18. Vertical and lateral capacity of screw anchor piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, D.J.; Tweedie, R.W.; Harris, M.C. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Niedermaier, J. [Alberta Anchor Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-09-01

    Test programs were conducted to investigate the deformation behaviour of screw anchors during loading. Screw anchors are used in foundation applications for transmission towers and retaining walls, as well as for foundation elements for buildings, pipe racks, storage tanks and equipment. Screw anchor piles were installed at a site near Fort Saskatchewan, at a site underlain by typical stiff glacial soils. Single and multi-helix screw anchors with helix diameters up to 381 mm were tested in compression and tension. Lateral load tests were conducted on screw anchors with shaft diameters ranging from 114 mm to 273 mm. Results from the study showed that vertical and horizontal loads can be carried by screw anchor piles that are comparable with those achieved with driven steel piles, but screw anchors are easier to install, and can be more cost effective in some cases. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Anchoring properties of substrate with a grating surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Wen-Jiang; Xing Hong-Yu; Yang Guo-Chen

    2007-01-01

    The anchoring properties of substrate with a grating surface are investigated analytically. The alignment of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) in a grating surface originates from two mechanisms, thus the anchoring energy consists of two parts. One originates from the interaction potential between NLC molecules and the molecules on the substrate surface,and the other stems from the increased elastic strain energy. Based on the two mechanisms, the expression of anchoring energy per unit area of a projected plane of this grating surface is deduced and called the equivalent anchoring energy formula. Both the strength and the easy direction of equivalent anchoring energy are a function of the geometrical parameters (amplitude and pitch) of a grating surface. By using this formula, the grating surface can be replaced by its projected plane and its anchoring properties can be described by the equivalent anchoring energy formula.

  20. Anchoring in a novel bimanual coordination pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovat, Dana; Lam, Melanie Y; Brunke, Kirstin M; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian M

    2009-02-01

    Anchoring in cyclical movements has been defined as regions of reduced spatial or temporal variability [Beek, P. J. (1989). Juggling dynamics. PhD thesis. Amsterdam: Free University Press] that are typically found at movement reversal points. For in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronizing reversal points with a metronome pulse has resulted in decreased anchor point variability and increased pattern stability [Byblow, W. D., Carson, R. G., & Goodman, D. (1994). Expressions of asymmetries and anchoring in bimanual coordination. Human Movement Science, 13, 3-28; Fink, P. W., Foo, P., Jirsa, V. K., & Kelso, J. A. S. (2000). Local and global stabilization of coordination by sensory information. Experimental Brain Research, 134, 9-20]. The present experiment examined anchoring during acquisition, retention, and transfer of a 90 degrees phase-offset continuous bimanual coordination pattern (whereby the right limb lags the left limb by one quarter cycle), involving horizontal flexion about the elbow. Three metronome synchronization strategies were imposed: participants either synchronized maximal flexion of the right arm (i.e., single metronome), both flexion and extension of the right arm (i.e., double metronome within-limb), or flexion of each arm (i.e., double metronome between-limb) to an auditory metronome. In contrast to simpler in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronization of additional reversal points to the metronome did not reduce reversal point variability or increase pattern stability. Furthermore, practicing under different metronome synchronization strategies did not appear to have a significant effect on the rate of acquisition of the pattern. PMID:18842313

  1. Anchoring Heuristic and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Hammad

    2015-01-01

    What happens when the anchoring and adjustment heuristic of Tversky and Kahneman (1974) is incorporated in the standard consumption-based capital asset pricing model (CCAPM)? The surprising finding is that it not only resolves the high equity-premium and low risk-free rate puzzles with a low risk-aversion coefficient, but also provides a unified framework for understanding countercyclical equity-premium, excess volatility, size, value, and momentum effects, and abnormal returns and volatiliti...

  2. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    2008-01-01

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation in software systems with less human interaction. Major challenge to deployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents and preventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems, as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchor toolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure management of mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. It provide...

  3. Test Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and a Midi Anchor: A Case Study Using SAT[R] Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Curley, Edward; Feigenbaum, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    This study explores an anchor that is different from the traditional miniature anchor in test score equating. In contrast to a traditional "mini" anchor that has the same spread of item difficulties as the tests to be equated, the studied anchor, referred to as a "midi" anchor (Sinharay & Holland), has a smaller spread of item difficulties than…

  4. Anchored design of protein-protein interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few existing protein-protein interface design methods allow for extensive backbone rearrangements during the design process. There is also a dichotomy between redesign methods, which take advantage of the native interface, and de novo methods, which produce novel binders. METHODOLOGY: Here, we propose a new method for designing novel protein reagents that combines advantages of redesign and de novo methods and allows for extensive backbone motion. This method requires a bound structure of a target and one of its natural binding partners. A key interaction in this interface, the anchor, is computationally grafted out of the partner and into a surface loop on the design scaffold. The design scaffold's surface is then redesigned with backbone flexibility to create a new binding partner for the target. Careful choice of a scaffold will bring experimentally desirable characteristics into the new complex. The use of an anchor both expedites the design process and ensures that binding proceeds against a known location on the target. The use of surface loops on the scaffold allows for flexible-backbone redesign to properly search conformational space. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This protocol was implemented within the Rosetta3 software suite. To demonstrate and evaluate this protocol, we have developed a benchmarking set of structures from the PDB with loop-mediated interfaces. This protocol can recover the correct loop-mediated interface in 15 out of 16 tested structures, using only a single residue as an anchor.

  5. FragAnchor: A Large-Scale Predictor of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors in Eukaryote Protein Sequences by Qualitative Scoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a common but complex C-terminal post-translational modification of extracellular proteins in eukaryotes. Here we investigate the problem of correctly annotating GPI-anchored proteins for the growing number of sequences in public databases. We developed a computational system, called FragAnchor, based on the tandem use of a neural network (NN) and a hidden Markov model (HMM). Firstly, NN selects potential GPI-anchored proteins in a dataset, then HMM parses these potential GPI signals and refines the prediction by qualitative scoring. FragAnchor correctly predicted 91% of all the GPI-anchored proteins annotated in the Swiss-Prot database.In a large-scale analysis of 29 eukaryote proteomes, FragAnchor predicted that the percentage of highly probable GPI-anchored proteins is between 0.21% and 2.01%. The distinctive feature of FragAnchor, compared with other systems,is that it targets only the C-terminus of a protein, making it less sensitive to the background noise found in databases and possible incomplete protein sequences. Moreover, FragAnchor can be used to predict GPI-anchored proteins in all eukaryotes. Finally, by using qualitative scoring, the predictions combine both sensitivity and information content. The predictor is publicly available at http: // navet. ics. hawaii.edu/~fraganchor/NNHMM/NNHMM.html.

  6. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  7. Dynamic performance of concrete undercut anchors for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrenholtz, Christoph, E-mail: christoph@mahrenholtz.net; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Behavior of undercut anchors under dynamic actions simulating earthquakes. • First high frequency load and crack cycling tests on installed concrete anchors ever. • Comprehensive review of anchor qualification for Nuclear Power Plants. - Abstract: Post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and nonstructural connections to concrete. In many countries, concrete anchors used for Nuclear Power Plants have to be qualified to ensure reliable behavior even under extreme conditions. The tests required for qualification of concrete anchors are carried out at quasi-static loading rates well below the rates to be expected for dynamic actions deriving from earthquakes, airplane impacts or explosions. To investigate potentially beneficial effects of high loading rates and cycling frequencies, performance tests on installed undercut anchors were conducted. After introductory notes on anchor technology and a comprehensive literature review, this paper discusses the qualification of anchors for Nuclear Power Plants and the testing carried out to quantify experimentally the effects of dynamic actions on the load–displacement behavior of undercut anchors.

  8. The HOPS/Class C Vps Complex Tethers High-Curvature Membranes via a Direct Protein-Membrane Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ruoya; Stroupe, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Membrane tethering is a physical association of two membranes before their fusion. Many membrane tethering factors have been identified, but the interactions that mediate inter-membrane associations remain largely a matter of conjecture. Previously, we reported that the homotypic fusion and protein sorting/Class C vacuolar protein sorting (HOPS/Class C Vps) complex, which has two binding sites for the yeast vacuolar Rab GTPase Ypt7p, can tether two low-curvature liposomes when both membranes bear Ypt7p. Here, we show that HOPS tethers highly curved liposomes to Ypt7p-bearing low-curvature liposomes even when the high-curvature liposomes are protein-free. Phosphorylation of the curvature-sensing amphipathic lipid-packing sensor (ALPS) motif from the Vps41p HOPS subunit abrogates tethering of high-curvature liposomes. A HOPS complex without its Vps39p subunit, which contains one of the Ypt7p binding sites in HOPS, lacks tethering activity, though it binds high-curvature liposomes and Ypt7p-bearing low-curvature liposomes. Thus, HOPS tethers highly curved membranes via a direct protein-membrane interaction. Such high-curvature membranes are found at the sites of vacuole tethering and fusion. There, vacuole membranes bend sharply, generating large areas of vacuole-vacuole contact. We propose that HOPS localizes via the Vps41p ALPS motif to these high-curvature regions. There, HOPS binds via Vps39p to Ypt7p in an apposed vacuole membrane. PMID:27307091

  9. Analysis of Glenoid Inter-anchor Distance with an All-Suture Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jonathan; Robinson, Sean; Dutton, Pascual; Dickinson, Ephraim; Rodriguez, John Paul; Camisa, William; Leasure, Jeremi M.; Montgomery, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization using suture anchors are commonly used techniques. More recently developed all-suture systems employ smaller diameter anchors, which increase repair contact area and allow greater placement density on narrow surfaces such as the glenoid. Our goal is investigate the strength characteristics of various inter-anchor distances in a human glenoid model. Methods: Twelve fresh-frozen human cadaveric glenoids were potted after the labrum was excised. The glenoids were then implanted with 1.4 mm all-suture anchors (Juggerknot, Biomet, Warsaw, IN) at varying inter-anchor distances. Anchors were implanted adjacent to one another or at 2 mm, 3 mm, or 5 mm distances using a template with pre-drilled holes. The glenoids were then underwent single cycle pullout testing using a test frame (Instron 8521, Instron Inc., Norwood, MA). A 5 N preload was applied to the construct and the actuator was driven away from the shoulder at a rate of 12.5mm/s as seen in Figure 1. Force and displacement were collected from the test frame actuator at a rate of 500 Hz. The primary outcomes were failure strength and stiffness. Stiffness was calculated from the initial linear region of the force displacement curve. Failure strength was defined as the first local maximum inflection point in the force displacement curve. Results: During load to fail testing, all but three of the specimens had both anchors pull out of the glenoid. The other mode of failure included one or both of the sutures failing. Stiffness was 13.52 ± 3.8, 17.97 ± 5.02, 17.59 ± 4.65 and 18.95 ± 4.67 N/mm for the adjacent, 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm treatment groups as shown Table 1. The adjacent group had a significantly lower stiffness compared to the other treatment groups. Failure strength was 48.68 ± 20.64, 76.16 ± 23.78, 73.19 ± 35.83 and 87.04 ± 34.67 N for the adjacent, 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm treatment groups as shown in Table 1. The adjacent group had a significantly lower

  10. Endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharanjak Shefali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs represent an interesting amalgamation of the three basic kinds of cellular macromolecules viz. proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. An unusually hybrid moiety, the GPI-anchor is expressed in a diverse range of organisms from parasites to mammalian cells and serves to anchor a large number of functionally diverse proteins and has been the center of attention in scientific debate for some time now. Membrane organization of GPI-APs into laterally-organized cholesterol-sphingolipid ordered membrane domains or "rafts" and endocytosis of GPI-APs has been intensely debated. Inclusion into or exclusion from these membrane domains seems to be the critical factor in determining the endocytic mechanisms and intracellular destinations of GPI-APs. The intracellular signaling as well as endocytic trafficking of GPI-APs is critically dependent upon the cell surface organization of GPI-APs, and the associations with these lipid rafts play a vital role during these processes. The mechanism of endocytosis for GPI-APs may differ from other cellular endocytic pathways, such as those mediated by clathrin-coated pits (caveolae, and is necessary for unique biological functions. Numerous intracellular factors are involved in and regulate the endocytosis of GPI-APs, and these may be variably dependent on cell-type. The central focus of this article is to describe the significance of the endocytosis of GPI-APs on a multitude of biological processes, ranging from nutrient-uptake to more complex immune responses. Ultimately, a thorough elucidation of GPI-AP mediated signaling pathways and their regulatory elements will enhance our understanding of essential biological processes and benefit as components of disease intervention strategies.

  11. Adsorption phenomena and anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals.The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage...

  12. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  13. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J.; Matsuda, Nicole A.; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16–41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5–6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface. PMID:27011815

  14. The impact of anchoring bias in the UK equity market

    OpenAIRE

    Koskinen, Matti

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this thesis is to study how the anchoring bias, a cognitive bias, affects equity analysts' forecasts and what kind of implications this bias has for investors and managers of listed companies in the UK stock market. I test whether industry median forecast earnings per share can work as an anchor when analysts are estimating companies' future earnings and how this potential anchoring affects forecast errors, future stock returns, earnings surprises and s...

  15. Decoding Cytoskeleton-Anchored and Non-Anchored Receptors from Single-Cell Adhesion Force Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariisik, Ediz; Popov, Cvetan; Müller, Jochen P; Docheva, Denitsa; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Benoit, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Complementary to parameters established for cell-adhesion force curve analysis, we evaluated the slope before a force step together with the distance from the surface at which the step occurs and visualized the result in a two-dimensional density plot. This new tool allows detachment steps of long membrane tethers to be distinguished from shorter jumplike force steps, which are typical for cytoskeleton-anchored bonds. A prostate cancer cell line (PC3) immobilized on an atomic-force-microscopy sensor interacted with three different substrates: collagen-I (Col-I), bovine serum albumin, and a monolayer of bone marrow-derived stem cells (SCP1). To address PC3 cells' predominant Col-I binding molecules, an antibody-blocking β1-integrin was used. Untreated PC3 cells on Col-I or SCP1 cells, which express Col-I, predominantly showed jumps in their force curves, while PC3 cells on bovine-serum-albumin- and antibody-treated PC3 cells showed long membrane tethers. The probability density plots thus revealed that β1-integrin-specific interactions are predominately anchored to the cytoskeleton, while the nonspecific interactions are mainly membrane-anchored. Experiments with latrunculin-A-treated PC3 cells corroborated these observations. The plots thus reveal details of the anchoring of bonds to the cell and provide a better understanding of receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:26445433

  16. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Virdi, Kodinar); Maharashtra (Dabhol, Vijaydurg, Sindhudurg); Goa (Baga, Grande Island, Sunchi Reef); Kerala (Kannur); Lakshadweep (Minicoy Island); Tamil Nadu (Gulf of Mannar, Tuticorin and Fig. 1 Map showing the stone anchor sites in India. (Sila...-Arabian type from Grande Island (Fig. 3f) and a pyramidal type of stone anchor from Baga waters (Sila Tripati et al., 2013). At first glance, the Baga stone anchor appears like an Indo-Arabian type (Fig. 3g). All these anchors of Goa are chance finds...

  17. Calculation of prestressed anchor segment by 3D infiniteelement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfen WANG; Hongyang XIE; Yuanhan WANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on 1D infinite element theory, the coordinate transformation and shape function of 3D point-radiation 4-node infinite elements were derived.They were coupled with 8-node finite elements to compute the compressive deformation of the prestressed anchor segment. The results indicate that when the prestressed force acts on the anchor segment, the stresses and displacements in the rock around the anchor segment are concentrated in the zone center with the anchor axis and are subjected to exponential decay. Therefore, the stresses and the displacement spindles are formed. The calculation results of the infinite element are close to the theoretical results.

  18. AUV Load Separation Motion with Constraint of Anchor Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Cheng; SONG Bao-wei; DU Xiao-xu; WANG Peng; LI Jia-wang

    2009-01-01

    Motion equations of AUV(autonomous underwater vehicle) load separation with the constraint of anchor chain is derived. Based on proper engineering assumptions for anchor chain,system viewpoint is used to found the motion equations, and the D'Alembert principle is used to eliminate the constraint force of anchor chain. Based on the equations, the motion simulation is carried out to a certain AUV, which reflects the actual condition, and is used for the reference of resrarching AUV load separation motion with the constraint of anchor chain.

  19. Moody experts --- How mood and expertise influence judgmental anchoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Englich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Anchoring effects, the assimilation of numerical estimates to previously considered standards, are highly robust. Two studies examined whether mood and expertise jointly moderate the magnitude of anchoring. Previous research has demonstrated that happy mood induces judges to process information in a less thorough manner than sad mood, which means that happy judges tend to be more susceptible to unwanted influences. However, this may not be true for anchoring effects. Because anchoring results from an elaborate process of selective knowledge activation, more thorough processing should lead to more anchoring; as a result, sad judges should show stronger anchoring effects than happy judges and happy judges may even remain uninfluenced by the given anchors. Because information processing of experts may be relatively independent of their mood, however, mood may influence anchoring only in non-experts. Results of two studies on legal decision-making (Study 1 and numeric estimates (Study 2 are consistent with these expectations. These findings suggest that, at least for non-experts, positive mood may eliminate the otherwise robust anchoring effect.

  20. Anchor Fitted with Special Fin for Soil Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure that anchored soil retention systems are more stable and free from failure, suitable anchors are required. A new technique using anchors with fins were investigated, particularly for mechanically stabilized earth. An experimental laboratory investigation on the behaviour of anchors with fins by using various shapes, sizes, arrangements and lengths were presented. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the load-displacement relationship of pullout anchors with fins embedded in sand. A rectangular model tank with dimensions 0.6 m length, 0.5 m width and 0.3 m high was designed. Models of 15 types of anchors of different lengths (0.3 m, 0.4 m and 0.5 m with fins using different and various types of lengths, sizes and arrangements embedded in sand, were experimented with . The testing program included 45 tests embedded in dry sand. The experiment was conducted in a soil laboratory at a scale of 1:10. The fin was placed at the end of the anchor shaft that abuts the failing structure which prevents further movement. It was concluded that the size, shape and angle of the fin influenced the pullout capacity of the anchor. Finally, selected anchors were recommended based on their superior performance.

  1. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  2. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  3. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  4. Proteomic analysis of GPI-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2006-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) represent a subset of post-translationally modified proteins that are tethered to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane via a C-terminal GPI anchor. GPI-APs are found in a variety of eukaryote species, from pathogenic microorganisms...

  5. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  6. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  7. Grapnel stone anchors from Saurashtra: Remnants of Indo-Arab trade on the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Stone anchors have been used as a primary source of information on ancient navigation by marine archaeologists since long. These anchors used by ancient mariners are often noticed underwater at various places across the world. Stone anchors are also...

  8. Pyramidal anchor stone from Baga waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Underwater exploration in the coastal region off Baga (Goa, India) led to the recovery of an isolated stone artefact, which resembles a pyramidal type of anchor stone. This anchor stone is unlike to other pyramidal anchor stones found elsewhere...

  9. The Use of Two Anchors in Nonequivalent Groups with Anchor Test (NEAT) Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-10-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; Deng, Weiling; Zhang, Yu-Li

    2010-01-01

    In the equating literature, a recurring concern is that equating functions that utilize a single anchor to account for examinee groups' nonequivalence are biased when the groups are extremely different and/or when the anchor only weakly measures what the tests measure. Several proposals have been made to address this equating bias by incorporating…

  10. Distributed localization for anchor-free sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xunxue; Shan Zhiguan; Liu Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    Geographic location of nodes is very useful in a sensor network. Previous localization algorithms assume that there exist some anchor nodes in this kind of network, and then other nodes are estimated to create their coordinates. Once there are not anchors to be deployed, those localization algorithms will be invalidated. Many papers in this field focus on anchor-based solutions. The use of anchors introduces many limitations, since anchors require external equipments such as global position system, cause additional power consumption. A novel positioning algorithm is proposed to use a virtual coordinate system based on a new concept-virtual anchor. It is executed in a distributed fashion according to the connectivity of a node and the measured distances to its neighbors. Both the adjacent member information and the ranging distance result are combined to generate the estimated position of a network, one of which is independently adopted for localization previously. At the position refinement stage the intermediate estimation of a node begins to be evaluated on its reliability for position mutation; thus the positioning optimization process of the whole network is avoided falling into a local optimal solution. Simulation results prove that the algorithm can resolve the distributed localization problem for anchor-free sensor networks, and is superior to previous methods in terms of its positioning capability under a variety of circumstances.

  11. Neurostimulation leads, intrathecal catheters and anchoring devices evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Demartini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific studies highlight the usefulness of spinal cord stimulation and intrathecal therapy for the management of chronic pain syndromes resistant to pharmacological or less invasive interventional therapies. One of the possible complications of these techniques, reported in literature, is migration of the lead or catheter; thus the use of an anchoring system is considered mandatory. Every company that produces devices for neurostimulation or neuromodulation provides various anchoring devices evolved over time. In the study, the authors discuss about the most common anchoring devices based on their clinical experience.

  12. Material Testing for Robotic Omnidirectional Anchor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkoe, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    To successfully explore near-Earth Asteroids the question of mobility emerges as the key issue for any robotic mission. When small bodies have extremely low escape velocities, traditional methods, such as wheels, would send the robot hurtling off of the asteroid's surface. To solve this problem, JPL has developed an omni-directional anchoring mechanism for use in microgravity that utilizes microspine technology. These microspines are placed in circular arrays with 16 independent carriages biasing the surface of the rock. The asperities in the surface allow the gripper to hold nearly 150N in all directions. While the gripper has been proven successful on consolidated rocks, it had yet to be tested on a variety of other surfaces that are suspected to separate the large boulders on an asteroid. Since asteroid surfaces vary widely, from friable rocks to lose ponds of regolith, the gripper was tested in a large variety of materials such as, bonded pumice, sand, gravel, and loose rocks. The forces are applied tangent, at 45 degrees, and normal to the surface of the material. The immediate results from this experiment will give insight into the gripper's effectiveness across the wide spectrum of materials found on asteroids.

  13. Liquid crystal director fluctuations and surface anchoring by molecular simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrienko, D.; Germano, G; Allen, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a simple and reliable method to measure the liquid crystal surface anchoring strength by molecular simulation. The method is based on the measurement of the long-range fluctuation modes of the director in confined geometry. As an example, molecular simulations of a liquid crystal in slab geometry between parallel walls with homeotropic anchoring have been carried out using the Monte Carlo technique. By studying different slab thicknesses, we are able to calculate separately the pos...

  14. Evaluation of the stability of anchor-reinforced slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, CF; Zhu, DY; Chan, DH; Jiang, HD

    2005-01-01

    The conventional methods of slices are commonly used for the analysis of slope stability. When anchor loads are involved, they are often treated as point loads, which may lead to abrupt changes in the normal stress distribution on the potential slip surface. As such abrupt changes are not reasonable and do not reflect reality in the field, an alternative approach based on the limit equilibrium principle is proposed for the evaluation of the stability of anchor-reinforced slopes. With this app...

  15. Mechanical behaviour of adhesive anchors installed in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Zavliaris, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    The thesis presents the main characteristics of the mechanical behaviour of adhesive anchors installed in concrete. They are the mechanisms of failure, the relationship between applied pull-out'loadand slip of the anchor and the stresses and strains in each of the three components (steel-resin'-concrete). The study is-primarily-experimental--but theoretical and finite element analyses are also included. These main characteristics are dependent on the'adhesion and wetting phenomena across the ...

  16. Transosseous Acetabular Labral Repair as an Alternative to Anchors

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Carro, Luis; Cabello, Andres Gonzalez; Rakha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Patnaik, Sarthak; Centeno, Elias; Miranda, Victor; Fernández, Ana Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Labral tears are the most common pathology in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy and the most common cause of mechanical hip symptoms. Labral repair techniques have been described in the literature using suture anchors placed as close as possible to the acetabular rim without penetrating the articular surface. Optimal surgical technique for labral repair is very important, and an inappropriate entry point and guide angulation may lead to intra-articular penetration of the anchor, chondral da...

  17. The Effect of Anchoring Sutures on Medicinal Leech Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, Victor J.; Hoppe, Ian C.; Landi, Rocco; Ciminello, Frank S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The implementation of leech therapy for surgical flaps is not always logistically easy or comfortable for patients or healthcare providers. We examine different methods of placing sutures in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, to make the implementation of leech therapy easier. Methods: Sixteen leeches were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group, a deep anchoring suture group, and a superficial anchoring suture group. The leeches were observed to determine if either o...

  18. Gpr161 anchoring of PKA consolidates GPCR and cAMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Verena A; Mayrhofer, Johanna E; Ilouz, Ronit; Tschaikner, Philipp; Raffeiner, Philipp; Röck, Ruth; Courcelles, Mathieu; Apelt, Federico; Lu, Tsan-Wen; Baillie, George S; Thibault, Pierre; Aanstad, Pia; Stelzl, Ulrich; Taylor, Susan S; Stefan, Eduard

    2016-07-12

    Scaffolding proteins organize the information flow from activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to intracellular effector cascades both spatially and temporally. By this means, signaling scaffolds, such as A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), compartmentalize kinase activity and ensure substrate selectivity. Using a phosphoproteomics approach we identified a physical and functional connection between protein kinase A (PKA) and Gpr161 (an orphan GPCR) signaling. We show that Gpr161 functions as a selective high-affinity AKAP for type I PKA regulatory subunits (RI). Using cell-based reporters to map protein-protein interactions, we discovered that RI binds directly and selectively to a hydrophobic protein-protein interaction interface in the cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail of Gpr161. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that a binary complex between Gpr161 and RI promotes the compartmentalization of Gpr161 to the plasma membrane. Moreover, we show that Gpr161, functioning as an AKAP, recruits PKA RI to primary cilia in zebrafish embryos. We also show that Gpr161 is a target of PKA phosphorylation, and that mutation of the PKA phosphorylation site affects ciliary receptor localization. Thus, we propose that Gpr161 is itself an AKAP and that the cAMP-sensing Gpr161:PKA complex acts as cilium-compartmentalized signalosome, a concept that now needs to be considered in the analyzing, interpreting, and pharmaceutical targeting of PKA-associated functions. PMID:27357676

  19. Gpr161 anchoring of PKA consolidates GPCR and cAMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Verena A; Mayrhofer, Johanna E; Ilouz, Ronit; Tschaikner, Philipp; Raffeiner, Philipp; Röck, Ruth; Courcelles, Mathieu; Apelt, Federico; Lu, Tsan-Wen; Baillie, George S; Thibault, Pierre; Aanstad, Pia; Stelzl, Ulrich; Taylor, Susan S; Stefan, Eduard

    2016-07-12

    Scaffolding proteins organize the information flow from activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to intracellular effector cascades both spatially and temporally. By this means, signaling scaffolds, such as A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), compartmentalize kinase activity and ensure substrate selectivity. Using a phosphoproteomics approach we identified a physical and functional connection between protein kinase A (PKA) and Gpr161 (an orphan GPCR) signaling. We show that Gpr161 functions as a selective high-affinity AKAP for type I PKA regulatory subunits (RI). Using cell-based reporters to map protein-protein interactions, we discovered that RI binds directly and selectively to a hydrophobic protein-protein interaction interface in the cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail of Gpr161. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that a binary complex between Gpr161 and RI promotes the compartmentalization of Gpr161 to the plasma membrane. Moreover, we show that Gpr161, functioning as an AKAP, recruits PKA RI to primary cilia in zebrafish embryos. We also show that Gpr161 is a target of PKA phosphorylation, and that mutation of the PKA phosphorylation site affects ciliary receptor localization. Thus, we propose that Gpr161 is itself an AKAP and that the cAMP-sensing Gpr161:PKA complex acts as cilium-compartmentalized signalosome, a concept that now needs to be considered in the analyzing, interpreting, and pharmaceutical targeting of PKA-associated functions.

  20. Anchor stud monotonic and cyclic shear tests. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), the main cavity liner and other cavity liners with large diameter/thickness (D/t) ratios are anchored to the concrete by anchor studs. These anchor studs are subject to shear loading resulting from prestressing, pressurization, temperature, and creep of the PCRV. The test program discussed in this report consists of both monotonic and cyclic testing of models simulating the prototype anchor stud/concrete assembly. The tests determined the shear stiffness characteristics of the 3/4-in.-diameter, one-piece Nelson anchor stud embedded in concrete and established its low-cycle fatigue life under displacement-controlled loading. The previously obtained results of Phase I and Phase II tests on two-piece anchor studs, along with high-cyclic fatigue data taken from the literature, are discussed and are plotted with the current, Phase III, results to form a displacement versus cycles to failure curve covering a useful range of design applications

  1. Anchor Plates in Two-Layered Cohesion Less Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Niroumand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: During the past few years a great number of experimental model and numerical analysis results on the uplift resistance of anchor plate embedded in homogeneous cohesion less soil has been reported by many researchers. A review of related literature shows that not much research has been done to analyze the performance of anchor plates in layered soils a problem, which is often encountered by the professional engineers in the field. Approach: This study presented the performance of the anchor plates in the cohesion less soil by different researchers. It was based on different previous researches, from the earliest till the most recent ones. The main aim of this research was focused on the prediction of the anchor plates behavior and the force in the layered cohesion less soils. Few laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the uplift capacity behavior of cohesion less soil by previous researchers. Results: The experimental and numerical investigation included uplift test on cohesion less soil by last researchers. The embedment ratio and the effect of density on uplift response were evaluated. This analysis was investigated experimentally and numerically behavior of anchor plates buried in two layered cohesion less soil. Although earlier researchers developed experimentally expressions to estimate the uplift capacity of irregular anchor plates in layered cohesion less soils. Conclusion: The study observed that the ultimate uplift capacity is dependent on the relative strength of the two layers, the depth ratio of embedment and the upper layer thickness ratio.

  2. Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-07-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.

  3. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  4. Perceptual anchoring in preschool children: not adultlike, but there.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference, a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference, no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a

  5. An Analysis for Cross Beam-Ground Anchor Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yingzi; Zhang Baiqing; Tang Huiming

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of water facilities, hydroelectric projects, highways and railways in China, beam-anchor reinforcement has been widely used to stabilize slopes in recent years. But the theory for the design of beam-anchor reinforcement is far behind the application. Cross beam-ground anchor reinforcement is a combination of beams and anchors forming a new structure to prevent slope sliding. The forces in the beams are discussed using theoretical analysis and numerical modeling. The Winkler model is used to analyze the beams, and reasonable values of λ, length, spacing and cantilevered length for the beams are determined through a theoretical analysis. A three-dimensional finite element method is adopted to model the interaction of the beams and soils and a structure analysis is applied to treat the beams and to study the stress distribution in external and internal beams. The analytical results show that it is better to satisfy λ≥2π, the spacing between anchors ls should be lsλ<π/2 and cantilever length should be (0.3-0.5)ls for the optimum design. The numerical results show that the same design can be used for all beams in different directions, including the internal and external beams. The application of the analytical method for reinforcement beam analysis is acceptable. It is better to choose a safety coefficient of 1.3 for design based on the analytical method for safety.

  6. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I; Schirmer, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both.

  7. Robust conductance of dumbbell molecular junctions with fullerene anchoring groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Settnes, Mikkel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    The conductance of a molecular wire connected to metallic electrodes is known to be sensitive to the atomic structure of the molecule-metal contact. This contact is to a large extent determined by the anchoring group linking the molecular wire to the metal. It has been found experimentally...... that a dumbbell construction with C60 molecules acting as anchors yields more well-defined conductances as compared to the widely used thiol anchoring groups. Here, we use density functional theory to investigate the electronic properties of this dumbbell construction. The conductance is found to be stable...... support the original motivation to achieve conductance values more stable towards changes in the structure of the molecule-metal contact leading to larger reproducibility in experiments. © 2011 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Optical Fiber Grating Sensor for Force Measurement of Anchor Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Desheng; FU Jinghua; LIU Shengchun; SUI Lingfeng; FU Rong

    2006-01-01

    The development of the sensor suitable for measuring large load stress to the anchor cable becomes an important task in bridge construction and maintenance. Therefore, a new type of optical fiber sensor was developed in the laboratory - optical fiber grating sensor for force measurement of anchor cable (OFBFMAC). No similar report about this kind of sensor has been found up to now in China and other countries. This sensor is proved to be an effective way of monitoring in processes of anchor cable installation, cable cutting, cable force regulation, etc, with the accurate and repeatable measuring results. Its successful application in the tie bar cable force safety monitoring for Wuhan Qingchuan bridge is a new exploration of optical fiber grating sensing technology in bridge tie bar monitoring system.

  9. Experience-based, body-anchored qualitative research interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Two theoretical constructs that lay the foundation for experience-based, body-anchored interviewing are presented: the first-person perspective and the concept of meaning. These theoretical concepts are concretized, first, by means of a methodological framework for experience-based, body......-anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research...... in areas such as traditional and holistic medicine, Western alternative and complementary medicine, nursing, psychotherapy, coaching, physiotherapy, movement arts, and physical education....

  10. Experience-based, body-anchored qualitative research interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2010-06-01

    Two theoretical constructs that lay the foundation for experience-based, body-anchored interviewing are presented: the first-person perspective and the concept of meaning. These theoretical concepts are concretized, first, by means of a methodological framework for experience-based, body-anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research in areas such as traditional and holistic medicine, Western alternative and complementary medicine, nursing, psychotherapy, coaching, physiotherapy, movement arts, and physical education.

  11. Addition of lipid substituents of mammalian protein glycosylphosphoinositol anchors.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, N.; Zoeller, R A; Tykocinski, M. L.; Lazarow, P B; Tartakoff, A M

    1994-01-01

    A single metabolic path leading to synthesis of ether lipids is known in animal cells, the major products of which are plasmalogens. To learn whether this peroxisomal path is also responsible for the synthesis of base-resistant lipid components of glycosylphosphoinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins, we have investigated the structure of anchor precursor mannolipids both in wild-type cells (CHO-K1 and a macrophage-like line, RAW 264.7) and in two corresponding mutant cells in which ether ...

  12. PULLOUT CAPACITY OF HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED PLATE ANCHORS IN CLAYEY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALESHWAR SINGH

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil anchors are required to withstand uplift or lateral forces acting on the foundations of structures constructed both in land and offshore sites. Plate anchoring system is being increasingly used to moor floating structures for the exploration and development of oil and gas fields. In this study, various experimental,theoretical and numerical approaches for estimation of pullout capacity of horizontal and inclined plate anchors in clayey soils are reviewed. A comparative analysis of the ultimate capacity is then carried out for plate anchors embedded in clayey soils by varying embedment ratio for horizontal anchors and by varying inclination angle for inclined plate anchors.

  13. Arrangement of anchor reinforcement in roadway for fully mechanized sublevel caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾攀峰; 陈启永; 芦付松

    2003-01-01

    Bolting of mining roadway for fully mechanized sublevel caving has been practised successfully in Hebi mining area.It provides a new method for roadway support and settles the problem of support difficulty radically for sublevel caving in Hebi mining area.Where anchor reinforcement holds an important station in roadway support.This article brings forward the arrangement project of anchor based on theoretic analysis.Compared with arranged in the middle of the entry, anchor arranged in the vertex of the entry can reduces the length of anchor,shortens the anchor installation time,and heightens the reliability of anchor installation.

  14. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  15. [Dactylogyrids (Monogenea: Dactylogyridea) with an unusual number of anchors, their origin and phylogenetic significance. Reference data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasev, P I

    2002-01-01

    It is considered that in Anacanthorinae, Markewitschiana and Pseudacolpenteron pavlovskii (Dactylogyridae s. s.) the anchors are absent originally. In the other dactylogyrids (s. l.) without anchors (Pseudacolpenteron ignotus; Acolpenteron; Anonchohaptor-Icelanchohaptor; Kritskyia-Telethecium-Pavanelliela) these structures are lost. In related genera Rhinoxenus and Nanotrema the dorsal pair of anchors is transformed into the "spikes"; in Heteronchocleidinae there is one anchor; in Trinigyrus and Schilbetrematoides are two anchors; and in Urogyrus three anchors are reduced. But in Rhinonaster, Cacatyocotyle, Callceostomella, Neocalseostoma elongatum and Pseudodactylogyridae the presence of one pair of ventral "peduncular" or "haptoral" anchors appear to be the original state. For Anacanthorinae and Dactylogyridae s. s. the presence of 18-16 hooks, original lacking of anchors, appearance of one pair of them, evolutionary development and subsequent reduction of these structures are characteristic. In the dactylogyrids (s. l.) having two pairs of anchors and 14 hooks, one pair of the anchors is present originally, then usually the second dorsal pair grows up, and finally, the reduction of a part of anchors or all the anchors is possible. In the 16-hooked dactylogyrids (s. l.) having two pairs of anchors (Tetraonchinea, Amphibdellainea, Neodactylodiscinea) the original lacking or reduction of the anchors is not reported. The author considers, that it is unwarranted to unite all dactylogyrids (s. l.) without anchors into the superorder Ananchorea Malmberg, 1990 or to postulate the original presence of the two pairs of ventral anchors in this group. It is also impossible to unit all dactylogyrids (s. l.) having 0-4 anchors and 18-14 hooks into Dactylogyridae sensu Boeger et Kritsky, 1993. PMID:12070963

  16. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species.

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekah E Oliver; Tinker, Nicholas A.; Lazo, Gerard R.; Shiaoman Chao; Jellen, Eric N.; Martin L. Carson; Rines, Howard W; Donald E Obert; Lutz, Joseph D.; Irene Shackelford; Korol, Abraham B.; Charlene P. Wight; Gardner, Kyle M.; Jiro Hattori; Beattie, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources wer...

  17. Geological significance of stone anchors from Dwarka waters, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.

    A number of underwater man-made stone structures have been noted, that may be the remains of an ancient jetty, as a large number of stone anchors have been recovered off Dwarka, Gujarat. The archaeological importance of these artefacts is postulated...

  18. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  19. Almost Lie structures on an anchored Banach bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Cabau, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Under appropriate assumptions, we generalize the concept of linear almost Poisson struc- tures, almost Lie algebroids, almost differentials in the framework of Banach anchored bundles and the relation between these objects. We then obtain an adapted formalism for mechanical systems which is illustrated by the evolutionary problem of the "Hilbert snake"

  20. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  1. Fullerene-based Anchoring Groups for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christian A.; Ding, Dapeng; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger;

    2008-01-01

    We present results on a new fullerene-based anchoring group for molecular electronics. Using lithographic mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum we have determined the conductance and stability of single-molecule junctions of 1,4-bis(fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzene. The compound can...

  2. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.;

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  3. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.;

    1995-01-01

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assume that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  4. The importance of anchor text for ad hoc search revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that propagated anchor text is very important for effective Web search as offered by the commercial search engines. "Google Bombs" are a notable illustration of this. However, many years of TREC Web retrieval research failed to establish the effectiveness of link evidence fo

  5. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  6. Stone anchors from Sindhudurg Fort on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.

    Inshore explorations have been carried out in the Malvan region of Maharashtra (India). Present article discusses the triangular and grapnel stone anchors found during the explorations at Sindhudurg and Padamgad Forests. Eight anchors are found...

  7. Synergistic effect of a new wedge-bond-type anchor for CFRP tendons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂华; 刘荣桂; 陈蓓; 李明君; 石天罡

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the anchoring force of anchors for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tendons further, a new wedge-bond-type anchor for CFRP tendons was developed. The increment in anchoring force induced by the clamping segment of anchor was studied. Taking the deformation of all parts in clamping segment in the transverse direction into consideration, the calculation formula for the increment of anchoring force was proposed based on the linear elastic hypotheses. The proposed model is verified by experiments and conclusions are drawn that the anchoring force is influenced mainly by the inclination angle of clamping pieces, the length of clamping part and the thickness of bonding medium. Especially, the thickness of bonding medium should be lowered in design to improve the synergistic effect of anchors.

  8. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal eCzapiewski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature ageing progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are 1 weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and 2 disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both.

  9. p21-activated Kinase1(PAK1) can promote ERK activation in a kinase independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Fu, Meng; Wang, Lifeng;

    2013-01-01

    PAK1 plays an important role in proliferation and tumorigenesis, at least partially by promoting Erk phosphorylation of c-Raf (Ser 338) or Mek1 (Ser 298). We observed now that overexpression of a kinase-dead mutant form of PAK1 increased phosphorylation of Mek1/2 (Ser 217/221) and Erk (Thr 202/Tyr...

  10. Developments, Expectations of Wave Energy Converters and Mooring Anchors in the UK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces the important developments of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) in the UK, and the generic anchor types for WECs and similar structures. Several WECs and their characteristics are introduced to explain the development direction. The anchors are discussed in relation to the behaviour and performance of WECs, and comparisons are made with similar aspects of the offshore industry. Typical and desirable features of anchors for WECs are summarized. Additionally, expectations and research suggestions for WECs and their anchor design are presented.

  11. Cement grouting during installation of ground anchors in non-cohesive soils

    OpenAIRE

    Domes, Xenia A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure grouting during installation of grouted ground anchors is known to increase anchor capacity in non-cohesive soils, but little information is available on correlations between applied grouting pressures, duration of grouting, ground conditions and increase of anchor pull-out capacity. The presented PhD study is concerned with processes taking place during installation of grouted ground anchors in non-cohesive soils, where filtration of the cement grout is assumed. It...

  12. A group of 20 stone anchors from the waters of Dwarka, on the Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    A large number of stone anchors were discovered in a water depth of 10-14 m off Dwarka during the 1998-99 season. The seabed near the anchors consists of a ledge with an average height of 1 m. Several anchors were found trapped between the rocks...

  13. Exploring microblog activity for the prediction of hyperlink anchors in television broadcasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegendhart, R.; Liem, C.C.S.; Larson, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a social media based approach to finding anchors in video archives. We use social activity on Twitter to find topics on which people have questions about in order to select suitable anchors. The experiments were carried out on the MediaEval Search and Anchoring in Video Arc

  14. 75 FR 2152 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessel HOLIDAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessel... Alternative Compliance was issued for the anchor handling tug supply vessel HOLIDAY as required by 33 U.S.C.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background and Purpose The anchor handling tug supply vessel HOLIDAY will be used...

  15. Biomimetic Mussel Adhesive Inspired Clickable Anchors Applied to the Functionalization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldmann, Anja S.; Schoedel, Christine; Walther, Andreas; Yuan, Jiayin; Loos, Katja; Mueller, Axel H. E.; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2010-01-01

    The functionalization of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with dopamine-derived clickable biomimetic anchors is reported. Herein, an alkyne-modified catechol-derivative is employed as the anchor, as i) the catechol-functional anchor groups possess irreversible covalent binding affinity to Fe3O4 nanop

  16. Anchor-linked intermediates in peptide amide synthesis are caused by dimeric anchors on the solid supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechsler, I; Beck-Sickinger, A G; Stephan, H; Sheppard, R; Jung, G

    1995-01-01

    Cleavage and kinetic studies have been carried out using commercially obtained H-Tyr(tBu)-5-(4'-aminomethyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenoxy)valeric acid-TentaGelS (H-Tyr(tBu)-4-ADPV-TentaGelS) and H-Tyr (tBu)-4-ADPV-Ala-aminomethyl-resin (H-Tyr(tBu)-4-ADPV-AM-resin) prepared from commercially available resin and loaded with commercially available Fmoc-4-ADPV-OH amide anchor. Cleavage with pure trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) gave the intermediate H-Tyr-4-ADPV-NH2, which was then degraded to H-Tyr-NH2, and cleavage with TFA/dichloromethane (1:9) yielded H-Tyr-4-ADPV-NH2 which could be isolated in preparative amounts. Cleavage reactions with 15N-labelled H-Ala-4-ADPV-(15N)-Gly-AM-resin yielded the intermediate H-Ala-4-ADPV-NH2, which contained no 15N as demonstrated by 1H-NMR. The analysis of the commercial Fmoc-4-ADPV-OH amide anchor showed the presence of Fmoc-4-ADPV-4-ADPV-OH as an impurity in high amounts. This dimeric anchor molecule is the cause of formation of the anchor-linked peptide intermediate obtained during the cleavage from the resin. The particularly high acid-lability of the amide bond between the two ADPV moieties was utilized to synthesize sidechain and C-terminally 4-ADPV protected pentagastrin on a double-anchor resin, and to cleave it using 5% trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane. This method may offer a new way for the synthesis of protected peptide amides with improved solubility to be used in fragment condensation.

  17. Proteomic analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elortza, Felix; Nühse, Thomas S; Foster, Leonard J;

    2003-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are a functionally and structurally diverse family of post-translationally modified membrane proteins found mostly in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in a variety of eukaryotic cells. Although the general role of GPI-APs remains...... development. We here present a general mass spectrometry-based proteomic "shave-and-conquer" strategy that specifically targets GPI-APs. Using a combination of biochemical methods, mass spectrometry, and computational sequence analysis we identified six GPI-APs in a Homo sapiens lipid raft-enriched fraction...... and 44 GPI-APs in an Arabidopsis thaliana membrane preparation, representing the largest experimental dataset of GPI-anchored proteins to date....

  18. Organization, 'Anchoring' of Knowledge, and Innovative Activity in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Vinding, Anker Lund

    2006-01-01

    The construction industry is characterised by the widespread use of project organisation. It has been suggested that the relatively low level of innovative activity in the industry can be explained by the temporary nature of firm boundary-crossing projects. Survey data from the Danish construction...... industry is used to investigate the importance of learning and 'anchoring' of project-specific knowledge at the firm level for participation in innovative activities. The data cover both the overall Danish construction industry and a specific region, North Jutland, which has a relatively high...... specialisation of construction workers. Latent class and regression analyses reveal that firms that make extensive use of partnering, together with internal product and process evaluation and knowledge diffusion (labelled 'knowledge-anchoring mechanisms'), are more likely to participate in innovative activities...

  19. Modification of the Bankart reconstruction using a suture anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, S M; Holtgrewe, J L; King, S

    1998-01-01

    A prospective study was done to determine the effectiveness of a suture anchor in doing a Modified Bankart Reconstruction on the traumatic unidirectional Bankart lesion shoulder. From 1989 to 1991, 26 patients encompassing 27 shoulders with recurrent instability had modified Bankart reconstructions. A minimum 18-month follow-up was obtained by examination of 24 patients with telephone interviews done on two patients. The average follow-up was 23.6 months. A 93.1% good-to-excellent result was obtained using the Bankart rating scale. There were no failures or complications. The surgeon involved in the study thought the suture anchor facilitated the attachment of the avulsed capsulolabral complex in doing the Bankart procedure.

  20. Optimization Analysis Model of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hangers of self-anchored suspension bridge need to be tensioned suitably during construction. In view of this point, a simplified optimization calculation method of cable force for self-anchored suspension bridge has been developed based on optimization theories, such as minimum bending energy method, and internal force balanced method, influence matrix method. Meanwhile, combined with the weak coherence of main cable and the adjacently interaction of hanger forces, a simplified analysis method is developed using MATLAB, which is then compared with the optimization method that consider the main cable's geometric nonlinearity with software ANSYS in an actual example bridge calculation. This contrast proves the weak coherence of main cable displacement and the limitation of the adjacent cable force influence. Furthermore, a tension program that is of great reference value has been developed; some important conclusions, advices, and attention points have been summarized.

  1. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam B; Woods, Lilia M

    2016-09-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability. PMID:27392014

  2. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam B.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum anchored heme-oxygenase 1 faces the cytosol

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, Yehonatan; Truman, Marianna; Cohen, Lyora A.; Leichtmann-Bardoogo, Yael; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G.

    2012-01-01

    Heme-oxygenase 1 is an endoplasmic reticulum-anchored enzyme that breaks down heme into iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. Heme is a hydrophobic co-factor in many proteins, including hemoglobin. Free heme is highly cytotoxic and, therefore, both heme synthesis and breakdown are tightly regulated. During turnover of heme proteins, heme is released in the phago-lysosomal compartment or the cytosol. The subcellular location of the heme-oxygenase 1 active site has not been clarified. Using con...

  4. The Effects of Different Types of Anchor Tests on Observed Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-09-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of a different type of anchor, a "midi anchor", that has a smaller spread of item difficulties than the tests to be equated, and then contrasts its use with the use of a "mini anchor". The impact of different anchors on observed score equating were evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error (bias), random…

  5. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising. PMID:21308579

  6. Two-Dimensional Large Deformation Finite Element Analysis for the Pulling-up of Plate Anchor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; HU Yu-xia; JIN Xia

    2006-01-01

    Based on mesh regeneration and stress interpolation from an old mesh to a new one, a large deformation finite element model is developed for the study of the behaviour of circular plate anchors subjected to uplift loading. For the determination of the distributions of stress components across a clay foundation, the Recovery by Equilibrium in Patches is extended to plastic analyses. ABAQUS, a commercial finite element package, is customized and linked into our program so as to keep automatic and efficient running of large deformation calculation. The quality of stress interpolation is testified by evaluations of Tresca stress and nodal reaction forces. The complete pulling-up processes of plate anchors buried in homogeneous clay are simulated, and typical pulling force-displacement responses of a deep anchor and a shallow anchor are compared. Different from the results of previous studies, large deformation analysis is of the capability of estimating the breakaway between the anchor bottom and soils. For deep anchors, the variation of mobilized uplift resistance with anchor settlement is composed of three stages, and the initial buried depths of anchors affect the separation embedment slightly. The uplift bearing capacity of deep anchors is usually higher than that of shallow anchors.

  7. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  8. A novel durable intelligent fiber reinforced polymer anchor with embedded optical fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG MingHua; ZHOU Zhi; YUE Shuai; HE JianPing; OU JinPing

    2012-01-01

    Anchors are the key members of the geotechnical anchorage engineering,it is urgent to monitor their behavior in service for preventing the potential risks.This paper proposes a novel durable intelligent fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) anchor to understand the behavior of the anchor in the field application.Series of optical fiber Bmgg grating (FBG) sensors were embedded into the central axis along the anchor to sense itself axial strain variations.An evolution model of axial strain was also developed to evaluate the behavior along the anchor.A demonstration test was carried out to test its self-sensing properties in the laboratory.The experimental results indicated that the embedded FBG sensors monitored the behavior,e.g.axial strain/interfacial damage evolutions along the anchor and displacement/applied load at the pulling end effectively,without influence from the interfacial compression and slip effects.

  9. Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave for Empirical Elastic Design of Anchored Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helical anchors are vital support components for power transmission lines. Failure of a single anchor can lead to the loss of an entire transmission line structure which results in the loss of power for downstream community. Despite being important, it is not practical to use conventional borehole method of subsurface exploration, which is labor intensive and costly, for estimating soil properties and anchor holding capacity. This paper describes the use of an empirical and elasticity-based design technique coupled with the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW technique to provide subsurface information for anchor foundation designs. Based on small-strain wave propagation, SASW determines shear wave velocity profile which is then correlated to anchor holding capacity. A pilot project involving over 400 anchor installations has been performed and demonstrated that such technique is reliable and can be implemented into transmission line structure designs.

  10. Models for Anchoring and Acquiescence Bias in Consumption Data

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Hurd, M.

    2004-01-01

    Item non-response in household survey data on economic variables such as income, assets or consumption is a well-known problem. Follow-up unfolding bracket questions have been used as a tool to collect partial information on respondents that do not answer an open-ended question. It is also known, however, that mistakes are made in answering such unfolding bracket questions. In this paper, we develop several limited dependent variable models to analyze two sources of mistakes, anchoring and ac...

  11. Anchoring a Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar for Discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Bryan R; Webber, Bonnie Lynn; Joshi, Aravind K.

    1998-01-01

    We here explore a ``fully'' lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar for discourse that takes the basic elements of a (monologic) discourse to be not simply clauses, but larger structures that are anchored on variously realized discourse cues. This link with intra-sentential grammar suggests an account for different patterns of discourse cues, while the different structures and operations suggest three separate sources for elements of discourse meaning: (1) a compositional semantics tied to the basic trees and operations; (2) a presuppositional semantics carried by cue phrases that freely adjoin to trees; and (3) general inference, that draws additional, defeasible conclusions that flesh out what is conveyed compositionally.

  12. Anchor-based English-Chinese Bilingual Chunk Alignment Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU We-lin; CHENG Chang-sheng; XU Liang-xian; LU Ru-zhan

    2005-01-01

    Chunk alignment for the bilingual corpus is the base of Example-based Machine Translation. An anchor-based English-Chinese bilingual chunk alignment model and the corresponding algorithm of alignment are presented in this paper. It can effectively overcome the sparse data problem due to the limited size of the bilingual corpus. In this model, the chunk segmentation disambiguation is delayed to the alignment process, and hence the accuracy of chunk segmentation is improved. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and viability of this model.

  13. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-01

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level.There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The

  14. Membrane curvature enables N-Ras lipid anchor sorting to liquid-ordered membrane phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jannik Bruun; Jensen, Martin Borch; Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller;

    2015-01-01

    Trafficking and sorting of membrane-anchored Ras GTPases are regulated by partitioning between distinct membrane domains. Here, in vitro experiments and microscopic molecular theory reveal membrane curvature as a new modulator of N-Ras lipid anchor and palmitoyl chain partitioning. Membrane...... curvature was essential for enrichment in raft-like liquid-ordered phases; enrichment was driven by relief of lateral pressure upon anchor insertion and most likely affects the localization of lipidated proteins in general....

  15. Study of two dimensional nematic liquid crystal reorientations and anchoring effects

    OpenAIRE

    S Shoarinejad; MA Shahzamanian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the director distribution is calculated for a nematic liquid crystal, in the cell with different surface anchoring conditions and external fields. The effects of finite and infinite surface anchoring on molecular orientations for one dimensional geometry are discussed. In these situations, the planar alignment is considered. Then, in a two dimensional geometry the planar and homotropic anchoring conditions are assumed for wall- interfaces of confined nematic, and the reorientat...

  16. A glycophospholipid membrane anchor acts as an apical targeting signal in polarized epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol- (GPI) anchored proteins contain a large extracellular protein domain that is linked to the membrane via a glycosylated form of phosphatidylinositol. We recently reported the polarized apical distribution of all endogenous GPI-anchored proteins in the MDCK cell line (Lisanti, M. P., M. Sargiacomo, L. Graeve, A. R. Saltiel, and E. Rodriguez-Boulan. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:9557-9561). To study the role of this mechanism of membrane anchoring in targeti...

  17. Self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone suture anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feerick, Emer M; Wilson, Joanne; Jarman-Smith, Marcus; Ó'Brádaigh, Conchur M; McGarry, J Patrick

    2014-10-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been conducted. Six CFR-PEEK suture anchor designs were investigated using PEEK-OPTIMA® Reinforced, a medical grade of CFR-PEEK. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the maximum axial force and torque required for self-taping insertion of each anchor design. Additional experimental tests were conducted for some anchor designs using pilot holes. Computational simulations were conducted to determine the maximum stress in each anchor design at various stages of insertion. Simulations also were performed to investigate the effect of wall thickness in the anchor head. The maximum axial force required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 150 N for any anchor design. The maximum torque required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 0.8 Nm. Computational simulations reveal significant stress concentrations in the region of the anchor tip, demonstrating that a re-design of the tip geometry should be performed to avoid fracture during self-tapping, as observed in the experimental component of this study. This study demonstrates the ability of PEEK-OPTIMA Reinforced suture anchors to self-tap polyurethane foam bone analogue. This provides motivation to further investigate the self-tapping ability of CFR-PEEK suture anchors in animal/cadaveric bone. An optimised design for CFR-PEEK suture anchors offers the advantages of radiolucency, and mechanical properties similar to bone with the ability to self-tap. This may have positive implications for reducing surgery times and the associated costs with the procedure.

  18. Analysis of Influencing Factors on the Anchoring Effect of Prestressed Anchor Cable%预应力锚索作用效应影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑炎

    2015-01-01

    介绍了岩体三维有限元模型及其计算结果,分析了锚固角度和布锚间距对锚固效应的影响,结果表明,锚索与水平面的夹角对锚固效应的影响比较明显,建议在预应力锚索设计过程中,对锚索角度进行优化设计,以此对锚索布置间距进行优化,选择合适的锚索布置排数,以达到预期的加固效果。%Several factors that could influence the anchoring effect of the prestressed anchor cable are studies with a three-dimensional finite element analysis, including the anchoring angle and cable spacing.It shows that the angle be-tween the anchor cable and the horizontal plane is of the greatest influence on the anchoring effect.Thus, an optimiza-tion on the anchoring angle and then the cable spacing is recommended in the design of the prestressed anchor cable, so that a more suitable arrangement scheme can be obtained and a satisfying reinforcement effect can be guaranteed.

  19. Theoretical model and solution for the rheological problem of anchor-grouting a soft rock tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an analytical method for analysis of the soft rock tunnel, based on a model dividing soft rock tunnels into a region of anchor-grouting and a region of non-anchor-grouting surrounding rock. The Poynting-Thomson model and the Kelvin-Hooke model are applied to the region of non-anchor-grouting surrounding rock and the region of anchor-grouting, respectively. Stress expressions in the region of non-anchor-grouting surrounding rock and the region of anchor-grouting are obtained. Expanding the expression of displacements in the region of anchor-grouting into a Maclaurin series, and utilizing the cumulative displacement curve of the surrounding rock through observation, a theoretical model is set up. This model and its solution for the rheology problem of anchor-grouting a soft tunnel have been proved to be effective in practical engineering; according to the Mohr-Coulomb yield condition, a safe criterion for an anchor-grouting soft rock of a tunnel can be found

  20. Post-installed concrete anchors in nuclear power plants: Performance and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrenholtz, Philipp, E-mail: philipp@mahrenholtz.net; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Review of qualification and design regulations for anchors in nuclear power plants. • First complete set of nuclear anchor load–displacement data and its evaluation ever. • Demonstration of robust test behavior of a qualified post-installed anchor product. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants (NPPs), post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and non-structural connections to concrete. In many countries, anchor products employed for safety relevant applications have to be approved by the authorities. For the high safety standards in force for NPPs, special requirements have to be met to allow for extreme design situations. This paper presents an experimental test program conducted to evaluate the performance of anchors according to the German Guideline for Anchorages in Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Technology Installations (DIBt KKW Leitfaden, 2010). After a brief introduction to anchor behavior and the regulative context, the results of tension and shear tests carried out on undercut anchors are discussed. Robust load capacities and relatively small displacements determined for demanding load and crack cycling tests demonstrated the suitability of anchors qualified according to a state-of-the-art qualification guideline.

  1. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  2. Design and Application of a Field Sensing System for Ground Anchors in Slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Hyo Seon Park; Jong Moon Kim; Jihoon Lee; Se Woon Choi

    2013-01-01

    In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is com...

  3. Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting Ultimate Tensile Capacity of Adhesive Anchors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bo; WU Zhi-min; SONG Zhi-fei

    2007-01-01

    To predict the tensile capacity of adhesive anchors, a multilayered feed-forward neural network trained with the backpropagation algorithm is constructed. The ANN model have 5 inputs, including the compressive strength of concrete, tensile strength of concrete, anchor diameter, hole diameter, embedment of anchors, and ultimate load. The predictions obtained from the trained ANN show a good agreement with the experiments. Meanwhile, the predicted ultinate tensile capacity of anchors is close to the one calculated from the strength formula of the combined cone-bond failure model.

  4. Suture anchor repair of quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won B; Kamath, Atul F; Israelite, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a devastating complication, usually requiring surgical repair. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for repair of the ruptured native knee quadriceps tendon, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in quadriceps repair after TKA. We present an illustrative case of successful suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps mechanism after TKA. The procedure has been performed in a total of 3 patients. A surgical technique and brief review of the literature follows. Suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps tendon is a viable option in the setting of rupture after TKA.

  5. Suture anchor versus suture through tunnel fixation for quadriceps tendon rupture: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighthart, William A; Cohen, David A; Levine, Richard G; Parks, Brent G; Boucher, Henry R

    2008-05-01

    This biomechanical study compared suture anchors versus transosseous sutures for repair of quadriceps tendon ruptures using a force of 150 N at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. No significant difference in displacement was found between the 2 techniques with initial loading or with load or no load after 1000 cycles. Displacement after 1000 cycles for suture anchors and bone tunnels was 4.65 and 4.50 mm, respectively. These findings suggest a possible role for suture anchors in repairing quadriceps tendon ruptures. Suture anchors are relatively expensive but require less dissection over the patella and do not involve suture placement about the patella tendon.

  6. Optimization of Dead Load State in Earth-Anchored Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Sun∗; Rucheng Xiao

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the reasonable completed dead load state in earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridges, a practical method is proposed. The method is based on the rigidly supported continuous beam method and the feasible zone method, emphasizing on the mutual effect between the self⁃anchored structural parts and the earth⁃anchored ones. Three cable⁃stayed bridge models are designed with the main spans of 1 400 m, including a partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge, a cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge and a fully self⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge, in which the C50 concrete and Q345 steel are adopted. The partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge and the cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge secure lower compressive force in the girder than the fully self⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge by 25 percent at least. The same is for the material consumption of the whole bridge. Furthermore, the anchor volume is more than 20% lower in the partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge than that in the cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge. Consequently, the practical span of cable⁃stayed bridges can be accordingly extended.

  7. Study on mechanism of fiber grouted material in pre-stressed anchor rope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Siming; QIAO Jianping; WANG Chenghua

    2003-01-01

    The fiber grouted material can reinforce the tension strength, shear strength as well as the index of fracture ductile, and remarkably improve the endurance of pre-stressed anchor rope under long-time loading. As a result, it has the better application foreground. Based on the shear log model and Hashin-Shtrikman upper and lower limited theorem, we have studied the mechanism of fiber grouted material applied in pre-stressed anchor rope and material property, and analyzed the effect of resistance strength of bond, resistance distribution of anchor section and the loading-deformation relationship of anchor body.

  8. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah E Oliver

    Full Text Available A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42 has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.

  9. Adaptive anchored inversion for Gaussian random fields using nonlinear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a broad and fundamental type of ‘inverse problems’ in science, one infers a spatially distributed physical attribute based on observations of processes that are controlled by the spatial attribute in question. The data-generating field processes, known as ‘forward processes’, are usually nonlinear with respect to the spatial attribute, and are often defined non-analytically by a numerical model. The data often contain a large number of elements with significant inter-correlation. We propose a general statistical method to tackle this problem. The method is centered on a parameterization device called ‘anchors’ and an iterative algorithm for deriving the distribution of anchors conditional on the observed data. The algorithm draws upon techniques of importance sampling and multivariate kernel density estimation with weighted samples. Anchors are selected automatically; the selection evolves in iterations in a way that is tailored to important features of the attribute field. The method and the algorithm are general with respect to the scientific nature and technical details of the forward processes. Conceptual and technical components render the method in contrast to standard approaches that are based on regularization or optimization. Some important features of the proposed method are demonstrated by examples from the earth sciences, including groundwater flow, rainfall-runoff and seismic tomography. (paper)

  10. Field Behavior of A High Anchored Reinforced Earth Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal H. Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the invention of Reinforced Earth by the French architect Hendri Vidal in 1966, numerous reinforced soil walls have been designed and constructed all over the world. In this study the focus was on a particular type of reinforced wall called Nehemiah wall which differed from the Vidal type in the sense that instead of steel strips, the reinforcing elements consisted of steel bars with anchor blocks attached at the free ends. A full scale high anchored reinforced earth wall was constructed and instrumented to capture the essential behavior of the wall. Two sections of the wall were monitored where at one of the sections polystyrene foam was inserted at the back face of the wall panel to allow for lateral deformation to take place which means that the facing was less flexible in the transverse direction. The lateral deformation, axial forces along the reinforcing bars and settlement were monitored and measured for both cases and the results were compared and discussed.

  11. Insertion of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored enzyme into liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzon, F; Morandat, S; Roux, B; Bortolato, M

    2004-02-01

    Incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (AP), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, into liposomes containing detergent, followed by detergent removal with hydrophobic resin was performed. Incorporation media were collected during different steps of detergent removal and were analyzed by flotation in sucrose gradient. The presence of protein was checked by measuring enzymatic activity, while the presence of (3)H-radio-labelled liposomes was followed by determination of the radioactivity. The incorporation yield of the protein into liposomes increased with incubation time in presence of hydrophobic resin. Protein was also incorporated at different protein/lipid ratios. At the highest protein lipid ratio, our data showed that 260 molecules of GPI-linked AP (AP-GPI) could be associated with one liposome, corresponding to 65% vesicle coverage. Finally, observations by electron cryomicroscopy indicated (i) that the protein seemed exclusively associated with the lipid bilayer via the GPI-anchor, as shown by the distance-about 2.5 nm-between the protein core and the liposome membrane; (ii) that the AP-GPI distribution was heterogeneous on the liposome surface, forming clusters of protein.

  12. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-21

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level. PMID:27333828

  13. Allosteric inhibition of Aurora-A kinase by a synthetic vNAR domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Selena G; Oleksy, Arkadiusz; Cavazza, Tommaso; Richards, Mark W; Vernos, Isabelle; Matthews, David; Bayliss, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The vast majority of clinically approved protein kinase inhibitors target the ATP-binding pocket directly. Consequently, many inhibitors have broad selectivity profiles and most have significant off-target effects. Allosteric inhibitors are generally more selective, but are difficult to identify because allosteric binding sites are often unknown or poorly characterized. Aurora-A is activated through binding of TPX2 to an allosteric site on the kinase catalytic domain, and this knowledge could be exploited to generate an inhibitor. Here, we generated an allosteric inhibitor of Aurora-A kinase based on a synthetic, vNAR single domain scaffold, vNAR-D01. Biochemical studies and a crystal structure of the Aurora-A/vNAR-D01 complex show that the vNAR domain overlaps with the TPX2 binding site. In contrast with the binding of TPX2, which stabilizes an active conformation of the kinase, binding of the vNAR domain stabilizes an inactive conformation, in which the αC-helix is distorted, the canonical Lys-Glu salt bridge is broken and the regulatory (R-) spine is disrupted by an additional hydrophobic side chain from the activation loop. These studies illustrate how single domain antibodies can be used to characterize the regulatory mechanisms of kinases and provide a rational basis for structure-guided design of allosteric Aurora-A kinase inhibitors. PMID:27411893

  14. Aurora A kinase regulates proper spindle positioning in C. elegans and in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotak, Sachin; Afshar, Katayon; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Accurate spindle positioning is essential for error-free cell division. The one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo has proven instrumental for dissecting mechanisms governing spindle positioning. Despite important progress, how the cortical forces that act on astral microtubules to properly position the spindle are modulated is incompletely understood. Here, we report that the PP6 phosphatase PPH-6 and its associated subunit SAPS-1, which positively regulate pulling forces acting on spindle poles, associate with the Aurora A kinase AIR-1 in C. elegans embryos. We show that acute inactivation of AIR-1 during mitosis results in excess pulling forces on astral microtubules. Furthermore, we uncover that AIR-1 acts downstream of PPH-6-SAPS-1 in modulating spindle positioning, and that PPH-6-SAPS-1 negatively regulates AIR-1 localization at the cell cortex. Moreover, we show that Aurora A and the PP6 phosphatase subunit PPP6C are also necessary for spindle positioning in human cells. There, Aurora A is needed for the cortical localization of NuMA and dynein during mitosis. Overall, our work demonstrates that Aurora A kinases and PP6 phosphatases have an ancient function in modulating spindle positioning, thus contributing to faithful cell division. PMID:27335426

  15. C-Anchor for Strengthening the Connection between Adhesively Bonded Laminates and Concrete Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Razaqpur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP anchor is developed and tested to delay debonding in reinforced concrete (RC beams externally strengthened with FRP laminate/sheet. The C-shape anchor is made from a commercially available CFRP grid. The anchors legs are 95 mm long while the spacing between the legs is adjustable, depending on FRP laminate and beam widths. Nine full scale RC beams, 3.0 m long, 250 mm wide and 400 mm deep, were strengthened with CFRP laminate/sheet, with and without the C-anchor. The main test parameters were the type and amount of FRP laminate and the presence/absence of the anchor. Test results showed that beams with the anchor had generally 5%–10% higher debonding and failure load, and they reached higher deflection at failure than the companion beams without anchors. Although complete separation of the FRP laminate from the concrete was not observed in any of the beams with anchors, there was noticeable slip at failure at one end of the laminate. A significant outcome of the study is that anchors are effective in limiting the extent of debonding along the laminate, thus contributing to the flexural stiffness of the beam by reducing the extent of cracking and limiting the crack width along the beam. Finally, the anchor allowed the FRP to reach or exceed its theoretically allowable strain computed based on the American Concrete Institute (ACI Committee 440 recommendation while in none of the beams without anchors, the FRP reached its theoretically allowable strain.

  16. Impingement syndrome of the shoulder following double row suture anchor technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambani Rohit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff is a demanding surgery. Accurate placement of anchors is key to success. Case presentation A 38-year-old woman received arthroscopic repair of her rotator cuff using a double row suture anchor technique. Postoperatively, she developed impingement syndrome which resulted from vertical displacement of a suture anchor once the shoulder was mobilised. The anchor was removed eight weeks following initial surgery and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion Impingement syndrome following arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuffs using double row suture anchor has not been widely reported. This is the first such case where anchoring has resulted in impingement syndrome.

  17. How up- or downslope anchoring affects root reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Root reinforcement is important for slope stability. In addition to the important contribution of roots to shear strength along the slip surface, root networks are also recognized to impart stabilization through lateral (parallel to slope) redistribution of forces under tension. The most common method to measure lateral root reinforcement is a pullout test where one root or a bundle of root is pulled out of the soil matrix. This condition represents the case where roots within the mass of a landslide slip out from the upper stable part of the slope. There is also, however, the situation where roots anchored in the upper stable part of the slope slip out from the sliding mass. In the latter it is difficult to quantify root reinforcement and no study has discussed this mechanism. We carried out a new series of laboratory and field experiments using Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) roots to quantify how up- or downslope anchoring affects root reinforcement. In addition, we carried out new field pullout tests on coarse roots (larger that 2 mm in diameter, up to 47 mm). Then, considering the state-of-the-art of root reinforcement modeling (the Root Bundle Model), we integrated results from our measurements into the model to verify the magnitude of this effect on overall root reinforcement at the stand scale. Results indicate that the ratio between pullout force and force transferred to the root during soil slip ranges between 0.5 and 1. This indicates that measured pullout force always overestimate the contribution of lateral slipping out roots in situations where the soil slide from anchored roots. This is general the case for root with diameter up to 3-4 mm. Root-size distribution is also a key factor influencing root reinforcement at the forest-stand scale. As most coarse roots break along tension cracks while fine roots slip out, the effect discussed in this study on root reinforcement modeling is negligible when coarse-root diameter classes are represented. Our

  18. Preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge are described. Static per-formance of this new type of bridge is discussed. Compared with fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge, its advantages in fin-ished state are summarized. Based on numerical calculation, effects of several structural parameters on static performance are presented.

  19. MODIFICATION OF PALLADIUM METALLIC CATALYST WITH POLYMER-ANCHORED THIOETHER LIGANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hanfan; MAO Guoping

    1993-01-01

    A well-dispersed metallic palladium catalyst modified by polymer-anchored thioether ligands was used for the hydrogenation of cyclopentadiene to cyclopentene with high activity and selectivity in ambient condition. The evidences to show the modification of catalytic properties by polymer anchored ligands were given.

  20. Anchoring Effects on Prospective and Retrospective Metacomprehension Judgments as a Function of Peer Performance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate anchoring effects on metacomprehension judgments as a function of fictitious information participants received about past peer performance. In Experiment 1 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three anchor groups that, in some cases, provided past peer performance averages in terms of a…

  1. Analysis on the anchor mechanism of the full length resin bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋彦波; 刘洪涛

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal the stress distribution characteristic along the full length anchor bolt. Based on the mechanic model set up, the author calculated the anchor mechanism of the full length resin rock-bolt. The stress distribution characteristic is different according to different type of surrounding-rock. The conclusion is important to optimize the roadway bolt support design.

  2. The use of suture anchors to repair the ruptured quadriceps tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D; Whitener, George B; Rubright, James H; Creighton, R Alexander; Logel, Kevin J; Wood, Mark L

    2007-07-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture is an incapacitating injury that usually requires surgical repair. Traditional repair methods involve transpatellar suture tunnels, but recent reports have introduced the idea of using suture anchors to repair the ruptured tendon. We present 5 cases of our technique of using suture anchors to repair the ruptured quadriceps tendon.

  3. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  4. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians' motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian's trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031

  5. Rapid Naming Deficits in Dyslexia: A Stumbling Block for the Perceptual Anchor Theory of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, Gloria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    According to a recent theory of dyslexia, the "perceptual anchor theory," children with dyslexia show deficits in classic auditory and phonological tasks not because they have auditory or phonological impairments but because they are unable to form a "perceptual anchor" in tasks that rely on a small set of repeated stimuli. The theory makes the…

  6. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jimin, E-mail: jimin.wang@yale.edu; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo, E-mail: yorgo.modis@yale.edu

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  7. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  8. Anatomic Hip Capsular Reconstruction With Separate Suture Anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar, Ricardo; Cuéllar, Asier; Sánchez, Alberto; Cuéllar, Adrián

    2016-06-01

    The number of reports on the use of capsule suturing techniques during hip arthroscopy has increased in the last few years because of the important function played by the iliofemoral ligament (IFL). This study describes an arthroscopic technique whereby the hip capsule is opened by a limited vertical dissection of both the capsule itself and the IFL from their footprint on the acetabular rim, and the capsulolabral junction and the IFL's deep fibers are released. After the intra-articular procedure, the capsule is closed through 2 to 4 side-to-side sutures in the vertical arm of the capsulotomy and 1 to 2 suture anchors with sutures are passed through either side of the capsular confluence. This technique prevents a full transverse section of the IFL and allows complete capsular closure through reconstruction of the capsular footprint. PMID:27656393

  9. Structural basis for membrane anchoring of HIV-1 envelope spike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Jyoti; Park, Donghyun; Fu, Qingshan; Chen, Jia; Ha, Heather Jiwon; Ghantous, Fadi; Herrmann, Tobias; Chang, Weiting; Liu, Zhijun; Frey, Gary; Seaman, Michael S; Chen, Bing; Chou, James J

    2016-07-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a type I membrane protein that mediates viral entry. We used nuclear magnetic resonance to determine an atomic structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in bicelles that mimic a lipid bilayer. The TM forms a well-ordered trimer that protects a conserved membrane-embedded arginine. An amino-terminal coiled-coil and a carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic core stabilize the trimer. Individual mutations of conserved residues did not disrupt the TM trimer and minimally affected membrane fusion and infectivity. Major changes in the hydrophilic core, however, altered the antibody sensitivity of Env. These results show how a TM domain anchors, stabilizes, and modulates a viral envelope spike and suggest that its influence on Env conformation is an important consideration for HIV-1 immunogen design. PMID:27338706

  10. Influences of surface and flexoelectric polarization on the effective anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关荣华; 叶文江; 邢红玉

    2015-01-01

    The physical effects on surface and flexoelectric polarization in a weak anchoring nematic liquid crystal cell are investigated systematically. We derive the analytic expressions of two effective anchoring energies for lower and upper substrates respectively as well as their effective anchoring strengths and corresponding tilt angles of effective easy direction. All of these quantities are relevant to the magnitudes of both two polarizations and the applied voltage U . Based on these expressions, the variations of effective anchoring strength and the tilt angle with the applied voltage are calculated for the fixed values of two polarizations. For an original weak anchoring hybrid aligned nematic cell, it may be equivalent to a planar cell for a small value of U and has a threshold voltage. The variation of reduced threshold voltage with reduced surface polarization strength is also calculated. The role of surface polarization is important without the adsorptive ions considered.

  11. Vibration Characteristic of Anchoring System of Bolt and Elastic Wave Propagation Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng; LI Yi; NING Jian-guo; LIN Hua-chang

    2006-01-01

    Based on one-dimension wave theory, the propagation law of elastic wave along the rock bolt, rock medium and their coupling system are researched, and the attenuation law and propagation mechanism of wave in the anchoring system are obtained. Meanwhile, the studies on end reflection and dynamic response under load are also carried out experimentally, the relationship between anchoring length and excited wave length is obtained when the end reflection of bolt emerges, and it is concluded that under the condition of bolt loaded,as the load increases, the reflection of the upper interface of anchoring segment weakens while the end reflection strengthens relatively, hence the energy attenuation increases. These results provide some important theory basis for measuring the effective anchoring length of bolt, judging the bonding quality of anchoring end and surrounding rock, and estimating the utmost load force of bolt.

  12. Headstart for speech segmentation: a neural signature for the anchor word effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunillera, Toni; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    Learning a new language is an incremental process that builds upon previously acquired information. To shed light on the mechanisms of this incremental process, we studied the on-line neurophysiological correlates of the so-called anchor word effect where newly learned words facilitate segmentation of novel words from continuous speech. Higher segmentation performance was observed for speech streams embedded with newly learned anchor words. The anchor words elicited an enhanced Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) component considered to be an index of expectation for incoming relevant information. Moreover, we confirmed a previously reported N400 amplitude increase for the to-be-segmented novel words, indicating a bottom-up learning process whereby new memory representations for the novel words emerge. We propose that the anchor word effect indexed by SPN reflects an expectation for an incoming novel word at the offset of the anchor word, thus facilitating the segmentation process. PMID:26792366

  13. Functionalized Nanostructures: Redox-Active Porphyrin Anchors for Supramolecular DNA Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Börjesson, Karl

    2010-09-28

    We have synthesized and studied a supramolecular system comprising a 39-mer DNA with porphyrin-modified thymidine nucleosides anchored to the surface of large unilamellar vesicles (liposomes). Liposome porphyrin binding characteristics, such as orientation, strength, homogeneity, and binding site size, was determined, suggesting that the porphyrin is well suited as a photophysical and redox-active lipid anchor, in comparison to the inert cholesterol anchor commonly used today. Furthermore, the binding characteristics and hybridization capabilities were studied as a function of anchor size and number of anchoring points, properties that are of importance for our future plans to use the addressability of these redox-active nodes in larger DNA-based nanoconstructs. Electron transfer from photoexcited porphyrin to a lipophilic benzoquinone residing in the lipid membrane was characterized by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and verified by femtosecond transient absorption. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either 3H-fatty acids or [3H]ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the 3H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of [3H]ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from 3H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the 3H-fatty acid and the [3H]ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the [3H]ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The 3H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from [3H]ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic [3H]ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the 3H-fatty acid and [3H]ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase

  15. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  16. Molecular interactions of the neuronal GPI-anchored lipocalin Lazarillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diego; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Akerström, Bo; Herrera, Macarena; Bastiani, Michael J; Ganfornina, Maria D

    2008-01-01

    Lazarillo, a glycoprotein involved in axon growth and guidance in the grasshopper embryo, is the only member of the lipocalin family that is attached to the cell surface by a GPI anchor. Recently, the study of Lazarillo homologous genes in Drosophila and mouse has revealed new functions in the regulation of lifespan, stress resistance and neurodegeneration. Here we report an analysis of biochemical properties of Lazarillo to gain insight into the molecular basis of its physiological function. Recombinant forms of the grasshopper protein were expressed in two different systems to test: (1) potential binding of several hydrophobic ligands; (2) protein-protein homophilic interactions; and (3) whether interaction with the function-blocking mAb 10E6 interferes with ligand binding. We tested 10 candidate ligands (retinoic acid, heme, bilirubin, biliverdin, ecdysterone, juvenile hormone, farnesol, arachidonic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid), and monitored binding using electrophoretic mobility shift, absorbance spectrum, and fluorimetry assays. Our work indicates binding to heme and retinoic acid, resulting in increased electrophoretic mobility, as well as to fatty acids, resulting in multimerization. Retinoic acid and fatty acids binding were confirmed by fluorescence titration, and heme binding was confirmed with absorbance spectrum assays. We demonstrate that Lazarillo oligomerizes in solution and can form clusters in the plasma membrane when expressed and GPI-anchored to the cell surface, however it is unable to mediate cell-cell adhesion. Finally, by ligand-mAb competition experiments we show that ligand-binding alone cannot be the key factor for Lazarillo to perform its function during axonal growth in the grasshopper embryo.

  17. Suture locking of isolated internal locking knotless suture anchors is not affected by bone quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodmass JM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jarret M Woodmass,1 Graeme Matthewson,1 Yohei Ono,1,2 Aaron J Bois,1 Richard S Boorman,1 Ian KY Lo,1 Gail M Thornton1,31Department of Surgery, Section of Orthopaedic Surgery, McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical performance of different suture locking mechanisms including: i interference fit between the anchor and the bone (eg, 4.5 mm PushLock, 5.5 mm SwiveLock, ii internal locking mechanism within the anchor itself (eg, 5.5 mm SpeedScrew, or iii a combination of interference fit and internal locking (eg, 4.5 mm MultiFIX P, 5.5 mm MultiFIX S. Methods: Anchors were tested in foam blocks representing normal (20/8 foam or osteopenic (8/8 foam bone, using standard suture loops pulled in-line with the anchor to isolate suture locking. Mechanical testing included cyclic testing for 500 cycles from 10 N to 60 N at 60 mm/min, followed by failure testing at 60 mm/min. Displacement after 500 cycles at 60 N, number of cycles at 3 mm displacement, load at 3 mm displacement, and maximum load were evaluated. Results: Comparing 8/8 foam to 20/8 foam, load at 3 mm displacement and maximum load were significantly decreased (P<0.05 with decreased bone quality for anchors that, even in part, relied on an interference fit suture locking mechanism (ie, 4.5 mm PushLock, 5.5 mm SwiveLock, 4.5 mm MultiFIX P, 5.5 mm MultiFIX S. Bone quality did not affect the mechanical performance of 5.5 mm SpeedScrew anchors which have an isolated internal locking mechanism. Conclusion: The mechanical performance of anchors that relied, even in part, on interference fit were affected by bone quality. Isolated internal locking knotless suture anchors functioned independently of bone quality

  18. Determining the Anchor Composition for a Mixed-Format Test: Evaluation of Subpopulation Invariance of Linking Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the appropriateness of the anchor composition in a mixed-format test, which includes both multiple-choice (MC) and constructed-response (CR) items, using subpopulation invariance indices. Linking functions were derived in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design using two types of anchor sets: (a) MC only and (b)…

  19. The Place of White in a World of Grays: A Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt…

  20. Rock engineering design of post-tensioned anchors for dams e A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.T. Brown

    2015-01-01

    abstract High-capacity, post-tensioned anchors have found wide-spread use, originally in initial dam design and construction, and more recently in the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete dams to meet modern design and safety standards. Despite the advances that have been made in rock mechanics and rock engineering during the last 80 years in which post-tensioned anchors have been used in dam en-gineering, some aspects of the rock engineering design of high-capacity rock anchors for dams have changed relatively little over the last 30 or 40 years. This applies, in particular, to the calculations usually carried out to establish the grouted embedment lengths required for deep, post-tensioned anchors. These calculations usually make simplified assumptions about the distribution and values of rockegrout interface shear strengths, the shape of the volume of rock likely to be involved in uplift failure under the influence of a system of post-tensioned anchors, and the mechanism of that failure. The resulting designs are generally conservative. It is concluded that these aspects of the rock engineering design of large, post-tensioned rock anchors for dams can be significantly improved by making greater use of modern, comprehensive, numerical analyses in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D) models of the rock mass structure, realistic rock and rock mass properties, and the results of prototype anchor tests in the rock mass concerned.

  1. Modified method for external attachment of transmitters to birds using two subcutaneous anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T.L.; Flint, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Of the transmitter attachment techniques for birds, the subcutaneous anchor provides a secure attachment that yields relatively few secondary effects. However, the use of subcutaneous anchors has been limited by transmitter size and retention time. Using a modified method of attachment that utilized two subcutaneous anchors, we deployed 69 GPS transmitters, plus 13 VHF transmitters that were similar in size and weight to GPS models, on Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Prior to our study, only harnesses were used for attaching GPS transmitters on birds, mainly because GPS transmitters are too large for other external attachment techniques and implantation in the body cavity attenuates the GPS signal. Thus, to increase the size capacity of anchor attachment and to avoid the well-documented negative effects of harnesses on behavior and survival, we added a second anchor at the transmitter's posterior end. The double-anchor attachment technique was quickly and easily accomplished in the field, requiring bird handling times of anchor method appears to provide a viable alternative for external attachment. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  2. Theoretical analysis of a new segmented anchoring style in weakly cemented soft surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zenghui; Wang Weiming; Wang Lihua

    2016-01-01

    According to the tensile failure of rock bolt in weakly cemented soft rock, this paper presents a new seg-mented anchoring style in order to weaken the cumulative effect of anchoring force associated with the large deformation. Firstly, a segmented mechanical model was established in which free and anchoring section of rock bolt were respectively arranged in different deformation zones. Then, stress and displace-ment in elastic non-anchoring zone, elastic anchoring zone, elastic sticking zone, softening sticking zone and broken zone were derived respectively based on neural theory and tri-linear strain softening constitutive model of soft rock. Results show that the anchoring effect can be characterized by a supporting parameter β. With its increase, the peak value of tangential stress gradually moves to the roadway wall, and the radial stress significantly increases, which means the decrease of equivalent plastic zone and improvement of confining effect provided by anchorage body. When β increases to 0.72, the equivalent plastic zone disappears, and stresses tend to be the elastic solutions. In addition, the anchoring effect on the displacement of surrounding rock can be quantified by a normalization factorδ.

  3. A comparison of soft-tissue anchors in tendo achilles reattachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, L; Lam, A T; Espiritu, T; Ploot, E; Husain, Z S

    2001-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated four soft-tissue fixation modalities, used in seven different combinations, to reattach the tendo Achilles in 34 cadaveric specimens. Ultimate loads, elastic moduli, and modes of failure were evaluated by loading the specimen in a cantilevered fashion on an Instron. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to compare the failure load data for statistical significance. Although the use of two Mitek SuperAnchors showed better load resistance than one anchor (p anchors (one anchor 116 +/- 24 N, two anchors 234 +/- 21 N, three anchors 277 +/- 80 N). Two Bionx Bankart Tacks demonstrated no significant difference over using a single tack (one tack 178 +/- 57 N, two tacks 214 +/- 86 N). No statistical difference was observed between the screw and washer systems (screw with polyacetal resin washer 307 +/- 80 N, screw with metal washer 290 +/- 81 N). Both screw and washer systems did show greater stability when compared with a single Mitek SuperAnchor (p resin spiked washer to have the lowest cost to load ratio ($0.15/N).

  4. Rock engineering design of post-tensioned anchors for dams – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Brown

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High-capacity, post-tensioned anchors have found wide-spread use, originally in initial dam design and construction, and more recently in the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete dams to meet modern design and safety standards. Despite the advances that have been made in rock mechanics and rock engineering during the last 80 years in which post-tensioned anchors have been used in dam engineering, some aspects of the rock engineering design of high-capacity rock anchors for dams have changed relatively little over the last 30 or 40 years. This applies, in particular, to the calculations usually carried out to establish the grouted embedment lengths required for deep, post-tensioned anchors. These calculations usually make simplified assumptions about the distribution and values of rock–grout interface shear strengths, the shape of the volume of rock likely to be involved in uplift failure under the influence of a system of post-tensioned anchors, and the mechanism of that failure. The resulting designs are generally conservative. It is concluded that these aspects of the rock engineering design of large, post-tensioned rock anchors for dams can be significantly improved by making greater use of modern, comprehensive, numerical analyses in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D models of the rock mass structure, realistic rock and rock mass properties, and the results of prototype anchor tests in the rock mass concerned.

  5. Anchoring effects in the judgment of confidence: semantic or numeric priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven R; Petrusic, William M; Leth-Steensen, Craig

    2009-02-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have debated whether anchoring effects are the result of semantic or numeric priming. The present study tested both hypotheses. In four experiments involving a sensory detection task, participants first made a relative confidence judgment by deciding whether they were more or less confident than an anchor value in the correctness of their decision. Subsequently, they expressed an absolute level of confidence. In two of these experiments, the relative confidence anchor values represented the midpoints between the absolute confidence scale values, which were either explicitly numeric or semantic, nonnumeric representations of magnitude. In two other experiments, the anchor values were drawn from a scale modally different from that used to express the absolute confidence (i.e., nonnumeric and numeric, respectively, or vice versa). Regardless of the nature of the anchors, the mean confidence ratings revealed anchoring effects only when the relative and absolute confidence values were drawn from identical scales. Together, the results of these four experiments limit the conditions under which both numeric and semantic priming would be expected to lead to anchoring effects.

  6. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  7. Wireless and acoustic hearing with bone-anchored hearing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Arjan J.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A.M.; Hol, Myrthe K.S.; Snik, Ad F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The efficacy of wireless connectivity in bone-anchored hearing was studied by comparing the wireless and acoustic performance of the Ponto Plus sound processor from Oticon Medical relative to the acoustic performance of its predecessor, the Ponto Pro. Study sample: Nineteen subjects with more than two years' experience with a bone-anchored hearing device were included. Thirteen subjects were fitted unilaterally and six bilaterally. Design: Subjects served as their own control. First, subjects were tested with the Ponto Pro processor. After a four-week acclimatization period performance the Ponto Plus processor was measured. In the laboratory wireless and acoustic input levels were made equal. In daily life equal settings of wireless and acoustic input were used when watching TV, however when using the telephone the acoustic input was reduced by 9 dB relative to the wireless input. Results: Speech scores for microphone with Ponto Pro and for both input modes of the Ponto Plus processor were essentially equal when equal input levels of wireless and microphone inputs were used. Only the TV-condition showed a statistically significant (p <5%) lower speech reception threshold for wireless relative to microphone input. In real life, evaluation of speech quality, speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, and annoyance by ambient noise, when using landline phone, mobile telephone, and watching TV showed a clear preference (p <1%) for the Ponto Plus system with streamer over the microphone input. Due to the small number of respondents with landline phone (N = 7) the result for noise annoyance was only significant at the 5% level. Conclusion: Equal input levels for acoustic and wireless inputs results in equal speech scores, showing a (near) equivalence for acoustic and wireless sound transmission with Ponto Pro and Ponto Plus. The default 9-dB difference between microphone and wireless input when using the telephone results in a substantial

  8. Estradiol dependent anchoring of the goat uterine estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF) at the endoplasmic reticulum by a 55 kDa anchor protein (ap55).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Anitha P; Sreeja, S; Thampan, Raghava Varman

    2003-05-01

    The primary intracellular site of localization of the estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF) is shown here to be the endoplasmic reticulum where the protein remains anchored through an estrogen dependent mechanism. The retention of E-RAF by the endoplasmic reticulum is facilitated by two proteins: (1) a 55 kDa anchor protein (ap55) which is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. ap55 is a high affinity estrogen binding protein. A conformational change induced by estrogen binding is thought to favor the anchoring process. (2) The anchoring of E-RAF by ap55 is mediated by yet another protein. This is the 66 kDa transport protein (tp66) which recognizes ap55 on the one hand and E-RAF on the other. The presence of estradiol that saturates the hormone binding sites on ap55 appears to favor the anchoring of tp66-E-RAF complex to ap55. This interaction appears to be weakened by levels of estradiol below 7 nM concentration leading to the dissociation of the tp66-E-RAF complex from ap55. The tp66-E-RAF complex moves towards the nucleus. PMID:12682911

  9. Behavior of pre-stress group anchors--Theory approach and model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Siming; WANG; Chenghua; QIAO; Jianping

    2003-01-01

    First of all the pre-stress group anchor ropes are resolved into two sub-systems: the stable rock stand lateral resistance load and inner bonding section stand lateral resistance load and pre-stress load. Then, discretization of every sub-system was carried on and it is assumed that different micro-sections possess uniform distribution side resistance. On the basis of Mindlin stress solution, stress overlay principle, modified layered-summation method as well as the load transfer method, we study the anchor group effect and present a theory model which calculates the anchor group effect and establishes the relevant iterate standard.

  10. Improvement in Corrosion Resistance of Anchor Steel by Low Temperature Plasma Nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shaoqing; YANG Shuangsuo; LI Yi

    2014-01-01

    Plasma nitriding was used to improve the corrosion performance of anchor steel. The microstructure, phase constitution, microhardness and corrosion resistance of the nitrided layer were systematically studied. The results show that the nitrided layer is continuous and dense, and consists of Fe4N and Fe3N in the outmost surface. The microhardness of the nitrided sample is improved because of the formation of nitrides in the outer side continuous layer and the inner parts. The nitrided layer on the surface of anchor steel can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of the anchor steel.

  11. Experimental study on the stability of plate anchors in clay under cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the bearing capacity of plate anchors in clay has been studied extensively, the results considering the effects of offshore cyclic loading are relatively rare. In the present study, 1 g model tests are carried out to investigate the effect of cyclic loading on the bearing capacity of plate anchors in clay. The ultimate pullout capacity of plate anchors in clay decreases as the accumulated plastic shear strain grows due to the strain-softening of clay under cyclic loading. The load–displacement curves of these tests are presented and the effects of overburden stress and cyclic loading amplitude on the strain-softening behavior are discussed.

  12. THE FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF MINE RESIN ANCHOR%锚杆的断裂分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵衍芳; 陈红

    2012-01-01

    通过对断裂的锚杆进行宏观断口、微观组织及力学性能分析,认为加工锚杆的模具孔过小是导致锚杆产生冷作硬化而脆断的主要原因。%Based on the fracture of the anchor to macroscopic fracture, microstructure and mechanical properties analysis, think the processing anchor mold hole is too small to anchor to generate cold hardening and brittle fracture are the main causes.

  13. Pull-out behavior of CFRP single-strap ground anchors

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Haifeng; Keller, Thomas; Vassilopoulos, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Pull-out experiments were performed on four carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) ground anchors simulating their applications in rock and soil. The CFRP tendons used in these anchors comprise a single-strap end on both the ground and air sides. On the ground side, the single-strap end is embedded in a cylinder of high-strength grout which fits into the borehole. In rock applications, the ground-side anchor can be used directly without additional confinement, while in the case of soil, an ad...

  14. Extrusion of bone anchor suture following flexor digitorum profundus tendon avulsion injury repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2011-09-01

    Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) zone I tendon avulsion injury is traditionally repaired with a pullout suture technique. More recently, bone anchor sutures have been used as a viable alternative and have largely replaced areas in hand surgery where pullout suture technique was once required. To date, there have been very few complications reported related to bone anchor suture use in FDP tendon reattachment to the bone. We report a very unusual case of extrusion of bone anchor through the nailbed, 6 years after zone I FDP tendon avulsion injury repair and a brief review of literature.

  15. Study of Vertical Seismic Response of Concrete Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春城; 石磊; 张哲

    2004-01-01

    Based on the variational prineiple of incomplete generalized potential energy with large deflection, the vertical nonlinear vibrational differential equation of self-anchored suspension bridge is presented by taking the effect of coupling of flexural and axial action into consideration. The linear vertical equation is obtained by omitting the nonlinear term, and the pseudo excitation method(PEM). Taking the self-anchored concrete suspension bridge over Lanqi Songhua river for an example, the expected peak responses of main beam, towers and cables are calculated. And the seismic spatial effects on vertical seismic response of self-anchored suspension bridges are discussed.

  16. Rock engineering design of post-tensioned anchors for dams – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    High-capacity, post-tensioned anchors have found wide-spread use, originally in initial dam design and construction, and more recently in the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete dams to meet modern design and safety standards. Despite the advances that have been made in rock mechanics and rock engineering during the last 80 years in which post-tensioned anchors have been used in dam engineering, some aspects of the rock engineering design of high-capacity rock anchors for dams have c...

  17. Iron anchors of Northern Odisha, east coast India: Maritime contacts with European countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Patnaik, S.K.; Acharya, S.B.

    and agricultural products (Habib 1982: 49– 6    52). As iron was in abundance in the Nilgiri hills region, the area may have been the source for the raw materials in the manufacture of these anchors. Ascertaining the owners of these anchors is difficult because...th century lexicon, Bahar-i Ajam, describes a langar made of iron used to stop vessels from moving away (Qaisar 1982: 27). In the second half of the 17th century, attempts were made to manufacture iron anchors in India and a breakthrough...

  18. Peptide Anchor for Folate-Targeted Liposomal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Mangialavori, Irene C; Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Sárria, Marisa P; Nogueira, Patrícia; Freitas, Jaime; Härmark, Johan; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Guebitz, Georg; Hebert, Hans; Moreira, Alexandra; Carmo, Alexandre M; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-09-14

    Specific folate receptors are abundantly overexpressed in chronically activated macrophages and in most cancer cells. Directed folate receptor targeting using liposomes is usually achieved using folate linked to a phospholipid or cholesterol anchor. This link is formed using a large spacer like polyethylene glycol. Here, we report an innovative strategy for targeted liposome delivery that uses a hydrophobic fragment of surfactant protein D linked to folate. Our proposed spacer is a small 4 amino acid residue linker. The peptide conjugate inserts deeply into the lipid bilayer without affecting liposomal integrity, with high stability and specificity. To compare the drug delivery potential of both liposomal targeting systems, we encapsulated the nuclear dye Hoechst 34580. The eventual increase in blue fluorescence would only be detectable upon liposome disruption, leading to specific binding of this dye to DNA. Our delivery system was proven to be more efficient (2-fold) in Caco-2 cells than classic systems where the folate moiety is linked to liposomes by polyethylene glycol. PMID:26241560

  19. Dynamics of anchor last deployment of submersible buoy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhongqiang; Xu, Jianpeng; Huang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Chang, Zongyu

    2016-02-01

    Submersible buoy systems are widely used for oceanographic research, ocean engineering and coastal defense. Severe sea environment has obvious effects on the dynamics of submersible buoy systems. Huge tension can occur and may cause the snap of cables, especially during the deployment period. This paper studies the deployment dynamics of submersible buoy systems with numerical and experimental methods. By applying the lumped mass approach, a three-dimensional multi-body model of submersible buoy system is developed considering the hydrodynamic force, tension force and impact force between components of submersible buoy system and seabed. Numerical integration method is used to solve the differential equations. The simulation output includes tension force, trajectory, profile and dropping location and impact force of submersible buoys. In addition, the deployment experiment of a simplified submersible buoy model was carried out. The profile and different nodes' velocities of the submersible buoy are obtained. By comparing the results of the two methods, it is found that the numerical model well simulates the actual process and conditions of the experiment. The simulation results agree well with the results of the experiment such as gravity anchor's location and velocities of different nodes of the submersible buoy. The study results will help to understand the conditions of submersible buoy's deployment, operation and recovery, and can be used to guide the design and optimization of the system.

  20. Econophysical anchoring of unimodal power-law distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-09-01

    The sciences are abundant with size distributions whose densities have a unimodal shape and power-law tails both at zero and at infinity. The quintessential examples of such unimodal and power-law (UPL) distributions are the sizes of income and wealth in human societies. While the tails of UPL distributions are precisely quantified by their corresponding power-law exponents, their bulks are only qualitatively characterized as unimodal. Consequently, different statistical models of UPL distributions exist, the most popular considering lognormal bulks. In this paper we present a general econophysical framework for UPL distributions termed ‘the anchoring method’. This method: (i) universally approximates UPL distributions via three ‘anchors’ set at zero, at infinity, and at an intermediate point between zero and infinity (e.g. the mode); (ii) is highly versatile and broadly applicable; (iii) encompasses the existing statistical models of UPL distributions as special cases; (iv) facilitates the introduction of new statistical models of UPL distributions and (v) yields a socioeconophysical analysis of UPL distributions.

  1. High performance supercapacitors using metal oxide anchored graphene nanosheet electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles were chemically anchored onto graphene nanosheets (GNs) and the resultant composites - SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs (58% of GNs loading) - coated over conductive carbon fabric substrates were successfully used as supercapacitor electrodes. The results showed that the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles improved the capacitive performance of GNs due to a combination of the effect of spacers and redox reactions. The specific capacitance values (with respect to the composite mass) obtained for SnO2/GNs (195 F g-1) and RuO 2/GNs (365 F g-1) composites at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the present study are the best ones reported to date for a two electrode configuration. The resultant supercapacitors also exhibited high values for maximum energy (27.6, 33.1 and 50.6 W h kg-1) and power densities (15.9, 20.4 and 31.2 kW kg-1) for SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance and great potential of metal oxide/GNs based composite coated carbon fabric in the development of high-performance energy-storage systems. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Comparison of the Tendon Damage Caused by Four Different Anchor Systems Used in Transtendon Rotator Cuff Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Song Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the damage to the rotator cuff tendons caused by four different anchor systems. Methods. 20 cadaveric human shoulder joints were used for transtendon insertion of four anchor systems. The Healix Peek, Fastin RC, Bio-Corkscrew Suture, and Healix Transtend anchors were inserted through the tendons using standard transtendon procedures. The areas of tendon damage were measured. Results. The areas of tendon damage (mean ± standard deviation, n=7 were 29.1 ± 4.3 mm2 for the Healix Peek anchor, 20.4 ± 2.3 mm2 for the Fastin RC anchor, 23.4 ± 1.2 mm2 for the Bio-Corkscrew Suture anchor, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm2 for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted directly, and 9.1 ± 2.1 mm2 for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted through the Percannula system (P<0.001 or P<0.001, compared to other anchors. Conclusions. In a cadaver transtendon rotator cuff repair model, smaller anchors caused less damage to the tendon tissues. The Healix Transtend implant system caused the least damage to the tendon tissues. Our findings suggest that smaller anchors should be considered when performing transtendon procedures to repair partial rotator cuff tears.

  3. Simulation of the Load Evolution of an Anchoring System under a Blasting Impulse Load Using FLAC3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigui Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A limitation in research on bolt anchoring is the unknown relationship between dynamic perturbation and mechanical characteristics. This paper divides dynamic impulse loads into engineering loads and blasting loads and then employs numerical calculation software FLAC3D to analyze the stability of an anchoring system perturbed by an impulse load. The evolution of the dynamic response of the axial force/shear stress in the anchoring system is thus obtained. It is revealed that the corners and middle of the anchoring system are strongly affected by the dynamic load, and the dynamic response of shear stress is distinctly stronger than that of the axial force in the anchoring system. Additionally, the perturbation of the impulse load reduces stress in the anchored rock mass and induces repeated tension and loosening of the rods in the anchoring system, thus reducing the stability of the anchoring system. The oscillation amplitude of the axial force in the anchored segment is mitigated far more than that in the free segment, demonstrating that extended/full-length anchoring is extremely stable and surpasses simple anchors with free ends.

  4. Anchors from Goa waters, central west coast of India: Remains of Goa's overseas trade contacts with Arabian countries and Portugal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    ships have been wrecked in this region. The weight marks are also not visible on these anchors. Iron anchors of Old Goa Tw o i r o n a n c h o r s h a v e b e e n d i s p l a y e d i n t h e Figure 8. Iron anchor with wooden... on these anchors is enigmatic. Both the anchors are similar in shape and size and datable to the 17th?18th century. Iron anchor E: The length of the shank is 3.35 m, roundish in shape and larger than the other anchors but the palm and a little...

  5. Stone anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, Coast, India: Significance to historical period maritime activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Bet Dwarka Island is situated on the extreme west of Indian territory in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Underwater, the most preserved remains of ancient maritime activity could be the stone anchors of different types, as every boat requires...

  6. 'Saurashtra stone anchors' (Ring-stones) from Dwarka and Somnath, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Last two decades of marine archaeological research along the Indian coast has brought to light a large number of stone anchors of different types and sizes, indicating that the Indian coast has witnessed brisk maritime activities in the past...

  7. Suture slippage in knotless suture anchors resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayeri, Mohammad Reza; Keefe, Daniel T; Chang, Eric Y

    2016-05-01

    Rotator cuff repair using a suture bridge and knotless suture anchors is a relatively new, but increasingly used technique. The suture bridge technique creates an anatomically similar and more secure rotator cuff repair compared with conventional arthroscopic techniques and the use of knotless anchors eliminates the challenges associated with knot tying during arthroscopic surgery. However, previous in vitro biomechanical tests have shown that the hold of the suture in a knotless suture anchor is far lower than the pullout strength of the anchor from bone. Up until now slippage has been a theoretical concern. We present a prospectively diagnosed case of in vivo suture loosening after rotator cuff repair using a knotless bridge technique resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis. PMID:26739301

  8. Uplift Capacity of Shallow Anchors Based on the Generalized Nonlinear Failure Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Jin-feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of rapture surface for shallow anchors was presented and the effects of parameters on the shape of rapture surface were analyzed. Based on the generalized nonlinear failure criterion and the limit equilibrium principle, an approach, which takes into account the shape of rapture surface, dip angle of shallow anchors, and varieties of rock and soil mass, is proposed. The effects of different parameters on ultimate uplift force of shallow anchors are discussed. In order to validate the practicability of the proposed formula, a comparison between the theoretical solutions and local test results is conducted. The agreement shows that the proposed formula is effective. The results of the proposed approach show that the ultimate uplift capacity of shallow anchor increases nonlinearly with the shape coefficient linearly increasing. The values of ultimate uplift force local test are in the range of the results of the proposed method with shape coefficient from 0 to 1.

  9. Factors affecting the dynamic response of pre-stressed anchors after transient excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Huijun; Li Qingfeng

    2011-01-01

    The wide application of pre-stressed bolting technology in coal mine tunnels has made the nondestructive stress wave reflection method of determining bolting quality an important one.The effect of the support plate on the dynamic response of the pre-stressed anchor is of particular interest.A theoreticalanalysis and numerical simulations are used to identify the factors affecting the contact stress between the support plate and the rock wall.A formula allowing the calculation of contact stress is presented.Stress wave propagation through the nut,support plate,and rock wall are predicted.The dynamic response signals were measured in the field using prestressed anchors pre-tightened to different torques.The effects from the support plate on the dynamic response were recorded and the results compared to the predictions of pre-stressed anchor.This work provides a theoretical reference for the signal processing of dynamic reflected wave signals in anchor bolts.

  10. Tri-layer wrinkling as a mechanism for anchoring center initiation in the developing cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Emma; Javili, Ali; Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Linder, Christian

    2016-07-01

    During cerebellar development, anchoring centers form at the base of each fissure and remain fixed in place while the rest of the cerebellum grows outward. Cerebellar foliation has been extensively studied; yet, the mechanisms that control anchoring center initiation and position remain insufficiently understood. Here we show that a tri-layer model can predict surface wrinkling as a potential mechanism to explain anchoring center initiation and position. Motivated by the cerebellar microstructure, we model the developing cerebellum as a tri-layer system with an external molecular layer and an internal granular layer of similar stiffness and a significantly softer intermediate Purkinje cell layer. Including a weak intermediate layer proves key to predicting surface morphogenesis, even at low stiffness contrasts between the top and bottom layers. The proposed tri-layer model provides insight into the hierarchical formation of anchoring centers and establishes an essential missing link between gene expression and evolution of shape. PMID:27252048

  11. Comparison of two bone anchored hearing instruments: BP100 and Ponto Pro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Glad, Henrik; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating if there were differences in auditory performance, operation, or user preference between the Ponto Pro or the BP100, two bone anchored hearing instruments (BAHI) with modern sound processing technology....

  12. Wind wave spectra gathered by anchored data buoys (NODC Accession 9900175)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra data were collected using anchored data buoys in various place such as Coastal Waters of Western US, Gulf of Mexico, South Pacific Ocean, Great...

  13. Optimal design of anchor cables for slope reinforcement based on stress and displacement fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghua Yang; Zhihui Zhong; Yucheng Zhang; Xudong Fu

    2015-01-01

    How to determine reasonable position and length of anchor cable is a frequently encountered but not well addressed problem in slope reinforcement projects. In this paper, the variable-modulus elastoplastic strength reduction method (SRM) is used to obtain the stress field, displacement field, and factor of safety of slope. Slope reinforcement using anchor cables is modeled by surface loading, i.e. different distributions of surface loading represent various reinforcement schemes. Optimal reinforcement scheme of anchor cables can be determined based on slope stress and displacement fields. By comparing the factor of safety and stress field before and after slope reinforcement, it is found that better rein-forcement results can be achieved if strong reinforcement is applied upon the regions with high stress and large displacement. This method can well optimize the arrangement of anchor cables. In addition, several cases are employed to verify the proposed method.

  14. Tunable Signal Processing through a Kinase Control Cycle: the IKK Signaling Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Marcelo; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor NFκB, a key component of the immune system, shows intricate stimulus-specific temporal dynamics. Those dynamics are thought to play a role in controlling the physiological response to cytokines and pathogens. Biochemical evidence suggests that the NFκB inducing kinase, IKK, a signaling hub onto which many signaling pathways converge, is regulated via a regulatory cycle comprising a poised, an active, and an inactive state. We hypothesize that it operates as a modulator of signal dynamics, actively reshaping the signals generated at the receptor proximal level. Here we show that a regulatory cycle can function in at least three dynamical regimes, tunable by regulating a single kinetic parameter. In particular, the simplest three-state regulatory cycle can generate signals with two well-defined phases, each with distinct coding capabilities in terms of the information they can carry about the stimulus. We also demonstrate that such a kinase cycle can function as a signal categorizer classifying diverse incoming signals into outputs with a limited set of temporal activity profiles. Finally, we discuss the extension of the results to other regulatory motifs that could be understood in terms of the regimes of the three-state cycle. PMID:23823243

  15. Akt Inhibitor A-443654 Interferes with Mitotic Progression by Regulating Aurora A Kinase Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Both Akt and Aurora A kinase have been shown to be important targets for intervention for cancer therapy. We report here that Compound A (A-443654, a specific Akt inhibitor, interferes with mitotic progression and bipolar spindle formation. Compound A induces G2/M accumulation, defects in centrosome separation, and formation of either monopolar arrays or disorganized spindles. On the basis of gene expression array studies, we identified Aurora A as one of the genes regulated transcriptionally by Akt inhibitors including Compound A. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway, either by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or by Compound A, dramatically inhibits the promoter activity of Aurora A, whereas the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor has little effect, suggesting that Akt might be responsible for up-regulating Aurora A for mitotic progression. Further analysis of the Aurora A promoter region indicates that the Ets element but not the Sp1 element is required for Compound A-sensitive transcriptional control of Aurora A. Overexpression of Aurora A in cells treated with Compound A attenuates the mitotic arrest and the defects in bipolar spindle formation induced by Akt inhibition. Our studies suggest that that Akt may promote mitotic progression through the transcriptional regulation of Aurora A.

  16. Aurora A kinase modulates actin cytoskeleton through phosphorylation of Cofilin: Implication in the mitotic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Lisa; Chakrabarti, Ratna

    2014-11-01

    Aurora A kinase regulates early mitotic events through phosphorylation and activation of a variety of proteins. Specifically, Aur-A is involved in centrosomal separation and formation of mitotic spindles in early prophase. The effect of Aur-A on mitotic spindles is mediated by the modulation of microtubule dynamics and association with microtubule binding proteins. In this study we show that Aur-A exerts its effects on spindle organization through the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Aurora A phosphorylates Cofilin at multiple sites including S(3) resulting in the inactivation of its actin depolymerizing function. Aur-A interacts with Cofilin in early mitotic phases and regulates its phosphorylation status. Cofilin phosphorylation follows a dynamic pattern during the progression of prophase to metaphase. Inhibition of Aur-A activity induced a delay in the progression of prophase to metaphase. Aur-A inhibitor also disturbed the pattern of Cofilin phosphorylation, which correlated with the mitotic delay. Our results establish a novel function of Aur-A in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization, through Cofilin phosphorylation during early mitotic stages.

  17. Flapping states of an el astically anchored wing in a uniform flow

    OpenAIRE

    Orchini, A.; Mazzino, A; Guerrero, J.; Festa, R.; Boragno, C.

    2012-01-01

    Linear stability analysis of an elastically anchored wing in a uniform flow is investigated both analytically and numerically. The analytical formulation explicitly takes into account the effect of the wake on the wing by means of Theodorsen's theory. Three different parameters non-trivially rule the observed dynamics: mass density ratio between wing and fluid, spring elastic constant and distance between the wing center of mass and the spring anchor point on the wing. We found relationships ...

  18. Application Research on Nondestructive Testing Technology for Quality of Anchor Based on Elastic Wave Reflection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, G.; Zhou, L.

    2014-12-01

    Anchor technology has been widely used to reinforce slopes, underground caverns, deep excavations and the foundation of dams. It has attracted more and more attention of research worldwide on how to find a comfortable method to test the quality of anchoring systems. According to the characteristics of anchor systems, we set up the kinetic equations and mathematical models, then solved the models using ANSYS / LS-DYNA program. We found that the simulated mathematical models perfectly match the experimental data. By changing one of the parameters or the input conditions in the model, we were able to understand the characteristic response of excitation energy, excitation length, structural defects, rock quality, and different data acquisition methods. For short anchor systems (grouting density. The obtained values were consistent with the actual experimental data. We also demonstrated that the kinetic energy of the collected waves from the bottom of the anchor had very close relationship with the grouting density and the position of the structural defects. For long anchors (> 60 m), mostly cable anchors, since little research could be followed, we started our research from designing the instrument, writing the program for data acquisition and analysis. We designed and developed novel sensors and preamplifiers. We used vertical stack technology to effectively enhance the weak signals from the deeper interfaces. In data processing, in addition to the traditional filter method, we also explored the current technology of signal processing such as true amplitude recovery and deconvolution, which enabled us to obtain improved signal to noise ratio and sensing precision. Through the above mentioned systematical studies, we developed a reliable nondestructive test method for both short and long anchors based on elastic wave reflection. This research is funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41202223)

  19. Prediction of signal peptides and signal anchors by a hidden Markovmodel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1998-01-01

    A hidden Markov model of signal peptides has been developed. It contains submodels for the N-terminal part, the hydrophobic region and the region around the cleavage site. For known signal peptides, the model can be used to assign objective boundaries between these three regions. Applied to our d...... is the poor discrimination between signal peptides and uncleaved signal anchors, but this is substantially improved by the hidden Markov model when expanding it with a very simple signal anchor model....

  20. Dynamic behaviour of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1993, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission began a research program at The University of Texas at Austin, dealing with the dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete. In this paper, the progress of that research program is reviewed. The test program is summarized, and work performed to date is reviewed, with emphasis on the dynamic and static behavior of single tensile anchors in uncracked concrete. General conclusions from that work are discussed, and future plans are presented. (orig.)

  1. Dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1993, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission began a research program at The University of Texas at Austin, dealing with the dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete. In this paper, the progress of that research program is reviewed. The test program is summarized, the work performed to date is reviewed, with emphasis on the dynamic and static behavior of single tensile anchors in uncracked concrete. General conclusions from that work are discussed, and future plans are presented

  2. Dynamic behaviour of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Zhang Yonggang [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Lotez, D. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Graves, H.L. III [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Klingner, R.E. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-05-01

    In early 1993, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission began a research program at The University of Texas at Austin, dealing with the dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete. In this paper, the progress of that research program is reviewed. The test program is summarized, and work performed to date is reviewed, with emphasis on the dynamic and static behavior of single tensile anchors in uncracked concrete. General conclusions from that work are discussed, and future plans are presented. (orig.)

  3. DEX-1 and DYF-7 establish sensory dendrite length by anchoring dendritic tips during cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Heiman, Maxwell G.; Shaham, Shai

    2009-01-01

    Cells are devices whose structures delimit function. For example, in the nervous system, neuronal and glial shapes dictate paths of information flow. To understand how cells acquire their shapes, we examined the formation of a sense organ in C. elegans. Using time-lapse imaging, we found that sensory dendrites form by stationary anchoring of dendritic tips during cell-body migration. A genetic screen identified DEX-1 and DYF-7, extracellular proteins required for dendritic tip anchoring, whic...

  4. The sulfamate functional group as a new anchor for solid-phase organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu; Maltais; Poirier

    2000-02-24

    [reaction: see text] Sulfamate derivatives were loaded on trityl chloride resin, and two variants of cleavage were developed for this sulfamate anchor: an acid treatment to easily restore the free sulfamate and a nucleophilic treatment to generate the corresponding phenol. In addition to loading/cleavage assays and stability experiments, a model sequence of reactions was performed with the new sulfamate anchor to show its applicability in further combinatorial solid-phase synthesis of libraries of biologically relevant sulfamate derivatives.

  5. Uplift of Symmetrical Anchor Plates by Using Grid-Fixed Reinforced Reinforcement in Cohesionless Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamed Niroumand; Khairul Anuar Kassim

    2014-01-01

    Uplift response of symmetrical anchor plates with and without grid fixed reinforced (GFR) reinforcement was evaluated in model tests and numerical simulations by Plaxis. Many variations of reinforcement layers were used to reinforce the sandy soil over symmetrical anchor plates. In the current research, different factors such as relative density of sand, embedment ratios, and various GFR parameters including size, number of layers, and the proximity of the layer to the symmetrical anchor plate were investigated in a scale model. The failure mechanism and the associated rupture surface were observed and evaluated. GFR, a tied up system made of fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) strips and end balls, was connected to the geosynthetic material and anchored into the soil. Test results showed that using GFR reinforcement significantly improved the uplift capacity of anchor plates. It was found that the inclusion of one layer of GFR, which rested directly on the top of the anchor plate, was more effective in enhancing the anchor capacity itself than other methods. It was found that by including GFR the uplift response was improved by 29%. Multi layers of GFR proved more effective in enhancing the uplift capacity than a single GFR reinforcement. This is due to the additional anchorage provided by the GFR at each level of reinforcement. In general, the results show that the uplift capacity of symmetrical anchor plates in loose and dense sand can be significantly increased by the inclusion of GFR. It was also observed that the inclusion of GFR reduced the requirement for a large L/D ratio to achieve the required uplift capacity. The laboratory and numerical analysis results are found to be in agreement in terms of breakout factor and failure mechanism pattern.

  6. Installation of concrete expansion anchors at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Installation criteria utilized at the Fast Flux Test Facility for concrete expansion anchors are presented. Static and dynamic load capabilities of various anchor types are discussed in relation to design loads, with particular emphasis placed on the yield load (the proportional limit). Effects of several variables (i.e., installation torque, hole diameter) are also investigated. Resolution and documentation of field problems (e.g., improper spacing, embedment, angularity) are also described. Recommendations for improving and controlling future installations are given.

  7. Dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete: A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.; Yong-gang Zhang; Lotze, D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    In early 1993, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission began a research program at The University of Texas at Austin, dealing with the dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete. In this paper, the progress of that research program is reviewed. The test program is summarized, the work performed to date is reviewed, with emphasis on the dynamic and static behavior of single tensile anchors in uncracked concrete. General conclusions from that work are discussed, and future plans are presented.

  8. Psychological career resources as predictors of working adults’ career anchors: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Melinde Coetzee; Dries Schreuder

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the psychological career resources and career anchors of a sample of 2 997 working adults at predominantly managerial and supervisory levels in the service industry. The Psychological Career Resources Inventory and the Career Orientations Inventory were applied. Stepwise regression analyses indicated dimensions of psychological career resources as significant predictors of  participants’ career anchors. The findings add valuable new knowledge that ...

  9. Discriminative ability of two different external anchors: improvement appears better than importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    Title:    Discriminative ability of two different external anchors: improvement appears better than importance. Authors and affiliation: Henrik H. Lauridsen, DC, MSc, PhD*, Claus Manniche, MD, DMSc‡, Werner Vach, PhD §, Niels Grunnet-Nilsson DC, MD, PhD*, Jan Hartvigsen, DC, PhD*†   * Clinical...... better discriminative abilities compared to the importance criterion. Consequently, we recommend using improvement and not importance as an anchor to determine the MIC....

  10. Discriminative ability of two different external anchors: improvement appears better than importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2009-01-01

    Title:    Discriminative ability of two different external anchors: improvement appears better than importance. Authors and affiliation: Henrik H. Lauridsen, DC, MSc, PhD*, Claus Manniche, MD, DMSc‡, Werner Vach, PhD §, Niels Grunnet-Nilsson DC, MD, PhD*, Jan Hartvigsen, DC, PhD*† * Clinical...... better discriminative abilities compared to the importance criterion. Consequently, we recommend using improvement and not importance as an anchor to determine the MIC....

  11. The outcome study of arthroscopic repair with anchor suture for anterior shoulder instabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Guity MR; Sianati S

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground: Anterior glenohumeral instabilities can be corrected with open and arthroscopic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the surgical outcomes of arthroscopic repair of anterior glenohumeral instabilities with use of suture anchors in a series of patients who were followed for twenty to fifty months."n "nMethods: The results of arthroscopic Bankart repair with use of suture anchors in 30 patients with traumatic recurrent anterior instabil...

  12. Cholesterol-dependent retention of GPI-anchored proteins in endosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayor, S; Sabharanjak, S; Maxfield, F R

    1998-01-01

    Several cell surface eukaryotic proteins have a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) modification at the Cterminal end that serves as their sole means of membrane anchoring. Using fluorescently labeled ligands and digital fluorescence microscopy, we show that contrary to the potocytosis model, GPI-anchored proteins are internalized into endosomes that contain markers for both receptor-mediated uptake (e.g. transferrin) and fluid phase endocytosis (e.g. dextrans). This was confirmed by immunogol...

  13. Dynamic Active Earth Pressures of the Retaining Piles with Anchors under Vehicle Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-zhi Qiu; Ji-ming Kong; Ren-chao Wang

    2016-01-01

    The pile-anchor supporting structure is widely used in foundation pit engineering; then knowledge of active earth pressure on piles is very important for engineers. In this paper, based on the pseudodynamic method and considering the vehicle’s vibration characteristic, a method to calculate the earth pressure on piles under vehicle load is presented. At the same time, the constraint of anchor is simplified relation of lateral deformation of piles in present method. Effects of a wide range of ...

  14. Mechanical characterization of bone anchors used with a bone-attached, parallel robot for skull surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Prielozny, Lenka; Lexow, G Jakob; Rau, Thomas S; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Bone-attached robots and microstereotactic frames, intended for deep brain stimulation and minimally invasive cochlear implantation, typically attach to a patient's skull via bone anchors. A rigid and reliable link between such devices and the skull is mandatory in order to fulfill the high accuracy demands of minimally invasive procedures while maintaining patient safety. In this paper, a method is presented to experimentally characterize the mechanical properties of the anchor-bone linkage. A custom-built universal testing machine is used to measure the pullout strength as well as the spring constants of bone anchors seated in four different bone substitutes as well as in human cranial bone. Furthermore, the angles at which forces act on the bone anchors are varied to simulate realistic conditions. Based on the experimental results, a substitute material that has mechanical properties similar to those of cranial bone is identified. The results further reveal that the pullout strength of the investigated anchor design is sufficient with respect to the proposed application. However, both the measured load capacity as well as the spring constants vary depending on the load angles. Based on these findings, an alternative bone anchor design is presented and experimentally validated. Furthermore, the results serve as a basis for stiffness simulation and optimization of bone-attached microstereotactic frames. PMID:25771430

  15. An accessory protein required for anchoring and assembly of amyloid fibres in B. subtilis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Cells within Bacillus subtilis biofilms are held in place by an extracellular matrix that contains cell-anchored amyloid fibres, composed of the amyloidogenic protein TasA. As biofilms age they disassemble because the cells release the amyloid fibres. This release appears to be the consequence of incorporation of D-tyrosine, D-leucine, D-tryptophan and D-methionine into the cell wall. Here, we characterize the in vivo roles of an accessory protein TapA (TasA anchoring/assembly protein; previously YqxM) that serves both to anchor the fibres to the cell wall and to assemble TasA into fibres. TapA is found in discrete foci in the cell envelope and these foci disappear when cells are treated with a mixture of D-amino acids. Purified cell wall sacculi retain a functional form of this anchoring protein such that purified fibres can be anchored to the sacculi in vitro. In addition, we show that TapA is essential for the proper assembly of the fibres. Its absence results in a dramatic reduction in TasA levels and what little TasA is left produces only thin fibres that are not anchored to the cell. PMID:21477127

  16. Design and application of a field sensing system for ground anchors in slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1) load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), (2) wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3) master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4) a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons. PMID:23507820

  17. Design and Application of a Field Sensing System for Ground Anchors in Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1 load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs, (2 wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3 master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4 a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons.

  18. DEX-1 and DYF-7 establish sensory dendrite length by anchoring dendritic tips during cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Maxwell G; Shaham, Shai

    2009-04-17

    Cells are devices whose structures delimit function. For example, in the nervous system, neuronal and glial shapes dictate paths of information flow. To understand how cells acquire their shapes, we examined the formation of a sense organ in C. elegans. Using time-lapse imaging, we found that sensory dendrites form by stationary anchoring of dendritic tips during cell-body migration. A genetic screen identified DEX-1 and DYF-7, extracellular proteins required for dendritic tip anchoring, which act cooperatively at the time and place of anchoring. DEX-1 and DYF-7 contain, respectively, zonadhesin and zona pellucida domains, and DYF-7 self-associates into multimers important for anchoring. Thus, unlike other dendrites, amphid dendritic tips are positioned by DEX-1 and DYF-7 without the need for long-range guidance cues. In sequence and function, DEX-1 and DYF-7 resemble tectorins, which anchor stereocilia in the inner ear, suggesting that a sensory dendrite anchor may have evolved into part of a mechanosensor. PMID:19344940

  19. Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshchuk, Oleg V; Kiselev, Alexei D; Kravchuk, Ruslan M

    2008-03-01

    We have studied a sequence of anchoring transitions observed in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) sandwiched between hydrophobic polyimide substrates treated with a plasma beam. There is a pronounced continuous transition from a homeotropic to a slightly tilted (nearly planar) alignment with the easy axis parallel to the incidence plane of the plasma beam (the zenithal transition) which takes place as the exposure dose increases. In NLCs with positive dielectric anisotropy, a further increase in the exposure dose results in in-plane reorientation of the easy axis by 90 degrees (the azimuthal transition). This transition occurs through the twofold degenerate alignment characteristic of second-order anchoring transitions. In contrast to the critical behavior of anchoring, the contact angle of the NLC and water on the treated substrates declines monotonically with increasing exposure dose. It follows that the surface concentration of hydrophobic chains decreases continuously. The anchoring transitions under consideration are qualitatively interpreted by using a simple phenomenological model of competing easy axes which is studied by analyzing anchoring diagrams of generalized polar and nonpolar anchoring models.

  20. Bioabsorbable Suture Anchor Migration to the Acromioclavicular Joint: How Far Can These Implants Go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Few complications regarding the use of bioabsorbable suture anchors in the shoulder have been reported. What motivated this case report was the unusual location of the anchor, found in the acromioclavicular joint which, to our knowledge, has never been reported so far. A 53-year old male with previous rotator cuff (RC repair using bioabsorbable suture anchors presented with pain and weakness after 2 years of surgery. A suspicion of retear of the RC led to request of a magnetic resonance image, in which the implant was found located in the acromioclavicular joint. The complications reported with the use of metallic implants around the shoulder led to the development of bioabsorbable anchors. Advantages are their absorption over time, minimizing the risk of migration or interference with revision surgery, less artifacts with magnetic resonance imaging, and tendon-to-bone repair strength similar to metallic anchors. Since the use of bioabsorbable suture anchors is increasing, it is important to know the possible complications associated with these devices.

  1. Effects of surface anchoring on the electric Frederiks transition in ferronematic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhbin, Mojtaba; Kadivar, Erfan

    2016-11-01

    The effects of anchoring phenomenon on the electric Frederiks transition threshold field in a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric nanoparticles are discussed. The polarizability of these nanoparticles in combination with confinement effects cause the drastic effects on the ferronematic systems. This study is based on Frank free energy and Rapini-Papoular surface energy for ferronematic liquid crystal having finite anchoring condition. In the case of different anchoring boundary conditions, the Euler-Lagrange equation of the total free energy is numerically solved by using the finite difference method together with the relaxation method and Maxwell construction to select the physical solutions and therefore investigate the effects of different anchoring strengths on the Frederiks transition threshold field. Maxwell construction method is employed to select three periodic solutions for nematic liquid crystal director at the interfaces of a slab. In the interval from zero to half- π, there is only one solution for the director orientation. In this way, NLC director rotates toward the normal to the surface as the applied electric field increases at the walls. Our numerical results illustrate that above Frederiks transition and in the intermediate anchoring strength, nematic molecules illustrate the different orientation at slab boundaries. We also study the effects of different anchoring strengths, nanoparticle volume fractions and polarizations on the Frederiks transition threshold field. We report that decreasing in the nanoparticle polarization results in the saturation Frederiks threshold. However, this situation does not happen for the nanoparticles volume fraction.

  2. Anchors for effectors: subversion of phosphoinositide lipids by Legionella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert eHilbi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The facultative intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila replicates in free-living amoebae and macrophages within a distinct compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV. LCV formation involves phosphoinositide (PI glycerolipids, which are key factors controlling vesicle trafficking pathways and membrane dynamics of eukaryotic cells. To govern the interactions with host cells, L. pneumophila employs the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and more than 250 translocated effector proteins that presumably subvert host signaling and vesicle trafficking pathways. Some of the effector proteins anchor through distinct PIs to the cytosolic face of LCVs and promote the interaction with host vesicles and organelles, catalyze guanine nucleotide exchange of small GTPases, or bind to PI-metabolizing enzymes, such as OCRL1. The PI 5-phosphatase OCRL1 and its Dictyostelium homologue Dd5P4 restrict intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Moreover, OCRL1/Dd5P4, PI 3-kinases (PI3Ks and PI4KIIIβ regulate LCV formation and localization of the effector protein SidC, which selectively decorates the LCV membrane. SidC or its 20 kDa P4C fragment are robust and specific probes for phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, and SidC can be targeted to purify intact LCVs by immuno-magnetic separation. Taken together, bacterial PI-binding effectors as well as host PIs and PI-modulating enzymes play a pivotal role for intracellular replication of L. pneumophila, and the PI-binding effectors are valuable tools for the analysis of eukaryotic PI lipids.

  3. The Anchoring Effects in Differential Sources of Anchor Information:How Experimenter-Provided Anchors and Self-generated Anchors Affect the Dual-Processing Model%内在锚与外在锚对锚定效应及其双加工机制的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 徐富明; 张军伟; 刘腾飞; 蒋多; 邓子鹃

    2012-01-01

    The anchoring effect, one of the most common heuristics, refers to a phenomenon that the assimilation of a quantitative estimates a previously presented irrelative number under uncertain circumstances. Since the anchoring effect was proposed by Tversky and Kahneman in 1974 , lots of research has been done about it. Now there are two main models while account for anchoring effects:the anchoring and adjustment heuristic and the selective accessibility model. But most of researches just focused on the anchoring and adjustment heuristic or the selective accessibility model separately. In recent years, some scholars have pointed out that even if participants have a self-generated anchor, when there is an experimenter-provided anchor showing up at the same time, the processing mechanism of the anchoring effect is not only anchoring and adjustment heuristic, but also may happen to the selective accessibility model at the same time. But no research has been available to prove it yet. Therefore, this study is to try to explore the relationship between anchoring and adjustment heuristic and the selective accessibility model with the self-generated anchor and the experimenter-provided anchor showing up at the same time. A total of 64 undergraduate or graduate students were recruited and paid for their participation. The participants, were placed in separate cubicles in the laboratory, each containing a computer used to present the information and to register the dependent measures. The participants were told that the experiment was about how people made estimates. First, they had to estimate if there was predominance of capital or lower case letters in several letter combinations. After that, they had to make some probability estimates. The letter combination task was used to conceal the true purpose of our experiment. In this task, the participants had to estimate if a letter combination of six letters (e.g. MJFqRe) contained more capital letters or more lower case

  4. The Analysis and Research of Anchor Movement along a Fixed Orbit at the Bottom of Anchor Pocket:Anti-locked Anchor Pocket%锚体在锚穴底部固定轨道上运行的分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉国利

    2015-01-01

    锚穴的主要功能是把锚体储藏在船体的外板内部。其目的主要有防止锚体与其他物体(码头、船坞、等)碰撞,航行时能减少水浪对锚体本身的冲击,减轻风阻,减小对航速的负面影响等。最终能有效的把锚体沿设计的轨迹进入锚穴,并且顺利的与锚穴底板完全贴合,完成整个拉锚过程。由于一些锚穴在现代船舶建造中,受船体型线的制约,满足不了起锚任务。从而开展了从锚穴本身来改变锚体的运行轨迹的研究,利用锚穴底部的固定轨道将锚体顺利进入锚穴,最终完成起锚任务。%The main function of anchor pocket is to store the anchor inside the hull plate.There are many design purposes of the anchor pocket.It can prevent the anchor from colliding with other objects such as quay,dock and so on.The anchor pocket can reduce the colliding of waves and surge with the anchor while sailing,and the wind resistance so as to decrease the negative effect on ship speed.The anchor is able to be effectively put into the anchor pocket along the designed trajectory,and completely fit with the bottom of anchor pocket,then the whole process of drawing anchor is completed.In modern shipbuilding,some anchor pockets cannot satisfy drawing anchor test due to ship molded lines.In the study, anchor pocket itself was analyzed to change the running track of the anchor body.With the fixed orbit at the bottom of an-chor pocket,the anchor finally entered anchor pocket smoothly,successfully fulfilling the drawing anchor test.

  5. Mantle plume capture, anchoring and outflow during ridge interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. A.; Richards, M. A.; Geist, D.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical and geophysical studies have shown that >40% of the world's mantle plumes are currently interacting with the global ridge system and such interactions may continue for up to 180 Myr[1]. At sites of plume-ridge interaction up to 1400 km of the spreading centre is influenced by dispersed plume material but there are few constraints on how and where the ridge-ward transfer of deep-sourced material occurs, and also how it is sustained over long time intervals. Galápagos is an archetypal example of an off-axis plume and sheds important light on these mechanisms. The Galápagos plume stem is located ~200 km south of the spreading axis and its head influences 1000 km of the ridge. Nevertheless, the site of enriched basalts, greatest crustal thickness and elevated topography on the ridge, together with active volcanism in the archipelago, correlate with a narrow zone (~150 km) of low-velocity, high-temperature mantle that connects the plume stem and ridge at depths of ~100 km[2]. The enriched ridge basalts contain a greater amount of partially-dehydrated, recycled oceanic crust than basalts elsewhere on the spreading axis, or indeed basalts erupted in the region between the plume stem and ridge. The presence of these relatively volatile-rich ridge basalts requires flow of plume material below the peridotite solidus (i.e.>80 km). We propose a 2-stage model for the development and sustainment of a confined zone of deep ridge-ward plume flow. This involves initial on-axis capture and establishment of a sub-ridge channel of plume flow. Subsequent anchoring of the plume stem to a contact point on the ridge during axis migration results in confined ridge-ward flow of plume material via a deep network of melt channels embedded in the normal spreading and advection of the plume head[2]. Importantly, sub-ridge flow is maintained. The physical parameters and styles of mantle flow we have defined for Galápagos are less-well known at other sites of plume

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF DUAL ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALL METHOD TO INCREASE FRONT WATER DEPTH AND SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF EXISTING QUAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Masakatsu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Takahiro; Morikawa, Yoshiyuki; Hoshino, Masami; Miki, Kenichi

    Recently the dual anchored sheet pile wall method has been developed to increase a front water depth and seismic resistance of existing quay walls by providing an additional anchor in the lower level of them to reduce a flexural moment of the sheet piles and a tension of the anchors. The existing technical information is not enough to evaluate the seismic behavior and the retrofit of the quay walls with anchors at two different levels. Therefore the experiments with a scale model set on the vibration table of the centrifugal apparatus as well as two dimensional effective stress analyses have been mobilized to investigate the seismic retrofit of the dual anchored sheet pile wall. The experiments and analyses demonstrate the increase the earthquake resistance of quay walls, because they showed the additional anchor can reduce the stress of the sheet walls to one half.

  7. Research on the Role of Anchor in Ship Maneuvering%锚在船舶操纵中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超敏

    2011-01-01

    The anchor plays an important role and appropriate use of it can bring convenience and security in ship maneuvering.The Anchor can be classified into three types according to its function in ship maneuvering: anchor for parking,anchor for helping ship maneuvering in port,anchors for emergency control.In this paper,anchors of the three categories have been discussed.%锚的作用非常重要,合理正确地使用它会给船舶操纵带来方便和安全保障。锚在船舶操纵中的用途大致可分为:泊用锚、港内助操用锚和应急操纵用锚三大类。本文就对锚在船舶操纵中的三大用途进行研究。

  8. Comparison of the Tendon Damage Caused by Four Different Anchor Systems Used in Transtendon Rotator Cuff Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Qing-Song Zhang; Sen Liu; Qiuyang Zhang; Yun Xue; Dongxia Ge; Michael J O'Brien; Savoie, Felix H.; Zongbing You

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the damage to the rotator cuff tendons caused by four different anchor systems. Methods. 20 cadaveric human shoulder joints were used for transtendon insertion of four anchor systems. The Healix Peek, Fastin RC, Bio-Corkscrew Suture, and Healix Transtend anchors were inserted through the tendons using standard transtendon procedures. The areas of tendon damage were measured. Results. The areas of tendon damage (mean ± standard deviation, ...

  9. Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Jin, Huillian; Kim, Jung-Wook; Kim, Ki-Han; Park, Byung Wok; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Hoon; Shin, Ki-Chul; Kim, Hee Seop

    2012-09-01

    We propose methods to obtain multi-domains with different threshold voltages for vertically aligned liquid crystal displays without additional transistors or capacitors. We exposed an ultraviolet light through a photomask and spatially varied the surface anchoring energy by partially decomposing the polyimide or inducing the adsorption of reactive monomers. The threshold voltage was reduced with smaller surface anchoring, and the reduction of the threshold could be qualitatively interpreted using a model describing a weak anchoring condition.

  10. Differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement of psychologists with different dominant career anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Bester

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute to higher levels of job satisfaction, job involvement , and productivity, a match or fit should be established between the dominant career anchor associated with a specific occupation and that of the employee. A career anchor is an individual’s set of self-perceived talents, abilities, motives, needs and values that form the nucleus of one’s occupational self-concept. Psychologists have always been part of the service orientated careers and therefore one would expect that it is likely that their dominant career anchor would be service orientation. If this is the case, psychologists with service as their dominant career anchor are supposed to have greater job satisfaction and job involvement compared to those with different career anchors. However, according to literature, this assumption is not necessarily correct. The primary goals of the current study were to determine whether in fact service is the dominant career anchor of psychologists in the Free State and whether there are significant differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement between psychologists with and without service as their dominant career anchor. A third goal was to determine whether psychologists with different dominant career anchors differ significantly from one another regarding job satisfaction and job involvement. Questionnaires measuring career orientations, job satisfaction and job involvement were sent to 165 of the 171 registered psychologists in the Free State region. Only 75 psychologists (45,5% responded which exceeded the traditional return rate of 20 to 30%. Due to the small sample of respondents, a nonparametric statistical test, namely the Mann Whitney U test was conducted to determine possible differences. An analysis of the data showed that 21 respondents had entrepreneurship as their dominant career orientation while 12 fell in the technical/functional, 12 in the challenging, 9 in the service and 8 in the autonomy

  11. A Study on the Holding Capacity Safety Factors for Torpedo Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís V. S. Sagrilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of powerful numerical tools based on the finite-element method has been improving the prediction of the holding capacity of fixed anchors employed by the offshore oil industry. One of the main achievements of these tools is the reduction of the uncertainty related to the holding capacity calculation of these anchors. Therefore, it is also possible to reduce the values of the associated design safety factors, which have been calibrated relying on models with higher uncertainty, without impairing the original level of structural safety. This paper presents a study on the calibration of reliability-based safety factors for the design of torpedo anchors considering the statistical model uncertainty evaluated using results from experimental tests and their correspondent finite-element-based numerical predictions. Both working stress design (WSD and load and resistance factors design (LRFD design methodologies are investigated. Considering the WSD design methodology, the single safety is considerably lower than the value typically employed in the design of torpedo anchors. Moreover, a LRFD design code format for torpedo anchors is more appropriate since it leads to designs having less-scattered safety levels around the target value.

  12. Mechanical mechanism analysis of tension type anchor based on shear displacement method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shu-jun; CHEN Chang-fu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the fact that the shear stress along anchorage segment is neither linearly nor uniformly distributed, the load transfer mechanism of the tension type anchor was studied and the mechanical characteristic of anchorage segment was analyzed. Shear stress-strain relationship of soil surrounding anchorage body was simplified into three-folding-lines model consisting of elastic phase, elasto-plastic phase and residual phase considering its softening eharaeteristic. Meanwhile, shear displacement method that has been extensively used in the analysis of pile foundation was introduced. Based on elasto-plastic theory, the distributions of displacement, shear stress and axial force along the anchorage segment of tension type anchor were obtained, and the formula for calculating the elastic limit load was also developed accordingly. Finally, an example was given to discuss the variation of stress and displacement in the anchorage segment with the loads exerted on the anchor, and a program was worked out to calculate the anchor maximum bearing capacity. The influence of some parameters on the anchor bearing capacity was discussed, and effective anchorage length was obtained simultaneously. The results show that the shear stress first increases and then decreases and finally trends to theresidual strength with increase of distance from bottom of the anchorage body, the displacement increases all the time with theincrease of distance from bottom of the anchorage body, and the increase of velocity gradually becomes greater.

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic direct peroral cholangioscopy using an intraductal anchoring balloon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour A Parsi; Tyler Stevens; John J Vargo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To report our experience using a recently introduced anchoring balloon for diagnostic and therapeutic direct peroral cholangioscopy (DPOC).METHODS:Consecutive patients referred for diagnostic or therapeutic peroral cholangioscopy were evaluated in a prospective cohort study.The patients underwent DPOC using an intraductal anchoring balloon,which was recently introduced to allow consistent access to the biliary tree with an ultraslim upper endoscope.The device was later voluntarily withdrawn from the market by the manufacturer.RESULTS:Fourteen patients underwent DPOC using the anchoring balloon.Biliary access with an ultraslim upper endoscope was accomplished in all 14 patients.In 12 (86%) patients,ductal access required sphincteroplasty with a 10-mm dilating balloon.Intraductal placement of the ultraslim upper endoscope allowed satisfactory visualization of the biliary mucosa to the level of the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts in 13 of 14 patients (93%).Therapeutic interventions by DPOC were successfully completed in all five attempted cases (intraductal biopsy in one and DPOC guided laser lithotripsy in four).Adverse events occurred in a patient on immunosuppressive therapy who developed an intrahepatic biloma at the site of the anchoring balloon.This required hospitalization and antibiotics.Repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 8 wk after the index procedure showed resolution of the biloma.CONCLUSION:Use of this anchoring balloon allowed consistent access to the biliary tree for performance of diagnostic and therapeutic DPOC distal to the biliary bifurcation.

  14. Cleavage kinetics and anchor linked intermediates in solid phase peptide amide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, H; Beck-Sickinger, A G; Schnorrenberg, G; Rapp, W; Jung, G

    1991-08-01

    Kinetics and cleavage conditions of peptide amide synthesis were studied using the anchor molecules 5-(4'-aminomethyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenoxy)valeric acid (4-ADPV-OH) and 5-(2'-aminomethyl-3'-5'-dimethoxyphenoxy) valeric acid (2-ADPV-OH). Unexpectedly the anchor amide alanyl-4-ADPV-NH2 was isolated and characterized as an intermediate during the cleavage with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) of alanyl-4-ADPV-alanyl-aminomethyl-polystyrene to yield the alanine amide. As a matter of fact the NH--CH alpha bond of the alanyl spacer has to be cleaved to form this intermediate. Using TFA-dichloromethane (1:9) alanyl-4-ADPV-NH2 was obtained as a cleavage product in 50% yield within 60 min, whereas the isomeric alanyl-2-ADPV-NH2 was formed more slowly under these mild conditions. At high TFA concentration no difference between the 2- and 4-ADPV anchor was observed in the rate of formation of the free alanine amide. The presence of tryptophan amide in the cleavage mixture resulted in an anchor alkylated tryptophan amide, which remains stable in acidic solution but disappears rapidly in the presence of the resin. A low TFA/high TFA cleavage procedure is recommended for peptide amid synthesis applying the ADPV anchor.

  15. COMPLICATIONS RESULTING FROM THE USE OF METAL ANCHORS IN SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; França, Flavio Oliveira; Alves Freitas, José Marcio; Aguiar, Paulo Nascimento; de Carvalho Leite, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    To identify the complications concerning the use of metal anchors in shoulder arthroscopic procedures. Methods: 28 shoulders of 28 patients (23 male and 5 female) have been re-operated in the period between December 1997 and August 2007, at Hospital Ortopédico, Belo Horizonte Hospital and Military Police Hospital in Belo Horizonte, MG, as a result of complications such as loose anchors and prominent anchors. The primary surgeries intended to treat 20 anterior traumatic instabilities (71.5%), one posterior instability (3.5%), one slap injury (3.5%), six procedures for treating injuries on the rotator cuff (21.5%). We used the X-ray classification suggested by Samilson and Prieto and Outerbridge arthroscopic classification for assessing patients' degree of arthrosis. All patients were evaluated by the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) index criteria. Results: In all patients, arthroscopic reviews were made. In two cases, after anchors removal, clinical signs of instability were seen, leading to the decision of providing open stabilization by Latarjet-Patte technique. Conclusion: the complications with metallic-suture anchors result from inappropriate surgical techniques applied in arthroscopy. PMID:26998465

  16. Interference Screw vs. Suture Anchor Fixation for Open Subpectoral Biceps Tenodesis: Does it Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobezie Reuben

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioabsorbable interference screw fixation has superior biomechanical properties compared to suture anchor fixation for biceps tenodesis. However, it is unknown whether fixation technique influences clinical results. Hypothesis We hypothesize that subpectoral interference screw fixation offers relevant clinical advantages over suture anchor fixation for biceps tenodesis. Study Design Case Series. Methods We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive series of 88 patients receiving open subpectoral biceps tenodesis with either interference screw fixation (34 patients or suture anchor fixation (54 patients. Average follow up was 13 months. Outcomes included Visual Analogue Pain Scale (0–10, ASES score, modified Constant score, pain at the tenodesis site, failure of fixation, cosmesis, deformity (popeye and complications. Results There were no failures of fixation in this study. All patients showed significant improvement between their preoperative and postoperative status with regard to pain, ASES score, and abbreviated modified Constant scores. When comparing IF screw versus anchor outcomes, there was no statistical significance difference for VAS (p = 0.4, ASES score (p = 0.2, and modified Constant score (P = 0.09. One patient (3% treated with IF screw complained of persistent bicipital groove tenderness, versus four patients (7% in the SA group (nonsignificant. Conclusion Subpectoral biceps tenodesis reliably relieves pain and improves function. There was no statistically significant difference in the outcomes studied between the two fixation techniques. Residual pain at the site of tenodesis may be an issue when suture anchors are used in the subpectoral location.

  17. Determination of azimuthal anchoring strength in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells using heterodyne polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Chih; Lo, Yu-Lung; Huang, Rei-Rong

    2010-09-27

    Two external-field-free methods are presented for measuring the azimuthal anchoring strength in twisted nematic liquid crystal (TNLC) cells. For asymmetrical TNLC samples, the twist angle is derived from the phase of the detected signal in a phase-sensitive heterodyne polarimeter and is then used to calculate the weak anchoring strength directly. The measurement resolution which is found to be about 0.01 μJ/m(2) makes the present method sensitive enough for the LC-based bio-sensing application. Using the proposed method, the weak azimuthal anchoring strength of a composite liquid crystal mixture (40% LCT-061153 + 60% MJO-42761) in contact with a plasma-alignment layer is found to be 7.19 μJ/m(2). For symmetrical TNLC samples, the liquid crystals are injected into a wedge cell, and the two-dimensional distributions of the twist angle and cell gap are extracted from the detected phase distribution using a genetic algorithm (GA). The azimuthal anchoring strength is then obtained by applying a fitting technique to the twist angle vs. cell gap curve. Utilizing the proposed approach, it is shown that the strong anchoring strength between a rubbed polyimide (PI) alignment layer and E7 liquid crystal is around 160 μJ/m(2) while that between a rubbed PI alignment layer and MLC-7023 liquid crystal is approximately 32 μJ/m(2). PMID:20941014

  18. Surface damping effect of anchored constrained viscoelastic layers on the flexural response of simply supported structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, K. R.; Chen, G. D.

    2012-02-01

    Viscoelastic (VE) materials are commonly used to control vibration-induced fatigue in airframes and to suppress general vibration in various structures. This study investigates the effects of anchored constrained VE layers on the flexural response of simply supported Euler beams or plate strips under base excitations. Emphasis is placed on the development of two surface damping treatments: one VE layer anchored at one end, and two VE layers anchored at their different ends. Each anchorage is realized with a thin stiff layer in tension, such as a fiber reinforced polymer sheet, bonded to the surface of a VE layer and anchored to one end of the beam for maximum shear deformation in the constrained VE layer. Non-uniform shear deformation in VE layers is taken into account in the new solution formulation. Sensitivity analyses are performed to understand and quantify the effects of various parameters on flexural responses of the structures. The minimum thickness of VE layers is mainly bounded by the relative stiffness between the VE layers and the constraining face layer. The performances of various configurations are compared and the two-end anchored configuration is found most effective in vibration suppression.

  19. Identification of critical residues of the mycobacterial dephosphocoenzyme a kinase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guneet Walia

    Full Text Available Dephosphocoenzyme A kinase performs the transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to dephosphocoenzyme A, catalyzing the last step of coenzyme A biosynthesis. This enzyme belongs to the P-loop-containing NTP hydrolase superfamily, all members of which posses a three domain topology consisting of a CoA domain that binds the acceptor substrate, the nucleotide binding domain and the lid domain. Differences in the enzymatic organization and regulation between the human and mycobacterial counterparts, have pointed out the tubercular CoaE as a high confidence drug target (HAMAP database. Unfortunately the absence of a three-dimensional crystal structure of the enzyme, either alone or complexed with either of its substrates/regulators, leaves both the reaction mechanism unidentified and the chief players involved in substrate binding, stabilization and catalysis unknown. Based on homology modeling and sequence analysis, we chose residues in the three functional domains of the enzyme to assess their contributions to ligand binding and catalysis using site-directed mutagenesis. Systematically mutating the residues from the P-loop and the nucleotide-binding site identified Lys14 and Arg140 in ATP binding and the stabilization of the phosphoryl intermediate during the phosphotransfer reaction. Mutagenesis of Asp32 and Arg140 showed catalytic efficiencies less than 5-10% of the wild type, indicating the pivotal roles played by these residues in catalysis. Non-conservative substitution of the Leu114 residue identifies this leucine as the critical residue from the hydrophobic cleft involved in leading substrate, DCoA binding. We show that the mycobacterial enzyme requires the Mg(2+ for its catalytic activity. The binding energetics of the interactions of the mutant enzymes with the substrates were characterized in terms of their enthalpic and entropic contributions by ITC, providing a complete picture of the effects of the mutations on activity. The properties of

  20. Anchor Node Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Video and Compass Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Pescaru

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributed sensing, computing and communication capabilities of wireless sensor networks require, in most situations, an efficient node localization procedure. In the case of random deployments in harsh or hostile environments, a general localization process within global coordinates is based on a set of anchor nodes able to determine their own position using GPS receivers. In this paper we propose another anchor node localization technique that can be used when GPS devices cannot accomplish their mission or are considered to be too expensive. This novel technique is based on the fusion of video and compass data acquired by the anchor nodes and is especially suitable for video- or multimedia-based wireless sensor networks. For these types of wireless networks the presence of video cameras is intrinsic, while the presence of digital compasses is also required for identifying the cameras’ orientations.

  1. ANALYSIS ON INCREMENTAL COHESION OF SURROUNDING ROCK DUE TO PRESTRESSED CABLE ANCHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建中; 闫莫明; 滕年保; 李方政

    1998-01-01

    A new method for determining the incremental cohesion △Cm of surrounding rock due toprestressed cable anchor is presented, and the formulas for △Cm are deduced and ACredistributions also are discussed, based on the two anchorage effects, one is the effect with theprestressed value △Q3 of cable anchor improving the stress state of surrounding rock andincreasing the surrounding rock strength, the other is the fully encapsulated effect. Thedetermined incremental cohesion △Cm is subjected to the model test and field measurement in thereferences, and coincides well with those tested results. The formulas for △Cm can be used indesigning supoport parameters and related numerical analyses of prestressed cable anchor.

  2. Computing of the Anchor by the Method of Three-Dimension Point-Radiate Infinite Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the one-dimension infinite element theory, the coordinate translation and shape function of 3D point-radiate 8-node and 4-node infinite elements are derived. They are coupled with 20-node and 8-node finite elements to compute the compression distortion of the prestressed anchorage segment. The results indicate that when the prestressed force acts on the anchorage head and segment, the stresses and the displacements in the rock around the anchorage head and segment concentrate on the zone center with the anchor axis, and they decrease with exponential forms. Therefore,the stresses and the displacement spindles are formed. The calculating results of the infinite element are close to the theoretical results. This indicates the method is right. This article introduces a new way to study the mechanism of prestressed anchors. The obtained results have an important role in the research of the anchor mechanism and engineering application.

  3. Analysis of Cracking Mode of Anchor Structure of Underground Engineering Induced by Reinforcement Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantao Ding

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on elastic theory and assumption of maximum tensile-stress failure criterion, together with construction process of anchor structure and rust expansion critical process, this study proposed a simplified reinforcement rust expansion mechanical model of anchor structure system. Elastic criterion of different initial cracking mode was rewarded under different stress ratios. According to analysis of critical cracking mode of different medium, cracking order of mortar and surrounding rock depended on their material parameters, in-situ stress and thickness of mortar cover. Critical cracking conditions of different medium without effect of in-situ stress was the same as that of considering in-situ stress while k is equal to 3 or 1/3. And engineering example shows that three different cracking modes exist under different stress ratios. The result provides a useful reference for analysis of mechanical deterioration mechanism of anchor structure and design of support structure of underground engineering.

  4. Traction endurance biomechanical study of metallic suture anchors at different insertion angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azato Flávia Namie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The suture anchors' insertion angle and its traction resistance are the main subjects of this study. Twenty trials were realized using threaded suture anchors in four diferents angulations (30º /45º /60º /90º in human bone (distal femur and another twenty trials in artificial bone (SawboneTM. The anchors were pulled out being tractioned uprightly from its bone surface by a Kratos Universal test machine. The human bone results found no relation between the main subjects of this study, so whithout statistical value. On the other hand at the artificial bone the insertion angle of 90º beared more traction, being statistically significant compared to the other angles.

  5. The anchoring function: parental authority and the parent-child bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Haim; Steinmetz, Sarit G; Carthy, Tal; von Schlippe, Arist

    2013-06-01

    Descriptions of parental authority and of the formation of a secure parent-child bond have remained unconnected in conceptualizations about parenting and child development. The parental anchoring function is here presented as an integrative metaphor for the two fields. Parents who fulfill an anchoring function offer a secure relational frame for the child, while also manifesting a stabilizing and legitimate kind of authority. The anchoring function enriches the two fields by: (1) adding a dimension of authority to the acknowledged functions of the safe haven and the secure base that are seen as core to a secure parent-child bond, and (2) adding considerations about the parent-child bond to Baumrind's classical description of authoritative parenting.

  6. Construction of a highly active xylanase displaying oleaginous yeast: comparison of anchoring systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Duquesne

    Full Text Available Three Yarrowia lipolytica cell wall proteins (YlPir, YlCWP1 and YlCBM were evaluated for their ability to display the xylanase TxXYN from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus on the cell surface of Y. lipolytica. The fusion proteins were produced in Y. lipolytica JMY1212, a strain engineered for mono-copy chromosomal insertion, and enabling accurate comparison of anchoring systems. The construction using YlPir enabled cell bound xylanase activity to be maximised (71.6 U/g. Although 48% of the activity was released in the supernatant, probably due to proteolysis at the fusion zone, this system is three times more efficient for the anchoring of TxXYN than the YlCWP1 system formerly developed for Y. lipolytica. As far as we know it represents the best displayed xylanase activity ever published. It could be an attractive alternative anchoring system to display enzymes in Y. lipolytica.

  7. The anchoring function: parental authority and the parent-child bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Haim; Steinmetz, Sarit G; Carthy, Tal; von Schlippe, Arist

    2013-06-01

    Descriptions of parental authority and of the formation of a secure parent-child bond have remained unconnected in conceptualizations about parenting and child development. The parental anchoring function is here presented as an integrative metaphor for the two fields. Parents who fulfill an anchoring function offer a secure relational frame for the child, while also manifesting a stabilizing and legitimate kind of authority. The anchoring function enriches the two fields by: (1) adding a dimension of authority to the acknowledged functions of the safe haven and the secure base that are seen as core to a secure parent-child bond, and (2) adding considerations about the parent-child bond to Baumrind's classical description of authoritative parenting. PMID:23763680

  8. A Novel Tone Mapping Based on Double-Anchoring Theory for Displaying HDR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhua; Xu, De; Li, Bing

    In this paper, we present a Double-Anchoring Based Tone Mapping (DABTM) algorithm for displaying high dynamic range (HDR) images. First, two anchoring values are obtained using the double-anchoring theory. Second, we use the two values to formulate the compressing operator, which can achieve the aim of tone mapping directly. A new method based on accelerated K-means for the decomposition of HDR images into groups (frameworks) is proposed. Most importantly, a group of piecewise-overlap linear functions is put forward to define the belongingness of pixels to their locating frameworks. Experiments show that our algorithm is capable of achieving dynamic range compression, while preserving fine details and avoiding common artifacts such as gradient reversals, halos, or loss of local contrast.

  9. Career anchor profiles of a sample of business and professional women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Erwee

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The career anchors of a sample of 95 business and professional woman were studied by means of the Career Orientations Inventory (DeLong, 1982. The hierarchy of career anchors of the sample was as follows: Service, Variety, Security (job tenure, Managerial competence. Autonomy, Identity, Technical/functional competence, Entrepreneurship and Security (geographical location. A few significant differences in career anchors did occur between various occupational groups. The implicatons of these findings in terms of career management in organisations are discussed. Opsomming Die loopbaanankers van 'n steekproef van 95 sake- en beroepsvroue is bestudeer deur middel van die "Career Orientations Inventory" (DeLong, 1982. Die steekproef het die volgende hierargie van loopbaanankers getoon: Diens, Verskeidenheid, Sekuriteit (organisatories, Bestuursbevoegdheid, Outonomie, Identiteit, Tegnies/funksionele bevoegdheid, Entrepreneurskap en Sekuriteit (geografies. 'n Paar beduidende verskille in loopbaanankerprofiele het tussen die onderskeie beroepsgroepe voorgekom. Die implikasies van die bevindings ten opsigte van loopbaanbeplanning in ondernemings word bespreek.

  10. Simulation experiment on anti-penetration capability of anchored rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Songlin; Liu Hongwei; Han Lijun; Xu Guoan

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of experimental research on the penetration process of projectile into anchored rock mass,we derived the essential similarity conditions for the physical simulation experiment according to the similarity theory,carried out the experiment on the penetration process of a kind of penetrating bomb into the anchored rock mass of type Ⅲ,and compared the experimental results with the values computed by the professional Young's empirical formula.The test results show that the physical simulation experiment can represent the actual penetration process of projectile into anchored rock mass.The research method proposed in this paper provides technical support for the experimental research on the design and reconstruction of underground protection works.

  11. Pre-stressed anchoring beam technique applicable in the reinforcement of high-steep slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifa YANG; Luqing ZHANG; Jiewang ZHU

    2006-01-01

    During the construction of some large-scale rock engineering, high-steep slopes and insufficient slope stability induced by unloading fissures are often encountered. For the reinforcement of these slopes, some techniques (including conventional pre-stressed anchoring cable and unconventional anchoring hole) are usually utilized, however, having several obvious defects. Thus, it is very difficult for a designer to design an efficient reinforcement scheme for the high-steep slopes. For this reason, the authors develop the pre-stressed anchoring beam technique, in which tensile capacity of pre-stressed structures are fully utilized. It is analyzed that the new technique is characterized by multi-functions, including engineering investigation, efficient reinforcement, drainage, monitoring and urgent strength supplement, and hoped to be extensively applicable in the reinforcement of high-steep slopes.

  12. Capacidad de carga de las anclas de plataformas petroleras. // Load capacity of oil platforms anchors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García de la Figal Costales

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determina la capacidad de carga de las anclas de solicitación vertical, empleadas en la fijación de las plataformasperforadoras de petróleo de aguas profundas. Para ello, se desarrollan varios modelos del proceso de retención del ancla enel fango del fondo marino por medio del método de los Elementos Finitos. Se analizan con ellos, la influencia de variosparámetros en la capacidad de carga.Palabras claves: ancla, petróleo, elementos finitos, plataformas petroleras._________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe load capacity of anchors for vertical fixation used as petroleum perforators platforms on deep waters are determined.Several models of retention process of the anchor are developed by means of Finite Elements Method and the influence ofseveral parameters in the load capacity are analized.Key words: anchors, petroleum, Finite Elements Method (FEM.

  13. A general pipeline for the development of anchor markers for comparative genomics in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stougaard Jens

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete or near-complete genomic sequence information is presently only available for a few plant species representing a large phylogenetic diversity among plants. In order to effectively transfer this information to species lacking sequence information, comparative genomic tools need to be developed. Molecular markers permitting cross-species mapping along co-linear genomic regions are central to comparative genomics. These "anchor" markers, defining unique loci in genetic linkage maps of multiple species, are gene-based and possess a number of features that make them relatively sparse. To identify potential anchor marker sequences more efficiently, we have established an automated bioinformatic pipeline that combines multi-species Expressed Sequence Tags (EST and genome sequence data. Results Taking advantage of sequence data from related species, the pipeline identifies evolutionarily conserved sequences that are likely to define unique orthologous loci in most species of the same phylogenetic clade. The key features are the identification of evolutionarily conserved sequences followed by automated design of intron-flanking Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR primer pairs. Polymorphisms can subsequently be identified by size- or sequence variation of PCR products, amplified from mapping parents or populations. We illustrate our procedure in legumes and grasses and exemplify its application in legumes, where model plant studies and the genome- and EST-sequence data available have a potential impact on the breeding of crop species and on our understanding of the evolution of this large and diverse family. Conclusion We provide a database of 459 candidate anchor loci which have the potential to serve as map anchors in more than 18,000 legume species, a number of which are of agricultural importance. For grasses, the database contains 1335 candidate anchor loci. Based on this database, we have evaluated 76 candidate anchor loci

  14. Interactions of frazil and anchor ice with sedimentary particles in a flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempema, E.W.; Reimnitz, E.; Clayton, J.R.; Payne, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Frazil and anchor ice forming in turbulent, supercooled water have been studied extensively because of problems posed to man-made hydraulic structures. In spite of many incidental observations of interactions of these ice forms with sediment, their geologic effects remain unknown. The present flume study was designed to learn about the effects of salinity, current speed, and sediment type on sediment dynamics in supercooled water. In fresh-water, frazil ice formed flocs as large as 8 cm in diameter that tended to roll along a sandy bottom and collect material from the bed. The heavy flocs often came to rest in the shelter of ripples, forming anchor ice that subsequently was buried by migrating ripples. Burial compressed porous anchor ice into ice-bonded, sediment-rich masses. This process disrupts normal ripple cross-bedding and may produce unique sedimentary structures. Salt-water flocs were smaller, incorporated less bed load, and formed less anchor ice than their fresh-water counterparts. In four experiments, frazil carried a high sediment load only for a short period in supercooled salt water, but released it with slight warming. This suggests that salt-water frazil is either sticky or traps particles only while surrounded by supercooled water (0.05 to 0.1 ??C supercooling), a short-lived phase in simple, small tanks. Salt water anchor ice formed readily on blocks of ice-bonded sediment, which may be common in nature. The theoretical maximum sediment load in neutrally-buoyant ice/sediment mixture is 122 g/l, never reported in nature so far. The maximum sediment load measured in this laboratory study was 88 g/l. Such high theoretical and measured sediment concentrations suggest that frazil and anchor ice are important sediment transport agents in rivers and oceans. ?? 1993.

  15. Diagnosis of traction electric motor at irregularity in speed of anchor rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Cyernyayev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To offer a complex diagnostic parameter (or system of parameters that would allow determining the fault of electric traction motor as well as electromagnetic and mechanical nature. Methodology. Technology transition to maintenance and repair of equipment in accordance with its actual condition are developed rapidly in the world practice in recent years. Control of equipment and forecasting of its technical condition with the use of non-destructive testing and diagnosis in-place methods is the basis of such technologies. In operation the reliability level of electrical machines including traction electric motor is very difficult to maintain. Analyzing failures of rolling stock, which arise from the operation, we can see that traction electric motors are the least reliable nodes. Diagnostics of traction electric motor at irregularity in speed of anchor rotation is proposed. A measurement device for irregularity in speed of anchor rotation was developed. Findings. An experimental research in order to determine the irregularity in speed of anchor armature shaft rotation and coupling of irregularity in speed of anchor rotation with traction electric motors nodes failures was executed. The experimental dependence of the waveform uneven rotation anchor for engines with different technical conditions. Originality. A method for diagnosis of traction electric motors at irregularity in speed of anchor armature shaft rotation was first proposed. This method after further improvement can be used at bench test of engines in their work without load and for the quality of the repair. Practical value. The device for detecting defects of the traction electric motor nodes as well as electromagnetic and mechanical nature without engine disassembly may be used for control of engine assembly after repair, and at testing of traction electric motor without load.

  16. An Accessory Protein Required for Anchoring and Assembly of Amyloid Fibers in B. subtilis Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Cells within Bacillus subtilis biofilms are held in place by an extracellular matrix that contains cell-anchored amyloid fibers, composed of the amyloidogenic protein TasA. As biofilms age they disassemble because the cells release the amyloid fibers. This release appears to be the consequence of incorporation of D-tyrosine, D-leucine, D-tryptophan and D-methionine into the cell wall. Here, we characterize the in vivo roles of an accessory protein TapA (TasA anchoring/assembly protein; previo...

  17. Technical note: Endoscopic resection of a dermoid cyst anchored to the anterior optic chiasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Yoneoka, MD, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, ours is the only case of a dermoid cyst anchored to the anterior optic chiasma, which was visually confirmed under endoscopic observation. After surgery, the patient presented a transient impairment of the visual field, which was not evident at four month follow-up. It will contribute to a similar case, in which surgeons hesitate to make an incision in the optic chiasm. A subtotal excision should be considered in cases of dermoid cysts anchored to the anterior optic chiasm, because all the previously reported cases of suprasellar dermoid cysts are young people or those who have a relatively long life expectancy.

  18. Influence of ground parameters on the dynamic responses of anchored bedding rock slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-xin; Gao, Le; Peng, Ningbo; Gao, Gang

    2013-10-01

    To research the influence of ground parameters on the dynamic responses of anchored bedding rock slope, a dynamic numerical simulation model of bedding rock slope with bolts was established using FLAC3D. The alteration of dynamic response with displacements and accelerations at monitoring points along the slope surface was set as analysis basis. The effects on dynamic responses of slope with different ground parameters, such as waves, frequencies and amplitudes were analyzed. It demonstrated great help for the dynamic stability analysis and slope design when it is supported with anchor under earthquake.

  19. Psychological career resources as predictors of working adults’ career anchors: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between the psychological career resources and career anchors of a sample of 2 997 working adults at predominantly managerial and supervisory levels in the service industry. The Psychological Career Resources Inventory and the Career Orientations Inventory were applied. Stepwise regression analyses indicated dimensions of psychological career resources as significant predictors of  participants’ career anchors. The findings add valuable new knowledge that can be used to inform organisational career development support practices as well as career counselling and guidance services concerned with promoting individuals’ employability and experiences of intrinsic career success.

  20. Fixation of a human rib by an intramedullary telescoping splint anchored by bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liovic, Petar; Šutalo, Ilija D; Marasco, Silvana F

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept for rib fixation is presented that involves the use of a bioresorbable polymer intramedullary telescoping splint. Bone cement is used to anchor each end of the splint inside the medullary canal on each side of the fracture site. In this manner, rib fixation is achieved without fixation device protrusion from the rib, making the splint completely intramedullary. Finite element analysis is used to demonstrate that such a splint/cement composite can preserve rib fixation subjected to cough-intensity force loadings. Computational fluid dynamics and porcine rib experiments were used to study the anchor formation process required to complete the fixation. PMID:26733094

  1. Prediction of the pull-out strength of chemical anchors in natural stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Contrafatto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of some numerical models for the prediction of the failure mechanism and of the bearing capacity of post-installed threaded rods chemically anchored in basalt, sandstone and limestone is investigated, as well as the reliability of theoretical formulations conceived for concrete. The numerical predictions, performed by means of engineering structural analysis software and advanced numerical codes, are compared with the results of an experimental research related to chemical anchors in natural stone. The minimum embedment depth for such fastening system is identified.

  2. Approaches to enhance body-anchored and experience-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Subsequent to the theoretical framework presented in the two earlier contributions to this volume ("Learning Bodies")the aim of this article is to unfold some ideas for the application of body-anchored learning. Some of the basic principles like focusing, perceptual attention training, being in the...... rhythm and intentional orientation can also be applied to different areas, for example, psychotherapy or coaching. But the main focus is on examples from physical education. The final part of the article sees body-anchored learning as integrated in a cultural setting and as part of learning in a...

  3. Interaction of Rupture Zones of Adjacent Anchor Plates in an Analogical Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abbad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study which required the design and implementation of a model containing plastic granules powder to simulate a natural environment, is presented. The latter is subjected to the removal of "anchor plates." For each test, several digital photographs are taken to materialize different deformed configurations during the pullout process. These photos processed in couples by the 7D software (image correlation giving the evolution of the displacement field and plane strain analogical environment. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of the interference of rupture zones of neighboring anchors by reducing the axis between plates.

  4. Aurora A kinase expression is increased in leukemia stem cells, and a selective Aurora A kinase inhibitor enhances Ara-C-induced apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Jang, Ji Eun; CHEONG, JUNE-WON; Eom, Ju-In; Jeung, Hoi-Kyung; Kim, Yundeok; Hwang, Doh Yu; Min, Yoo Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background The overexpression of Aurora A kinase (AurA) has been reported in various malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the expression of AurA and the effects of AurA inhibition in cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood. We investigated the expression and inhibition of AurA in AML stem cells (CD34+/CD38-). Methods Expression of AurA was investigated in cell lines (NB4 and KG1) that express high levels of CD34 and low levels of CD38. Primary AML cells were h...

  5. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart H of... - No-Anchoring Seagrass Protection Zones in Tomales Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No-Anchoring Seagrass Protection Zones in Tomales Bay C Appendix C to Subpart H of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating... 922—No-Anchoring Seagrass Protection Zones in Tomales Bay Coordinates listed in this Appendix...

  6. Study on mechanical principle of reinforcing sidewalls and corners of roadway to control floor heave by anchors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫军

    2003-01-01

    The movement principle of sidewalls and floor of extraction opening is analyzed, it is found that floor heave not only has something to do with the floor strata, but sidewalls. The effect of sidewall anchor and corner anchor is studied, the mechanical principle of reinforcing sidewalls and corners is put forward and applied in engineering practice.

  7. The effect of a dragging anchor on a horizontal layer of rockfill: A Prototype and a Scale Model Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crum, S.; Van der Hoeven, M.L.E.B.; Krouwel, L.P.H.C.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the penetration depth of a dragging anchor on a horizontal layer of rockfill provides the possibility to optimize the layer thickness of rockfill layers with a protective function. Current research on this subject is limited and is often aimed at anchor capacities in sand and clay. Penet

  8. Control of the anchoring behavior of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: effect of branching in the side chains of polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Collard, David M; Park, Jung O; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2002-08-28

    A temperature-driven anchoring transition in a polymer/nematic fluid composite that is far from the bulk nematic-isotropic transition temperature is reported. A series of poly(methylheptyl acrylates) were studied to probe the subtle effects of the side chain structure of the polymer on control of the anchoring. A polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film made from TL205 and 1-methylheptyl acrylate shows only planar anchoring over the temperature range studied, while the films made from TL205 and each of the other methylheptyl acrylates or n-heptyl acrylate show the homeotropic-to-planar anchoring transition at temperatures between 70 and 78 degrees C. An interfacial model is proposed in which the different conformation of the side chains is suggested as the cause for the dramatic difference in the observed anchoring behavior. PMID:12188649

  9. Threshold and saturation properties of the field-induced twist cell with two parameters weak anchoring boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Rong-Hua; Sun Yu-Bao

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of two-parameter formula of weak surface coupling anchoring energy of nematic liquid crystals proposed by Zhao et al recently, the general torque equilibrium equation and boundary conditions of the director have been obtained and the threshold field as well as the saturation field of the field-induced twist cell have been analysed for three kinds of configurations, i.e. homogeneous, splay and Pi cells formed by different rubbing conditions and pretilt angles. The results indicated that the polar anchoring has no effect on the threshold field. It is determined only by the twist anchoring and pretilt angle. But, the polar anchoring and twist anchoring are coupling with each other and have a great influence on the saturation field. The formulae for calculating the threshold field and saturation field are given.These results will be very useful in understanding surface physics and the design of liquid crystal cells.

  10. Auditory frequency discrimination in adult dyslexics: A test of the anchoring hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, F.N.K.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Vlutters, L.D.; Winkel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measur

  11. The Effect of Listener Experience and Anchors on Judgments of Dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Kapsner-Smith, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of auditory anchors on judgments of overall severity (OS) and vocal effort (VE) in dysphonic speech when judgments are made by experienced and inexperienced listeners, and when self-rated by individuals with dysphonia (speaker-listeners). Method: Twenty individuals with dysphonia and 4 normal controls provided…

  12. Technical Note: Drifting vs. anchored flux chambers for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from running waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stream networks were recently discovered as major but poorly constrained natural greenhouse gas (GHG sources. A fundamental problem is that several measurement approaches have been used without cross comparisons. Flux chambers represent a potentially powerful methodological approach if robust and reliable ways to use chambers on running water can be defined. Here we compare the use of anchored and freely drifting chambers on various streams having different flow velocities. The study clearly shows that (1 drifting chambers have a very small impact on the water turbulence under the chamber and thus generate more reliable fluxes, (2 anchored chambers enhance turbulence under the chambers and thus elevate fluxes, (3 the bias of the anchored chambers greatly depends on chamber design and sampling conditions, and (4 there is a promising method to reduce the bias from anchored chambers by using a flexible plastic foil seal to the water surface rather than having rigid chamber walls penetrating into the water. Altogether, these results provide novel guidance on how to apply flux chambers in running water, which will have important consequences for measurements to constrain the global GHG balances.

  13. Anchor-Based Methods for Judgmentally Estimating Item Difficulty Parameters. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Swaminathan, H.; Xing, Dehui; Rizavi, Saba

    The purposes of this research study were to develop and field test anchor-based judgmental methods for enabling test specialists to estimate item difficulty statistics. The study consisted of three related field tests. In each, researchers worked with six Law School Admission Test (LSAT) test specialists and one or more of the LSAT subtests. The…

  14. Neutron reflectivity of supported membranes incorporating terminally anchored polymers: Protrusions vs. blisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragneto, Giovanna; Halperin, Avraham; Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria;

    2013-01-01

    The effect of terminally anchored chains on the structure of lipid bilayers adsorbed at the solid/water interface was characterized by neutron reflectivity. In the studied system, the inner leaflet, closer to the substrate, consisted of head-deuterated 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholin...

  15. Human carbonic anhydrase II as a host for piano-stool complexes bearing a sulfonamide anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnard, Fabien W; Heinisch, Tillmann; Nogueira, Elisa S; Schirmer, Tilman; Ward, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    d(6)-piano-stool complexes bearing an arylsulfonamide anchor display sub-micromolar affinity towards human Carbonic Anhydrase II (hCA II). The 1.3 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of [(η(6)-C(6)Me(6))Ru(bispy 3)Cl](+)⊂ hCA II highlights the nature of the host-guest interactions. PMID:21706094

  16. Dynamic calculation model and seismic response for frame supporting structure with prestressed anchors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic calculation model of frame supporting structures with prestressed anchors for the slope stability is proposed. The frame and soil are closely contacted in the role of prestressed anchors and they cannot be separated along the whole slope. The lateral displacement of frame and soil is nearly in phase. The movement characteristic satisfies the theory of elastic foundation beam. The frame is treated with elastic foundation beam in this model. The influence of prestressed anchors is simplified as linear spring and damped system related with velocity. Under the condition of horizontal earthquake excitation, the equation of vibration response is established by using the model of dynamic Winkler beam and the analytical solutions are obtained for simple harmonic vibration. This method is applied to a case record for illustration of its capability, in order to verify the method, 3D nonlinear FEM (ADINA) is used to analyze the seismic performance of this case, the comparative results show that the design and the analysis are safe and credible by using the proposed method. The calculation model provides a new way for earthquake analysis and seismic design of slope stability supported by frame structure with prestressed anchors.

  17. Parameter analysis of anchor bolt support for large-span and jointed rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-bing; ZHOU Zi-long; LI Qi-yue; HU Liu-qing

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain the optimal parameters of anchor bolt supporting system for large-span and jointed rock mass in Kaiyang Phosphor Mine, it is expensive and unavailable with the method of in-situ experiments. This paper describes a numerical modeling with discrete element method for the supporting effects of different type of anchor bolts. The anchor bolts with variant length of 0.5 m, 0.8 m, 1.0 m, diameter of 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, setting spacing of 3.0 m, 2.5 m, 2.0 m, and setting angle of 10°, 20°, 30°, are simulated respectively. The results show that there exist optimal parameters of anchor bolt support for large-span and jointed rock mass. For the bolt support of the concerning, the optimal length is 2.5-3.5 m, the diameter is 25-35 mm, the spacing is 0.5-0.6 m, and the setting angle is 105°.

  18. Effects of Thinking Style and Spatial Ability on Anchoring Behavior in Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    The authors propose an instructional use for Google Earth (a GIS application) as an anchoring tool for knowledge integration. Google Earth can be used to support student explorations of world geography based on Wikipedia articles on earth science and history topics. We asked 66 Taiwanese high-school freshmen to make place marks with explanatory…

  19. The bone-anchored hearing aid : quality-of-life assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Myrthe K S; Spath, Marian A; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Pouw, Catharina T M; Snik, Ad F M; Cremers, Cor W R J; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of a bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) on the quality of life (QOL) of adults and to test the hypothesis that a BAHA improves QOL because otorrhea and/or skin irritations decrease. DESIGN: Prospective postal-based questionnaire study using validated health-related QOL

  20. Operative treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation: a new technique with suture anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingwei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate clinical outcome of suture anchors in strengthening both acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments in the surgical treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with acute traumatic Rockwood III, IV and V dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint surgically treated at our institute between October 2010 and January 2012 were recruited. All patients underwent open reduction combined with suture anchors. Function was evaluated using the ConstantMurley shoulder score. Clinical and radiographic shoulder ratings were evaluated using Taft criteria at 3, 6 and 12 months. Results:Two cases with fixation loosening were not included in final statistical analysis. Other patients obtained full joint reposition on immediate postoperative radiographs. Follow-up was performed with an average of 15.6 months (range, 12-19. After early range of motion exercises, 96.2% of the patients (25/26 could abduct and elevate their shoulders more than 90 degrees within postoperative 3 months. There was no infection. Average Constant-Murley score was 96.3 points (range, 94-100 and mean Taft shoulder rating was 10.7 points (range, 8-12 at 12 months. Conclusion: The suture anchor is a relatively simple technique and can avoid screw removal which is helpful in reconstructing both acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments in acute traumatic acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Key words: Acromioclavicular joint; Dislocations; Surgery; Suture anchors

  1. 78 FR 45104 - Model Manufactured Home Installation Standards: Ground Anchor Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...-pounds. Note to paragraph (b)(6): As a recommended practice, the test rig soil reactions (bearing pads... apparatus and not closer to the anchor assembly than the soil reaction points of the test apparatus... agency or registered professional engineer certifying the testing and evaluation. (xvii) The...

  2. The anchoring mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanism of the laminar premixed flame anchoring near a heat-conducting bluff-body. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. No artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions were imposed. Simulations show a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. A steel bluff-body resulted in a slightly larger recirculation zone than a ceramic bluff-body; the size of which grew as the equivalence ratio was decreased. A significant departure from the conventional two-zone flame-structure is shown in the anchoring region. In this region, the reaction zone is associated with a large negative energy convection (directed from products to reactants) resulting in a negative flame-displacement speed. It is shown that the premixed flame anchors at an immediate downstream location near the bluff-body where favorable ignition conditions are established; a region associated with (1) a sufficiently high temperature impacted by the conjugate heat exchange between the heat-conducting bluff-body and the hot reacting flow and (2) a locally maximum stoichiometry characterized by the preferential diffusion effects. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  3. An ABC Literacy Journey: Anchoring in Texts, Bridging Language, and Creating Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Amy J.; Lang, Lisa F.; Smith, Sharon V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe how alphabet books teach so much more than just the ABCs. They provide excellent resources, allowing teachers to link and integrate the reciprocal processes of reading and writing. Encapsulated within the writing workshop framework, the authors use multigenre and multicultural alphabet books as anchor texts for a literacy…

  4. The Study of Collective Actions in a University Anchored Community Wireless Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchibhotla, Hari N.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of wireless devices and the ease in setting up wireless devices has created opportunities for various entities, and in particular to universities, by partnering with their local communities in the form of a university anchored community wireless network. This provides opportunities for students to be part of the community-based…

  5. Side-chain-anchored N(alpha)-Fmoc-Tyr-OPfp for bidirectional solid-phase synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian A; Jørgensen, Malene; Hansen, Steen H;

    2005-01-01

    [reaction: see text] A mild resin-immobilization strategy employing a readily prepared trityl bromide resin for anchoring building blocks via a phenol group has been developed. With N(alpha)-Fmoc-Tyr-OPfp as a starter building block, it was possible to prepare asymmetrically substituted hybrids o...... of spider- and wasp-type polyamine toxins using solid-phase peptide synthesis conditions....

  6. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.;

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of ESA SMOS Mission, the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) has been selected as a core validation site. Its reasonable homogeneous characteristics make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products before attempting other more complex areas. Close to SMOS l...

  7. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Adults with Dyslexia: A Test of the Anchoring Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Frank; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Vlutters, Leoni D.; Winkel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measured auditory frequency discrimination thresholds…

  8. Exploring the Affordances of Second Life Machinima as an Anchor for Classroom-Based Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Nona; Kofoed, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is part of an ongoing investigation into the design of a technology-enhanced learning environment that draws from approaches embodied in the situated learning theory. In this learning context, Second Life machinima (animated artefact filmed in a 3D virtual environment) is used as an anchor to mediate authentic…

  9. Investigating Repeater Effects on Chained Equipercentile Equating with Common Anchor Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of repeat takers of a licensure test on the equating functions in the context of a nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. Examinees who had taken a new, to-be-equated form of the test were divided into three subgroups according to their previous testing experience: (a) repeaters who previously took…

  10. Processing visual rhetoric in advertisements: Interpretations determined by verbal anchoring and visual structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwerf, L.; Hooijdonk, van C.M.J.; Korenberg, A.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated meaning operation in relation to verbal anchoring and visual structure of visual rhetoric in advertisements. Meaning operation refers to the relation between meaningful visual elements, and determines the number of interpretations of an image. Meaning operation ‘connection

  11. Influence of the order parameter on the anchoring energy of liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadivanyan, A. K., E-mail: dadivank@mail.ru; Chausov, D. N., E-mail: d.chausov@yandex.ru [Moscow State Regional University (Russian Federation); Noa, O. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Belyaev, V. V. [Moscow State Regional University (Russian Federation); Chigrinov, V. G. [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (China); Pashinina, Yu. M. [Moscow State Regional University (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    No theory of the polar and azimuthal anchoring energies of liquid crystals (LCs) has been developed on a molecular level, despite the scientific and practical topicality of the problem. The interaction energies of mesogenic molecules with graphite and polyethylene surfaces calculated previously by the method of atom-atom potentials are in good agreement with the experimental data, but, at the same time, the calculated polar and azimuthal anchoring energies are larger than their experimental values by one and two orders of magnitude, respectively. To explain these values, the anchoring energy has been assumed to depend not only on the interaction with the surface but also on the interaction between the LC molecules arranged in the model in the form of quasi-layers. The mesogenic molecules have been modeled by rods with virtual C' atoms (carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them) 'threaded' on them. The molecule orientation has been specified by the polar and azimuthal angles {theta}{sub i}, {phi}{sub i} and {theta}{sub j}, {phi}{sub j} relative to the directors of the ith and jth layers. The derived polar and azimuthal anchoring energies as well as their dependences on the order parameter have turned out to be close to the experimental data.

  12. Influence of the order parameter on the anchoring energy of liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No theory of the polar and azimuthal anchoring energies of liquid crystals (LCs) has been developed on a molecular level, despite the scientific and practical topicality of the problem. The interaction energies of mesogenic molecules with graphite and polyethylene surfaces calculated previously by the method of atom-atom potentials are in good agreement with the experimental data, but, at the same time, the calculated polar and azimuthal anchoring energies are larger than their experimental values by one and two orders of magnitude, respectively. To explain these values, the anchoring energy has been assumed to depend not only on the interaction with the surface but also on the interaction between the LC molecules arranged in the model in the form of quasi-layers. The mesogenic molecules have been modeled by rods with virtual C’ atoms (carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them) “threaded” on them. The molecule orientation has been specified by the polar and azimuthal angles θi, φi and θj, φj relative to the directors of the ith and jth layers. The derived polar and azimuthal anchoring energies as well as their dependences on the order parameter have turned out to be close to the experimental data.

  13. Hearing rehabilitation in Treacher Collins Syndrome with bone anchored hearing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Polanski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression. It was prescribed a model of bone-anchored hearing aid, in soft band format. The results were evaluated through behavioral hearing tests and questionnaires Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS and Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS. Comments: The patient had a higher acceptance of the bone-anchored hearing aid compared to the traditional bone vibration arch. Audiological tests and the speech and auditory skills assessments also showed better communication and hearing outcomes. The bone-anchored hearing aid is a good option in hearing rehabilitation in this syndrome.

  14. Hearing rehabilitation in Treacher Collins Syndrome with bone anchored hearing aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanski, José Fernando; Plawiak, Anna Clara; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression. It was prescribed a model of bone-anchored hearing aid, in soft band format. The results were evaluated through behavioral hearing tests and questionnaires Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) and Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS). Comments: The patient had a higher acceptance of the bone-anchored hearing aid compared to the traditional bone vibration arch. Audiological tests and the speech and auditory skills assessments also showed better communication and hearing outcomes. The bone-anchored hearing aid is a good option in hearing rehabilitation in this syndrome. PMID:26298651

  15. Linking self and ingroup : Self-anchoring as distinctive cognitive route to social identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, Ruth; Otten, Sabine; Hansen, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The present paper investigates how cognitive projection processes instigate social identification. We complement the classical self-stereotyping approach (i.e., conforming to prototypical group norms) by investigating self-anchoring (i.e., projection from self to group) as a distinct cognitive route

  16. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  17. An improvement of design criteria for cast-in place anchor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actual model tests are carried out to examine the appropriateness of design criteria that is available for the anchorage design in this study. These tests are intended for the cast-in-place anchor that is widely used for the fastening of equipment in Korean NPPs. 35 test specimens taking account of 7 test conditions are manufactured on a basis of ASTM E488 under non-cracked and plain concrete for these actual model tests. As principal test variables, effective anchor embedment depth, anchor with edge effects, and anchor with overlapping failure volume etc. are chosen. In order to apply the tensile force, 100 tonf-capacity actuator is used with displacement control of 0.5 mm/min. It is proved that ACI 349-01 and CCD procedure of CEB- FIP Code are very conservative against test results through these actual model tests and the improved design criterion is proposed on a basis of test results in order to better the economical efficiency of NPPs in this study

  18. Peptide nanofibers modified with a protein by using designed anchor molecules bearing hydrophobic and functional moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyachi, Ayaka; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Matsumura, Sachiko; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2010-06-11

    Self-assembly of peptides and proteins is a key feature of biological functions. Short amphiphilic peptides designed with a beta-sheet structure can form sophisticated nanofiber structures, and the fibers are available as nanomaterials for arranging biomolecules. Peptide FI (H-PKFKIIEFEP-OH) self-assembles into nanofibers with a coiled fine structure, as reported in our previous work. We have constructed anchor molecules that have both a binding moiety for the fiber structure and a functional unit capable of capturing target molecules, with the purpose of arranging proteins on the designed peptide nanofibers. Designed anchors containing an alkyl chain as a binding unit and biotin as a functional moiety were found to bind to peptide fibers FI and F2i (H-ALEAKFAAFEAKLA-NH(2)). The surface-exposed biotin moiety on the fibers could capture an anti-biotin antibody. Moreover, hydrophobic dipeptide anchor units composed of iminodiacetate connected to Phe-Phe or Ile-Ile and a peptide composed of six histidine residues connected to biotin could also connect FI peptide fibers to the anti-biotin antibody through the chelation of Ni(2+) ions. This strategy of using designed anchors opens a novel approach to constructing nanoscale protein arrays on peptide nanomaterials. PMID:20419712

  19. Solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis with tris(alkoxy)benzyl amine (BAL) safety-catch anchoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Jakob Fjord; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A tris(alkoxy)benzylamine (BAL) handle strategy was developed for safety-catch anchoring of D-glucosamine derivatives in solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides; the linkage between the BAL handle and the amine proved stable to conc. TFA and Lewis acids, but after N-acylation the amide could...

  20. Using anchor text, spam filtering and Wikipedia for web search and entity ranking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kamps; R. Kaptein; M. Koolen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we document our efforts in participating to the TREC 2010 Entity Ranking and Web Tracks. We had multiple aims: For the Web Track we wanted to compare the effectiveness of anchor text of the category A and B collections and the impact of global document quality measures such as PageRan

  1. The information-anchoring model of first offers: When moving first helps versus hurts negotiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschelder, David D; Trötschel, Roman; Swaab, Roderick I; Friese, Malte; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-07-01

    Does making the first offer increase or impair a negotiator's outcomes? Past research has found evidence supporting both claims. To reconcile these contradictory findings, we developed and tested an integrative model-the Information-Anchoring Model of First Offers. The model predicts when and why making the first offer helps versus hurts. We suggest that first offers have 2 effects. First, they serve as anchors that pull final settlements toward the initial first-offer value; this anchor function often produces a first-mover advantage. Second, first offers can convey information on the senders' priorities, which makes the sender vulnerable to exploitation and increases the risk of a first-mover disadvantage. To test this model, 3 experiments manipulated the information that senders communicated in their first offer. When senders did not reveal their priorities, the first-mover advantage was replicated. However, when first offers revealed senders' priorities explicitly, implicitly, or both, a first-mover disadvantage emerged. Negotiators' social value orientation moderated this effect: A first-mover disadvantage occurred when senders faced proself recipients who exploited priority information, but not with prosocial recipients. Moderated mediation analyses supported the model assumptions: Proself recipients used their integrative insight to feign priorities in their low-priority issues and thereby claimed more individual value than senders. The final discussion reviews theoretical and applied implications of the Information-Anchoring Model of First Offers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27065345

  2. Arrows as Anchors: An Analysis of the Material Features of Electric Field Vector Arrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Representations in physics possess both physical and conceptual aspects that are fundamentally intertwined and can interact to support or hinder sense making and computation. We use distributed cognition and the theory of conceptual blending with material anchors to interpret the roles of conceptual and material features of representations in…

  3. Understanding and valuing environmental issues: the effects of availability and anchoring on judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pligt, J; van Schie, E C; Hoevenagel, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of availability and anchoring-and-adjustment on people's beliefs and values concerning environmental issues. The first three studies focus on lay people's perceptions of the causes of large scale environmental risks, the second series of three studies deals with how people value environmental goods and how much they are prepared to pay to mitigate environmental risks. In studies 1-3 we investigate the effects of availability and anchoring-and-adjustment on estimating the contribution of various factors to large scale environmental risks. Highly complex risks such as acid rain and global warming tend to be associated with multiple causes, and our results show that estimating the role of these causes is clearly affected by availability and anchoring-and-adjustment. Both have sizeable effects and persist over time. Moreover, corrective procedures only seem to have a limited effect. Availability and anchoring-and-adjustment not only play a role in judging the possible causes of risks; they also play a role in research attempting to assess the public's willingness to pay (WTP) to protect our environment. The outcomes of WTP surveys are often used as a tool to help policy decision making. In the second part of this article we present three studies on this issue. Results provide further evidence of the impact of the two heuristics on the outcomes of WTP research. Implications for research and practice are briefly discussed. PMID:9857823

  4. Urokinase-catalysed cleavage of the urokinase receptor requires an intact glycolipid anchor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Pessara, U; Holm, A;

    2001-01-01

    Urokinase (uPA) has the striking ability to cleave its receptor, uPAR, thereby inactivating the binding potential of this molecule. Here we demonstrate that the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor of uPAR, which is attached to the third domain, is an important determinant in governing this ...

  5. Bearing Capacity Analyses for the Great Belt East Bridge Anchor Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten Steen; Clausen, Carl J. Frimann; Andersen, Henrik

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between different methods of bearing capacity analyses: Upper Bound Method. Limit Equilibrium Analysis and Finite Element Analysis. For the Great Belt East Bridge anchor blocks it was concluded that these methods of calculation agree within 5%. However, for cases...... where the bearing capacity is dominated by frictional materials, much higher differences should be expected....

  6. An Indo-Arabian type of stone anchor from Kannur, Kerala,west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Manikfan, A.; Mohamed, M.

    and commerce, cultural contacts and boat and shipbuilding activities of the region. In India, stone anchors have been reported from Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Lakshadweep on the west coast and Tamil Nadu and Orissa on the east coast of India. Recent exploration...

  7. Substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive anti-inflammatory coatings for implant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Duo; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Tianchan; Ding, Chunmei; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-06-01

    Implant materials need to be highly biocompatible to avoid inflammation in clinical practice. Although biodegradable polymeric implants can eliminate the need for a second surgical intervention to remove the implant materials, they may produce acidic degradation products in vivo and cause non-bacterial inflammation. Here we show the strategy of “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coatings” for biodegradable implants. Using poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite as an implant material model, we constructed a layer-by-layer coating using pH-sensitive star polymers and dendrimers loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, which was immobilised through a hydroxyapatite-anchored layer. The multifunctional coating can effectively suppress the local inflammation caused by the degradation of implant materials for at least 8 weeks in vivo. Moreover, the substrate-anchored coating is able to modulate the degradation of the substrate in a more homogeneous manner. The “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coating” strategy therefore exhibits potential for the design of various self-anti-inflammatory biodegradable implant materials.

  8. Delivery of a secreted soluble protein to the vacuole via a membrane anchor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrieu, F.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1999-08-01

    To further understand how membrane proteins are sorted in the secretory system, the authors devised a strategy that involves the expression of a membrane-anchored yeast invertase in transgenic plants. The construct consisted of a signal peptide followed by the coding region of yeast invertase and the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of calnexin. The substitution of a lysine near the C terminus of calnexin with a glutamic acid residue ensured progression through the secretory system rather than retention in or return to the endoplasmic reticulum. In the transformed plants, invertase activity and a 70-kD cross-reacting protein were found in the vacuoles. This yeast invertase had plant-specific complex glycans, indicating that transport to the vacuole was mediated by the Golgi apparatus. The microsomal fraction contained a membrane-anchored 90-kD cross-reacting polypeptide, but was devoid of invertase activity. Their results indicate that this membrane-anchored protein proceeds in the secretory system beyond the point where soluble proteins are sorted for secretion, and is detached from its membrane anchor either just before or just after delivery to the vacuole.

  9. 准确判断船舶走锚方法%A Method to Find Dragging Anchor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫兵; 尹建川

    2012-01-01

    监测锚位,判断本船是否走锚是每一锚泊船值锚泊班驾驶员的主要工作之一.因本船走锚而导致的触礁、搁浅、碰撞等事故不胜枚举,研究一种能准确判断船舶走锚的简单可行方法迫在眉睫,这一直是航海人员研究的重要课题.尤其是在锚泊船密度大,锚泊水域受限,锚泊水域风、流、浪条件恶劣,锚地底质不良等的不利条件下,准确判断本船是否走锚尤为重要.提出了一种简单可行的准确判断本船是否走锚的方法,以便航海人员及时采取相应的措施控制走锚,确保船舶锚泊安全.%Monitoring anchor position and finding dragging anchor is the main task of ship's duty officers. Marine accidents that are caused by dragging anchor, such as grounding, stranding on rocks, collision, are too numerous to be mentioned individually. So, it is urgent for navigation officers and researchers to have a convenient and operational method of find dragging anchor. To find dragging anchor is especially important in the conditions of high density of anchoring vessels, limited anchoring water area, abominable weather, bad anchorage seabed character etc. A sim ple and feasible method of finding dragging anchor is presented for duty officers to control dragging anchor promptly so as to ensure the safety of anchoring vessels.

  10. The Effect of Molecular Anchoring and Curvature on Confined Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondris-Crawford, Renate Johanna

    Nematic liquid crystals confined to curved geometries exhibit unique elastic and anchoring properties. One result of this study was the first simultaneous measurement of the azimuthal (W_phi) and polar (W_theta) anchoring strength and the saddle-splay surface elastic constant K_{24}. The technique confined 4^'-pentyl-4 -cyanobiphenyl (5CB) to submicrometer polyimide treated cylindrical cavities of polycarbonate (Nuclepore) membranes with concentric tangential anchoring conditions for deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance studies. A structural transition upon increasing cavity radius from a planar-bipolar (PB, R 0.5 mu m) structure resulted in the measurement of W _theta and W_phi (comparable in these systems), and of K _{24}/K. The effect of the bend elastic constant K _{33} on the escaped nematic director -field of 4^'-octyl-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) in the submicrometer cavities of Nuclepore membranes is significant near the nematic-smectic A transition. The project encompassed monitoring the anchoring angle, measuring the defect density, and estimating the values for W _theta and K_{24 }/K. The lack of pretransitional smectic layering was attributed to the roughness of the cavity wall. The effect of surface treatments on the nematic structures in the submicrometer cavities of alumina (Anopore) membranes was systematically studied by treating the cavity walls with aliphatic acids (C_{n} H_{2n+1}-COOH) of varying carbon number, n. A configuration transition upon decreasing n from a planar-polar (PP, n>7) to a parallel-axial (PA, n<7) structure indicated a discontinuous anchoring transition from homeotropic to planar anchoring at n = 7. Stable nematic director-fields of chiral nematics in Anopore membranes revealed a structural transition from a PA to a twisted PB (TPB) structure as the percentage of chiral additive increased. The TPB structure is the same as the PB structure in-plane, but the symmetry axis twists along the cylinder axis to accommodate the intrinsic twist

  11. Analysis of Protein-Membrane Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmer, Gerdi Christine

    Cellular membranes are complex structures, consisting of hundreds of different lipids and proteins. These membranes act as barriers between distinct environments, constituting hot spots for many essential functions of the cell, including signaling, energy conversion, and transport. These functions...... are implemented by soluble proteins reversibly binding to, as well as by integral membrane proteins embedded in, cellular membranes. The activity and interaction of these proteins is furthermore modulated by the lipids of the membrane. Here, liposomes were used as model membrane systems to investigate...... interactions between proteins and lipids. First, interactions of soluble proteins with membranes and specific lipids were studied, using two proteins: Annexin V and Tma1. The protein was first subjected to a lipid/protein overlay assay to identify candidate interaction partners in a fast and efficient way...

  12. A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Guan Teo

    Full Text Available In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation.

  13. Decay accelerating factor (DAF) is anchored to membranes by a C-terminal glycolipid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified 70 kDa membrane (m) DAF incorporates into cells when added in vitro. A 2 kDa smaller DAF form which functions extrinsically like C4bp but is unable to incorporate can be isolated from urine (u). Because of common deficits of mDAF and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in erythrocytes (E) of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), mDAF was analyzed for a O-terminal glycolipid membrane anchor similar to that in E AChE. Incubation of E with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, an enzyme which cleaves a similar glycolipid anchor in trypanosome variant surface glycoproteins (mfVSGs), released 20% of the DAF antigen. The released DAF species resembled uDAF in size, extrinsic model of C4b2a decay, and lack of hydrophobicity. Reductive radiomethylation of mDAF with [14C]HCHO and NaCNBH3 revealed ethanolamine and glucosamine in proportions similar to those in the E AChE glycolipid anchor. Papain cleavage of radiomethylated mDAF released the labeled ethanolamine and glucosamine in small O-terminal fragments from the residual DAF that retained N-terminal Asp. Following labeling of the anchors of mDAF and E AChE with the lipophilic photoreagent 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine, cleavage at the glucosamine residue by deamination quantitatively released the label from both proteins. Biosynthetic labeling of Hela cells with [3H]ethanolamine resulted in rapid 3H incorporation into both 48 kDa proDAF and 70 kDa mDAF. These data indicate that mDAF is anchored by a glycolipid similar to that in E AChE, mfVSGs and Thy-1 antigen and raise the possibility that a defect in the assembly or attachment of this structure could account for the deficits of mDAF and E AChE in PNH

  14. Research on Slippage Mechanism of Single Anchoring Device in Mine Small Diameter Pre-Stress Anchor%矿用小孔径预应力锚索单孔锚具滑脱机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚晓威; 鞠文君; 吴拥政

    2014-01-01

    According to the phenomena of the anchoring slippage and other unreliable anchoring occurred in the anchoring device of the an-chor in underground mine,in order to get the slippage causes of the anchoring device and to improve the anchoring reliability of the an-chor,the dynamics analysis,lab analysis method and other methods were applied to get the main factors of the anchor device slippage and the major materials of the anchors applied to the coal mine were preliminarily investigated.The analysis results showed that hardness differ-ence between the anchor and shim irrational,diameter error of the anchor too high,strength and hardness of the anchor too high,critical distance irrational and anchoring device quality poor would be main factors to influence the reliability of the anchoring.Therefore,an effec-tive reference index to reduce the slippage probability and to improve the reliability of the anchor should have hardness difference between the anchor and shim over HRC10,the anchor diameter error should not be over ±0. 400. 20 mm,the actual strength of the anchor should be lower than the tensile strength and aspace limited distance should be a shim exposed distance plus a retuned distance of the anchoring device.%针对煤矿井下锚索的锚具出现退锚等锚固不可靠的现象,为得到锚具退锚原因,提高锚索锚固可靠性,采用力学分析、试验分析等方法得出锚具退锚的主要因素,并初步调研了国内煤矿锚索的主要材料。分析结果表明锚索与夹片硬度差不合理、锚索直径误差偏大、锚索强度和硬度偏大、限位距离不合理和锚具质量差是影响锚固可靠性的主要因素。由此得出,降低退锚概率、提高锚索的可靠性的有效参考指标为锚索夹片硬度差大于HRC10,锚索直径误差不超过±0.400.20 mm,锚索实际强度低于其抗拉强度和限位距离等于夹片外露距离与锚具回缩距离的和。

  15. 75 FR 13654 - Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea Adjacent to Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Maritime Administration Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea...-flag anchor handling vessels in certain cases (and for a limited period of time) if no U.S.-flag... anchor handling vessels with a minimum ice class A3 has been received by the Maritime Administration....

  16. 76 FR 79764 - Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea Adjacent to Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Maritime Administration Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea...-flag anchor handling vessels in certain cases (and for a limited period of time) if no U.S.-flag... anchor handling vessels with a minimum ice class A3 has been received by the Maritime Administration....

  17. 厚煤层煤巷锚杆锚索受力监测%Anchor Pole’s and Anchor Rope’s Stress Monitoring in Thick Seam’s Coal Roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国华

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:This paper expounds the structure and functions of the roof pressure sensor, and connecting with the work practice, fulfills the anchor pole’s and anchor rope’s stress monitoring in thick seam’s coal roadway. The results show that this coordinated support technology is able to adapt to the geological conditions of the mine, 5 m anchor pole has good physical and mechanical performance, its initial anchorage force and anchor pole’s stress values after the stress being stable are higher than that of the short high-strength anchor pole, the stress monitoring curve of anchor pole occurs a jump, and 5 m anchor pole well adapts to the roof pressure changes, the stable state exists in the short anchor pole and anchor pole’s monitoring process, and can keep the roadway stable for a long time.%概述了顶板压力传感器的结构及作用,结合工作实际,完成了厚煤层煤巷锚杆锚索的受力监测。结果显示,这种协调支护技术能够很好地适应矿井的地质条件:5m锚杆具有良好的物理力学性能,初始锚固力和受力稳定后的锚杆受力值都较高强短锚杆大;锚杆受力监测曲线出现跳跃,5 m锚杆很好地适应了顶板压力的变化;短锚杆和锚杆监测过程中均存在稳定状态,且能够长期保持巷道的稳定。

  18. Triple labrum tears repaired with the JuggerKnot™ soft anchor: Technique and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The 2-year outcomes of patients undergoing repair of triple labrum tears using an all-suture anchor device were assessed. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (17 male, one female; mean age 36.4 years, range: 14.2-62.3 years with triple labrum tears underwent arthroscopic repair using the 1.4 mm JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (mean number of anchors 11.5, range: 9-19 anchors. Five patients had prior surgeries performed on their operative shoulder. Patients were followed for a mean of 2.0 years (range: 1.6-3.0 years. Constant-Murley shoulder score (CS and Flexilevel scale of shoulder function (FLEX-SF scores were measured, with preoperative and final postoperative mean scores compared with a paired Student′s t-test (P < 0.05. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was also performed at final postoperative. Results: Overall total CS and FLEX-SF scores increased from 52.9 ± 20.4 to 84.3 ± 10.7 (P < 0.0001 and from 29.3 ± 4.7 to 42.0 ± 7.3 (P < 0.0001, respectively. When divided into two groups by whether or not glenohumeral arthrosis was present at the time of surgery (n = 9 each group, significant improvements in CS and FLEX-SF were obtained for both groups (P < 0.0015. There were no intraoperative complications. All patients, including contact athletes, returned to their preinjury level of sports activity and were satisfied. MRI evaluation revealed no instances of subchondral cyst formation or tunnel expansion. Anchor tracts appeared to heal with fibrous tissue, complete bony healing, or combined fibro-osseous healing. Conclusion: Our results are encouraging, demonstrating a consistent healing of the anchor tunnels through arthroscopic treatment of complex labrum lesions with a completely suture-based implant. It further demonstrates a meaningful improvement in patient outcomes, a predictable return to activity, and a high rate of patient satisfaction. Level of Evidence: Level IV case series.

  19. Constructive and problem-based learning using blended learning anchored instruction approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Based on an anchored instruction approach, an enriched blended learning lecture course ("Introduction into GNSS positioning") was established in order to enable constructive and problem-based learning. The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The presented higher education technique "anchored instruction" uses a real and up-to-date and therefore authentic scientific paper dealing with a recent large-scale geodetic project (Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link) in order to introduce the topic of GNSS-based positioning to the students. In the beginning of the semester, the students have to read the paper individually and carefully. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated focusing on new, unclear or not-understood aspects of the paper. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them throughout the semester. During the lecture course this paper is referred, e.g., in the middle of the semester, the paper has to be read again in order to check which questions have been answered; in addition, new question arise. At the end of the lecture course, the author of the scientific paper gave a concluding lecture. The framing anchor technique enables the students to anchor their GNSS knowledge. The presented case study uses a teaching resp. learning setting consisting of classroom lectures (given by teachers and learners), practical trainings (e.g., field exercises, students select topics individually), and online lectures (learning management system ILIAS is used as data, result, and asynchronous communication platform). The implementation and the elements of the anchoring technique, which enables student

  20. The utilisation of a career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bezuidenhout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This  study  constituted  and  reported  on  the  outcomes  of  a  structured  career conversation  framework  based  on  Schein’s  eight  career  anchors  in  an  open  distance  and e-learning (ODeL university in South Africa.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to report on the utilisation of a structured career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors model.Motivation for the study: The rationale for the study was the paucity of studies investigating career anchors in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 4200 employees at a university in South Africa. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA as well as a Scheffe post hoc test.Main  findings: The  findings  of  this  study  suggest  that  career  conversation  has  a  dynamic nature (i.e. it changes over a period of time. Consequently, career development interventions in the workplace need to approach the workforce holistically.Practical/managerial implications: The findings and results will assist managers, practitioners and  career  development  specialists  in  the  practical  implementation  of  the  career  anchor concept.Contribution/value-add: The career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors has expanded the existing theory to find the right balance between career conversations and career anchors to keep people motivated to perform optimally in an organisation.

  1. Convenient synthesis and application of versatile nucleic acid lipid membrane anchors in the assembly and fusion of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Oliver; Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Vogel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic moieties like lipid membrane anchors are highly demanded modifications for nucleic acid oligomers. Membrane-anchor modified oligonucleotides are applicable in biomedicine leading to new delivery strategies as well as in biophysical investigations towards assembly and fusion of liposomes...... or the construction of DNA origami structures. We herein present the synthesis and applications of versatile lipid membrane anchor building blocks suitable for solid phase oligonucleotide synthesis. These are readily synthesized in bulk in five to seven steps from commercially available precursors and can...

  2. Application of full-length anchor support technology in a large-section roadway under complicated geological conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yun-fei; WANG Yun-gang

    2012-01-01

    Coal roadway support is the foundation and strong guarantee of safe coal production.With the FLAC3D numerical simulation,the roadway full-length anchor support mechanism was studied,and the full-length anchor force-transferring mechanism and stress-field distribution formed by roadway surrounding rocks were analyzed,which will provide a scientific basis for a support technology in large-section roadways under complicated geological conditions and lay a foundation for the popularization and application of a full-length anchor support system under special geological conditions.

  3. High-affinity binding of short peptides to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by anchor combinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, J.; Belunis, C; Bolin, D; Papadopoulos, J.; Walsky, R; Higelin, J; Danho, W; Sinigaglia, F; Nagy, Z A

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified four anchor positions in HLA-DRB1*0101-binding peptides, and three anchors involved in peptide binding to DRB1*0401 and DRB1*1101 molecules, by screening of an M13 peptide display library (approximately 20 million independent nonapeptides) for DR-binding activity. In this study, high stringency screening of the M13 library for DRB1*0401 binding has resulted in identification of three further anchor positions. Taken together, a peptide-binding motif has been obtai...

  4. Supporting Structure and Construction Technology of Coal Mine Anchor Bolt Spray and Anchor Net Shotcrete%煤矿锚喷锚网混凝土支护结构与施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付文才

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly describes the raw materials, the ratio of shotcrete and sprayed concrete support structure and other issues and analyzes equipment and layout of anchor bolt spray and anchor net shotcrete; the technical measures such as anchor bolt spray supporting and anchor net shotcrete construction.%本文主要阐述了喷射混凝土的原材料及其配比,喷射混凝土支护结构等问题.分析了锚喷和锚网喷射混凝土施工的喷射混凝土施工设备布置、锚杆喷射混凝土支护、锚网喷射混凝土施工等技术措施.

  5. Application of the Expansion Anchor Bolt and the Chemical Anchor to the Stair Lift%膨胀螺栓和化学锚栓在楼梯升降机中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡祖光; 万海如

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the construction,principle,failure way, design and selection,installation quality and the evaluation for the expansion anchor bolt and the chemical anchor, and discusses key points of the stair lift installation with the expansion anchor bolt and the chemical anchor in detail.%介绍了膨胀螺栓和化学锚栓的结构、工作机理、失效方式、设计选用、安装质量及其评定方法,详细讨论了楼梯升降机安装施工中使用膨胀螺栓和化学螺栓时应注意的问题。

  6. Note on the hydrodynamic description of thin nematic films: strong anchoring model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Te-Sheng; Archer, Andrew J; Kondic, Lou; Thiele, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the long-wave hydrodynamic model for a thin film of nematic liquid crystal in the limit of strong anchoring at the free surface and at the substrate. Our aim is to clarify how the elastic energy enters the evolution equation for the film thickness; several models exist in the literature that result in qualitatively different behaviour. We consolidate the various approaches and show that the long-wave model derived through an asymptotic expansion of the full nemato-hydrodynamic equations with consistent boundary conditions agrees with the equation one obtains by employing a thermodynamically motivated gradient dynamics formulation based on an underlying free energy functional. As a result, we find that the elastic distortion energy is always stabilising in the case of strong anchoring. To support the discussion in the main part of the paper, an appendix gives the full derivation of the evolution equation for the film thickness via asymptotic expansion.

  7. Webtag: a new web tool providing tags/anchors for RT-PCR experiments with prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Webtag is a tool providing oligonucleotide sequences (usually called tags or anchors that are absent from a specified genome. These tags/anchors can be appended to gene specific primers for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction experiments, circumventing genomic DNA contamination. Results The use of a relational database, in conjunction with a series of scripts written in PHP and Perl, allows the user to rapidly obtain tags that are: 1 suitable for a specific organism, and 2 compatible with other oligonucleotides to be used in the experimental procedures. Conclusion This new web tool allows scientists to easily and rapidly obtain suitable tags for RT-PCR experiments, and is available at http://www.egs.uu.se/software/webtag/.

  8. Large aperture focus stacking with max-gradient flow by anchored rolling filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xuanwu; Wang, Guijin; Li, Wentao; Liao, Qingmin

    2016-07-10

    Focus stacking is a computational technique to extend the depth of field through combining multiple images taken at various focus distances. However, in the large aperture case, there are always defects caused by the large blur scale, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been well studied. In our work, we propose a max-gradient flow-based method to reduce artifacts and obtain a high-quality all-in-focus image by anchored rolling filtering. First, we define a max-gradient flow to describe the gradient propagation in the stack. The points are divided into trivial and source points with this flow. The source points are extracted as true edge points and are utilized as anchors to refine the depth map and the composited all-in-focus image iteratively. The experiments show that our method can effectively suppress the incorrect depth estimations and give a high-quality all-in-focus image. PMID:27409303

  9. Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Harris, Danny W.; Morse, Brian J.; Reed, Cheryl L.; Eng, Doug A.; Kirby, Karen W.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate s (SMD) International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes Mission continues its concept development and is scheduled to complete the first formal milestone gate of a Mission Concept Review (MCR) in Autumn 2009. The mission will establish two-four nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar geophysical stations envisioned to be emplaced by the many nations collaborating on this joint endeavor. This mission will operate over six years or more and make significant progress in satisfying many of the National Research Council s lunar science objectives, while strategically contributing to the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration Policy's objective for a robust robotic lunar program. This paper will provide a status report on the ILN Anchor Nodes mission and overview of the concept to date, which is being implemented jointly by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

  10. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Weng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA. The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  11. Communication: Electrical rectification of C59N: The role of anchoring and doping sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Cui, X Y; Ringer, S P; Stampfl, C

    2016-01-14

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism and density-functional theory, we investigate the onset of electrical rectification in a single C59N molecule in conjunction with gold electrodes. Our calculations reveal that rectification is dependent upon the anchoring of the Au atom on C59N; when the Au electrode is singly bonded to a C atom (labeled here as A), the system does not exhibit rectification, whereas when the electrode is connected to the C-C bridge site between two hexagonal rings (labeled here as B), transmission asymmetry is observed, where the rectification ratio reaches up to 2.62 at ±1 V depending on the N doping site relative to the anchoring site. Our analysis of the transmission mechanism shows that N doping of the B configuration causes rectification because more transmission channels are available for transmission in the B configuration than in the A configuration.

  12. Communication: Electrical rectification of C{sub 59}N: The role of anchoring and doping sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader, E-mail: sherif.abbas@sydney.edu.au; Stampfl, C. [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, and School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2016-01-14

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism and density-functional theory, we investigate the onset of electrical rectification in a single C{sub 59}N molecule in conjunction with gold electrodes. Our calculations reveal that rectification is dependent upon the anchoring of the Au atom on C{sub 59}N; when the Au electrode is singly bonded to a C atom (labeled here as A), the system does not exhibit rectification, whereas when the electrode is connected to the C–C bridge site between two hexagonal rings (labeled here as B), transmission asymmetry is observed, where the rectification ratio reaches up to 2.62 at ±1 V depending on the N doping site relative to the anchoring site. Our analysis of the transmission mechanism shows that N doping of the B configuration causes rectification because more transmission channels are available for transmission in the B configuration than in the A configuration.

  13. Playing dice with criminal sentences: the influence of irrelevant anchors on experts' judicial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englich, Birte; Mussweiler, Thomas; Strack, Fritz

    2006-02-01

    Judicial sentencing decisions should be guided by facts, not by chance. The present research however demonstrates that the sentencing decisions of experienced legal professionals are influenced by irrelevant sentencing demands even if they are blatantly determined at random. Participating legal experts anchored their sentencing decisions on a given sentencing demand and assimilated toward it even if this demand came from an irrelevant source (Study 1), they were informed that this demand was randomly determined (Study 2), or they randomly determined this demand themselves by throwing dice (Study 3). Expertise and experience did not reduce this effect. This sentencing bias appears to be produced by a selective increase in the accessibility of arguments that are consistent with the random sentencing demand: The accessibility of incriminating arguments was higher if participants were confronted with a high rather than a low anchor (Study 4). Practical and theoretical implications of this research are discussed.

  14. Focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique: rapid self-hypnosis for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatone, Brooke

    2013-04-01

    This article details a self-hypnosis technique designed to teach patients how to manage acute or chronic pain through directed focus. The focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique has been used with various types of pain, including somatic pain (arthritis, post-injury pain from bone breaks, or muscle tears), visceral pain (related to irritable bowel disease), and neuropathic pain (related to multiple sclerosis). This technique combines cognitive restructuring and mindfulness meditation with indirect and direct suggestions during hypnosis. The case examples demonstrate how the focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique is used with both acute and chronic pain conditions when use of long-term medication has been relatively ineffective. PMID:23724568

  15. Dynamic interaction between the soil and an anchored sheet pile during seismic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrande, G.; Praet, E.; van Zegbroeck, B.; van Marcke, P.

    2002-05-01

    A subdomain approach for dynamic soil-structure interaction is proposed for the linear elastic seismic analysis of an anchored sheet pile, retaining a horizontally layered soil on rigid bedrock. A hybrid solution technique is used, employing a finite element formulation for the generalized sheet pile, a thin layer formulation for the soil and a direct stiffness formulation for the tieback; the displacement vectors of the sheet pile and the soil are decomposed, using the eigenmodes of the sheet pile and the propagating or decaying modes in the soil. The discretization can be limited to the interface(s), where pointwise continuity of the displacements is enforced, whereas a weak variational formulation is used for the stress equilibrium. The solution technique is illustrated by means of a numerical example, where the harmonic response of a flexible anchored sheet pile is considered and compared to the case where no tieback is present.

  16. Communication: Electrical rectification of C59N: The role of anchoring and doping sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism and density-functional theory, we investigate the onset of electrical rectification in a single C59N molecule in conjunction with gold electrodes. Our calculations reveal that rectification is dependent upon the anchoring of the Au atom on C59N; when the Au electrode is singly bonded to a C atom (labeled here as A), the system does not exhibit rectification, whereas when the electrode is connected to the C–C bridge site between two hexagonal rings (labeled here as B), transmission asymmetry is observed, where the rectification ratio reaches up to 2.62 at ±1 V depending on the N doping site relative to the anchoring site. Our analysis of the transmission mechanism shows that N doping of the B configuration causes rectification because more transmission channels are available for transmission in the B configuration than in the A configuration

  17. Stress Monitoring for Anchor Rods System in Subway Tunnel Using FBG Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Weng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model test, used on the tunnels on Xi’an Metro Line 2, as the prototype for evaluating the reinforcing effect of the anchor rod in tunnel construction in loess areas. An independently designed fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor was used to monitor the seven strain conditions of the rock bolts during the construction. The result shows that the axial stress of the rock bolt changes after the excavation and increases steadily with the growing pressure in the wall rock. Results additionally show that the anchor rods at the tunnel vault are subjected to a compressive stress that remains relatively constant after the primary and the secondary lining, while those at the spandrel and the corner of the tunnel are subjected to increased tensile stress. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and the superiority of FBG technology for tunnel model tests.

  18. Effects of molecule anchoring and dispersion on nanoscopic friction under electrochemical control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of electric fields is a promising strategy for in situ control of friction. While there have recently been many experimental studies on friction under the influence of electric fields, theoretical understanding is very limited. Recently, we introduced a simple theoretical model for friction under electrochemical conditions that focused on the interaction of a force microscope tip with adsorbed molecules whose orientation was dependent on the applied electric field. Here we focus on the effects of anchoring of the molecules on friction. We show that anchoring affects the intensity and width of the peak in the friction that occurs near a reorientation transition of adsorbed molecules, and explain this by comparing the strength of molecule–molecule and molecule–tip interactions. We derive a dispersion relation for phonons in the layer of adsorbed molecules and demonstrate that it can be used to understand important features of the frictional response. (paper)

  19. Flapping states of an el astically anchored wing in a uniform flow

    CERN Document Server

    Orchini, A; Guerrero, J; Festa, R; Boragno, C

    2012-01-01

    Linear stability analysis of an elastically anchored wing in a uniform flow is investigated both analytically and numerically. The analytical formulation explicitly takes into account the effect of the wake on the wing by means of Theodorsen's theory. Three different parameters non-trivially rule the observed dynamics: mass density ratio between wing and fluid, spring elastic constant and distance between the wing center of mass and the spring anchor point on the wing. We found relationships between these parameters which rule the transition between stable equilibrium and fluttering. The shape of the resulting marginal curve has been successfully verified by high Reynolds number direct numerical simulations. Our findings are of interest in applications related to energy harvesting by fluid-structure interaction, a problem which has recently attracted a great deal of attention. The main aim in that context is to identify the optimal physical/geometrical system configuration leading to large sustained motion, w...

  20. Palladium nanoparticle anchored polyphosphazene nanotubes: preparation and catalytic activity on aryl coupling reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Devi; A Ashok Kumar; S Sankar; K Dinakaran

    2015-06-01

    Highly accessible-supported palladium (Pd) nanoparticles anchored polyphosphazene (PPZ) nanotubes (NTs) having average diameter of 120 nm were synthesized rapidly at room temperature and homogeneously decorated with Pd nanoparticles. The resultant PPZ–Pd nanocomposites were morphologically and structurally characterized by means of transmission electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Characterization results showed that the Pd nanoparticles with good dispersibility could be well anchored onto the surfaces of the PPZ NTs. The PPZ–Pd NTs show enhanced catalytic activity for the Suzuki coupling of aryl bromides with arylboronic acid. In addition, these PPZ–Pd NTs show excellent behaviour as reusable catalysts of the Suzuki and Heck coupling reactions.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Mobility Anchor Point with Guard Load Reservation in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Chung Wang; Li-Hsin Chiang; Hung-Pin Lin

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) introduces a mobility anchor point to reduce the signaling overhead and handoff latency. In this paper, we apply the matrix-analytical approach to explore the performance measures of the ongoing mobile nodes (MNs) drop and new MNs block probabilities of mobility anchor point with a guard bandwidth reservation scheme. We apply the Markovian arrival process (MAP) to model ongoing MNs and new MNs. Five related performance measures are derived, including the long-term new MN block and ongoing MN drop probabilities, and the three short-term measures of average length of a block period and a non-block period, as well as the conditional ongoing MN drop probability during a block period. These performance measures greatly assist the guard bandwidth reservation mechanism in determining a proper threshold guard bandwidth. The results presented in this paper can provide guidelines for designing adaptive algorithms to adjust the threshold in the guard bandwidth reservation scheme.

  2. Ligation-anchored PCR unveils immune repertoire of TCR-beta from whole blood

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Fan; Kai WANG

    2015-01-01

    Background As one of the genetic mechanisms for adaptive immunity, V(D)J recombination generates an enormous repertoire of T-cell receptors (TCRs). With the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques, systematic exploration of V(D)J recombination becomes possible. Multiplex PCR has been previously developed to assay immune repertoire; however, the use of primer pools leads to inherent biases in target amplification. In our study, we developed a “single-primer" ligation-anchored PCR ...

  3. The relationship between perceived own health state and health assessments of anchoring vignettes

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Andreas; Häuser, Winfried; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported health depends on the internal frame of reference and on response styles. One way of studying this dependency is using anchoring vignettes. Response shift effects are assumed to induce a negative correlation between self-reported health and the health assessments attributed to the vignettes. Method: A representative sample of the German adult population (N = 2,409) was selected. Participants were asked to rate their health state and the health states of two rather complex vignet...

  4. Decay accelerating factor of complement is anchored to cells by a C-terminal glycolipid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane-associated decay accelerating factor (DAF) of human erythrocytes (E/sup hu/) was analyzed for a C-terminal glycolipid anchoring structure. Automated amino acid analysis of DAF following reductive radiomethylation revealed ethanolamine and glucosamine residues in proportions identical with those present in the E/sup hu/ acetylcholinesterase (AChE) anchor. Cleavage of radiomethylated 70-kilodalton (kDa) DAF with papain released the labeled ethanolamine and glucosamine and generated 61- and 55-kDa DAF products that retained all labeled Lys and labeled N-terminal Asp. Incubation of intact E/sup hu/ with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), which cleaves the anchors in trypanosome membrane form variant surface glycoproteins (mfVSGs) and murine thymocyte Thy-1 antigen, released 15% of the cell-associated DAF antigen. The released 67-kDa PI-PLC DAF derivative retained its ability to decay the classical C3 convertase C4b2a but was unable to membrane-incorporate and displayed physicochemical properties similar to urine DAF, a hydrophilic DAF form that can be isolated for urine. Nitrous acid deamination cleavage of E/sup hu/ DAF at glucosamine following labeling with the lipophilic photoreagent 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([125I]TID) released the [125I]TID label in a parallel fashion as from [125I]TID-labeled AChE. Biosynthetic labeling of HeLa cells with [3H] ethanolamine resulted in rapid 3H incorporation into both 48-kDa pro-DAF and 72-kDa mature epithelial cell DAF. The findings indicate that DAF and AChE are anchored in E/sup hu/ by the same or a similar glycolipid structure and that, like VSGs, this structure is incorporated into DAF early in DAF biosynthesis prior to processing of pro-DAF in the Golgi

  5. Expanding the clinical and molecular characteristics of PIGT-CDG, a disorder of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christina; Golas, Gretchen A; Davids, Mariska; Huizing, Marjan; Kane, Megan S; Krasnewich, Donna M; Malicdan, May Christine V; Adams, David R; Markello, Thomas C; Zein, Wadih M; Gropman, Andrea L; Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A; Maric, Irina; Rosenzweig, Sergio D; Baker, Eva H; Ferreira, Carlos R; Danylchuk, Noelle R; Kahler, Stephen; Garnica, Adolfo D; Bradley Schaefer, G; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Gahl, William A; Wolfe, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    PIGT-CDG, an autosomal recessive syndromic intellectual disability disorder of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors, was recently described in two independent kindreds [Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome 3 (OMIM, #615398)]. PIGT encodes phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis class T, a subunit of the heteropentameric transamidase complex that facilitates the transfer of GPI to proteins. GPI facilitates attachment (anchoring) of proteins to cell membranes. We describe, at ages 7 and 6 years, two children of non-consanguineous parents; they had hypotonia, severe global developmental delay, and intractable seizures along with endocrine, ophthalmologic, skeletal, hearing, and cardiac anomalies. Exome sequencing revealed that both siblings had compound heterozygous variants in PIGT (NM_015937.5), i.e., c.918dupC, a novel duplication leading to a frameshift, and c.1342C > T encoding a previously described missense variant. Flow cytometry studies showed decreased surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins on granulocytes, consistent with findings in previous cases. These siblings further delineate the clinical spectrum of PIGT-CDG, reemphasize the neuro-ophthalmologic presentation, clarify the endocrine features, and add hypermobility, low CSF albumin quotient, and hearing loss to the phenotypic spectrum. Our results emphasize that GPI anchor-related congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) should be considered in subjects with early onset severe seizure disorders and dysmorphic facial features, even in the presence of a normal carbohydrate-deficient transferrin pattern and N-glycan profiling. Currently available screening for CDGs will not reliably detect this family of disorders, and our case reaffirms that the use of flow cytometry and genetic testing is essential for diagnosis in this group of disorders.

  6. Radiocarbon dates of the medieval period stone anchors from Dabhol, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.

    and Gallivats being of deep draught could not get up above the junction of Jogburi river with the sacred Washisti, but lay at anchor in deep water in the land locked basin at Dabhol’. This reference indicates that Dabhol was an active maritime trade centre... Dabhol jetty. radiocarbon dates of the same were ob- tained from the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow. Explorations Onshore and inter-tidal zone explorations were undertaken in and around Dabhol jetty. Towards the east...

  7. Employees’ work engagement and job commitment: The moderating role of career anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations continue to focus on human resource initiatives for enhancingemployee commitment, satisfaction and engagement in order to gain a competitive edge in adynamic and fast-changing marketplace.Research purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess whether individuals’career anchors (measured by the career orientations inventory significantly moderate therelationship between their work engagement (measured by the Utrecht work engagementscale and job commitment (measured by the organisation-related commitment scale.Motivation for the study: Although the literature review suggests that people’s workengagement and job commitment may be influenced by their career anchors, there seems to bea paucity of research examining the interaction effects between these three variables.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey approach wasused. A non-probability purposive sample of adults (N = 318 employed in a human resourcecapacity in the South African service industry participated in the study. Stepwise hierarchicalmoderated regression analysis was performed to achieve the objective of the study.Main findings: The results showed that the work engagement-job commitment relationshipwas generally stronger for high career anchor preferences than for low career anchorpreferences.Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study can be useful when human resourceinterventions for enhancing employees’ engagement and commitment are developed.Contribution: The results of the study add new insights to the career literature by showing thatpeople’s career self-concepts (as reflected by their career anchors are important to consider inenhancing their work engagement and job commitment.

  8. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach

  9. Lentiviral Engineered Fibroblasts Expressing Codon Optimized COL7A1 Restore Anchoring Fibrils in RDEB

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadis, Christos,; Syed, Farhatullah; Petrova, Anastasia; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; Lwin, Su M; Farzaneh, Farzin; Chan, Lucas; Ghani, Sumera; Fleck, Roland A.; Glover, Leanne; McMillan, James R.; Chen, Mei; Adrian J Thrasher; McGrath, John A; Di, Wei-Li

    2015-01-01

    Cells therapies, engineered to secrete replacement proteins, are being developed to ameliorate otherwise debilitating diseases. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by defects of type VII collagen (C7), a protein essential for anchoring fibril formation at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ). Whilst allogeneic fibroblasts injected directly into the dermis can mediate transient disease modulation, autologous gene-modified fibroblasts should evade immunological rejection ...

  10. GPI-anchored influenza hemagglutinin induces hemifusion to both red blood cell and planar bilayer membranes

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Under fusogenic conditions, fluorescent dye redistributed from the outer monolayer leaflet of red blood cells (RBCs) to cells expressing glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored influenza virus hemagglutinin (GPI- HA) without transfer of aqueous dye. This suggests that hemifusion, but not full fusion, occurred (Kemble, G. W., T. Danieli, and J. M. White. 1994. Cell. 76:383-391). We extended the evidence for hemifusion by labeling the inner monolayer leaflets of RBCs with FM4-64 and observing that t...

  11. Would an inflation target help anchor U.S. inflation expectations?

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Swanson

    2006-01-01

    Since the October 2005 nomination of Ben Bernanke to become Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, there has been increasing speculation in the financial press that the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) might soon adopt an explicit numerical objective for inflation. However, skeptics of inflation targeting have maintained that this would constrain the FOMC and might provide little benefit in return—after all, it has been argued, haven't inflation expectations in the U.S. been well anchored...

  12. Repair of acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle by suture anchors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiang-Fei; Fang, Yang; Cao, Zhong-Hua; Li, Guang-Feng; Guo-qing YANG

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical curative effect of stage I repair of acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle by the application of suture anchors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 18 cases of III degree acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle. Results: There were statistically significant differences in preoperative and last follow-up VAS pain scores and AOFAS ankle hind-foot function scores. The X-ray talus di...

  13. Anchoring of organic molecules to a metal surface: HtBDC on Cu(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schunack, M.; Petersen, L.; Kuhnle, A.;

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of largish molecules with metal surfaces has been studied by combining the imaging and manipulation capabilities of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). At the atomic scale, the STM results directly reveal that the adsorption of a largish organic molecule can induce a...... restructuring of a metal surface underneath. This restructuring anchors the molecules on the substrate and is the driving force for a self-assembly process of the molecules into characteristic molecular double rows....

  14. Employees’ work engagement and job commitment: The moderating role of career anchors

    OpenAIRE

    Melinde Coetzee; Dries Schreuder; Rebecca Tladinyane

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: Organisations continue to focus on human resource initiatives for enhancingemployee commitment, satisfaction and engagement in order to gain a competitive edge in adynamic and fast-changing marketplace.Research purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess whether individuals’career anchors (measured by the career orientations inventory) significantly moderate therelationship between their work engagement (measured by the Utrecht work engagementscale) and job commitme...

  15. Self-anchoring mast for deploying a high-speed submersible mixer in a tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, Jr., Joseph E.; Shearer, Paul M.; Rodwell, Philip O.

    2004-10-12

    A self-anchoring mast for deploying a high-speed submersible mixer in a tank includes operably connected first and second mast members (20, 22) and a foot member 46 operably connected to the second mast member for supporting the mast in a tank. The second mast member includes a track (36, 38) for slidably receiving a bearing of the mixer to change the orientation of the mixer in the tank.

  16. Combining Comprehension Reading Instruction with Video Anchors with Middle Level Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a multidimensional process and a key component of this process is the activation of prior knowledge in the comprehension of text. This study utilized video clips as a means to anchor instruction and assist struggling middle-level readers in comprehending text. Participants in this study were 17 seventh- and eighth-grade students from a rural middle school. The study used a single-subject reversal design. During the baseline phase of the study, students read four ...

  17. ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR OF BANKART’S LESION USING SUTURE ANCHORS IN RECURRENT ANTERIOR SHOULDER INSTABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar; Anant Kumar; Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Shoulder instability and its treatment were described even in ancient times by the Greek and Egyptian physicians. Evidence of shoulder dislocation has been found in archaeological and paleopathological examinations of human shoulders several thousand years old. 1 Many techniques have been described in literature for treatment of recurrent shoulder dislocation. Arthroscopic repair of Bankart’s lesion using suture anchors is a noble technique. A sut...

  18. Fate, complications and MRI implications of retention anchor suture placed during gastrostomy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanam, Surendra; De Oliveira, Vicente; Sertic, Madeleine; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Image Guided Therapy, Toronto (Canada); Krishnamurthy, Ganesh [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bekhit, Elhamy [RCG Melbourne, Medical Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Cheng, Hai-Ling [The Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    Retrograde radiologic gastrostomy is one of several techniques used for placing a gastrostomy and is a common technique used in children. The use of a retention anchor suture (RAS) is an important component of this procedure. This pictorial essay explores the normal course and passage of the RAS, as well as abnormal migration, various complications and the implications of the RAS with regard to MRI safety. (orig.)

  19. The outcome study of arthroscopic repair with anchor suture for anterior shoulder instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guity MR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anterior glenohumeral instabilities can be corrected with open and arthroscopic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the surgical outcomes of arthroscopic repair of anterior glenohumeral instabilities with use of suture anchors in a series of patients who were followed for twenty to fifty months."n "nMethods: The results of arthroscopic Bankart repair with use of suture anchors in 30 patients with traumatic recurrent anterior instability of the shoulder were evaluated. At the time of follow-up (mean of thirty-three months, the patients were assessed with two outcome measurement tools (the Rowe score, the Constant score. The recurrence rate, range of motion, and risk factors for postoperative recurrence were evaluated."n "nResults: According to the Rowe scale, 12 patients (40% had an excellent score; 13 (43%, a good score; 4 (13%, a fair score; and 1 (4%, a poor score. The mean ROWE score was 81.8 and the mean CONSTANT score was 85.5. Overall, the rate of postoperative recurrence of instability was 10% (two dislocations, one subluxation. The mean delay to recurrence was 20 months. Loss of external rotation in regard to uninvolved extremity was less than 10 degrees in 30% and more than 10 degrees in 10% of patients. The average number of anchors used was 3.2 which follow-up radiographs showed all of them in the osseous glenoid without pullout. In preoperative studies, shoulder 3D CT scan was not performed routinely. Radiographic signs of degenerative changes were noted in one shoulder."n "nConclusion: Arthroscopic capsulolabral repair with use of suture anchors can provide satisfactory outcomes in terms of recurrence rate, activity, and range of motion.

  20. Traumatic lumbar hernia repair: a laparoscopic technique for mesh fixation with an iliac crest suture anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, D J R; Berney, C R

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic lumbar hernia (TLH) is a rare presentation. Traditionally, these have been repaired via an open approach. Recurrence can be a problem due to the often limited tissue available for mesh fixation at the inferior aspect of the hernia defect. We report the successful use of bone suture anchors placed in the iliac crest during transperitoneal laparoscopy for mesh fixation to repair a recurrent TLH. This technique may be particularly useful after previous failed attempts at open TLH repair.

  1. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF ANCHORING TO BE USED IN FORWARD-LOOKING MARKETING TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    SHKLYAR TATYANA L'VOVNA; PONYAVINA MARIA BORISOVNA

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the use of the tool of neuro-linguistic programming, such as anchoring, with examples of political and economic advertising. In various examples, the authors have demonstrated the overall impact on the psychology of the consumer. Examined the hypothesis that separating Economics and politics marketing specialists lose a lot. The authors propose to look at these two vectors through a single prism of the tools of marketing and psychology. Both in politics and in the econom...

  2. The Effect of the Trabecular Microstructure on the Pullout Strength of Suture Anchors

    OpenAIRE

    Yakacki, Christopher M.; Poukalova, Mariya; Guldberg, Robert E.; Lin, Angela; Saing, Minn; Gillogly, Scott; Gall, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the microstructural properties of trabecular bone affect suture anchor performance. Seven fresh-frozen humeri were tested for pullout strength with a 5 mm Arthrex Corkscrew in the greater tuberosity, lesser tuberosity, and humeral head. Micro-computed tomography analysis was performed in the three regions of interest directly adjacent to individual pullout experiments. The morphometric properties of bone mineral density (BMD), structural model index (SMI), trabecul...

  3. Pullout Strength of Suture Anchors: Effect of Mechanical Properties of Trabecular Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Poukalova, Mariya; Yakacki, Christopher M.; Guldberg, Robert E.; Lin, Angela; Saing, Minn; Gillogly, Scott D.; Gall, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between trabecular microstructure and elastic modulus, compressive strength, and suture anchor pullout strength. Twelve fresh-frozen humeri underwent mechanical testing followed by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Either compression testing of cylindrical bone samples or pullout testing using an Arthrex 5 mm Corkscrew was performed in synthetic sawbone or at specific locations in the humerus such as the greater tuberosity, lesser tuberosity, and humer...

  4. Subcutaneous anchor attachment increases retention of radio transmitters on Xantus' and marbled murrelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Whitworth, Darrell L.; Burkett, Esther E.

    1999-01-01

    We modified a subcutaneous anchor attachment and achieved transmitter reten- tion times that exceeded those reported previously for other attachments used on alcids. Traditional suture and epoxy attachment methods were used on Xantus' Murrelets in 1995 and 1996, while the modified attachment was used for Xantus' Murrelets in 1996 and 1997 and Marbled Murrelets in 1997. Modifications included use of an inhalant anesthetic, placing the anchor in a more cranial position on the back, application of marine epoxy, and place- ment of a single subcutaneous non-absorbable suture at the caudal end of the radio to hold the radio in place initially. We located 22 of 56 (39%) Xantus' Murrelets radio-marked using suture and epoxy during aerial surveys in 1995 and 1996. Of birds radio-marked using the subcutaneous anchor attachment, we located 92 of 113 (81%) Xantus' Murrelets marked in 1996 and 1997 and all 28 (100%) Marbled Murrelets marked in 1997 during aerial surveys. The maximum confirmed duration for the subcutaneous anchor transmitter attachment was 51 d for Xantus' Murrelets and 78 d for Marbled Murrelets versus 41 d for the suture and epoxy attachment used on Xantus' Murrelets. Recapture rates of radio-marked Xantus' Mur- relets were similar to recapture rates of unmarked Xantus' Murrelets. Our post-release ob- servations indicated negligible short-term physical effects from the attachment procedure, while telemetry data and examination of recaptured murrelets indicated no evidence of infection or other long-term physical effects. Breeding behavior of some murrelets was not disrupted; however, further evaluation of potential effects of this attachment technique on breeding and behavior is needed.

  5. Waterhammer Transient Simulation and Model Anchoring for the Robotic Lunar Lander Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, William B.; Trinh, Huu P.; Reynolds, Michael E.; Sharp, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Waterhammer transients have the potential to adversely impact propulsion system design if not properly addressed. Waterhammer can potentially lead to system plumbing, and component damage. Multi-thruster propulsion systems also develop constructive/destructive wave interference which becomes difficult to predict without detailed models. Therefore, it is important to sufficiently characterize propulsion system waterhammer in order to develop a robust design with minimal impact to other systems. A risk reduction activity was performed at Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a tool for estimating waterhammer through the use of anchored simulation for the Robotic Lunar Lander (RLL) propulsion system design. Testing was performed to simulate waterhammer surges due to rapid valve closure and consisted of twenty-two series of waterhammer tests, resulting in more than 300 valve actuations. These tests were performed using different valve actuation schemes and three system pressures. Data from the valve characterization tests were used to anchor the models that employed MSCSoftware.EASY5 v.2010 to model transient fluid phenomena by using transient forms of mass and energy conservation. The anchoring process was performed by comparing initial model results to experimental data and then iterating the model input to match the simulation results with the experimental data. The models provide good correlation with experimental results, supporting the use of EASY5 as a tool to model fluid transients and provide a baseline for future RLL system modeling. This paper addresses tasks performed during the waterhammer risk reduction activity for the RLL propulsion system. The problem of waterhammer simulation anchoring as applied to the RLL system is discussed with results from the corresponding experimental valve tests. Important factors for waterhammer mitigation are discussed along with potential design impacts to the RLL propulsion system.

  6. Liquid crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by plasma beam

    OpenAIRE

    Yaroshchuk, Oleg V.; Kiselev, Alexei D.; Kravchuk, Ruslan M.

    2007-01-01

    We observe a sequence of the anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals (NLC) sandwiched between the hydrophobic polyimide substrates treated with the plasma beam. There is a pronounced continuous transition from homeotropic to low tilted (nearly planar) alignment with the easy axis parallel to the incidence plane of the plasma beam (the zenithal transition) that takes place as the exposure dose increases. In NLC with positive dielectric anisotropy, a further increase in the exposure do...

  7. Identification of a lipid-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan in Schwann cells

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Schwann cells synthesize both hydrophobic and peripheral cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Previous analysis of the kinetics of radiolabeling suggested the peripheral HSPGs are derived from the membrane-anchored forms (Carey, D., and D. Evans. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1891-1897). Peripheral cell surface HSPGs were purified from phytic acid extracts of cultured neonatal rat sciatic nerve Schwann cells by anion exchange, gel filtration, and laminin-affinity chromatography. Appr...

  8. INFLATION TARGETING AND THE ANCHORING OF INFLATION EXPECTATIONS IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    Refet S. Gürkaynak; Levin, Andrew T.; Andrew N. Marder; Eric T. Swanson

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which long-run inflation expectations are well anchored in three Western Hemisphere countries - Canada, Chile, and the United States - using a high-frequency event-study analysis. Specifically, we use daily data on far-ahead forward inflation compensation - the difference between forward rates on nominal and inflation-indexed bonds - as an indicator of financial market perceptions of inflation risk and the expected level of inflation at long horizons. For the Unit...

  9. Is hexamerin receptor a GPI-anchored protein in Achaea janata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhusudhan Budatha; Thuirei Jacob Ningshen; Aparna Dutta-Gupta

    2011-08-01

    The process of uptake of hexamerins during metamorphosis from insect haemolymph by fat body cells is reminiscent of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Previously, we had identified a hexamerin-binding protein (HBP) and reported for the first time that uptake of hexamerins is dependent on the phosphorylation of HBP partly by a tyrosine kinase, which is, in turn, activated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). However, the exact nature of HBP and the mechanism of interaction are still unknown. Here we report the possibility of HBP being a GPI-anchored protein in the fat body of Achaea janata and its role in the tyrosine-kinase-mediated phosphorylation signalling. Digestion of fat body membrane preparation with bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), and the subsequent recognition by antibodies specific for the cross-reacting determinant (CRD), revealed that HBP is glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and, further, that the hexamerin binding to HBP was inhibited after digestion. Hexamerin overlay assay (HOA) of co-immunoprecipitated in vitro phosphorylated HBP showed exclusive binding to ∼120 kDa protein. Lectin-binding analysis of hexamerins revealed the presence of -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and -acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), whereas HBP showed the presence of GalNac alone. Mild chemical deglycosylation studies and binding interaction in the presence of sugars revealed that glycan moieties are possibly not involved in the interaction between HBP and hexamerins. Taken together, these results suggest that HBP may be a GPI-anchored protein, and interaction and activation of HBP is through lipid-linked non-receptor src tyrosine kinases. However, additional studies are needed to prove that HBP is a GPI-anchored protein.

  10. Interaction of Rupture Zones of Adjacent Anchor Plates in an Analogical Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Abbad, H.; M. Meghachou; C. Dekar; S. M. Daoud

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study which required the design and implementation of a model containing plastic granules powder to simulate a natural environment, is presented. The latter is subjected to the removal of "anchor plates." For each test, several digital photographs are taken to materialize different deformed configurations during the pullout process. These photos processed in couples by the 7D software (image correlation) giving the evolution of the displacement field and plane s...

  11. How Buyers Evaluate Product Bundles: A Model of Anchoring and Adjustment.

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Manjit S

    1994-01-01

    Bundling, the joint offering of two or more items, is a common selling strategy, yet little research has been conducted on buyers' evaluation of bundle offers. We developed and tested a model of bundle evaluation in which the buyers anchored their evaluation on the item perceived as most important and then made adjustments on the basis of their evaluations of the remaining bundle items. The results of two computerized laboratory experiments suggested that people tend to examine bundle items i...

  12. The Solar Vortex: Electric Power Generation using Anchored, Buoyancy-Induced Columnar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Naturally-occurring, buoyancy-driven columnar vortices (``dust devils'') that are driven by the instability of thermally stratified air layers and sustained by the entrainment of ground- heated air, occur spontaneously in the natural environment with core diameters of 1-50 m and heights up to 1 km. These vortices convert low-grade waste heat in the air layer overlying the warm surface into a solar-induced wind with significant kinetic energy. Unlike dust devil vortices that are typically free to wander laterally, the Solar Vortex (SoV) is deliberately triggered and anchored within a cylindrical domain bounded by an azimuthal array of stationary ground-mounted vertical vanes and sustained by continuous entrainment of the ground-heated air through these vanes. The mechanical energy of the anchored vortex is exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. This simple, low-cost electric power generating unit is competitive in cost, intermittency, and capacity factor with traditional solar power technologies. The considerable kinetic energy of the vortex column cannot be explained by buoyancy alone, and the fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex were investigated experimentally and numerically with specific emphasis on flow manipulation for increasing the available kinetic energy and therefore the generated power. These investigations have also considered the dependence of the vortex scaling and strength on the thermal resources and on the flow enclosure in the laboratory and in the natural environment. Preliminary outdoor tests of a two-meter scale prototype successfully demonstrated the ability to engender and anchor a columnar vortex using only solar radiation and couple the flow to a vertical axis wind turbine. A kilowatt-scale outer door prototype will be tested during the summer of 2015.

  13. A glycolipid-anchored prion protein is endocytosed via clathrin-coated pits

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a glycolipid-anchored, cell surface protein of unknown function, a posttranslationally modified isoform of which PrPSc is involved in the pathogenesis of Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease, scrapie, and other spongiform encephalopathies. We have shown previously that chPrP, a chicken homologue of mammalian PrPC, constitutively cycles between the cell surface and an endocytic compartment, with a transit time of approximately 60 min in cultured neuroblastoma cells. ...

  14. Hearing rehabilitation in Treacher Collins Syndrome with bone anchored hearing aid

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernando Polanski; Anna Clara Plawiak; Angela Ribas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discom...

  15. High-resolution structure of TBP with TAF1 reveals anchoring patterns in transcriptional regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandapadamanaban, Madhanagopal; Andresen, Cecilia; Helander, Sara; Ohyama, Yoshifumi; Siponen, Marina I.; Lundström, Patrik; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Moche, Martin; Sunnerhagen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The general transcription factor TFIID provides a regulatory platform for transcription initiation. Here we present the crystal structure (1.97 Å) and NMR analysis of yeast TAF1 N-terminal domains TAND1 and TAND2 when bound to yeast TBP, together with mutational data. The yTAF1-TAND1, which in itself acts as a transcriptional activator, binds into the DNA-binding TBP concave surface by presenting similar anchor residues to TBP as E. coli Mot1 but from a distinct structural scaffold. Furthermore, we show how yTAF1-TAND2 employs an aromatic and acidic anchoring pattern to bind a conserved yTBP surface groove traversing the basic helix region, and we find highly similar TBP-binding motifs also presented by the structurally distinct TFIIA, Mot1 and Brf1 proteins. Our identification of these anchoring patterns, which can be easily disrupted or enhanced, provides compelling insight into the competitive multiprotein TBP interplay critical to transcriptional regulation. PMID:23851461

  16. Bidimensional distortion in ferroelectric liquid crystals with strong anchoring in bookshelf geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ponti; M Becchi; A Strigazzi; S Torgova

    2003-08-01

    In the last decade, it has been experimentally found that in certain conditions a periodic domain pattern arises in ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC) in bookshelf geometry. Such a periodic texture appears after switching-off an external electric field, even in strong anchoring conditions. It has a static character and is bidimensional, being dependent on directions normal to both the smectic planes and the cell plates. Here a new model explaining this phenomenon is proposed, valid in the case of FLC with strong anchoring. The model is based on the coupling between the spontaneous polarization field in the first semi-period of its modulation along the cell plates and the same field in the second semi-period. This coupling competes with the FLC medium elasticity and is trapped by the anchoring. According to our model, in the ferroelectric state the biperiodic texture is favored by increasing the values of spontaneous polarization. The critical value of the spontaneous polarization for which the undeformed state becomes unstable is found. It is shown to be proportional to the square root of the ratio between the FLC elastic constant and the cell thickness. Moreover, it is inversely proportional to the sinus of the pre-tilt angle with respect to the cell walls.

  17. Study on high rock slop anchoring technique of large rock engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hui-chao; ZHU Hong-bing

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring data from the Three Gorges Project show that the resulted tensile stresses are mainly distributed within the front section of the internal anchoring section which is often measuring 2.5 m in length. The composition of two early strength cement grout mixes marked as R3350 and R7350 was successfully developed to accelerate anchoring facilities installation and to reduce its intervention with the shiplock construction. It was measured that the ground water pH value in the sidewall slopes of the permanent navigation shiplock during the construction period was close to 8. Based on those characteristics it is concluded that the groundwater is weakly corrosive to steel material and will appear as non-corrosive to the steel wire strands embedded in the cement grout set. The advanced model of 3 MN unbonded anchor cables with double anti-corrosion protection(including the corrugated pipe) is developed to meet the needs of stabilizing the high sidewall rock slopes of the permanent navigation shiplock on the Three Gorges Project.

  18. Stresses induced by post-tensioned anchor in jointed rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan Showkati; Parviz Maarefvand; Hossein Hassani

    2015-01-01

    A new analytical study on stresses around a post-tensioned anchor in rocks with two perpendicular joint sets is presented. The assumptions of orthotropic elastic rock with plane strain conditions are made in derivation of the formulations. A tri-linear bond-slip constitutive law is used for modeling the tendon-grout interface behavior and debonding of this interface. The bearing plate width is also considered in the analysis. The obtained solutions are in the integral forms and numerical techniques that have been used for evaluation. In the illustrative example given, the major principal stress is compressive in the anchor free zone and compressive stress concentrations of 815 kPa and 727 kPa (for the anchor load of 300 kN) are observed under the bearing plate and the bond length proximal end, respectively. However, large values of tensile stresses with the maximum of−434 kPa are formed at the bond length distal end. The results obtained using the proposed solution are compared very those of numerical method (FEM).

  19. Increasing pull-out capacity of granular pile anchors in expansive soils using base geosynthetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phani Kumar, B.R.; Ramachandra Rao, N. [JNTU College of Engineering, Kakinada (India)

    2000-08-04

    Expansive soils react to changes in moisture regimes by swelling and shrinking. As a result civil engineering structures such as foundations, retaining walls, pavements, canal beds and linings built on them can suffer damage. Granular pile anchors are new and effective ways to resist the uplift pressure exerted on the foundation by swelling expansive soil. The foundation of the anchors is cemented at the bottom of a granular pile to a plate using a steel rod which renders the granular pile tension-resistant and allows it to resist the uplift force. This resistance depends mostly on the shear parameters of the pile-soil interface and the lateral swelling pressure of the soil. Placing a base geosynthetic above the anchor can further increase the resistance to uplift. The increase in resistance results from the friction between the geosynthetic and the confining media when the uplift load acts on the pile and the geosynthetic moves along with the pile. The effects of these parameters on pull-out load, rate of heave, and relative ground movement near the pile surface were discussed. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 14 figs.

  20. Sliding planar anchoring and viscous surface torque in a cholesteric liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Patrick; Dequidt, Alain; Żywociński, Andrzej

    2008-06-01

    We propose a surface treatment allowing one to obtain a sliding planar anchoring of nematic (or cholesteric) liquid crystals. It consists of depositing a thin layer of the polymercaptan hardener of an epoxy resin on an isotropic substrate (bare or ITO-coated glass plates). Microscopic observations of defect annihilations and capacitance measurements show that the molecules align parallel to the surface and slide viscously on it when they change orientation, which implies a zero (or extremely small) azimuthal anchoring energy. In contrast, the zenithal anchoring energy Wθ is found to be larger than 3×10-5J/m2 . We also measured the liquid crystal rotational surface viscosity γS by a thermo-optical method using the large temperature variation of the pitch of a compensated cholesteric mixture. We found that the sliding length γS/γ1 (where γ1 is the bulk rotational viscosity) is very large in comparison with the length of a liquid crystal molecule. This result is explained by a simple model which takes into account the diffusion of the liquid crystal within the polymer layer.

  1. Electrical properties and mechanical stability of anchoring groups for single-molecule electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Frisenda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental investigation of transport through single molecules, trapped between two gold nano-electrodes fabricated with the mechanically controlled break junction (MCBJ technique. The four molecules studied share the same core structure, namely oligo(phenylene ethynylene (OPE3, while having different aurophilic anchoring groups: thiol (SAc, methyl sulfide (SMe, pyridyl (Py and amine (NH2. The focus of this paper is on the combined characterization of the electrical and mechanical properties determined by the anchoring groups. From conductance histograms we find that thiol anchored molecules provide the highest conductance; a single-level model fit to current–voltage characteristics suggests that SAc groups exhibit a higher electronic coupling to the electrodes, together with better level alignment than the other three groups. An analysis of the mechanical stability, recording the lifetime in a self-breaking method, shows that Py and SAc yield the most stable junctions while SMe form short-lived junctions. Density functional theory combined with non-equlibrium Green’s function calculations help in elucidating the experimental findings.

  2. Astral microtubule pivoting promotes their search for cortical anchor sites during mitosis in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Baumgärtner

    Full Text Available Positioning of the mitotic spindle is crucial for proper cell division. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two mechanisms contribute to spindle positioning. In the Kar9 pathway, astral microtubules emanating from the daughter-bound spindle pole body interact via the linker protein Kar9 with the myosin Myo2, which moves the microtubule along the actin cables towards the neck. In the dynein pathway, astral microtubules off-load dynein onto the cortical anchor protein Num1, which is followed by dynein pulling on the spindle. Yet, the mechanism by which microtubules target cortical anchor sites is unknown. Here we quantify the pivoting motion of astral microtubules around the spindle pole bodies, which occurs during spindle translocation towards the neck and through the neck. We show that this pivoting is largely driven by the Kar9 pathway. The microtubules emanating from the daughter-bound spindle pole body pivot faster than those at the mother-bound spindle pole body. The Kar9 pathway reduces the time needed for an astral microtubule inside the daughter cell to start pulling on the spindle. Thus, we propose a new role for microtubule pivoting: By pivoting around the spindle pole body, microtubules explore the space laterally, which helps them search for cortical anchor sites in the context of spindle positioning in budding yeast.

  3. Numerical simulation of the effect of coupling support of bolt-mesh-anchor in deep tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ming; CAI Feng; YANG Jun; CAO Wu-fu

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical effects of bolt-mesh-anchor coupling support in deep tunnels were studied by using a numerical method, based on deep tunnel coupling supporting techniques and non-linear deformation mechanical theory of rock mass at great depths. It is shown that the potential of a rigid bolt support can be efficiently activated through the coupling effect between a bolt-net support and the surrounding rock. It is found that the accumulated plastic energy in the surrounding rock can be sufficiently transformed by the coupling effect of a bolt-mesh-tray support. The strength of the surrounding rock mass can be mobilized to control the deformation of the surrounding rock by a pre-stress and time-space effect of the anchor support. The high stress transformation effect can be realized by the mechanical coupling effect of the bolt-mesh-anchor support, whereby the force of the support and deformation of the surrounding rock tends to become uniform, leading to a sustained stability of the tunnel.

  4. Operative treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation:a new technique with suture anchors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingwei; Li Min; He Xianfeng; Yu Yihui; Zhu Limei

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate clinical outcome of suture anchors in strengthening both acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments in the surgical treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation.Methods:Twenty-eight patients with acute traumatic Rockwood Ⅲ,Ⅳ and Ⅴ dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint surgically treated at our institute between October 2010 and January 2012 were recruited.All patients underwent open reduction combined with suture anchors.Function was evaluated using the ConstantMurley shoulder score.Clinical and radiographic shoulder ratings were evaluated using Taft criteria at 3,6 and 12 months.Results:Two cases with fixation loosening were not included in final statistical analysis.Other patients obtained full joint reposition on immediate postoperative radiographs.Follow-up was performed with an average of 15.6 months (range,12-19).After early range of motion exercises,96.2% of the patients (25/26) could abduct and elevate their shoulders more than 90 degrees within postoperative 3 months.There was no infection.Average Constant-Murley score was 96.3 points (range,94-100)and mean Taft shoulder rating was 10.7 points (range,8-12) at 12 months.Conclusion:The suture anchor is a relatively simple technique and can avoid screw removal which is helpful in reconstructing both acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments in acute traumatic acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

  5. Sialic Acid within the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Targets the Cellular Prion Protein to Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; McHale-Owen, Harriet; Williams, Alun

    2016-08-12

    Although the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is concentrated at synapses, the factors that target PrP(C) to synapses are not understood. Here we demonstrate that exogenous PrP(C) was rapidly targeted to synapses in recipient neurons derived from Prnp knock-out((0/0)) mice. The targeting of PrP(C) to synapses was dependent upon both neuronal cholesterol concentrations and the lipid and glycan composition of its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Thus, the removal of either an acyl chain or sialic acid from the GPI anchor reduced the targeting of PrP(C) to synapses. Isolated GPIs (derived from PrP(C)) were also targeted to synapses, as was IgG conjugated to these GPIs. The removal of sialic acid from GPIs prevented the targeting of either the isolated GPIs or the IgG-GPI conjugate to synapses. Competition studies showed that pretreatment with sialylated GPIs prevented the targeting of PrP(C) to synapses. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the sialylated GPI anchor attached to PrP(C) acts as a synapse homing signal. PMID:27325697

  6. Calculation method on shape finding of self-anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HAN; Zhengqing CHEN; Shidong LUO; Shankui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on the spatial model, a reliable and accurate calculation method on the shape finding of self anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables was studiedin this paper. On the principle that the shape of the main cables between hangers is catenary, the iteration method of calculating the shapes of the spatial main cables under the load of hanger forces was deduced. The reasonable position of the saddle was determined according to the shape and the theoretical joint point of the main cables. The shapes of the main cables at completed cable stage werecalculated based on the unchanging principle of the zero-stress lengths of the main cables. By using a numerical method combining with the finite element method, one self-anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables was analyzed. The zero-stress length of the main cables, the position of the saddle, and the pre-offsetting of the saddle of the self-anchored suspension bridge were given. The reasonable shapes of the main cables at bridge completion stage and completed cable stage were presented. The results show that the shape-finding calculation method is effective and reliable.

  7. Role of suture anchors in management of fractures of inferior pole of patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The traditional recommendation for displaced comminuted inferior pole fractures is excision of the comminuted pole followed by reattachment of the patellar tendon with transosseous suture. To the best of our knowledge there has been no previous published study mentioning the use of suture anchors for fracture inferior pole of patella. We present a retrospective analysis of five cases of patients doing well at final follow-up of two years. Materials and Methods: Five patients treated at our institute using suture anchors for repair of comminuted inferior pole fractures of patella between January 2007 to March 2007. (range 28 years-55 years. There were three males and two females. Results: The average follow-up was 25 months (range 24 months-26 months. The patients were evaluated for range of motion, strength, patellofemoral scores and any alteration of patellar height. The outcome of the procedure was assessed with use of the patellofemoral scoring system of Noyes et al, 5 as adapted by Saltzman et al. 6 The final patellofemoral score (maximum 100 points was 94.6 (range 93-96. Conclusion: We believe it is a novel extended indication of the use of suture anchors and should be in the armament of every trauma surgeon.

  8. Gastrotomy closure with a new tissue anchoring device: A porcine survival study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos Guarner-Argente; Henry Córdova; Graciela Martínez-Pallí; Ricard Navarro-Ripoll; Antonio Rodríguez-d'Jesús; Cristina Rodríguez de Miguel; Mireia Beltrán; Gloria Fernández-Esparrach

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility and efficacy of a new tissue anchoring device in a porcine survival model.METHODS: Gastrotomies were performed using a needle-knife and balloon dilator in 10 female Yorkshire pigs weighing 30-35 kg. Gastric closure was attempted usinga new tissue anchoring device. The tightness of the closure was confirmed by means of air insufflation and the ability to maintain gastric distension with stability in peritoneal pressure measured with a Veress needle. All animals were monitored daily for signs of peritonitis and sepsis over 14 d. During necropsy, the peritoneal cavity and the gastric access site were examined.RESULTS: Transgastric access, closure and 14 d survival was achieved in all pigs. The mean closure timewas 18.1 ± 19.2 min and a mean of 2.1 ± 1 devices were used. Supplementary clips were necessary in 2 cases. The closure time was progressively reduced(24.8 ± 13.9 min in the first 5 pigs vs 11.4 ± 5.9 min in the last 5, P = NS). At necropsy, the gastric access site was correctly closed in all cases with all brace-bars present. One device was misplaced in the mesocolon.Minimal adhesions were observed in 3 pigs and signs of mild peritonitis and adhesions in one.CONCLUSIONS: The use of this new tissue anchoring device in porcine stomachs is feasible, reproducible and effective and requires a short learning curve.

  9. Tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Zishun; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-03-01

    Cell adhesion plays a crucial role in many biological processes of cells, e.g., immune responses, tissue morphogenesis, and stem cell differentiation. An essential problem in the molecular mechanism of cell adhesion is to characterize the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands under different physiological conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented to study the binding affinity between a large number of anchored receptors and ligands under both tensile and compressive stresses, and corroborated by demonstrating excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the binding affinity becomes lower as the magnitude of the applied stress increases, and drops to zero at a critical tensile or compressive stress. Interestingly, the critical compressive stress is found to be substantially smaller than the critical tensile stress for relatively long and flexible receptor-ligand complexes. This counterintuitive finding is explained by using the Euler instability theory of slender columns under compression. The tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of anchored receptors and ligands depends subtly on the competition between the breaking and instability of their complexes. This study helps in understanding the role of mechanical forces in cell adhesion mediated by specific binding molecules.

  10. Blue-light-induced rapid chloroplast de-anchoring in Vallisneria epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuuki; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Harada, Akiko; Shimazaki, Ken-Ichiro; Takagi, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    In the outer periclinal cytoplasm of leaf epidermal cells of an aquatic angiosperm Vallisneria, blue light induces "chloroplast de-anchoring", a rapid decline in the resistance of chloroplasts against centrifugal force. Chloroplast de-anchoring is known induced within 1 min of irradiation with high-fluence-rate blue light specifically, preceding the commencement of chloroplasts migration toward the anticlinal cytoplasm. However, its regulatory mechanism has remained elusive, although pharmacological analysis suggested that a calcium release from intracellular calcium stores is necessary for the response. In search of the responsible photoreceptors, immunoblotting analysis using antibodies against phototropins demonstrated that cross-reactive polypeptides of 120-kDa exist in the plasma-membrane fraction prepared from the leaves. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that 120-kDa polypeptides were phosphorylated by exposure to blue light in a fluence-dependent manner. The blue-light-induced phosphorylation activity was sensitive to a Ser/Thr kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, and unusually was retained at a high level for a long time in darkness. Furthermore, phototropin gene homologs (Vallisneria PHOTOTROPIN1 and PHOTOTROPIN2) expressed in leaves were isolated. We propose that calcium-regulated chloroplast de-anchoring, possibly mediated by phototropins, is an initial process of the blue-light-induced avoidance response of chloroplasts in Vallisneria. PMID:25231366

  11. Anchor-wire technique for multiple plastic biliary stents to prevent stent dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsuyoshi Hamada; Kazuhiko Koike; Yousuke Nakai; Saburo Matsubara; Hiroyuki Isayama; Akiko Narita; Kazuhiro Watanabe; Yukihiro Koike; Shigeo Matsukawa; Tateo Kawase

    2011-01-01

    In endoscopic placement of multiple plastic biliary stents (PBSs), we sometimes experience proximal dislocation of the first PBS at the time of subsequent PBS insertion. We describe the case of a 79-year-old male with obstructive jaundice caused by cholangiocarcinoma who needed to receive multiple PBS placements for management of cholangitis. Although proximal dislocation of the first PBS was observed, we prevented the dislocation via our technique of using guidewire inserted from the distal end of the first PBS to the side hole as the anchor-wire. We could complete this technique only by inserting guidewire through the side hole of the first PBS during the process of releasing the first PBS and pulling out the guidewire and the inner sheath. It did not matter whether the anchor-wire went towards the third portion of the duodenum or the duodenal bulb. Here we introduce this "anchor-wire technique", which is useful for the prevention of PBS proximal dislocation in placing multiple PBSs.

  12. High-throughput sorting of the highest producing cell via a transiently protein-anchored system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiang Chuang

    Full Text Available Developing a high-throughput method for the effecient selection of the highest producing cell is very important for the production of recombinant protein drugs. Here, we developed a novel transiently protein-anchored system coupled with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS for the efficient selection of the highest producing cell. A furin cleavage peptide (RAKR was used to join a human anti-epithelial growth factor antibody (αEGFR Ab and the extracellular-transmembrane-cytosolic domains of the mouse B7-1 antigen (B7. The furin inhibitor can transiently switch secreted αEGFR Ab into a membrane-anchored form. After cell sorting, the level of membrane αEGFR Ab-RAKR-B7 is proportional to the amount of secreted αEGFR Ab in the medium. We further selected 23 αEGFR Ab expressing cells and demonstrated a high correlation (R2 = 0.9165 between the secretion level and surface expression levels of αEGFR Ab. These results suggested that the novel transiently protein-anchored system can easily and efficiently select the highest producing cells, reducing the cost for the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  13. Device Design and Test of Fatigue Behaviour of Expansion Anchor Subjected to Tensile Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study on the fatigue behaviour of expansion anchor (M16, grade 8.8 for overhead contact system in electrification railways, a set of safe, practical loading device is designed and a fatigue test campaign was carried out at structural laboratory of China Academy of Building Research on expansion anchor embedded in concrete block. The mobile frame of the loading device was designed well by finite-element simulation. According to some fatigue performance test of expansion anchor with different size and form, the device have been assessed experimentally its dependability. The results were found that no fatigue damage phenomenon occurred in all specimens after 2×106 cycles tensile fatigue test in this specific series. It shows that in the condition of medium level or slightly lower maximum stress limit and nominal stress range, expansion bolt has good fatigue resistance. The biggest relative displacement and the residual relative displacement after test (Δδ = δ2-δ1 was also strongly lower than the symbol of the fatigue test failure index of this specific series (0.5mm in the high cycle fatigue regime. The ultimate tension failures mode after fatigue tests in all tested samples take place in the concrete anchorage zone. The reduction range of the ultimate tensile strength properties of the anchorage system was not obvious, and the concrete was seen to be the weakest link of the system.

  14. Anchoring of Expectations: The Role of Credible Targets in a Game Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Herzog

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides new evidence on the formation and anchoring of inflation expectations. I conduct a game experiment and analyze the adjustment as well as the impact of credible targets on expectations. In addition, I evaluate the idiosyncratic determinants on the formation of expectations. The analysis reveals six results: First, I find evidence that long-term inflation expectations are firmly anchored to a credible target. Second, a temporary deviation due to unexpected monetary policy might trigger a decline in credibility, and third a de-anchoring of expectations due to uncertainty. Fourth, I find that people change their expectations little if a credible target exists. Fifth, expectations exhibit a large degree of time-variance only in environments without a target. Sixth, the dynamic adjustment to an ‘incomplete’ equilibrium, which is theoretically unstable, is nevertheless rapid and persistent in case of credible targets. All in all, I demonstrate a unique game setup with contributions to both experimental and monetary economics.

  15. Anchor Dragging Analysis of Rock-Berm Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinho Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents dynamic responses of rock-berm structural system under anchor dragging and accordingly provides the characteristics of the stresses and displacements obtained. For the purpose, first, a rock-berm was modeled by the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics method and piecewise Drucker-Prager material model by facilitating the associated software package—ANSYS-AUTODYN. Second, 2-ton stockless anchor was modeled as a rigid body and eventually dragging external force was obtained. Then, the dragging velocity (1 and 2 m/s was considered as a parameter to investigate the effect of its variation on the responses. Finally, the dragging tensile forces of the anchor cable were obtained and compared according to the dragging velocities. It is shown that the four-layer rock-berm gives the safety margin to the submarine power cable according to the unaffected gauge points near the cable. This safety is accomplished by the four layers (related to rock-berm height and the number of rock particles at each layer (related to rock-berm widths.

  16. Theoretical analysis and experimental study on Anchoring Characters of double-anchored self-screwing bolt%双锚固自旋锚杆抗拔力理论分析与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢龙龙

    2015-01-01

    This paper put forward a convenient calculation formula of nude anchor capacity. A simpliifed model was used to calculate the anchor force of the double-anchored self-screwing bolt. The initial anchor-hold of double-anchored self-screwing bolt be tested through the laboratory test and ifeld test.Besides,the convenient calculation formula and the feasibility to utilizing the initial anchor-hold to achieveing fast construction has been veriifed.%该文对双锚固自旋锚杆的破坏模型进行简化,分析其自旋段裸锚力的组成,对裸锚力理论公式进行推导,并提出一种裸锚力简便计算公式;通过室内和现场试验,测试了双锚固自旋锚杆的裸锚力大小,并验证了裸锚力计算公式的正确性与利用其初锚力实现锚杆快速安装与施工的可行性。

  17. Surgical repair of central slip avulsion injuries with Mitek bone anchor--retrospective analysis of a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our technique of central slip repair using the Mitek bone anchor and to evaluate the treatment outcome. Eight digits in eight patients were reconstructed using the bone anchor: three little fingers, two middle fingers, two index fingers and one ring finger. There were two immediate and six delayed repairs (range from one day to eight months). Four patients had pre-operative intensive splinting and physiotherapy to restore passive extension of the proximal interphalangeal joint prior to central slip reconstruction. All patients have made good progress since surgery. No patient requires a second procedure and none of the bone anchors have dislodged or loosened. We conclude that the Mitek bone anchor is a reliable technique to achieve soft tissue to bone fixation in central slip avulsion injuries. We recommend that this technique be considered as a treatment option for patients requiring surgical repair.

  18. Stone anchors (composite type) from the Saurshtra coast, India: An indicator of ancient ports and sea routes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Marine archaeological investigations on the Saurashtra coast specially at Dwarka, Bet Dwarka, Armada and Somnath brought to light a large number of stone anchors of various type which include composite, grapnel and ring-stone types. The present...

  19. Applied on bolting-cable anchor support of full-seam roadway in weaker thick coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆彪; 张生华; 郭励生

    2003-01-01

    The designing method and the supporting mechanism of both bolt and small cable anchor for full-seam roadway in the weaker thick coal seam are systematically analyzed, and the construction technology and the supporting results are briefly summarized.

  20. Suppression of single-molecule conductance fluctuations using extended anchor groups on graphene and carbon-nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péterfalvi, Csaba G.; Lambert, Colin J.

    2012-08-01

    Devices formed from single molecules attached to noble-metal electrodes exhibit large conductance fluctuations, which inhibit their development as reproducible functional units. We demonstrate that single molecules with planar anchor groups attached to carbon-based electrodes are more resilient to atomic-scale variation in the contacts and exhibit significantly lower conductance fluctuations. We examine the conductance of a 2,6-dibenzylamino core-substituted naphthalenediimide chromophore attached to carbon electrodes by either phenanthrene anchors or more extended anchor groups, which include oligophenylene ethynylene spacers. We demonstrate that for the more spatially extended anchor groups conductance fluctuations are significantly reduced. The current-voltage characteristic arising from long-range tunneling is found to be strongly nonlinear with pronounced conductance suppression below a threshold voltage of approximately 2.5 V.

  1. Development of mooring-anchor program in public domain for coupling with floater program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, MooHyun [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the development of offshore anchor data sets which are intended to be used to develop a database that allows preliminary selection and sizing of anchors for the conceptual design of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs). The study is part of a project entitled “Development of Mooring-Anchor Program in Public Domain for Coupling with Floater Program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)”, under the direction of Dr. Moo-Hyun Kim at the Texas A&M University and with the sponsorship from the US Department of Energy (Contract No. DE-EE0005479, CFDA # 81.087 for DE-FOA-0000415, Topic Area 1.3: Subsurface Mooring and Anchoring Dynamics Models).

  2. Listeria monocytogenes phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C has low activity on glycosyl-PI-anchored proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, A J; Perussia, B; Goldfine, H

    1993-01-01

    The ability of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Listeria monocytogenes to hydrolyze glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins was compared with the ability of the PI-PLC from Bacillus thuringiensis to hydrolyze such proteins. The L. monocytogenes enzyme produced no detectable release of acetylcholinesterase from bovine, sheep, and human erythrocytes. The cleavage of the GPI anchors of alkaline phosphatase from rat and rabbit kidney slices wa...

  3. Spatial Filtering Versus Anchoring Accounts of Brightness/Lightness Perception in Staircase and Simultaneous Brightness/Lightness Contrast Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeslee, Barbara; Reetz, Daniel; McCourt, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Cataliotti and Gilchrist (1995) reported that, consistent with anchoring theory, the lightness of a black step in a reflectance staircase was not altered by moving a white step from a remote to an adjacent location. Recently, Economou, Zdravkovic and Gilchrist (2007) reported data supporting three additional predictions of the anchoring model (Gilchrist et al., 1999): 1) equiluminant incremental targets in staircase simultaneous lightness contrast stimuli appeared equally light; 2) the simult...

  4. Unravelling the effect of anchoring groups on the ground and excited state properties of pyrene using computational and spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiravan, Arunkumar; Panneerselvam, Murugesan; Sundaravel, Karuppasamy; Pavithra, Nagaraj; Srinivasan, Venkatesan; Anandan, Sambandam; Jaccob, Madhavan

    2016-05-21

    Anchoring groups play an important role in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). In order to acquire a suitable anchoring group for DSCs, a deeper understanding of the effect of anchoring groups on the ground and excited state properties of the dye is significant. In this context, various anchoring group connected pyrene derivatives are successfully synthesized and well characterized by using (1)H, (13)C-NMR, FT-IR and EI-MS spectrometry. The anchoring groups employed are carboxylic acid, malonic acid, acrylic acid, malononitrile, cyanoacrylic acid, rhodanine and rhodanine-3-acetic acid. The optimized geometries, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, light harvesting efficiency (LHE) and electronic absorption spectra of these dyes are studied by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that pyrene connected with anchoring groups with weak electron pulling strength (PC, PAC and PMC) has a larger HOMO-LUMO energy gap, whereas that connected with anchoring groups with strong electron pulling strength (PCC, PMN, PR and PRA) has a reduced HOMO-LUMO energy gap. These molecules with a reduced energy gap are primarily preferred for DSC applications. Moreover, P, PC, PAC and PMC molecules undergo π→π* transition, whereas PCC, PMN, PR and PRA molecules show significant charge transfer along with π→π* transition. UV-visible absorption spectral studies on these dyes reveal that connecting various anchoring groups with different electron pulling abilities enables the pyrene chromophore to absorb in the longer wavelength region. Notably, an efficient bathochromic shift is observed for PCC, PMN, PR and PRA molecules in both electronic absorption and fluorescence spectral measurements, which suggests that the excitation is delocalized throughout the entire π-system of the molecules. Both theoretical and spectral studies reveal that dyes with an ICT character (PCC, PMN, PR and PRA) are suitable for dye sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:27121202

  5. ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO3-LDH particles as fluorescent probe for sensing of folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Dan; Liu, Yanhuan; Li, Lei

    2016-09-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for detecting folic acid (FA) in aqueous media has been developed based on 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (ANTS) anchored to the surface of Zn-Al-CO3-layered double hydroxides (LDH) particles. The nanosensor showed high fluorescence intensity and good photostability due to a strong coordination interaction between surface Zn2+ ions of Zn-Al-CO3-LDH and N atoms of ANTS, which were verified by result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ANTS-anchored on the surface of Zn-Al-CO3-LDH restricted the intra-molecular rotation leading to ANTS-anchored J-type aggregation emission enhancement. ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO3-LDH particles exhibited highly sensitive and selective response to FA over other common metal ions and saccharides present in biological fluids. The proposed mechanism was that oxygen atoms of -SO3 groups in ANTS-anchored on the surface of Zn-Al-CO3-LDH were easily collided by FA molecules to form potential hydrogen bonds between ANTS-anchored and FA molecules, which could effectively quench the ANTS-anchored fluorescence. Under the simulated physiological conditions (pH of 7.4), the fluorescence quenching was fitted to Stern-Volmer equation with a linear response in the concentration range of 1 μM to 200 μM with a limit of detection of 0.1 μM. The results indicate that ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO3-LDH particles can afford a very sensitive system for the sensing FA in aqueous solution.

  6. Distinct patterns of spread of prion infection in brains of mice expressing anchorless or anchored forms of prion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, Alejandra; Race, Brent; Phillips, Katie; Striebel, James; Kurtz, Nancy; Chesebro, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background In humans and animals, prion protein (PrP) is usually expressed as a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, but anchorless PrP may be pathogenic in humans with certain familial prion diseases. Anchored PrP expressed on neurons mediates spread of prions along axons in the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, the mechanism of prion spread in individuals expressing anchorless PrP is poorly understood. Here we studied prion spread within brain of mice ex...

  7. Instability of a Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystal Formed by Homeotropic Anchoring on Surface Grooves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Dong; XUAN Li

    2011-01-01

    A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition.Employing some approximations for the elastic constants,we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves,with a period of π/2.This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable.Our theoretical study explains why the homeotropic alignment method developed for uniaxial liquid crystals loses efficacy for biaxial nematics.In most liquid crystal devices,the liquid crystals are sandwiched between two substrates coated with alignment layers.In the absence of externally applied fields,the orientation of the liquid crystal in the cell is determined by the anchoring condition of the alignment layer.[1-3] One usually distinguishes three main types of liquid crystalline director alignment near solid walls:homeotropic,homogeneous (or planar) and tilted orientations.Here we study the first of these and consider the biaxial nematic phase,which was observed in lyotropic systems as early as 1980[4] and has been confirmed by deuterium NMR spectroscopy.%A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition. Employing some approximations for the elastic constants, we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves, with a period of π/2. This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable. Our

  8. Thermodynamic modelling to test the potential for anchor ice growth in post-construction conditions on the Nelson River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Malenchak, J. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Groeneveld, J. [Hatch Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Manitoba Hydro operates 3 hydroelectric generating stations in the lower reach of the Nelson River in northern Manitoba, with a total installed capacity of 3,500 MW. The station located furthest downstream is the Limestone Generating Station, but the proposed Conawapa Generating Station nearby would add an additional installed capacity of 1485 MW. These locations along the river are susceptible to the growth of anchor ice in the winter that could result in high tailwater levels that impact generation capacity. Therefore, in an effort to determine the potential for anchor ice to form once the new generating station is constructed and operational, the fluid flow regime was modelled using the CRISSP2D two-dimensional numerical model to simulate complex river ice-freeze-up and break-up processes. The purpose was not to predict the exact date of freeze-up, but to predict the potential for anchor ice to form across the Sundance Rapids under post-Conawapa thermal ice regime under winter conditions. The model showed that during the open water periods, anchor ice was initiated before the ice cover formed. However, the growth of the anchor ice stopped once the ice cover formed, and the existing anchor ice began to decay quickly. None of the simulations revealed an increase in tailwater levels at the Limestone Generating Station during winter conditions, other than that which would typically occur for stable ice cover conditions. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Effect of surface viscosity, anchoring energy, and cell gap on the response time of nematic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, R.F. de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo 5790, 87020 - 900 Maringá –PR (Brazil); Yang, D.-Ke [Chemical Physics Interdisciplinary Program and Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States); Lenzi, E.K.; Evangelista, L.R. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo 5790, 87020 - 900 Maringá –PR (Brazil); Zola, R.S., E-mail: rzola@utfpr.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo 5790, 87020 - 900 Maringá –PR (Brazil); Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Paraná, Rua Marcilio Dias 635, 86812-460 Apucarana, Paraná (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    An analytical expression for the relaxation time of a nematic liquid crystal is obtained for the first time by considering the influence of surface viscosity, anchoring energy strength and cell gap, validated numerically by using the so-called relaxation method. This general equation for the molecular response time (τ{sub 0}) was derived for a vertical aligned cell and by solving an eigenvalue equation coming from the usual balance of torque equation in the Derzhanskii and Petrov formulation, recovering the usual equations in the appropriate limit. The results show that τ∼d{sup b}, where b=2 is observed only for strongly anchored cells, while for moderate to weak anchored cells, the exponent lies between 1 and 2, depending on both, surface viscosity and anchoring strength. We found that the surface viscosity is important when calculating the response time, specially for thin cells, critical for liquid crystal devices. The surface viscosity’s effect on the optical response time with pretilt is also explored. Our results bring new insights about the role of surface viscosity and its effects in applied physics. - Highlights: • The relaxation of nematic liquid crystals is calculated by taking the surface viscosity into account. • An analytical expression for the relaxation time depending on surface viscosity, anchoring strength and cell gap is obtained. • The results are numerically verified. • Surface viscosity is crucial for thin and weak anchored cells. • The effect on optical time and pretilt angle is also studied.

  10. Others' opinions count, but not all of them: anchoring to ingroup versus outgroup members' behavior in charitable giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Hysenbelli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the large amount of information and the difficulty in selecting an appropriate recipient in the context of charitable giving, people tend to make extensive use of heuristics, which sometimes leads them to wrong decisions. In the present work, we focused on exploring how individuals are influenced by anchoring heuristics and how group membership interacts with this heuristic. In Experiment 1, two different groups of participants were informed about low versus high average donations of other people, and a third control group did not receive any information about the others' donations. The results showed that participants were willing to donate significantly more in the high-anchor condition compared to the low-anchor condition, as well as about the same amount of money in the low-anchor condition and no-anchor condition. Experiment 2 and 3 showed that high anchors are more effective when the information about others' donations reflects members of the ingroup rather than the outgroup. Other variables related to these results are further discussed.

  11. Surface plasmon Raman scattering studies of liquid crystal anchoring on liquid-crystal-based self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Kevin; Cheadle, Edward M; Zhang, Hao-Li; Baldwin, Kurt J; Liu, Quanying; Cheng, Yaling; Fukushima, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Takashi; Batchelder, David N; Bushby, Richard J; Evans, Stephen D

    2009-11-26

    We studied the anchoring of 6CB on a series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with a functional group that mimics that of the nematic liquid crystal (LC). The SAMs were first characterized by wetting, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and surface potential measurements. We found that, in two of these SAMs, the end group dipoles were oriented close to the normal of the surface and that these promoted homeotropic anchoring. In the case of the other SAM, the dipole was oriented parallel to the surface, and planar anchoring was obtained. Raman scattering by adsorbates on thin metal films is enhanced by the electromagnetic fields of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Despite the inherent polarization of SPPs, there have been few reports in which SPP Raman scattering has been used to study molecular orientation. We have developed optical instrumentation to provide efficient excitation and collection of SPP Raman scattered light using attenuated total reflection geometry. The Kretschmann prism coupling configuration was used to excite SPPs on thin (500 A) gold films with adsorbed SAMs of alkanethiols in contact with thin films (50 microm) of the nematic liquid crystal 4'-hexylbiphenyl-4-carbonitrile (6CB, Merck). The anchoring and orientational wetting of the LC 6CB at the interface with omega-functionalized SAMs was studied using this arrangement. In agreement with the results of previous studies, a high-energy surface (-COOH) was found to promote planar anchoring, whereas a low-energy surface (-CF(3)) was found to induce homeotropic anchoring. PMID:19921953

  12. 锚失效影响岩质边坡稳定的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Anchor Failure Effecting Stability of Rock Slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 唐树名

    2012-01-01

    通过数值模拟分析设格子梁的锚失效对岩质边坡稳定性的影响.模拟了锚固边坡从加载到不同位置和顺序的锚失效后,其它锚索应力的变化以及边坡破坏情况;研究了边坡锚索失效对边坡稳定性的影响机理.研究结果表明:在荷载作用下,边坡上排锚索比下排锚索先破坏,失效锚索的锚固力会向其他锚索转移;折线破坏的边坡不同位置锚索破坏对边坡稳定性的影响有所不同.%The effect of anchor failure caused by anchor lattice beam on the slope stability is analyzed by numerical simulation. The other anchor cables' stress change and slopes' failure situation are simulated, after the anchor failure of anchored slope from the loading to different locations and orders. Mechanism of slope anchor failure influencing the slope stability is studied. Research results show that; in the situation of loading, the upper anchors of the slope are more inclined to anchor damage than the lower anchors, and the anchor force of the failed anchor will transfer to other anchors. Anchor damages at different locations of slope caused by line failure have different effect on the slope stability.

  13. Carbazole dye with phosphonic acid anchoring groups for long-term heat stability of dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the binding strength between the dye and TiO2 surface may affect the heat stability of the DSSCs. Carboxylic acids have generally been used as the anchoring groups for the adsorption of dyes on TiO2 surfaces. However, a phosphonic acid anchor is expected to effect more stable bonding to a TiO2 surface because of its tridentate binding capability. In this study, we developed a new carbazole dye that employed a phosphonic acid anchor, MK-94. We studied the effect of the dye anchoring group on the heat stability of DSSCs by comparing MK-94, MK-2 (a carbazole dye with a carboxylic acid anchoring group), and Z-907 (a well-known, robust Ru complex dye with a carboxylic acid anchoring group). In the initial performance assessment, the DSSC with MK-94 exhibited a lower short circuit current (jsc) but a higher open circuit voltage (ΔVoc) than MK-2. With respect to heat stability, decreases in jsc and ΔVoc were suppressed with MK-94, and the drop of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was kept within 6% after 504 h of heating. In addition, MK-94 demonstrated the longest electron lifetime and largest charge transfer resistance than the other dyes during the stability test. In contrast, the PCE decreased 27% from the initial value in the DSSC with MK-2. Thus, the phosphonic acid anchor was effective in extending the long-term heat stability of the DSSCs

  14. Mechanics properties of anchored rock%锚固岩体力学特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宏渊; 蒋中明; 李怀玉; 曾铃

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the reinforcement effect of an anchor rock slope reinforcement, through laboratory model tests of similar material in the uniaxial compression case and different situations, the compressive strength, elastic modulus and anisotropy of rock mass with anchor were studied. The results show that vertical and horizontal peak intensity of rock mass with anchor are improved to different degrees. Samples of rock mass with vertical and horizontal anchors with the same anchor density and the same load conditions indicate different strength and deformation features in vertical and horizontal direction. The elastic modulus of rock mass with vertical anchors is 16% -26% greater than that of the rock mass with horizontal anchors.%为了研究锚杆加固岩体边坡后的加固效果,通过室内相似材料模型试验,在单轴压缩情况下,研究不同加锚方式对岩体抗压强度、弹性模量,锚固岩体各向异性的影响.研究结果表明;垂直加锚试件和水平加锚试件的峰值强度得到不同程度提高:垂直加锚和水平加锚在相同的加锚密度以及相同的加载条件下,不同的锚杆布置方向表现出不司的强度及变形特征:垂直加锚时试件的弹性模量比水平加锚时的弹性模量高l6%~26%,表明在进行稳定性分析时,加锚岩体宜按各向异性材料进行考虑.

  15. QM/MD studies of the dynamics of the MTSL spin label in Aurora-A kinase protein activation loop

    CERN Document Server

    Concilio, Maria Grazia; Bayliss, Richard; Burgess, Selena

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics(MD)simulations using a graphics processing unit (GPU) has been employed in order to determine the conformational space of the methane-thiosulfonate spin label (MTSL) attached to the activation loop of the Aurora-A kinase protein and compared with quantum mechanical (QM) methods rooted on density functional theory (DFT). MD provided a wealth of information about interactions between the MTSL and the residues of the protein and on the different motional contributions to the overall dynamics of the MTSL. Data obtained from MD were seen to be in good agreement with those obtained from QM but the dynamics of the system revealed more interactions than those observed from QM methods. A strong correlation between the tumbling of the protein and the transitions of the X4 and X5 dihedral angles of the MTSL, was observed with a consequent effect also the distribution of the nitroxide(NO)group in the space. Theoretical EPR spectra calculated from opportunely selected MD frames showing interactions betw...

  16. Fluid-flow-induced mesenchymal stem cell migration: role of focal adhesion kinase and RhoA kinase sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Brandon D; Lee, Jeong Soon; Ha, Ligyeom; Lim, Jung Yul

    2015-03-01

    The study of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) migration under flow conditions with investigation of the underlying molecular mechanism could lead to a better understanding and outcome in stem-cell-based cell therapy and regenerative medicine. We used peer-reviewed open source software to develop methods for efficiently and accurately tracking, measuring and processing cell migration as well as morphology. Using these tools, we investigated MSC migration under flow-induced shear and tested the molecular mechanism with stable knockdown of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and RhoA kinase (ROCK). Under steady flow, MSCs migrated following the flow direction in a shear stress magnitude-dependent manner, as assessed by root mean square displacement and mean square displacement, motility coefficient and confinement ratio. Silencing FAK in MSCs suppressed morphology adaptation capability and reduced cellular motility for both static and flow conditions. Interestingly, ROCK silencing significantly increased migration tendency especially under flow. Blocking ROCK, which is known to reduce cytoskeletal tension, may lower the resistance to skeletal remodelling during the flow-induced migration. Our data thus propose a potentially differential role of focal adhesion and cytoskeletal tension signalling elements in MSC migration under flow shear.

  17. High content screening of a kinase-focused library reveals compounds broadly-active against dengue viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deu John M Cruz

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has a large impact in global health. It is considered as one of the medically important arboviruses, and developing a preventive or therapeutic solution remains a top priority in the medical and scientific community. Drug discovery programs for potential dengue antivirals have increased dramatically over the last decade, largely in part to the introduction of high-throughput assays. In this study, we have developed an image-based dengue high-throughput/high-content assay (HT/HCA using an innovative computer vision approach to screen a kinase-focused library for anti-dengue compounds. Using this dengue HT/HCA, we identified a group of compounds with a 4-(1-aminoethyl-N-methylthiazol-2-amine as a common core structure that inhibits dengue viral infection in a human liver-derived cell line (Huh-7.5 cells. Compounds CND1201, CND1203 and CND1243 exhibited strong antiviral activities against all four dengue serotypes. Plaque reduction and time-of-addition assays suggests that these compounds interfere with the late stage of viral infection cycle. These findings demonstrate that our image-based dengue HT/HCA is a reliable tool that can be used to screen various chemical libraries for potential dengue antiviral candidates.

  18. Exoskeleton anchoring to tendon cells and muscles in molting isopod crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Žnidaršič

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Specialized mechanical connection between exoskeleton and underlying muscles in arthropods is a complex network of interconnected matrix constituents, junctions and associated cytoskeletal elements, which provides prominent mechanical attachment of the epidermis to the cuticle and transmits muscle tensions to the exoskeleton. This linkage involves anchoring of the complex extracellular matrix composing the cuticle to the apical membrane of tendon cells and linking of tendon cells to muscles basally. The ultrastructural arhitecture of these attachment complexes during molting is an important issue in relation to integument integrity maintenance in the course of cuticle replacement and in relation to movement ability. The aim of this work was to determine the ultrastructural organization of exoskeleton – muscles attachment complexes in the molting terrestrial isopod crustaceans, in the stage when integumental epithelium is covered by both, the newly forming cuticle and the old detached cuticle. We show that the old exoskeleton is extensively mechanically connected to the underlying epithelium in the regions of muscle attachment sites by massive arrays of fibers in adult premolt Ligia italica and in prehatching embryos and premolt marsupial mancas of Porcellio scaber. Fibers expand from the tendon cells, traverse the new cuticle and ecdysal space and protrude into the distal layers of the detached cuticle. They likely serve as final anchoring sites before exuviation and may be involved in animal movements in this stage. Tendon cells in the prehatching embryo and in marsupial mancas display a substantial apicobasally oriented transcellular arrays of microtubules, evidently engaged in myotendinous junctions and in apical anchoring of the cuticular matrix. The structural framework of musculoskeletal linkage is basically established in described intramarsupial developmental stages, suggesting its involvement in animal motility within the marsupium.

  19. Display of GPI-anchored anti-EGFR nanobodies on extracellular vesicles promotes tumour cell targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander A. A. Kooijmans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are attractive candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transport biological cargo to recipient cells. However, the apparent lack of target cell specificity of exogenously administered EVs limits their therapeutic applicability. In this study, we propose a novel method to equip EVs with targeting properties, in order to improve their interaction with tumour cells. Methods: EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF. EVs were isolated using ultrafiltration/size-exclusion liquid chromatography and characterized using western blotting, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and electron microscopy. EV–tumour cell interactions were analyzed under static conditions using flow cytometry and under flow conditions using a live-cell fluorescence microscopy-coupled perfusion system. Results: V analysis showed that GPI-linked nanobodies were successfully displayed on EV surfaces and were highly enriched in EVs compared with parent cells. Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression, but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. Moreover, nanobody-displaying EVs showed a significantly improved cell association to EGFR-expressing tumour cells under flow conditions. Conclusions: We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules.

  20. Display of GPI-anchored anti-EGFR nanobodies on extracellular vesicles promotes tumour cell targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Sander A. A.; Aleza, Clara Gómez; Roffler, Steve R.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Vader, Pieter; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are attractive candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transport biological cargo to recipient cells. However, the apparent lack of target cell specificity of exogenously administered EVs limits their therapeutic applicability. In this study, we propose a novel method to equip EVs with targeting properties, in order to improve their interaction with tumour cells. Methods EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF). EVs were isolated using ultrafiltration/size-exclusion liquid chromatography and characterized using western blotting, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and electron microscopy. EV–tumour cell interactions were analyzed under static conditions using flow cytometry and under flow conditions using a live-cell fluorescence microscopy-coupled perfusion system. Results EV analysis showed that GPI-linked nanobodies were successfully displayed on EV surfaces and were highly enriched in EVs compared with parent cells. Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression), but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. Moreover, nanobody-displaying EVs showed a significantly improved cell association to EGFR-expressing tumour cells under flow conditions. Conclusions We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules. PMID:26979463

  1. Investigating the relationship between employees’ career anchors and their psychosocial employability attributes in a financial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf M. Oosthuizen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The challenge of sustaining one’s employability in a highly dynamic and turbulent labour market places new demands on individuals’ ability to navigate their career development. Career management practices in organisations should help individuals gain awareness of the career meta-capacities they need to sustain their employability.Research purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between employees’ career anchors and their psychosocial employability attributes as important career meta-capacities in contemporary career development. The study also investigated whether individuals from different age and race groups differed significantly regarding these career meta-capacities.Motivation for the study: Career management has become essential in the contemporary workplace for employees to sustain their employability. Research points to the importance of psychosocial career meta-capacities in helping employees to manage their career development and employability.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey using primary data was conducted on a non-probability purposive sample (N = 108 of full-time employees (67% women; 78% 26–45 years old; 78% black employees at a South African financial company. Correlations and Scheffé’s post-hoc test were performed to achieve the research objectives.Main findings: Significant positive relationships were observed between the participants’ career anchors and their psychosocial employability attributes. Age and race groups differed significantly only in terms of their career anchors.Practical/managerial implications: Career management practices in the organisation should accommodate the differences in career orientations and how these relate to the psychosocial employability attributes of their employees.Contribution: The findings add potentially important insights that may inform human resource practices aimed at enhancing the

  2. Catalytic N-oxidation of tertiary amines on RuO(2)NPs anchored graphene nanoplatelets

    OpenAIRE

    Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Bang, Hyunsik; Babu, Sundaram Ganesh; Wei, Kai; Karvembu, Ramasamy; Kim, Ick Soo

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafine ruthenium oxide nanoparticles (RuO2NPs) with an average diameter of 1.3 nm were anchored on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) using a Ru(acac)3 precursor by a very simple dry synthesis method. The resultant material (GNPs–RuO2NPs) was used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the N-oxidation of tertiary amines for the first time. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the GNPs–RuO2NPs showed the excellent attachment of RuO2NPs on GNPs. The loading of Ru in GNPs–RuO2NPs was 2.68...

  3. RESEARCH ON EQUIVALENT PROCESSES OF ROCK MASS PARAMETERS WITH ANCHOR PILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪凯; 唐红梅; 王蓉; 唐芬; 王凯; 袁建议

    2001-01-01

    Using normal and shear rigid coefficients of intact rock and fracture plane,rigidly normal, shear equivalent rigid coefficients of fissure rock mass are conducted. On the basis of hypotheses of small displacement of rock mass, principle of superposition,irrelevance of strength parameters C and and Coulomb theory, formulas to calculate equivalent strength parameters C and of equivalent continuous mass from fissured rock mass with anchor piles are given. The achievement is extremely valuable in integral stability analysis of the rock mass slope and important in promoting the research of the rock mass's constitutive relation.

  4. A Modified Profile-Based Location Caching with Fixed Local Anchor for Wireless Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kowsar Hossain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Profile-Based Location Caching with Fixed Local Anchor (PCFLA Strategy can reduce the frequent access to the HLR. As a result, the total management cost is minimized in a wireless mobile network. However, if the MT’s information is not found at calling MSC then the HLR is accessed to get that information every time. Middle Location Register (MLR is located between VLR and HLR. It helps to reduce the heavy load at HLR. Modified PCFLA (MPCFLA combines the MLR with PCFLA to improve the performance of PCFLA. The analytical results show that our proposed method reduces the overall cost than PCFLA strategy.

  5. New structural systems for zero-maintenance pavements. Volume 2: Analysis of anchored pavements using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S. K.; Militsopoulos, S. G.

    1980-08-01

    A set of procedures to evaluate the response of an anchored pavement subjected to vehicle static loads, moisture variation in the subgrade, and/or temperature variation through the surface of the pavement is presented. These procedures include two computer programs known as FEMESH and ANSYS. The FEMESH program generates rectangular meshes in either a two or three dimensional coordinate system for any prespecified number and spacing of nodes. The ANSYS program evaluates the stresses, strains, and the deflections at all elements in each material included in the analytical model.

  6. Upper plate absolute motion and slab-anchor force control on back-arc deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuret, A.; Lallemand, S.

    2003-04-01

    In order to test how the combined effects of overriding plate motion and trench migration can account for the variability of back-arc tectonic regimes, their "normal to the trench" absolute motion components and the strain regime of all oceanic subduction zones were compiled. Strain regime was estimated following Jarrard (1986), in a semiquantitative way. The upper plate absolute motion (Vup) is calculated in the hotspot HS3-NUVEL1A (Gripp and Gordon, 2002) reference frame and trench migration (Vt) from Vup, corrected from deformation rate of back-arc region, mainly given by GPS data. As slabs tend to sink because of their age-related-mass-excess relative to the surrounding mantle, it is generally assumed that most of the trenches have a spontaneous seaward motion (trench rollback). Ages at trench have thus also been compiled ( from Muller et al, 1997) to test a possible control of trench migration with slab age. Our values underline a high control of strain regime by Vup, but inconsistencies still remain with this single parameter. To account for all the observed deformations, trench migration is needed. There are more or less as much subduction zones with seaward Vt as landward ones, and, for 90% of subduction zones, Vt never reach 50 mm/y in the two directions. The expected relation between trench migration and slab age is far to be verified: landward trench migrations exist in many subduction zones, and, among them, many have old slabs. Several examples indicate that the slab tend to follow the trench migration and, so, to move transversely in the surrounding mantle. As a consequence, Vt is close to the "normal to the trench" slab migration and gives informations about the slab anchor force : slabs are not perfectly anchored but their possible motions appear to be limited. This 50 mm/y limitation of slab migration may provide new constraints on the poorly known slab-anchor force. No evidence of age related trench rollback have beeen found. It does not

  7. MoO3 nanoparticle anchored graphene as bifunctional agent for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahan, Homen; Roy, Raju; Namsa, Nima D.; Das, Shyamal K.

    2016-10-01

    We report here a facile one step hydrothermal method to anchor MoO3 nanoparticles in graphene. The bifunctionality of graphene-MoO3 nanoparticles is demonstrated via dye adsorption and antibacterial activities. The nanocomposite showed excellent adsorption of methylene blue, a cationic dye, from water compared to pristine MoO3 and graphene. However, it showed negligible adsorption of methyl orange, an anionic dye. Again, the graphene-MoO3 nanoparticles exhibited bacteriostatic property against both Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria.

  8. Computational fluid dynamic analysis of flutter characteristics for self-anchored suspension bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwen ZHU; Zhaoxiang WANG; Zhengqing CHEN

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the essentials and proce-dures of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation applicable to evaluating flutter derivatives of bridge decks. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) description of the flow around the moving rigid box girder combined with the finite volume discretization and multi-grid algorithm is pre-sented. The proposed methods are employed to identify flutter derivatives of the bridge deck of the Sanchaji Self-anchored Suspension Bridge. The results agree well with ones from wind tunnel tests. It demonstrates accuracy and efficiency of the present method.

  9. Influence of the bias-voltage on the anchoring energy for nematic liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the bias-voltage on the anisotropic part of the nematic surface energy is analyzed. The experimental data show a strong dependence of the anchoring strength on the bias-voltage when the electrodes of the nematic cell are covered with WO3. The observed dependence can be interpreted taking into account the ions dissolved in the liquid crystal. We propose a model in which the effect of the bias-voltage is to collect the ions near the electrodes, in a surface layer whose thicknes...

  10. Highly polarized emission of the liquid crystalline conjugated polymer by controlling the surface anchoring energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Jo, Soo; Kim, Youngsik; Baek, Ji-Ho; Yu, Chang-Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated a highly polarized organic light-emitting diode (OLED) through the enhancement of the orientational ordering of the emitting polymer with a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) phase. The highly ordered state of the conjugate polymer was obtained by thermal annealing at the nematic temperature and strong azimuthal anchoring energy of the underlying polyimide. The order parameter of the conjugate polymer was analyzed using a second-harmonic generation model and the dichroic ratio was measured to be 22 : 1. Also, we applied our optimized OLED with high optical polarizability to an effective light source for a twisted nematic LC display.

  11. Analysis of Anchors and Bracing Configurations for Personal Fall Arrest Systems in Residential Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Justin Collins

    2013-01-01

    AbstractAnalysis of Anchors and Bracing Configurations with Personal Fall Arrest Systems in Residential ConstructionJustin Collins Morris    Falls continue to be a major problem in the residential construction industry and account for a large number of injuries and fatalities each year (US Department of Labor, 2012).  The effects of a fall are catastrophic to the workers and their families as well as the construction company and surrounding community.  Prevention of these incidents has been t...

  12. The biggest stone anchors (Indo-Arab type) from Mithi Virdi, Bhavnagar, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Kumar, B.

    .F. 1975. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean and Early Medieval times. New York. Rao, S.R. 1991. Dawn and Devolution of Indus Civilization. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. Sankalia, H.D. 1974. Prehistory and Protohistory of India and Pakistan. Pune: Post...- Graduate Research Institute, Deccan College. JOURNAL OF INDIAN OCEAN ARCHAEOLOGY No.2, 2005 | 113 Shinde, V.S. 1992. Padri and the Indus Civilization, South Asian Studies, 8:55-66. Sila, T. and A.S. Gaur 1997. Stone anchors from Sindhudurg Fort...

  13. A measure of variable planar locations anchored on the centroid of the vowel space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Dominic; Fabricius, Anne

    2011-01-01

    of desiderata for choice of normalization algorithm(s) based on replicable procedures. We then present the principles of centroid-based normalization and account for its performance in recent road tests. In sections 4 and 5 we introduce a method that utilizes the centroid of the speaker’s vowel space...... as an anchor point or vertex for calculation of planar locations on formant plots, permitting quantification of the distribution of vowel tokens within the space. This information, along with details such as Euclidean distances, can then be used to precisely pinpoint the trajectories of diachronic change...

  14. High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad

    2012-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near-Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission would require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO, in an environment characterized by very low gravity levels; such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy, and upon mission completion, easy to remove. The design philosophy used in this task relies on the simulation capability of a high-performance multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth, it is difficult to create low-gravity conditions, and testing in low-gravity environments, whether artificial or in space, can be costly and very difficult to achieve. Through simulation, the effect of gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine, a simulation pack age capable of utilizing massively parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) hardware, several validation experiments were performed. Modeling of the regolith interaction has been carried out, after which the anchor penetration tests were performed and analyzed. The regolith was modeled by a granular medium composed of very large numbers of convex three-dimensional rigid bodies, subject to microgravity levels and interacting with each other with contact, friction, and cohesional forces. The multibody dynamics simulation approach used for simulating anchors penetrating a soil uses a differential variational inequality (DVI) methodology to solve the contact problem posed as a linear complementarity method (LCP). Implemented within a GPU processing environment, collision detection is greatly accelerated compared to traditional CPU (central processing unit)- based collision detection. Hence, systems of millions of particles interacting with complex dynamic systems can be efficiently analyzed, and design recommendations can be made in a much shorter time. The figure

  15. Recombinant Virus Vaccination against “Self” Antigens Using Anchor-fixed Immunogens

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Kari R.; Parkhurst, Maria R.; Shulman, Eliza P.; Tupesis, Janis P; Custer, Mary; Touloukian, Christopher E; Robbins, Paul F.; Yafal, Alicia Gómez; Greenhalgh, Patricia; Sutmuller, Roger P.M.; Offringa, Rienk; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P

    1999-01-01

    To study the induction of anti-“self” CD8+ T-cell reactivity against the tumor antigen gp100, we used a mouse transgenic for a chimeric HLA-A*0201/H-2 Kb molecule (A2/Kb). We immunized the mice with a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding a form of gp100 that had been modified at position 210 (from a threonine to a methionine) to increase epitope binding to the restricting class I molecule. Immunogens containing the “anchor-fixed” modification elicited anti-self CD8+ T cells specific for the wi...

  16. Increasing stability of the weir at Dogern by means of prestressing rock anchors; Erhoehung der Standsicherheit des Stauwehrs Dogern der Rheinkraftwerk Albbruck-Dogern AG mit Vorspannankern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Hans-Joerg [Schluchseewerk AG, Laufenburg-Rhina (Germany); Brumann, Othmar [Gruner AG, Basel (Switzerland); Grohmann, Peter [Greuter AG, Hochfelden (Switzerland); Halter, Markus [Stahlton AG, Hinwil (Switzerland); Kesselring, Peter [Ingenieurbueuro Kesselring, Rheinfelden (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The weir Dogern (built in 1932) did not fulfil the stability criteria of the current Swiss standards. To increase the safety against sliding 10 to 11 prestressing rock anchors have been installed in each pillar. The Swiss-made anchors with corrosion-protection were unusually long: 72 m totallength.A detailed quality assurance programme was necessary to ensure that every anchor would meet the quality requirements. (orig.)

  17. Suture anchor fixation strength with or without augmentation in osteopenic and severely osteoporotic bones in rotator cuff repair: a biomechanical study on polyurethane foam model

    OpenAIRE

    Er, Mehmet Serhan; Altinel, Levent; Eroglu, Mehmet; Verim, Ozgur; Demir, Teyfik; Atmaca, Halil

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of various types of anchor applications with or without augmentation in both osteopenic and severely osteoporotic bone models. Methods Two different types of suture anchors were tested in severely osteoporotic (SOP) and osteopenic polyurethane (PU) foam blocks using an established protocol. An Instron machine applied static loading parallel to the axis of insertion until failure, and the mean anchor failure strengths were ...

  18. Increasing the length of progerin’s isoprenyl anchor does not worsen bone disease or survival in mice with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Brandon S. J.; Yang, Shao H.; Farber, Emily; Lee, Roger; Buck, Suzanne B.; Andres, Douglas A.; Spielmann, H. Peter; Agnew, Brian J.; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by the synthesis of a truncated prelamin A, commonly called progerin, that contains a carboxyl-terminal farnesyl lipid anchor. The farnesyl lipid anchor helps to target progerin to membrane surfaces at the nuclear rim, where it disrupts the integrity of the nuclear lamina and causes misshapen nuclei. Several lines of evidence have suggested that progerin’s farnesyl lipid anchor is crucial for the emergence of disease phenoty...

  19. A novel membrane anchor for FtsZ is linked to cell wall hydrolysis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Elizabeth L; Razavi, Shiva; Inoue, Takanari; Goley, Erin D

    2016-07-01

    In most bacteria, the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ forms an annulus at midcell (the Z-ring) which recruits the division machinery and regulates cell wall remodeling. Although both activities require membrane attachment of FtsZ, few membrane anchors have been characterized. FtsA is considered to be the primary membrane tether for FtsZ in bacteria, however in Caulobacter crescentus, FtsA arrives at midcell after stable Z-ring assembly and early FtsZ-directed cell wall synthesis. We hypothesized that additional proteins tether FtsZ to the membrane and demonstrate that in C. crescentus, FzlC is one such membrane anchor. FzlC associates with membranes directly in vivo and in vitro and recruits FtsZ to membranes in vitro. As for most known membrane anchors, the C-terminal peptide of FtsZ is required for its recruitment to membranes by FzlC in vitro and midcell recruitment of FzlC in cells. In vivo, overproduction of FzlC causes cytokinesis defects whereas deletion of fzlC causes synthetic defects with dipM, ftsE and amiC mutants, implicating FzlC in cell wall hydrolysis. Our characterization of FzlC as a novel membrane anchor for FtsZ expands our understanding of FtsZ regulators and establishes a role for membrane-anchored FtsZ in the regulation of cell wall hydrolysis.

  20. Thiophene-based Tripodal Anchor Units for Hole Transport in Single-Molecule Junctions with Gold Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Tashiro, Aya; Lee, See Kei; Testai, Henrique Rosa; Yamada, Ryo; Tada, Hirokazu; Aso, Yoshio

    2015-09-17

    Molecule-metal junctions are inevitable for the realization of single-molecule electronics. In this study, we developed new tripodal anchors with electron-rich aromatic rings to achieve robust contact with gold electrodes, an effective hybridization of the π orbital with gold electrodes (π channel), and hole transport through π-channel hybridization. Cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of the monolayers indicated that the thiophene-based tripodal molecule exhibits anchoring characteristics as expected. The electrical conductance of thiophene-anchored bistripodal molecules using the scanning tunneling microscope (STM)-based break junction technique confirmed the formation of molecular junctions. The Seebeck coefficient of this compound estimated from thermoelectric voltage measurements using a STM was determined to be a positive value, which indicates that the charge carriers are holes. On the contrary, the corresponding pyridine-anchored molecules showed electron transport. These results reveal the versatility of π-channel tripodal anchors for the control of charge-carrier type in single-molecule electronics. PMID:26722752