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Sample records for a-kinase anchoring protein-membrane

  1. A kinase-anchoring proteins and adenylyl cyclase in cardiovascular physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, Riad; Dessauer, Carmen W

    2011-10-01

    3'-5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), generated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), serves as a second messenger in signaling pathways regulating many aspects of cardiac physiology, including contraction rate and action potential duration, and in the pathophysiology of hypertrophy and heart failure. A kinase-anchoring proteins localize the effect of cAMP in space and time by organizing receptors, AC, protein kinase A, and other components of the cAMP cascade into multiprotein complexes. In this review, we discuss how the interaction of A kinase-anchoring proteins with distinct AC isoforms affects cardiovascular physiology.

  2. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase A-A-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Pepijn P; van der Heyden, MAG; Kok, Bart; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present

  3. A-kinase anchoring proteins contribute to loss of E-cadherin and bronchial epithelial barrier by cigarette smoke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburger, Anouk; Poppinga, Wilfred J; Kos, Fleur; de Bruin, Harold G; Rijks, Wolter F; Heijink, Hilde; Timens, Wim; Meurs, Hermanus; Maarsingh, Harm; Schmidt, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Airway epithelium, which forms the first barrier towards environmental insults, is disturbed by cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAP) maintain endothelial barrier function and coordinate subcellular loca

  4. Promotion and inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy by A-kinase anchor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blant, Alexandra; Czubryt, Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Originally identified as mediators of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A signaling, A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are now recognized as a diverse family of molecular scaffolds capable of interacting with many other proteins. Members of the AKAP family within the heart can take on either pro- or anti-hypertrophic roles by interacting with a myriad of protein kinases and phosphatases in the process. AKAPs often form the core of large signaling complexes (or signalosomes) that allow multiple pathways to converge and functionally intertwine. Approximately 30% of AKAPs discovered to date are expressed in the heart, but the functions of many of these remain to be discovered. This review focuses on AKAPs that have been demonstrated to play roles in mediating cardiac hypertrophy.

  5. Fatal transmissible amyloid encephalopathy: a new type of prion disease associated with lack of prion protein membrane anchoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Chesebro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals characterized by gray matter spongiosis and accumulation of aggregated, misfolded, protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres. PrPres can be deposited in brain in an amyloid-form and/or non-amyloid form, and is derived from host-encoded protease-sensitive PrP (PrPsen, a protein normally anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI. Previously, using heterozygous transgenic mice expressing only anchorless PrP, we found that PrP anchoring to the cell membrane was required for typical clinical scrapie. However, in the present experiments, using homozygous transgenic mice expressing two-fold more anchorless PrP, scrapie infection induced a new fatal disease with unique clinical signs and altered neuropathology, compared to non-transgenic mice expressing only anchored PrP. Brain tissue of transgenic mice had high amounts of infectivity, and histopathology showed dense amyloid PrPres plaque deposits without gray matter spongiosis. In contrast, infected non-transgenic mice had diffuse non-amyloid PrPres deposits with significant gray matter spongiosis. Brain graft studies suggested that anchored PrPsen expression was required for gray matter spongiosis during prion infection. Furthermore, electron and light microscopic studies in infected transgenic mice demonstrated several pathogenic processes not seen in typical prion disease, including cerebral amyloid angiopathy and ultrastructural alterations in perivascular neuropil. These findings were similar to certain human familial prion diseases as well as to non-prion human neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Molecular evolution of a-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP-7: implications in comparative PKA compartmentalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Keven R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs are molecular scaffolding proteins mediating the assembly of multi-protein complexes containing cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA, directing the kinase in discrete subcellular locations. Splice variants from the AKAP7 gene (AKAP15/18 are vital components of neuronal and cardiac phosphatase complexes, ion channels, cardiac Ca2+ handling and renal water transport. Results Shown in evolutionary analyses, the formation of the AKAP7-RI/RII binding domain (required for AKAP/PKA-R interaction corresponds to vertebrate-specific gene duplication events in the PKA-RI/RII subunits. Species analyses of AKAP7 splice variants shows the ancestral AKAP7 splice variant is AKAP7α, while the ancestral long form AKAP7 splice variant is AKAP7γ. Multi-species AKAP7 gene alignments, show the recent formation of AKAP7δ occurs with the loss of native AKAP7γ in rats and basal primates. AKAP7 gene alignments and two dimensional Western analyses indicate that AKAP7γ is produced from an internal translation-start site that is present in the AKAP7δ cDNA of mice and humans but absent in rats. Immunofluorescence analysis of AKAP7 protein localization in both rat and mouse heart suggests AKAP7γ replaces AKAP7δ at the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum in species other than rat. DNA sequencing identified Human AKAP7δ insertion-deletions (indels that promote the production of AKAP7γ instead of AKAP7δ. Conclusions This AKAP7 molecular evolution study shows that these vital scaffolding proteins developed in ancestral vertebrates and that independent mutations in the AKAP7 genes of rodents and early primates has resulted in the recent formation of AKAP7δ, a splice variant of likely lesser importance in humans than currently described.

  7. Muscle A-Kinase Anchoring Protein-α is an Injury-Specific Signaling Scaffold Required for Neurotrophic- and Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Mediated Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophic factor and cAMP-dependent signaling promote the survival and neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs after injury. However, the mechanisms conferring neuroprotection and neuroregeneration downstream to these signals are unclear. We now reveal that the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein-α (mAKAPα is required for the survival and axon growth of cultured primary RGCs. Although genetic deletion of mAKAPα early in prenatal RGC development did not affect RGC survival into adulthood, nor promoted the death of RGCs in the uninjured adult retina, loss of mAKAPα in the adult increased RGC death after optic nerve crush. Importantly, mAKAPα was required for the neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP after injury. These results identify mAKAPα as a scaffold for signaling in the stressed neuron that is required for RGC neuroprotection after optic nerve injury.

  8. A Kinase Anchoring Protein 9 Is a Novel Myosin VI Binding Partner That Links Myosin VI with the PKA Pathway in Myogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Karolczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myosin VI (MVI is a unique motor protein moving towards the minus end of actin filaments unlike other known myosins. Its important role has recently been postulated for striated muscle and myogenic cells. Since MVI functions through interactions of C-terminal globular tail (GT domain with tissue specific partners, we performed a search for MVI partners in myoblasts and myotubes using affinity chromatography with GST-tagged MVI-GT domain as a bait. A kinase anchoring protein 9 (AKAP9, a regulator of PKA activity, was identified by means of mass spectrometry as a possible MVI interacting partner both in undifferentiated and differentiating myoblasts and in myotubes. Coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay confirmed that both proteins could interact. MVI and AKAP9 colocalized at Rab5 containing early endosomes. Similarly to MVI, the amount of AKAP9 decreased during myoblast differentiation. However, in MVI-depleted cells, both cAMP and PKA levels were increased and a change in the MVI motor-dependent AKAP9 distribution was observed. Moreover, we found that PKA phosphorylated MVI-GT domain, thus implying functional relevance of MVI-AKAP9 interaction. We postulate that this novel interaction linking MVI with the PKA pathway could be important for targeting AKAP9-PKA complex within cells and/or providing PKA to phosphorylate MVI tail domain.

  9. A Kinase Anchoring Protein 9 Is a Novel Myosin VI Binding Partner That Links Myosin VI with the PKA Pathway in Myogenic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolczak, Justyna; Sobczak, Magdalena; Skowronek, Krzysztof; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI (MVI) is a unique motor protein moving towards the minus end of actin filaments unlike other known myosins. Its important role has recently been postulated for striated muscle and myogenic cells. Since MVI functions through interactions of C-terminal globular tail (GT) domain with tissue specific partners, we performed a search for MVI partners in myoblasts and myotubes using affinity chromatography with GST-tagged MVI-GT domain as a bait. A kinase anchoring protein 9 (AKAP9), a regulator of PKA activity, was identified by means of mass spectrometry as a possible MVI interacting partner both in undifferentiated and differentiating myoblasts and in myotubes. Coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay confirmed that both proteins could interact. MVI and AKAP9 colocalized at Rab5 containing early endosomes. Similarly to MVI, the amount of AKAP9 decreased during myoblast differentiation. However, in MVI-depleted cells, both cAMP and PKA levels were increased and a change in the MVI motor-dependent AKAP9 distribution was observed. Moreover, we found that PKA phosphorylated MVI-GT domain, thus implying functional relevance of MVI-AKAP9 interaction. We postulate that this novel interaction linking MVI with the PKA pathway could be important for targeting AKAP9-PKA complex within cells and/or providing PKA to phosphorylate MVI tail domain.

  10. The Scaffold Protein Muscle A-Kinase Anchoring Protein β Orchestrates Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophic Signaling Required for the Development of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, Michael D.; Li, Jinliang; Passariello, Catherine L.; Gayanilo, Marjorie; Thakur, Hrishikesh; Dayan, Joseph; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Kapiloff, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy is regulated by an extensive intracellular signal transduction network. In vitro evidence suggests that the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein β (mAKAPβ) serves as a nodal organizer of hypertrophic signaling. However, the relevance of mAKAPβ signalosomes to pathological remodeling and heart failure in vivo remains unknown. Methods and Results Using conditional, cardiac myocyte–specific gene deletion, we now demonstrate that mAKAPβ expression in mice is important for the cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and catecholamine toxicity. mAKAPβ targeting prevented the development of heart failure associated with long-term transverse aortic constriction, conferring a survival benefit. In contrast to 29% of control mice (n=24), only 6% of mAKAPβ knockout mice (n=31) died in the 16 weeks of pressure overload (P=0.02). Accordingly, mAKAPβ knockout inhibited myocardial apoptosis and the development of interstitial fibrosis, left atrial hypertrophy, and pulmonary edema. This improvement in cardiac status correlated with the attenuated activation of signaling pathways coordinated by the mAKAPβ scaffold, including the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase D1 and histone deacetylase 4 that we reveal to participate in a new mAKAP signaling module. Furthermore, mAKAPβ knockout inhibited pathological gene expression directed by myocyte-enhancer factor-2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell transcription factors that associate with the scaffold. Conclusions mAKAPβ orchestrates signaling that regulates pathological cardiac remodeling in mice. Targeting of the underlying physical architecture of signaling networks, including mAKAPβ signalosome formation, may constitute an effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of pathological remodeling and heart failure. PMID:24812305

  11. Anchor Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  12. How anchoring proteins shape pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J M; McNaughton, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Cellular responsiveness to external stimuli can be altered by extracellular mediators which activate membrane receptors, in turn signalling to the intracellular space via calcium, cyclic nucleotides, membrane lipids or enzyme activity. These signalling events trigger a cascade leading to an effector which can be a channel, an enzyme or a transcription factor. The effectiveness of these intracellular events is enhanced when they are maintained in close proximity by anchoring proteins, which assemble complexes of signalling molecules such as kinases together with their targets, and in this way enhance both the speed and the precision of intracellular signalling. The A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family are adaptor proteins originally named for their ability to associate Protein Kinase A and its targets, but several other enzymes bound by AKAPs have now been found and a wide variety of target structures has been described. This review provides an overview of anchoring proteins involved in pain signalling. The key anchoring proteins and their ion channel targets in primary sensory neurons responding to painful stimuli (nociceptors) are discussed.

  13. A Proteomics Investigation of Anchored PKA-RI Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovanich, D.

    2013-01-01

    Compartmentalization of kinases and phosphatases plays an important role in the specificity of second messenger mediated signaling events. Localization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase is mediated by interaction of its regulatory subunit (PKA-R) with the versatile family of A-kinase anchoring pr

  14. Hypersensitivity to Suture Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity to suture anchor is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case in which hypersensitivity to suture anchor was strongly suspected. The right rotator cuff of a 50-year-old woman was repaired with a metal suture anchor. Three weeks after the surgery, she developed erythema around her face, trunk, and hands, accompanied by itching. Infection was unlikely because no abnormalities were detected by blood testing or by medical examination. Suspicious of a metallic allergy, a dermatologist performed a patch testing 6 months after the first surgery. The patient had negative reactions to tests for titanium, aluminum, and vanadium, which were the principal components of the suture anchor. The anchor was removed 7 months after the first surgery, and the erythema disappeared immediately. When allergic symptoms occur and persist after the use of a metal anchor, removal should be considered as a treatment option even if the patch test result is negative.

  15. Anchor Loads on Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. Anchor loads on pipelines is in general a rarely occurring event, however, the severity when it occurs could easily jeopardize the integrity of any pipeline. It is considered as an accidental load in the design of pipelines. Pipeline Loads, limit state criteria and anchor categories are defined by the DNV standards. For pipeline, DNV-OS-F101 (08.2012), Submarine Pipeline Systems is adopted. Offshore standard DNV-RP...

  16. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  17. Anchor Trial Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  18. Solid-state NMR spectra of lipid-anchored proteins under magic angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kaoru; Harada, Erisa; Sugase, Kenji; Shimamoto, Keiko

    2014-03-01

    Solid-state NMR is a promising tool for elucidating membrane-related biological phenomena. We achieved the measurement of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra for a lipid-anchored protein embedded in lipid bilayers under magic angle spinning (MAS). To date, solid-state NMR measurements of lipid-anchored proteins have not been accomplished due to the difficulty in supplying sufficient amount of stable isotope labeled samples in the overexpression of lipid-anchored proteins requiring complex posttranslational modification. We designed a pseudo lipid-anchored protein in which the protein component was expressed in E. coli and attached to a chemically synthesized lipid-anchor mimic. Using two types of membranes, liposomes and bicelles, we demonstrated different types of insertion procedures for lipid-anchored protein into membranes. In the liposome sample, we were able to observe the cross-polarization and the (13)C-(13)C chemical shift correlation spectra under MAS, indicating that the liposome sample can be used to analyze molecular interactions using dipolar-based NMR experiments. In contrast, the bicelle sample showed sufficient quality of spectra through scalar-based experiments. The relaxation times and protein-membrane interaction were capable of being analyzed in the bicelle sample. These results demonstrated the applicability of two types of sample system to elucidate the roles of lipid-anchors in regulating diverse biological phenomena.

  19. Anchoring visions in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the term 'anchoring' within systems development: Visions, developed through early systems design within an organization, need to be deeply rooted in the organization. A vision's rationale needs to be understood by those who decide if the vision should be implemented as well...... as by those involved in the actual implementation. A model depicting a recent trend within systems development is presented: Organizations rely on purchasing generic software products and/or software development outsourced to external contractors. A contemporary method for participatory design, where...

  20. The effect of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions on membrane fouling in ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, I.H.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2000-01-01

    It was studied how protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions influence the filtration performance during the ultrafiltration of protein solutions over polymeric membranes. This was done by measuring flux, streaming potential, and protein transmission during filtration of bovine serum albumin

  1. Intelligent Educational Systems for Anchored Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David D.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the potential for using Intelligent Educational Systems (IES) for anchoring instruction in macro contexts in science education. Topics include anchored instruction; situated cognition; problem solving; cognitivism; interactive video environments; and examples of combining IES and anchored instruction. (LRW)

  2. Anchored Instruction and Situated Cognition Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Technology, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Reviews theories of anchored instruction and addresses issues related to learning, transfer, and assessment. Highlights include video-based macrocontexts; videodisc anchors versus computer-based simulations; cooperative learning; transfer outside the classroom; authenticity; visual anchors versus verbal anchors; situated cognition; and using…

  3. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  4. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    the system the cable sizes can be changed even after concreting work _ is finished. i W The structure is also suitable for modern concrete formwork ...1 ruiinn 0i all 3up-H-Stud is a heavy-duty, all steel, expansion wedge anchor types of equipment. Typical applications: tunnel liner panels, air

  5. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative foundation system. See § 3285.301. (b) For anchor assembly type installations, the installation instructions... instructions and design for anchor type assemblies must be prepared by a registered professional engineer...

  6. Anchoring Bias in Online Voting

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Voting online with explicit ratings could largely reflect people's preferences and objects' qualities, but ratings are always irrational, because they may be affected by many unpredictable factors like mood, weather, as well as other people's votes. By analyzing two real systems, this paper reveals a systematic bias embedding in the individual decision-making processes, namely people tend to give a low rating after a low rating, as well as a high rating following a high rating. This so-called \\emph{anchoring bias} is validated via extensive comparisons with null models, and numerically speaking, the extent of bias decays with interval voting number in a logarithmic form. Our findings could be applied in the design of recommender systems and considered as important complementary materials to previous knowledge about anchoring effects on financial trades, performance judgements, auctions, and so on.

  7. Inconspicuous anchoring effects generated by false information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qu; Jun Wang; Yuejia Luo

    2008-01-01

    The impact of false information on numerical judgments was examined on young normal subjects by an event-related potential (ERP) experiment. To imitate the judgments in real world, we ensured the subjects acknowledged of the target task. The behavioral results found that both uncertain information and false information assimilated the final estimates: higher after higher anchors and lower after lower anchors; and false information caused a weaker anchoring bias than uncertain information. ERP results provided further electrophysiological evidence for the mechanism of anchoring. In the early phrase, it was an accessibility-dominated process in which two kinds of anchors elicited an N300 component related to the accessibility of anchors propositions. The knowledge relevant to targets joined the process in the late phrase, which caused a larger amplitude of late positive component (LPC) for implausible lower anchors than that for plausible higher anchors. Source analysis showed that medial frontal gyrus, whose activity was suggested to signal the need of adjustment, was more reliable to explain the LPC elicited by implausible lower anchors. Therefore, we suggest that accessibility is facilitated when the external anchor is consistent with the world knowledge, and adjustment is initiated when the external anchor is inconsistent.

  8. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  9. Upper section for anchor timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, A.P.; Isachenko, V.M.; Kuntsevich, V.I.; Pishulin, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to exclude rotation of the fixing device around the anchor with screwing of the tightening nut and simplification of the fixing device design. The support fixing device is made of a section of pipe and is equipped with a rotation delimiter made in the form of a female fixing device of the projection arranged on it at an angle to the longitudinal axis.

  10. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  11. INTERFACIAL SELF-ASSEMBLY OF A HYDROPHOBIN INTO AN AMPHIPATHIC PROTEIN MEMBRANE MEDIATES FUNGAL ATTACHMENT TO HYDROPHOBIC SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOSTEN, HAB; SCHUREN, FHJ; WESSELS, JGH

    1994-01-01

    The SC3p hydrophobin of Schizophyllum commune is a small hydrophobic protein (100-101 amino acids with eight cysteine residues) that self-assembles at a water/air interface and coats aerial hyphae with an SDS-insoluble protein membrane, at the outer side highly hydrophobic and with a typical rodlet

  12. Anchored Lagrangian submanifolds and their Floer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of (graded) anchored Lagrangian submanifolds and use it to study the filtration of Floer' s chain complex. We then obtain an anchored version of Lagrangian Floer homology and its (higher) product structures. They are somewhat different from the more standard non-anchored version. The anchored version discussed in this paper is more naturally related to the variational picture of Lagrangian Floer theory and so to the likes of spectral invariants. We also discuss rationality of Lagrangian submanifold and reduction of the coefficient ring of Lagrangian Floer cohomology of thereof.

  13. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  14. Anchor Bolt Position in Base Plate In Terms Of T and J Anchor Bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    b Osman Mohamad Hairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, L anchor bolt system has been used for a long period of time in construction industry as one of the distributing load structures. However, there are some weaknesses in L anchor bolt which may straighten and pullup when charged with tensile load. Current practices prefer to use other types of anchor bolt systems, such as headed studs anchor bolt system to replace the L anchor bolt design. There has been lack of studies to prove that it is more effective in terms of performance. A new T anchor bolt which was basically modified from headed studs anchor bolt was proposed in this study to compare its performance of tensile loading in concrete failure to typical L design. This study aims to determine whether the T anchor bolt system gives better performance as compared to an L anchor bolt system. The performance was rated based on tensile loading on concrete failure pattern. A pullout test was conducted on two different anchor bolt systems, namely L and T. The anchor bolt embedded depth, h in concrete were varied according to their hook or bend radius. Each sample was repeated twice. There were totally eight samples. The hook or bend radius used were 50 mm and 57.5 mm for sample L1 and L2, respectively. 90-degree bend were used on sample T1 and T2. Based on test results, it can be seen that the performance of concrete failure pattern under tensile load on both L and T anchor bolt design samples with 200 mm embedment depth was better than deeper embedment depth of 230 mm. But the L anchor bolt design gives the best results as compared to T design. Although T anchor bolt design shows higher resistance before first bond failure to the concrete sample. T anchor bolt was analysed and needed deeper embedment depth to allow formation of cone pull-out shape to acquire better performance.

  15. Anchored Instruction in a Situated Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miwha

    The purpose of this study was to design and develop a multimedia-based anchored program and to examine the effects of students' and group characteristics on the problem-solving process in anchored instruction with the multimedia program in a situated learning environment. Sixty-eight students were assigned to small groups via a stratified random…

  16. DSSC anchoring groups: a surface dependent decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, C; Bowler, D R

    2014-05-14

    Electrodes in dye sensitised solar cells are typically nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with a majority (1 0 1) surface exposed. Generally the sensitising dye employs a carboxylic anchoring moiety through which it adheres to the TiO₂ surface. Recent interest in exploiting the properties of differing TiO₂ electrode morphologies, such as rutile nanorods exposing the (1 1 0) surface and anatase electrodes with high percentages of the (0 0 1) surface exposed, begs the question of whether this anchoring strategy is best, irrespective of the majority surface exposed. Here we address this question by presenting density functional theory calculations contrasting the binding properties of two promising anchoring groups, phosphonic acid and boronic acid, to that of carboxylic acid. Anchor-electrode interactions are studied for the prototypical anatase (1 0 1) surface, along with the anatase (0 0 1) and rutile (1 1 0) surfaces. Finally the effect of using these alternative anchoring groups to bind a typical coumarin dye (NKX-2311) to these TiO₂ substrates is examined. Significant differences in the binding properties are found depending on both the anchor and surface, illustrating that the choice of anchor is necessarily dependent upon the surface exposed in the electrode. In particular the boronic acid is found to show the potential to be an excellent anchor choice for electrodes exposing the anatase (0 0 1) surface.

  17. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  18. Anchoring of proteins to lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, K; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The anchoring of proteins to the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using genetic techniques is an exciting and emerging research area that holds great promise for a wide variety of biotechnological applications. This paper reviews five different types of anchoring domains that have been exp

  19. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  20. Ringstone anchors from Gujarat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    of Dwarka and Somanath have yielded several ringstone anchors along with other stone anchors such as triangular and grapnel types. The raw material used for these ring stones comprises basalt, sandstone and limestone. Earlier, these anchors were identified...

  1. Azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal on a grooved interface with anisotropic polar anchoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuan; Zhang Zhi-Dong; Ye Wen-Jiang; Xuan Li

    2012-01-01

    Zhang Y Jet al.[Zhang Y J,Zhang Z D,Zhu L Z and Xuan L 2011 Liquid Cryst.38 355] investigated the effects of finite polar anchoring on the azimuthal anchoring energy at a grooved interface,in which polar anchoring was isotropic in the local tangent plane of the surface.In this paper,we investigate the effects of both isotropic and anisotropic polar anchoring on the surface anchoring energy in the frame of Fukuda et al.'s theory.The results show that anisotropic polar anchoring strengthens the azimuthal anchoring of grooved surfaces.In the one-elastic-constant approximation (K11 =K22 =K33 =K),the surface-groove-induced azimuthal anchoring energy is entirely consistent with the result of Faetti,and it reduces to the original result of Berreman with an increase in polar anchoring.Moreover,the contribution of the surface-like elastic term to the Rapini-Papoular anchoring energy is zero.

  2. Automated builder and database of protein/membrane complexes for molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhwan Jo

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane proteins have provided deeper insights into their functions and interactions with surrounding environments at the atomic level. However, compared to solvation of globular proteins, building a realistic protein/membrane complex is still challenging and requires considerable experience with simulation software. Membrane Builder in the CHARMM-GUI website (http://www.charmm-gui.org helps users to build such a complex system using a web browser with a graphical user interface. Through a generalized and automated building process including system size determination as well as generation of lipid bilayer, pore water, bulk water, and ions, a realistic membrane system with virtually any kinds and shapes of membrane proteins can be generated in 5 minutes to 2 hours depending on the system size. Default values that were elaborated and tested extensively are given in each step to provide reasonable options and starting points for both non-expert and expert users. The efficacy of Membrane Builder is illustrated by its applications to 12 transmembrane and 3 interfacial membrane proteins, whose fully equilibrated systems with three different types of lipid molecules (DMPC, DPPC, and POPC and two types of system shapes (rectangular and hexagonal are freely available on the CHARMM-GUI website. One of the most significant advantages of using the web environment is that, if a problem is found, users can go back and re-generate the whole system again before quitting the browser. Therefore, Membrane Builder provides the intuitive and easy way to build and simulate the biologically important membrane system.

  3. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  4. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  5. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  6. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  7. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Li, Diandian; Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  8. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  9. Curcumin Protects Neurons from Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity by Membrane Anchored AKAP79-PKA Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now stimulation of AMPA receptor as well as its downstream pathways is considered as potential central mediators in antidepressant mechanisms. As a signal integrator which binds to AMPA receptor, A-kinase anchoring protein 79-(AKAP79- PKA complex is regarded as a potential drug target to exert neuroprotective effects. A well-tolerated and multitarget drug curcumin has been confirmed to exert antidepressant-like effects. To explore whether AKAP79-PKA complex is involved in curcumin-mediated antiexcitotoxicity, we detected calcium signaling, subcellular location of AKAP79-PKA complex, phosphorylation of glutamate receptor, and ERK and AKT cascades. In this study, we found that curcumin protected neurons from glutamate insult by reducing Ca2+ influx and blocking the translocation of AKAP79 from cytomembrane to cytoplasm. In parallel, curcumin enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor and its downstream pathways in PKA-dependent manner. If we pretreated cells with PKA anchoring inhibitor Ht31 to disassociate PKA from AKAP79, no neuroprotective effects were observed. In conclusion, our results show that AKAP79-anchored PKA facilitated the signal relay from AMPA receptor to AKT and ERK cascades, which may be crucial for curcumin-mediated antiexcitotoxicity.

  10. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  11. Lash Transported Anchor for a Tanker Mooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    including additional model tests, is needed. The anchor configurations presented in Figures llb and llc will function adequately for the ATTF on all...causeways at sea) and offshore oil companies (mating jacket type structures at sea). 4. A suitable anchor for rock would be twice as heavy (4,000 kips) as the...NIARINF FNVIRON. LAW .. IIAIVl’RN): Seattle "A (E. ianger): Sceittle. %%A.’ Itransportation, ( oust rUCtIo & CO1m IN %IR(.IN IA INST. OF- MARINE SOI

  12. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  13. The bone-anchored hearing aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The bone-anchored hearing aid (Baha) was introduced in 1977 by Tjellström and colleagues and has now been used clinically for over 30 years. Generally, the outcomes are good, and several studies have shown improved audiological- and quality of life outcomes. The principle of the Baha is, that sound...

  14. Multimodality of Learning Through Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Mary Susan

    2004-01-01

    Multimodality of learning results from the intertextual relationship between multimodal design and other meaning-making modes. Meaning making is becoming more multimodal because language is continually reshaped by new forms of communication media. This article examines anchored instruction from a multimodal perspective. The first section includes…

  15. Effects of Media Attributes in Anchored Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of computer-assisted video-based anchored instruction on promoting students' attitudes toward mathematical instruction and problem-solving skills. Examines the effects of different media attributes on students' mathematical achievement and attitudes in a situated learning environment. Findings suggest that anchored…

  16. Anchor Stress Checking of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the calculating is to check the anchor stresses of the security injection tank to know whether the stress is satisfied the code requirements on the basis of all the reaction forces gained in the static, seismic and thermal stress results.

  17. The "Anchor" Method: Principle and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgin, Paul

    This report discusses the "anchor" language learning method that is based upon derivation rather than construction, using Italian as an example of a language to be learned. This method borrows from the natural process of language learning as it asks the student to remember whole expressions that serve as vehicles for learning both words and rules,…

  18. Fouled Anchors: The CONSTELLATION Question Answered

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1711804 87AU 73 89-1-3401 11. TITLE (kcn e S.cE) Caut,.cawn) Fouled Anchors: The Constellation Question Answered IL. PERSONA .. AUTHOPS) Wegner, Dana M...was familia , with the unaltered Constellation in Newport and, unknown to the Committee, had indeed visited the ship once in Baltimore (see p. 45). It is

  19. Predicting Anchor Links between Heterogeneous Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadmanesh, Sina; Khodadadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    People usually get involved in multiple social networks to enjoy new services or to fulfill their needs. Many new social networks try to attract users of other existing networks to increase the number of their users. Once a user (called source user) of a social network (called source network) joins a new social network (called target network), a new inter-network link (called anchor link) is formed between the source and target networks. In this paper, we concentrated on predicting the formation of such anchor links between heterogeneous social networks. Unlike conventional link prediction problems in which the formation of a link between two existing users within a single network is predicted, in anchor link prediction, the target user is missing and will be added to the target network once the anchor link is created. To solve this problem, we use meta-paths as a powerful tool for utilizing heterogeneous information in both the source and target networks. To this end, we propose an effective general meta-pat...

  20. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  1. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    and size do not resemble the anchors found during maritime archaeological explorations since 1986. The stone anchors until now recovered from many sites of India can broadly be classified into four types: namely composite, Indo-Arabian, ring stone (mushroom...

  2. Anchored Instruction and Its Relationship to Situated Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Researcher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses anchored instruction, a teaching technique using videodisc-based problem-solving environments, and describes two research projects involving anchored instruction. Argues that anchored instruction provides a way to recreate and improve upon some of the advantages of situated cognition. (FMW)

  3. Anchored Instruction for Chinese Students: Enhancing Attitudes toward Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a videodisc-based computer-aided multimedia-anchored instruction for Chinese students and to examine its effects on student attitudes toward mathematics and anchored instruction. Participants were 74 fifth graders. Results indicated that anchored instruction improved students' attitudes toward mathematics…

  4. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  5. Role of interfacial protein membrane in oxidative stability of vegetable oil substitution emulsions applicable to nutritionally modified sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2015-11-01

    The potential health risk associated with excessive dietary intake of fat and cholesterol has led to a renewed interest in replacing animal fat with nutritionally-balanced unsaturated oil in processed meats. However, as oils are more fluid and unsaturated than fats, one must overcome the challenge of maintaining both physical and chemical (oxidative) stabilities of prepared emulsions. Apart from physical entrapments, an emulsion droplet to be incorporated into a meat protein gel matrix (batter) should be equipped with an interactive protein membrane rather than a small surfactant, and the classical DLVO stabilization theory becomes less applicable. This review paper describes the steric effects along with chemical roles (radical scavenging and metal ion chelation) of proteins and their structurally modified derivatives as potential interface-building materials for oxidatively stable meat emulsions.

  6. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  7. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Na [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Youb, E-mail: youby@etri.re.kr [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  8. An Analytical Method for Positioning Drag Anchors in Seabed Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 刘海笑; 李新仲; 李清平; 曹静

    2015-01-01

    Positioning drag anchors in seabed soils are strongly influenced not only by the properties of the anchor and soil, but also by the characteristics of the installation line. The investigation on the previous prediction methods related to anchor positioning demonstrates that the prediction of the anchor position during dragging has inevitably introduced some key and unsubstantiated hypotheses and the applicability of these methods is limited. In the present study, the interactional system between the drag anchor and installation line is firstly introduced for the analysis of anchor positioning. Based on the two mechanical models for embedded lines and drag anchors, the positioning equations for drag anchors have been derived both for cohesive and noncohesive soils. Since the drag angle at the shackle is the most important parameter in the positioning equations, a novel analytical method that can predict both the variation and the exact value of the drag angle at the shackle is proposed. The analytical method for positioning drag anchors which combines the interactional system between the drag anchor and the installation line has provided a reasonable theoretic approach to investigate the anchor behaviors in soils. By comparing with the model flume experiments, the sensitivity, effectiveness and veracity of the positioning method are well verified.

  9. Anchored Instruction: Situiertes Lernen in multimedialen Lernumgebungen

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    «Anchored Instruction» ist ein konstruktivistischer Ansatz aus den USA, dessen Vertreter technologisch unterstützte, situierte Lernumgebungen für verschiedene schulische Fächer und Altersstufen entwickeln, implementieren und erforschen. Wichtige Ziele, Gestaltungsprinzipien und Merkmale solcher Lernumgebungen sowie ihre Implementation im Unterricht werden anhand von zwei Anwendungen näher dargestellt: (1) «The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury», eine Serie von Video-Geschichten und Zusatzmaterial...

  10. Developing an "anchor" system to enhance postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane

    2004-07-01

    This article uses an anchor metaphor to explain the dynamic interplay between the human body's active uses of nonrigid tools to mediate information about its adjacent environment to enhance postural control. The author used an "anchor" system (ropes attached to varying weights resting on the floor) to test blindfolded adults who performed a restricted-balance task (30 s one-foot standing). Participants were tested while holding the anchors under a variety of weight conditions (125 g, 250 g, 500 g, and 1 kg) and again during a baseline condition (no anchors). When compared with the baseline condition, there was a significant reduction in the amount of body sway across the anchor conditions. The author found that mechanical support provided by the anchor system was secondary to its haptic exploratory function and that an individual can use the anchoring strategy with a dual purpose: for resting and for reorientation after intrinsic disruptions.

  11. Anchoring properties of substrate with a grating surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Wen-Jiang; Xing Hong-Yu; Yang Guo-Chen

    2007-01-01

    The anchoring properties of substrate with a grating surface are investigated analytically. The alignment of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) in a grating surface originates from two mechanisms, thus the anchoring energy consists of two parts. One originates from the interaction potential between NLC molecules and the molecules on the substrate surface,and the other stems from the increased elastic strain energy. Based on the two mechanisms, the expression of anchoring energy per unit area of a projected plane of this grating surface is deduced and called the equivalent anchoring energy formula. Both the strength and the easy direction of equivalent anchoring energy are a function of the geometrical parameters (amplitude and pitch) of a grating surface. By using this formula, the grating surface can be replaced by its projected plane and its anchoring properties can be described by the equivalent anchoring energy formula.

  12. Anchored design of protein-protein interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few existing protein-protein interface design methods allow for extensive backbone rearrangements during the design process. There is also a dichotomy between redesign methods, which take advantage of the native interface, and de novo methods, which produce novel binders. METHODOLOGY: Here, we propose a new method for designing novel protein reagents that combines advantages of redesign and de novo methods and allows for extensive backbone motion. This method requires a bound structure of a target and one of its natural binding partners. A key interaction in this interface, the anchor, is computationally grafted out of the partner and into a surface loop on the design scaffold. The design scaffold's surface is then redesigned with backbone flexibility to create a new binding partner for the target. Careful choice of a scaffold will bring experimentally desirable characteristics into the new complex. The use of an anchor both expedites the design process and ensures that binding proceeds against a known location on the target. The use of surface loops on the scaffold allows for flexible-backbone redesign to properly search conformational space. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This protocol was implemented within the Rosetta3 software suite. To demonstrate and evaluate this protocol, we have developed a benchmarking set of structures from the PDB with loop-mediated interfaces. This protocol can recover the correct loop-mediated interface in 15 out of 16 tested structures, using only a single residue as an anchor.

  13. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  14. FragAnchor: A Large-Scale Predictor of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors in Eukaryote Protein Sequences by Qualitative Scoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a common but complex C-terminal post-translational modification of extracellular proteins in eukaryotes. Here we investigate the problem of correctly annotating GPI-anchored proteins for the growing number of sequences in public databases. We developed a computational system, called FragAnchor, based on the tandem use of a neural network (NN) and a hidden Markov model (HMM). Firstly, NN selects potential GPI-anchored proteins in a dataset, then HMM parses these potential GPI signals and refines the prediction by qualitative scoring. FragAnchor correctly predicted 91% of all the GPI-anchored proteins annotated in the Swiss-Prot database.In a large-scale analysis of 29 eukaryote proteomes, FragAnchor predicted that the percentage of highly probable GPI-anchored proteins is between 0.21% and 2.01%. The distinctive feature of FragAnchor, compared with other systems,is that it targets only the C-terminus of a protein, making it less sensitive to the background noise found in databases and possible incomplete protein sequences. Moreover, FragAnchor can be used to predict GPI-anchored proteins in all eukaryotes. Finally, by using qualitative scoring, the predictions combine both sensitivity and information content. The predictor is publicly available at http: // navet. ics. hawaii.edu/~fraganchor/NNHMM/NNHMM.html.

  15. Dynamic performance of concrete undercut anchors for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrenholtz, Christoph, E-mail: christoph@mahrenholtz.net; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Behavior of undercut anchors under dynamic actions simulating earthquakes. • First high frequency load and crack cycling tests on installed concrete anchors ever. • Comprehensive review of anchor qualification for Nuclear Power Plants. - Abstract: Post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and nonstructural connections to concrete. In many countries, concrete anchors used for Nuclear Power Plants have to be qualified to ensure reliable behavior even under extreme conditions. The tests required for qualification of concrete anchors are carried out at quasi-static loading rates well below the rates to be expected for dynamic actions deriving from earthquakes, airplane impacts or explosions. To investigate potentially beneficial effects of high loading rates and cycling frequencies, performance tests on installed undercut anchors were conducted. After introductory notes on anchor technology and a comprehensive literature review, this paper discusses the qualification of anchors for Nuclear Power Plants and the testing carried out to quantify experimentally the effects of dynamic actions on the load–displacement behavior of undercut anchors.

  16. Endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharanjak Shefali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs represent an interesting amalgamation of the three basic kinds of cellular macromolecules viz. proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. An unusually hybrid moiety, the GPI-anchor is expressed in a diverse range of organisms from parasites to mammalian cells and serves to anchor a large number of functionally diverse proteins and has been the center of attention in scientific debate for some time now. Membrane organization of GPI-APs into laterally-organized cholesterol-sphingolipid ordered membrane domains or "rafts" and endocytosis of GPI-APs has been intensely debated. Inclusion into or exclusion from these membrane domains seems to be the critical factor in determining the endocytic mechanisms and intracellular destinations of GPI-APs. The intracellular signaling as well as endocytic trafficking of GPI-APs is critically dependent upon the cell surface organization of GPI-APs, and the associations with these lipid rafts play a vital role during these processes. The mechanism of endocytosis for GPI-APs may differ from other cellular endocytic pathways, such as those mediated by clathrin-coated pits (caveolae, and is necessary for unique biological functions. Numerous intracellular factors are involved in and regulate the endocytosis of GPI-APs, and these may be variably dependent on cell-type. The central focus of this article is to describe the significance of the endocytosis of GPI-APs on a multitude of biological processes, ranging from nutrient-uptake to more complex immune responses. Ultimately, a thorough elucidation of GPI-AP mediated signaling pathways and their regulatory elements will enhance our understanding of essential biological processes and benefit as components of disease intervention strategies.

  17. ANCHORING IN THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Shklyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of marketing, both ineconomy and in politics is to attract themaximum number of customers or voters, maximizing customer satisfaction and ,ideally, improve the quality of life.The author, in various aspects, thetechnology of anchoring used in NLP, to attract customers and voters, both in the economy and in politics.In different examples demonstrate theoverall impact on the psychology of the consumer. Separating policy and the economy, marketers are missing something. The author proposes to look at how psychologicalanchors affect these two, at fi rst glance, different vector.

  18. Adsorption phenomena and anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals.The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage...

  19. GO-PROMTO illuminates protein membrane topologies of glycan biosynthetic enzymes in the Golgi apparatus of living tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Casper; Stenbæk, Anne; Bernard, Sophie; Hadi, Masood; Driouich, Azeddine; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is the main site of glycan biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Better understanding of the membrane topology of the proteins and enzymes involved can impart new mechanistic insights into these processes. Publically available bioinformatic tools provide highly variable predictions of membrane topologies for given proteins. Therefore we devised a non-invasive experimental method by which the membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins can be determined in the Golgi apparatus in living tissues. A Golgi marker was used to construct a series of reporters based on the principle of bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The reporters and proteins of interest were recombinantly fused to split halves of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transiently co-expressed with the reporters in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue. Output signals were binary, showing either the presence or absence of fluorescence with signal morphologies characteristic of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The method allows prompt and robust determinations of membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins and is termed GO-PROMTO (for GOlgi PROtein Membrane TOpology). We applied GO-PROMTO to examine the topologies of proteins involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides including xyloglucan and arabinan. The results suggest the existence of novel biosynthetic mechanisms involving transports of intermediates across Golgi membranes.

  20. GO-PROMTO illuminates protein membrane topologies of glycan biosynthetic enzymes in the Golgi apparatus of living tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Søgaard

    Full Text Available The Golgi apparatus is the main site of glycan biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Better understanding of the membrane topology of the proteins and enzymes involved can impart new mechanistic insights into these processes. Publically available bioinformatic tools provide highly variable predictions of membrane topologies for given proteins. Therefore we devised a non-invasive experimental method by which the membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins can be determined in the Golgi apparatus in living tissues. A Golgi marker was used to construct a series of reporters based on the principle of bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The reporters and proteins of interest were recombinantly fused to split halves of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP and transiently co-expressed with the reporters in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue. Output signals were binary, showing either the presence or absence of fluorescence with signal morphologies characteristic of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The method allows prompt and robust determinations of membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins and is termed GO-PROMTO (for GOlgi PROtein Membrane TOpology. We applied GO-PROMTO to examine the topologies of proteins involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides including xyloglucan and arabinan. The results suggest the existence of novel biosynthetic mechanisms involving transports of intermediates across Golgi membranes.

  1. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Zhuang; Yang Li; Wei Su

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emerge...

  2. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface.

  3. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J.; Matsuda, Nicole A.; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16–41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5–6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface. PMID:27011815

  4. AUV Load Separation Motion with Constraint of Anchor Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Cheng; SONG Bao-wei; DU Xiao-xu; WANG Peng; LI Jia-wang

    2009-01-01

    Motion equations of AUV(autonomous underwater vehicle) load separation with the constraint of anchor chain is derived. Based on proper engineering assumptions for anchor chain,system viewpoint is used to found the motion equations, and the D'Alembert principle is used to eliminate the constraint force of anchor chain. Based on the equations, the motion simulation is carried out to a certain AUV, which reflects the actual condition, and is used for the reference of resrarching AUV load separation motion with the constraint of anchor chain.

  5. Infrastructure anchor bolt inspection program with NDE applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1996-11-01

    In 1990, Wisconsin Department of Transportation found a high mast light pole with two of six anchor bolts failed. This failure along with published reports from Michigan DOT about anchor bolt failures on cantilever sign structures, raised concern about the quality and condition of anchor bolts on the Wisconsin DOT system. Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining material type, cut or rolled threads, and type of coating for anchor bolts. Inspection emphasis are on "hands on" and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on visual conditions of anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating failed anchor bolts and critical cracks before failure of an entire structure.

  6. Calculation of prestressed anchor segment by 3D infiniteelement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfen WANG; Hongyang XIE; Yuanhan WANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on 1D infinite element theory, the coordinate transformation and shape function of 3D point-radiation 4-node infinite elements were derived.They were coupled with 8-node finite elements to compute the compressive deformation of the prestressed anchor segment. The results indicate that when the prestressed force acts on the anchor segment, the stresses and displacements in the rock around the anchor segment are concentrated in the zone center with the anchor axis and are subjected to exponential decay. Therefore, the stresses and the displacement spindles are formed. The calculation results of the infinite element are close to the theoretical results.

  7. Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.

  8. The HOPS/Class C Vps Complex Tethers High-Curvature Membranes via a Direct Protein-Membrane Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ruoya; Stroupe, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Membrane tethering is a physical association of two membranes before their fusion. Many membrane tethering factors have been identified, but the interactions that mediate inter-membrane associations remain largely a matter of conjecture. Previously, we reported that the homotypic fusion and protein sorting/Class C vacuolar protein sorting (HOPS/Class C Vps) complex, which has two binding sites for the yeast vacuolar Rab GTPase Ypt7p, can tether two low-curvature liposomes when both membranes bear Ypt7p. Here, we show that HOPS tethers highly curved liposomes to Ypt7p-bearing low-curvature liposomes even when the high-curvature liposomes are protein-free. Phosphorylation of the curvature-sensing amphipathic lipid-packing sensor (ALPS) motif from the Vps41p HOPS subunit abrogates tethering of high-curvature liposomes. A HOPS complex without its Vps39p subunit, which contains one of the Ypt7p binding sites in HOPS, lacks tethering activity, though it binds high-curvature liposomes and Ypt7p-bearing low-curvature liposomes. Thus, HOPS tethers highly curved membranes via a direct protein-membrane interaction. Such high-curvature membranes are found at the sites of vacuole tethering and fusion. There, vacuole membranes bend sharply, generating large areas of vacuole-vacuole contact. We propose that HOPS localizes via the Vps41p ALPS motif to these high-curvature regions. There, HOPS binds via Vps39p to Ypt7p in an apposed vacuole membrane.

  9. Anchored Instruction in Preservice Educational Technology Classes: A Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeffrey W.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the anchored instruction (i.e., using a theme or anchor around which various learning activities take place) approach in preparing preservice teachers to integrate technology. Participants were 48 students enrolled in the three sections of a preservice educational technology class during the summer of 1997.…

  10. Effects of Knowledge Abstraction with Anchored Instruction on Learning Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Fen; And Others

    Transfer of learning is one of the major purposes of education. Theories and research have tried hard to answer questions such as: how does transfer occur? and how is transfer enhanced? Situated cognitive theory and research about anchored instruction together bring some positive findings. Anchored instruction provides the learner with a situated,…

  11. Using Anchored Instruction to Teach about Assistive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, A. Edward; Morse, Timothy E.

    1996-01-01

    A training module about assistive technology using an integrated hypermedia format and principles of anchored instruction was developed and field tested with 57 undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals. The trainees responded positively to the anchored instruction. This article details the module's development, evaluation, and…

  12. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  13. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  14. Breaking anchored droplets in a microfluidic Hele-Shaw cell

    CERN Document Server

    Amselem, Gabriel; Gallaire, François; Baroud, Charles N

    2015-01-01

    We study microfluidic self digitization in Hele-Shaw cells using pancake droplets anchored to surface tension traps. We show that above a critical flow rate, large anchored droplets break up to form two daughter droplets, one of which remains in the anchor. Below the critical flow velocity for breakup the shape of the anchored drop is given by an elastica equation that depends on the capillary number of the outer fluid. As the velocity crosses the critical value, the equation stops admitting a solution that satisfies the boundary conditions; the drop breaks up in spite of the neck still having finite width. A similar breaking event also takes place between the holes of an array of anchors, which we use to produce a 2D array of stationary drops in situ.

  15. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  16. Grapnel stone anchors from Saurashtra: Remnants of Indo-Arab trade on the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Stone anchors have been used as a primary source of information on ancient navigation by marine archaeologists since long. These anchors used by ancient mariners are often noticed underwater at various places across the world. Stone anchors are also...

  17. Distributed localization for anchor-free sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xunxue; Shan Zhiguan; Liu Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    Geographic location of nodes is very useful in a sensor network. Previous localization algorithms assume that there exist some anchor nodes in this kind of network, and then other nodes are estimated to create their coordinates. Once there are not anchors to be deployed, those localization algorithms will be invalidated. Many papers in this field focus on anchor-based solutions. The use of anchors introduces many limitations, since anchors require external equipments such as global position system, cause additional power consumption. A novel positioning algorithm is proposed to use a virtual coordinate system based on a new concept-virtual anchor. It is executed in a distributed fashion according to the connectivity of a node and the measured distances to its neighbors. Both the adjacent member information and the ranging distance result are combined to generate the estimated position of a network, one of which is independently adopted for localization previously. At the position refinement stage the intermediate estimation of a node begins to be evaluated on its reliability for position mutation; thus the positioning optimization process of the whole network is avoided falling into a local optimal solution. Simulation results prove that the algorithm can resolve the distributed localization problem for anchor-free sensor networks, and is superior to previous methods in terms of its positioning capability under a variety of circumstances.

  18. Neurostimulation leads, intrathecal catheters and anchoring devices evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Demartini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific studies highlight the usefulness of spinal cord stimulation and intrathecal therapy for the management of chronic pain syndromes resistant to pharmacological or less invasive interventional therapies. One of the possible complications of these techniques, reported in literature, is migration of the lead or catheter; thus the use of an anchoring system is considered mandatory. Every company that produces devices for neurostimulation or neuromodulation provides various anchoring devices evolved over time. In the study, the authors discuss about the most common anchoring devices based on their clinical experience.

  19. Anchored boundary conditions for locally isostatic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theran, Louis; Nixon, Anthony; Ross, Elissa; Sadjadi, Mahdi; Servatius, Brigitte; Thorpe, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    Finite pieces of locally isostatic networks have a large number of floppy modes because of missing constraints at the surface. Here we show that by imposing suitable boundary conditions at the surface the network can be rendered effectively isostatic. We refer to these as anchored boundary conditions. An important example is formed by a two-dimensional network of corner sharing triangles, which is the focus of this paper. Another way of rendering such networks isostatic is by adding an external wire along which all unpinned vertices can slide (sliding boundary conditions). This approach also allows for the incorporation of boundaries associated with internal holes and complex sample geometries, which are illustrated with examples. The recent synthesis of bilayers of vitreous silica has provided impetus for this work. Experimental results from the imaging of finite pieces at the atomic level need such boundary conditions, if the observed structure is to be computer refined so that the interior atoms have the perception of being in an infinite isostatic environment.

  20. Identification of Ski as a target for Aurora A kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Jocelyn; Armisen, Ricardo; Zhao, Hongling; Rojas, Diego A; Maldonado, Edio; Tapia, Julio C; Colombo, Alicia; Hayman, Michael J; Marcelain, Katherine

    2011-06-10

    Ski is a negative regulator of the transforming growth factor-β and other signalling pathways. The absence of SKI in mouse fibroblasts leads to chromosome segregation defects and genomic instability, suggesting a role for Ski during mitosis. At this stage, Ski is phosphorylated but to date little is known about the kinases involved in this process. Here, we show that Aurora A kinase is able to phosphorylate Ski in vitro. In vivo, Aurora A and Ski co-localized at the centrosomes and co-immunoprecipitated. Conversely, a C-terminal truncation mutant of Ski (SkiΔ491-728) lacking a coiled-coil domain, displayed decreased centrosomal localization. This mutant no longer co-immunoprecipitated with Aurora-A in vivo, but was still phosphorylated in vitro, indicating that the Ski-Aurora A interaction takes place at the centrosomes. These data identify Ski as a novel target of Aurora A and contribute to an understanding of the role of these proteins in the mitotic process.

  1. Anchoring of development workings in a zone of influence of mining in case of the level anchoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V. F.; Fofanov, O. B.; Demina, T. V.; Yavorskiy, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of the change of the stress-strain state of coal containing rock masses, depending on mining-geological factors, were revealed. These factors allow establishing rational parameters of anchoring of wall rocks to enhance the stability of development workings. Specific conditions of the deflected mode, displays of rock pressure, terms of maintenance depending on technological parameters are investigated. Researches allowed determining the degree of their development influence on the efficiency of application of the anchoring of the hollow making and will allow a reasonable application of anchoring certificates, provide stability of the rocks mining and reduce expenses on its realization and maintenance.

  2. Effect of a preload force on anchor system frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Aihong; Xu Jinhai; Liu Haishun

    2013-01-01

    The interrelationship between preload forces and natural frequencies of anchors was obtained from the structure of an anchor and its mechanical characteristics.We established a numerical model for the dynamic analysis of a bolt support system taking into consideration the working surroundings of the anchor.The natural frequency distribution of the system under various preload forces of the anchor was analyzed with ANSYS.Our results show that each order of the system frequency varied with an increase in preload forces.A single order frequency decreased with an increase in the preload force.A preload force affected low-order frequencies more than high-order frequencies.We obtained a functional relationship by fitting preload forces and fundamental frequencies,which was in agreement with our theoretical considerations.This study provides theoretical support for the detection of preload forces.

  3. Reaching the top: career anchors and professional development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ruth; Shmulevitz, Carmela; Raviv, Dennie

    2009-01-01

    This study, based on Shein's conceptual theory of career anchors, examined the relationship between career anchors, professional development and emerging career patterns for graduates of 12 consecutive two year second career programs in nursing (N=231) compared to graduates of concurrent four year academic programs (N=273). A 2-group comparison design was used and data collection tools included a demographic profile, a professional profile and a career anchor questionnaire. Statistically significant differences were found in regard to career anchors (pdevelopment (pnurses were specialization and lifestyle where academic graduates chose management, autonomy and service. Academics displayed a statistically significant preference for administrative specialization (34%) compared to the second career tract (6.5%). Researchers propose that each group develops differently and contributes to the workplace and the importance of both certification and academic incentives to ensure recruitment.

  4. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J.; Matsuda, Nicole A.; SAFRAN, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five ...

  5. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall.

  6. Behavioral Biases of Individual Investors: The Effect of Anchoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Zaiane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of the anchoring bias in the financial decision making of individual investors. A survey study is carried out to find out how the studied bias affects the investment behavior on the Tunisian stock market. The survey is for exploratory purpose and it is based on multiple factorial correspondence analyses. The results reveal that Tunisian investors do not suffer from the anchoring bias.

  7. Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-07-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.

  8. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  9. Pyramidal anchor stone from Baga waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    . Pyramidal anchor stones have an apex hole which goes up to the round hole, however Goa anchor stone has no such perforation, but, instead has a rectangular cutting on the apex. The anchor stone is compared with Greek pyramidal anchor stones, and probably...

  10. Gpr161 anchoring of PKA consolidates GPCR and cAMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Verena A; Mayrhofer, Johanna E; Ilouz, Ronit; Tschaikner, Philipp; Raffeiner, Philipp; Röck, Ruth; Courcelles, Mathieu; Apelt, Federico; Lu, Tsan-Wen; Baillie, George S; Thibault, Pierre; Aanstad, Pia; Stelzl, Ulrich; Taylor, Susan S; Stefan, Eduard

    2016-07-12

    Scaffolding proteins organize the information flow from activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to intracellular effector cascades both spatially and temporally. By this means, signaling scaffolds, such as A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), compartmentalize kinase activity and ensure substrate selectivity. Using a phosphoproteomics approach we identified a physical and functional connection between protein kinase A (PKA) and Gpr161 (an orphan GPCR) signaling. We show that Gpr161 functions as a selective high-affinity AKAP for type I PKA regulatory subunits (RI). Using cell-based reporters to map protein-protein interactions, we discovered that RI binds directly and selectively to a hydrophobic protein-protein interaction interface in the cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail of Gpr161. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that a binary complex between Gpr161 and RI promotes the compartmentalization of Gpr161 to the plasma membrane. Moreover, we show that Gpr161, functioning as an AKAP, recruits PKA RI to primary cilia in zebrafish embryos. We also show that Gpr161 is a target of PKA phosphorylation, and that mutation of the PKA phosphorylation site affects ciliary receptor localization. Thus, we propose that Gpr161 is itself an AKAP and that the cAMP-sensing Gpr161:PKA complex acts as cilium-compartmentalized signalosome, a concept that now needs to be considered in the analyzing, interpreting, and pharmaceutical targeting of PKA-associated functions.

  11. Perceptual anchoring in preschool children: not adultlike, but there.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference, a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference, no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a

  12. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I; Schirmer, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both.

  13. An Analysis for Cross Beam-Ground Anchor Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yingzi; Zhang Baiqing; Tang Huiming

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of water facilities, hydroelectric projects, highways and railways in China, beam-anchor reinforcement has been widely used to stabilize slopes in recent years. But the theory for the design of beam-anchor reinforcement is far behind the application. Cross beam-ground anchor reinforcement is a combination of beams and anchors forming a new structure to prevent slope sliding. The forces in the beams are discussed using theoretical analysis and numerical modeling. The Winkler model is used to analyze the beams, and reasonable values of λ, length, spacing and cantilevered length for the beams are determined through a theoretical analysis. A three-dimensional finite element method is adopted to model the interaction of the beams and soils and a structure analysis is applied to treat the beams and to study the stress distribution in external and internal beams. The analytical results show that it is better to satisfy λ≥2π, the spacing between anchors ls should be lsλ<π/2 and cantilever length should be (0.3-0.5)ls for the optimum design. The numerical results show that the same design can be used for all beams in different directions, including the internal and external beams. The application of the analytical method for reinforcement beam analysis is acceptable. It is better to choose a safety coefficient of 1.3 for design based on the analytical method for safety.

  14. Optical Fiber Grating Sensor for Force Measurement of Anchor Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Desheng; FU Jinghua; LIU Shengchun; SUI Lingfeng; FU Rong

    2006-01-01

    The development of the sensor suitable for measuring large load stress to the anchor cable becomes an important task in bridge construction and maintenance. Therefore, a new type of optical fiber sensor was developed in the laboratory - optical fiber grating sensor for force measurement of anchor cable (OFBFMAC). No similar report about this kind of sensor has been found up to now in China and other countries. This sensor is proved to be an effective way of monitoring in processes of anchor cable installation, cable cutting, cable force regulation, etc, with the accurate and repeatable measuring results. Its successful application in the tie bar cable force safety monitoring for Wuhan Qingchuan bridge is a new exploration of optical fiber grating sensing technology in bridge tie bar monitoring system.

  15. Proteomic analysis of GPI-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2006-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) represent a subset of post-translationally modified proteins that are tethered to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane via a C-terminal GPI anchor. GPI-APs are found in a variety of eukaryote species, from pathogenic microorganisms...... to humans. GPI-APs confer important cellular functions as receptors, enzymes and scaffolding molecules. Specific enzymes and detergent extraction methods combined with separation technologies and mass spectrometry permit proteomic analysis of GPI-APs from plasma membrane preparations to reveal cell...

  16. Experience-based, body-anchored qualitative research interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Two theoretical constructs that lay the foundation for experience-based, body-anchored interviewing are presented: the first-person perspective and the concept of meaning. These theoretical concepts are concretized, first, by means of a methodological framework for experience-based, body......-anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research...... in areas such as traditional and holistic medicine, Western alternative and complementary medicine, nursing, psychotherapy, coaching, physiotherapy, movement arts, and physical education....

  17. Mechanical behavior of the U-anchor of super-CFRP rod under tensile loading

    OpenAIRE

    Djamaluddin, Rudy; yamaguchi, Kohei; Hino, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    - A suitable anchoring system is required to anchor a CFRP tendon due to its sensitivity in lateral pressure. Recent developed anchors are still relying on lateral pressure in anchoring CFRP tendons. A new CFRP unit equipped with U-anchor at both end of the rod body without any jointing (namely of Super CFRP, S-CFRP) has been developed. This paper presents the mechanical behavior as well as failure mechanism of U-anchor under direct loading and loaded under embedded within concrete, respec...

  18. Arrangement of anchor reinforcement in roadway for fully mechanized sublevel caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾攀峰; 陈启永; 芦付松

    2003-01-01

    Bolting of mining roadway for fully mechanized sublevel caving has been practised successfully in Hebi mining area.It provides a new method for roadway support and settles the problem of support difficulty radically for sublevel caving in Hebi mining area.Where anchor reinforcement holds an important station in roadway support.This article brings forward the arrangement project of anchor based on theoretic analysis.Compared with arranged in the middle of the entry, anchor arranged in the vertex of the entry can reduces the length of anchor,shortens the anchor installation time,and heightens the reliability of anchor installation.

  19. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  20. Proteomic analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elortza, Felix; Nühse, Thomas S; Foster, Leonard J

    2003-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are a functionally and structurally diverse family of post-translationally modified membrane proteins found mostly in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in a variety of eukaryotic cells. Although the general role of GPI-APs remains un...

  1. Stepping stones of Amsterdam, Local and global anchor points 2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bois, G. de Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report shows the results of research on the relation between local and global anchor points in the city of Amsterdam, executed by a small group of international students from Italy and Spain within the scope of two research modules in their Bachelor education at the University of Applied Scienc

  2. Finding the Optimal Guidance for Enhancing Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Bathke, Arne; Hasselbring, Ted S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different methods of guidance with anchored instruction on students' mathematical problem-solving performance. The purpose of this research was to iteratively design a learning environment to find the optimal level of guidance. Two iterations of the software were compared. The first iteration used explicit…

  3. Implementing Anchored Instruction: Guiding Principles for Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Kim; And Others

    A curriculum based on "anchored instruction" was developed to enhance students' literacy development and acquisition of knowledge. The curriculum was designed to create a rich, shared environment that generates interest and enables students to identify and define problems while they explore the content from many perspectives. Based on…

  4. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.;

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  5. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.;

    1995-01-01

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assume that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  6. Almost Lie structures on an anchored Banach bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Cabau, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Under appropriate assumptions, we generalize the concept of linear almost Poisson struc- tures, almost Lie algebroids, almost differentials in the framework of Banach anchored bundles and the relation between these objects. We then obtain an adapted formalism for mechanical systems which is illustrated by the evolutionary problem of the "Hilbert snake"

  7. Modified Anchor Shaped Post Core Design for Primary Anterior Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rajesh; Kusai Baroudi; K. Bala Kasi Reddy; Praveen, B. H.; V. Sumanth Kumar; Amit, S

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  8. Modified Anchor Shaped Post Core Design for Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  9. Modified anchor shaped post core design for primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, R; Baroudi, Kusai; Reddy, K Bala Kasi; Praveen, B H; Kumar, V Sumanth; Amit, S

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  10. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  11. Conventional Anchor Test Results at San Diego and Indian Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    lines passed through open chocks welded at opposite ends of the barge. A crane barge was used to install and recover all test anchors at each site...DEPT OF FISH & GAME Long Beach CA (Marine Tech Info Ctr) CALIF. DEPT OF NAVIGATION & OCEAN DEV. Sacramento, CA (G. Armstrong) CALIF. MARITIME ACADEMY

  12. The bone-anchored hearing aid for children: recent developments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, A.F.M.; Leijendeckers, J.M.; Hol, M.K.S.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Cremers, C.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid, or BAHA, system was introduced. Its transducer is coupled directly to the skull percutaneously to form a highly effective bone-conduction hearing device. Clinical studies on adults with conductive hearing loss have shown that the BAHA system outperforms convent

  13. Stone anchors from the Okhamandal region, Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    period particularly on south-western coast of the island while stone anchors were noticed on the eastern coast of the island where medieval period remains can be noticed in the form of pottery, cannons and a few stone structures. Similar type of stone...

  14. Anchoring return: the role of the Solutions Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Maria Natta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing a minimum standard of living and livelihood opportunities to help anchor those who have returned is critical for the future stability and security of Afghanistan. This is one of the three main objectives of the 2012 Solutions Strategy for Afghan Refugees.

  15. The importance of anchor text for ad hoc search revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that propagated anchor text is very important for effective Web search as offered by the commercial search engines. "Google Bombs" are a notable illustration of this. However, many years of TREC Web retrieval research failed to establish the effectiveness of link evidence fo

  16. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  17. Fullerene-based Anchoring Groups for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christian A.; Ding, Dapeng; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger

    2008-01-01

    We present results on a new fullerene-based anchoring group for molecular electronics. Using lithographic mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum we have determined the conductance and stability of single-molecule junctions of 1,4-bis(fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzene. The compound can...

  18. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  19. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  20. Audiometric evaluation of bilaterally fitted bone-anchored hearing aids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.J.; Snik, A.F.M.; Pouw, C.T.M. van der; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bilateral fittings of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) were evaluated in 25 patients with at least 3 months experience with using two BAHAs. For all patients, air conduction hearing aids were contraindicated due to either recurrent otorrhoea or otitis externa (19 cases) or to congenital aural atres

  1. The biggest stone anchors (Indo-Arab type) from Mithi Virdi, Bhavnagar, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Kumar, B.

    A coastal archaeological exploration in Talaja taluka of Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, brought to light 5 grapnel stone anchors in an agriculture land. The site and these anchors are known as Bhima ka Khatiya ('Cot of Bhima', a famous character...

  2. Synergistic effect of a new wedge-bond-type anchor for CFRP tendons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂华; 刘荣桂; 陈蓓; 李明君; 石天罡

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the anchoring force of anchors for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tendons further, a new wedge-bond-type anchor for CFRP tendons was developed. The increment in anchoring force induced by the clamping segment of anchor was studied. Taking the deformation of all parts in clamping segment in the transverse direction into consideration, the calculation formula for the increment of anchoring force was proposed based on the linear elastic hypotheses. The proposed model is verified by experiments and conclusions are drawn that the anchoring force is influenced mainly by the inclination angle of clamping pieces, the length of clamping part and the thickness of bonding medium. Especially, the thickness of bonding medium should be lowered in design to improve the synergistic effect of anchors.

  3. Radiocarbon dates of the medieval period stone anchors from Dabhol, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.

    Dabhol was an important medieval-period port town on the Maharashtra coast. An archaeological exploration at Dabhol has revealed four stone anchors with remains of wood in fluke hole. These anchors were retrieved from Dabhol creek during a dredging...

  4. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal eCzapiewski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature ageing progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are 1 weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and 2 disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both.

  5. Biomimetic Mussel Adhesive Inspired Clickable Anchors Applied to the Functionalization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldmann, Anja S.; Schoedel, Christine; Walther, Andreas; Yuan, Jiayin; Loos, Katja; Mueller, Axel H. E.; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2010-01-01

    The functionalization of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with dopamine-derived clickable biomimetic anchors is reported. Herein, an alkyne-modified catechol-derivative is employed as the anchor, as i) the catechol-functional anchor groups possess irreversible covalent binding affinity to Fe3O4 nanop

  6. Perception of the Raison d'Etre in Anchored Instruction: An Ecological Psychology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael F.; Barab, Sasha A.

    1999-01-01

    Anchored instruction calls for the establishment of a macrocontext to "anchor" instruction within a realistic situation. Evidence is provided that video anchors encourage students to adopt certain contrived goals over their more naturalistic goals. Suggests that goals that enable the problem solver to detect the "raison d'etre"…

  7. The influence of bone formation on anchoring percutaneous devices with titanium fibre mesh flanges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalabi, M.M.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    For man-made percutaneous devices (PD), it is known that anchoring will improve the clinical success. Previously, our Department has designed PDs that use a sheet of titanium (Ti) fibre mesh for anchoring. In nature, a very successful natural PD occurs, namely the tooth. Teeth are anchored in the al

  8. A group of 20 stone anchors from the waters of Dwarka, on the Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S; Sundaresh; Tripati, S; Gudigar, P.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S

    A large number of stone anchors were discovered in a water depth of 10-14 m off Dwarka during the 1998-99 season. The seabed near the anchors consists of a ledge with an average height of 1 m. Several anchors were found trapped between the rocks...

  9. Rapid Deterioration of the Anchor Performance of the Wind Turbine Caused by Liquid Water

    OpenAIRE

    千々和, 伸浩; Chijiwa, Nobuhiro; MAI, THI HONG; Mai.Thi, Hong; 岩波, 光保; Iwanami, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    In some wind turbines, it is found that sludge spouting on the tower foundation and the tower is lifted up just after several months have passed from starting service. Common characteristic of those wind turbine towers is that they are anchored to the foundation by anchor ring method. In anchor ring method, ring-shaped base plate welded to the wind turbine tower is expected to act as anchor in the foundation. It is suspected that liquid water may have some effect on such a kind of the anchor ...

  10. Research on roll stabilization for ships at anchor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hong-zhang; QI Zhi-gang; ZHOU Ting; Li Dong-song

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing importance of ocean exploitation,providing anti-rolling stability for ships at anchor has become more and more important. The lift-generation theory of traditional fin stabilizers is based on incoming flow velocity,which is not suitable for explaining lift generated at anchor. We analyzed non-steady flows,with forces on fin stabilizers generated by non-incoming flow velocity conditions,and gave a new lift-generation model. The correctness of the model was proven by comparing experimental results of fin stabilizer motion under non-incoming velocity conditions from the fluid computation software with that from the emulator of the lift-generation model. Finally,the model was used in an anti-rolling system on a ship and the reduction of roll was much better than what could be achieved by passive anti-rolling tanks.

  11. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam B.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability.

  12. Modification of the Bankart reconstruction using a suture anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, S M; Holtgrewe, J L; King, S

    1998-01-01

    A prospective study was done to determine the effectiveness of a suture anchor in doing a Modified Bankart Reconstruction on the traumatic unidirectional Bankart lesion shoulder. From 1989 to 1991, 26 patients encompassing 27 shoulders with recurrent instability had modified Bankart reconstructions. A minimum 18-month follow-up was obtained by examination of 24 patients with telephone interviews done on two patients. The average follow-up was 23.6 months. A 93.1% good-to-excellent result was obtained using the Bankart rating scale. There were no failures or complications. The surgeon involved in the study thought the suture anchor facilitated the attachment of the avulsed capsulolabral complex in doing the Bankart procedure.

  13. Optimization Analysis Model of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hangers of self-anchored suspension bridge need to be tensioned suitably during construction. In view of this point, a simplified optimization calculation method of cable force for self-anchored suspension bridge has been developed based on optimization theories, such as minimum bending energy method, and internal force balanced method, influence matrix method. Meanwhile, combined with the weak coherence of main cable and the adjacently interaction of hanger forces, a simplified analysis method is developed using MATLAB, which is then compared with the optimization method that consider the main cable's geometric nonlinearity with software ANSYS in an actual example bridge calculation. This contrast proves the weak coherence of main cable displacement and the limitation of the adjacent cable force influence. Furthermore, a tension program that is of great reference value has been developed; some important conclusions, advices, and attention points have been summarized.

  14. Mobile Anchor Assisted Node Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongyang; Huang, Pei; Poor, H Vincent; Sezaki, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a cooperative localization algorithm is proposed that considers the existence of obstacles in mobilityassisted wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this scheme, a mobile anchor (MA) node cooperates with static sensor nodes and moves actively to refine location performance. The localization accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be improved further by changing the transmission range of mobile anchor node. The algorithm takes advantage of cooperation betweenMAs and static sensors while, at the same time, taking into account the relay node availability to make the best use of beacon signals. For achieving high localization accuracy and coverage, a novel convex position estimation algorithm is proposed, which can effectively solve the localization problem when infeasible points occur because of the effects of radio irregularity and obstacles. This method is the only range-free based convex method to solve the localization problem when the feasible set of localization inequalities is empty. Simulatio...

  15. Conditional depletion of nuclear proteins by the Anchor Away system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaochun; Geisberg, Joseph V; Wong, Koon Ho; Jin, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear proteins play key roles in the regulation of many important cellular processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many genes encoding nuclear proteins are essential. This unit describes a method termed Anchor Away that can be used to conditionally and rapidly deplete nuclear proteins of interest. It involves conditional export of the protein of interest out of the nucleus and its subsequent sequestration in the cytoplasm. This method can be used to simultaneously deplete multiple proteins from the nucleus.

  16. Anchoring FRP laminates for the seismic strengthening of RC columns

    OpenAIRE

    Sadone, Raphaëlle; Quiertant, Marc; FERRIER, Emmanuel; Chataigner, Sylvain; Mercier, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of seismic strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) columns by externally bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP). Particularly, a novel strengthening system, designed for the flexural strengthening of columns is studied. This flexural strengthening is achieved by FRP plates bonded longitudinally and anchored at the column-stub junction. The proposed system is validated through an experimental campaign carried out on full-scale RC columns. Different...

  17. Effect of anchoring 4-anilidopiperidines to opioid peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Ravil R.; Lee, Yeon Sun; Vardanyan, Ruben S.; Liu, Lu; Ma, Shou-wu; Davis, Peg; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W.; Hruby, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the design, synthesis, and in vitro characterization of new opioid peptides featuring a 4-anilidopiperidine moiety. Despite the fact that the chemical structures of fentanyl surrogates have been found suboptimal per se for the opioid activity, the corresponding conjugates with opioid peptides displayed potent opioid activity. These studies shed an instructive light on the strategies and potential therapeutic values of anchoring the 4-anilidopiperidine scaffold to different classes of opioid peptides. PMID:23623418

  18. Robust dithiocarbamate-anchored amine functionalization of Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Robinson, Hans D.

    2011-02-01

    We introduce an effective and facile technique that achieves robust amine functionalization of Au nanoparticles by binding the polyamine poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) to the surface using a dithiocarbamate (DTC) modification of the side group amines. The DTC anchor confers superior short- and long-term colloidal stability compared to a physisorbed layer of the same polymer. We also demonstrate that the surface amines are available for further functionalization and that at least four alternately charged polyelectrolyte layers can be assembled onto the particles. The latter modification could not be performed on a physisorbed functional layer, so this demonstrates the effectiveness of the DTC groups in robustly anchoring the polymer to the particle surface. At the same time, the DTC-anchored polymer layer is less than 2 nm thick in the dry state. This is one-third of the thickness of a physisorbed polyamine layer deposited under the same conditions, and sufficiently thin that the plasmonic field enhancement on the metal particle remains accessible to the outside environment. We attribute the difference in thickness to multiple DTC bonds on each polymer chain forcing it into much closer conformity to the particle surface than in the physisorbed case.

  19. Phosphonate-anchored monolayers for antibody binding to magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty-Shamir, Helly; Gilert, Roni; Gotman, Irena; Gutmanas, Elazar Y; Sukenik, Chaim N

    2011-10-04

    Targeted delivery of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to a specific tissue can be achieved by conjugation with particular biological ligands on an appropriately functionalized IONP surface. To take best advantage of the unique magnetic properties of IONPs and to maximize their blood half-life, thin, strongly bonded, functionalized coatings are required. The work reported herein demonstrates the successful application of phosphonate-anchored self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as ultrathin coatings for such particles. It also describes a new chemical approach to the anchoring of antibodies on the surface of SAM-coated IONPs (using nucleophilic aromatic substitution). This anchoring strategy results in stable, nonhydrolyzable, covalent attachment and allows the reactivity of the particles toward antibody binding to be activated in situ, such that prior to the activation the modified surface is stable for long-term storage. While the SAMs do not have the well-packed crystallinity of other such monolayers, their structure was studied using smooth model substrates based on an iron oxide layer on a double-side polished silicon wafer. In this way, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, and contact angle goniometry (tools that could not be applied to the nanoparticles' surfaces) could contribute to the determination of their monomolecular thickness and uniformity. Finally, the successful conjugation of IgG antibodies to the SAM-coated IONPs such that the antibodies retain their biological activity is verified by their complexation to a secondary fluorescent antibody.

  20. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as amniocentesis had a significantly lower perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  1. Monitoring lipid anchor organization in cell membranes by PIE-FCCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triffo, Sara B; Huang, Hector H; Smith, Adam W; Chou, Eldon T; Groves, Jay T

    2012-07-04

    This study examines the dynamic co-localization of lipid-anchored fluorescent proteins in living cells using pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) and fluorescence lifetime analysis. Specifically, we look at the pairwise co-localization of anchors from lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK: myristoyl, palmitoyl, palmitoyl), RhoA (geranylgeranyl), and K-Ras (farnesyl) proteins in different cell types. In Jurkat cells, a density-dependent increase in cross-correlation among RhoA anchors is observed, while LCK anchors exhibit a more moderate increase and broader distribution. No correlation was detected among K-Ras anchors or between any of the different anchor types studied. Fluorescence lifetime data reveal no significant Förster resonance energy transfer in any of the data. In COS 7 cells, minimal correlation was detected among LCK or RhoA anchors. Taken together, these observations suggest that some lipid anchors take part in anchor-specific co-clustering with other existing clusters of native proteins and lipids in the membrane. Importantly, these observations do not support a simple interpretation of lipid anchor-mediated organization driven by partitioning based on binary lipid phase separation.

  2. Two-Dimensional Large Deformation Finite Element Analysis for the Pulling-up of Plate Anchor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; HU Yu-xia; JIN Xia

    2006-01-01

    Based on mesh regeneration and stress interpolation from an old mesh to a new one, a large deformation finite element model is developed for the study of the behaviour of circular plate anchors subjected to uplift loading. For the determination of the distributions of stress components across a clay foundation, the Recovery by Equilibrium in Patches is extended to plastic analyses. ABAQUS, a commercial finite element package, is customized and linked into our program so as to keep automatic and efficient running of large deformation calculation. The quality of stress interpolation is testified by evaluations of Tresca stress and nodal reaction forces. The complete pulling-up processes of plate anchors buried in homogeneous clay are simulated, and typical pulling force-displacement responses of a deep anchor and a shallow anchor are compared. Different from the results of previous studies, large deformation analysis is of the capability of estimating the breakaway between the anchor bottom and soils. For deep anchors, the variation of mobilized uplift resistance with anchor settlement is composed of three stages, and the initial buried depths of anchors affect the separation embedment slightly. The uplift bearing capacity of deep anchors is usually higher than that of shallow anchors.

  3. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising.

  4. Clinical Outcomes After Suture Anchor Repair of Recalcitrant Medial Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian M; Fabricant, Peter D; Chin, Christopher S; Allen, Answorth A; DePalma, Brian J; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical and patient-reported outcomes and return to sport after surgical treatment of medial epicondylitis with suture anchor fixation. Consecutive patients were evaluated after undergoing debridement and suture anchor repair of the flexor-pronator mass for the treatment of medial epicondylitis. Demographic variables, a short version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score, Oxford Elbow Score (OES), and 10-point pain and satisfaction scales were collected. Ability and time to return to sport after surgery were evaluated, and the relationship between predictor variables and both elbow function and return to sport was investigated. Median age at the time of surgery was 55 years (range, 29-65 years), with median follow-up of 40 months (range, 12-67 months). Median QuickDASH score and OES at final follow-up were 2.3 (range, 0-38.6) and 45 (range, 22-48), respectively. Most patients returned to premorbid sporting activities at a median of 4.5 months (range, 2.5-12 months), whereas 4 patients (14%) reported significant limitations at final follow-up. Older age at the time of surgery was predictive of better QuickDASH score and OES (P=.05 and P=.02, respectively). Patients who underwent surgery after a shorter duration of symptoms had better outcomes, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (QuickDASH, P=.09; OES, P=.10). Surgical treatment of recalcitrant medial epicondylitis with suture anchor fixation offers good pain relief and patient satisfaction, with little residual disability. Older age at the time of surgery predicts a better outcome.

  5. Geological significance of stone anchors from Dwarka waters, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.

    as an offshore extension of routine, land based archaeology, the field of marine archaeology is increasing with advent of technology and interaction with other disciplines. of science, especially marine sciences. Aspects such as change of sea level...-ray Diffractometry (XRD) for identification of the mineral phases. A total of 122 anchors were collected of various shapes and sizes. The 25 rounded or ring stones (Pl. 42) are 30-70 cm in diameter, 34 triangular (PI. 43) ones are 180 cm to 55 cm long while...

  6. Anchoring a Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar for Discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Bryan R; Webber, Bonnie Lynn; Joshi, Aravind K.

    1998-01-01

    We here explore a ``fully'' lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar for discourse that takes the basic elements of a (monologic) discourse to be not simply clauses, but larger structures that are anchored on variously realized discourse cues. This link with intra-sentential grammar suggests an account for different patterns of discourse cues, while the different structures and operations suggest three separate sources for elements of discourse meaning: (1) a compositional semantics tied to the basic trees and operations; (2) a presuppositional semantics carried by cue phrases that freely adjoin to trees; and (3) general inference, that draws additional, defeasible conclusions that flesh out what is conveyed compositionally.

  7. Anchor-based English-Chinese Bilingual Chunk Alignment Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU We-lin; CHENG Chang-sheng; XU Liang-xian; LU Ru-zhan

    2005-01-01

    Chunk alignment for the bilingual corpus is the base of Example-based Machine Translation. An anchor-based English-Chinese bilingual chunk alignment model and the corresponding algorithm of alignment are presented in this paper. It can effectively overcome the sparse data problem due to the limited size of the bilingual corpus. In this model, the chunk segmentation disambiguation is delayed to the alignment process, and hence the accuracy of chunk segmentation is improved. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and viability of this model.

  8. Results of Some Uplift Capacity Tests on Direct Embedment Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    should be expected to vary from those of the terrestrial tesis above. The analysis of direct embedment anchor-holding capacity is complicated by the...was conducted north of the Puerto Rico trench in 5,500 m (18,000 ft) in a pelagic clay or "red clay" deposit. Water contents in the upper 1.2 m (4 ft...north of Puerto Rico Trench. S6 - -~ ~-~d- 70. 60 20 60 j - 12 18 5 fluke 16 embedaent - 10 -0 340 6- -20 20,--6 4 - 10- ൟ 0g 30 2 3 4 5 6 7 4i Time

  9. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-01

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level.There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The

  10. Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave for Empirical Elastic Design of Anchored Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helical anchors are vital support components for power transmission lines. Failure of a single anchor can lead to the loss of an entire transmission line structure which results in the loss of power for downstream community. Despite being important, it is not practical to use conventional borehole method of subsurface exploration, which is labor intensive and costly, for estimating soil properties and anchor holding capacity. This paper describes the use of an empirical and elasticity-based design technique coupled with the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW technique to provide subsurface information for anchor foundation designs. Based on small-strain wave propagation, SASW determines shear wave velocity profile which is then correlated to anchor holding capacity. A pilot project involving over 400 anchor installations has been performed and demonstrated that such technique is reliable and can be implemented into transmission line structure designs.

  11. Seismic Behavior and Modeling of Anchored Nonstructural Components Considering the Influence of Cyclic Cracks

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Derrick Andrew

    2011-01-01

    During an earthquake, reinforced concrete members in a building will suffer cracking that oscillates as the building dynamically deforms. Equipment that services the building, such as mechanical and electrical items, are anchored to these components, and therefore will be subjected to this dynamic environment. Despite understanding this practical loading situation, as well as recognizing that anchor load capacity is significantly reduced when an anchor is embedded in cracked concrete, there r...

  12. Membrane curvature enables N-Ras lipid anchor sorting to liquid-ordered membrane phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jannik Bruun; Jensen, Martin Borch; Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller;

    2015-01-01

    Trafficking and sorting of membrane-anchored Ras GTPases are regulated by partitioning between distinct membrane domains. Here, in vitro experiments and microscopic molecular theory reveal membrane curvature as a new modulator of N-Ras lipid anchor and palmitoyl chain partitioning. Membrane...... curvature was essential for enrichment in raft-like liquid-ordered phases; enrichment was driven by relief of lateral pressure upon anchor insertion and most likely affects the localization of lipidated proteins in general....

  13. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah E Oliver

    Full Text Available A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42 has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.

  14. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N.; Carson, Martin L.; Rines, Howard W.; Obert, Donald E.; Lutz, Joseph D.; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B.; Wight, Charlene P.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D.; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J. Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Howarth, Catherine J.; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L.; McMullen, Michael S.; Murphy, J. Paul; Ohm, Herbert W.; Rossnagel, Brian G.; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J.; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J.; Redman Hulse, Rachel R.; Anderson, Joseph M.; Islamovic, Emir

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  15. Glucosamine-Anchored Graphene Oxide Nanosheets: Fabrication, Ultraviolet Irradiation, and Electrochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Lévaray, Nicolas; Lee, Min-Ho; Giasson, Suzanne; Zhu, X X

    2015-07-15

    A biofunctionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet with improved physicochemical properties is useful for electrocatalysis and sensor development. Herein, a new class of functionalized GO with a chemically anchored biomolecule glucosamine is developed. Structural and chemical analyses confirm the glucosamine anchoring. Ultraviolet irradiation transforms the surface chemistry of GO. Glucosamine-anchored GO nanosheets exhibit improved cyclic voltammetric and amperometric sensing activity toward the model redox probe, ruthenium(II) and N-acetylneuraminic acid, respectively. The biomolecular anchoring and ultraviolet irradiation helped to tune and enhance the properties of GO, which may find multiple applications in optimizing sensor platforms.

  16. Optimization of Dead Load State in Earth-Anchored Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Sun∗; Rucheng Xiao

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the reasonable completed dead load state in earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridges, a practical method is proposed. The method is based on the rigidly supported continuous beam method and the feasible zone method, emphasizing on the mutual effect between the self⁃anchored structural parts and the earth⁃anchored ones. Three cable⁃stayed bridge models are designed with the main spans of 1 400 m, including a partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge, a cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge and a fully self⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge, in which the C50 concrete and Q345 steel are adopted. The partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge and the cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge secure lower compressive force in the girder than the fully self⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge by 25 percent at least. The same is for the material consumption of the whole bridge. Furthermore, the anchor volume is more than 20% lower in the partially earth⁃anchored cable⁃stayed bridge than that in the cable⁃stayed⁃suspension bridge. Consequently, the practical span of cable⁃stayed bridges can be accordingly extended.

  17. Suture anchor repair of quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won B; Kamath, Atul F; Israelite, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a devastating complication, usually requiring surgical repair. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for repair of the ruptured native knee quadriceps tendon, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in quadriceps repair after TKA. We present an illustrative case of successful suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps mechanism after TKA. The procedure has been performed in a total of 3 patients. A surgical technique and brief review of the literature follows. Suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps tendon is a viable option in the setting of rupture after TKA.

  18. Suture anchor versus suture through tunnel fixation for quadriceps tendon rupture: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighthart, William A; Cohen, David A; Levine, Richard G; Parks, Brent G; Boucher, Henry R

    2008-05-01

    This biomechanical study compared suture anchors versus transosseous sutures for repair of quadriceps tendon ruptures using a force of 150 N at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. No significant difference in displacement was found between the 2 techniques with initial loading or with load or no load after 1000 cycles. Displacement after 1000 cycles for suture anchors and bone tunnels was 4.65 and 4.50 mm, respectively. These findings suggest a possible role for suture anchors in repairing quadriceps tendon ruptures. Suture anchors are relatively expensive but require less dissection over the patella and do not involve suture placement about the patella tendon.

  19. Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting Ultimate Tensile Capacity of Adhesive Anchors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bo; WU Zhi-min; SONG Zhi-fei

    2007-01-01

    To predict the tensile capacity of adhesive anchors, a multilayered feed-forward neural network trained with the backpropagation algorithm is constructed. The ANN model have 5 inputs, including the compressive strength of concrete, tensile strength of concrete, anchor diameter, hole diameter, embedment of anchors, and ultimate load. The predictions obtained from the trained ANN show a good agreement with the experiments. Meanwhile, the predicted ultinate tensile capacity of anchors is close to the one calculated from the strength formula of the combined cone-bond failure model.

  20. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control.

  1. Post-installed concrete anchors in nuclear power plants: Performance and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrenholtz, Philipp, E-mail: philipp@mahrenholtz.net; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Review of qualification and design regulations for anchors in nuclear power plants. • First complete set of nuclear anchor load–displacement data and its evaluation ever. • Demonstration of robust test behavior of a qualified post-installed anchor product. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants (NPPs), post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and non-structural connections to concrete. In many countries, anchor products employed for safety relevant applications have to be approved by the authorities. For the high safety standards in force for NPPs, special requirements have to be met to allow for extreme design situations. This paper presents an experimental test program conducted to evaluate the performance of anchors according to the German Guideline for Anchorages in Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Technology Installations (DIBt KKW Leitfaden, 2010). After a brief introduction to anchor behavior and the regulative context, the results of tension and shear tests carried out on undercut anchors are discussed. Robust load capacities and relatively small displacements determined for demanding load and crack cycling tests demonstrated the suitability of anchors qualified according to a state-of-the-art qualification guideline.

  2. Bone anchor systems for orthodontic application: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, W K; Chua, H D P; Cheung, L K

    2012-11-01

    This systematic review was performed to investigate the usefulness and clinical effectiveness of skeletal anchorage devices to determine the most effective bone anchor system for orthodontic tooth movement. Literature on bone anchorage devices was selected from PubMed and the Cochrane Library from January 1966 to June 2010. 55 publications regarding miniplates, miniscrews, palatal implants and dental implants as orthodontic anchorage were identified for further analysis. All bone anchorage devices were found to have relatively high success rates and demonstrated their ability to provide absolute anchorage for orthodontic tooth movement. Significant tooth movement could be achieved with low morbidities and good patient acceptance. The reported success rates for the four groups of anchorage systems were generally high with slight variability (miniplates 91.4-100%; palatal implants 74-93.3%; miniscrews 61-100%; dental implants 100%). It was concluded that bone anchorage systems can achieve effective orthodontic movement with low morbidities. The success rate is generally high with slight variability between miniplates, palatal implants, miniscrews and dental implants. Owing to the lack of randomized controlled trials, there is no strong evidence to confirm which bone anchor system is the most effective for orthodontic tooth movement.

  3. Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

  4. 'Saurashtra stone anchors' (Ring-stones) from Dwarka and Somnath, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    , Vijaydurg and Sindhudurg in Maharashtra. A few grapnel-type stone anchors have been reported from Lakshadweep and from Tamil Nadu coast. The majority of stone anchors from Gujarat fall in three categories: (1) composite, (2) grapnel, and (3) ring stone types...

  5. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-03-07

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians' motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian's trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  6. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs, by putting constraints on pedestrians’ motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian’s trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory and maps (anchors problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  7. Career Anchors: Distribution and Impact on Job Satisfaction, the Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, Nira; Valency, Rony

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the career anchor concept developed by Edgar Schein. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on the distribution of the eight career anchors, on a large heterogeneous sample and the differences in the distribution by gender and type of employment; and the impact of the congruence on job…

  8. MODIFICATION OF PALLADIUM METALLIC CATALYST WITH POLYMER-ANCHORED THIOETHER LIGANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hanfan; MAO Guoping

    1993-01-01

    A well-dispersed metallic palladium catalyst modified by polymer-anchored thioether ligands was used for the hydrogenation of cyclopentadiene to cyclopentene with high activity and selectivity in ambient condition. The evidences to show the modification of catalytic properties by polymer anchored ligands were given.

  9. Origins of the Stuttering Stereotype: Stereotype Formation through Anchoring-Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Sean P.; Hall, Shera; MacIntyre, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    The stereotype of people who stutter is predominantly negative, holding that stutterers are excessively nervous, anxious, and reserved. The anchoring-adjustment hypothesis suggests that the stereotype of stuttering arises from a process of first anchoring the stereotype in personal feelings during times of normal speech disfluency, and then…

  10. Effects of Anchored Instruction on Enhancing Chinese Students' Problem-Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    This study investigates the effects of computer-aided videodisc-based anchored instruction on promoting elementary school students' problem-solving skills in Taiwan. Anchored instruction combines theories such as situated cognition, cognitive apprenticeship, cooperative learning, and constructivist theories. With the help of interactive videodisc…

  11. Using Video-Based Anchored Instruction To Enhance Learning: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih Cindy

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the effects of computer-assisted videodisc-based anchored instruction on attitudes toward mathematics and instruction as well as problem-solving skills among Taiwanese elementary students. Findings suggest that video-based anchored instruction provided a more motivating environment that enhanced students'…

  12. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  13. A Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with University General Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, John; Malone, D. Michael; Stecker, Pamela M.; Greene, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a traditional instructional format and technology-enhanced anchored instruction on the immediate and long-term acquisition of knowledge was evaluated with 100 university students in a special-education course. The CD-ROM-based anchored-instruction group outperformed the traditional instruction group on the multiple-choice follow-up test…

  14. Anchored Instruction: A Model for Integrating the Language Arts through Content Area Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Michael E.; Mitchell, Judith P.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a description of anchored instruction, a model of curriculum integration combined with inquiry learning that builds prior knowledge and engages students in the application of the language arts. Sets out the eight steps involved in creating an anchored instruction unit. (SR)

  15. The Effects of Technology-Enhanced Anchored Instruction on the Knowledge of Preservice Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, John; Malone, D. Michael; Clinton, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    The immediate and long-term acquisition of knowledge of 37 students divided into two groups (nonanchored instruction and anchored instruction) was explored. Although no differences between the two groups on the posttest immediately following the lectures was noted, the anchored instruction group outperformed the nonanchored group on the eight-week…

  16. Preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge are described. Static per-formance of this new type of bridge is discussed. Compared with fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge, its advantages in fin-ished state are summarized. Based on numerical calculation, effects of several structural parameters on static performance are presented.

  17. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jimin, E-mail: jimin.wang@yale.edu; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo, E-mail: yorgo.modis@yale.edu

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  18. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  19. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal...

  20. Anchoring Effects on Prospective and Retrospective Metacomprehension Judgments as a Function of Peer Performance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate anchoring effects on metacomprehension judgments as a function of fictitious information participants received about past peer performance. In Experiment 1 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three anchor groups that, in some cases, provided past peer performance averages in terms of a…

  1. The use of suture anchors to repair the ruptured quadriceps tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D; Whitener, George B; Rubright, James H; Creighton, R Alexander; Logel, Kevin J; Wood, Mark L

    2007-07-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture is an incapacitating injury that usually requires surgical repair. Traditional repair methods involve transpatellar suture tunnels, but recent reports have introduced the idea of using suture anchors to repair the ruptured tendon. We present 5 cases of our technique of using suture anchors to repair the ruptured quadriceps tendon.

  2. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  3. Rapid Naming Deficits in Dyslexia: A Stumbling Block for the Perceptual Anchor Theory of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, Gloria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    According to a recent theory of dyslexia, the "perceptual anchor theory," children with dyslexia show deficits in classic auditory and phonological tasks not because they have auditory or phonological impairments but because they are unable to form a "perceptual anchor" in tasks that rely on a small set of repeated stimuli. The theory makes the…

  4. Stone anchors from Sindhudurg Fort on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.

    , of which there are triangular and three grapnet-type, used to construct the jetty along with the locally available sand stone. The two remaining grapnet-type anchors are erected on the jetty for mooring purposes. It is found that none of the anchors were...

  5. [Refixation of sternoclavicular luxation with a suture anchor system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, W; Laskowski, J; Grossterlinden, L; Rueger, J M

    2010-05-01

    Luxations of the sternoclavicular joint are rare injuries. We present a case of anterior dislocation which was caused by a minor fall onto the right shoulder. Diagnosis was delayed by 2 weeks which prevented treatment by closed reduction. As an alternative surgical treatment a PDS cord around the clavicle and the first rib was used to stabilize the clavicle at the vertical level. Subsequently, fixation to the medial side was achieved by a suture anchor that was placed into the manubrium. The presented case highlights this simple and safe method to treat dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint in which standard treatment cannot be performed. A detailed description for each operation step is given and our experience in terms of aftercare and outcome is reported.

  6. Codend selectivity in a commercial Danish anchor seine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noack, Thomas; Frandsen, Rikke; Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    2017-01-01

    Danish seining (or anchor seining) is a fishing technique that is gaining increasing attention because itis considered to be a fuel-efficient fishing method with low environmental impact. However, scientificdocumentation of the selectivity characteristics of Danish seines is lacking, and the gear...... generally isgrouped with bottom trawls and Scottish seines in fisheries management legislation. In this study, wedeveloped a codend cover to estimate the selectivity of a standard commercial Danish seine codendfor four fish species. The data for the dominant species, dab (Limanda limanda) and plaice...... (Pleuronectesplatessa), was best described by models that combine two or three logistic models, which indicated thatmore than one selection process was at work. Selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) was best described by aRichard curve and selectivity of red gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucernus) by a logistic curve...

  7. Ideological Differences in Anchoring and Adjustment During Social Inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V

    2016-09-08

    Recent research has demonstrated that conservatives perceive greater similarity to political ingroup members than do liberals. In two studies, we draw from a framework of "anchoring and adjustment" to understand why liberals and conservatives differ in their perceptions of ingroup similarity. Results indicate that when participants made judgments under time pressure, liberals and conservatives did not differ in assuming ingroup similarity. However, when participants were given sufficient time to make judgments, liberals assumed less similarity than conservatives did, suggesting that liberals adjusted their judgments to a greater extent than conservatives did (Studies 1 and 2). In examining an underlying motivational process, we found that when conservatives' desire to affiliate with others was attenuated, they adjusted their initial judgments of ingroup similarity to a similar extent as liberals did (Study 2). We discuss implications for research on ideology and social judgment.

  8. Robust conductance of dumbbell molecular junctions with fullerene anchoring groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Settnes, Mikkel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    The conductance of a molecular wire connected to metallic electrodes is known to be sensitive to the atomic structure of the molecule-metal contact. This contact is to a large extent determined by the anchoring group linking the molecular wire to the metal. It has been found experimentally...... support the original motivation to achieve conductance values more stable towards changes in the structure of the molecule-metal contact leading to larger reproducibility in experiments. © 2011 American Institute of Physics....... against variations in the detailed bonding geometry and in good agreement with the experimental value of G= 3 × 10-4G0. Electron tunneling across the molecular bridge occurs via the lowest unoccupied orbitals of C60 which are pinned close to the Fermi energy due to partial charge transfer. Our findings...

  9. Anchoring FRP Composite Armor in Flexible Offshore Riser Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei

    capabilities.The structure of flexible pipes consists of several concentric layers, each with a specific purpose. The most common used flexible pipe is the type III, which contains a central component, made from an interlocking stainless steel structure that provides collapse strength. The central component...... armor layer is made from steel. However, as oil exploitation goes to deeper and deeper waters, the strength/weight ratio of steel armor become sunfavorable. In order to achieve higher tensile strength and to reduce the overall weight of the pipe, in the future, the tensile armor must be made...... of composite materials. One of the problems related to the substitution of tensile steel members is that anchoring in the metallic end fittings of the pipe is very challenging.The purpose of this thesis is to ensure the transfer of tensile loads between a unidirectional fiber reinforced polymer and a metallic...

  10. Anchor cell invasion into the vulval epithelium in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, David R; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-07-01

    An understanding of cell-invasive behavior has been limited by the lack of in vivo models where this activity can be clearly visualized and manipulated. We show that a single cell in the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad, the anchor cell (AC), initiates uterine-vulval contact through a cell invasion event. Using genetic analysis, laser ablations, and cell-specific markers, we demonstrate that AC invasion is predominantly stimulated by the 1 degrees vulval lineage cells, which generate a diffusible signal that promotes AC invasive behavior toward these cells and further targets invasive processes between the two central 1 degrees vulval lineage cells. We also show that AC invasion is regulated by the AC response to this cue, as well as a vulval-independent mechanism that weakly drives invasion. These studies dissect the regulatory mechanisms that underlie a simple cell-invasive behavior in vivo, and introduce AC invasion as a model for understanding key checkpoints controlling cell invasion.

  11. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used

  12. Molecular interactions of the neuronal GPI-anchored lipocalin Lazarillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diego; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Akerström, Bo; Herrera, Macarena; Bastiani, Michael J; Ganfornina, Maria D

    2008-01-01

    Lazarillo, a glycoprotein involved in axon growth and guidance in the grasshopper embryo, is the only member of the lipocalin family that is attached to the cell surface by a GPI anchor. Recently, the study of Lazarillo homologous genes in Drosophila and mouse has revealed new functions in the regulation of lifespan, stress resistance and neurodegeneration. Here we report an analysis of biochemical properties of Lazarillo to gain insight into the molecular basis of its physiological function. Recombinant forms of the grasshopper protein were expressed in two different systems to test: (1) potential binding of several hydrophobic ligands; (2) protein-protein homophilic interactions; and (3) whether interaction with the function-blocking mAb 10E6 interferes with ligand binding. We tested 10 candidate ligands (retinoic acid, heme, bilirubin, biliverdin, ecdysterone, juvenile hormone, farnesol, arachidonic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid), and monitored binding using electrophoretic mobility shift, absorbance spectrum, and fluorimetry assays. Our work indicates binding to heme and retinoic acid, resulting in increased electrophoretic mobility, as well as to fatty acids, resulting in multimerization. Retinoic acid and fatty acids binding were confirmed by fluorescence titration, and heme binding was confirmed with absorbance spectrum assays. We demonstrate that Lazarillo oligomerizes in solution and can form clusters in the plasma membrane when expressed and GPI-anchored to the cell surface, however it is unable to mediate cell-cell adhesion. Finally, by ligand-mAb competition experiments we show that ligand-binding alone cannot be the key factor for Lazarillo to perform its function during axonal growth in the grasshopper embryo.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  14. Vibration Characteristic of Anchoring System of Bolt and Elastic Wave Propagation Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng; LI Yi; NING Jian-guo; LIN Hua-chang

    2006-01-01

    Based on one-dimension wave theory, the propagation law of elastic wave along the rock bolt, rock medium and their coupling system are researched, and the attenuation law and propagation mechanism of wave in the anchoring system are obtained. Meanwhile, the studies on end reflection and dynamic response under load are also carried out experimentally, the relationship between anchoring length and excited wave length is obtained when the end reflection of bolt emerges, and it is concluded that under the condition of bolt loaded,as the load increases, the reflection of the upper interface of anchoring segment weakens while the end reflection strengthens relatively, hence the energy attenuation increases. These results provide some important theory basis for measuring the effective anchoring length of bolt, judging the bonding quality of anchoring end and surrounding rock, and estimating the utmost load force of bolt.

  15. Functionalized Nanostructures: Redox-Active Porphyrin Anchors for Supramolecular DNA Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Börjesson, Karl

    2010-09-28

    We have synthesized and studied a supramolecular system comprising a 39-mer DNA with porphyrin-modified thymidine nucleosides anchored to the surface of large unilamellar vesicles (liposomes). Liposome porphyrin binding characteristics, such as orientation, strength, homogeneity, and binding site size, was determined, suggesting that the porphyrin is well suited as a photophysical and redox-active lipid anchor, in comparison to the inert cholesterol anchor commonly used today. Furthermore, the binding characteristics and hybridization capabilities were studied as a function of anchor size and number of anchoring points, properties that are of importance for our future plans to use the addressability of these redox-active nodes in larger DNA-based nanoconstructs. Electron transfer from photoexcited porphyrin to a lipophilic benzoquinone residing in the lipid membrane was characterized by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and verified by femtosecond transient absorption. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. The portion size effect on food intake. An anchoring and adjustment process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K; Klein, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    People consistently over-eat when served a large compared with a small (appropriate) portion of food. However, the mechanism underlying this so-called portion size effect is not well understood. We argue that the process of anchoring and adjustment naturally describes this effect, such that the size of a presented portion works as an anchor that strongly influences consumption. The classical anchoring and adjustment paradigm was applied to six hypothetical eating situations. Participants were asked to imagine being served either a small or a large portion of food (i.e., low and high anchor) and to indicate whether they would consume more or less than this amount. Then, they indicated how much they would eat. These estimates were compared with a no-anchor condition where participants did not imagine a specific portion size but only indicated how much they would eat. In addition, half of participants in the anchoring conditions received a discounting instruction stating that the portion size they had been asked to imagine was randomly selected and thus not informative for their consumption estimate. As expected, participants who imagined to be served larger portions estimated to consume significantly more food than participants in the no-anchor condition, and participants who imagined to be served smaller portions estimated to consume significantly less food than participants in the no-anchor condition. The discounting manipulation did not reduce this effect of the anchors. We suggest that the process of anchoring and adjustment may provide a useful framework to understand the portion size effect and we discuss implications of this perspective.

  17. Incorporation of Ceramides into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins Can Be Monitored In Vitro▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Régine; Guillas, Isabelle; Vionnet, Christine; Roubaty, Carole; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    After glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are added to GPI proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fatty acid of the diacylglycerol moiety is exchanged for a C26:0 fatty acid through the subsequent actions of Per1 and Gup1. In most GPI anchors this modified diacylglycerol-based anchor is subsequently transformed into a ceramide-containing anchor, a reaction which requires Cwh43. Here we show that the last step of this GPI anchor lipid remodeling can be monitored in microsomes. The assay uses microsomes from cells that have been grown in the presence of myriocin, a compound that blocks the biosynthesis of dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and thus inhibits the biosynthesis of ceramide-based anchors. Such microsomes, when incubated with [3H]DHS, generate radiolabeled, ceramide-containing anchor lipids of the same structure as made by intact cells. Microsomes from cwh43Δ or mcd4Δ mutants, which are unable to make ceramide-based anchors in vivo, do not incorporate [3H]DHS into anchors in vitro. Moreover, gup1Δ microsomes incorporate [3H]DHS into the same abnormal anchor lipids as gup1Δ cells synthesize in vivo. Thus, the in vitro assay of ceramide incorporation into GPI anchors faithfully reproduces the events that occur in mutant cells. Incorporation of [3H]DHS into GPI proteins is observed with microsomes alone, but the reaction is stimulated by cytosol or bovine serum albumin, ATP plus coenzyme A (CoA), or C26:0-CoA, particularly if microsomes are depleted of acyl-CoA. Thus, [3H]DHS cannot be incorporated into proteins in the absence of acyl-CoA. PMID:19074599

  18. Incorporation of ceramides into Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins can be monitored in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Régine; Guillas, Isabelle; Vionnet, Christine; Roubaty, Carole; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    After glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are added to GPI proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fatty acid of the diacylglycerol moiety is exchanged for a C(26:0) fatty acid through the subsequent actions of Per1 and Gup1. In most GPI anchors this modified diacylglycerol-based anchor is subsequently transformed into a ceramide-containing anchor, a reaction which requires Cwh43. Here we show that the last step of this GPI anchor lipid remodeling can be monitored in microsomes. The assay uses microsomes from cells that have been grown in the presence of myriocin, a compound that blocks the biosynthesis of dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and thus inhibits the biosynthesis of ceramide-based anchors. Such microsomes, when incubated with [(3)H]DHS, generate radiolabeled, ceramide-containing anchor lipids of the same structure as made by intact cells. Microsomes from cwh43Delta or mcd4Delta mutants, which are unable to make ceramide-based anchors in vivo, do not incorporate [(3)H]DHS into anchors in vitro. Moreover, gup1Delta microsomes incorporate [(3)H]DHS into the same abnormal anchor lipids as gup1Delta cells synthesize in vivo. Thus, the in vitro assay of ceramide incorporation into GPI anchors faithfully reproduces the events that occur in mutant cells. Incorporation of [(3)H]DHS into GPI proteins is observed with microsomes alone, but the reaction is stimulated by cytosol or bovine serum albumin, ATP plus coenzyme A (CoA), or C(26:0)-CoA, particularly if microsomes are depleted of acyl-CoA. Thus, [(3)H]DHS cannot be incorporated into proteins in the absence of acyl-CoA.

  19. Convenient synthesis and application of versatile nucleic acid lipid membrane anchors in the assembly and fusion of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Oliver; Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Vogel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic moieties like lipid membrane anchors are highly demanded modifications for nucleic acid oligomers. Membrane-anchor modified oligonucleotides are applicable in biomedicine leading to new delivery strategies as well as in biophysical investigations towards assembly and fusion of liposom...

  20. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  1. Measuring the Activity of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2: A Kinase Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Dae; Li, Xiaojie; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has multiple functional domains including a kinase domain. The kinase activity of LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Developing an assay to understand the mechanisms of LRRK2 kinase activity is important for the development of pharmacologic and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe how to measure in vitro LRRK2 kinase activity and its inhibition. PMID:21960214

  2. Career Anchors and the Effects of Downsizing: Implications for Generations and Cultures at Work. A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Verena; Bonner, Dede

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience, and the impact of career planning on downsizing were examined with data from 423 management students (49% had been downsized). Lifestyle was the most valued anchor across age groups, stability/security the least; compared with Schein's earlier anchors research,…

  3. The Place of White in a World of Grays: A Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt…

  4. Theoretical analysis of a new segmented anchoring style in weakly cemented soft surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zenghui; Wang Weiming; Wang Lihua

    2016-01-01

    According to the tensile failure of rock bolt in weakly cemented soft rock, this paper presents a new seg-mented anchoring style in order to weaken the cumulative effect of anchoring force associated with the large deformation. Firstly, a segmented mechanical model was established in which free and anchoring section of rock bolt were respectively arranged in different deformation zones. Then, stress and displace-ment in elastic non-anchoring zone, elastic anchoring zone, elastic sticking zone, softening sticking zone and broken zone were derived respectively based on neural theory and tri-linear strain softening constitutive model of soft rock. Results show that the anchoring effect can be characterized by a supporting parameter β. With its increase, the peak value of tangential stress gradually moves to the roadway wall, and the radial stress significantly increases, which means the decrease of equivalent plastic zone and improvement of confining effect provided by anchorage body. When β increases to 0.72, the equivalent plastic zone disappears, and stresses tend to be the elastic solutions. In addition, the anchoring effect on the displacement of surrounding rock can be quantified by a normalization factorδ.

  5. Modified method for external attachment of transmitters to birds using two subcutaneous anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T.L.; Flint, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Of the transmitter attachment techniques for birds, the subcutaneous anchor provides a secure attachment that yields relatively few secondary effects. However, the use of subcutaneous anchors has been limited by transmitter size and retention time. Using a modified method of attachment that utilized two subcutaneous anchors, we deployed 69 GPS transmitters, plus 13 VHF transmitters that were similar in size and weight to GPS models, on Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Prior to our study, only harnesses were used for attaching GPS transmitters on birds, mainly because GPS transmitters are too large for other external attachment techniques and implantation in the body cavity attenuates the GPS signal. Thus, to increase the size capacity of anchor attachment and to avoid the well-documented negative effects of harnesses on behavior and survival, we added a second anchor at the transmitter's posterior end. The double-anchor attachment technique was quickly and easily accomplished in the field, requiring bird handling times of killed by hunters (3-6 mo after deployment) retained their GPS transmitters. For studies involving the use of relatively large transmitters, the double-anchor method appears to provide a viable alternative for external attachment. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  6. Rock engineering design of post-tensioned anchors for dams e A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.T. Brown

    2015-01-01

    abstract High-capacity, post-tensioned anchors have found wide-spread use, originally in initial dam design and construction, and more recently in the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete dams to meet modern design and safety standards. Despite the advances that have been made in rock mechanics and rock engineering during the last 80 years in which post-tensioned anchors have been used in dam en-gineering, some aspects of the rock engineering design of high-capacity rock anchors for dams have changed relatively little over the last 30 or 40 years. This applies, in particular, to the calculations usually carried out to establish the grouted embedment lengths required for deep, post-tensioned anchors. These calculations usually make simplified assumptions about the distribution and values of rockegrout interface shear strengths, the shape of the volume of rock likely to be involved in uplift failure under the influence of a system of post-tensioned anchors, and the mechanism of that failure. The resulting designs are generally conservative. It is concluded that these aspects of the rock engineering design of large, post-tensioned rock anchors for dams can be significantly improved by making greater use of modern, comprehensive, numerical analyses in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D) models of the rock mass structure, realistic rock and rock mass properties, and the results of prototype anchor tests in the rock mass concerned.

  7. Anchoring effects in the judgment of confidence: semantic or numeric priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven R; Petrusic, William M; Leth-Steensen, Craig

    2009-02-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have debated whether anchoring effects are the result of semantic or numeric priming. The present study tested both hypotheses. In four experiments involving a sensory detection task, participants first made a relative confidence judgment by deciding whether they were more or less confident than an anchor value in the correctness of their decision. Subsequently, they expressed an absolute level of confidence. In two of these experiments, the relative confidence anchor values represented the midpoints between the absolute confidence scale values, which were either explicitly numeric or semantic, nonnumeric representations of magnitude. In two other experiments, the anchor values were drawn from a scale modally different from that used to express the absolute confidence (i.e., nonnumeric and numeric, respectively, or vice versa). Regardless of the nature of the anchors, the mean confidence ratings revealed anchoring effects only when the relative and absolute confidence values were drawn from identical scales. Together, the results of these four experiments limit the conditions under which both numeric and semantic priming would be expected to lead to anchoring effects.

  8. Aurora A kinase regulates proper spindle positioning in C. elegans and in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotak, Sachin; Afshar, Katayon; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Accurate spindle positioning is essential for error-free cell division. The one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo has proven instrumental for dissecting mechanisms governing spindle positioning. Despite important progress, how the cortical forces that act on astral microtubules to properly position the spindle are modulated is incompletely understood. Here, we report that the PP6 phosphatase PPH-6 and its associated subunit SAPS-1, which positively regulate pulling forces acting on spindle poles, associate with the Aurora A kinase AIR-1 in C. elegans embryos. We show that acute inactivation of AIR-1 during mitosis results in excess pulling forces on astral microtubules. Furthermore, we uncover that AIR-1 acts downstream of PPH-6-SAPS-1 in modulating spindle positioning, and that PPH-6-SAPS-1 negatively regulates AIR-1 localization at the cell cortex. Moreover, we show that Aurora A and the PP6 phosphatase subunit PPP6C are also necessary for spindle positioning in human cells. There, Aurora A is needed for the cortical localization of NuMA and dynein during mitosis. Overall, our work demonstrates that Aurora A kinases and PP6 phosphatases have an ancient function in modulating spindle positioning, thus contributing to faithful cell division.

  9. New benzimidazoles and their antitumor effects with Aurora A kinase and KSP inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-All, Amira S; Magd-El-Din, Asmaa A; Ragab, Fatma A F; ElHefnawi, Mahmoud; Abdalla, Mohamed M; Galal, Shadia A; El-Rashedy, Ahmed A

    2015-07-01

    A newly synthesized series of anticancer compounds comprising thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives 6a-q bearing a benzimidazole moiety was produced via a one-pot reaction of N-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-2-cyanoacetamide 5 with 2-aminothiazole and an appropriate aromatic aldehyde. Compound 7 was obtained via the reaction of 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2yl)benzenamide 1 with carbon disulphide and methyl iodide in the presence of concentrated aqueous solution of NaOH, then treated with o-phenylenediamine to give N-(4-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-amine 8. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectroscopic measurements (IR, MS, and (1) H NMR). The synthesized products were screened and studied for their in vitro antitumor activity against three human cancer cell lines (namely colorectal cancer cell line HCT116, human liver cancer cell line HepG2, and human ovarian cancer cell line A2780) and their Aurora A kinase and KSP inhibitory activities. All newly synthesized compounds revealed marked results comparable with the standard drug CK0106023. The compounds 6e and 6k of the thiazolopyrimidine derivatives were the most active compounds when tested against the three cell lines in comparison with the standard drug CK0106023, and showed potent dual KSP and Aurora A kinase inhibition.

  10. Allosteric inhibition of Aurora-A kinase by a synthetic vNAR domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Selena G; Oleksy, Arkadiusz; Cavazza, Tommaso; Richards, Mark W; Vernos, Isabelle; Matthews, David; Bayliss, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The vast majority of clinically approved protein kinase inhibitors target the ATP-binding pocket directly. Consequently, many inhibitors have broad selectivity profiles and most have significant off-target effects. Allosteric inhibitors are generally more selective, but are difficult to identify because allosteric binding sites are often unknown or poorly characterized. Aurora-A is activated through binding of TPX2 to an allosteric site on the kinase catalytic domain, and this knowledge could be exploited to generate an inhibitor. Here, we generated an allosteric inhibitor of Aurora-A kinase based on a synthetic, vNAR single domain scaffold, vNAR-D01. Biochemical studies and a crystal structure of the Aurora-A/vNAR-D01 complex show that the vNAR domain overlaps with the TPX2 binding site. In contrast with the binding of TPX2, which stabilizes an active conformation of the kinase, binding of the vNAR domain stabilizes an inactive conformation, in which the αC-helix is distorted, the canonical Lys-Glu salt bridge is broken and the regulatory (R-) spine is disrupted by an additional hydrophobic side chain from the activation loop. These studies illustrate how single domain antibodies can be used to characterize the regulatory mechanisms of kinases and provide a rational basis for structure-guided design of allosteric Aurora-A kinase inhibitors.

  11. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  12. The 2.5 mm PushLock suture anchor system versus a traditional suture anchor for ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the thumb: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, C D; McGillivary, G R; Hutton, W C

    2010-02-01

    We compared the biomechanical strength of the 2.5 mm PushLock suture anchor with a traditional Bio-SutureTak suture anchor in repair of ulnar collateral ligament injuries. Iatrogenic ulnar collateral ligament injuries in 18 cadaveric thumbs were repaired and used to test for load to failure and cyclic loading. The average force required to generate a 2 mm gap was 7.7 N for the 2.5 mm PushLock and 6.3 N for the Bio-SutureTak (p = 0.04). The ultimate load to failure was 28.0 N for the 2.5 mm PushLock and 18.8 N for the Bio-SutureTak (p = 0.16). There were no statistical differences between the two suture anchors under cyclic loading. The 2.5 mm PushLock suture anchor provides significantly stronger resistance to 2 mm gap formation at the repair site and is less likely to fail at the suture-ligament interface. However, there was no difference in the load to failure between the two suture anchors.

  13. Behavior of pre-stress group anchors--Theory approach and model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Siming; WANG Chenghua; QIAO Jianping

    2003-01-01

    First of all the pre-stress group anchor ropes are resolved into two sub-systems: the stable rock stand lateral resistance load and inner bonding section stand lateral resistance load and pre-stress load. Then, discretization of every sub-system was carried on and it is assumed that different micro-sections possess uniform distribution side resistance. On the basis of Mindlin stress solution, stress overlay principle, modified layered-summation method as well as the load transfer method, we study the anchor group effect and present a theory model which calculates the anchor group effect and establishes the relevant iterate standard.

  14. Suture anchor repair of patellar tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Atul F; Shah, Roshan P; Summers, Nathan; Israelite, Craig L

    2013-12-01

    Extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex problem that often requires surgical repair for functional deficits. We present a brief technical note on suture anchor fixation of a patellar tendon rupture after TKA. A surgical technique and literature review follows. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for tendinous repairs in other areas of orthopedic surgery, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in patellar tendon repair after TKA. The technique must be evaluated in more patients with longer follow-up before adoption.

  15. Extrusion of bone anchor suture following flexor digitorum profundus tendon avulsion injury repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2011-09-01

    Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) zone I tendon avulsion injury is traditionally repaired with a pullout suture technique. More recently, bone anchor sutures have been used as a viable alternative and have largely replaced areas in hand surgery where pullout suture technique was once required. To date, there have been very few complications reported related to bone anchor suture use in FDP tendon reattachment to the bone. We report a very unusual case of extrusion of bone anchor through the nailbed, 6 years after zone I FDP tendon avulsion injury repair and a brief review of literature.

  16. Study of Vertical Seismic Response of Concrete Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春城; 石磊; 张哲

    2004-01-01

    Based on the variational prineiple of incomplete generalized potential energy with large deflection, the vertical nonlinear vibrational differential equation of self-anchored suspension bridge is presented by taking the effect of coupling of flexural and axial action into consideration. The linear vertical equation is obtained by omitting the nonlinear term, and the pseudo excitation method(PEM). Taking the self-anchored concrete suspension bridge over Lanqi Songhua river for an example, the expected peak responses of main beam, towers and cables are calculated. And the seismic spatial effects on vertical seismic response of self-anchored suspension bridges are discussed.

  17. Experimental study on the stability of plate anchors in clay under cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the bearing capacity of plate anchors in clay has been studied extensively, the results considering the effects of offshore cyclic loading are relatively rare. In the present study, 1 g model tests are carried out to investigate the effect of cyclic loading on the bearing capacity of plate anchors in clay. The ultimate pullout capacity of plate anchors in clay decreases as the accumulated plastic shear strain grows due to the strain-softening of clay under cyclic loading. The load–displacement curves of these tests are presented and the effects of overburden stress and cyclic loading amplitude on the strain-softening behavior are discussed.

  18. Multiple sequence alignment with user-defined anchor points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pöhler Dirk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated software tools for multiple alignment often fail to produce biologically meaningful results. In such situations, expert knowledge can help to improve the quality of alignments. Results Herein, we describe a semi-automatic version of the alignment program DIALIGN that can take pre-defined constraints into account. It is possible for the user to specify parts of the sequences that are assumed to be homologous and should therefore be aligned to each other. Our software program can use these sites as anchor points by creating a multiple alignment respecting these constraints. This way, our alignment method can produce alignments that are biologically more meaningful than alignments produced by fully automated procedures. As a demonstration of how our method works, we apply our approach to genomic sequences around the Hox gene cluster and to a set of DNA-binding proteins. As a by-product, we obtain insights about the performance of the greedy algorithm that our program uses for multiple alignment and about the underlying objective function. This information will be useful for the further development of DIALIGN. The described alignment approach has been integrated into the TRACKER software system.

  19. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-10-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions).

  20. High performance supercapacitors using metal oxide anchored graphene nanosheet electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles were chemically anchored onto graphene nanosheets (GNs) and the resultant composites - SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs (58% of GNs loading) - coated over conductive carbon fabric substrates were successfully used as supercapacitor electrodes. The results showed that the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles improved the capacitive performance of GNs due to a combination of the effect of spacers and redox reactions. The specific capacitance values (with respect to the composite mass) obtained for SnO2/GNs (195 F g-1) and RuO 2/GNs (365 F g-1) composites at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the present study are the best ones reported to date for a two electrode configuration. The resultant supercapacitors also exhibited high values for maximum energy (27.6, 33.1 and 50.6 W h kg-1) and power densities (15.9, 20.4 and 31.2 kW kg-1) for SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance and great potential of metal oxide/GNs based composite coated carbon fabric in the development of high-performance energy-storage systems. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Emergence of Anchored Flux Tubes Through the Convection Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, George H; McClymont, Alexander N

    2010-01-01

    We model the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in the Sun's convection zone. A flux tube is assumed to lie initially near the top of the stably stratified radiative core below the convection zone, but a segment of it is perturbed into the convection zone by gradual heating and convective overshoot motions. The ends ("footpoints") of the segment remain anchored at the base of the convection zone, and if the segment is sufficiently long, it may be buoyantly unstable, rising through the convection zone in a short time. The length of the flux tube determines the ratio of buoyancy to magnetic tension: short loops of flux are arrested before reaching the top of the convection zone, while longer loops emerge to erupt through the photosphere. Using Spruit's convection zone model, we compute the minimum footpoint separation $L_c$ required for erupting flux tubes. We explore the dependence of $L_c$ on the initial thermal state of the perturbed flux tube segment and on its initial magnetic field strength. Followi...

  2. Dynamics of anchor last deployment of submersible buoy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhongqiang; Xu, Jianpeng; Huang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Chang, Zongyu

    2016-02-01

    Submersible buoy systems are widely used for oceanographic research, ocean engineering and coastal defense. Severe sea environment has obvious effects on the dynamics of submersible buoy systems. Huge tension can occur and may cause the snap of cables, especially during the deployment period. This paper studies the deployment dynamics of submersible buoy systems with numerical and experimental methods. By applying the lumped mass approach, a three-dimensional multi-body model of submersible buoy system is developed considering the hydrodynamic force, tension force and impact force between components of submersible buoy system and seabed. Numerical integration method is used to solve the differential equations. The simulation output includes tension force, trajectory, profile and dropping location and impact force of submersible buoys. In addition, the deployment experiment of a simplified submersible buoy model was carried out. The profile and different nodes' velocities of the submersible buoy are obtained. By comparing the results of the two methods, it is found that the numerical model well simulates the actual process and conditions of the experiment. The simulation results agree well with the results of the experiment such as gravity anchor's location and velocities of different nodes of the submersible buoy. The study results will help to understand the conditions of submersible buoy's deployment, operation and recovery, and can be used to guide the design and optimization of the system.

  3. Comparison of the tendon damage caused by four different anchor systems used in transtendon rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Song; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Qiuyang; Xue, Yun; Ge, Dongxia; O'Brien, Michael J; Savoie, Felix H; You, Zongbing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the damage to the rotator cuff tendons caused by four different anchor systems. Methods. 20 cadaveric human shoulder joints were used for transtendon insertion of four anchor systems. The Healix Peek, Fastin RC, Bio-Corkscrew Suture, and Healix Transtend anchors were inserted through the tendons using standard transtendon procedures. The areas of tendon damage were measured. Results. The areas of tendon damage (mean ± standard deviation, n = 7) were 29.1 ± 4.3 mm(2) for the Healix Peek anchor, 20.4 ± 2.3 mm(2) for the Fastin RC anchor, 23.4 ± 1.2 mm(2) for the Bio-Corkscrew Suture anchor, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm(2) for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted directly, and 9.1 ± 2.1 mm(2) for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted through the Percannula system (P anchors). Conclusions. In a cadaver transtendon rotator cuff repair model, smaller anchors caused less damage to the tendon tissues. The Healix Transtend implant system caused the least damage to the tendon tissues. Our findings suggest that smaller anchors should be considered when performing transtendon procedures to repair partial rotator cuff tears.

  4. 锚链直径对船舶锚泊能力的影响%Influence of Diameter of Anchor Chains on the Anchoring Capability of Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓芳; 丁德勇

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of anchor system using thinner anchor chains,this paper deduces the catenary equation by taking every anchor chain link as an infinitesimal. Based on the equation,the length of anchor chains and the maximum environmental forces and water depth are calculated for anchor chains with different diameters. According to the calculation result and actual practices,it is concluded that though the thicker the anchor chain,the better the anchoring capability,the applications of thinner chains are more reasonable when not using anchors with high holding power,or when the situation does not demand any special request of the mooring region or water depth.%从减轻船总体负担、采用链径更小的海洋系泊链的设计需求出发,以单个链环为微元对锚链在锚泊状态所形成悬链线方程进行推导,建立锚链在典型锚泊状态下的悬链线方程,并以此为基础完成不同链径锚链在抛锚长度、最大可承受环境力、最大抛锚深度等方面的计算分析。结合计算结果和船舶实际使用情况,对采用不同链径锚链的锚泊能力进行综合分析后认为,虽然链径较粗的锚链的理论锚泊能力较强,但若采用霍尔锚等非大抓力锚,或对锚泊水域面积无明确要求、没有在深水中抛锚的特殊需求等,则可以选用链径相对较细的海洋系泊链代替目前规范中规定的电焊锚链。

  5. Dynamic Effects of Anchor Positional Tolerance on Tension Moored Floating Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher; Pakrashi, Vikram; Murphy, Jimmy

    2016-09-01

    For water depths greater than 60m floating wind turbines will become the most economical option for generating offshore wind energy. Tension mooring stabilised units are one type of platform being considered by the offshore wind energy industry. The complex mooring arrangement used by this type of platform means that the dynamics are greatly effected by offsets in the positioning of the anchors. This paper examines the issue of tendon anchor position tolerances. The dynamic effects of three positional tolerances are analysed in survival state using the time domain FASTLink. The severe impact of worst case anchor positional offsets on platform and turbine survivability is shown. The worst anchor misposition combinations are highlighted and should be strongly avoided. Novel methods to mitigate this issue are presented.

  6. Factors affecting the dynamic response of pre-stressed anchors after transient excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Huijun; Li Qingfeng

    2011-01-01

    The wide application of pre-stressed bolting technology in coal mine tunnels has made the nondestructive stress wave reflection method of determining bolting quality an important one.The effect of the support plate on the dynamic response of the pre-stressed anchor is of particular interest.A theoreticalanalysis and numerical simulations are used to identify the factors affecting the contact stress between the support plate and the rock wall.A formula allowing the calculation of contact stress is presented.Stress wave propagation through the nut,support plate,and rock wall are predicted.The dynamic response signals were measured in the field using prestressed anchors pre-tightened to different torques.The effects from the support plate on the dynamic response were recorded and the results compared to the predictions of pre-stressed anchor.This work provides a theoretical reference for the signal processing of dynamic reflected wave signals in anchor bolts.

  7. Stone anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, Coast, India: Significance to historical period maritime activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Bet Dwarka Island is situated on the extreme west of Indian territory in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Underwater, the most preserved remains of ancient maritime activity could be the stone anchors of different types, as every boat requires...

  8. Optimal design of anchor cables for slope reinforcement based on stress and displacement fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghua Yang; Zhihui Zhong; Yucheng Zhang; Xudong Fu

    2015-01-01

    How to determine reasonable position and length of anchor cable is a frequently encountered but not well addressed problem in slope reinforcement projects. In this paper, the variable-modulus elastoplastic strength reduction method (SRM) is used to obtain the stress field, displacement field, and factor of safety of slope. Slope reinforcement using anchor cables is modeled by surface loading, i.e. different distributions of surface loading represent various reinforcement schemes. Optimal reinforcement scheme of anchor cables can be determined based on slope stress and displacement fields. By comparing the factor of safety and stress field before and after slope reinforcement, it is found that better rein-forcement results can be achieved if strong reinforcement is applied upon the regions with high stress and large displacement. This method can well optimize the arrangement of anchor cables. In addition, several cases are employed to verify the proposed method.

  9. 78 FR 45104 - Model Manufactured Home Installation Standards: Ground Anchor Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... positioning of the test rig supports and their proximity to the anchor assembly being tested (Sec. .3285.402(b... examine labor market, or revealed preference, studies. Using the DOT estimate, avoiding one death in...

  10. Tail-anchored membrane proteins: exploring the complex diversity of tail-anchored-protein targeting in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Ben M; Mullen, Robert T

    2011-02-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are special class of integral membrane proteins that in recent years have received a considerable amount of attention due to their diverse cellular functions and unique targeting and insertion mechanisms. Defined by the presence of a single, hydrophobic membrane-spanning domain at or near their C terminus, TA proteins must be inserted into membranes post-translationally and are orientated such that their larger N-terminal domain (most often the functional domain) faces the cytosol, while their shorter C-terminal domain faces the interior of the organelle. The C-terminal domain of TA proteins also usually contains the information responsible for their selective targeting to the proper subcellular membrane, a process that, based primarily on studies with yeasts and mammals, appears to be highly complex due to the presence of multiple pathways. Within this context, we discuss here the biogenesis of plant TA proteins and the potential for hundreds of new TA proteins identified via bioinformatics screens to contribute to the already remarkable number of roles that this class of membrane proteins participates in throughout plant growth and development.

  11. On Inferring Demand for Health Care in the Presence of Anchoring, Acquiescence, and Selection Biases

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Bhattacharya; Adam Isen

    2008-01-01

    In the contingent valuation literature, both anchoring and acquiescence biases pose problems when using an iterative bidding game to infer willingness to pay. Anchoring bias occurs when the willingness to pay estimate is sensitive to the initially presented starting value. Acquiescence bias occurs when survey respondents exhibit a tendency to answer 'yes' to questions, regardless of their true preferences. More generally, whenever a survey format is used and not all of those contacted partici...

  12. Prediction of signal peptides and signal anchors by a hidden Markovmodel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1998-01-01

    A hidden Markov model of signal peptides has been developed. It contains submodels for the N-terminal part, the hydrophobic region and the region around the cleavage site. For known signal peptides, the model can be used to assign objective boundaries between these three regions. Applied to our d...... is the poor discrimination between signal peptides and uncleaved signal anchors, but this is substantially improved by the hidden Markov model when expanding it with a very simple signal anchor model....

  13. Uplift of Symmetrical Anchor Plates by Using Grid-Fixed Reinforced Reinforcement in Cohesionless Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamed Niroumand; Khairul Anuar Kassim

    2014-01-01

    Uplift response of symmetrical anchor plates with and without grid fixed reinforced (GFR) reinforcement was evaluated in model tests and numerical simulations by Plaxis. Many variations of reinforcement layers were used to reinforce the sandy soil over symmetrical anchor plates. In the current research, different factors such as relative density of sand, embedment ratios, and various GFR parameters including size, number of layers, and the proximity of the layer to the symmetrical anchor plate were investigated in a scale model. The failure mechanism and the associated rupture surface were observed and evaluated. GFR, a tied up system made of fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) strips and end balls, was connected to the geosynthetic material and anchored into the soil. Test results showed that using GFR reinforcement significantly improved the uplift capacity of anchor plates. It was found that the inclusion of one layer of GFR, which rested directly on the top of the anchor plate, was more effective in enhancing the anchor capacity itself than other methods. It was found that by including GFR the uplift response was improved by 29%. Multi layers of GFR proved more effective in enhancing the uplift capacity than a single GFR reinforcement. This is due to the additional anchorage provided by the GFR at each level of reinforcement. In general, the results show that the uplift capacity of symmetrical anchor plates in loose and dense sand can be significantly increased by the inclusion of GFR. It was also observed that the inclusion of GFR reduced the requirement for a large L/D ratio to achieve the required uplift capacity. The laboratory and numerical analysis results are found to be in agreement in terms of breakout factor and failure mechanism pattern.

  14. Why Do Countries Peg the Way They Peg? The Determinants of Anchor Currency Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M. Meissner; Oomes, Nienke

    2006-01-01

    Conditional on choosing a pegged exchange rate regime, what determines the currency to which countries peg or “anchor” their exchange rate? This paper aims to answer this question using a panel multinomial logit framework, covering more than 100 countries for the period 1980-1998. We find that trade network externalities are a key determinant of anchor currency choice, implying that there are multiple steady states for the distribution of anchor currencies in the international monetary system...

  15. Prediction of signal peptides and signal anchors by a hidden Markov model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Nielsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    A hidden Markov model of signal peptides has been developed. It contains submodels for the N-terminal part, the hydrophobic region, and the region around the cleavage site. For known signal peptides, the model can be used to assign objective boundaries between these three regions. Applied to our ...... is the poor discrimination between signal peptides and uncleaved signal anchors, but this is substantially improved by the hidden Markov model when expanding it with a very simple signal anchor model....

  16. Training troubleshooting skills with an anchored instruction module in an authentic computer based simulation environment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    To improve the application and transfer of troubleshooting skills when diagnosing faults in complex automated production units, we developed and implemented an “anchored instruction” learning module in the context of a computer based simulation environment. The effects of the instructional module were evaluated in a quasi-experimental evaluation study. During the study 42 mechatronic apprentices were trained in two parallel experimental groups with and without the anchored instruction module....

  17. Psychological career resources as predictors of working adults’ career anchors: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Melinde Coetzee; Dries Schreuder

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the psychological career resources and career anchors of a sample of 2 997 working adults at predominantly managerial and supervisory levels in the service industry. The Psychological Career Resources Inventory and the Career Orientations Inventory were applied. Stepwise regression analyses indicated dimensions of psychological career resources as significant predictors of  participants’ career anchors. The findings add valuable new knowledge that ...

  18. Dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete: A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.; Yong-gang Zhang; Lotze, D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    In early 1993, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission began a research program at The University of Texas at Austin, dealing with the dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete. In this paper, the progress of that research program is reviewed. The test program is summarized, the work performed to date is reviewed, with emphasis on the dynamic and static behavior of single tensile anchors in uncracked concrete. General conclusions from that work are discussed, and future plans are presented.

  19. Installation of concrete expansion anchors at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Installation criteria utilized at the Fast Flux Test Facility for concrete expansion anchors are presented. Static and dynamic load capabilities of various anchor types are discussed in relation to design loads, with particular emphasis placed on the yield load (the proportional limit). Effects of several variables (i.e., installation torque, hole diameter) are also investigated. Resolution and documentation of field problems (e.g., improper spacing, embedment, angularity) are also described. Recommendations for improving and controlling future installations are given.

  20. An exploratory study on the career anchors of educators in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H H; Quek, B C

    2001-09-01

    In this exploratory study, the authors adopted an empirical approach to determine the various primary career anchors possessed by Singapore educators, the impact of the degree of congruency between teaching and the career anchors on intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction, and turnover intentions. A number of hypotheses were supported and provided the 1st step in understanding this group of important individuals who nuture the future generation of human capital for the workplace.

  1. Webtag: a new web tool providing tags/anchors for RT-PCR experiments with prokaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad Peter; Svensson Håkan; Pinto Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Webtag is a tool providing oligonucleotide sequences (usually called tags or anchors) that are absent from a specified genome. These tags/anchors can be appended to gene specific primers for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction experiments, circumventing genomic DNA contamination. Results The use of a relational database, in conjunction with a series of scripts written in PHP and Perl, allows the user to rapidly obtain tags that are: 1) suitable for a specific o...

  2. Dynamic Active Earth Pressures of the Retaining Piles with Anchors under Vehicle Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-zhi Qiu; Ji-ming Kong; Ren-chao Wang

    2016-01-01

    The pile-anchor supporting structure is widely used in foundation pit engineering; then knowledge of active earth pressure on piles is very important for engineers. In this paper, based on the pseudodynamic method and considering the vehicle’s vibration characteristic, a method to calculate the earth pressure on piles under vehicle load is presented. At the same time, the constraint of anchor is simplified relation of lateral deformation of piles in present method. Effects of a wide range of ...

  3. Discriminative ability of two different external anchors: improvement appears better than importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2009-01-01

    Title:    Discriminative ability of two different external anchors: improvement appears better than importance. Authors and affiliation: Henrik H. Lauridsen, DC, MSc, PhD*, Claus Manniche, MD, DMSc‡, Werner Vach, PhD §, Niels Grunnet-Nilsson DC, MD, PhD*, Jan Hartvigsen, DC, PhD*† * Clinical...... better discriminative abilities compared to the importance criterion. Consequently, we recommend using improvement and not importance as an anchor to determine the MIC....

  4. Discriminative ability of two different external anchors: improvement appears better than importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    Title:    Discriminative ability of two different external anchors: improvement appears better than importance. Authors and affiliation: Henrik H. Lauridsen, DC, MSc, PhD*, Claus Manniche, MD, DMSc‡, Werner Vach, PhD §, Niels Grunnet-Nilsson DC, MD, PhD*, Jan Hartvigsen, DC, PhD*†   * Clinical...... better discriminative abilities compared to the importance criterion. Consequently, we recommend using improvement and not importance as an anchor to determine the MIC....

  5. Aurora A kinase activates YAP signaling in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S-S; Yamaguchi, H; Xia, W; Lim, S-O; Khotskaya, Y; Wu, Y; Chang, W-C; Liu, Q; Hung, M-C

    2017-03-02

    The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an effector that transduces the output of the Hippo pathway to transcriptional modulation. Considering the role of YAP in cancers, this protein has emerged as a key node in malignancy development. In this study, we determined that Aurora A kinase acts as a positive regulator for YAP-mediated transcriptional machinery. Specifically, YAP associates with Aurora A predominantly in the nucleus. Activation of Aurora A can impinge on YAP activity through direct phosphorylation. Moreover, aberrant expression of YAP and Aurora A signaling is highly correlated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We herein provide evidence to establish the functional relevance of this newly discovered regulatory axis in TNBC.

  6. Effects of surface anchoring on the electric Frederiks transition in ferronematic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhbin, Mojtaba; Kadivar, Erfan

    2016-11-01

    The effects of anchoring phenomenon on the electric Frederiks transition threshold field in a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric nanoparticles are discussed. The polarizability of these nanoparticles in combination with confinement effects cause the drastic effects on the ferronematic systems. This study is based on Frank free energy and Rapini-Papoular surface energy for ferronematic liquid crystal having finite anchoring condition. In the case of different anchoring boundary conditions, the Euler-Lagrange equation of the total free energy is numerically solved by using the finite difference method together with the relaxation method and Maxwell construction to select the physical solutions and therefore investigate the effects of different anchoring strengths on the Frederiks transition threshold field. Maxwell construction method is employed to select three periodic solutions for nematic liquid crystal director at the interfaces of a slab. In the interval from zero to half- π, there is only one solution for the director orientation. In this way, NLC director rotates toward the normal to the surface as the applied electric field increases at the walls. Our numerical results illustrate that above Frederiks transition and in the intermediate anchoring strength, nematic molecules illustrate the different orientation at slab boundaries. We also study the effects of different anchoring strengths, nanoparticle volume fractions and polarizations on the Frederiks transition threshold field. We report that decreasing in the nanoparticle polarization results in the saturation Frederiks threshold. However, this situation does not happen for the nanoparticles volume fraction.

  7. Study on interaction between soil and anchor chain with finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sa; Xu, Bao-zhao; Wu, Yun-zhou; Li, Zhong-gang

    2016-12-01

    With the development of offshore engineering, deeply embedded anchors are needed to be penetrated to appreciable depth and attached at the pad-eye. The interaction between anchor chain and soil is a very complex process and has not been thoroughly understood yet. In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) was used to study the interaction of soil-chain system. Results of the analysis show that when the attachment point is at a shallow depth, the load-development characteristics of the chain from FEM are in good agreement with that from the model tests and theoretical analysis. But with the depth increment, the results are different obviously in different methods. This phenomenon is resulted from a variety of reasons, and the plastic zone around the chain was studied to try finding the mechanism behind it. It could be seen that the plastic zone extended in different modes at different depths of attachment points. The interaction between the soil and anchor chain makes the load acting on the anchor decrease, but the soil disturbed surrounding the chain increases the anchor failure possibility. When the anchor bearing capacity is evaluated, these two factors should be considered properly at the same time.

  8. Effects of GPI-anchored TNAP on the dynamic structure of model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. F.; Simão, A. M. S.; Bolean, M; Hoylaerts, M. F.; Millán, J. L.; Ciancaglini, P; Costa-Filho, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) plays a crucial role during skeletal mineralization, and TNAP deficiency leads to the soft bone disease hypophosphatasia. TNAP is anchored to the external surface of the plasma membranes by means of a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor. Membrane-anchored and solubilized TNAP displays different kinetic properties against physiological substrates, indicating that membrane anchoring influences the enzyme function. Here, we used Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements along with spin labeled phospholipids to probe the possible dynamic changes prompted by the interaction of GPI-anchored TNAP with model membranes. The goal was to systematically analyze the ESR data in terms of line shape changes and of alterations in parameters such as rotational diffusion rates and order parameters obtained from non-linear least-squares simulations of the ESR spectra of probes incorporated into DPPC liposomes and proteoliposomes. Overall, the presence of TNAP increased the dynamics and decreased the ordering in the three distinct regions probed by the spin labeled lipids DOPTC (headgroup), and 5- and 16-PCSL (acyl chains). The largest change was observed for 16-PCSL, thus suggesting that GPI-anchored TNAP can give rise to long reaching modifications that could influence membrane processes halfway through the bilayer. PMID:26389140

  9. Design and Application of a Field Sensing System for Ground Anchors in Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1 load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs, (2 wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3 master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4 a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons.

  10. Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshchuk, Oleg V; Kiselev, Alexei D; Kravchuk, Ruslan M

    2008-03-01

    We have studied a sequence of anchoring transitions observed in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) sandwiched between hydrophobic polyimide substrates treated with a plasma beam. There is a pronounced continuous transition from a homeotropic to a slightly tilted (nearly planar) alignment with the easy axis parallel to the incidence plane of the plasma beam (the zenithal transition) which takes place as the exposure dose increases. In NLCs with positive dielectric anisotropy, a further increase in the exposure dose results in in-plane reorientation of the easy axis by 90 degrees (the azimuthal transition). This transition occurs through the twofold degenerate alignment characteristic of second-order anchoring transitions. In contrast to the critical behavior of anchoring, the contact angle of the NLC and water on the treated substrates declines monotonically with increasing exposure dose. It follows that the surface concentration of hydrophobic chains decreases continuously. The anchoring transitions under consideration are qualitatively interpreted by using a simple phenomenological model of competing easy axes which is studied by analyzing anchoring diagrams of generalized polar and nonpolar anchoring models.

  11. Anchors for effectors: subversion of phosphoinositide lipids by Legionella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert eHilbi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The facultative intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila replicates in free-living amoebae and macrophages within a distinct compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV. LCV formation involves phosphoinositide (PI glycerolipids, which are key factors controlling vesicle trafficking pathways and membrane dynamics of eukaryotic cells. To govern the interactions with host cells, L. pneumophila employs the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and more than 250 translocated effector proteins that presumably subvert host signaling and vesicle trafficking pathways. Some of the effector proteins anchor through distinct PIs to the cytosolic face of LCVs and promote the interaction with host vesicles and organelles, catalyze guanine nucleotide exchange of small GTPases, or bind to PI-metabolizing enzymes, such as OCRL1. The PI 5-phosphatase OCRL1 and its Dictyostelium homologue Dd5P4 restrict intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Moreover, OCRL1/Dd5P4, PI 3-kinases (PI3Ks and PI4KIIIβ regulate LCV formation and localization of the effector protein SidC, which selectively decorates the LCV membrane. SidC or its 20 kDa P4C fragment are robust and specific probes for phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, and SidC can be targeted to purify intact LCVs by immuno-magnetic separation. Taken together, bacterial PI-binding effectors as well as host PIs and PI-modulating enzymes play a pivotal role for intracellular replication of L. pneumophila, and the PI-binding effectors are valuable tools for the analysis of eukaryotic PI lipids.

  12. Fragile X gene instability: Anchoring AGGs and linked microsatellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Nan; Yang, Weihong; Dobkin, C. [Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Interspersed AGGs within the FMR1 gene CGG repeat region may anchor the sequence and prevent slippage during replication. In order to detect the AGG position variations, we developed a method employing partial MnlI restriction analysis and analyzed X chromosomes from 187 males, including 133 normal controls (17 with 20-34 and 16 with 35-52 repeats), plus 54 fragile X premutations with 56-180 repeats. Among controls, the interspersed AGG positions were highly polymorphic, with heterozygosity of 91%. Among the control samples, 1.5% had no AGG positions, 25% had one, 71% had two, and 3% had three. Among the fragile X premutation samples, 63% had no AGG, while 37% had only one AGG. Analysis of premutation samples within fragile X families showed that variation occurred only within the 3{prime} end of the region. Thus, the instability was polar. Controls with {ge}15 pure CGG repeats were associated with the longest alleles of two nearby microsatellites, FRAXAC1 with 20-21 repeats and DXS548 with 202-206 bp and with increased microsatellite heterzygosity. The association of long pure CGG regions, as with fragile X chromosomes, with the longer and more heterozygous microsatellite alleles suggests they may be related mechanistically. Further, our results do not support a recent suggestion that the frequency of fragile X alleles may be increasing. Finally, analysis of a set of nonhuman primate samples showed that long pure CGG tracks are variable in size and are located within the 3{prime} region, which suggests that polar instability within FMR1 is evolutionarily quite old. 55 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. The Anchoring Effects in Differential Sources of Anchor Information:How Experimenter-Provided Anchors and Self-generated Anchors Affect the Dual-Processing Model%内在锚与外在锚对锚定效应及其双加工机制的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 徐富明; 张军伟; 刘腾飞; 蒋多; 邓子鹃

    2012-01-01

    The anchoring effect, one of the most common heuristics, refers to a phenomenon that the assimilation of a quantitative estimates a previously presented irrelative number under uncertain circumstances. Since the anchoring effect was proposed by Tversky and Kahneman in 1974 , lots of research has been done about it. Now there are two main models while account for anchoring effects:the anchoring and adjustment heuristic and the selective accessibility model. But most of researches just focused on the anchoring and adjustment heuristic or the selective accessibility model separately. In recent years, some scholars have pointed out that even if participants have a self-generated anchor, when there is an experimenter-provided anchor showing up at the same time, the processing mechanism of the anchoring effect is not only anchoring and adjustment heuristic, but also may happen to the selective accessibility model at the same time. But no research has been available to prove it yet. Therefore, this study is to try to explore the relationship between anchoring and adjustment heuristic and the selective accessibility model with the self-generated anchor and the experimenter-provided anchor showing up at the same time. A total of 64 undergraduate or graduate students were recruited and paid for their participation. The participants, were placed in separate cubicles in the laboratory, each containing a computer used to present the information and to register the dependent measures. The participants were told that the experiment was about how people made estimates. First, they had to estimate if there was predominance of capital or lower case letters in several letter combinations. After that, they had to make some probability estimates. The letter combination task was used to conceal the true purpose of our experiment. In this task, the participants had to estimate if a letter combination of six letters (e.g. MJFqRe) contained more capital letters or more lower case

  14. RhoA Kinase (Rock) and p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (p90Rsk) phosphorylation of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE1) is required for lysophosphatidic acid-induced transport, cytoskeletal organization and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallert, Mark A; Hammes, Daniel; Nguyen, Tony; Kiefer, Lea; Berthelsen, Nick; Kern, Andrew; Anderson-Tiege, Kristina; Shabb, John B; Muhonen, Wallace W; Grove, Bryon D; Provost, Joseph J

    2015-03-01

    The sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform one (NHE1) plays a critical role coordinating asymmetric events at the leading edge of migrating cells and is regulated by a number of phosphorylation events influencing both the ion transport and cytoskeletal anchoring required for directed migration. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activation of RhoA kinase (Rock) and the Ras-ERK growth factor pathway induces cytoskeletal reorganization, activates NHE1 and induces an increase in cell motility. We report that both Rock I and II stoichiometrically phosphorylate NHE1 at threonine 653 in vitro using mass spectrometry and reconstituted kinase assays. In fibroblasts expressing NHE1 alanine mutants for either Rock (T653A) or ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk; S703A) we show that each site is partially responsible for the LPA-induced increase in transport activity while NHE1 phosphorylation by either Rock or Rsk at their respective site is sufficient for LPA stimulated stress fiber formation and migration. Furthermore, mutation of either T653 or S703 leads to a higher basal pH level and a significantly higher proliferation rate. Our results identify the direct phosphorylation of NHE1 by Rock and suggest that both RhoA and Ras pathways mediate NHE1-dependent ion transport and migration in fibroblasts.

  15. NDE applications in an anchor bolt and sign bridge inspection program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1998-03-01

    Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program and Sign Bridge Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever & overhead sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. All cantilever & overhead sign structures and high mast light towers have been inspected in-depth 'hands on' during this time period while implementation of inspection continues for interstate light towers and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining type of structure, type of material, welding details. For anchor bolts, type of material, cut or rolled threads, type of coating, and method of placement are important issues. Inspection emphasis are on 'hands on' and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed visual conditions of sign structures and anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension, etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations for anchor bolts, are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating critical cracks and failed members on existing sign structures and new sign structures less than six months old. Also, failed anchor bolts and critical cracks have been located on high mast light

  16. Murasaki: a fast, parallelizable algorithm to find anchors from multiple genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Popendorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the number of available genome sequences increasing rapidly, the magnitude of sequence data required for multiple-genome analyses is a challenging problem. When large-scale rearrangements break the collinearity of gene orders among genomes, genome comparison algorithms must first identify sets of short well-conserved sequences present in each genome, termed anchors. Previously, anchor identification among multiple genomes has been achieved using pairwise alignment tools like BLASTZ through progressive alignment tools like TBA, but the computational requirements for sequence comparisons of multiple genomes quickly becomes a limiting factor as the number and scale of genomes grows. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our algorithm, named Murasaki, makes it possible to identify anchors within multiple large sequences on the scale of several hundred megabases in few minutes using a single CPU. Two advanced features of Murasaki are (1 adaptive hash function generation, which enables efficient use of arbitrary mismatch patterns (spaced seeds and therefore the comparison of multiple mammalian genomes in a practical amount of computation time, and (2 parallelizable execution that decreases the required wall-clock and CPU times. Murasaki can perform a sensitive anchoring of eight mammalian genomes (human, chimp, rhesus, orangutan, mouse, rat, dog, and cow in 21 hours CPU time (42 minutes wall time. This is the first single-pass in-core anchoring of multiple mammalian genomes. We evaluated Murasaki by comparing it with the genome alignment programs BLASTZ and TBA. We show that Murasaki can anchor multiple genomes in near linear time, compared to the quadratic time requirements of BLASTZ and TBA, while improving overall accuracy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Murasaki provides an open source platform to take advantage of long patterns, cluster computing, and novel hash algorithms to produce accurate anchors across multiple genomes with

  17. Binding constants of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands depend strongly on the nanoscale roughness of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinglei; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2013-09-17

    Cell adhesion and the adhesion of vesicles to the membranes of cells or organelles are pivotal for immune responses, tissue formation, and cell signaling. The adhesion processes depend sensitively on the binding constant of the membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins that mediate adhesion, but this constant is difficult to measure in experiments. We have investigated the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the binding constant of the anchored proteins strongly decreases with the membrane roughness caused by thermally excited membrane shape fluctuations on nanoscales. We present a theory that explains the roughness dependence of the binding constant for the anchored proteins from membrane confinement and that relates this constant to the binding constant of soluble proteins without membrane anchors. Because the binding constant of soluble proteins is readily accessible in experiments, our results provide a useful route to compute the binding constant of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF DUAL ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALL METHOD TO INCREASE FRONT WATER DEPTH AND SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF EXISTING QUAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Masakatsu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Takahiro; Morikawa, Yoshiyuki; Hoshino, Masami; Miki, Kenichi

    Recently the dual anchored sheet pile wall method has been developed to increase a front water depth and seismic resistance of existing quay walls by providing an additional anchor in the lower level of them to reduce a flexural moment of the sheet piles and a tension of the anchors. The existing technical information is not enough to evaluate the seismic behavior and the retrofit of the quay walls with anchors at two different levels. Therefore the experiments with a scale model set on the vibration table of the centrifugal apparatus as well as two dimensional effective stress analyses have been mobilized to investigate the seismic retrofit of the dual anchored sheet pile wall. The experiments and analyses demonstrate the increase the earthquake resistance of quay walls, because they showed the additional anchor can reduce the stress of the sheet walls to one half.

  19. Differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement of psychologists with different dominant career anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Bester

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute to higher levels of job satisfaction, job involvement , and productivity, a match or fit should be established between the dominant career anchor associated with a specific occupation and that of the employee. A career anchor is an individual’s set of self-perceived talents, abilities, motives, needs and values that form the nucleus of one’s occupational self-concept. Psychologists have always been part of the service orientated careers and therefore one would expect that it is likely that their dominant career anchor would be service orientation. If this is the case, psychologists with service as their dominant career anchor are supposed to have greater job satisfaction and job involvement compared to those with different career anchors. However, according to literature, this assumption is not necessarily correct. The primary goals of the current study were to determine whether in fact service is the dominant career anchor of psychologists in the Free State and whether there are significant differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement between psychologists with and without service as their dominant career anchor. A third goal was to determine whether psychologists with different dominant career anchors differ significantly from one another regarding job satisfaction and job involvement. Questionnaires measuring career orientations, job satisfaction and job involvement were sent to 165 of the 171 registered psychologists in the Free State region. Only 75 psychologists (45,5% responded which exceeded the traditional return rate of 20 to 30%. Due to the small sample of respondents, a nonparametric statistical test, namely the Mann Whitney U test was conducted to determine possible differences. An analysis of the data showed that 21 respondents had entrepreneurship as their dominant career orientation while 12 fell in the technical/functional, 12 in the challenging, 9 in the service and 8 in the autonomy

  20. Comparison of the Tendon Damage Caused by Four Different Anchor Systems Used in Transtendon Rotator Cuff Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Qing-Song Zhang; Sen Liu; Qiuyang Zhang; Yun Xue; Dongxia Ge; Michael J O'Brien; Savoie, Felix H.; Zongbing You

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the damage to the rotator cuff tendons caused by four different anchor systems. Methods. 20 cadaveric human shoulder joints were used for transtendon insertion of four anchor systems. The Healix Peek, Fastin RC, Bio-Corkscrew Suture, and Healix Transtend anchors were inserted through the tendons using standard transtendon procedures. The areas of tendon damage were measured. Results. The areas of tendon damage (mean ± standard deviation, ...

  1. Proteins containing an uncleaved signal for glycophosphatidylinositol membrane anchor attachment are retained in a post-ER compartment

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins are initially synthesized with a cleavable COOH-terminal extension that signals anchor attachment. Overexpression in COS cells of hGH-DAF fusion proteins containing the GPI signal of decay accelerating factor (DAF) fused to the COOH-terminus of human growth hormone (hGH), produces both GPI-anchored hGH-DAF and uncleaved precursors that retain the GPI signal. Using hGH-DAF fusion proteins containing a mutated, noncleavable GPI signal, ...

  2. Diagnostic and therapeutic direct peroral cholangioscopy using an intraductal anchoring balloon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour A Parsi; Tyler Stevens; John J Vargo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To report our experience using a recently introduced anchoring balloon for diagnostic and therapeutic direct peroral cholangioscopy (DPOC).METHODS:Consecutive patients referred for diagnostic or therapeutic peroral cholangioscopy were evaluated in a prospective cohort study.The patients underwent DPOC using an intraductal anchoring balloon,which was recently introduced to allow consistent access to the biliary tree with an ultraslim upper endoscope.The device was later voluntarily withdrawn from the market by the manufacturer.RESULTS:Fourteen patients underwent DPOC using the anchoring balloon.Biliary access with an ultraslim upper endoscope was accomplished in all 14 patients.In 12 (86%) patients,ductal access required sphincteroplasty with a 10-mm dilating balloon.Intraductal placement of the ultraslim upper endoscope allowed satisfactory visualization of the biliary mucosa to the level of the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts in 13 of 14 patients (93%).Therapeutic interventions by DPOC were successfully completed in all five attempted cases (intraductal biopsy in one and DPOC guided laser lithotripsy in four).Adverse events occurred in a patient on immunosuppressive therapy who developed an intrahepatic biloma at the site of the anchoring balloon.This required hospitalization and antibiotics.Repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 8 wk after the index procedure showed resolution of the biloma.CONCLUSION:Use of this anchoring balloon allowed consistent access to the biliary tree for performance of diagnostic and therapeutic DPOC distal to the biliary bifurcation.

  3. Interference Screw vs. Suture Anchor Fixation for Open Subpectoral Biceps Tenodesis: Does it Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobezie Reuben

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioabsorbable interference screw fixation has superior biomechanical properties compared to suture anchor fixation for biceps tenodesis. However, it is unknown whether fixation technique influences clinical results. Hypothesis We hypothesize that subpectoral interference screw fixation offers relevant clinical advantages over suture anchor fixation for biceps tenodesis. Study Design Case Series. Methods We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive series of 88 patients receiving open subpectoral biceps tenodesis with either interference screw fixation (34 patients or suture anchor fixation (54 patients. Average follow up was 13 months. Outcomes included Visual Analogue Pain Scale (0–10, ASES score, modified Constant score, pain at the tenodesis site, failure of fixation, cosmesis, deformity (popeye and complications. Results There were no failures of fixation in this study. All patients showed significant improvement between their preoperative and postoperative status with regard to pain, ASES score, and abbreviated modified Constant scores. When comparing IF screw versus anchor outcomes, there was no statistical significance difference for VAS (p = 0.4, ASES score (p = 0.2, and modified Constant score (P = 0.09. One patient (3% treated with IF screw complained of persistent bicipital groove tenderness, versus four patients (7% in the SA group (nonsignificant. Conclusion Subpectoral biceps tenodesis reliably relieves pain and improves function. There was no statistically significant difference in the outcomes studied between the two fixation techniques. Residual pain at the site of tenodesis may be an issue when suture anchors are used in the subpectoral location.

  4. A Study on the Holding Capacity Safety Factors for Torpedo Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís V. S. Sagrilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of powerful numerical tools based on the finite-element method has been improving the prediction of the holding capacity of fixed anchors employed by the offshore oil industry. One of the main achievements of these tools is the reduction of the uncertainty related to the holding capacity calculation of these anchors. Therefore, it is also possible to reduce the values of the associated design safety factors, which have been calibrated relying on models with higher uncertainty, without impairing the original level of structural safety. This paper presents a study on the calibration of reliability-based safety factors for the design of torpedo anchors considering the statistical model uncertainty evaluated using results from experimental tests and their correspondent finite-element-based numerical predictions. Both working stress design (WSD and load and resistance factors design (LRFD design methodologies are investigated. Considering the WSD design methodology, the single safety is considerably lower than the value typically employed in the design of torpedo anchors. Moreover, a LRFD design code format for torpedo anchors is more appropriate since it leads to designs having less-scattered safety levels around the target value.

  5. Synergism Analysis of Bedding Slope with Piles and Anchor Cable Support under Sine Wave Vehicle Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Slope instability under dynamic load is the technical difficulty in the engineering; the evaluation of slope stability under dynamic load and the control of dynamic load is particularly important. In this paper, taking the right side slope of K27+140 m~380 m typical section (K27 slope for short in Chongqing Fuling-Fengdu-Shizhu expresses highway as an example to calculate and analyze. The K27 slope is under sinusoidal vehicle load and supported by anchor cable and antislide pile to resist downslide strength; at the same time, the combined effect of them is studied. Three-dimensional finite element methodology (FEM is used to simulate the bedding slope with piles and anchor cable support; furthermore, the eigenvalue can be obtained. In order to reduce error of the elastic boundary conditions caused by the reflection effect of wavelengths, the combination of Lysmer surface viscous boundary and traditional ground support boundaries is utilized to analyze and calculate the time-histories during bedding slope under dynamic load. The dynamic response of pile anchor support to resist sliding force is obtained. The concept of the pile anchor supporting coordinate interval is put forward. Furthermore, it is verified that the pile anchor supporting coordinate interval can be used to evaluate the stability of the slope under dynamic load and provide a new method for the control of the dynamic load.

  6. COMPLICATIONS RESULTING FROM THE USE OF METAL ANCHORS IN SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; França, Flavio Oliveira; Alves Freitas, José Marcio; Aguiar, Paulo Nascimento; de Carvalho Leite, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    To identify the complications concerning the use of metal anchors in shoulder arthroscopic procedures. Methods: 28 shoulders of 28 patients (23 male and 5 female) have been re-operated in the period between December 1997 and August 2007, at Hospital Ortopédico, Belo Horizonte Hospital and Military Police Hospital in Belo Horizonte, MG, as a result of complications such as loose anchors and prominent anchors. The primary surgeries intended to treat 20 anterior traumatic instabilities (71.5%), one posterior instability (3.5%), one slap injury (3.5%), six procedures for treating injuries on the rotator cuff (21.5%). We used the X-ray classification suggested by Samilson and Prieto and Outerbridge arthroscopic classification for assessing patients' degree of arthrosis. All patients were evaluated by the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) index criteria. Results: In all patients, arthroscopic reviews were made. In two cases, after anchors removal, clinical signs of instability were seen, leading to the decision of providing open stabilization by Latarjet-Patte technique. Conclusion: the complications with metallic-suture anchors result from inappropriate surgical techniques applied in arthroscopy. PMID:26998465

  7. Mechanical mechanism analysis of tension type anchor based on shear displacement method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shu-jun; CHEN Chang-fu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the fact that the shear stress along anchorage segment is neither linearly nor uniformly distributed, the load transfer mechanism of the tension type anchor was studied and the mechanical characteristic of anchorage segment was analyzed. Shear stress-strain relationship of soil surrounding anchorage body was simplified into three-folding-lines model consisting of elastic phase, elasto-plastic phase and residual phase considering its softening eharaeteristic. Meanwhile, shear displacement method that has been extensively used in the analysis of pile foundation was introduced. Based on elasto-plastic theory, the distributions of displacement, shear stress and axial force along the anchorage segment of tension type anchor were obtained, and the formula for calculating the elastic limit load was also developed accordingly. Finally, an example was given to discuss the variation of stress and displacement in the anchorage segment with the loads exerted on the anchor, and a program was worked out to calculate the anchor maximum bearing capacity. The influence of some parameters on the anchor bearing capacity was discussed, and effective anchorage length was obtained simultaneously. The results show that the shear stress first increases and then decreases and finally trends to theresidual strength with increase of distance from bottom of the anchorage body, the displacement increases all the time with theincrease of distance from bottom of the anchorage body, and the increase of velocity gradually becomes greater.

  8. Aurora A kinase modulates actin cytoskeleton through phosphorylation of Cofilin: Implication in the mitotic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Lisa; Chakrabarti, Ratna

    2014-11-01

    Aurora A kinase regulates early mitotic events through phosphorylation and activation of a variety of proteins. Specifically, Aur-A is involved in centrosomal separation and formation of mitotic spindles in early prophase. The effect of Aur-A on mitotic spindles is mediated by the modulation of microtubule dynamics and association with microtubule binding proteins. In this study we show that Aur-A exerts its effects on spindle organization through the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Aurora A phosphorylates Cofilin at multiple sites including S(3) resulting in the inactivation of its actin depolymerizing function. Aur-A interacts with Cofilin in early mitotic phases and regulates its phosphorylation status. Cofilin phosphorylation follows a dynamic pattern during the progression of prophase to metaphase. Inhibition of Aur-A activity induced a delay in the progression of prophase to metaphase. Aur-A inhibitor also disturbed the pattern of Cofilin phosphorylation, which correlated with the mitotic delay. Our results establish a novel function of Aur-A in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization, through Cofilin phosphorylation during early mitotic stages.

  9. Tunable Signal Processing through a Kinase Control Cycle: the IKK Signaling Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Marcelo; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor NFκB, a key component of the immune system, shows intricate stimulus-specific temporal dynamics. Those dynamics are thought to play a role in controlling the physiological response to cytokines and pathogens. Biochemical evidence suggests that the NFκB inducing kinase, IKK, a signaling hub onto which many signaling pathways converge, is regulated via a regulatory cycle comprising a poised, an active, and an inactive state. We hypothesize that it operates as a modulator of signal dynamics, actively reshaping the signals generated at the receptor proximal level. Here we show that a regulatory cycle can function in at least three dynamical regimes, tunable by regulating a single kinetic parameter. In particular, the simplest three-state regulatory cycle can generate signals with two well-defined phases, each with distinct coding capabilities in terms of the information they can carry about the stimulus. We also demonstrate that such a kinase cycle can function as a signal categorizer classifying diverse incoming signals into outputs with a limited set of temporal activity profiles. Finally, we discuss the extension of the results to other regulatory motifs that could be understood in terms of the regimes of the three-state cycle. PMID:23823243

  10. Aurora A Kinase Contributes to a Pole-Based Error Correction Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Anna A; Deretic, Jovana; Hoel, Christopher M; Hinman, Albert W; Cimini, Daniela; Welburn, Julie P; Maresca, Thomas J

    2015-07-20

    Chromosome biorientation, where sister kinetochores attach to microtubules (MTs) from opposing spindle poles, is the configuration that best ensures equal partitioning of the genome during cell division. Erroneous kinetochore-MT attachments are commonplace but are often corrected prior to anaphase. Error correction, thought to be mediated primarily by the centromere-enriched Aurora B kinase (ABK), typically occurs near spindle poles; however, the relevance of this locale is unclear. Furthermore, polar ejection forces (PEFs), highest near poles, can stabilize improper attachments by pushing mal-oriented chromosome arms away from spindle poles. Hence, there is a conundrum: erroneous kinetochore-MT attachments are weakened where PEFs are most likely to strengthen them. Here, we report that Aurora A kinase (AAK) opposes the stabilizing effect of PEFs. AAK activity contributes to phosphorylation of kinetochore substrates near poles and its inhibition results in chromosome misalignment and an increased incidence of erroneous kinetochore-MT attachments. Furthermore, AAK directly phosphorylates a site in the N-terminal tail of Ndc80/Hec1 that has been implicated in reducing the affinity of the Ndc80 complex for MTs when phosphorylated. We propose that an AAK activity gradient contributes to correcting mal-oriented kinetochore-MT attachments in the vicinity of spindle poles.

  11. Hypomorphic mutations in PGAP2, encoding a GPI-anchor-remodeling protein, cause autosomal-recessive intellectual disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Tawamie, Hasan; Murakami, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    PGAP2 encodes a protein involved in remodeling the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor in the Golgi apparatus. After synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), GPI anchors are transferred to the proteins and are remodeled while transported through the Golgi to the cell membrane. Germline...... rescue when we used strong promoters before the mutant cDNAs, suggesting a hypomorphic effect of the mutations. We report on alterations in the Golgi-located part of the GPI-anchor-biosynthesis pathway and extend the phenotypic spectrum of the GPI-anchor deficiencies to isolated intellectual disability...

  12. Equivalent Culture-Anchored Units Translation? The Phraseological Units Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Paweł Jaskot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Equivalent Culture-Anchored Units Translation? The Phraseological Units Issue This article examines a question that has been of long-standing interest to linguists working in the fields of cross-linguistic phraseology and the translation of idiosyncratic language units, such as phraseological units (PUs. The challenge of translating PUs, which are understood as "patterns sanctioned by a given culture", involves the translation of culturemes. Therefore, a good translator must be able to assess the importance of the elements containing cultural references in the source language while "moving" them to the target language. When translating PUs, it is desirable that interlingual (cross-linguistic equivalence be achieved. The fact that translations of a PU can be very different (the translator can paraphrase the text, creatively change it, or simply eliminate the PU implies that the translational equivalence of PUs must be functional. While a cross-linguistic comparison (and the achievement of translational equivalence of PUs can be made by omitting the form parameter, it is desirable to preserve the extension and semantic structure, the connotative-pragmatic component, and the phrase combinatorics.   Ekwiwalencja jedostek "kulturowo zakotwiczonych"? Kwestia jednostek frazeologicznych Artykuł porusza zagadnienie, które od kilkudziesięciu lat cieszy się zainteresowaniem językoznawców zajmujących się konfrontacją językową frazeologii oraz tłumaczeniem idiosynkratycznych jednostek językowych, takich jak jednostki frazeologiczne (JF. Wyzwaniem podczas tłumaczenia JF, rozumianych jako "wzorce sankcjonowane przez daną kulturę", jawi się konieczność tłumaczenia kulturemów. Tłumacz zatem stoi w obliczu konieczności prawidłowej oceny danego elementu pod względem jego odniesień kulturowych w języku źródłowym podczas przekładania JF na język docelowy. Podczas tłumaczenia JF pożądane jest osiągnięcie międzyjęzykowej (cross

  13. ANALYSIS ON INCREMENTAL COHESION OF SURROUNDING ROCK DUE TO PRESTRESSED CABLE ANCHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建中; 闫莫明; 滕年保; 李方政

    1998-01-01

    A new method for determining the incremental cohesion △Cm of surrounding rock due toprestressed cable anchor is presented, and the formulas for △Cm are deduced and ACredistributions also are discussed, based on the two anchorage effects, one is the effect with theprestressed value △Q3 of cable anchor improving the stress state of surrounding rock andincreasing the surrounding rock strength, the other is the fully encapsulated effect. Thedetermined incremental cohesion △Cm is subjected to the model test and field measurement in thereferences, and coincides well with those tested results. The formulas for △Cm can be used indesigning supoport parameters and related numerical analyses of prestressed cable anchor.

  14. Traction endurance biomechanical study of metallic suture anchors at different insertion angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azato Flávia Namie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The suture anchors' insertion angle and its traction resistance are the main subjects of this study. Twenty trials were realized using threaded suture anchors in four diferents angulations (30º /45º /60º /90º in human bone (distal femur and another twenty trials in artificial bone (SawboneTM. The anchors were pulled out being tractioned uprightly from its bone surface by a Kratos Universal test machine. The human bone results found no relation between the main subjects of this study, so whithout statistical value. On the other hand at the artificial bone the insertion angle of 90º beared more traction, being statistically significant compared to the other angles.

  15. Computing of the Anchor by the Method of Three-Dimension Point-Radiate Infinite Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the one-dimension infinite element theory, the coordinate translation and shape function of 3D point-radiate 8-node and 4-node infinite elements are derived. They are coupled with 20-node and 8-node finite elements to compute the compression distortion of the prestressed anchorage segment. The results indicate that when the prestressed force acts on the anchorage head and segment, the stresses and the displacements in the rock around the anchorage head and segment concentrate on the zone center with the anchor axis, and they decrease with exponential forms. Therefore,the stresses and the displacement spindles are formed. The calculating results of the infinite element are close to the theoretical results. This indicates the method is right. This article introduces a new way to study the mechanism of prestressed anchors. The obtained results have an important role in the research of the anchor mechanism and engineering application.

  16. Fluid-structure interaction in straight pipelines with different anchoring conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferras, David; Manso, Pedro A.; Schleiss, Anton J.; Covas, Dídia I. C.

    2017-04-01

    This investigation aims at assessing the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) occurring during hydraulic transients in straight pipeline systems fixed to anchor blocks. A two mode 4-equation model is implemented incorporating the main interacting mechanisms: Poisson, friction and junction coupling. The resistance to movement due to inertia and dry friction of the anchor blocks is treated as junction coupling. Unsteady skin friction is taken into account in friction coupling. Experimental waterhammer tests collected from a straight copper pipe-rig are used for model validation in terms of wave shape, timing and damping. Numerical results successfully reproduce laboratory measurements for realistic values of calibration parameters. The novelty of this paper is the presentation of a 1D FSI solver capable of describing the resistance to movement of anchor blocks and its effect on the transient pressure wave propagation in straight pipelines.

  17. The anchoring function: parental authority and the parent-child bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Haim; Steinmetz, Sarit G; Carthy, Tal; von Schlippe, Arist

    2013-06-01

    Descriptions of parental authority and of the formation of a secure parent-child bond have remained unconnected in conceptualizations about parenting and child development. The parental anchoring function is here presented as an integrative metaphor for the two fields. Parents who fulfill an anchoring function offer a secure relational frame for the child, while also manifesting a stabilizing and legitimate kind of authority. The anchoring function enriches the two fields by: (1) adding a dimension of authority to the acknowledged functions of the safe haven and the secure base that are seen as core to a secure parent-child bond, and (2) adding considerations about the parent-child bond to Baumrind's classical description of authoritative parenting.

  18. Anchoring Strength of Thin Aligned-Polymer Films Formed by Liquid Crystalline Monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, Takeshi; Fujikake, Hideo; Ikehata, Seiichiro; Sato, Fumio

    2003-04-01

    We have evaluated the polar anchoring strength of a thin molecule-aligned polymer film formed by a liquid crystalline monomer. The polymer film was obtained by photopolymerization of the monomer oriented by a rubbed polyimide alignment layer in a chamber filled with N2 gas. We fabricated a nematic liquid crystal cell using the thin aligned-polymer films as alignment layers, and then evaluated the anchoring strength of the polymer by measuring the optical retardation curve of the cell driven by voltages. The experimental result showed that the anchoring strength was one order of magnitude lower than that of a conventional rubbed polyimide alignment layer, and decreased with increasing the cure temperature of the monomer film.

  19. FOS-1 promotes basement-membrane removal during anchor-cell invasion in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, David R; Butler, James A; Kramer, James M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2005-06-17

    Cell invasion through basement membranes is crucial during morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Here, we genetically dissect this process during anchor-cell invasion into the vulval epithelium in C. elegans. We have identified the fos transcription factor ortholog fos-1 as a critical regulator of basement-membrane removal. In fos-1 mutants, the gonadal anchor cell extends cellular processes normally toward vulval cells, but these processes fail to remove the basement membranes separating the gonad from the vulval epithelium. fos-1 is expressed in the anchor cell and controls invasion cell autonomously. We have identified ZMP-1, a membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, CDH-3, a Fat-like protocadherin, and hemicentin, a fibulin family extracellular matrix protein, as transcriptional targets of FOS-1 that promote invasion. These results reveal a key genetic network that controls basement-membrane removal during cell invasion.

  20. Analysis of Cracking Mode of Anchor Structure of Underground Engineering Induced by Reinforcement Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantao Ding

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on elastic theory and assumption of maximum tensile-stress failure criterion, together with construction process of anchor structure and rust expansion critical process, this study proposed a simplified reinforcement rust expansion mechanical model of anchor structure system. Elastic criterion of different initial cracking mode was rewarded under different stress ratios. According to analysis of critical cracking mode of different medium, cracking order of mortar and surrounding rock depended on their material parameters, in-situ stress and thickness of mortar cover. Critical cracking conditions of different medium without effect of in-situ stress was the same as that of considering in-situ stress while k is equal to 3 or 1/3. And engineering example shows that three different cracking modes exist under different stress ratios. The result provides a useful reference for analysis of mechanical deterioration mechanism of anchor structure and design of support structure of underground engineering.

  1. Pre-stressed anchoring beam technique applicable in the reinforcement of high-steep slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifa YANG; Luqing ZHANG; Jiewang ZHU

    2006-01-01

    During the construction of some large-scale rock engineering, high-steep slopes and insufficient slope stability induced by unloading fissures are often encountered. For the reinforcement of these slopes, some techniques (including conventional pre-stressed anchoring cable and unconventional anchoring hole) are usually utilized, however, having several obvious defects. Thus, it is very difficult for a designer to design an efficient reinforcement scheme for the high-steep slopes. For this reason, the authors develop the pre-stressed anchoring beam technique, in which tensile capacity of pre-stressed structures are fully utilized. It is analyzed that the new technique is characterized by multi-functions, including engineering investigation, efficient reinforcement, drainage, monitoring and urgent strength supplement, and hoped to be extensively applicable in the reinforcement of high-steep slopes.

  2. Mussel-Inspired Anchoring of Polymer Loops That Provide Superior Surface Lubrication and Antifouling Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Taegon; Banquy, Xavier; Heo, Jinhwa; Lim, Chanoong; Lynd, Nathaniel A; Lundberg, Pontus; Oh, Dongyeop X; Lee, Han-Koo; Hong, Yong-Ki; Hwang, Dong Soo; Waite, John Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Hawker, Craig J

    2016-01-26

    We describe robustly anchored triblock copolymers that adopt loop conformations on surfaces and endow them with unprecedented lubricating and antifouling properties. The triblocks have two end blocks with catechol-anchoring groups and a looping poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) midblock. The loops mediate strong steric repulsion between two mica surfaces. When sheared at constant speeds of ∼2.5 μm/s, the surfaces exhibit an extremely low friction coefficient of ∼0.002-0.004 without any signs of damage up to pressures of ∼2-3 MPa that are close to most biological bearing systems. Moreover, the polymer loops enhance inhibition of cell adhesion and proliferation compared to polymers in the random coil or brush conformations. These results demonstrate that strongly anchored polymer loops are effective for high lubrication and low cell adhesion and represent a promising candidate for the development of specialized high-performance biomedical coatings.

  3. A general pipeline for the development of anchor markers for comparative genomics in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stougaard Jens

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete or near-complete genomic sequence information is presently only available for a few plant species representing a large phylogenetic diversity among plants. In order to effectively transfer this information to species lacking sequence information, comparative genomic tools need to be developed. Molecular markers permitting cross-species mapping along co-linear genomic regions are central to comparative genomics. These "anchor" markers, defining unique loci in genetic linkage maps of multiple species, are gene-based and possess a number of features that make them relatively sparse. To identify potential anchor marker sequences more efficiently, we have established an automated bioinformatic pipeline that combines multi-species Expressed Sequence Tags (EST and genome sequence data. Results Taking advantage of sequence data from related species, the pipeline identifies evolutionarily conserved sequences that are likely to define unique orthologous loci in most species of the same phylogenetic clade. The key features are the identification of evolutionarily conserved sequences followed by automated design of intron-flanking Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR primer pairs. Polymorphisms can subsequently be identified by size- or sequence variation of PCR products, amplified from mapping parents or populations. We illustrate our procedure in legumes and grasses and exemplify its application in legumes, where model plant studies and the genome- and EST-sequence data available have a potential impact on the breeding of crop species and on our understanding of the evolution of this large and diverse family. Conclusion We provide a database of 459 candidate anchor loci which have the potential to serve as map anchors in more than 18,000 legume species, a number of which are of agricultural importance. For grasses, the database contains 1335 candidate anchor loci. Based on this database, we have evaluated 76 candidate anchor loci

  4. Limit span of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension cooperation system bridge based on strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe ZHANG; Huili WANG; Sifeng QIN; Xiaomeng GE

    2009-01-01

    The limit span of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge is deduced. The relations among the geometrical parameters, loads and material characteristics are also analyzed. Based on the material strength and commonly used materials, the limit spans of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges with concrete girder or steel girder under vertical static load are discussed in detail.The corresponding upper limit spans and the effect of the factors on the span are given. The results indicate that increasing rise-span ratio, height-span ratio and cable-stayed segment length or reducing the second dead load could increase the cooperation system span.

  5. Determining the penetration resistance of a cometary surface by using data from the Philae anchoring harpoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargl, Günter; Kömle, Norbert I.; Macher, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    On November 11 2014 ESA's Rosetta spacecraft will deliver the Lander PHILAE to the surface of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. To fix the lander safely on the surface and allow for in situ operation of instruments like the SD2 drill or the MUPUS experiment the spacecraft will be anchored to the surface by a harpoon-type device. In addition to the anchoring function the projectile shot into the surface contains two sensors, which will be used to obtain information on the thermo-physical properties of the cometary ice: a shock accelerometer and a temperature sensor. The former will record the deceleration history of the anchoring projectile during the penetration phase. From these data information on mechanical strength of the near surface cometary material and its variation with depth can be retrieved by using appropriate modelling approaches. The temperature sensor will measure temperature variations at the depth were the anchor finally has come to rest over the lifetime of the lander at the surface. Both sensors are part of the MUPUS experiment on Philae, which is devoted to the measurement of thermo-mechanical properties. In this paper we will give a short overview on the main features of the harpoon-anchoring system in general and on the mathematical methods to be used for the evaluation of the measurement data recorded by the anchor sensors, with emphasis on the accelerometer data. An example from a test shot performed during the development phase of the Philae anchoring system is shown in the figure below. PIC Figure: Typical acceleration/deceleration signal recorded during a test shot of the anchor into a foam glass analogue material (upper left panel). The different phases of the shot (acceleration phase, free flight phase, deceleration phase) are clearly separated in this shot. Integration and double integration of the data (upper right and lower left panel) gives the velocity and depth profile versus time. This procedure allows finally to derive the

  6. Technical note: Endoscopic resection of a dermoid cyst anchored to the anterior optic chiasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Yoneoka, MD, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, ours is the only case of a dermoid cyst anchored to the anterior optic chiasma, which was visually confirmed under endoscopic observation. After surgery, the patient presented a transient impairment of the visual field, which was not evident at four month follow-up. It will contribute to a similar case, in which surgeons hesitate to make an incision in the optic chiasm. A subtotal excision should be considered in cases of dermoid cysts anchored to the anterior optic chiasm, because all the previously reported cases of suprasellar dermoid cysts are young people or those who have a relatively long life expectancy.

  7. Interaction of Rupture Zones of Adjacent Anchor Plates in an Analogical Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abbad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study which required the design and implementation of a model containing plastic granules powder to simulate a natural environment, is presented. The latter is subjected to the removal of "anchor plates." For each test, several digital photographs are taken to materialize different deformed configurations during the pullout process. These photos processed in couples by the 7D software (image correlation giving the evolution of the displacement field and plane strain analogical environment. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of the interference of rupture zones of neighboring anchors by reducing the axis between plates.

  8. Photosensitizer anchored gold nanorods for targeted combinational photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Huijun Phoebe; Chen, Hongzhong; Tan, Yu Hui; Qu, Qiuyu; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Lingzhi; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-07-07

    Silylated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was anchored onto silica-coated gold nanorods (AuNR) with retained local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Independent LSPR and singlet oxygen production of anchored ZnPc enhance the photothermal and photodynamic efficacy of the obtained AuNR-Si-ZnPc under NIR light excitation. AuNR-Si-ZnPc was further grafted with hyaluronic acid (HA). Since HA has selective targeting capability to CD44 antigens, the final hybrid could target cancer cells directly for synergistic photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

  9. Focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique: rapid self-hypnosis for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatone, Brooke

    2013-04-01

    This article details a self-hypnosis technique designed to teach patients how to manage acute or chronic pain through directed focus. The focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique has been used with various types of pain, including somatic pain (arthritis, post-injury pain from bone breaks, or muscle tears), visceral pain (related to irritable bowel disease), and neuropathic pain (related to multiple sclerosis). This technique combines cognitive restructuring and mindfulness meditation with indirect and direct suggestions during hypnosis. The case examples demonstrate how the focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique is used with both acute and chronic pain conditions when use of long-term medication has been relatively ineffective.

  10. The Role of Anchor Stations in the Validation of Earth Observation Satellite Data and Products. The Valencia and the Alacant Anchor Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar

    Space technology facilitates humanity and science with a global revolutionary view of the Earth through the acquisition of Earth Observation satellite data. Satellites capture information over different spatial and temporal scales and assist in understanding natural climate processes and in detecting and explaining climate change. Accurate Earth Observation data is needed to describe climate processes by improving the parameterisations of different climate elements. Algorithms to produce geophysical parameters from raw satellite observations should go through selection processes or participate in inter-comparison programmes to ensure performance reliability. Geophysical parameter datasets, obtained from satellite observations, should pass a quality control before they are accepted in global databases for impact, diagnostic or sensitivity studies. Calibration and Validation, or simply "Cal/Val", is the activity that endeavours to ensure that remote sensing products are highly consistent and reproducible. This is an evolving scientific activity that is becoming increasingly important as more long-term studies on global change are undertaken, and new satellite missions are launched. Calibration is the process of quantitatively defining the system responses to known, controlled signal inputs. Validation refers to the process of assessing, by independent means, the quality of the data products derived from the system outputs. These definitions are generally accepted and most often used in the remote sensing context to refer specifically and respectively to sensor radiometric calibration and geophysical parameter validation. Anchor Stations are carefully selected locations at which instruments measure quantities that are needed to run, calibrate or validate models and algorithms. These are needed to quanti-tatively evaluate satellite data and convert it into geophysical information. The instruments collect measurements of basic quantities over a long timescale

  11. Loss of cell-surface laminin anchoring promotes tumor growth and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Armin; Griffith, Obi L; Soroceanu, Liliana; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Luciani-Torres, Maria Gloria; Daemen, Anneleen; Gray, Joe W; Muschler, John L

    2012-05-15

    Perturbations in the composition and assembly of extracellular matrices (ECM) contribute to progression of numerous diseases, including cancers. Anchoring of laminins at the cell surface enables assembly and signaling of many ECMs, but the possible contributions of altered laminin anchoring to cancer progression remain undetermined. In this study, we investigated the prominence and origins of defective laminin anchoring in cancer cells and its association with cancer subtypes and clinical outcomes. We found loss of laminin anchoring to be widespread in cancer cells. Perturbation of laminin anchoring originated from several distinct defects, which all led to dysfunctional glycosylation of the ECM receptor dystroglycan. In aggressive breast and brain cancers, defective laminin anchoring was often due to suppressed expression of the glycosyltransferase LARGE. Reduced expression of LARGE characterized a broad array of human tumors in which it was associated with aggressive cancer subtypes and poor clinical outcomes. Notably, this defect robustly predicted poor survival in patients with brain cancers. Restoring LARGE expression repaired anchoring of exogenous and endogenous laminin and modulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. Together, our findings suggest that defects in laminin anchoring occur commonly in cancer cells, are characteristic of aggressive cancer subtypes, and are important drivers of disease progression.

  12. Study on mechanical principle of reinforcing sidewalls and corners of roadway to control floor heave by anchors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫军

    2003-01-01

    The movement principle of sidewalls and floor of extraction opening is analyzed, it is found that floor heave not only has something to do with the floor strata, but sidewalls. The effect of sidewall anchor and corner anchor is studied, the mechanical principle of reinforcing sidewalls and corners is put forward and applied in engineering practice.

  13. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart H of... - No-Anchoring Seagrass Protection Zones in Tomales Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No-Anchoring Seagrass Protection Zones in Tomales Bay C Appendix C to Subpart H of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating... 922—No-Anchoring Seagrass Protection Zones in Tomales Bay Coordinates listed in this Appendix...

  14. Side-chain-anchored N(alpha)-Fmoc-Tyr-OPfp for bidirectional solid-phase synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian A; Jørgensen, Malene; Hansen, Steen H;

    2005-01-01

    [reaction: see text] A mild resin-immobilization strategy employing a readily prepared trityl bromide resin for anchoring building blocks via a phenol group has been developed. With N(alpha)-Fmoc-Tyr-OPfp as a starter building block, it was possible to prepare asymmetrically substituted hybrids o...... of spider- and wasp-type polyamine toxins using solid-phase peptide synthesis conditions....

  15. Hearing rehabilitation in Treacher Collins Syndrome with bone anchored hearing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Polanski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression. It was prescribed a model of bone-anchored hearing aid, in soft band format. The results were evaluated through behavioral hearing tests and questionnaires Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS and Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS. Comments: The patient had a higher acceptance of the bone-anchored hearing aid compared to the traditional bone vibration arch. Audiological tests and the speech and auditory skills assessments also showed better communication and hearing outcomes. The bone-anchored hearing aid is a good option in hearing rehabilitation in this syndrome.

  16. Hearing rehabilitation in Treacher Collins Syndrome with bone anchored hearing aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanski, José Fernando; Plawiak, Anna Clara; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression. It was prescribed a model of bone-anchored hearing aid, in soft band format. The results were evaluated through behavioral hearing tests and questionnaires Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) and Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS). Comments: The patient had a higher acceptance of the bone-anchored hearing aid compared to the traditional bone vibration arch. Audiological tests and the speech and auditory skills assessments also showed better communication and hearing outcomes. The bone-anchored hearing aid is a good option in hearing rehabilitation in this syndrome. PMID:26298651

  17. Parameter analysis of anchor bolt support for large-span and jointed rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-bing; ZHOU Zi-long; LI Qi-yue; HU Liu-qing

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain the optimal parameters of anchor bolt supporting system for large-span and jointed rock mass in Kaiyang Phosphor Mine, it is expensive and unavailable with the method of in-situ experiments. This paper describes a numerical modeling with discrete element method for the supporting effects of different type of anchor bolts. The anchor bolts with variant length of 0.5 m, 0.8 m, 1.0 m, diameter of 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, setting spacing of 3.0 m, 2.5 m, 2.0 m, and setting angle of 10°, 20°, 30°, are simulated respectively. The results show that there exist optimal parameters of anchor bolt support for large-span and jointed rock mass. For the bolt support of the concerning, the optimal length is 2.5-3.5 m, the diameter is 25-35 mm, the spacing is 0.5-0.6 m, and the setting angle is 105°.

  18. Effects of Thinking Style and Spatial Ability on Anchoring Behavior in Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    The authors propose an instructional use for Google Earth (a GIS application) as an anchoring tool for knowledge integration. Google Earth can be used to support student explorations of world geography based on Wikipedia articles on earth science and history topics. We asked 66 Taiwanese high-school freshmen to make place marks with explanatory…

  19. 48 CFR 225.7007 - Restrictions on anchor and mooring chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on anchor and mooring chain. 225.7007 Section 225.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Authorization...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...

  1. Physical and numerical modelling of earth pressure on anchored sheet pile walls in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne; Fuglsang, Leif D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of wall flexibility on earth pressure, bending moments and failure modes is studied. Numerical models are compared to results from model tests carried out in a geotechnical centrifuge. The back-fill is dry sand and failure is introduced by allowing the wall to rotate around the anchor...

  2. Physical and numerical modelling of earth pressure on anchored sheet pile walls in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne; Fuglsang, Leif D

    The influence of wall flexibility on earth pressure, bending moments and failure modes is studied. Numerical models are compared to results from model tests carried out in a geotechnical centrifuge. The back-fill is dry sand and failure is introduced by allowing the wall to rotate around the anchor...

  3. Arrows as Anchors: An Analysis of the Material Features of Electric Field Vector Arrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Representations in physics possess both physical and conceptual aspects that are fundamentally intertwined and can interact to support or hinder sense making and computation. We use distributed cognition and the theory of conceptual blending with material anchors to interpret the roles of conceptual and material features of representations in…

  4. Auditory frequency discrimination in adult dyslexics: A test of the anchoring hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, F.N.K.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Vlutters, L.D.; Winkel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measur

  5. The Relationship between Situated Cognition and Anchored Instruction: A Response to Tripp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joyce L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between situated cognition and anchored instruction in response to criticism of a previous article. Topics addressed include school versus nonschool settings; learning by observing models; "real-world" problem solving; transfer of training; and future work. (26 references) (LRW)

  6. Comparing General and Special Education Preservice Teachers' Test Performance Using Traditional and Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, D. Michael; Langone, John

    2005-01-01

    Data comparing the effects of traditional lectures and instruction paired with video anchors on test scores of general education and special education preservice teachers are presented. The sample in both the experimental and control groups included a mixture of preservice teachers including those beginning a general education early childhood…

  7. Using Anchored Instruction to Teach Preservice Teachers to Integrate Technology in the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Mumbi; Duran, Mesut

    2004-01-01

    This case study addresses the use of the "anchored instruction approach" to restructure educational computing courses to enhance future teachers' learning of technology applications in the classroom. A cohort group of 22 preservice teachers from a typical teacher education institution in Southeastern Ohio was involved in the study. The…

  8. A Description of the Impact of Multimedia Anchored Instruction on Classroom Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Candyce Williams; Rieth, Herbert J.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Colburn, Linda K.; Peter, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    A study explored effects of a multimedia-based anchored instruction intervention on student/teacher interactions in a social studies classroom with 19 eighth graders, 9 with mild disabilities. Overall, instruction became more interactive as observational and interview data indicated a twofold increase in the number of daily student/teacher…

  9. Anchoring Problem-Solving and Computation Instruction in Context-Rich Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottge, Brian A.; Rueda, Enrique; Grant, Timothy S.; Stephens, Ana C.; Laroque, Perry T.

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students with learning disabilities in math (MLD) used two versions of Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI). In one condition, students learned how to compute with fractions on an as-needed basis while they worked to solve the EAI problems. In the other condition, teachers used a computer-based instructional module in place of one of…

  10. Slipping Anchor? Testing the Vignettes Approach to Identification and Correction of Reporting Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Uva, Teresa Bago; Lindeboom, Maarten; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2011-01-01

    We propose tests of the two assumptions under which anchoring vignettes identify heterogeneity in reporting of categorical evaluations. Systematic variation in the perceived difference between any two vignette states is sufficient to reject "vignette equivalence." "Response consistency"--the respondent uses the same response…

  11. Investigating Repeater Effects on Chained Equipercentile Equating with Common Anchor Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of repeat takers of a licensure test on the equating functions in the context of a nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. Examinees who had taken a new, to-be-equated form of the test were divided into three subgroups according to their previous testing experience: (a) repeaters who previously took…

  12. Solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis with tris(alkoxy)benzyl amine (BAL) safety-catch anchoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Jakob Fjord; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A tris(alkoxy)benzylamine (BAL) handle strategy was developed for safety-catch anchoring of D-glucosamine derivatives in solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides; the linkage between the BAL handle and the amine proved stable to conc. TFA and Lewis acids, but after N-acylation the amide could...

  13. Arthroscopic double-row suture anchor fixation of minimally displaced greater tuberosity fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Kim, Weon-Yoo; Ra, Ki-Hang

    2007-10-01

    In cases of displaced greater tuberosity fractures, treatments by arthroscopic-assisted reduction and percutaneous screw fixation have been reported. However, in cases in which there is a comminuted fracture or a minimally displaced fracture combined with concomitant lesions such as rotator cuff tear or labral pathology, it is difficult to reduce the fracture and to treat other pathologies by use of a percutaneous screw. Recently, many surgeons have used the double-row repair method in rotator cuff repair, which provides a tendon-bone interface better suited for biologic healing and restoring normal anatomy. In accordance with this method, we used the arthroscopic technique of double-row suture anchor fixation for a minimally displaced greater tuberosity fracture without additional incision. Initially, debridement was performed on the fracture surface by use of a shaver, and the medial-row anchor was inserted through the anterior portal or the intact cuff. Two lateral-row anchors were inserted just anterior and posterior to the lower margin of the fractured fragment under C-arm guidance. The medial-row sutures and lateral-row sutures were then placed. Arthroscopic double-row suture anchor fixation of a displaced greater tuberosity fracture restores the original footprint of the rotator cuff and normal tendon-bone interface of the displaced greater tuberosity fracture.

  14. Dynamic calculation model and seismic response for frame supporting structure with prestressed anchors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic calculation model of frame supporting structures with prestressed anchors for the slope stability is proposed. The frame and soil are closely contacted in the role of prestressed anchors and they cannot be separated along the whole slope. The lateral displacement of frame and soil is nearly in phase. The movement characteristic satisfies the theory of elastic foundation beam. The frame is treated with elastic foundation beam in this model. The influence of prestressed anchors is simplified as linear spring and damped system related with velocity. Under the condition of horizontal earthquake excitation, the equation of vibration response is established by using the model of dynamic Winkler beam and the analytical solutions are obtained for simple harmonic vibration. This method is applied to a case record for illustration of its capability, in order to verify the method, 3D nonlinear FEM (ADINA) is used to analyze the seismic performance of this case, the comparative results show that the design and the analysis are safe and credible by using the proposed method. The calculation model provides a new way for earthquake analysis and seismic design of slope stability supported by frame structure with prestressed anchors.

  15. Experiments with result diversity and entity ranking: Text, anchors, links, and Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Koolen, M.; Kamps, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we document our efforts in participating to the TREC 2009 Entity Ranking and Web Tracks. We had multiple aims: For the Web Track’s Adhoc task we experiment with document text and anchor text representation, and the use of the link structure. For the Web Track’s Diversity task we exper

  16. Using anchor text, spam filtering and Wikipedia for web search and entity ranking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Kaptein, R.; Koolen, M.; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we document our efforts in participating to the TREC 2010 Entity Ranking and Web Tracks. We had multiple aims: For the Web Track we wanted to compare the effectiveness of anchor text of the category A and B collections and the impact of global document quality measures such as PageRan

  17. An Indo-Arabian type of stone anchor from Kannur, Kerala,west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Manikfan, A.; Mohamed, M.

    and commerce, cultural contacts and boat and shipbuilding activities of the region. In India, stone anchors have been reported from Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Lakshadweep on the west coast and Tamil Nadu and Orissa on the east coast of India. Recent exploration...

  18. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Adults with Dyslexia: A Test of the Anchoring Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Frank; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Vlutters, Leoni D.; Winkel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measured auditory frequency discrimination thresholds…

  19. Technical Note: Drifting vs. anchored flux chambers for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from running waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stream networks were recently discovered as major but poorly constrained natural greenhouse gas (GHG sources. A fundamental problem is that several measurement approaches have been used without cross comparisons. Flux chambers represent a potentially powerful methodological approach if robust and reliable ways to use chambers on running water can be defined. Here we compare the use of anchored and freely drifting chambers on various streams having different flow velocities. The study clearly shows that (1 drifting chambers have a very small impact on the water turbulence under the chamber and thus generate more reliable fluxes, (2 anchored chambers enhance turbulence under the chambers and thus elevate fluxes, (3 the bias of the anchored chambers greatly depends on chamber design and sampling conditions, and (4 there is a promising method to reduce the bias from anchored chambers by using a flexible plastic foil seal to the water surface rather than having rigid chamber walls penetrating into the water. Altogether, these results provide novel guidance on how to apply flux chambers in running water, which will have important consequences for measurements to constrain the global GHG balances.

  20. Urokinase-catalysed cleavage of the urokinase receptor requires an intact glycolipid anchor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Pessara, U; Holm, A;

    2001-01-01

    Urokinase (uPA) has the striking ability to cleave its receptor, uPAR, thereby inactivating the binding potential of this molecule. Here we demonstrate that the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor of uPAR, which is attached to the third domain, is an important determinant in governing this ...

  1. The anchoring mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanism of the laminar premixed flame anchoring near a heat-conducting bluff-body. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. No artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions were imposed. Simulations show a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. A steel bluff-body resulted in a slightly larger recirculation zone than a ceramic bluff-body; the size of which grew as the equivalence ratio was decreased. A significant departure from the conventional two-zone flame-structure is shown in the anchoring region. In this region, the reaction zone is associated with a large negative energy convection (directed from products to reactants) resulting in a negative flame-displacement speed. It is shown that the premixed flame anchors at an immediate downstream location near the bluff-body where favorable ignition conditions are established; a region associated with (1) a sufficiently high temperature impacted by the conjugate heat exchange between the heat-conducting bluff-body and the hot reacting flow and (2) a locally maximum stoichiometry characterized by the preferential diffusion effects. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  2. Substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive anti-inflammatory coatings for implant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Duo; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Tianchan; Ding, Chunmei; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-06-01

    Implant materials need to be highly biocompatible to avoid inflammation in clinical practice. Although biodegradable polymeric implants can eliminate the need for a second surgical intervention to remove the implant materials, they may produce acidic degradation products in vivo and cause non-bacterial inflammation. Here we show the strategy of “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coatings” for biodegradable implants. Using poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite as an implant material model, we constructed a layer-by-layer coating using pH-sensitive star polymers and dendrimers loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, which was immobilised through a hydroxyapatite-anchored layer. The multifunctional coating can effectively suppress the local inflammation caused by the degradation of implant materials for at least 8 weeks in vivo. Moreover, the substrate-anchored coating is able to modulate the degradation of the substrate in a more homogeneous manner. The “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coating” strategy therefore exhibits potential for the design of various self-anti-inflammatory biodegradable implant materials.

  3. Simulations of a Membrane-Anchored Peptide: Structure, Dynamics, and Influence on Bilayer Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Mouritsen, O.G.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional structure of a model decapeptide is obtained by performing molecular dynamics simulations of the peptide in explicit water. Interactions between an N-myristoylated form of the folded peptide anchored to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine fluid phase lipid membranes are studied at ...

  4. Result diversity and entity ranking experiments: anchors, links, text and Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Koolen, M.; Kamps, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we document our efforts in participating to the TREC 2009 Entity Ranking and Web Tracks. We had multiple aims: For the Web Track’s Adhoc task we experiment with document text and anchor text representation, and the use of the link structure. For the Web Track’s Diversity task we exper

  5. Neutron reflectivity of supported membranes incorporating terminally anchored polymers: Protrusions vs. blisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragneto, Giovanna; Halperin, Avraham; Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria;

    2013-01-01

    was characterized by w 1/2 , the width at half-height of the scattering length density profile. The inner headgroup layer was essentially unperturbed while w 1/2 of the outer layer increased significantly. This suggests that the anchored PEG chains give rise to headgroup protrusions rather than to blister...

  6. Linking self and ingroup : Self-anchoring as distinctive cognitive route to social identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, Ruth; Otten, Sabine; Hansen, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The present paper investigates how cognitive projection processes instigate social identification. We complement the classical self-stereotyping approach (i.e., conforming to prototypical group norms) by investigating self-anchoring (i.e., projection from self to group) as a distinct cognitive route

  7. Processing visual rhetoric in advertisements: Interpretations determined by verbal anchoring and visual structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwerf, L.; Hooijdonk, van C.M.J.; Korenberg, A.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated meaning operation in relation to verbal anchoring and visual structure of visual rhetoric in advertisements. Meaning operation refers to the relation between meaningful visual elements, and determines the number of interpretations of an image. Meaning operation ‘connection

  8. Operative treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation: a new technique with suture anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingwei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate clinical outcome of suture anchors in strengthening both acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments in the surgical treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with acute traumatic Rockwood III, IV and V dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint surgically treated at our institute between October 2010 and January 2012 were recruited. All patients underwent open reduction combined with suture anchors. Function was evaluated using the ConstantMurley shoulder score. Clinical and radiographic shoulder ratings were evaluated using Taft criteria at 3, 6 and 12 months. Results:Two cases with fixation loosening were not included in final statistical analysis. Other patients obtained full joint reposition on immediate postoperative radiographs. Follow-up was performed with an average of 15.6 months (range, 12-19. After early range of motion exercises, 96.2% of the patients (25/26 could abduct and elevate their shoulders more than 90 degrees within postoperative 3 months. There was no infection. Average Constant-Murley score was 96.3 points (range, 94-100 and mean Taft shoulder rating was 10.7 points (range, 8-12 at 12 months. Conclusion: The suture anchor is a relatively simple technique and can avoid screw removal which is helpful in reconstructing both acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments in acute traumatic acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Key words: Acromioclavicular joint; Dislocations; Surgery; Suture anchors

  9. An ABC Literacy Journey: Anchoring in Texts, Bridging Language, and Creating Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Amy J.; Lang, Lisa F.; Smith, Sharon V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe how alphabet books teach so much more than just the ABCs. They provide excellent resources, allowing teachers to link and integrate the reciprocal processes of reading and writing. Encapsulated within the writing workshop framework, the authors use multigenre and multicultural alphabet books as anchor texts for a literacy…

  10. Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class and the anchored Toom interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkema, G. T.; Ferrari, P. L.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Spohn, H.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the anchored Toom interface and use Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling theory to argue that the interface fluctuations are governed by the Airy1 process with the role of space and time interchanged. The predictions, which contain no free parameter, are numerically well confirmed for space-time s

  11. Approaches to enhance body-anchored and experience-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    in the rhythm and intentional orientation can also be applied to different areas, for example, psychotherapy or coaching. But the main focus is on examples from physical education. The final part of the article sees body-anchored learning as integrated in a cultural setting and as part of learning...

  12. Academic judgments under uncertainty: A study of collective anchoring effects in Swedish Research Council panel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumbanis, Lambros

    2017-02-01

    This article focuses on anchoring effects in the process of peer reviewing research proposals. Anchoring effects are commonly seen as the result of flaws in human judgment, as cognitive biases that stem from specific heuristics that guide people when they involve their intuition in solving a problem. Here, the cognitive biases will be analyzed from a sociological point of view, as interactional and aggregated phenomena. The article is based on direct observations of ten panel groups evaluating research proposals in the natural and engineering sciences for the Swedish Research Council. The analysis suggests that collective anchoring effects emerge as a result of the combination of the evaluation techniques that are being used (grading scales and average ranking) and the efforts of the evaluators to reach consensus in the face of disagreements and uncertainty in the group. What many commentators and evaluators have interpreted as an element of chance in the peer review process may also be understood as partly a result of the dynamic aspects of collective anchoring effects.

  13. Bearing Capacity Analyses for the Great Belt East Bridge Anchor Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten Steen; Clausen, Carl J. Frimann; Andersen, Henrik

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between different methods of bearing capacity analyses: Upper Bound Method. Limit Equilibrium Analysis and Finite Element Analysis. For the Great Belt East Bridge anchor blocks it was concluded that these methods of calculation agree within 5%. However, for cases...... where the bearing capacity is dominated by frictional materials, much higher differences should be expected....

  14. The bone-anchored hearing aid : quality-of-life assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Myrthe K S; Spath, Marian A; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Pouw, Catharina T M; Snik, Ad F M; Cremers, Cor W R J; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of a bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) on the quality of life (QOL) of adults and to test the hypothesis that a BAHA improves QOL because otorrhea and/or skin irritations decrease. DESIGN: Prospective postal-based questionnaire study using validated health-related QOL

  15. The Effect of Molecular Anchoring and Curvature on Confined Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondris-Crawford, Renate Johanna

    Nematic liquid crystals confined to curved geometries exhibit unique elastic and anchoring properties. One result of this study was the first simultaneous measurement of the azimuthal (W_phi) and polar (W_theta) anchoring strength and the saddle-splay surface elastic constant K_{24}. The technique confined 4^'-pentyl-4 -cyanobiphenyl (5CB) to submicrometer polyimide treated cylindrical cavities of polycarbonate (Nuclepore) membranes with concentric tangential anchoring conditions for deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance studies. A structural transition upon increasing cavity radius from a planar-bipolar (PB, R 0.5 mu m) structure resulted in the measurement of W _theta and W_phi (comparable in these systems), and of K _{24}/K. The effect of the bend elastic constant K _{33} on the escaped nematic director -field of 4^'-octyl-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) in the submicrometer cavities of Nuclepore membranes is significant near the nematic-smectic A transition. The project encompassed monitoring the anchoring angle, measuring the defect density, and estimating the values for W _theta and K_{24 }/K. The lack of pretransitional smectic layering was attributed to the roughness of the cavity wall. The effect of surface treatments on the nematic structures in the submicrometer cavities of alumina (Anopore) membranes was systematically studied by treating the cavity walls with aliphatic acids (C_{n} H_{2n+1}-COOH) of varying carbon number, n. A configuration transition upon decreasing n from a planar-polar (PP, n>7) to a parallel-axial (PA, n<7) structure indicated a discontinuous anchoring transition from homeotropic to planar anchoring at n = 7. Stable nematic director-fields of chiral nematics in Anopore membranes revealed a structural transition from a PA to a twisted PB (TPB) structure as the percentage of chiral additive increased. The TPB structure is the same as the PB structure in-plane, but the symmetry axis twists along the cylinder axis to accommodate the intrinsic twist

  16. Lactobacillus acidophilus CP23 with weak immunomodulatory activity lacks anchoring structure for surface layer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Sae; Kato, Shinji; Ashida, Nobuhisa; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2015-05-01

    To determine the reason for the low levels of Surface layer protein A (SlpA) on CP23 cells, which might play a crucial role in the immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus, the DNA sequence of the slpA gene of CP23 and L-92 strains, including the upstream region, were analyzed. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the predicted amino acid sequence of the C-terminus needed for cell anchoring, and only an additional Ala-Val-Ala sequence inserted in the N-terminal region of the mature CP23 protein. Therefore, anchoring of SlpA on the cell wall of CP23 and L-92 was evaluated by a reconstitution assay, which showed that SlpA released by LiCl treatment from both CP23 and L-92 was successfully anchored on LiCl-treated L-92 cells, but not on LiCl-treated CP23 cells. Moreover, quantitative analysis of SlpA protein in the culture medium of CP23 and L-92 by ELISA revealed higher levels of SlpA secretion in CP23 cells than in L-92 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that the lower levels of SlpA on the surface of CP23 cells might be caused by less cell wall capacity for SlpA anchoring, leading to an accumulation of SlpA in the culture medium of CP23 cells. The present study supports the importance of cell surface structure of L. acidophilus L-92 for SlpA anchoring on the cell surface needed for immunomodulatory effect.

  17. A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Guan Teo

    Full Text Available In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation.

  18. Anchoring Intrinsically Disordered Proteins to Multiple Targets: Lessons from N-Terminus of the p53 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Huang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anchor residues, which are deeply buried upon binding, play an important role in protein–protein interactions by providing recognition specificity and facilitating the binding kinetics. Up to now, studies on anchor residues have been focused mainly on ordered proteins. In this study, we investigated anchor residues in intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs which are flexible in the free state. We identified the anchor residues of the N-terminus of the p53 protein (Glu17–Asn29, abbreviated as p53N which are involved in binding with two different targets (MDM2 and Taz2, and analyzed their side chain conformations in the unbound states. The anchor residues in the unbound p53N were found to frequently sample conformations similar to those observed in the bound complexes (i.e., Phe19, Trp23, and Leu26 in the p53N-MDM2 complex, and Leu22 in the p53N-Taz2 complex. We argue that the bound-like conformations of the anchor residues in the unbound state are important for controlling the specific interactions between IDPs and their targets. Further, we propose a mechanism to account for the binding promiscuity of IDPs in terms of anchor residues and molecular recognition features (MoRFs.

  19. Aurora A kinase expression is increased in leukemia stem cells, and a selective Aurora A kinase inhibitor enhances Ara-C-induced apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background The overexpression of Aurora A kinase (AurA) has been reported in various malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the expression of AurA and the effects of AurA inhibition in cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood. We investigated the expression and inhibition of AurA in AML stem cells (CD34+/CD38-). Methods Expression of AurA was investigated in cell lines (NB4 and KG1) that express high levels of CD34 and low levels of CD38. Primary AML cells were h...

  20. The utilisation of a career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bezuidenhout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This  study  constituted  and  reported  on  the  outcomes  of  a  structured  career conversation  framework  based  on  Schein’s  eight  career  anchors  in  an  open  distance  and e-learning (ODeL university in South Africa.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to report on the utilisation of a structured career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors model.Motivation for the study: The rationale for the study was the paucity of studies investigating career anchors in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 4200 employees at a university in South Africa. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA as well as a Scheffe post hoc test.Main  findings: The  findings  of  this  study  suggest  that  career  conversation  has  a  dynamic nature (i.e. it changes over a period of time. Consequently, career development interventions in the workplace need to approach the workforce holistically.Practical/managerial implications: The findings and results will assist managers, practitioners and  career  development  specialists  in  the  practical  implementation  of  the  career  anchor concept.Contribution/value-add: The career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors has expanded the existing theory to find the right balance between career conversations and career anchors to keep people motivated to perform optimally in an organisation.

  1. Constructive and problem-based learning using blended learning anchored instruction approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Based on an anchored instruction approach, an enriched blended learning lecture course ("Introduction into GNSS positioning") was established in order to enable constructive and problem-based learning. The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The presented higher education technique "anchored instruction" uses a real and up-to-date and therefore authentic scientific paper dealing with a recent large-scale geodetic project (Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link) in order to introduce the topic of GNSS-based positioning to the students. In the beginning of the semester, the students have to read the paper individually and carefully. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated focusing on new, unclear or not-understood aspects of the paper. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them throughout the semester. During the lecture course this paper is referred, e.g., in the middle of the semester, the paper has to be read again in order to check which questions have been answered; in addition, new question arise. At the end of the lecture course, the author of the scientific paper gave a concluding lecture. The framing anchor technique enables the students to anchor their GNSS knowledge. The presented case study uses a teaching resp. learning setting consisting of classroom lectures (given by teachers and learners), practical trainings (e.g., field exercises, students select topics individually), and online lectures (learning management system ILIAS is used as data, result, and asynchronous communication platform). The implementation and the elements of the anchoring technique, which enables student

  2. Triple labrum tears repaired with the JuggerKnot™ soft anchor: Technique and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The 2-year outcomes of patients undergoing repair of triple labrum tears using an all-suture anchor device were assessed. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (17 male, one female; mean age 36.4 years, range: 14.2-62.3 years with triple labrum tears underwent arthroscopic repair using the 1.4 mm JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (mean number of anchors 11.5, range: 9-19 anchors. Five patients had prior surgeries performed on their operative shoulder. Patients were followed for a mean of 2.0 years (range: 1.6-3.0 years. Constant-Murley shoulder score (CS and Flexilevel scale of shoulder function (FLEX-SF scores were measured, with preoperative and final postoperative mean scores compared with a paired Student′s t-test (P < 0.05. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was also performed at final postoperative. Results: Overall total CS and FLEX-SF scores increased from 52.9 ± 20.4 to 84.3 ± 10.7 (P < 0.0001 and from 29.3 ± 4.7 to 42.0 ± 7.3 (P < 0.0001, respectively. When divided into two groups by whether or not glenohumeral arthrosis was present at the time of surgery (n = 9 each group, significant improvements in CS and FLEX-SF were obtained for both groups (P < 0.0015. There were no intraoperative complications. All patients, including contact athletes, returned to their preinjury level of sports activity and were satisfied. MRI evaluation revealed no instances of subchondral cyst formation or tunnel expansion. Anchor tracts appeared to heal with fibrous tissue, complete bony healing, or combined fibro-osseous healing. Conclusion: Our results are encouraging, demonstrating a consistent healing of the anchor tunnels through arthroscopic treatment of complex labrum lesions with a completely suture-based implant. It further demonstrates a meaningful improvement in patient outcomes, a predictable return to activity, and a high rate of patient satisfaction. Level of Evidence: Level IV case series.

  3. Application of full-length anchor support technology in a large-section roadway under complicated geological conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yun-fei; WANG Yun-gang

    2012-01-01

    Coal roadway support is the foundation and strong guarantee of safe coal production.With the FLAC3D numerical simulation,the roadway full-length anchor support mechanism was studied,and the full-length anchor force-transferring mechanism and stress-field distribution formed by roadway surrounding rocks were analyzed,which will provide a scientific basis for a support technology in large-section roadways under complicated geological conditions and lay a foundation for the popularization and application of a full-length anchor support system under special geological conditions.

  4. Strategy to improve photovoltaic performance of DSSC sensitized by zinc prophyrin using salicylic acid as a tridentate anchoring group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Faliang; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Ran; Jing, Huanwang; Zhu, Zhenping

    2014-05-14

    Three new zinc porphyrin dyes attached to ethynyl benzoic acid as an electron transmission and anchoring group have been designed, synthesized, and well-characterized. The performances of their sensitized solar cells have been investigated by optical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical methods. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cells sensitized by the dye with salicylic acid as an anchoring group demonstrated obvious enhancement when compared with that sensitized by the dye with carboxylic acid as an anchoring group. The density functional theory calculations and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopies revealed that tridentate binding modes could increase the efficiency of electron injection from dyes to the TiO2 nanoparticles by more electron pathways.

  5. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Weng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA. The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  6. Palladium nanoparticle anchored polyphosphazene nanotubes: preparation and catalytic activity on aryl coupling reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Devi; A Ashok Kumar; S Sankar; K Dinakaran

    2015-06-01

    Highly accessible-supported palladium (Pd) nanoparticles anchored polyphosphazene (PPZ) nanotubes (NTs) having average diameter of 120 nm were synthesized rapidly at room temperature and homogeneously decorated with Pd nanoparticles. The resultant PPZ–Pd nanocomposites were morphologically and structurally characterized by means of transmission electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Characterization results showed that the Pd nanoparticles with good dispersibility could be well anchored onto the surfaces of the PPZ NTs. The PPZ–Pd NTs show enhanced catalytic activity for the Suzuki coupling of aryl bromides with arylboronic acid. In addition, these PPZ–Pd NTs show excellent behaviour as reusable catalysts of the Suzuki and Heck coupling reactions.

  7. Flapping states of an el astically anchored wing in a uniform flow

    CERN Document Server

    Orchini, A; Guerrero, J; Festa, R; Boragno, C

    2012-01-01

    Linear stability analysis of an elastically anchored wing in a uniform flow is investigated both analytically and numerically. The analytical formulation explicitly takes into account the effect of the wake on the wing by means of Theodorsen's theory. Three different parameters non-trivially rule the observed dynamics: mass density ratio between wing and fluid, spring elastic constant and distance between the wing center of mass and the spring anchor point on the wing. We found relationships between these parameters which rule the transition between stable equilibrium and fluttering. The shape of the resulting marginal curve has been successfully verified by high Reynolds number direct numerical simulations. Our findings are of interest in applications related to energy harvesting by fluid-structure interaction, a problem which has recently attracted a great deal of attention. The main aim in that context is to identify the optimal physical/geometrical system configuration leading to large sustained motion, w...

  8. Playing dice with criminal sentences: the influence of irrelevant anchors on experts' judicial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englich, Birte; Mussweiler, Thomas; Strack, Fritz

    2006-02-01

    Judicial sentencing decisions should be guided by facts, not by chance. The present research however demonstrates that the sentencing decisions of experienced legal professionals are influenced by irrelevant sentencing demands even if they are blatantly determined at random. Participating legal experts anchored their sentencing decisions on a given sentencing demand and assimilated toward it even if this demand came from an irrelevant source (Study 1), they were informed that this demand was randomly determined (Study 2), or they randomly determined this demand themselves by throwing dice (Study 3). Expertise and experience did not reduce this effect. This sentencing bias appears to be produced by a selective increase in the accessibility of arguments that are consistent with the random sentencing demand: The accessibility of incriminating arguments was higher if participants were confronted with a high rather than a low anchor (Study 4). Practical and theoretical implications of this research are discussed.

  9. Note on the hydrodynamic description of thin nematic films: strong anchoring model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Te-Sheng; Archer, Andrew J; Kondic, Lou; Thiele, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the long-wave hydrodynamic model for a thin film of nematic liquid crystal in the limit of strong anchoring at the free surface and at the substrate. Our aim is to clarify how the elastic energy enters the evolution equation for the film thickness; several models exist in the literature that result in qualitatively different behaviour. We consolidate the various approaches and show that the long-wave model derived through an asymptotic expansion of the full nemato-hydrodynamic equations with consistent boundary conditions agrees with the equation one obtains by employing a thermodynamically motivated gradient dynamics formulation based on an underlying free energy functional. As a result, we find that the elastic distortion energy is always stabilising in the case of strong anchoring. To support the discussion in the main part of the paper, an appendix gives the full derivation of the evolution equation for the film thickness via asymptotic expansion.

  10. Tropolone as a High-Performance Robust Anchoring Group for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Fujimori, Yamato; Sugiura, Kenichi; Tsuji, Yukihiro; Ito, Seigo; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2015-07-27

    A tropolone group has been employed for the first time as an anchoring group for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on a porphyrin, YD2-o-C8T, with a tropolone moiety exhibited a power-conversion efficiency of 7.7 %, which is only slightly lower than that observed for a reference porphyrin, YD2-o-C8, with a conventional carboxylic group. More importantly, YD2-o-C8T was found to be superior to YD2-o-C8 with respect to DSSC durability and binding ability to TiO2 . These results unambiguously demonstrate that tropolone is a highly promising dye-anchoring group for DSSCs in terms of device durability as well as photovoltaic performance.

  11. Orientational instabilities in nematics with weak anchoring under combined action of steady flow and external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Nasibullayev, I S; Krekhov, A P; Kramer, L

    2005-01-01

    We study the homogeneous and the spatially periodic instabilities in a nematic liquid crystal layer subjected to steady plane {\\em Couette} or {\\em Poiseuille} flow. The initial director orientation is perpendicular to the flow plane. Weak anchoring at the confining plates and the influence of the external {\\em electric} and/or {\\em magnetic} field are taken into account. Approximate expressions for the critical shear rate are presented and compared with semi-analytical solutions in case of Couette flow and numerical solutions of the full set of nematodynamic equations for Poiseuille flow. In particular the dependence of the type of instability and the threshold on the azimuthal and the polar anchoring strength and external fields is analysed.

  12. Temperature- and electric-field-induced inverse Freedericksz transition in a nematogen with weak surface anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T. Arun; Sathyanarayana, P.; Sastry, V. S. S.; Takezoe, Hideo; Madhusudana, N. V.; Dhara, Surajit

    2010-07-01

    We report electric field dependence of the anchoring transition in a mesogen on cooling in a cell with perfluoropolymer treated surfaces. Below a crossover voltage Vco the transition is discontinuous between planar and homeotropic alignments, and as the temperature is lowered, the transition temperature decreases quadratically with the field. Above Vco the transition is continuous between planar and tilted alignments, the transition temperature decreasing essentially linearly with the rms field. We develop a simple model to account for these results and argue that the higher field regime corresponds to a temperature driven inverse Freedericksz transition in which the director orientation starts tilting at the weakly anchored surfaces while the tilt angle remains zero at the midplane of the cell.

  13. Webtag: a new web tool providing tags/anchors for RT-PCR experiments with prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Webtag is a tool providing oligonucleotide sequences (usually called tags or anchors that are absent from a specified genome. These tags/anchors can be appended to gene specific primers for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction experiments, circumventing genomic DNA contamination. Results The use of a relational database, in conjunction with a series of scripts written in PHP and Perl, allows the user to rapidly obtain tags that are: 1 suitable for a specific organism, and 2 compatible with other oligonucleotides to be used in the experimental procedures. Conclusion This new web tool allows scientists to easily and rapidly obtain suitable tags for RT-PCR experiments, and is available at http://www.egs.uu.se/software/webtag/.

  14. Stress Monitoring for Anchor Rods System in Subway Tunnel Using FBG Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Weng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model test, used on the tunnels on Xi’an Metro Line 2, as the prototype for evaluating the reinforcing effect of the anchor rod in tunnel construction in loess areas. An independently designed fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor was used to monitor the seven strain conditions of the rock bolts during the construction. The result shows that the axial stress of the rock bolt changes after the excavation and increases steadily with the growing pressure in the wall rock. Results additionally show that the anchor rods at the tunnel vault are subjected to a compressive stress that remains relatively constant after the primary and the secondary lining, while those at the spandrel and the corner of the tunnel are subjected to increased tensile stress. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and the superiority of FBG technology for tunnel model tests.

  15. Durability enhancement of intermetallics electrocatalysts via N-anchor effect for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; An, Li; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Nanlin; Xia, Dingguo; Huang, Weifeng; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-11-18

    Insufficient durability and catalytic activity of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst are key issues that have to be solved for the practical application of low temperature fuel cell. This paper introduces a new catalyst design strategy using N-anchor to promote the corrosion resistance of electrocatalyst. The as-synthesized N-Pt3Fe1/C shows a high electrocatalytic activity and a superior durability towards ORR. The kinetic current density of N-Pt3Fe1/C as normalized by ECSA is still as high as 0.145 mA cm(-2) and only 7% loss after 20,000 potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.2 V (vs. NHE) in O2-bubbling perchloric acid solution, whereas Pt3Fe1/C shows 49% loss under the same tests. The N-anchor approach offers novel opportunities for the development of ORR catalyst with excellent electrochemical properties.

  16. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Libo; Chien, Liang-Chy [Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); Liao, Pei-Chun [Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); AU Optronics Corporation, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chen-Chun; Ting, Tien-Lun; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Su, Jenn-Jia [AU Optronics Corporation, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA). The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  17. Organisation, ‘anchoring’ of knowledge, and innovation in the construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Vinding, Anker Lund

    2004-01-01

    explanation for the relatively poor innovation performance of the industry. Using survey data from the Danish construction industry the paper investigates the importance of learning and ?anchoring? of project specific knowledge within the firms for facilitating engagement in innovative activities...... at the firm level. The data refer to the overall Danish construction industry, as well as a specific region, North Jutland, which is relatively specialised in construction. By using latent class and regression analysis the results show that firms, which to a high extent make use of partnering and other...... interorganisational features, combined with internal product and process evaluation and knowledge diffusion, are more likely to engage in innovative activities than firms that make less use of what we label ?knowledge anchoring mechanisms?. This indicates that there are ways for firms to compensate for the problems...

  18. Communication: Electrical rectification of C59N: The role of anchoring and doping sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Cui, X Y; Ringer, S P; Stampfl, C

    2016-01-14

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism and density-functional theory, we investigate the onset of electrical rectification in a single C59N molecule in conjunction with gold electrodes. Our calculations reveal that rectification is dependent upon the anchoring of the Au atom on C59N; when the Au electrode is singly bonded to a C atom (labeled here as A), the system does not exhibit rectification, whereas when the electrode is connected to the C-C bridge site between two hexagonal rings (labeled here as B), transmission asymmetry is observed, where the rectification ratio reaches up to 2.62 at ±1 V depending on the N doping site relative to the anchoring site. Our analysis of the transmission mechanism shows that N doping of the B configuration causes rectification because more transmission channels are available for transmission in the B configuration than in the A configuration.

  19. Communication: Electrical rectification of C{sub 59}N: The role of anchoring and doping sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader, E-mail: sherif.abbas@sydney.edu.au; Stampfl, C. [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, and School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2016-01-14

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism and density-functional theory, we investigate the onset of electrical rectification in a single C{sub 59}N molecule in conjunction with gold electrodes. Our calculations reveal that rectification is dependent upon the anchoring of the Au atom on C{sub 59}N; when the Au electrode is singly bonded to a C atom (labeled here as A), the system does not exhibit rectification, whereas when the electrode is connected to the C–C bridge site between two hexagonal rings (labeled here as B), transmission asymmetry is observed, where the rectification ratio reaches up to 2.62 at ±1 V depending on the N doping site relative to the anchoring site. Our analysis of the transmission mechanism shows that N doping of the B configuration causes rectification because more transmission channels are available for transmission in the B configuration than in the A configuration.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Mobility Anchor Point with Guard Load Reservation in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Chung Wang; Li-Hsin Chiang; Hung-Pin Lin

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) introduces a mobility anchor point to reduce the signaling overhead and handoff latency. In this paper, we apply the matrix-analytical approach to explore the performance measures of the ongoing mobile nodes (MNs) drop and new MNs block probabilities of mobility anchor point with a guard bandwidth reservation scheme. We apply the Markovian arrival process (MAP) to model ongoing MNs and new MNs. Five related performance measures are derived, including the long-term new MN block and ongoing MN drop probabilities, and the three short-term measures of average length of a block period and a non-block period, as well as the conditional ongoing MN drop probability during a block period. These performance measures greatly assist the guard bandwidth reservation mechanism in determining a proper threshold guard bandwidth. The results presented in this paper can provide guidelines for designing adaptive algorithms to adjust the threshold in the guard bandwidth reservation scheme.

  1. Study on precision piezoelectric rotary step motors with inner anchor/loosen and outer drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfang LIU; Zhigang YANG; Ping ZENG; Zunqiang FAN

    2008-01-01

    A new precision rotary piezoelectric(PZT)actuator is proposed to improve its drive performance.Based on piezoelectric technology,the actuator adopts the principle of bionics,with a new method of stator inner anchor/loosen/rotor outer drive and a distortion structure of a thin shelf flexible hinge.This structure improves the stability of the anchor/loosen and step rotary.Its characteristics are evaluated by finite element analysis.The experiment shows that the new rotary PZT actuator works with higher frequency(40 Hz),higher speed (325 μrad/s),wider movement(360°),high resolution (1 μrad/step)and high torque(30 N·cm).The novel actuator can be applied in wide movement and high resolution driving devices such as those for optics engineering,precision positioning and some other micro-manipulation fields.

  2. The effects of earthquake measurement concepts and magnitude anchoring on individuals' perceptions of earthquake risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celsi, R.; Wolfinbarger, M.; Wald, D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore earthquake risk perceptions in California. Specifically, we examine the risk beliefs, feelings, and experiences of lay, professional, and expert individuals to explore how risk is perceived and how risk perceptions are formed relative to earthquakes. Our results indicate that individuals tend to perceptually underestimate the degree that earthquake (EQ) events may affect them. This occurs in large part because individuals' personal felt experience of EQ events are generally overestimated relative to experienced magnitudes. An important finding is that individuals engage in a process of "cognitive anchoring" of their felt EQ experience towards the reported earthquake magnitude size. The anchoring effect is moderated by the degree that individuals comprehend EQ magnitude measurement and EQ attenuation. Overall, the results of this research provide us with a deeper understanding of EQ risk perceptions, especially as they relate to individuals' understanding of EQ measurement and attenuation concepts. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  3. Structure of a CGI-58 Motif Provides the Molecular Basis of Lipid Droplet Anchoring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Nagy, Harald Manuel; Arthanari, Haribabu; Pillip, Christoph Jens; Lindermuth, Hanna; Luna, Rafael Eulogio; Wagner, Gerhard; Zechner, Rudolf; Zangger, Klaus; Oberer, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TGs) stored in lipid droplets (LDs) are hydrolyzed in a highly regulated metabolic process called lipolysis to free fatty acids that serve as energy substrates for β-oxidation, precursors for membrane lipids and signaling molecules. Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) stimulates the enzymatic activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of TGs to diacylglycerols and free fatty acids. In adipose tissue, protein-protein interactions between CGI-58 and the LD coating protein perilipin 1 restrain the ability of CGI-58 to activate ATGL under basal conditions. Phosphorylation of perilipin 1 disrupts these interactions and mobilizes CGI-58 for the activation of ATGL. We have previously demonstrated that the removal of a peptide at the N terminus (residues 10–31) of CGI-58 abrogates CGI-58 localization to LDs and CGI-58-mediated activation of ATGL. Here, we show that this tryptophan-rich N-terminal peptide serves as an independent LD anchor, with its three tryptophans serving as focal points of the left (harboring Trp21 and Trp25) and right (harboring Trp29) anchor arms. The solution state NMR structure of a peptide comprising the LD anchor bound to dodecylphosphocholine micelles as LD mimic reveals that the left arm forms a concise hydrophobic core comprising tryptophans Trp21 and Trp25 and two adjacent leucines. Trp29 serves as the core of a functionally independent anchor arm. Consequently, simultaneous tryptophan alanine permutations in both arms abolish localization and activity of CGI-58 as opposed to tryptophan substitutions that occur in only one arm. PMID:26350461

  4. Assessing Corrosion Damage and Corrosion Progression in Multistrand Anchor Systems in Use at Corps Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    8  2.3  Miller’s Ferry Lock, Holt Lock, and Snell and Eisenhower Locks ................................ 8  2.4  John Day...additional strength for the dam. Figure 2-2. Bluestone anchor repair to prevent sliding. 2.3 Miller’s Ferry Lock, Holt Lock, and Snell and...Miller’s Ferry Lock (Alabama River, Mobile District), Holt Lock (Black Warrior River, Mobile District), and Snell and Eisenhower Locks (St

  5. Waterhammer Transient Simulation and Model Anchoring for the Robotic Lunar Lander Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, William B.; Trinh, Huu P.; Reynolds, Michael E.; Sharp, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Waterhammer transients have the potential to adversely impact propulsion system design if not properly addressed. Waterhammer can potentially lead to system plumbing, and component damage. Multi-thruster propulsion systems also develop constructive/destructive wave interference which becomes difficult to predict without detailed models. Therefore, it is important to sufficiently characterize propulsion system waterhammer in order to develop a robust design with minimal impact to other systems. A risk reduction activity was performed at Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a tool for estimating waterhammer through the use of anchored simulation for the Robotic Lunar Lander (RLL) propulsion system design. Testing was performed to simulate waterhammer surges due to rapid valve closure and consisted of twenty-two series of waterhammer tests, resulting in more than 300 valve actuations. These tests were performed using different valve actuation schemes and three system pressures. Data from the valve characterization tests were used to anchor the models that employed MSCSoftware.EASY5 v.2010 to model transient fluid phenomena by using transient forms of mass and energy conservation. The anchoring process was performed by comparing initial model results to experimental data and then iterating the model input to match the simulation results with the experimental data. The models provide good correlation with experimental results, supporting the use of EASY5 as a tool to model fluid transients and provide a baseline for future RLL system modeling. This paper addresses tasks performed during the waterhammer risk reduction activity for the RLL propulsion system. The problem of waterhammer simulation anchoring as applied to the RLL system is discussed with results from the corresponding experimental valve tests. Important factors for waterhammer mitigation are discussed along with potential design impacts to the RLL propulsion system.

  6. Traumatic lumbar hernia repair: a laparoscopic technique for mesh fixation with an iliac crest suture anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, D J R; Berney, C R

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic lumbar hernia (TLH) is a rare presentation. Traditionally, these have been repaired via an open approach. Recurrence can be a problem due to the often limited tissue available for mesh fixation at the inferior aspect of the hernia defect. We report the successful use of bone suture anchors placed in the iliac crest during transperitoneal laparoscopy for mesh fixation to repair a recurrent TLH. This technique may be particularly useful after previous failed attempts at open TLH repair.

  7. A numerical study on the structural integrity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Lonetti; Arturo Pascuzzo

    2016-01-01

    A generalized numerical model for predicting the structural integrity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges considering both geometric and material nonlinearities is proposed. The bridge is modeled by means of a 3D finite element approach based on a refined displacement-type finite element approximation, in which geometrical nonlinearities are assumed in all components of the structure. Moreover, nonlinearities produced by inelastic material and second order effects in the displace...

  8. A Comparative Study of McDonald’s Wedding Narratives with the Model of Anchoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast-food giant McDonald’s announced in 2010 that they would start hosting wedding ceremonies and receptions for couples who would like to get married in their restaurants in Hong Kong. This paper conducts a study comparing the differing representations of McDonald’s wedding services through a narrative analytical approach. Specifically, this paper examines relevant discourses surrounding the launch of the corporation’s wedding services from the British media (e.g. Daily Mail, the Independent as well as public discourses in Hong Kong (e.g. McDonald’s Hong Kong website, and CNN’s Hong Kong news.  It is found that these narratives have a significant degree of discrepancy in depicting McDonald’s wedding stories. These differences further raise the question of how differing narrative strategies are employed to conceptualise the brand’s emergent wedding narratives in a unique social-cultural environment.  In the discussion of McDonald’s wedding stories, the focus is placed on the cognitive and linguistic aspects of the discourse. An analytical model of “anchoring” will be proposed and applied to investigate the cooperation’s marketing strategies as well as the media’s reaction towards such promotions. It is argued that a narrative can promote or demote a brand’s identity and position through the process of anchoring. It is further argued that anchoring is an important cognitive-psychological strategy in conceptualization and meaning construction. Keywords: narrative inquiry, cognitive narratology, anchors, anchoring, meaning construction

  9. Expanding the clinical and molecular characteristics of PIGT-CDG, a disorder of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christina; Golas, Gretchen A; Davids, Mariska; Huizing, Marjan; Kane, Megan S; Krasnewich, Donna M; Malicdan, May Christine V; Adams, David R; Markello, Thomas C; Zein, Wadih M; Gropman, Andrea L; Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A; Maric, Irina; Rosenzweig, Sergio D; Baker, Eva H; Ferreira, Carlos R; Danylchuk, Noelle R; Kahler, Stephen; Garnica, Adolfo D; Bradley Schaefer, G; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Gahl, William A; Wolfe, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    PIGT-CDG, an autosomal recessive syndromic intellectual disability disorder of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors, was recently described in two independent kindreds [Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome 3 (OMIM, #615398)]. PIGT encodes phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis class T, a subunit of the heteropentameric transamidase complex that facilitates the transfer of GPI to proteins. GPI facilitates attachment (anchoring) of proteins to cell membranes. We describe, at ages 7 and 6 years, two children of non-consanguineous parents; they had hypotonia, severe global developmental delay, and intractable seizures along with endocrine, ophthalmologic, skeletal, hearing, and cardiac anomalies. Exome sequencing revealed that both siblings had compound heterozygous variants in PIGT (NM_015937.5), i.e., c.918dupC, a novel duplication leading to a frameshift, and c.1342C > T encoding a previously described missense variant. Flow cytometry studies showed decreased surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins on granulocytes, consistent with findings in previous cases. These siblings further delineate the clinical spectrum of PIGT-CDG, reemphasize the neuro-ophthalmologic presentation, clarify the endocrine features, and add hypermobility, low CSF albumin quotient, and hearing loss to the phenotypic spectrum. Our results emphasize that GPI anchor-related congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) should be considered in subjects with early onset severe seizure disorders and dysmorphic facial features, even in the presence of a normal carbohydrate-deficient transferrin pattern and N-glycan profiling. Currently available screening for CDGs will not reliably detect this family of disorders, and our case reaffirms that the use of flow cytometry and genetic testing is essential for diagnosis in this group of disorders.

  10. Subcutaneous anchor attachment increases retention of radio transmitters on Xantus' and marbled murrelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Whitworth, Darrell L.; Burkett, Esther E.

    1999-01-01

    We modified a subcutaneous anchor attachment and achieved transmitter reten- tion times that exceeded those reported previously for other attachments used on alcids. Traditional suture and epoxy attachment methods were used on Xantus' Murrelets in 1995 and 1996, while the modified attachment was used for Xantus' Murrelets in 1996 and 1997 and Marbled Murrelets in 1997. Modifications included use of an inhalant anesthetic, placing the anchor in a more cranial position on the back, application of marine epoxy, and place- ment of a single subcutaneous non-absorbable suture at the caudal end of the radio to hold the radio in place initially. We located 22 of 56 (39%) Xantus' Murrelets radio-marked using suture and epoxy during aerial surveys in 1995 and 1996. Of birds radio-marked using the subcutaneous anchor attachment, we located 92 of 113 (81%) Xantus' Murrelets marked in 1996 and 1997 and all 28 (100%) Marbled Murrelets marked in 1997 during aerial surveys. The maximum confirmed duration for the subcutaneous anchor transmitter attachment was 51 d for Xantus' Murrelets and 78 d for Marbled Murrelets versus 41 d for the suture and epoxy attachment used on Xantus' Murrelets. Recapture rates of radio-marked Xantus' Mur- relets were similar to recapture rates of unmarked Xantus' Murrelets. Our post-release ob- servations indicated negligible short-term physical effects from the attachment procedure, while telemetry data and examination of recaptured murrelets indicated no evidence of infection or other long-term physical effects. Breeding behavior of some murrelets was not disrupted; however, further evaluation of potential effects of this attachment technique on breeding and behavior is needed.

  11. Is hexamerin receptor a GPI-anchored protein in Achaea janata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhusudhan Budatha; Thuirei Jacob Ningshen; Aparna Dutta-Gupta

    2011-08-01

    The process of uptake of hexamerins during metamorphosis from insect haemolymph by fat body cells is reminiscent of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Previously, we had identified a hexamerin-binding protein (HBP) and reported for the first time that uptake of hexamerins is dependent on the phosphorylation of HBP partly by a tyrosine kinase, which is, in turn, activated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). However, the exact nature of HBP and the mechanism of interaction are still unknown. Here we report the possibility of HBP being a GPI-anchored protein in the fat body of Achaea janata and its role in the tyrosine-kinase-mediated phosphorylation signalling. Digestion of fat body membrane preparation with bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), and the subsequent recognition by antibodies specific for the cross-reacting determinant (CRD), revealed that HBP is glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and, further, that the hexamerin binding to HBP was inhibited after digestion. Hexamerin overlay assay (HOA) of co-immunoprecipitated in vitro phosphorylated HBP showed exclusive binding to ∼120 kDa protein. Lectin-binding analysis of hexamerins revealed the presence of -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and -acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), whereas HBP showed the presence of GalNac alone. Mild chemical deglycosylation studies and binding interaction in the presence of sugars revealed that glycan moieties are possibly not involved in the interaction between HBP and hexamerins. Taken together, these results suggest that HBP may be a GPI-anchored protein, and interaction and activation of HBP is through lipid-linked non-receptor src tyrosine kinases. However, additional studies are needed to prove that HBP is a GPI-anchored protein.

  12. Employees’ work engagement and job commitment: The moderating role of career anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations continue to focus on human resource initiatives for enhancingemployee commitment, satisfaction and engagement in order to gain a competitive edge in adynamic and fast-changing marketplace.Research purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess whether individuals’career anchors (measured by the career orientations inventory significantly moderate therelationship between their work engagement (measured by the Utrecht work engagementscale and job commitment (measured by the organisation-related commitment scale.Motivation for the study: Although the literature review suggests that people’s workengagement and job commitment may be influenced by their career anchors, there seems to bea paucity of research examining the interaction effects between these three variables.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey approach wasused. A non-probability purposive sample of adults (N = 318 employed in a human resourcecapacity in the South African service industry participated in the study. Stepwise hierarchicalmoderated regression analysis was performed to achieve the objective of the study.Main findings: The results showed that the work engagement-job commitment relationshipwas generally stronger for high career anchor preferences than for low career anchorpreferences.Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study can be useful when human resourceinterventions for enhancing employees’ engagement and commitment are developed.Contribution: The results of the study add new insights to the career literature by showing thatpeople’s career self-concepts (as reflected by their career anchors are important to consider inenhancing their work engagement and job commitment.

  13. System-Level Validation through Post-Flight Reconstruction and Anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-30

    Level Post-Flight Reconstruction and Anchoring Definitions -System-Level Post-Flight Reconstruction ( PFR ): » Manually recreate and run a past...cause analysis of the system-level anomalies found in the PFR ; generate, test and implement M&S improvements to address anomalies Approved for Public...08-MDA-4058 (30 DEC 08) 5 Foundation of System PFR ystem alidation System-Level Validation is built on individual Element Validation Approved for

  14. Innovative CSR: a framework for anchoring corporate social responsibility in the innovation literature

    OpenAIRE

    Preuss, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    Sketching the evolution of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from decoupled corporate philanthropy through strategic CSR to efforts to mainstream CSR throughout the firm, this paper highlights considerable drawbacks of a narrow view of the business case for CSR. Hence it seeks to provide an alternative that is still linked to key business processes but avoids such a tight coupling. The paper argues that this can be achieved through anchoring CSR in the literature on innovation. A definiti...

  15. Formation and properties of surface-anchored polymer assemblies with tunable physico-chemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao

    We describe two new methodologies leading to the formation of novel surface-anchored polymer assemblies on solid substrates. While the main goal is to understand the fundamentals pertaining to the preparation and properties of the surface-bound polymer assemblies (including neutral and chargeable polymers), several examples also are mentioned throughout the Thesis that point out to practical applications of such structures. The first method is based on generating assemblies comprising anchored polymers with a gradual variation of grafting densities on solid substrates. These structures are prepared by first covering the substrate with a molecular gradient of the polymerization initiator, followed by polymerization from these substrate-bound initiator centers ("grafting from"). We apply this technique to prepare grafting density gradients of poly(acryl amide) (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on silica-covered substrates. We show that using the grafting density gradient geometry, the characteristics of surface-anchored polymers in both the low grafting density ("mushroom") regime as well as the high grafting density ("brush") regime can be accessed conveniently on a single sample. We use a battery of experimental methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Near-edge absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), contact angle, ellipsometry, to study the characteristics of the surface-bound polymer layers. We also probe the scaling laws of neutral polymer as a function of grafting density, and for weak polyelectrolyte, in addition to the grafting density, we study the affect of solution ionic strength and pH values. In the second novel method, which we coined as "mechanically assisted polymer assembly" (MAPA), we form surface anchored polymers by "grafting from" polymerization initiators deposited on elastic surfaces that have been previously extended uniaxially by a certain length increment, Deltax. Upon releasing the strain in the

  16. The Solar Vortex: Electric Power Generation using Anchored, Buoyancy-Induced Columnar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Naturally-occurring, buoyancy-driven columnar vortices (``dust devils'') that are driven by the instability of thermally stratified air layers and sustained by the entrainment of ground- heated air, occur spontaneously in the natural environment with core diameters of 1-50 m and heights up to 1 km. These vortices convert low-grade waste heat in the air layer overlying the warm surface into a solar-induced wind with significant kinetic energy. Unlike dust devil vortices that are typically free to wander laterally, the Solar Vortex (SoV) is deliberately triggered and anchored within a cylindrical domain bounded by an azimuthal array of stationary ground-mounted vertical vanes and sustained by continuous entrainment of the ground-heated air through these vanes. The mechanical energy of the anchored vortex is exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. This simple, low-cost electric power generating unit is competitive in cost, intermittency, and capacity factor with traditional solar power technologies. The considerable kinetic energy of the vortex column cannot be explained by buoyancy alone, and the fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex were investigated experimentally and numerically with specific emphasis on flow manipulation for increasing the available kinetic energy and therefore the generated power. These investigations have also considered the dependence of the vortex scaling and strength on the thermal resources and on the flow enclosure in the laboratory and in the natural environment. Preliminary outdoor tests of a two-meter scale prototype successfully demonstrated the ability to engender and anchor a columnar vortex using only solar radiation and couple the flow to a vertical axis wind turbine. A kilowatt-scale outer door prototype will be tested during the summer of 2015.

  17. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the g...

  18. [Preoperative localization and anchoring of pulmonary nodules under computed tomography guidance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfioli, C; Varoli, F; Motta, F; Bergonzi, M; Urani, A; Roviaro, G

    1993-03-01

    Videoendoscopic thoracic surgery is often employed to remove peripheral lung nodules. Since manual palpation is excluded, the authors obviate the difficulty of intraoperative nodule localization by employing a thin snap open mandrel under CT to guidance localize, fix and anchor the nodule. Traction can be exerted on the device allowing for rapid nodule identification and facilitating wedge resection removal. This technical innovation, as yet applied only to a limited number of cases, widens the indications of videothoracoscopic surgery and appears complication-free.

  19. Analysis of Protein-Membrane Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmer, Gerdi Christine

    Cellular membranes are complex structures, consisting of hundreds of different lipids and proteins. These membranes act as barriers between distinct environments, constituting hot spots for many essential functions of the cell, including signaling, energy conversion, and transport. These functions...... are implemented by soluble proteins reversibly binding to, as well as by integral membrane proteins embedded in, cellular membranes. The activity and interaction of these proteins is furthermore modulated by the lipids of the membrane. Here, liposomes were used as model membrane systems to investigate...... interactions between proteins and lipids. First, interactions of soluble proteins with membranes and specific lipids were studied, using two proteins: Annexin V and Tma1. The protein was first subjected to a lipid/protein overlay assay to identify candidate interaction partners in a fast and efficient way...

  20. High-throughput sorting of the highest producing cell via a transiently protein-anchored system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiang Chuang

    Full Text Available Developing a high-throughput method for the effecient selection of the highest producing cell is very important for the production of recombinant protein drugs. Here, we developed a novel transiently protein-anchored system coupled with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS for the efficient selection of the highest producing cell. A furin cleavage peptide (RAKR was used to join a human anti-epithelial growth factor antibody (αEGFR Ab and the extracellular-transmembrane-cytosolic domains of the mouse B7-1 antigen (B7. The furin inhibitor can transiently switch secreted αEGFR Ab into a membrane-anchored form. After cell sorting, the level of membrane αEGFR Ab-RAKR-B7 is proportional to the amount of secreted αEGFR Ab in the medium. We further selected 23 αEGFR Ab expressing cells and demonstrated a high correlation (R2 = 0.9165 between the secretion level and surface expression levels of αEGFR Ab. These results suggested that the novel transiently protein-anchored system can easily and efficiently select the highest producing cells, reducing the cost for the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  1. The Impact of Colloidal Surface-Anchoring on the Smectic A Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püschel-Schlotthauer, Sergej; Meiwes Turrión, Victor; Hall, Carol K; Mazza, Marco G; Schoen, Martin

    2017-03-07

    Liquid-crystalline phases are known for their unique properties, i.e., the combination of fluidity and long-range orientational and/or positional order. The presence of a colloidal particle gives rise to perturbations of this order locally. These perturbations are the origin of intercolloidal forces driving the colloidal self-assembly in a directed manner. Hence, the understanding of these perturbations is the first step in understanding and controlling the self-assembly process. Here, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the perturbations of orientational and positional order in a smectic A phase caused by a spherical colloid. We model the host phase via an interaction potential that reproduces characteristic features of phase behavior, structure, dynamics, and elasticity [S. Püschel-Schlotthauer et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 145, 164903]. For strong homeotropic anchoring conditions, we find a Saturn ring defect and an onion structure in the smectic A phase; the latter has never been reported for colloids so far. For strong planar anchoring conditions, we find Boojum defects that become elongated at low temperature, similar to what is observed in experiments. However, for weak planar anchoring conditions, a double surface ring defect is exhibited in the smectic A phase.

  2. PAQR3 modulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP complex to the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daqian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yuxue; Jiang, Wei; Pan, Yi; Song, Bao-Liang; Chen, Yan

    2015-08-27

    Cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by transcription factors SREBPs and their escort protein Scap. On sterol depletion, Scap/SREBP complex is transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where SREBP is activated. Under cholesterol sufficient condition, Insigs act as anchor proteins to retain Scap/SREBP in the ER. However, the anchor protein of Scap/SREBP in the Golgi is unknown. Here we report that a Golgi-localized membrane protein progestin and adipoQ receptors 3 (PAQR3) interacts with Scap and SREBP and tethers them to the Golgi. PAQR3 promotes Scap/SREBP complex formation, potentiates SREBP processing and enhances lipid synthesis. The mutually exclusive interaction between Scap and PAQR3 or Insig-1 is regulated by cholesterol level. PAQR3 knockdown in liver blunts SREBP pathway and decreases hepatic cholesterol content. Disrupting the interaction of PAQR3 with Scap/SREBP by a synthetic peptide inhibits SREBP processing and activation. Thus, PAQR3 regulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP to the Golgi and disruption of such function reduces cholesterol biosynthesis.

  3. Current perspective on protein S-acylation in plants: more than just a fatty anchor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Charlotte H; Hemsley, Piers A

    2015-03-01

    Membranes are an important signalling platform in plants. The plasma membrane is the point where information about the external environment must be converted into intracellular signals, while endomembranes are important sites of protein trafficking, organization, compartmentalization, and intracellular signalling. This requires co-ordinating the spatial distribution of proteins, their activation state, and their interacting partners. This regulation frequently occurs through post-translational modification of proteins. Proteins that associate with the cell membrane do so through transmembrane domains, protein-protein interactions, lipid binding motifs/domains or use the post-translational addition of lipid groups as prosthetic membrane anchors. S-acylation is one such lipid modification capable of anchoring proteins to the membrane. Our current knowledge of S-acylation function in plants is fairly limited compared with other post-translational modifications and S-acylation in other organisms. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that S-acylation can act as more than just a simple membrane anchor: it can also act as a regulatory mechanism in signalling pathways in plants. S-acylation is, therefore, an ideal mechanism for regulating protein function at membranes. This review discusses our current knowledge of S-acylated proteins in plants, the interaction of different lipid modifications, and the general effects of S-acylation on cellular function.

  4. Liposomal nanotransporter for targeted binding based on nucleic acid anchor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejdl, Lukas; Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Kudr, Jiri; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Konecna, Marie; Kopel, Pavel; Zitka, Ondrej; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-02-01

    Microfluidic techniques have been developed intensively in recent years due to lower reagent consumption, faster analysis, and possibility of the integration of several analytical detectors into one chip. Electrochemical detectors are preferred in microfluidic systems, whereas liposomes can be used for amplification of the electrochemical signals. The aim of this study was to design a nanodevice for targeted anchoring of liposome as transport device. In this study, liposome with encapsulated Zn(II) was prepared. Further, gold nanoparticles were anchored onto the liposome surface allowing binding of thiol moiety-modified molecules (DNA). For targeted capturing of the transport device, DNA loops were used. DNA loops were represented by paramagnetic microparticles with oligo(DT)25 chain, on which a connecting DNA was bound. Capturing of transport device was subsequently done by hybridization to the loop. The individual steps were analyzed by electrochemistry and UV/Vis spectrometry. For detection of Zn(II) encapsulated in liposome, a microfluidic system was used. The study succeeded in demonstrating that liposome is suitable for the transport of Zn(II) and nucleic acids. Such transporter may be used for targeted binding using DNA anchor system.

  5. Usefulness of Titanized Polypropylene Mesh and an Anchor System for Correction of Lower Lid Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Naoshige; Watanabe, Ayako

    2016-02-01

    Because of the lower eyelid's free edge anatomy, it is difficult to preserve its contours after reconstruction. We recently attempted a new operative procedure to treat 2 cases of lower lid retraction by using a titanized polypropylene mesh and an anchor system. As the lower lid skin is elevated laterally in an oblique upward direction, the location of the mesh insertion is decided and the site is marked accordingly. The mesh to be inserted is approximately 20 × 10 mm. A skin incision is rendered from the medial to the lateral side of the lower eyelid edge, and the line of incision is raised beyond the lateral canthus along the skinfold. The mesh insertion site is then developed in the deep fat layer. After hemostasis, the mesh is densely sutured with the fat tissue. Next, the lateral orbital rim is exposed under the periosteum, and 2 anchors, each 2 mm in diameter, are driven into place. The thread connected to each anchor is passed through the mesh and subcutaneous tissue and placed in the lateral orbital rim. Excess skin is trimmed, and the wound is closed. Both patients had complained of dry eye and lacrimation before treatment. No postoperative complications were observed, and in both cases, the symptoms disappeared, and the patient's appearance was improved. During the follow-up period, which lasted from 15 to 29 months, elevation of the lower eyelid edge was kept at a favorable level, and neither case exhibited a relapse of retraction.

  6. Temporomandibular joint disc repositioning using bone anchors: an immediate post surgical evaluation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Majd S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Open joint procedures using bone anchors have shown clinical and radiograph good success, but post surgical disc position has not been documented with MRI imaging. We have designed a modified technique of using two bone anchors and 2 sutures to reposition the articular discs. This MRI study evaluates the post surgical success of this technique to reposition and stabilize the TMJ articular discs. Methods Consecutive 81 patients with unilateral TMJ internal derangement (ID (81 TMJs were treated between December 1, 2003, and December 1, 2006, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth Peoples Hospital, Shanghai, Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. All patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging before and one to seven days post surgery to determine disc position using the modified bone anchor technique. Results Postoperative MRIs (one to seven days confirm that 77 of 81 joints were identified as excellent results and one joint was considered good for an overall effective rate of 96.3% (78 of 81 joints. Only 3.7% (3 of 81 of the joints were designated as poor results requiring a second open surgery. Conclusions This procedure has provided successful repositioning of the articular discs in unilateral TMJ ID at one to seven days post surgery.

  7. Construction of a Pichia pastoris cell-surface display system using Flo1p anchor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanino, Takanori; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2006-01-01

    A Pichia pastoris cell-surface display system was constructed using a Flo1p anchor system, which was developed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The lipase from Rhizopus oryzae with a pro sequence (ProROL) was used as the model protein and was genetically fused to the anchor consisting of amino acids 1-1099 of Flo1p (FS anchor). The resulting fusion protein FSProROL was expressed under the control of the alcohol oxidase 1 promoter (pAOX1). The fluorescence microscopy of immunolabeled P. pastoris cells revealed that ProROL was displayed on the cell surface, and Western blot analysis revealed that the fusion protein FSProROL was noncovalently attached to the cell wall and highly glycosylated. The lipase activity of P. pastoris cells was affected by the methanol concentration for the induction phase. Surprisingly, the activity of lipase displayed on the cells incubated at 60 degrees C was not only stable but also increased to about 6.5 times the initial value after 4 h incubation.

  8. Calculation method on shape finding of self-anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HAN; Zhengqing CHEN; Shidong LUO; Shankui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on the spatial model, a reliable and accurate calculation method on the shape finding of self anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables was studiedin this paper. On the principle that the shape of the main cables between hangers is catenary, the iteration method of calculating the shapes of the spatial main cables under the load of hanger forces was deduced. The reasonable position of the saddle was determined according to the shape and the theoretical joint point of the main cables. The shapes of the main cables at completed cable stage werecalculated based on the unchanging principle of the zero-stress lengths of the main cables. By using a numerical method combining with the finite element method, one self-anchored suspension bridge with spatial cables was analyzed. The zero-stress length of the main cables, the position of the saddle, and the pre-offsetting of the saddle of the self-anchored suspension bridge were given. The reasonable shapes of the main cables at bridge completion stage and completed cable stage were presented. The results show that the shape-finding calculation method is effective and reliable.

  9. The "anchor shape" technique for long head of the biceps tenotomy to avoid the popeye deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvani, A Ali; Atoun, Ehud; Van Tongel, Alexander; Sforza, Giuseppe; Levy, Ofer

    2013-05-01

    Surgical options for symptomatic pathologies of the long head of the biceps (LHB) include tenotomy and tenodesis. Tenotomy is surgically simple and quick, does not require immobilization, and avoids implant complications. However, it is associated with residual "Popeye" muscle deformity and biceps muscle cramps. Tenodesis avoids Popeye deformity, but it is technically a more difficult operation with a longer rehabilitation period and possible implant complications. The purpose of this report is to describe a novel technique for LHB tenotomy that avoids the Popeye muscle deformity. Before releasing the LHB from its anchor over the superior labrum, this technique consists of making an oblique incision, involving 50% of the tendon, distal to its attachment at the superior labrum. A second standard complete tenotomy incision is made about 1.5 cm medial to the oblique incision. The remaining stump of the LHB at the tendon-labrum junction is resected. The first incision, an oblique incomplete incision, allows the remnant of the LHB to open up and form an "anchor shape" that anchors the LHB at the articular entrance of the bicipital groove, thus decreasing the risk of Popeye deformity.

  10. Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Self-Anchored Cable-Stayed Suspension Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui-Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric nonlinearity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges is studied in this paper. The repercussion of shrinkage and creep of concrete, rise-to-span ratio, and girder camber on the system is discussed. A self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m is analyzed with linear theory, second-order theory, and nonlinear theory, respectively. In the condition of various rise-to-span ratios and girder cambers, the moments and displacements of both the girder and the pylon under live load are acquired. Based on the results it is derived that the second-order theory can be adopted to analyze a self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m, and the error is less than 6%. The shrinkage and creep of concrete impose a conspicuous impact on the structure. And it outmatches suspension bridges for system stiffness. As the rise-to-span ratio increases, the axial forces of the main cable and the girder decline. The system stiffness rises with the girder camber being employed.

  11. Electrical properties and mechanical stability of anchoring groups for single-molecule electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Frisenda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental investigation of transport through single molecules, trapped between two gold nano-electrodes fabricated with the mechanically controlled break junction (MCBJ technique. The four molecules studied share the same core structure, namely oligo(phenylene ethynylene (OPE3, while having different aurophilic anchoring groups: thiol (SAc, methyl sulfide (SMe, pyridyl (Py and amine (NH2. The focus of this paper is on the combined characterization of the electrical and mechanical properties determined by the anchoring groups. From conductance histograms we find that thiol anchored molecules provide the highest conductance; a single-level model fit to current–voltage characteristics suggests that SAc groups exhibit a higher electronic coupling to the electrodes, together with better level alignment than the other three groups. An analysis of the mechanical stability, recording the lifetime in a self-breaking method, shows that Py and SAc yield the most stable junctions while SMe form short-lived junctions. Density functional theory combined with non-equlibrium Green’s function calculations help in elucidating the experimental findings.

  12. Role of suture anchors in management of fractures of inferior pole of patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The traditional recommendation for displaced comminuted inferior pole fractures is excision of the comminuted pole followed by reattachment of the patellar tendon with transosseous suture. To the best of our knowledge there has been no previous published study mentioning the use of suture anchors for fracture inferior pole of patella. We present a retrospective analysis of five cases of patients doing well at final follow-up of two years. Materials and Methods: Five patients treated at our institute using suture anchors for repair of comminuted inferior pole fractures of patella between January 2007 to March 2007. (range 28 years-55 years. There were three males and two females. Results: The average follow-up was 25 months (range 24 months-26 months. The patients were evaluated for range of motion, strength, patellofemoral scores and any alteration of patellar height. The outcome of the procedure was assessed with use of the patellofemoral scoring system of Noyes et al, 5 as adapted by Saltzman et al. 6 The final patellofemoral score (maximum 100 points was 94.6 (range 93-96. Conclusion: We believe it is a novel extended indication of the use of suture anchors and should be in the armament of every trauma surgeon.

  13. Anchor-wire technique for multiple plastic biliary stents to prevent stent dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsuyoshi Hamada; Kazuhiko Koike; Yousuke Nakai; Saburo Matsubara; Hiroyuki Isayama; Akiko Narita; Kazuhiro Watanabe; Yukihiro Koike; Shigeo Matsukawa; Tateo Kawase

    2011-01-01

    In endoscopic placement of multiple plastic biliary stents (PBSs), we sometimes experience proximal dislocation of the first PBS at the time of subsequent PBS insertion. We describe the case of a 79-year-old male with obstructive jaundice caused by cholangiocarcinoma who needed to receive multiple PBS placements for management of cholangitis. Although proximal dislocation of the first PBS was observed, we prevented the dislocation via our technique of using guidewire inserted from the distal end of the first PBS to the side hole as the anchor-wire. We could complete this technique only by inserting guidewire through the side hole of the first PBS during the process of releasing the first PBS and pulling out the guidewire and the inner sheath. It did not matter whether the anchor-wire went towards the third portion of the duodenum or the duodenal bulb. Here we introduce this "anchor-wire technique", which is useful for the prevention of PBS proximal dislocation in placing multiple PBSs.

  14. Gastrotomy closure with a new tissue anchoring device: A porcine survival study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos Guarner-Argente; Henry Córdova; Graciela Martínez-Pallí; Ricard Navarro-Ripoll; Antonio Rodríguez-d'Jesús; Cristina Rodríguez de Miguel; Mireia Beltrán; Gloria Fernández-Esparrach

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility and efficacy of a new tissue anchoring device in a porcine survival model.METHODS: Gastrotomies were performed using a needle-knife and balloon dilator in 10 female Yorkshire pigs weighing 30-35 kg. Gastric closure was attempted usinga new tissue anchoring device. The tightness of the closure was confirmed by means of air insufflation and the ability to maintain gastric distension with stability in peritoneal pressure measured with a Veress needle. All animals were monitored daily for signs of peritonitis and sepsis over 14 d. During necropsy, the peritoneal cavity and the gastric access site were examined.RESULTS: Transgastric access, closure and 14 d survival was achieved in all pigs. The mean closure timewas 18.1 ± 19.2 min and a mean of 2.1 ± 1 devices were used. Supplementary clips were necessary in 2 cases. The closure time was progressively reduced(24.8 ± 13.9 min in the first 5 pigs vs 11.4 ± 5.9 min in the last 5, P = NS). At necropsy, the gastric access site was correctly closed in all cases with all brace-bars present. One device was misplaced in the mesocolon.Minimal adhesions were observed in 3 pigs and signs of mild peritonitis and adhesions in one.CONCLUSIONS: The use of this new tissue anchoring device in porcine stomachs is feasible, reproducible and effective and requires a short learning curve.

  15. Stresses induced by post-tensioned anchor in jointed rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan Showkati; Parviz Maarefvand; Hossein Hassani

    2015-01-01

    A new analytical study on stresses around a post-tensioned anchor in rocks with two perpendicular joint sets is presented. The assumptions of orthotropic elastic rock with plane strain conditions are made in derivation of the formulations. A tri-linear bond-slip constitutive law is used for modeling the tendon-grout interface behavior and debonding of this interface. The bearing plate width is also considered in the analysis. The obtained solutions are in the integral forms and numerical techniques that have been used for evaluation. In the illustrative example given, the major principal stress is compressive in the anchor free zone and compressive stress concentrations of 815 kPa and 727 kPa (for the anchor load of 300 kN) are observed under the bearing plate and the bond length proximal end, respectively. However, large values of tensile stresses with the maximum of−434 kPa are formed at the bond length distal end. The results obtained using the proposed solution are compared very those of numerical method (FEM).

  16. Bidimensional distortion in ferroelectric liquid crystals with strong anchoring in bookshelf geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ponti; M Becchi; A Strigazzi; S Torgova

    2003-08-01

    In the last decade, it has been experimentally found that in certain conditions a periodic domain pattern arises in ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC) in bookshelf geometry. Such a periodic texture appears after switching-off an external electric field, even in strong anchoring conditions. It has a static character and is bidimensional, being dependent on directions normal to both the smectic planes and the cell plates. Here a new model explaining this phenomenon is proposed, valid in the case of FLC with strong anchoring. The model is based on the coupling between the spontaneous polarization field in the first semi-period of its modulation along the cell plates and the same field in the second semi-period. This coupling competes with the FLC medium elasticity and is trapped by the anchoring. According to our model, in the ferroelectric state the biperiodic texture is favored by increasing the values of spontaneous polarization. The critical value of the spontaneous polarization for which the undeformed state becomes unstable is found. It is shown to be proportional to the square root of the ratio between the FLC elastic constant and the cell thickness. Moreover, it is inversely proportional to the sinus of the pre-tilt angle with respect to the cell walls.

  17. Device Design and Test of Fatigue Behaviour of Expansion Anchor Subjected to Tensile Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study on the fatigue behaviour of expansion anchor (M16, grade 8.8 for overhead contact system in electrification railways, a set of safe, practical loading device is designed and a fatigue test campaign was carried out at structural laboratory of China Academy of Building Research on expansion anchor embedded in concrete block. The mobile frame of the loading device was designed well by finite-element simulation. According to some fatigue performance test of expansion anchor with different size and form, the device have been assessed experimentally its dependability. The results were found that no fatigue damage phenomenon occurred in all specimens after 2×106 cycles tensile fatigue test in this specific series. It shows that in the condition of medium level or slightly lower maximum stress limit and nominal stress range, expansion bolt has good fatigue resistance. The biggest relative displacement and the residual relative displacement after test (Δδ = δ2-δ1 was also strongly lower than the symbol of the fatigue test failure index of this specific series (0.5mm in the high cycle fatigue regime. The ultimate tension failures mode after fatigue tests in all tested samples take place in the concrete anchorage zone. The reduction range of the ultimate tensile strength properties of the anchorage system was not obvious, and the concrete was seen to be the weakest link of the system.

  18. Evaluation of postoperative results from videoarthroscopic treatment for recurrent shoulder dislocation using metal anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Menegassi Martel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To clinically and radiologically evaluate the results from videoarthroscopic treatment using metal anchors in patients with recurrent shoulder dislocation and its complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on 47 patients (47 shoulders operated by the shoulder group of the orthopedic hospital between February 2010 and February 2012. A questionnaire, interview and physical and radiographic examinations were used, with the classification of Samilson and Pietro. The mean postoperative follow-up was 33 months (range 12-47 months. The statistical analysis consisted of using Fisher's exact test through the IBM SPSS 22 statistical software. The significance level used was 5%. RESULTS: Recurrence was observed in nine cases. The patients were, on average, 26.5 years old at the first episode, and 19.1% were aged 20 years or under. Among these, 55.6% presented recurrence. In relation to age at the time of the surgical procedure, the average age was 27 years, and 12.8% were aged 20 years or under. Nineteen patients presented prominent anchors and, of these, 21% manifested arthrosis. CONCLUSION: There was a statistically identified correlation between the recurrence rate and age less than or equal to 20 years at the times of first dislocation and the surgical procedure. Further studies should be conducted in order to compare the use of absorbable anchors, which despite higher cost, may provide lower risk of developing glenohumeral arthrosis in some cases.

  19. Thermally induced anchoring of fullerene in copolymers with Si-bridging atom: Spectroscopic evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Cleber F. N.; Garcia-Basabe, Yunier; de A. Ribeiro, Fabio; Koehler, Marlus; Roman, Lucimara S.; Rocco, Maria Luiza M.

    2017-01-01

    We use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), resonant Auger spectroscopy (RAS), Attenuation Total Reflection Infrared (ATR-IR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to study the blend between the copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) and the fullerene derivative PC71BM submitted to different annealing temperatures. Those measurements indicate that there is an incidental anchoring of a fullerene derivative to the Si-bridging atoms of a copolymer induced by thermal annealing of the film. Insights about the physical properties of one possible PSiF-DBT/PC71BM anchored structure are obtained using Density Functional Theory calculations. Since the performance of organic photovoltaic based on polymer-fullerene blends depends on the chemical structure of the blend components, the anchoring effect might affect the photovoltaic properties of those devices.

  20. Complications associated with tissue anchor migration after vaginal surgery using the tissue fixation system - a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Michelle J; Daborn, John P; Tsokos, Nicolas; Jeffery, James T; Yin, Michelle J

    2012-02-01

    This case series describes eleven women with serious complications related to migration of tissue anchors after vaginal surgery for uterovaginal prolapse and/or urinary incontinence using the tissue fixation system.

  1. Improvement in organophosphorus hydrolase activity of cell surface-engineered yeast strain using Flo1p anchor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Tsuchiyama, Kouta; Makishima, Hirokazu; Takayama, Katsumi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Suye, Shin-ichiro

    2010-05-01

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) hydrolyzes organophosphorus esters. We constructed the yeast-displayed OPH using Flo1p anchor system. In this system, the N-terminal region of the protein was fused to Flo1p and the fusion protein was displayed on the cell surface. Hydrolytic reactions with paraoxon were carried out during 24 h of incubation of OPH-displaying cells at 30 degrees C. p-Nitrophenol produced in the reaction mixture was detected by HPLC. The strain with highest activity showed 8-fold greater OPH activity compared with cells engineered using glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor system, and showed 20-fold greater activity than Escherichia coli using the ice nucleation protein anchor system. These results indicate that Flo1p anchor system is suitable for display of OPH in the cell surface-expression systems.

  2. Development of mooring-anchor program in public domain for coupling with floater program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, MooHyun [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the development of offshore anchor data sets which are intended to be used to develop a database that allows preliminary selection and sizing of anchors for the conceptual design of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs). The study is part of a project entitled “Development of Mooring-Anchor Program in Public Domain for Coupling with Floater Program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)”, under the direction of Dr. Moo-Hyun Kim at the Texas A&M University and with the sponsorship from the US Department of Energy (Contract No. DE-EE0005479, CFDA # 81.087 for DE-FOA-0000415, Topic Area 1.3: Subsurface Mooring and Anchoring Dynamics Models).

  3. Surgical repair of central slip avulsion injuries with Mitek bone anchor--retrospective analysis of a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our technique of central slip repair using the Mitek bone anchor and to evaluate the treatment outcome. Eight digits in eight patients were reconstructed using the bone anchor: three little fingers, two middle fingers, two index fingers and one ring finger. There were two immediate and six delayed repairs (range from one day to eight months). Four patients had pre-operative intensive splinting and physiotherapy to restore passive extension of the proximal interphalangeal joint prior to central slip reconstruction. All patients have made good progress since surgery. No patient requires a second procedure and none of the bone anchors have dislodged or loosened. We conclude that the Mitek bone anchor is a reliable technique to achieve soft tissue to bone fixation in central slip avulsion injuries. We recommend that this technique be considered as a treatment option for patients requiring surgical repair.

  4. Stone anchors (composite type) from the Saurshtra coast, India: An indicator of ancient ports and sea routes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Marine archaeological investigations on the Saurashtra coast specially at Dwarka, Bet Dwarka, Armada and Somnath brought to light a large number of stone anchors of various type which include composite, grapnel and ring-stone types. The present...

  5. Applied on bolting-cable anchor support of full-seam roadway in weaker thick coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆彪; 张生华; 郭励生

    2003-01-01

    The designing method and the supporting mechanism of both bolt and small cable anchor for full-seam roadway in the weaker thick coal seam are systematically analyzed, and the construction technology and the supporting results are briefly summarized.

  6. Tripolin A, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of aurora A kinase, reveals new regulation of HURP's distribution on microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana A Kesisova

    Full Text Available Mitotic regulators exhibiting gain of function in tumor cells are considered useful cancer therapeutic targets for the development of small-molecule inhibitors. The human Aurora kinases are a family of such targets. In this study, from a panel of 105 potential small-molecule inhibitors, two compounds Tripolin A and Tripolin B, inhibited Aurora A kinase activity in vitro. In human cells however, only Tripolin A acted as an Aurora A inhibitor. We combined in vitro, in vivo single cell and in silico studies to demonstrate the biological action of Tripolin A, a non-ATP competitive inhibitor. Tripolin A reduced the localization of pAurora A on spindle microtubules (MTs, affected centrosome integrity, spindle formation and length, as well as MT dynamics in interphase, consistent with Aurora A inhibition by RNAi or other specific inhibitors, such as MLN8054 or MLN8237. Interestingly, Tripolin A affected the gradient distribution towards the chromosomes, but not the MT binding of HURP (Hepatoma Up-Regulated Protein, a MT-associated protein (MAP and substrate of the Aurora A kinase. Therefore Tripolin A reveals a new way of regulating mitotic MT stabilizers through Aurora A phosphorylation. Tripolin A is predicted to bind Aurora A similarly but not identical to MLN8054, therefore it could be used to dissect pathways orchestrated by Aurora kinases as well as a scaffold for further inhibitor development.

  7. Tripolin A, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of aurora A kinase, reveals new regulation of HURP's distribution on microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesisova, Iliana A; Nakos, Konstantinos C; Tsolou, Avgi; Angelis, Dimitrios; Lewis, Joe; Chatzaki, Aikaterini; Agianian, Bogos; Giannis, Athanassios; Koffa, Maria D

    2013-01-01

    Mitotic regulators exhibiting gain of function in tumor cells are considered useful cancer therapeutic targets for the development of small-molecule inhibitors. The human Aurora kinases are a family of such targets. In this study, from a panel of 105 potential small-molecule inhibitors, two compounds Tripolin A and Tripolin B, inhibited Aurora A kinase activity in vitro. In human cells however, only Tripolin A acted as an Aurora A inhibitor. We combined in vitro, in vivo single cell and in silico studies to demonstrate the biological action of Tripolin A, a non-ATP competitive inhibitor. Tripolin A reduced the localization of pAurora A on spindle microtubules (MTs), affected centrosome integrity, spindle formation and length, as well as MT dynamics in interphase, consistent with Aurora A inhibition by RNAi or other specific inhibitors, such as MLN8054 or MLN8237. Interestingly, Tripolin A affected the gradient distribution towards the chromosomes, but not the MT binding of HURP (Hepatoma Up-Regulated Protein), a MT-associated protein (MAP) and substrate of the Aurora A kinase. Therefore Tripolin A reveals a new way of regulating mitotic MT stabilizers through Aurora A phosphorylation. Tripolin A is predicted to bind Aurora A similarly but not identical to MLN8054, therefore it could be used to dissect pathways orchestrated by Aurora kinases as well as a scaffold for further inhibitor development.

  8. The Membrane-anchoring Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligands Dictates Their Ability to Operate in Juxtacrine Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Jianying; Opresko, Lee; Chrisler, William B.; Orr, Galya; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Wiley, H S.

    2005-06-01

    All ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are synthesized as membrane-anchored precursors. Previous work has suggested that some ligands, such as EGF, must be proteolytically released to be active, whereas others, such as heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) can function while still anchored to the membrane (i.e., juxtacrine signaling). To explore the structural basis for these differences in ligand activity, we engineered a series of membrane-anchored ligands in which the core, receptor-binding domain of EGF was combined with different domains of both EGF and HB-EGF. We found that ligands having the N-terminal extension of EGF could not bind to the EGFR, even when released from the membrane. Ligands lacking an N-terminal extension, but possessing the membrane-anchoring domain of EGF still required proteolytic release for activity, whereas ligands with the membrane anchoring domain of HB-EGF could elicit full biological activity while still membrane anchored. Ligands containing the HB-EGF membrane anchor, but lacking an N-terminal extension, activated EGFR during their transit through the Golgi apparatus . However, cell-mixing experiments and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies showed that juxtacrine signaling typically occurred in trans at the cell surface, at points of cell-cell contact. Our data suggest that the membrane-anchoring domain of ligands selectively controls their ability to participate in juxtacrine signaling and thus, only a subclass of EGFR ligands can act in a juxtacrine mode.

  9. ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO3-LDH particles as fluorescent probe for sensing of folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Dan; Liu, Yanhuan; Li, Lei

    2016-09-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for detecting folic acid (FA) in aqueous media has been developed based on 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (ANTS) anchored to the surface of Zn-Al-CO3-layered double hydroxides (LDH) particles. The nanosensor showed high fluorescence intensity and good photostability due to a strong coordination interaction between surface Zn2+ ions of Zn-Al-CO3-LDH and N atoms of ANTS, which were verified by result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ANTS-anchored on the surface of Zn-Al-CO3-LDH restricted the intra-molecular rotation leading to ANTS-anchored J-type aggregation emission enhancement. ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO3-LDH particles exhibited highly sensitive and selective response to FA over other common metal ions and saccharides present in biological fluids. The proposed mechanism was that oxygen atoms of -SO3 groups in ANTS-anchored on the surface of Zn-Al-CO3-LDH were easily collided by FA molecules to form potential hydrogen bonds between ANTS-anchored and FA molecules, which could effectively quench the ANTS-anchored fluorescence. Under the simulated physiological conditions (pH of 7.4), the fluorescence quenching was fitted to Stern-Volmer equation with a linear response in the concentration range of 1 μM to 200 μM with a limit of detection of 0.1 μM. The results indicate that ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO3-LDH particles can afford a very sensitive system for the sensing FA in aqueous solution.

  10. Determination of the non-ionic detergent insolubility and phosphoprotein associations of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins expressed on T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, K R; Mallory, M A; Finberg, R W

    1998-09-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are poorly solublized in non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 and Nonidet P40, but are easily solublized by detergents with high critical micelle concentrations such as octylglucoside. This solubility profile has been suggested to be due to the localization of GPI-anchored proteins to lipid microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Additionally, GPI-anchored proteins expressed on haemopoietic cells have been shown to associate with src-family tyrosine kinases and heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite these observations, the non-ionic detergent insolubility of GPI-anchored proteins on haemopoietic cells has not been quantified nor has a relationship between the non-ionic detergent insolubility of these proteins and their association with signal-transduction molecules been identified. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins found on T-cell tumours and activated T cells, although significantly more insoluble then transmembrane proteins, are not uniform in their detergent insolubility. Whereas CD59 was between 4% and 13% soluble, CD48 was between 13% and 25% soluble, CD55 was between 20% and 30% soluble, and CD109 was between 34% and 75% soluble. The ability of these GPI-anchored proteins to associate with phosphoproteins was correlated with their detergent insolubility: the more detergent-insoluble that a GPI-anchored protein was, the greater the level of phosphoprotein associations. These experiments reveal a relationship between non-ionic detergent insolubility and association with signal-transduction molecules and suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between these two properties. In total, these experiments support the hypothesis that the association of GPI-anchored proteins with signalling molecules is due to their sorting to lipid microdomains.

  11. Endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins in human lymphocytes: role of glycolipid-based domains, actin cytoskeleton, and protein kinases

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    GPI-anchored surface proteins mediate many important functions, including transport, signal transduction, adhesion, and protection against complement. They cluster into glycolipid-based membrane domains and caveolae, plasmalemmal vesicles involved in the transcytosis and endocytosis of these surface proteins. However, in lymphocytes, neither the characteristic flask shaped caveolae nor caveolin, a transmembrane protein typical of caveolae, have been observed. Here, we show that the GPI-anchor...

  12. Instability of a Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystal Formed by Homeotropic Anchoring on Surface Grooves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Dong; XUAN Li

    2011-01-01

    A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition.Employing some approximations for the elastic constants,we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves,with a period of π/2.This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable.Our theoretical study explains why the homeotropic alignment method developed for uniaxial liquid crystals loses efficacy for biaxial nematics.In most liquid crystal devices,the liquid crystals are sandwiched between two substrates coated with alignment layers.In the absence of externally applied fields,the orientation of the liquid crystal in the cell is determined by the anchoring condition of the alignment layer.[1-3] One usually distinguishes three main types of liquid crystalline director alignment near solid walls:homeotropic,homogeneous (or planar) and tilted orientations.Here we study the first of these and consider the biaxial nematic phase,which was observed in lyotropic systems as early as 1980[4] and has been confirmed by deuterium NMR spectroscopy.%A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition. Employing some approximations for the elastic constants, we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves, with a period of π/2. This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable. Our

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of a self-stabilized synthetic flavin anchored on a TiO2 surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiri, Manjula; Hossain, Mohammad S; Foss, Frank W; Rajeshwar, Krishnan; Paz, Yaron

    2016-07-21

    Synthetic flavin molecules were anchored on Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (TiO2). The effect of their presence on the photocatalytic (PC) activity of TiO2 was studied. Under UV light, an increase in the degradation rate of ethanol was observed. This increase was accompanied by stabilization of the anchored flavin against self-degradation. The unprecedented stabilization effect was found also in the absence of a reducing agent such as ethanol. In contrast, under the less energetic visible light, fast degradation of the anchored flavin was observed. These rather surprising observations were attributed to the propensity for charge transport from excited flavin molecules to the semiconductor and to the role that such charge transfer may play in stabilizing the overall assembly. Anchored flavins excited by UV light to their S2, S3 electronic states were able to transfer the excited electrons to the TiO2 phase whereas anchored flavin molecules that were excited by visible light to the S1 state were less likely to transfer the photo-excited electrons and therefore were destabilized. These findings may be relevant not only to anchored flavins in general but to other functionalized photocatalysts, and may open up new vistas in the implementation of sensitizers in PC systems.

  14. Others' opinions count, but not all of them: anchoring to ingroup versus outgroup members' behavior in charitable giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Hysenbelli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the large amount of information and the difficulty in selecting an appropriate recipient in the context of charitable giving, people tend to make extensive use of heuristics, which sometimes leads them to wrong decisions. In the present work, we focused on exploring how individuals are influenced by anchoring heuristics and how group membership interacts with this heuristic. In Experiment 1, two different groups of participants were informed about low versus high average donations of other people, and a third control group did not receive any information about the others' donations. The results showed that participants were willing to donate significantly more in the high-anchor condition compared to the low-anchor condition, as well as about the same amount of money in the low-anchor condition and no-anchor condition. Experiment 2 and 3 showed that high anchors are more effective when the information about others' donations reflects members of the ingroup rather than the outgroup. Other variables related to these results are further discussed.

  15. 基于桩-锚结构造价的锚索拉力计算模型研究%CALCULATION MODEL OF ANCHOR CABLE TENSILE FORCE BASED ON THE COST OF PILE-ANCHOR CABLE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓先华; 简文星

    2015-01-01

    桩-锚结构的计算包括锚索拉力计算和桩身内力计算,通过锚索拉力计算桩身内力,再通过桩身内力计算结构造价,锚索拉力将影响桩-锚结构造价的计算,因此,锚索拉力计算对桩-锚结构设计尤为重要。通过对桩-锚结构造价与锚索拉力之间的关系进行分析研究,从桩-锚结构造价与锚索拉力的关系曲线、多项式拟合以及优化的变形协调条件3个方面建立与桩-锚结构造价相匹配的锚索拉力的计算模型。结合桩身内力计算的“m”法和“K”法以及结构力学中的虚功原理和图乘法理论,编写 Visual C++计算程序,通过不同的滑坡工程实例对不同锚索拉力作用下的桩-锚结构造价进行计算,获得锚索拉力与桩-锚结构造价的关系图。计算结果表明:桩-锚结构造价是随着锚索拉力的增大先减小后增加的。关系曲线模型和多项式拟合模型计算的与桩-锚结构最低造价相匹配的锚索拉力与优化的变形协调条件计算的锚索拉力十分接近,可选择其中任意一种计算方法计算得到的锚索拉力作为最终锚索拉力计算值。此时,桩身弯矩的正负极值并不相等,这也表明桩身正负弯矩的极值相等时的锚索拉力并不一定是最优的锚索拉力,因为此时桩身所处的受力状态虽然比较理想,但造价可能较高,经济效益不佳。%Designing of pile-anti-slide with anchor cable includes anchor cable tensile force and pile internal force. Pile internal force can be obtained by anchor cable tensile force.The cost of pile structure can be obtained by pile internal force.Then anchor cable tensile force affects the cost of pile-anchor cable structure.Therefore,anchor cable tensile force computing is especially important in the design of pile-anchor cable structure.This paper analyzes and studies the relationship between the cost of pile-anchor cable

  16. Mechanics properties of anchored rock%锚固岩体力学特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宏渊; 蒋中明; 李怀玉; 曾铃

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the reinforcement effect of an anchor rock slope reinforcement, through laboratory model tests of similar material in the uniaxial compression case and different situations, the compressive strength, elastic modulus and anisotropy of rock mass with anchor were studied. The results show that vertical and horizontal peak intensity of rock mass with anchor are improved to different degrees. Samples of rock mass with vertical and horizontal anchors with the same anchor density and the same load conditions indicate different strength and deformation features in vertical and horizontal direction. The elastic modulus of rock mass with vertical anchors is 16% -26% greater than that of the rock mass with horizontal anchors.%为了研究锚杆加固岩体边坡后的加固效果,通过室内相似材料模型试验,在单轴压缩情况下,研究不同加锚方式对岩体抗压强度、弹性模量,锚固岩体各向异性的影响.研究结果表明;垂直加锚试件和水平加锚试件的峰值强度得到不同程度提高:垂直加锚和水平加锚在相同的加锚密度以及相同的加载条件下,不同的锚杆布置方向表现出不司的强度及变形特征:垂直加锚时试件的弹性模量比水平加锚时的弹性模量高l6%~26%,表明在进行稳定性分析时,加锚岩体宜按各向异性材料进行考虑.

  17. Expression of a kinase-dead form of CPK33 involved in florigen complex formation causes delayed flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Nozomi; Endo, Motomu; Araki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of flowering time is crucial for reproductive success of plants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is a central component of florigen and forms a ternary complex with 14-3-3 and FD, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the shoot apex and promotes flowering. This complex formation requires phosphorylation of threonine residue at position 282 of FD. A calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK33 is responsible for the phosphorylation. However, possibly due to functional redundancy among calcium-dependent protein kinases, impact of the loss of CPK33 reported in the previous study was rather limited. Here, we report that expression of a kinase-dead form of CPK33 caused a clear delayed-flowering phenotype, supporting for an important role of CPK33 in florigen function through FD phosphorylation.

  18. 预应力锚杆柔性支护体系的锚杆抗拔力研究%Research on anti-pulling force of anchor of flexible supporting system with prestressed anchors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 朱彦鹏

    2012-01-01

    Flexible supporting system with prestressed anchors is a new technique developed from anchored retaining wall for retaining deep foundation pit or improving stability of existing slope. In order to further study the behaviors and working mechanism of the flexible supporting system with prestressed anchors, the anti-pulling force of anchor is analyzed and studied. The improved solution method of anti-pulling force of frictional grouting anchor is proposed. The study indicates that in the supporting system of flexible supporting structure with prestressed anchors, the anti-pulling force should be decomposed into two parts: the anchor-soil interaction and the soil self-supporting. In the supporting system, anchor, as a force transfer component, firstly transfers the anti-pulling force coming from the soil self-supporting; then provides other anti-pulling force by the anchor-soil interaction. The two anti-pulling forces are solved theoretically; and the theoretical calculation formulae are given respectively; then the total anti-pulling force of anchor is determined. Two case studies are introduced to prove the rationality of the solution of anti-pulling force of anchor. The values of limit anti-pulling force of anchor based on the improved solution method are larger than these of the traditional methods; and the concept of anti-pulling force solved according to the improved solution method is more clear, which further enriches the working mechanism of prestressed anchor supporting system from theoretical aspect and provides the scientific basis for engineering practices.%预应力锚杆柔性支护体系是在锚杆支护基础上发展起来的,是用于深基坑支护或提高边坡稳定性的一种新技术,为深入了解其工作性能和作用机制,对其锚杆抗拔力进行了分析和研究,提出了摩擦型灌浆锚杆抗拔力的改进求解方法.研究表明,预应力锚杆柔性支护结构体系中锚杆所提供的抗拔力应由锚土作用抗拔

  19. Display of GPI-anchored anti-EGFR nanobodies on extracellular vesicles promotes tumour cell targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander A. A. Kooijmans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are attractive candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transport biological cargo to recipient cells. However, the apparent lack of target cell specificity of exogenously administered EVs limits their therapeutic applicability. In this study, we propose a novel method to equip EVs with targeting properties, in order to improve their interaction with tumour cells. Methods: EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF. EVs were isolated using ultrafiltration/size-exclusion liquid chromatography and characterized using western blotting, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and electron microscopy. EV–tumour cell interactions were analyzed under static conditions using flow cytometry and under flow conditions using a live-cell fluorescence microscopy-coupled perfusion system. Results: V analysis showed that GPI-linked nanobodies were successfully displayed on EV surfaces and were highly enriched in EVs compared with parent cells. Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression, but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. Moreover, nanobody-displaying EVs showed a significantly improved cell association to EGFR-expressing tumour cells under flow conditions. Conclusions: We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules.

  20. Adaptive Anchoring Model: How Static and Dynamic Presentations of Time Series Influence Judgments and Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Juliusson, Asgeir; Chater, Nick

    2017-04-06

    When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series, they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called trend-damping (modeled by anchoring on, and insufficient adjustment from, the average of recent time series values). Events in a time series can be experienced sequentially (dynamic mode), or they can also be retrospectively viewed simultaneously (static mode), not experienced individually in real time. In one experiment, we studied the influence of presentation mode (dynamic and static) on two sorts of judgment: (a) predictions of the next event (forecast) and (b) estimation of the average value of all the events in the presented series (average estimation). Participants' responses in dynamic mode were anchored on more recent events than in static mode for all types of judgment but with different consequences; hence, dynamic presentation improved prediction accuracy, but not estimation. These results are not anticipated by existing theoretical accounts; we develop and present an agent-based model-the adaptive anchoring model (ADAM)-to account for the difference between processing sequences of dynamically and statically presented stimuli (visually presented data). ADAM captures how variation in presentation mode produces variation in responses (and the accuracy of these responses) in both forecasting and judgment tasks. ADAM's model predictions for the forecasting and judgment tasks fit better with the response data than a linear-regression time series model. Moreover, ADAM outperformed autoregressive-integrated-moving-average (ARIMA) and exponential-smoothing models, while neither of these models accounts for people's responses on the average estimation task.

  1. Angiogenic functionalisation of titanium surfaces using nano-anchored VEGF – an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Schliephake

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that sandblasted and acid etched titanium surfaces can be functionalised with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF using oligonucleotides for anchorage and slow release. rhVEGF165 molecules were conjugated to strands of 30-mer non-coding DNA oligonucleotides (ODN and hybridised to complementary ODN anchor strands which had been immobilised to the surface of sandblasted/acid etched (SAE Ti specimens. Specimens with non-conjugated VEGF adsorbed to ODN anchor strands and to blank SAE surfaces served as controls. Specific binding of conjugated VEGF exhibited the highest percentage of immobilised VEGF (71.0 %, whereas non-conjugated VEGF only achieved 53.2 and 30.7 %, respectively. Cumulative release reached 54.0 % of the immobilised growth factor in the group of specifically bound VEGF after 4 weeks, whereas non-conjugated VEGF adsorbed to ODN strands released 78.9% and VEGF adsorbed to SAE Ti surfaces released 97.4 %. Proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs was significantly increased on the surfaces with specifically bound VEGF compared to the control surfaces and SAE Ti surfaces without VEGF. Moreover, the released conjugated VEGF exhibited biological activity by induction of von Willebrand Factor (vWF in mesenchymal stem cells. It is concluded that the angiogenic functionalisation of SAE titanium surfaces can be achieved by conjugation of VEGF to ODN strands and hybridisation to complementary ODN strands that are anchored to the titanium surface. The angiogenic effect is exerted both through the immobilised and the released portion of the growth factor.

  2. Investigating the relationship between employees’ career anchors and their psychosocial employability attributes in a financial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf M. Oosthuizen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The challenge of sustaining one’s employability in a highly dynamic and turbulent labour market places new demands on individuals’ ability to navigate their career development. Career management practices in organisations should help individuals gain awareness of the career meta-capacities they need to sustain their employability.Research purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between employees’ career anchors and their psychosocial employability attributes as important career meta-capacities in contemporary career development. The study also investigated whether individuals from different age and race groups differed significantly regarding these career meta-capacities.Motivation for the study: Career management has become essential in the contemporary workplace for employees to sustain their employability. Research points to the importance of psychosocial career meta-capacities in helping employees to manage their career development and employability.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey using primary data was conducted on a non-probability purposive sample (N = 108 of full-time employees (67% women; 78% 26–45 years old; 78% black employees at a South African financial company. Correlations and Scheffé’s post-hoc test were performed to achieve the research objectives.Main findings: Significant positive relationships were observed between the participants’ career anchors and their psychosocial employability attributes. Age and race groups differed significantly only in terms of their career anchors.Practical/managerial implications: Career management practices in the organisation should accommodate the differences in career orientations and how these relate to the psychosocial employability attributes of their employees.Contribution: The findings add potentially important insights that may inform human resource practices aimed at enhancing the

  3. Display of GPI-anchored anti-EGFR nanobodies on extracellular vesicles promotes tumour cell targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Sander A. A.; Aleza, Clara Gómez; Roffler, Steve R.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Vader, Pieter; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are attractive candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transport biological cargo to recipient cells. However, the apparent lack of target cell specificity of exogenously administered EVs limits their therapeutic applicability. In this study, we propose a novel method to equip EVs with targeting properties, in order to improve their interaction with tumour cells. Methods EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF). EVs were isolated using ultrafiltration/size-exclusion liquid chromatography and characterized using western blotting, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and electron microscopy. EV–tumour cell interactions were analyzed under static conditions using flow cytometry and under flow conditions using a live-cell fluorescence microscopy-coupled perfusion system. Results EV analysis showed that GPI-linked nanobodies were successfully displayed on EV surfaces and were highly enriched in EVs compared with parent cells. Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression), but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. Moreover, nanobody-displaying EVs showed a significantly improved cell association to EGFR-expressing tumour cells under flow conditions. Conclusions We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules. PMID:26979463

  4. Exoskeleton anchoring to tendon cells and muscles in molting isopod crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Žnidaršič

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Specialized mechanical connection between exoskeleton and underlying muscles in arthropods is a complex network of interconnected matrix constituents, junctions and associated cytoskeletal elements, which provides prominent mechanical attachment of the epidermis to the cuticle and transmits muscle tensions to the exoskeleton. This linkage involves anchoring of the complex extracellular matrix composing the cuticle to the apical membrane of tendon cells and linking of tendon cells to muscles basally. The ultrastructural arhitecture of these attachment complexes during molting is an important issue in relation to integument integrity maintenance in the course of cuticle replacement and in relation to movement ability. The aim of this work was to determine the ultrastructural organization of exoskeleton – muscles attachment complexes in the molting terrestrial isopod crustaceans, in the stage when integumental epithelium is covered by both, the newly forming cuticle and the old detached cuticle. We show that the old exoskeleton is extensively mechanically connected to the underlying epithelium in the regions of muscle attachment sites by massive arrays of fibers in adult premolt Ligia italica and in prehatching embryos and premolt marsupial mancas of Porcellio scaber. Fibers expand from the tendon cells, traverse the new cuticle and ecdysal space and protrude into the distal layers of the detached cuticle. They likely serve as final anchoring sites before exuviation and may be involved in animal movements in this stage. Tendon cells in the prehatching embryo and in marsupial mancas display a substantial apicobasally oriented transcellular arrays of microtubules, evidently engaged in myotendinous junctions and in apical anchoring of the cuticular matrix. The structural framework of musculoskeletal linkage is basically established in described intramarsupial developmental stages, suggesting its involvement in animal motility within the marsupium.

  5. The Naturalized Nation: Anchoring, Objectification and Naturalized Social Representations of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eemeli Hakoköngäs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the connection between social representations of history and collective memory from the perspective of elementary concepts of social representations theory: anchoring, objectification and naturalization. The aims of the study are to arrive at a conceptual clarity of this connection and demonstrate how to apply basic concepts of social representations theory to the study of collective memory. The study also focuses on the naturalized characteristics of Finnish history. The data consist of the covers of twenty Finnish history books between the years 1965 and 2014. All the covers are embellished with typography or visual images. The covers were analysed using a semiotic approach in which the interest is in the description (denotation, the associations (connotation and the meaning system these construe (myth. The analysis shows how national history is concretized with visual images (objectification, how the meaning of representation is conveyed (anchoring and how collective memory is maintained (naturalization, transmitted and shaped during the years. The results show how the stable collective memories and changing social representations of history are interacting. The most frequently used visual element was the colour blue, which alludes to the Finnish flag, a symbol of the nation that represents the core of Finnish history. The study suggests that it is possible to conceptualize collective memories as naturalized social representations of history. It shows how processes of anchoring and objectification serve as tools of collective memory and how the naturalized conceptions are subtly changed. In addition, the study develops the use of visual semiotic analysis in social representations research.

  6. 深基坑桩锚支护工程中预应力锚索施工技术%Analysis on pre-stressed anchor cable construction technology in deep foundation pit pile anchor support engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏伟

    2016-01-01

    基于预应力锚索施工的工艺原理,介绍了预应力锚索在桩锚支护施工中的准备工作,并从钻孔、清孔、预应力锚索制作、安放、注浆等方面,阐述了预应力锚索的施工技术要点,指出该技术安全可靠、施工方便、成本低廉,值得推广应用。%Based on the process principle of pre-stressed anchor cable construction,this paper introduced the preparatory work of pre-stressed an-chor cable in pile anchor support construction,and from the hole drilling,hole cleaning,pre-stressed anchor cable production,installation,grou-ting and other aspects,elaborated the construction technology key points of pre-stressed anchor cable,pointed out that the technology was safe and reliable,convenient construction,low cost,worthy of popularization and application.

  7. High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad

    2012-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near-Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission would require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO, in an environment characterized by very low gravity levels; such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy, and upon mission completion, easy to remove. The design philosophy used in this task relies on the simulation capability of a high-performance multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth, it is difficult to create low-gravity conditions, and testing in low-gravity environments, whether artificial or in space, can be costly and very difficult to achieve. Through simulation, the effect of gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine, a simulation pack age capable of utilizing massively parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) hardware, several validation experiments were performed. Modeling of the regolith interaction has been carried out, after which the anchor penetration tests were performed and analyzed. The regolith was modeled by a granular medium composed of very large numbers of convex three-dimensional rigid bodies, subject to microgravity levels and interacting with each other with contact, friction, and cohesional forces. The multibody dynamics simulation approach used for simulating anchors penetrating a soil uses a differential variational inequality (DVI) methodology to solve the contact problem posed as a linear complementarity method (LCP). Implemented within a GPU processing environment, collision detection is greatly accelerated compared to traditional CPU (central processing unit)- based collision detection. Hence, systems of millions of particles interacting with complex dynamic systems can be efficiently analyzed, and design recommendations can be made in a much shorter time. The figure

  8. Sustaining area-based initiatives by developing appropriate "anchors": the role of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Roy, Parama; Leonardsen, Oystein

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on ‘anchoring,’ understood as the process of building project-based organizational networks, or ‘anchors’, in order to sustain the efforts of area-based initiatives (ABIs) after they leave their targeted neighbourhoods. Drawing on the scholarly literature on social capital...... and an empirical examination of three different cases from an ABI in Copenhagen, the paper highlights why and how particular models of ‘anchors’ develop in specific local contexts. We conclude by emphasizing the value of the lens of social capital, particularly, in the ABIs’ strategic efforts towards ‘anchoring’....

  9. Surface analysis of PEGylated nano-shields on nanoparticles installed by hydrophobic anchors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, M F; Whitehead, Bradley Joseph; Gonzalez, Borja Ballarin;

    2013-01-01

    and cellular interactions. Methods: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared with a hydrophilic PEGylated "nano-shield" inserted at different levels by hydrophobic anchoring using either a phospholipid-PEG conjugate or the copolymer PLGA-block-PEG by an emulsification/diffusion method......Purpose: This work describes a method for functionalisation of nanoparticle surfaces with hydrophilic "nano-shields" and the application of advanced surface characterisation to determine PEG amount and accumulation at the outmost 10 nm surface that is the predominant factor in determining protein...

  10. Iron anchors of Northern Odisha, east coast India: Maritime contacts with European countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Patnaik, S.K.; Acharya, S.B.

    ). Regular shipping between these ports and False Point contributed significantly to the maritime trade of Odisha. In terms of export and import, the ports of Odisha played a significant role. The cotton and textile products of Odisha had a wide market..., Market, merchants and mariners: Oceanic trade of Orissa in the early modern times. Shivalik Prakashan, New Delhi. Speziale, G.C., 1931, The Roman Anchors found at Nemi. Mariner’s Mirror 17.4: 309–320. Strachan, M., and Penrose, B., (eds.) 1971...

  11. MoO3 nanoparticle anchored graphene as bifunctional agent for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahan, Homen; Roy, Raju; Namsa, Nima D.; Das, Shyamal K.

    2016-10-01

    We report here a facile one step hydrothermal method to anchor MoO3 nanoparticles in graphene. The bifunctionality of graphene-MoO3 nanoparticles is demonstrated via dye adsorption and antibacterial activities. The nanocomposite showed excellent adsorption of methylene blue, a cationic dye, from water compared to pristine MoO3 and graphene. However, it showed negligible adsorption of methyl orange, an anionic dye. Again, the graphene-MoO3 nanoparticles exhibited bacteriostatic property against both Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria.

  12. 1000-fold enhancement in proton conductivity of a MOF using post-synthetically anchored proton transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, Sorout; Dhavale, Vishal M.; Eldho, Kavalakal M.; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ajithkumar, Thallaseril G.; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan

    2016-08-01

    Pyridinol, a coordinating zwitter-ionic species serves as stoichiometrically loadable and non-leachable proton carrier. The partial replacement of the pyridinol by stronger hydrogen bonding, coordinating guest, ethylene glycol (EG), offers 1000-fold enhancement in conductivity (10‑6 to 10‑3 Scm‑1) with record low activation energy (0.11 eV). Atomic modeling coupled with 13C-SSNMR provides insights into the potential proton conduction pathway functionalized with post-synthetically anchored dynamic proton transporting EG moieties.

  13. Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class and the anchored Toom interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, G. T.; Ferrari, P. L.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Spohn, H.

    2014-10-01

    We revisit the anchored Toom interface and use Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling theory to argue that the interface fluctuations are governed by the Airy1 process with the role of space and time interchanged. The predictions, which contain no free parameter, are numerically well confirmed for space-time statistics in the stationary state. In particular, the spatial fluctuations of the interface computed numerically agree well with those given by the GOE edge distribution of Tracy and Widom [Commun. Math. Phys. 177, 727 (1996), 10.1007/BF02099545].

  14. Cobalt and nickel macrocycles anchored to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films: Sensitization, catalysis, and ligand association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Darren Craig

    The global demand for renewable, clean electricity and fuel has compelled efforts to utilize the immense power incident upon the Earth from the Sun. Photovoltaic systems could power the planet's electrical demands with only moderate efficiencies. However, mitigation of fossil fuels used for transportation and night-time electricity requires the storage of photon energy, for example, in the form of chemical bonds. Mesoporous, nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films provide a manifold for anchoring molecular species that absorb and utilize photons to catalyze fuel-generating reactions. The overarching theme of this thesis is to improve understanding of the semiconductor/molecule interface utilizing earth abundant first-row transition metal coordination compounds. Chapter 2 presents the non-ideal redox behavior of cobalt porphyrins anchored to semiconductor surfaces. Additionally, CoI porphyrins were utilized as photocatalysts for the 2e- reduction of organobromides to yield a CoIII-R intermediate. The cobalt-carbon bond of CoIII-R was photodissociated with visible light to yield Co II and R·. The organic radical dimerized to form R-R. Light excitation of CoI compounds was found to result in electron transfer to TiO2, Chapter 3. Cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, glyoximes, and corrins were all observed to exhibit this behavior. Electron transfer was demonstrated to primarily occur via excitation into the large extinction coefficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer absorption bands of CoI complexes. Chapter 4 focuses on the unique coordination chemistry of cobalt porphyrins anchored to a TiO2 thin film. Notably, pyridine axially ligated a CoII porphyrin following excited-state electron transfer of the CoI porphyrin to the TiO2. The rate constant for recombination of an electron in the TiO2 with CoII was observed to decrease with increasing pyridine concentration, behavior attributed primarily to a negative shift of the CoII/I potential in the presence of pyridine. Finally

  15. A Tenebrio molitor GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase is involved in binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa to brush border membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Navarrete, Fernando; Gómez, Isabel; Peña, Guadalupe; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins recognizes their target cells in part by the binding to glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchored proteins such as aminopeptidase-N (APN) or alkaline phosphatases (ALP). Treatment of Tenebrio molitor brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) with phospholipase C that cleaves out GPI-anchored proteins from the membranes, showed that GPI-anchored proteins are involved in binding of Cry3Aa toxin to BBMV. A 68 kDa GPI-anchored ALP was shown to bind Cry3Aa by toxin overlay assays. The 68 kDa GPI-anchored ALP was preferentially expressed in early instar larvae in comparison to late instar larvae. Our work shows for the first time that GPI-anchored ALP is important for Cry3Aa binding to T. molitor BBMV suggesting that the mode of action of Cry toxins is conserved in different insect orders.

  16. Inelastic seismic behavior of post-installed anchors for nuclear safety related structures: Generation of experimental database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadik, Vinay, E-mail: vinay.mahadik@iwb.uni-stuttgart.de; Sharma, Akanshu; Hofmann, Jan

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Experiments for evaluating seismic behavior of anchors were performed. • Two undercut anchor products in use in nuclear facilities were considered. • Monotonic tension, shear and cycling tension tests at different crack widths. • Crack cycling tests at constant, in-phase and out-of phase tension loads. • Characteristics for the two anchors as a function of crack width were identified. - Abstract: Post installed (PI) anchors are often employed for connections between concrete structure and components or systems in nuclear power plants (NPP) and related facilities. Standardized practices for nuclear related structures demand stringent criteria, which an anchor has to satisfy in order to qualify for use in NPP related structures. In NPP and related facilities, the structure–component interaction in the event of an earthquake depends on the inelastic behavior of the concrete structure, the component system and also the anchorage system that connects them. For analysis, anchorages are usually assumed to be rigid. Under seismic actions, however, it is known that anchors may undergo significant plastic displacement and strength degradation. Analysis of structure–component interaction under seismic loads calls for numerical models simulating inelastic behavior of anchorage systems. A testing program covering different seismic loading scenarios in a reasonably conservative manner is required to establish a basis for generating numerical models of anchorage systems. Currently there is a general lack of modeling techniques to consider the inelastic behavior of anchorages in structure–component interaction under seismic loads. In this work, in view of establishing a basis for development of numerical models simulating the inelastic behavior of anchors, seismic tests on two different undercut anchors qualified for their use in NPP related structures were carried out. The test program was primarily based on the DIBt-KKW-Leitfaden (2010) guidelines

  17. Exogenous glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored CD59 associates with kinases in membrane clusters on U937 cells and becomes Ca(2+)-signaling competent

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    CD59, an 18-20-kD complement inhibitor anchored to the membrane via glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI), can induce activation of T cells and neutrophils upon cross-linking with antibody. GPI-anchored molecules cocluster in high mol wt detergent-resistant complexes containing tyrosine kinases that are implicated in the signaling pathway. Exogenous, incorporated GPI-anchored molecules are initially unable to induce activation, presumably because they are not associated with kinases. Here we de...

  18. Ship pull anchor test simulation system%船舶拉锚试验仿真系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁; 吴尚华

    2013-01-01

    Based on hawse pipe design in ship construction in physical state of tensile anchor under test ,by tak-ing a 49 000 DWT product carrier as the research object , the tensile anchor experiment simulation is carried out , the science and feasibility of the simulation system is verified .The Solid Works software is used in the simulation system to implement the general method from design , modeling to simulation of the ship anchor , anchor chain , and the other standard parts .We established a database model , imported the ship stem model , and then assem-bled, added constraints and force , and simulated the tensile anchor test .%针对船舶建造中的锚链筒设计物理状态下的拉锚试验,以某49000 DWT成品油轮为研究对象,对其进行拉锚试验仿真,验证仿真系统的科学性和可行性。该仿真系统运用Solid Works软件实现从设计、建模到仿真的一般方法,对船舶锚以及锚链等标准件建立数据库模型,导入或者建立船艏模型,然后装配,添加约束力,进行拉锚试验仿真。

  19. GUP1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an O-acyltransferase involved in remodeling of the GPI anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Régine; Jaquenoud, Malika; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2006-06-01

    The anchors of mature glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain either ceramide or diacylglycerol with a C26:0 fatty acid in the sn2 position. The primary GPI lipid added to newly synthesized proteins in the ER consists of diacylglycerol with conventional C16 and C18 fatty acids. Here we show that GUP1 is essential for the synthesis of the C26:0-containing diacylglycerol anchors. Gup1p is an ER membrane protein with multiple membrane-spanning domains harboring a motif that is characteristic of membrane-bound O-acyl-transferases (MBOAT). Gup1Delta cells make normal amounts of GPI proteins but most mature GPI anchors contain lyso-phosphatidylinositol, and others possess phosphatidylinositol with conventional C16 and C18 fatty acids. The incorporation of the normal ceramides into the anchors is also disturbed. As a consequence, the ER-to-Golgi transport of the GPI protein Gas1p is slow, and mature Gas1p is lost from the plasma membrane into the medium. Gup1Delta cells have fragile cell walls and a defect in bipolar bud site selection. GUP1 function depends on the active site histidine of the MBOAT motif. GUP1 is highly conserved among fungi and protozoa and the gup1Delta phenotype is partially corrected by GUP1 homologues of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trypanosoma cruzi.

  20. A novel membrane anchor for FtsZ is linked to cell wall hydrolysis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Elizabeth L; Razavi, Shiva; Inoue, Takanari; Goley, Erin D

    2016-07-01

    In most bacteria, the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ forms an annulus at midcell (the Z-ring) which recruits the division machinery and regulates cell wall remodeling. Although both activities require membrane attachment of FtsZ, few membrane anchors have been characterized. FtsA is considered to be the primary membrane tether for FtsZ in bacteria, however in Caulobacter crescentus, FtsA arrives at midcell after stable Z-ring assembly and early FtsZ-directed cell wall synthesis. We hypothesized that additional proteins tether FtsZ to the membrane and demonstrate that in C. crescentus, FzlC is one such membrane anchor. FzlC associates with membranes directly in vivo and in vitro and recruits FtsZ to membranes in vitro. As for most known membrane anchors, the C-terminal peptide of FtsZ is required for its recruitment to membranes by FzlC in vitro and midcell recruitment of FzlC in cells. In vivo, overproduction of FzlC causes cytokinesis defects whereas deletion of fzlC causes synthetic defects with dipM, ftsE and amiC mutants, implicating FzlC in cell wall hydrolysis. Our characterization of FzlC as a novel membrane anchor for FtsZ expands our understanding of FtsZ regulators and establishes a role for membrane-anchored FtsZ in the regulation of cell wall hydrolysis.

  1. Haptic information provided by the "anchor system" reduces trunk sway acceleration in the frontal plane during tandem walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andréia Abud da Silva; Manciopi, Priscila Abbári Rossi; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2015-11-16

    This study assessed whether the use of an "anchor system" benefited older adults who performed a tandem walking task. Additionally, we tested the effects of practice with the anchor system during walking on trunk stability, in the frontal plane, of older adults. Forty-four older adults were randomly assigned to three groups: control group, 0g anchor group, and 125g anchor group. Individuals in each group performed a tandem walking task on the GaitRite system with an accelerometer placed on the cervical region. The participants in the 125g anchor group held, in each hand, a flexible cable with a light mass attached at the end of the cable, which rested on the ground. While the participants walked, they pulled on the cables just enough to keep them taut as the masses slid over the ground. The 0g anchor group held an anchor tool without any mass attached to the end portion. The results of this study demonstrated that the use of the anchor system contributed to the reduction of trunk acceleration in the frontal plane. However, this effect did not persist after removal of the anchors, which suggests that the amount of practice with this tool was insufficient to generate any lasting effect, or that the task was not sufficiently challenging, or both.

  2. Palmitylation of an amino-terminal cysteine motif of protein tyrosine kinases p56lck and p59fyn mediates interaction with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Cross-linking of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins on T cells can trigger cell activation. We and others have shown an association between GPI-anchored proteins and the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) p56lck and p59fyn, suggesting a pathway for signaling through GPI-anchored proteins. Studies of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD59 in either the C32 cell line or the HeLa cell line transfected with PTK cDNA demonstrated that the GPI-anchored proteins associated ...

  3. Rh Nanoparticle Anchoring on Metal Phosphates: Fundamental Aspects and Practical Impacts on Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Masato

    2016-10-01

    Metal phosphates stabilize Rh nanoparticles on their surface via Rh-O-P bonds, in contrast to the Rh-O-M bonds formed on metal oxides (MOx ). The local structure, electronic structure, and redox properties of Rh nanoparticles anchored on metal phosphates, and their practical impacts on catalysis, are reviewed based on recent publications from the author's research group. Because of the covalency of the Rh-O-P bond, Rh oxide is readily reduced to metallic Rh having a higher catalytic activity, whereas Rh oxide on metal oxide supports is more difficult to reduce with an increase of the anchoring strength. Furthermore, Rh metal shows a higher tolerance to reoxidation when supported on metal phosphates because the Rh-O-P bond is preserved under reducing atmospheres. The electron deficiency of Rh metal is another feature that affects its catalytic properties, and the extent of the electron deficiency can be tuned by replacing the metal in the metal phosphate with one of higher basicity. Further impacts on practical performance (thermal stability, poisoning stability, and lean NOx purification) in automobile catalyst applications are also described.

  4. The flame anchoring mechanism and associated flow structure in bluff-body stabilized lean premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Dan; Shanbhogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We present numerical analysis of a lean premixed flame anchoring on a heat conducting bluff-body. Different mixtures of CH4/H2/air are analyzed in order to systematically vary the burning velocity, adiabatic flame temperature and extinction strain rate. The study was motivated by our experimental measurements in a step combustor which showed that both the recirculation zone length and stability map under acoustically coupled conditions for different fuels and thermodynamic conditions collapse using the extinction strain rate. The model fully resolves unsteady two-dimensional flow with detailed chemistry and species transport, and without artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions. The model includes a low Mach number operator-split projection algorithm, coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and an immersed boundary method for the solid body. Calculations reveal that the recirculation zone length correlates with the flame extinction strain rate, consistent with the experimental evidence. It is found that in the vicinity of the bluff body the flame is highly stretched and its leading edge location is controlled by the reactants combustion characteristics under high strain. Moreover, the flame surface location relative to the shear layer influences the vorticity thus impacting the velocity field and the recirculation zone. The study sheds light on the experimentally observed collapse of the combustor dynamics using the reactants extinction strain rate.

  5. GPI-anchored proteins do not reside in ordered domains in the live cell plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcsik, Eva; Brameshuber, Mario; Fölser, Martin; Weghuber, Julian; Honigmann, Alf; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2015-04-01

    The organization of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane has been the subject of a long-lasting debate. Membrane rafts of higher lipid chain order were proposed to mediate protein interactions, but have thus far not been directly observed. Here we use protein micropatterning combined with single-molecule tracking to put current models to the test: we rearranged lipid-anchored raft proteins (glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchored-mGFP) directly in the live cell plasma membrane and measured the effect on the local membrane environment. Intriguingly, this treatment does neither nucleate the formation of an ordered membrane phase nor result in any enrichment of nanoscopic-ordered domains within the micropatterned regions. In contrast, we find that immobilized mGFP-GPIs behave as inert obstacles to the diffusion of other membrane constituents without influencing their membrane environment over distances beyond their physical size. Our results indicate that phase partitioning is not a fundamental element of protein organization in the plasma membrane.

  6. Three-dimensional assessment of maxillary changes associated with bone anchored maxillary protraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung; Cevidanes, Lucia; Cornelis, Marie A.; Heymann, Gavin; de Paula, Leonardo K.; De Clerck, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bone-anchored maxillary protraction has been shown to be an effective treatment modality for the correction of Class III malocclusions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the maxilla, the surrounding hard and soft tissues, and the circummaxillary sutures after bone-anchored maxillary protraction treatment. Methods Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean, 11.10 ± 1.1 years) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). Cone-beam computed tomographs were taken before initial loading and 1 year out. Three-dimensional models were generated from the tomographs, registered on the anterior cranial base, superimposed, and analyzed by using color maps. Results The maxilla showed a mean forward displacement of 3.7 mm, and the zygomas and the maxillary incisors came forward 3.7 and 4.3 mm, respectively. Conclusions This treatment approach produced significant orthopedic changes in the maxilla and the zygomas in growing Class III patients. PMID:22133943

  7. Uncertainty assessment of a dike with an anchored sheet pile wall using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch design codes for the dikes with retaining walls rely on Finite Element Analysis (FEM in combination with partial safety factors. However, this can lead to conservative designs. For this reason, in this study, a reliability analysis is carried out with FEM calculations aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of reliability analysis for a dike with an anchored sheet pile wall modelled in the 2D FEM, Plaxis. Sensitivity and reliability analyses were carried out and enabled by coupling the uncertainty package, OpenTURNS and Plaxis. The most relevant (ultimate limit states concern the anchor, the sheet pile wall, the soil body failure (global instability and finally the system. The case was used to investigate the applicability of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM and Directional Sampling (DS to analysing these limit states. The final goal is to estimate the probability of failure and identify the most important soil properties that affect the behaviour of each component and the system as a whole. The results of this research can be used to assess and optimize the current design procedure for dikes with retaining walls.

  8. New Class of Antimicrobial Agents: SBA-15 Silica Containing Anchored Copper Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Laskowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about a new class of antimicrobial functional nanomaterials. Proposed compounds are based on SBA-15 porous silica matrices and contain anchored copper ions. Thanks to the immobilization of functional groups the compounds are safer for environment than commonly used disinfectant agents. We prepared and examined silica based materials containing two concentrations of copper-containing groups: 10 and 5%. For the reference we prepared samples containing free-standing CuO molecules in the structure and checked their antimicrobial properties. Antibacterial effect of considered SBA-15-Cu material was tested on Escherichia coli bacteria. Antimicrobial tests were applied for the pure form of the material and as modifying agents for plastics. The obtained results showed that the sample with lower concentration of active copper-containing groups has stronger antimicrobial properties than the one with higher concentration of copper. Interestingly, silica containing free-standing CuO molecules has no antimicrobial properties. Considering the obtained results, we can conclude that the most probable antimicrobial mechanism in this case is an oxidation stress. When a plastic modifier is applied the material is enriched with bacterial inhibitory properties. It seems that SBA-15 silica containing low concentration of anchored copper ions is promising in terms of its antibacterial property and biomaterial potential for commercial use.

  9. Major surface antigen, P30, of Toxoplasma gondii is anchored by a glycolipid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S.D.; Boothroyd, J.C.

    1989-04-05

    P30, the major surface antigen of the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, can be specifically labeled with (/sup 3/H)palmitic acid and with myo-(2-/sup 3/H)inositol. The fatty acid label can be released by treatment of P30 with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Such treatment exposes an immunological cross-reacting determinant first described on Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein. PI-PLC cleavage of intact parasites metabolically labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine results in the release of intact P30 polypeptide in a form which migrates faster in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results argue that P30 is anchored by a glycolipid. Results from thin layer chromatography analysis of purified (/sup 3/H) palmitate-labeled P30 treated with PI-PLC, together with susceptibility to mild alkali hydrolysis and to cleavage with phospholipase A2, suggest that the glycolipid anchor of T. gondii P30 includes a 1,2-diacylglycerol moiety.

  10. Loss of Dfg5 glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein confers enhanced heat tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Olviyani; Lee, Jaok; Srinivasa, Kavitha; Choi, In-Geol; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Eunjung; Choi, Wonja; Kim, Wankee

    2015-08-01

    The protein product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DFG5 gene is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored plasma membrane protein and a putative glycosidase/glycosyltransferase that links other GPI-anchored proteins to β-glucans in the cell wall. Upon exposure to heat (41°C), DFG5 deletion mutant dfg5Δ displayed significantly enhanced heat tolerance as well as lowered level of reactive oxygen species and decreased membrane permeability compared with those in the control (BY4741). Comparative transcriptome profiles of BY4741 and dfg5Δ revealed that 38 and 23 genes were up- and down-regulated in dfg5Δ respectively. Of the 23 down-regulated genes, 11 of 13 viable deletion mutants were identified to be tolerant to heat, suggesting that the down-regulation of those genes might have contributed to the enhanced heat tolerance in dfg5Δ. Deletion of DFG5 caused slight activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases Hog1 in the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and Slt2 in the cell wall integrity pathway. Therefore, a model is proposed on the signal transduction pathways associated with deletion of DFG5 upon heat stress.

  11. [The in vitro HAART pharmacodynamics study with dolutegravir as the "anchor"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia-mei; Guo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the HAART pharmacodynamics with dolutegravir as the "anchor" in vitro. A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) resistant recombinant virus model (VSVG/HIV-1(RT-D67N,K70R,T215F)) and an integrase inhibitors (INIs) resistant recombinant virus model (VSVG/HIV-1(IN-G140S,QI48H)) were constructed and established. The anti-viral pharmacodynamics was evaluated with drug combinations including two NRTIs along with one INI or one NNRTI. The results showed that the combination with an INI gave a stronger synergism on wild type HIV-1 replication comparing to that with an NNRTI. Comparing the two INIs as the "anchor" for HAART, DTG exhibited an equivalent CI to that of RAL on wild type HIV-1 replication; but a greater synergy than RAL on INI-resistant HIV-1 replication. Besides of the pharmacodynamics results of DTG-based drug combination, the results may contribute to clinical antiviral therapy.

  12. A novel technique of lumbar hernia repair using bone anchor fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, A M; Kercher, K W; Sigmon, L; Matthews, B D; Sing, R F; Kneisl, J S; Heniford, B T

    2005-03-01

    Lumbar hernias are difficult to repair due to their proximity to bone and inadequate surrounding tissue to buttress the repair. We analyzed the outcome of patients undergoing a novel retromuscular lumbar hernia repair technique. The repair was performed in ten patients using a polypropylene or polytetrafluoroethylene mesh placed in an extraperitoneal, retromuscular position with at least 5 cm overlap of the hernia defect. The mesh was fixed with circumferential, transfascial, permanent sutures and inferiorly fixed to the iliac crest by suture bone anchors. Five hernias were recurrent, and five were incarcerated; seven were incisional hernias, and three were posttraumatic. Back and abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom. Mean hernia size was 227 cm(2) (60-504) with a mesh size of 620 cm(2) (224-936). Mean operative time was 181 min (120-269), with a mean blood loss of 128 ml (50-200). Mean length of stay was 5.2 days (2-10), and morphine equivalent requirement was 200 mg (47-460). There were no postoperative complications or deaths. After a mean follow-up of 40 months (3-99) there have been no recurrences. Our sublay repair of lumbar hernias with permanent suture fixation is safe and to date has resulted in no recurrences. Suture bone anchors ensure secure fixation of the mesh to the iliac crest and may eliminate a common area of recurrence.

  13. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria, E-mail: cbertolino@fcq.unc.edu.ar; Granados, Alejandro Manuel, E-mail: ale@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Fischer carbene 1-W reacts via cycloaddition without Cu(I) with azide terminal surface. • This reaction on the surface is regioselective to internal triple bond of 1-W. • 1-W bound to glass surface produce AuNps in situ fixed to the surface. • This ability is independent of how 1-W is bonded to the surface. • This hybrid surface can be valuable as SERS substrate or in heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as “click reaction” and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV–vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  14. Covalent Anchoring of Chloroperoxidase and Glucose Oxidase on the Mesoporous Molecular Sieve SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hartmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Functionalization of porous solids plays an important role in many areas, including heterogeneous catalysis and enzyme immobilization. In this study, large-pore ordered mesoporous SBA-15 molecular sieves were synthesized with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS in the presence of the non-ionic triblock co-polymer Pluronic P123 under acidic conditions. These materials were grafted with 3 aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (ATS, 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GTS and with 3 aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde (GA-ATS in order to provide covalent anchoring points for enzymes. The samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy. The obtained grafted materials were then used for the immobilization of chloroperoxidase (CPO and glucose oxidase (GOx and the resulting biocatalysts were tested in the oxidation of indole. It is found that enzymes anchored to the mesoporous host by the organic moieties can be stored for weeks without losing their activity. Furthermore, the covalently linked enzymes are shown to be less prone to leaching than the physically adsorbed enzymes, as tested in a fixed-bed reactor under continuous operation conditions.

  15. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria; Granados, Alejandro Manuel

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as "click reaction" and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV-vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  16. Note on the hydrodynamic description of thin nematic films: Strong anchoring model

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Te-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the long-wave hydrodynamic model for a thin film of nematic liquid crystal in the limit of strong anchoring at the free surface and at the substrate. We rigorously clarify how the elastic energy enters the evolution equation for the film thickness in order to provide a solid basis for further investigation: several conflicting models exist in the literature that predict qualitatively different behaviour. We consolidate the various approaches and show that the long-wave model derived through an asymptotic expansion of the full nemato-hydrodynamic equations with consistent boundary conditions agrees with the model one obtains by employing a thermodynamically motivated gradient dynamics formulation based on an underlying free energy functional. As a result, we find that in the case of strong anchoring the elastic distortion energy is always stabilising. To support the discussion in the main part of the paper, an appendix gives the full derivation of the evolution equation for the film thickness via asymptotic expansion. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  17. Vaccination with Enzymatically Cleaved GPI-Anchored Proteins from Schistosoma mansoni Induces Protection against Challenge Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente P. Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flatworm Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease that occurs throughout the developing world. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization with an antischistosomiasis vaccine combined with drug treatment. In the search for potential vaccine candidates, numerous tegument antigens have been assessed. As the major interface between parasite and mammalian host, the tegument plays crucial roles in the establishment and further course of schistosomiasis. Herein, we evaluated the potential of a GPI fraction, containing representative molecules located on the outer surface of adult worms, as vaccine candidate. Immunization of mice with GPI-anchored proteins induced a mixed Th1/Th2 type of immune response with production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and low levels of IL-5 into the supernatant of splenocyte cultures. The protection engendered by this vaccination protocol was confirmed by 42% reduction in worm burden, 45% reduction in eggs per gram of hepatic tissue, 29% reduction in the number of granulomas per area, and 53% reduction in the granuloma fibrosis. Taken together, the data herein support the potential of surface-exposed GPI-anchored antigens from the S. mansoni tegument as vaccine candidate.

  18. Expression of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand, growth hormone, blocks receptor signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, François; Kaabi, Yahia; Riley, Aiden H; Wilkinson, Ian R; Gray, Colin; James, David C; Artymiuk, Peter J; Sayers, Jon R; Ross, Richard J

    2012-12-01

    We have investigated the interaction between GH (growth hormone) and GHR (GH receptor). We previously demonstrated that a truncated GHR that possesses a transmembrane domain but no cytoplasmic domain blocks receptor signalling. Based on this observation we investigated the impact of tethering the receptor's extracellular domain to the cell surface using a native lipid GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor. We also investigated the effect of tethering GH, the ligand itself, to the cell surface and demonstrated that tethering either the ecGHR (extracellular domain of GHR) or the ligand itself to the cell membrane via a GPI anchor greatly attenuates signalling. To elucidate the mechanism for this antagonist activity, we used confocal microscopy to examine the fluorescently modified ligand and receptor. GH-GPI was expressed on the cell surface and formed inactive receptor complexes that failed to internalize and blocked receptor activation. In conclusion, contrary to expectation, tethering an agonist to the cell surface can generate an inactive hormone receptor complex that fails to internalize.

  19. A numerical study on the structural integrity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Lonetti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A generalized numerical model for predicting the structural integrity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges considering both geometric and material nonlinearities is proposed. The bridge is modeled by means of a 3D finite element approach based on a refined displacement-type finite element approximation, in which geometrical nonlinearities are assumed in all components of the structure. Moreover, nonlinearities produced by inelastic material and second order effects in the displacements are considered for girder and pylon elements, which combine gradual yielding theory with CRC tangent modulus concept. In addition, for the elements of the suspension system, i.e. stays, hangers and main cable, a finite plasticity theory is adopted to fully evaluate both geometric and material nonlinearities. In this framework, the influence of geometric and material nonlinearities on the collapse bridge behavior is investigated, by means of a comparative study, which identifies the effects produced on the ultimate bridge behavior of several sources of bridge nonlinearities involved in the bridge components. Results are developed with the purpose to evaluate numerically the influence of the material and geometric characteristics of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges with respect also to conventional bridge based on cablestayed or suspension schemes

  20. An anchored framework BAC map of mouse chromosome 11 assembled using multiplex oligonucleotide hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, W W; Reneker, J; Chow, C W; Vaishnav, M; Bradley, A

    1998-12-15

    Despite abundant library resources for many organisms, physical mapping of these organisms has been seriously limited due to lack of efficient library screening techniques. We have developed a highly efficient strategy for large-scale screening of genomic libraries based on multiplex oligonucleotide hybridization on high-density genomic filters. We have applied this strategy to generate a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) anchored map of mouse chromosome 11. Using the MIT mouse SSLP data, 320 pairs of oligonucleotide probes were designed with an "overgo" computer program that selects new primer sequences that avoid the microsatellite repeat. BACs identified by these probes are automatically anchored to the chromosome. Ninety-two percent of the probes identified positive clones from a 5.9-fold coverage mouse BAC library with an average of 7 positive clones per marker. An average of 4.2 clones was confirmed for 204 markers by PCR. Our data show that a large number of clones can be efficiently isolated from a large genomic library using this strategy with minimal effort. This strategy will have wide application for large-scale mapping and sequencing of human and other large genomes.

  1. Germ Plasm Anchoring Is a Dynamic State that Requires Persistent Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina S. Sinsimer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Localized cytoplasmic determinants packaged as ribonucleoprotein (RNP particles direct embryonic patterning and cell fate specification in a wide range of organisms. Once established, the asymmetric distributions of such RNP particles must be maintained, often over considerable developmental time. A striking example is the Drosophila germ plasm, which contains RNP particles whose localization to the posterior of the egg during oogenesis results in their asymmetric inheritance and segregation of germline from somatic fates in the embryo. Although actin-based anchoring mechanisms have been implicated, high-resolution live imaging revealed persistent trafficking of germ plasm RNP particles at the posterior cortex of the Drosophila oocyte. This motility relies on cortical microtubules, is mediated by kinesin and dynein motors, and requires coordination between the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons. Finally, we show that RNP particle motility is required for long-term germ plasm retention. We propose that anchoring is a dynamic state that renders asymmetries robust to developmental time and environmental perturbations.

  2. Cell membrane-anchored biosensors for real-time monitoring of the cellular microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liping; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Jianhui; Wu, Cuichen; Zhu, Guizhi; You, Mingxu; Chen, Xigao; Zhang, Liqin; Cui, Cheng; Yu, Ruqin; Tan, Weihong

    2014-09-24

    Cell membrane-anchored biochemical sensors that allow real-time monitoring of the interactions of cells with their microenvironment would be powerful tools for studying the mechanisms underlying various biological processes, such as cell metabolism and signaling. Despite the significance of these techniques, unfortunately, their development has lagged far behind due to the lack of a desirable membrane engineering method. Here, we propose a simple, efficient, biocompatible, and universal strategy for one-step self-construction of cell-surface sensors using diacyllipid-DNA conjugates as the building and sensing elements. The sensors exploit the high membrane-insertion capacity of a diacyllipid tail and good sensing performance of the DNA probes. Based on this strategy, we have engineered specific DNAzymes on the cell membrane for metal ion assay in the extracellular microspace. The immobilized DNAzyme showed excellent performance for reporting and semiquantifying both exogenous and cell-extruded target metal ions in real time. This membrane-anchored sensor could also be used for multiple target detection by having different DNA probes inserted, providing potentially useful tools for versatile applications in cell biology, biomedical research, drug discovery, and tissue engineering.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of asymmetric flow in nematic liquid crystals with finite anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Roberts, Tyler; Aranson, Igor S.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-02-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) display many of the flow characteristics of liquids but exhibit long range orientational order. In the nematic phase, the coupling of structure and flow leads to complex hydrodynamic effects that remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we consider the hydrodynamics of a nematic LC in a hybrid cell, where opposite walls have conflicting anchoring boundary conditions, and we employ a 3D lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the time-dependent flow patterns that can arise. Due to the symmetry breaking of the director field within the hybrid cell, we observe that at low to moderate shear rates, the volumetric flow rate under Couette and Poiseuille flows is different for opposite flow directions. At high shear rates, the director field may undergo a topological transition which leads to symmetric flows. By applying an oscillatory pressure gradient to the channel, a net volumetric flow rate is found to depend on the magnitude and frequency of the oscillation, as well as the anchoring strength. Taken together, our findings suggest several intriguing new applications for LCs in microfluidic devices.

  4. Light-induced pitch transitions in photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals: Effects of anchoring energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tetiana N.; Iegorov, Roman I.; Kiselev, Alexei D.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally study how the cholesteric pitch P depends on the equilibrium pitch P0 in planar liquid crystal (LC) cells with both strong and semistrong anchoring conditions. The cholesteric phase was induced by dissolution in the nematic LC of the right-handed chiral dopant 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, provitamin D3) which transforms to left-handed tachysterol under the action of uv irradiation at the wavelength of 254 nm. By using the model of photoreaction kinetics we obtain the dependencies of isomer concentrations and, therefore, of the equilibrium pitch on the uv irradiation dose. The cholesteric pitch was measured as a function of irradiation time using the polarimetry method. In this method, the pitch is estimated from the experimental data on the irradiation time dependence of the ellipticity of light transmitted through the LC cells. It is found that the resulting dependence of the twist parameter 2D/P (D is the cell thickness) on the free twisting number parameter 2D/P0 shows jumplike behavior and agrees well with the known theoretical results for the anchoring potential of Rapini-Papoular form.

  5. Expression of GPI anchored human recombinant erythropoietin in CHO cells is devoid of glycosylation heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Devasahayam, Mercy; Devi, Sobita

    2015-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycohormone involved in the regulation of the blood cell levels. It is a 166 amino acid protein having 3 N-glycosylation and one O-linked glycosylation sites, and is used to treat anaemia related illness. Though human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) is produced in CHO cells, the loss in quality control is 80% due to incomplete glycosylation of the rEPO with low levels of fully glycosylated active rEPO. Here, we describe the expression from CHO cells of fully glycosylated human rEPO when expressed as a GPI anchored molecule (rEPO-g). The results demonstrated the production of a homogenous completely glycosylated human rEPO-g as a 42 kD band without any low molecular weight glycoform variants as shown by affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE and anti-human EPO specific western blot. The western blot using specific monoclonal antibody is the available biochemical technique to prove the presence of homogeneity in the expressed recombinant protein. The GPI anchor can be removed during the purification process to yield a therapeutically relevant recombinant erythropoietin molecule cells with a higher in vivo biological activity due to its high molecular weight of 40 kD. This is possibly the first report on the production of a homogenous and completely glycosylated human rEPO from CHO cells for efficient therapy.

  6. Synaptic transmission and plasticity require AMPA receptor anchoring via its N-terminal domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jake F; Ho, Hinze; Greger, Ingo H

    2017-01-01

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are selectively recruited during activity-dependent plasticity to increase synaptic strength. A prerequisite for faithful signal transmission is the positioning and clustering of AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. The mechanisms underlying this positioning have largely been ascribed to the receptor cytoplasmic C-termini and to AMPAR-associated auxiliary subunits, both interacting with the postsynaptic scaffold. Here, using mouse organotypic hippocampal slices, we show that the extracellular AMPAR N-terminal domain (NTD), which projects midway into the synaptic cleft, plays a fundamental role in this process. This highly sequence-diverse domain mediates synaptic anchoring in a subunit-selective manner. Receptors lacking the NTD exhibit increased mobility in synapses, depress synaptic transmission and are unable to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, synaptic transmission and the expression of LTP are dependent upon an AMPAR anchoring mechanism that is driven by the NTD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23024.001 PMID:28290985

  7. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  8. Generation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein-deficient blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuan; Braunstein, Evan M; Ye, Zhaohui; Liu, Cyndi F; Chen, Guibin; Zou, Jizhong; Cheng, Linzhao; Brodsky, Robert A

    2013-11-01

    PIG-A is an X-linked gene required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; thus, PIG-A mutant cells have a deficiency or absence of all GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Acquired mutations in hematopoietic stem cells result in the disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hypomorphic germline PIG-A mutations lead to severe developmental abnormalities, seizures, and early death. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into cell types derived from all three germ layers, providing a novel developmental system for modeling human diseases. Using PIG-A gene targeting and an inducible PIG-A expression system, we have established, for the first time, a conditional PIG-A knockout model in human iPSCs that allows for the production of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. PIG-A-null iPSCs were unable to generate hematopoietic cells or any cells expressing the CD34 marker and were defective in generating mesodermal cells expressing KDR/VEGFR2 (kinase insert domain receptor) and CD56 markers. In addition, PIG-A-null iPSCs had a block in embryonic development prior to mesoderm differentiation that appears to be due to defective signaling through bone morphogenetic protein 4. However, early inducible PIG-A transgene expression allowed for the generation of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. This conditional PIG-A knockout model should be a valuable tool for studying the importance of GPI-APs in hematopoiesis and human development.

  9. Hydrous ruthenium oxide nanoparticles anchored to graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid foam for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Shirui; Lee, Ilkeun; Ahmed, Kazi; Zhong, Jiebin; Favors, Zachary; Zaera, Francisco; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2014-03-25

    In real life applications, supercapacitors (SCs) often can only be used as part of a hybrid system together with other high energy storage devices due to their relatively lower energy density in comparison to other types of energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells. Increasing the energy density of SCs will have a huge impact on the development of future energy storage devices by broadening the area of application for SCs. Here, we report a simple and scalable way of preparing a three-dimensional (3D) sub-5 nm hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO2) anchored graphene and CNT hybrid foam (RGM) architecture for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This RGM architecture demonstrates a novel graphene foam conformally covered with hybrid networks of RuO2 nanoparticles and anchored CNTs. SCs based on RGM show superior gravimetric and per-area capacitive performance (specific capacitance: 502.78 F g(-1), areal capacitance: 1.11 F cm(-2)) which leads to an exceptionally high energy density of 39.28 Wh kg(-1) and power density of 128.01 kW kg(-1). The electrochemical stability, excellent capacitive performance, and the ease of preparation suggest this RGM system is promising for future energy storage applications.

  10. Dynamic Active Earth Pressures of the Retaining Piles with Anchors under Vehicle Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-zhi Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pile-anchor supporting structure is widely used in foundation pit engineering; then knowledge of active earth pressure on piles is very important for engineers. In this paper, based on the pseudodynamic method and considering the vehicle’s vibration characteristic, a method to calculate the earth pressure on piles under vehicle load is presented. At the same time, the constraint of anchor is simplified relation of lateral deformation of piles in present method. Effects of a wide range of parameters like rupture angle, vibration acceleration coefficient, wall friction angle, and soil friction angle on active earth pressure have been studied. Results are presented in terms of coefficients in the figures and comparison of the test data and the earth pressure calculated by M-O method and present study. The result shows that the measured earth pressure is accordant with the theoretical analysis, so the method in this paper is an effective basis for the calculation of earth pressure on piles under vehicle loads.

  11. Thermal stability and molecular ordering of organic semiconductor monolayers: effect of an anchor group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew O F; Knauer, Philipp; Resel, Roland; Ringk, Andreas; Strohriegl, Peter; Werzer, Oliver; Sferrazza, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The thermal stability and molecular order in monolayers of two organic semiconductors, PBI-PA and PBI-alkyl, based on perylene derivatives with an identical molecular structure except for an anchor group for attachment to the substrate in PBI-PA, are reported. In situ X-ray reflectivity measurements are used to follow the stability of these monolayers in terms of order and thickness as temperature is increased. Films have thicknesses corresponding approximately to the length of one molecule; molecules stand upright on the substrate with a defined structure. PBI-PA monolayers have a high degree of order at room temperature and a stable film exists up to 250 °C, but decomposes rapidly above 300 °C. In contrast, stable physisorbed PBI-alkyl monolayers only exist up to 100 °C. Above the bulk melting point at 200 °C no more order exists. The results encourage using anchor groups in monolayers for various applications as it allows enhanced stability at the interface with the substrate.

  12. Solid phase extraction of uranium(VI) onto benzoylthiourea-anchored activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunxia; Feng, Miao; Chen, Zhen; Li, Shuqiong; Tian, Gan; Wang, Li; Huang, Jingbo; Li, Shoujian

    2010-04-15

    A new solid phase extractant selective for uranium(VI) based on benzoylthiourea anchored to activated carbon was developed via hydroxylation, amidation and reaction with benzoyl isothiocyanate in sequence. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and total element analysis proved that benzoylthiourea had been successfully grafted to the surface of the activated carbon, with a loading capacity of 1.2 mmol benzoylthiourea per gram of activated carbon. The parameters that affect the uranium(VI) sorption, such as contact time, solution pH, initial uranium(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature, have been investigated. Results have been analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm; the former was more suitable to describe the sorption process. The maximum sorption capacity (82 mg/g) for uranium(VI) was obtained at experimental conditions. The rate constant for the uranium sorption by the as-synthesized extractant was 0.441 min(-1) from the first order rate equation. Thermodynamic parameters (DeltaH(0)=-46.2 kJ/mol; DeltaS(0)=-98.0 J/mol K; DeltaG(0)=-17.5 kJ/mol) showed the adsorption of an exothermic process and spontaneous nature, respectively. Additional studies indicated that the benzoylthiourea-anchored activated carbon (BT-AC) selectively sorbed uranyl ions in the presence of competing ions, Na(+), Co(2+), Sr(2+), Cs(+) and La(3+).

  13. Correlation between surface free energy and anchoring energy of 6CHBT on polyimide surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Jerzy; Okulska-Bozek, Malgorzata; Kedzierski, Jerzy; Kojdecki, Marek A.

    2002-06-01

    Polyimides were prepared in the classical two-step method via poly(amic acids). Poly(amic acids) were obtained from 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), 4,4'- (hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA), pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), 3,3',4,4'- diphenylsulfonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA), 4,4'- oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) and amines 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA), 1,3-phenylenediamine (MPD), 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD), 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA), 4,4'- ethylenedianiline (DAB), 2,4,6-trimethyl-1,3- phenylenediamine (TMPD), 4-methyl-1,3-phenylenediamine (MMPD) and 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DAD) in dimethylformamide. The indium tin oxide (ITO)-glass plates were spin-coated with the poly(amic acids) solutions and dried. A thermal imidization process was then carried out at 250 degree(s)C for 4 h. In this study the anchoring energies of 6CHBT molecules were evaluated on rubbing aligning layers of PI films. The polar anchoring energy coefficient was determined by wedge cell method. The surface free energy and its components of polyimide layers were determined by measuring the contact angles of water, ethylene glycol, formamide and diiodomethane drops on the rubbing polymer surfaces. The Lifshitz-van der Waals and acidic-basic components of surface free energies were found from van Oss equation.

  14. Nematic Liquid Crystal Alignment Behaviors between Crossed Stretched Miropolymer Filaments with Anchoring Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kurita, Taiichiro; Sato, Fumio

    2006-04-01

    We observed the molecular alignment of a liquid crystal (LC) induced by crossing two stretched micropolymer filaments between glass substrates and confirmed its light modulation property. The two microfilaments, which were extracted from a cellulose cloth by stretching it in advance, had surface molecular alignment and stabilized nematic LC alignment between the microfilaments crossed with a small angle. In the fabricated LC cell, a spatially-uniform LC planar alignment is achieved in the area of a filament interval of less than 60 μm. By polarizing microscopy observation of the isotropic-to-nematic wetting transition of the LC material between the polymer filaments, it was confirmed that the stable LC alignment area is formed by the surface anchoring of the filaments. When external voltages were applied to the obtained uniformed alignment LC area, a characteristic periodic electrooptic property was confirmed on the basis of electrically-controlled birefringence under the alignment control of the in-plane anchoring of the filaments.

  15. Membrane anchoring stabilizes and favors secretion of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lisandro J; Bahr, Guillermo; Nakashige, Toshiki G; Nolan, Elizabeth M; Bonomo, Robert A; Vila, Alejandro J

    2016-07-01

    Carbapenems, 'last-resort' β-lactam antibiotics, are inactivated by zinc-dependent metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The host innate immune response withholds nutrient metal ions from microbial pathogens by releasing metal-chelating proteins such as calprotectin. We show that metal sequestration is detrimental for the accumulation of MBLs in the bacterial periplasm, because those enzymes are readily degraded in their nonmetallated form. However, the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) can persist under conditions of metal depletion. NDM-1 is a lipidated protein that anchors to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Membrane anchoring contributes to the unusual stability of NDM-1 and favors secretion of this enzyme in outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs containing NDM-1 can protect nearby populations of bacteria from otherwise lethal antibiotic levels, and OMVs from clinical pathogens expressing NDM-1 can carry this MBL and the blaNDM gene. We show that protein export into OMVs can be targeted, providing possibilities of new antibacterial therapeutic strategies.

  16. Hydrous ruthenium oxide nanoparticles anchored to graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid foam for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Guo, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, I. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Ahmed, K. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Zhong, J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Favors, Z. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Zaera, F. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Ozkan, M. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Ozkan, C. S [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2014-03-25

    In real life applications, supercapacitors (SCs) often can only be used as part of a hybrid system together with other high energy storage devices due to their relatively lower energy density in comparison to other types of energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells. Increasing the energy density of SCs will have a huge impact on the development of future energy storage devices by broadening the area of application for SCs. Here, we report a simple and scalable way of preparing a three-dimensional (3D) sub-5 nm hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO₂) anchored graphene and CNT hybrid foam (RGM) architecture for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This RGM architecture demonstrates a novel graphene foam conformally covered with hybrid networks of RuO₂ nanoparticles and anchored CNTs. SCs based on RGM show superior gravimetric and per-area capacitive performance (specific capacitance: 502.78 F g⁻¹, areal capacitance: 1.11 F cm⁻²) which leads to an exceptionally high energy density of 39.28 Wh kg⁻¹ and power density of 128.01 kW kg⁻¹. The electrochemical stability, excellent capacitive performance, and the ease of preparation suggest this RGM system is promising for future energy storage applications.

  17. Study on range interval distance of prestressed anchor bars using update backpropagation neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shun-chuan(吴顺川); ZHANG You-pa(张友葩); GAO Yong-tao(高永涛)

    2003-01-01

    Taking the practical reinforced engineering of a reinforced soil retaining wall as an example, which located in Shandong Province and set on 104 national highway, the stress-spread behaviors of the anchor bars in the preforced proceeding were tested. According to the test data, and by use of the update backpropagation (BP) algorithm neural network(NN), the test method and it's mechanism were studied by the network, then the learning results show the mean square error(MSE) only at the 2.55% level, and the proof-testing results show the MSE at 4.38% level (the main aim is to build a NN directly from the in-situ test results (the learning phase)). Ipso-facto, the learning and adjustment abilities of the NN permit us to develop the test data, subsequently, 36 test data were acquired from the NN. By use of the provide data, as well as the failure situation and carried loading capacity of the retaining wall, finally, the choice the reasonable range interval distance of prestress cement grouting anchor bars were carried out, and the result was 2 m×2 m.

  18. A Mobile Anchor Assisted Localization Algorithm Based on Regular Hexagon in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjie Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the key technologies in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, since it provides fundamental support for many location-aware protocols and applications. Constraints of cost and power consumption make it infeasible to equip each sensor node in the network with a global position system (GPS unit, especially for large-scale WSNs. A promising method to localize unknown nodes is to use several mobile anchors which are equipped with GPS units moving among unknown nodes and periodically broadcasting their current locations to help nearby unknown nodes with localization. This paper proposes a mobile anchor assisted localization algorithm based on regular hexagon (MAALRH in two-dimensional WSNs, which can cover the whole monitoring area with a boundary compensation method. Unknown nodes calculate their positions by using trilateration. We compare the MAALRH with HILBERT, CIRCLES, and S-CURVES algorithms in terms of localization ratio, localization accuracy, and path length. Simulations show that the MAALRH can achieve high localization ratio and localization accuracy when the communication range is not smaller than the trajectory resolution.

  19. Role of yessotoxin in calcium and cAMP-crosstalks in primary and K-562 human lymphocytes: the effect is mediated by anchor kinase A mitochondrial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobío, Araceli; Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M

    2012-12-01

    line. Cytosolic expression of A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs), the proteins which integrates phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and PKA to the mitochondria, was determined in both cell models. On the one hand, in human fresh lymphocytes, YTX increases AKAP149 cytosolic expression. This fact is accompanied with a decrease in cAMP levels, and therefore PDEs activation, which finally leads to cell survival. On the other hand, in tumoural lymphocytes, YTX has an opposite effect since decreases AKAP149 cytosolic expression and increase cAMP levels which leads to cell death. This is the first time that YTX and mitochondrial AKAPs proteins relationship is characterised.

  20. Polyelectrolyte multilayers on PTMSP as asymmetric membranes for gas separations: Langmuir-Blodgett versus self-assembly methods of anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cen; Chen, Qibin; Yi, Song; Wang, Minghui; Regen, Steven L

    2014-01-28

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers derived from poly(diallyldimethylamonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) have been deposited onto poly[1-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propyne] (PTMSP) with anchoring layers formed by Langmuir-Blodgett and self-assembly methods. Using gas permeation selectivity as a basis for judging the efficacy of each anchoring method, we have found that similar CO2/N2 selectivities (ranging from 110 to 140) could be achieved by both methods and that their permeances were also similar. Although LB anchors require fewer layers of polyelectrolyte to reach this level of selectivity, the greater ease associated with self-assembly and its applicability to curved, high-surface-area supports (e.g., PTMSP-coated hollow fibers) encourage its use with PTMSP in creating new membrane materials for the practical separation of gases.