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Sample records for a resonances

  1. Resonance and Neck Length for a Spherical Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Corning

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the neck length of a spherical resonator and its period of fundamental resonance was investigated. This was done by measuring the frequency of fundamental resonance of the resonator at 6 different neck lengths. It was found that its resonance resembled Helmholtz resonance but was not that of ideal Helmholtz resonance.

  2. Micromachined Resonators: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Abdolvand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the remarkable progress that has been made during the past few decades in design, modeling, and fabrication of micromachined resonators. Although micro-resonators have come a long way since their early days of development, they are yet to fulfill the rightful vision of their pervasive use across a wide variety of applications. This is partially due to the complexities associated with the physics that limit their performance, the intricacies involved in the processes that are used in their manufacturing, and the trade-offs in using different transduction mechanisms for their implementation. This work is intended to offer a brief introduction to all such details with references to the most influential contributions in the field for those interested in a deeper understanding of the material.

  3. de Sitter as a Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Maltz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A quantum mechanical formulation of de Sitter cosmological spacetimes still eludes string theory. In this paper we conjecture a potentially rigorous framework in which the status of de Sitter space is the same as that of a resonance in a scattering process. We conjecture that transition amplitudes between certain states with asymptotically supersymmetric flat vacua contain resonant poles characteristic meta-stable intermediate states. A calculation employing constrained instantons illustrates this idea.

  4. A MEMS diamond hemispherical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, J. J.; Bancu, M. G.; Cook, E. H.; Chaparala, M. V.; Teynor, W. A.; Weinberg, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we report the fabrication of hemispherical polycrystalline diamond resonators fabricated on a novel high-temperature glass substrate. The hemispherical resonator gyroscope is one of the most accurate and rugged of the mechanical gyroscopes, and can be operated in either rate or whole-angle mode due to its high degree of symmetry. A fabrication sequence for creating extremely symmetric 3D MEMS hemispheres is presented. Mode shapes and frequencies obtained with a laser vibrometer are shown, as well as curves of Q versus pressure, and the dependence of frequency on anchor size. Fundamental mode frequency matching to gyroscope operation in whole-angle mode.

  5. Helmholtz Resonance in a Water Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annirudh Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The resonance that occurs when blowing across the top of a water bottle filled with different volumes of water was studied. It was shown that, contrary to popular belief, a water bottle is not an ideal Helmholtz resonator. Resonance in a water bottle with an extendable neck was then studied to determine how the length of the neck affects the resonance. The results showed that ideal Helmholtz resonance occurs when the neck length was in a middle range, while for no neck a standing wave resonance occurs. For a very long neck the results were inconclusive.

  6. A Broadband Dipolar Resonance in THz Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Prabhu, S S

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a THz metamaterial with broadband dipole resonance originating due to the hybridization of LC resonances. The structure optimized by finite element method simulations is fabricated by electron beam lithography and characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Numerically, we found that when two LC metamaterial resonators are brought together, an electric dipole resonance arises in addition to the LC resonances. We observed a strong dependence of the width of these resonances on the separation between the resonators. This dependence can be explained based on series and parallel RLC circuit analogies. The broadband dipole resonance appears when both the resonators are fused together. The metamaterial has a stopband with FWHM of 0.47 THz centered at 1.12 THz. The experimentally measured band features are in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones. The experimental power extinction ratio of THz in the stopbands is found to be 15 dB.

  7. Traces of a triboson resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Collins, J. H.; Lombardo, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that the relatively small but coincident excesses observed around 2 TeV in the ATLAS Run 1 and Run 2 hadronic diboson searches — when a cut on the number of tracks in the fat jets is not applied — and the null results of all remaining high-mass diboson searches are compatible with the decay of a triboson resonance R into WZ plus an extra particle X. These decays can take place via new neutral ( Y 0) or charged ( Y ±) particles, namely R → Y 0 W, with Y 0 → ZX, or R → Y ± Z, with Y ± → WX. An obvious candidate for such intermediate particle is a neutral one Y 0, given a 3 .9 σ excess found at 650 GeV by the CMS Collaboration in searches for intermediate mass diboson resonances decaying to ZV, with V = W, Z. We discuss discovery strategies for triboson resonances with small modifications of existing hadronic searches.

  8. Traces of a triboson resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Lombardo, S

    2016-01-01

    We show that the relatively small but coincident excesses observed around 2 TeV in the ATLAS Run 1 and Run 2 hadronic diboson searches --- when a cut on the number of tracks in the fat jets is not applied --- and the null results of all remaining high-mass diboson searches are compatible with the decay of a triboson resonance $R$ into $WZ$ plus an extra particle $X$. These decays can take place via new neutral ($Y^0$) or charged ($Y^\\pm$) particles, namely $R \\to Y^0 \\, W$, with $Y^0 \\to Z X$, or $R \\to Y^\\pm Z$, with $Y^\\pm \\to W X$. An obvious candidate for such intermediate particle is a neutral one $Y^0$, given a $3.9\\sigma$ excess found at 650 GeV by the CMS Collaboration in searches for intermediate mass diboson resonances decaying to $ZV$, with $V=W,Z$. We discuss discovery strategies for triboson resonances with small modifications of existing hadronic searches.

  9. A Family of Resonant Vibration Control Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    Resonant control makes use of a controller with a resonance frequency and an equivalent damping ratio. A simple explicit calibration procedure is presented for a family of resonant controllers in which the frequency is tuned to the natural frequency of the targeted mode in such a way that the two...

  10. Controlling a diatomic shape resonance with non-resonant light

    CERN Document Server

    Aganoglu, Ruzin; Friedrich, Bretislav; González-Férez, Rosario; Koch, Christiane P

    2011-01-01

    A (diatomic) shape resonance is a metastable state of a pair of colliding atoms quasi-bound by the centrifugal barrier imposed by the angular momentum involved in the collision. The temporary trapping of the atoms' scattering wavefunction corresponds to an enhanced atom pair density at low interatomic separations. This leads to larger overlap of the wavefunctions involved in a molecule formation process such as photoassociation, rendering the process more efficient. However, for an ensemble of atoms, the atom pair density will only be enhanced if the energy of the resonance comes close to the temperature of the atomic ensemble. Herein we explore the possibility of controlling the energy of a shape resonance by shifting it toward the temperature of atoms confined in a trap. The shifts are imparted by the interaction of non-resonant light with the anisotropic polarizability of the atom pair, which affects both the centrifugal barrier and the pair's rotational and vibrational levels. We find that at laser intens...

  11. Observation of a Hybrid Spin Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, M.; Allgower, C.; Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Chu, C. M.; Courant, E. D.; Glenn, J. W.; Huang, H.; Jeon, D.; Kponou, A. E.; Krueger, K.; Luccio, A.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Lee, S. Y.; Ratner, L.; Reece, K.; Roser, T.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M. J.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D. G.; van Asselt, W.; Williams, N.; Yokosawa, A.

    2000-02-01

    A new type of spin depolarization resonance has been observed at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). This spin resonance is identified as a strong closed-orbit sideband around the dominant intrinsic spin resonance. The strength of the resonance was proportional to the 9th harmonic component of the horizontal closed orbit and proportional to the vertical betatron oscillation amplitude. This ``hybrid'' spin resonance cannot be overcome by the partial snake at the AGS, but it can be corrected by the harmonic orbit correctors.

  12. A resonance mechanism of earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V

    2015-01-01

    It had been observed in [1] that there are periodic 4-6 hours pulses of ? 200 ?Hz seismogravita- tional oscillations ( SGO ) before 95 % of powerful earthquakes. We explain this by beating between an oscillation eigenmode of a whole tectonic plate and a local eigenmode of an active zone which tranfers the oscillation energy from the tectonic plate to the active zone causing the eathrquake. Oscillation frequencies of the plate and ones of the active zone are tuned to a resonance by an additional pressure applied to the active zone due to collision of neighboring plates or convection in the upper mantia (plume). Corresponding theory may be used for short-term prediction of the earthquakes and tsunami.

  13. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...... theoretical consciousness through historical narrative ‘in practice’, by discussing selected historical topics from Western cultural history, within the disciplines of history, literature, visual arts, musicology, archaeology, philosophy, and theology. The title Resonances indicates the overall perspective...

  14. Membrane metamaterial resonators with a sharp resonance: A comprehensive study towards practical terahertz filters and sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyao Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the resonant properties of high quality-factor membrane-based metamaterial resonators functioning in the terahertz regime. A number of factors, including the resonator geometry, dielectric loss, and most importantly the membrane thickness are found to extensively influence the resonance strength and quality factor of the sharp resonance. Further studies on the membrane thickness-dependent-sensitivity for sensing applications reveal that high quality-factor membrane metamaterials with a moderate thickness ranging from 10 to 50 μm are the most promising option towards developing realistic integrated terahertz filters and sensors.

  15. Resonance in a Cone-Topped Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Cheng-Huan Chia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between ratio of the upper opening diameter of a cone-topped cylinder to the cylinder diameter,and the ratio of the length of the air column to resonant period was examined. Plastic cones with upper openings ranging from 1.3 cm to 3.6 cm and tuning forks with frequencies ranging from 261.6 Hz to 523.3 Hz were used. The transition from a standing wave in a cylindrical column to a Helmholtz-type resonance in a resonant cavity with a narrow opening was observed.

  16. Interfering resonances in a quantum billiard

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, E; Rotter, I; Seba, P

    1998-01-01

    We present a method for numerically obtaining the positions, widths and wavefunctions of resonance states in a two dimensional billiard connected to a waveguide. For a rectangular billiard, we study the dynamics of three resonance poles lying separated from the other ones. As a function of increasing coupling strength between the waveguide and the billiard two of the states become trapped while the width of the third one continues to increase for all coupling strengths. This behavior of the resonance poles is reflected in the time delay function which can be studied experimentally.

  17. Optomechanical magnetometry with a macroscopic resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Changqiu; Sheridan, Eoin; McAuslan, David L; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Lam, Ping Koy; Zhang, Yundong; Bowen, Warwick P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a centimeter-scale optomechanical magnetometer based on a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. The large size of the resonator allows high magnetic field sensitivity to be achieved in the hertz to kilohertz frequency range. A peak sensitivity of 131 pT per root Hz is reported, in a magnetically unshielded non-cryogenic environment and using optical power levels beneath 100 microWatt. Femtotesla range sensitivity may be possible in future devices with further optimization of laser noise and the physical structure of the resonator, allowing applications in high-performance magnetometry.

  18. Towards a realistic description of hadron resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. A.; Canton, L.; Schweiger, W.; Plessas, W.

    2016-08-01

    We report on our attempts of treating excited hadron states as true quantum resonances. Hitherto the spectroscopy of mesons, usually considered as quark-antiquark systems, and of baryons, usually considered as three-quark systems, has been treated through excitation spectra of bound states (namely, confined few-quark systems), corresponding to poles of the quantum-mechanical resolvent at real negative values in the complex energy plane. As a result the wave functions, i.e. the residua of the resolvent, have not exhibited the behaviour as required for hadron resonances with their multiple decay modes. This has led to disturbing shortcomings in the description of hadronic resonance phenomena. We have aimed at a more realistic description of hadron resonances within relativistic constituent-quark models taking into account explicitly meson-decay channels. The corresponding coupled-channels theory is based on a relativistically invariant mass operator capable of producing hadron ground states with real energies and hadron resonances with complex energies, the latter corresponding to poles in the lower half-plane of the unphysical sheet of the complex energy plane. So far we have demonstrated the feasibility of the coupled-channels approach to hadron resonances along model calculations producing indeed the desired properties. The corresponding spectral properties will be discussed in this contribution. More refined studies are under way towards constructing a coupled-channels relativistic constituent-quark model for meson and baryon resonances.

  19. Kepler-16b: a resonant survivor

    CERN Document Server

    Popova, E A

    2012-01-01

    The planet Kepler-16b is known to follow a circumbinary orbit around a double system of two main-sequence stars. We construct stability diagrams in the "pericentric distance - eccentricity" plane, which show that Kepler-16b is in a hazardous vicinity to the chaos domain - just between the instability "teeth" in the space of orbital parameters. Kepler-16b survives, because it is close to the half-integer 11/2 orbital resonance with the central binary. The neighbouring resonance cells are vacant, because they are "purged" by Kepler-16b, due to overlap of first-order resonances with the planet.

  20. de Sitter Space as a Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Jonathan; Susskind, Leonard

    2017-03-01

    A quantum mechanical formulation of de Sitter cosmological spacetimes still eludes string theory. In this Letter we conjecture a potentially rigorous framework in which the status of de Sitter space is the same as that of a resonance in a scattering process. We conjecture that transition amplitudes between certain states with asymptotically supersymmetric flat vacua contain resonant pole characteristic metastable intermediate states. A calculation employing constrained instantons illustrates this idea.

  1. Analytical design of a confocal resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, A; Ziemann, Volker; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    A confocal resonator may be used as a pick-up for frequencies in the multi-GHz region, in order to monitor the bunch spacing and/or the bunch length in the CTF3 drive beam. In this note, we collect some formulae regarding the design of a confocal resonator in order to facilitate the estimation of relevant parameters in a later more careful numerical study

  2. Wireless Magnetoelastic Resonance Sensors: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keat G. Ong

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive review of magnetoelastic environmental sensor technology; topics include operating physics, sensor design, and illustrative applications. Magnetoelastic sensors are made of amorphous metallic glass ribbons or wires, with a characteristic resonant frequency inversely proportional to length. The remotely detected resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor shifts in response to different physical parameters including stress, pressure, temperature, flow velocity, liquid viscosity, magnetic field, and mass loading. Coating the magnetoelastic sensor with a mass changing, chemically responsive layer enables realization of chemical sensors. Magnetoelastic sensors can be remotely interrogated by magnetic, acoustic, or optical means. The sensors can be characterized in the time domain, where the resonant frequency is determined through analysis of the sensor transient response, or in the frequency domain where the resonant frequency is determined from the frequency-amplitude spectrum of the sensor.

  3. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M

    2016-04-14

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  4. A transmission calibration method for superconducting resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Barrentine, Emily M; Brown, Ari D; Moseley, Samuel H; U-Yen, Kongpop

    2014-01-01

    A method is proposed and experimentally explored for \\textit{in-situ} calibration of complex transmission data for superconducting microwave resonators. This cryogenic calibration method accounts for the instrumental transmission response between the vector network analyzer reference plane and the device calibration plane. Once calibrated, the observed resonator response was modeled in detail by two approaches. The first, a phenomenological model based on physically realizable rational functions, enables the extraction of multiple resonance frequencies and widths for coupled resonators without explicit specification of the circuit network. In the second, an ABCD-matrix representation for the distributed transmission line circuit is used to model the observed response from the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. When used in conjunction with electromagnetic simulations, the kinetic inductance fraction can be determined with this method with an accuracy of 2%. Datasets for superconducting microst...

  5. Stochastic resonance in a financial model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓明; 孙锴; 欧阳颀

    2002-01-01

    We report on our model study of stochastic resonance in the stock market using numerical simulation and analysis.In the model, we take the interest rate as the external signal, the randomness of traders' behaviour as the noise, andthe stock price as the output. With computer simulations, we find that the system demonstrates a characteristic ofstochastic resonance as noise intensity varies. An analytical explanation is proposed.

  6. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  7. A Diphoton Resonance from Bulk RS

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Recent LHC data hints at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to Higges and to any other Standard Model particles are so far too low to be detected. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. We argue that if the state is a scalar, some form of sequestering is likely to be necessary to naturally explain the suppressed scalar-Higgs interactions. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  8. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  9. Resonant optical device with a microheater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; DeRose, Christopher

    2017-04-04

    A resonant photonic device is provided. The device comprises an optical waveguiding element, such as an optical resonator, that includes a diode junction region, two signal terminals configured to apply a bias voltage across the junction region, and a heater laterally separated from the optical waveguiding element. A semiconductor electrical barrier element is juxtaposed to the heater. A metallic strip is electrically and thermally connected at one end to a signal terminal of the optical waveguiding element and thermally connected at another end to the barrier element.

  10. Random search for a dark resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    A pair of resonant laser fields can drive a three-level system into a dark state where it ceases to absorb and emit radiation due to destructive interference. We propose a scheme to search for this resonance by randomly changing the frequency of one of the fields each time a fluorescence photon is detected. The longer the system is probed, the more likely the frequency is close to resonance and the system populates the dark state. Due to the correspondingly long waiting times between detection events, the evolution is nonergodic and the precision of the frequency estimate does not follow from the conventional Cramér-Rao bound of parameter estimation. Instead, a Lévy statistical analysis yields the scaling of the estimation error with time for precision probing of this kind.

  11. A sound absorbing metasurface with coupled resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfei; Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2016-08-01

    An impedance matched surface is able, in principle, to totally absorb the incident sound and yield no reflection, and this is desired in many acoustic applications. Here we demonstrate a design of impedance matched sound absorbing surface with a simple construction. By coupling different resonators and generating a hybrid resonance mode, we designed and fabricated a metasurface that is impedance-matched to airborne sound at tunable frequencies with subwavelength scale unit cells. With careful design of the coupled resonators, over 99% energy absorption at central frequency of 511 Hz with a 50% absorption bandwidth of 140 Hz is achieved experimentally. The proposed design can be easily fabricated, and is mechanically stable. The proposed metasurface can be used in many sound absorption applications such as loudspeaker design and architectural acoustics.

  12. Nonlinearity and nonclassicality in a nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklu, Berihu [Clermont Universite, Blaise Pascal University, CNRS, PHOTON-N2, Institut Pascal, Aubiere Cedex (France); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We address quantitatively the relationship between the nonlinearity of a mechanical resonator and the nonclassicality of its ground state. In particular, we analyze the nonclassical properties of the nonlinear Duffing oscillator (being driven or not) as a paradigmatic example of a nonlinear nanomechanical resonator. We first discuss how to quantify the nonlinearity of this system and then show that the nonclassicality of the ground state, as measured by the volume occupied by the negative part of the Wigner function, monotonically increases with the nonlinearity in all the working regimes addressed in our study. Our results show quantitatively that nonlinearity is a resource to create nonclassical states in mechanical systems. (orig.)

  13. Conjecture: A Possible nnΛ Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, B. F.; Afnan, I. R.

    2016-03-01

    We address the question of whether there might exist a resonance in the nnΛ system, using a rank one separable potential formulation of the Hamiltonian. We explore the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Faddeev equation in the complex energy plane using contour rotation to allow us to analytically continue the kernel onto the second energy sheet. We follow the largest eigenvalue as the nΛ potentials are scaled and the nnΛ continuum is turned into a resonance and then into a bound state of the system.

  14. Conjecture: A Possible nnΛ Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson B. F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the question of whether there might exist a resonance in the nnΛ system, using a rank one separable potential formulation of the Hamiltonian. We explore the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Faddeev equation in the complex energy plane using contour rotation to allow us to analytically continue the kernel onto the second energy sheet. We follow the largest eigenvalue as the nΛ potentials are scaled and the nnΛ continuum is turned into a resonance and then into a bound state of the system.

  15. A Resonant Damping Study Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, J. B.; Duffy, K. P.; Choi, B. B.; Morrison, C. R.; Jansen, R. H.; Provenza, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue (HCF) problems requiring damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery blade research, a feasibility study of resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches with passive and active control techniques has been conducted on cantilever beam specimens. Test results for the passive damping circuit show that the optimum resistive shunt circuit reduces the third bending resonant vibration by almost 50%, and the optimum inductive circuit reduces the vibration by 90%. In a separate test, active control reduced vibration by approximately 98%.

  16. Resonance fluorescence of a cold atom in a high-finesse resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Bienert, M; Torres, J M; Zippilli, S; Bienert, Marc; Morigi, Giovanna; Zippilli, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    We study the spectra of emission of a system composed by an atom, tightly confined inside a high-finesse resonator, when the atom is driven by a laser and is at steady state of the cooling dynamics induced by laser and cavity field. In general, the spectrum of resonance fluorescence and the spectrum at the cavity output contain complementary information about the dynamics undergone by the system. In certain parameter regimes, quantum interference effects between the scattering processes induced by cavity and laser field lead to the selective suppression of features of the resonance fluorescence spectrum, which are otherwise visible in the spectrum of laser-cooled atoms in free space.

  17. Experimental study of resonance fiber optic gyroscope employing a dual-ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yue; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    A dual-ring resonator which is available to alter the full width at half maximum (FWHM) without altering the free spectrum range (FSR) for practice applications is analyzed theoretically and set up in practice. The parameters of the dual-ring resonator have been optimized in simulation, the resonance depth and the dynamic range are enhanced. The prototype is set up with single mode fiber of 8 meter and two 95 : 5 couplers for open loop experiment. The FWHM of the dual-ring resonator is demonstrated less than 1.5MHz and the fineness is calculated to be 37 during the frequency sweeping experiment. The frequency locking experiment with demodulation curve method has been accomplished, and the locking time achieves less than 40ms. All these provide a basic reference for optimizing the resonance fiber optic gyro based on dual-ring resonator.

  18. Stochastic resonance and chaotic resonance in bimodal maps: A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ambika; N V Sujatha; K P Harikrishnan

    2002-09-01

    We present the results of an extensive numerical study on the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in a bimodal cubic map. Both Gaussian random noise as well as deterministic chaos are used as input to drive the system between the basins. Our main result is that when two identical systems capable of stochastic resonance are coupled, the SNR of either system is enhanced at an optimum coupling strength. Our results may be relevant for the study of stochastic resonance in biological systems.

  19. A resonant dc-dc power converter assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor...... of the second resonant DC-DC power converter are configured for magnetically coupling the first and second resonant DC-DC power converters to each other to forcing substantially 180 degrees phase shift, or forcing substantially 0 degree phase shift, between corresponding resonant voltage waveforms of the first...... and second resonant DC-DC power converters. The first and second inductors are corresponding components of the first and second resonant DC-DC power converters....

  20. A Field of Resonant Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte

    A mixed methods investigation og student esperiences and professionals' evaluation of their own competencies......A mixed methods investigation og student esperiences and professionals' evaluation of their own competencies...

  1. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  2. Geometric stochastic resonance in a double cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Pulak K; Marchesoni, Fabio; Savel'ev, Sergey E; Nori, Franco; 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.011109

    2012-01-01

    Geometric stochastic resonance of particles diffusing across a porous membrane subject to oscillating forces is characterized as a synchronization process. Noninteracting particle currents through a symmetric membrane pore are driven either perpendicular or parallel to the membrane, whereas harmonic-mixing spectral current components are generated by the combined action of perpendicular and parallel drives. In view of potential applications to the transport of colloids and biological molecules through narrow pores, we also consider the role of particle repulsion as a controlling factor.

  3. A New Observable for Identifying Dijet Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Izaguirre, Eder; Yavin, Itay

    2014-01-01

    The development of techniques for identifying hadronic signals from the overwhelming multi-jet backgrounds is an important part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. Of prime importance are resonances decaying into a pair of partons, such as the Higgs and $\\rm W$/$\\rm Z$ bosons, as well as hypothetical new particles. We present a simple observable to help discriminate a dijet resonance from background that is effective even when the decaying resonance is not strongly boosted. We find consistent performance of the observable over a variety of processes and degree of boosts, and show that it leads to a reduction of the background by a factor of $3-5$ relative to signal at the price of $10-20\\%$ signal efficiency. This approach represents a significant increase in sensitivity for Standard Model (SM) measurements and searches for new physics that are dominated by systematic uncertainties, which is true of many analyses involving jets - particularly in the high-luminosity running of the LHC.

  4. Birth of a resonant attosecond wavepacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenti, L.; Gruson, V.; Barreau, L.; Jimenez-Galan, A.; Risoud, F.; Caillat, J.; Maquet, A.; Carre, B.; Lepetit, F.; Hergott, J.-F.; Ruchon, T.; Taieb, R.; Martin, F.; Salieres, P.

    2016-05-01

    Both amplitude and phase are needed to characterize the dynamics of a wavepacket. However, such characterization is difficult when both attosecond and femtosecond timescales are involved, as it is the case for broadband photoionization to a continuum encompassing autoionizing states. Here we demonstrate that Rainbow RABBIT, a new attosecond interferometry, allows the measurement of amplitude and phase of a photoelectron wavepacket created through a Fano resonance with unprecedented precision. In the experiment, a tunable attosecond pulse train is combined with the fundamental laser pulse to induce two-photon transitions in helium via an intermediate autoionizing state. From the energy and time-delay resolved signal, we fully reconstruct the resonant electron wavepacket as it builds up in the continuum. Measurements accurately match the predictions of a new time-resolved multi-photon resonant model, known to reproduce ab initio calculations. This agreement confirms the potential of Rainbow RABBIT to investigate photoemission delays in ultrafast processes governed by electron correlation, as well as to control structured electron wavepackets. now at Univ. Central Florida, Orlando, FL (USA).

  5. A MEMS square Chladni plate resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Sedat; Azgın, Kıvanç

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and tests of a micro-fabricated MEMS ‘Chladni’ plate resonator. The proposed MEMS resonator has a square plate geometry having a side length of 1400 µm and a height of 35 µm. Its geometry and electrode layout are designed to analyze and test as many modes as possible. The MEMS plate is fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator process with a 35 µm thick silicon layer on a glass substrate. Transverse vibration of the plate is investigated to obtain closed form natural frequencies and mode shapes, which are derived using the Rayleigh-Ritz energy method, with an electrostatic softening effect included. Closed form equations for the calculation of effective stiffness’, masses and natural frequencies of the two modes (mode (1,1) and mode (2,0)-(0,2)) are presented, with and without electrostatic softening. The analytical model is verified for those modes by finite-element simulations, frequency response tests in vacuum and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) experiments. The derived model deviates from the finite-element analysis by 3.35% for mode (1,1) and 6.15% for mode (2,0)-(0,2). For verification, the frequency responses of the plates are measured with both electrostatic excitation-detection at around 20 mTorr vacuum ambient and LDV at around 0.364 mTorr vacuum ambient. The resonance frequency and Q-factor of mode (1,1) are measured to be 104.2 kHz and 14 300, respectively. For mode (2,0)-(0,2), the measured resonance frequency and Q-factor are 156.68 kHz and 10 700, respectively. The presented LDV results also support both natural frequencies of interest and corresponding mode shapes of the plate structure.

  6. Hamilton-Jacobi method for a simple resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Rudnev, Mischa

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that a generic small perturbation of a Liouville-integrable Hamiltonian system causes breakup of resonant and near-resonant invariant tori. A general approach to the simple resonance case in the convex real-analytic setting is developed, based on a new technique for solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. It is shown that a generic perturbation creates in the core of a resonance a partially hyperbolic lower-dimensional invariant torus, whose Lagrangian stable and unstable manif...

  7. Optomechanical response of a nonlinear mechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, Olga; Singh, Vibhor; Steele, Gary A.; Blanter, Ya. M.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate theoretically in detail the nonlinear effects in the response of an optical/microwave cavity coupled to a Duffing mechanical resonator. The cavity is driven by a laser at a red or blue mechanical subband, and a probe laser measures the reflection close to the cavity resonance. Under these conditions, we find that the cavity exhibits optomechanically induced reflection (OMIR) or absorption (OMIA) and investigate the optomechanical response in the limit of nonlinear driving of the mechanics. Similar to linear mechanical drive, in an overcoupled cavity the red sideband drive may lead to both OMIA and OMIR depending on the strength of the drive, whereas the blue sideband drive only leads to OMIR. The dynamics of the phase of the mechanical resonator leads to the difference between the shapes of the response of the cavity and the amplitude response of the driven Duffing oscillator, for example, at weak red sideband drive the OMIA dip has no inflection point. We also verify that mechanical nonlinearities beyond Duffing model have little effect on the size of the OMIA dip though they affect the width of the dip.

  8. Resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnant, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    For quite a few number of years now, the Structural Dynamics and Acoustics group at the University of Twente studies wave propagation in narrow gaps (e.g. thermal-viscous wave propagation in narrow tubes and thin air layers). The waves propagating in these narrow gaps can be described elegantly by m

  9. Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyu Hyun; Lee, Wonsuk; Liu, Jing; Tomes, Matthew; Fan, Xudong; Carmon, Tal

    2012-01-01

    Light pressure is known to excite or cool vibrations in microresonators for sensing quantum-optomechanical effects and we now show that it can be explored for investigations with liquids. Currently, optical resonances are utilized to detect analytes in liquids. However, optomechanical oscillations have never been excited when devices were immersed in liquid. This is because replacing the surrounding air with water inherently increases the acoustical impedance and the associated acoustical-radiation losses. Here we fabricate a hollow optomechanical bubble resonator with water inside, and use light pressure to excite 8 MHz - 140 MHz vibrations with 1 mW optical-threshold power and >2000 mechanical Q, constituting the first time that any microfluidic system is optomechanically actuated. Bridging between optomechanics and microfluidics will enable recently developed capillaries and on-chip bubbles to vibrate via optical excitation; and allow optomechanics with non-solid material phases including bio-analytes, sup...

  10. A Technique for Adjusting Eigenfrequencies of WGM Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Martin, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised for making small, permanent changes in the eigenfrequencies (resonance frequencies) of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) dielectric optical resonators that have high values of the resonance quality factor (Q). The essence of the technique is to coat the resonator with a thin layer of a transparent polymer having an index of refraction close to that of the resonator material. Successive small frequency adjustments can be made by applying successive coats. The technique was demonstrated on a calcium fluoride resonator to which successive coats of a polymer were applied by use of a hand-made wooden brush. To prevent temperature- related frequency shifts that could interfere with the verification of the effectiveness of this technique, the temperature of the resonator was stabilized by means of a three-stage thermoelectric cooler. Measurements of the resonator spectrum showed the frequency shifts caused by the successive coating layers.

  11. CROSSING A COUPLING SPIN RESONANCE WITH AN RF DIPOLE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAI,M.; ROSER,T.

    2001-06-18

    In accelerators, due to quadrupole roll errors and solenoid fields, the polarized proton acceleration often encounters coupling spin resonances. In the Brookhaven AGS, the coupling effect comes from the solenoid partial snake which is used to overcome imperfection resonances. The coupling spin resonance strength is proportional to the amount of coupling as well as the strength of the corresponding intrinsic spin resonance. The coupling resonance can cause substantial beam polarization loss if its corresponding intrinsic spin resonance is very strong. A new method of using an horizontal rf dipole to induce a full spin flip crossing both the intrinsic and its coupling spin resonances is studied in the Brookhaven's AGS. Numerical simulations show that a full spin flip can be induced after crossing the two resonances by using a horizontal rf dipole to induce a large vertical coherent oscillation.

  12. Resonance decay effect on conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K; Mohanty, A K

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of charged secondaries coming from resonance decay on the net-baryon, net-charge and net-strangeness fluctuations in high energy heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. We emphasize the importance of including weak decays along with other resonance decays in the HRG, while comparing with the experimental observables. The effect of kinematic cuts on resonances and primordial particles on the conserved number fluctuations are also studied. The HRG model calculations with the inclusion of resonance decays and kinematical cuts are compared with the recent experimental data from STAR and PHENIX experiments. We find a good agreement between our model calculations and the experimental measurements for both net-proton and net-charge distributions.

  13. Frequency stabilization of the non resonant wave of a continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, Aliou; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental technique allowing to stabilize the frequency of the non resonant wave in a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) down to the kHz level, much below the pump frequency noise level. By comparing the frequency of the non resonant wave with a reference cavity, the pump frequency noise is imposed to the frequency of the resonant wave, and is thus subtracted from the frequency of the non resonant wave. This permits the non resonant wave obtained from such a SRO to be simultaneously powerful and frequency stable, which is usually impossible to obtain when the resonant wave frequency is stabilized.

  14. Internal Resonance in a Vibrating Beam: A Zoo of Nonlinear Resonance Peaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangussi, Franco; Zanette, Damián H

    2016-01-01

    In oscillating mechanical systems, nonlinearity is responsible for the departure from proportionality between the forces that sustain their motion and the resulting vibration amplitude. Such effect may have both beneficial and harmful effects in a broad class of technological applications, ranging from microelectromechanical devices to edifice structures. The dependence of the oscillation frequency on the amplitude, in particular, jeopardizes the use of nonlinear oscillators in the design of time-keeping electronic components. Nonlinearity, however, can itself counteract this adverse response by triggering a resonant interaction between different oscillation modes, which transfers the excess of energy in the main oscillation to higher harmonics, and thus stabilizes its frequency. In this paper, we examine a model for internal resonance in a vibrating elastic beam clamped at its two ends. In this case, nonlinearity occurs in the form of a restoring force proportional to the cube of the oscillation amplitude, which induces resonance between modes whose frequencies are in a ratio close to 1:3. The model is based on a representation of the resonant modes as two Duffing oscillators, coupled through cubic interactions. Our focus is put on illustrating the diversity of behavior that internal resonance brings about in the dynamical response of the system, depending on the detailed form of the coupling forces. The mathematical treatment of the model is developed at several approximation levels. A qualitative comparison of our results with previous experiments and numerical calculations on elastic beams is outlined.

  15. Internal Resonance in a Vibrating Beam: A Zoo of Nonlinear Resonance Peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangussi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In oscillating mechanical systems, nonlinearity is responsible for the departure from proportionality between the forces that sustain their motion and the resulting vibration amplitude. Such effect may have both beneficial and harmful effects in a broad class of technological applications, ranging from microelectromechanical devices to edifice structures. The dependence of the oscillation frequency on the amplitude, in particular, jeopardizes the use of nonlinear oscillators in the design of time-keeping electronic components. Nonlinearity, however, can itself counteract this adverse response by triggering a resonant interaction between different oscillation modes, which transfers the excess of energy in the main oscillation to higher harmonics, and thus stabilizes its frequency. In this paper, we examine a model for internal resonance in a vibrating elastic beam clamped at its two ends. In this case, nonlinearity occurs in the form of a restoring force proportional to the cube of the oscillation amplitude, which induces resonance between modes whose frequencies are in a ratio close to 1:3. The model is based on a representation of the resonant modes as two Duffing oscillators, coupled through cubic interactions. Our focus is put on illustrating the diversity of behavior that internal resonance brings about in the dynamical response of the system, depending on the detailed form of the coupling forces. The mathematical treatment of the model is developed at several approximation levels. A qualitative comparison of our results with previous experiments and numerical calculations on elastic beams is outlined. PMID:27648829

  16. Proximity to Intrinsic Depolarizing Resonances with a Partial Siberian Snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, D. A.; Alexeeva, L. V.; Anferov, V. A.; Blinov, B. B.; Chu, C. M.; Caussyn, D. D.; Courant, E. D.; Gladycheva, S. E.; Hu, S.; Krisch, A. D.; Nurushev, T. S.; Phelps, R. A.; Ratner, L. G.; Varzar, S. M.; Wong, V. K.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Lee, S. Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E. J.; von Przewoski, B.; Baiod, R.; Russell, A. D.; Ohmori, C.; Sato, H.

    1996-05-01

    Partial Siberian snakes are effective in overcoming imperfection depolarizing resonances, but they may also change the crossing energy for intrinsic depolarizing resonances. We experimentally investigated the effect of a partial Siberian snake near intrinsic depolarizing resonances with stored 140 MeV and 160 MeV polarized proton beams. Using various partial Siberian snake strengths up to 30%, depolarization was observed; this may be due to a change in the spin precession frequency which moves the energy of nearby intrinsic depolarizing resonances.

  17. Tuning of optical resonances of a microsphere with liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Tamer, Mehmet Selman; Gürlü, Oguzhan; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2011-05-01

    Optical resonances are observed in the elastic light scattering form high refractive index glass microspheres placed on a single mode optical fiber coupler and in a liquid crystal. Placing the liquid crystal on the optical fiber coupler increases the non-resonant scattering, whereas placing the liquid crystal away from the optical coupler increases the resonant scattering. Optical resonances blue and red shift due to the placement and removal of the liquid crystal.

  18. Tuning of optical resonances of a microsphere with liquid crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Serpengüzel, Ali; Yılmaz, Huzeyfe; Tamer, Mehmet Selman; Gürlü, Oğuzhan

    2011-01-01

    Optical resonances are observed in the elastic light scattering form high refractive index glass microspheres placed on a single mode optical fiber coupler and in a liquid crystal. Placing the liquid crystal on the optical fiber coupler increases the non-resonant scattering, whereas placing the liquid crystal away from the optical coupler increases the resonant scattering. Optical resonances blue and red shift due to the placement and removal of the liquid crystal.

  19. A study of trapped mode resonances in asymmetric X-shape resonator for frequency selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kejian; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yiqi; Zhu, Yiming

    2013-08-01

    FSS is a two-dimensional periodic array of resonating metallic-dielectric structures, When FSS device steps into Terahertz range from microwave range, it is studied as THz functional components (such as Terahertz filter, Terahertz biochemical sensor, etc.) to promote the functionality of the THz spectroscopy/imaging system. When the device requires a narrow band transmission window for frequency selecting or a high electric field concentration in certain area to improve its sensitivity for sensing, normally, a high quality (Q) resonant structure can give helps. Recently, high-Q resonance induced by trapped mode resonance i studied widely in FSS research areas. To induce trapped mode resonance, one can simply break the symmetric of the unit structure of FSS. In this paper, several asymmetric X-shaped resonators for FSS working in terahertz range have been studied numerically. To compare the behaviour of X-shape resonator under different conditions (with additional part: Heart lines, Shoulder lines, Wrap or Shoes squares), a common platform (θ=60, θis angle of X shape) which is suitable for most of cases was used to make the study more meaningful. As the field enhancement behaviour is related to the trapped mode introduced by the asymmetric structure, we propose such kind of device to be used as a high quality filter or as a sensing element for biochemical samples.

  20. Resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip; Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Tilo

    2008-04-29

    In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to {approx}37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g{sub 0}=2{pi}.300 MHz respectively C{sub 0}=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached. [German] In der vorliegenden Dissertation werden Experimente zur Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip beschrieben. Dabei konnte u. a. erstmals einzelne, in einer Chipfalle gefangene Atome detektiert werden. Hier fuer wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit ein neuartiger optischer Mikroresonator entwickelt, der sich dank seiner Miniaturisierung mit der in unserer Arbeitsgruppe

  1. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  2. Exponential decay and resonances in a driven system

    CERN Document Server

    Briet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We study the resonance phenomena for time periodic perturbations of a Hamiltonian $H$ on the Hilbert space $L^2(\\mathbb R ^d)$. Here, resonances are characterized in terms of time behavior of the survival probability. Our approach uses the Floquet-Howland formalism combined with the results of L. Cattaneo, J.M. Graf and W. Hunziker on resonances for time independent perturbations.

  3. Phonon blockade in a nanomechanical resonator resonantly coupled to a qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xun-Wei; Liu, Yu-xi

    2016-01-01

    We study phonon statistics in a nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) which is resonantly coupled to a qubit. We find that there are two different mechanisms for phonon blockade in such a resonantly coupled NAMR-qubit system. One is due to the strong anharmonicity of the NAMR-qubit system with large coupling strength; the other one is due to the destructive interference between different paths for two-phonon excitation in the NAMR-qubit system with a moderate coupling strength. In order to enlarge the mean phonon number for strong phonon antibunching with a moderate NAMR-qubit coupling strength, we assume that two external driving fields are applied to the NAMR and qubit, respectively. In this case, we find that the phonon blockades under two mechanisms can appear at the same frequency regime by optimizing the strength ratio and phase difference of the two external driving fields.

  4. Hole Size in a Spherical Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Kearns

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When air is blown strongly through a straw and across a hole in a hollow sphere, a high-pitched whistling sound is heard. This paper tests two models, Helmholtz Resonance and Spherical Harmonics, to determine which most accurately models this phenomenon. This was done by measuring the frequencies produced when air was blown across identical spheres with different hole sizes, as well as across spheres of different volumes with identical holes. The frequencies were found to closely match frequencies predicted by spherical harmonics.

  5. Hole Size in a Spherical Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Kearns

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When air is blown strongly through a straw and across a hole in a hollow sphere, a high-pitched whistling sound is heard. This paper tests two models, Helmholtz Resonance and Spherical Harmonics, to determine which most accurately models this phenomenon. This was done by measuring the frequencies produced when air was blown across identical spheres with different hole sizes, as well as across spheres of different volumes with identical holes. The frequencies were found to closely match frequencies predicted by spherical harmonics

  6. Electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) with a loop-gap resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James S.; Yin, Jun-Jie; Froncisz, W.; Feix, Jimmy B.

    Electron-electron double-resonance (ELDOR) experiments on nitroxide-radical-spin-labeled liposomes have been performed using a loop-gap resonator. The signal-to-noise ratio expressed on a molarity basis is 20-fold over the best that has been achieved using a bimodal cavity. This improvement permits ELDOR experiments on spin-labeled plasma membranes of intact cells, as illustrated by a prototype experiment on red blood cells labeled with stearic acid spin label. Moreover, 20 times greater pumping energy density at the sample is achievable for a given incident pump power, permitting ELDOR experiments on less readily saturated systems. Pump and observing frequencies are introduced directly into the loop-gap resonator, which has a relatively low Q, and the pump electron paramagnetic resonance signal is isolated from the receiver using a high Q trap microwave filter.

  7. A one-kilogram quartz resonator as a mass standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, John; Howe, David

    2013-02-01

    The SI unit of mass, the kilogram, is defined by a single artifact, the International Prototype Kilogram. This artifact, the primary mass standard, suffers from long-term instabilities that are neither well understood nor easily monitored. A secondary mass standard consisting of a 1-kg quartz resonator in ultrahigh vacuum is proposed. The frequency stability of such a resonator is likely to be far higher than the mass stability of the primary mass standard. Moreover, the resonator would provide a link to the SI time-interval unit. When compared with a laboratory-grade atomic frequency standard or GPS time, the frequency of the resonator could be monitored, on a continuous basis, with 10(-15) precision in only a few days of averaging. It could also be coordinated, worldwide, with other resonator mass standards without the need to transport the standards.

  8. Parametric Symmetry Breaking in a Nonlinear Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuch, Anina; Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Degen, Christian L.; Chitra, R.; Eichler, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Much of the physical world around us can be described in terms of harmonic oscillators in thermodynamic equilibrium. At the same time, the far-from-equilibrium behavior of oscillators is important in many aspects of modern physics. Here, we investigate a resonating system subject to a fundamental interplay between intrinsic nonlinearities and a combination of several driving forces. We have constructed a controllable and robust realization of such a system using a macroscopic doubly clamped string. We experimentally observe a hitherto unseen double hysteresis in both the amplitude and the phase of the resonator's response function and present a theoretical model that is in excellent agreement with the experiment. Our work unveils that the double hysteresis is a manifestation of an out-of-equilibrium symmetry breaking between parametric phase states. Such a fundamental phenomenon, in the most ubiquitous building block of nature, paves the way for the investigation of new dynamical phases of matter in parametrically driven many-body systems and motivates applications ranging from ultrasensitive force detection to low-energy computing memory units.

  9. A triple resonance hyperfine sublevel correlation experiment for assignment of electron-nuclear double resonance lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Alexey; Epel, Boris; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2008-02-01

    A new, triple resonance, pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) sequence is described. It provides spin links between forbidden electron spin transitions (ΔMS=±1, ΔMI≠0) and allowed nuclear spin transitions (ΔMI=±1), thus, facilitating the assignment of nuclear frequencies to their respective electron spin manifolds and paramagnetic centers. It also yields the relative signs of the hyperfine couplings of the different nuclei. The technique is based on the combination of electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR)-detected NMR experiments in a way similar to the TRIPLE experiment. The feasibility and the information content of the method are demonstrated first on a single crystal of Cu-doped L-histidine and then on a frozen solution of a Cu-histidine complex.

  10. A microwave resonator integrated on a polymer microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, S. Z.; Rostas, A. M.; Heidinger, L.; Spengler, N.; Meissner, M. V.; MacKinnon, N.; Schleicher, E.; Weber, S.; Korvink, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    We describe a novel stacked split-ring type microwave (MW) resonator that is integrated into a 10 mm by 10 mm sized microfluidic chip. A straightforward and scalable batch fabrication process renders the chip suitable for single-use applications. The resonator volume can be conveniently loaded with liquid sample via microfluidic channels patterned into the mid layer of the chip. The proposed MW resonator offers an alternative solution for compact in-field measurements, such as low-field magnetic resonance (MR) experiments requiring convenient sample exchange. A microstrip line was used to inductively couple MWs into the resonator. We characterised the proposed resonator topology by electromagnetic (EM) field simulations, a field perturbation method, as well as by return loss measurements. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at X-band frequencies were recorded, revealing an electron-spin sensitivity of 3.7 ·1011spins ·Hz - 1 / 2G-1 for a single EPR transition. Preliminary time-resolved EPR experiments on light-induced triplet states in pentacene were performed to estimate the MW conversion efficiency of the resonator.

  11. Equivalent-Circuit Model for the Thickness-Shear Mode Resonator with a Viscoelastic Film Near Film Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANDEY, HELEN L.; BROWN, MARK J.; CERNOSEK, RICHARD W.; HILLMAN, A. ROBERT; MARTIN, STEPHEN J.

    1999-09-16

    We derive a lumped-element, equivalent-circuit model for the thickness shear mode (TSM) resonator with a viscoelastic film. This modified Butterworth-Van Dyke model includes in the motional branch a series LCR resonator, representing the quartz resonance, and a parallel LCR resonator, representing the film resonance. This model is valid in the vicinity of film resonance, which occurs when the acoustic phase shift across the film is an odd multiple of {pi}/2 radians. This model predicts accurately the frequency changes and damping that arise at resonance and is a reasonable approximation away from resonance. The elements of the model are explicitly related to film properties and can be interpreted in terms of elastic energy storage and viscous power dissipation. The model leads to a simple graphical interpretation of the coupling between the quartz and film resonances and facilitates understanding of the resulting responses. These responses are compared with predictions from the transmission-line and the Sauerbrey models.

  12. Delay time for a single resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshinsky, M.; Monsivais, G. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    1997-05-01

    Delay time is usually discussed in terms of a wavepacket going through a potential barrier and its time of reappearance on the other side of it, as compared with the corresponding problem in free motion. Wigner stressed though that an interaction should be described by an R matrix and a particular case would be that of a single resonance. Long ago a dynamical model was developed for this case in which the interaction takes place at a point through boundary conditions. It is used here to discuss the passage to x>0 of a plane wave initially constrained to the interval -{infinity}resonances. Note that our approach is different from the one using stationary states, i.e. when the time t{yields}{infinity}, originally introduced by Wigner. For completeness we also discuss the latter for our problem in the concluding section and compare the results with those obtained in this paper. (author)

  13. Frequency division using a micromechanical resonance cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qalandar, K. R., E-mail: kamala@engineering.ucsb.edu; Gibson, B.; Sharma, M.; Ma, A.; Turner, K. L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Strachan, B. S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States); Shaw, S. W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A coupled micromechanical resonator array demonstrates a mechanical realization of multi-stage frequency division. The mechanical structure consists of a set of N sequentially perpendicular microbeams that are connected by relatively weak elastic elements such that the system vibration modes are localized to individual microbeams and have natural frequencies with ratios close to 1:2:⋯:2{sup N}. Conservative (passive) nonlinear inter-modal coupling provides the required energy transfer between modes and is achieved by finite deformation kinematics. When the highest frequency beam is excited, this arrangement promotes a cascade of subharmonic resonances that achieve frequency division of 2{sup j} at microbeam j for j = 1, …, N. Results are shown for a capacitively driven three-stage divider in which an input signal of 824 kHz is passively divided through three modal stages, producing signals at 412 kHz, 206 kHz, and 103 kHz. The system modes are characterized and used to delineate the range of AC input voltages and frequencies over which the cascade occurs. This narrow band frequency divider has simple design rules that are scalable to higher frequencies and can be extended to a larger number of modal stages.

  14. Raman Scattering at Resonant or Near-Resonant Conditions: A Generalized Short-Time Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdelsalam Mohammed; Yu-Ping Sun; Quan Miao; Hans (A)gren; Faris Gel'mukhanov

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of resonant Raman scattering in the course of the frequency detuning.The dephasing in the time domain makes the scattering fast when the photon energy is tuned from the absorption resonance.This makes frequency detuning to act as a camera shutter with a regulated scattering duration and provides a practical tool of controlling the scattering time in ordinary stationary measurements.The theory is applied to resonant Raman spectra of a couple of few-mode model systems and to trans-1,3,5-hexatriene and guanine-cytosine (G-C) Watson-Crick base pairs (DNA) molecules.Besides some particular physical effects,the regime of fast scattering leads to a simplification of the spectrum as well as to the scattering theory itself.Strong overtones appear in the Raman spectra when the photon frequency is tuned in the resonant region,while in the mode of fast scattering,the overtones are gradually quenched when the photon frequency is tuned more than one vibrational quantum below the first absorption resonance.The detuning from the resonant region thus leads to a strong purification of the Raman spectrum from the contamination by higher overtones and soft modes and purifies the spectrum also in terms of avoidance of dissociation and interfering fluorescence decay of the resonant state.This makes frequency detuning a very useful practical tool in the analysis of the resonant Raman spectra of complex systems and considerably improves the prospects for using the Raman effect for detection of foreign substances at ultra-low concentrations.

  15. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Li, Ren; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro-resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  16. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-01-11

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  17. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivarajah, I.; Goodman, D. S.; Wells, J. E.; Smith, W. W. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Narducci, F. A. [Naval Air Systems Command, EO Sensors Division, Bldg 2187, Suite 3190 Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Linear Paul traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions, and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trap and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field.

  18. Effective resonant interactions via a driving field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, A B [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, Guadalajara 44420 (Mexico); Sainz, I [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, Guadalajara 44420 (Mexico); Saavedra, C [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2004-11-01

    Effective resonant quantum atom-field interactions are studied. These resonant interactions are induced by the presence of an external classical driving field. An adequate choice for frequencies of the driving field produces nonlinear effective Hamiltonians both for atom-field and for spin-spin interactions. It is shown that the exact numerical evolution for each resonance condition is well described by the corresponding effective Hamiltonian.

  19. A test resonator for Kagome Hollow-core Photonic Crystal Fibers for resonant rotation sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fsaifes, Ihsan; Feugnet, Gilles; Ravaille, Alexia; Debord, Benoït; Gérôme, Frédéric; Baz, Assaad; Humbert, Georges; Benabid, Fetah; Schwartz, Sylvain; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    We build ring resonators to assess the potentialities of Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers for future applications to resonant rotation sensing. The large mode diameter of Kagome fibers permits to reduce the free space fiber-to-fiber coupling losses, leading to cavities with finesses of about 30 for a diameter equal to 15 cm. Resonance linewidths of 3.2 MHz with contrasts as large as 89% are obtained. Comparison with 7-cell photonic band gap (PBG) fiber leads to better finesse and contrast with Kagome fiber. Resonators based on such fibers are compatible with the angular random walk required for medium to high performance rotation sensing. The small amount of light propagating in silica should also permit to further reduce the Kerr-induced non-reciprocity by at least three orders of magnitudes in 7-cell Kagome fiber compared with 7-cell PBG fiber.

  20. A new nucleon resonance in eta photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Hosaka, Atsushi; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2007-01-01

    We present in this talk recent investigations on the nucleon-like resonance N*(1675) newly found in eta photoproduction by the GRAAL, Tohoku LNS-gamma and CB-ELSA collaborations. We focus on the production mechanism of the N*(1675), examining its spin and parity theoretically within the framework of the effective Lagrangian method. We expliucitly consider D_{13}(1520), S_{11}(1535), S_{11}(1650), D_{15}(1675), P_{11}(1710), P_{13}(1720) as well as possible background contributions. We calculate the differential cross sections and beam asymmetries for the neutron and proton targets. It turns out that there is manifest isospin asymmetry in eta photoproduction, which can be explained by the asymmetry in the transition magnetic moments: mu_{gamma p p*} =resonance may be identified as a non-strangeness member of the baryon antidecuplet.

  1. A resonance based model of biological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasco, Achille; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    We propose a coarse grained physical model of evolution. The proposed model 'at least in principle' is amenable of an experimental verification even if this looks as a conundrum: evolution is a unique historical process and the tape cannot be reversed and played again. Nevertheless, we can imagine a phenomenological scenario tailored upon state transitions in physical chemistry in which different agents of evolution play the role of the elements of a state transition like thermal noise or resonance effects. The abstract model we propose can be of help for sketching hypotheses and getting rid of some well-known features of natural history like the so-called Cambrian explosion. The possibility of an experimental proof of the model is discussed as well.

  2. A search for resonant Z pair production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boveia, Antonio [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    I describe a search for anomalous production of Z pairs through a new massive resonance X in 2.5-2.9 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using the CDFII Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. I reconstruct Z pairs through their decays to electrons, muons, and quarks. To achieve perhaps the most efficient lepton reconstruction ever used at CDF, I apply a thorough understanding of the detector and new reconstruction software heavily revised for this purpose. In particular, I have designed and employ new general-purpose algorithms for tracking at large η in order to increase muon acceptance. Upon analyzing the unblinded signal samples, I observe no X → ZZ candidates and set upper limits on the production cross section using a Kaluza-Klein graviton-like acceptance.

  3. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  4. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  5. Flutist produces four resonances with a single bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Boysen, Erika

    2017-03-01

    In a dramatic physics demonstration, a professional flutist produces four resonances with a 12 ounce Boylan soda bottle solely through her breath control. The 22 cm bottle acts like a Helmholtz resonator for the lowest pitch. The three higher pitches fall near the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics for a 22 cm closed pipe. A video of this remarkable feat is provided (Ruiz 2016 YouTube: Four Resonances with a 12-ounce Soda Bottle (https://youtu.be/ibtVrp2NF_k)). The video also reveals that a flutist can bend resonance pitches by as much as 10% through control of air speed.

  6. Resonance in a cylindrical wraparound microstrip structure with superstrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin-Lu; Tsai, Ruenn-Bo; Row, Jeen-Sheen

    1994-06-01

    Analysis of the resonance problem of a cylindrical wrap-around microstrip structure with superstrate is presented. In this study the rigorous full-wave formulation and Galerkin's method are used. The numerical convergence for the selected sinusoidal basis functions with edge singularity is also discussed. Numerical results of the superstrate loading effects on the real and imaginary parts of complex resonant frequency of the structures as a radiator and as a resonator are calculated and analyzed.

  7. A 2:1 MUX Based on Multiple MEMS Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, M. A A

    2017-01-09

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. This paper reports a realization of a 2:1 MUX, a concatenable digital logic element, based on electrothermal frequency tuning of electrically connected multiple arch resonators. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.

  8. A Magnetic Resonance Measurement Technique for Rapidly Switched Gradient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetic Resonance Tomograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bartušek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for measuring of the gradient magnetic field in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR tomography, which is one of the modern medical diagnostic methods. A very important prerequisite for high quality imaging is a gradient magnetic field in the instrument with exactly defined properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance enables us to measure the pulse gradient magnetic field characteristics with high accuracy. These interesting precise methods were designed, realised, and tested at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The first of them was the Instantaneous Frequency (IF method, which was developed into the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo (IFSE and the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo Series (IFSES methods. The above named methods are described in this paper and their a comparison is also presented.

  9. Design of a superconducting low beta niobium resonator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash Potukuchi; Amit Roy

    2012-04-01

    The proposed high current injector for the superconducting Linac at the InterUniversity Accelerator Centre will have several accelerating structures, including a superconducting module which will contain low beta niobium resonators. A prototype resonator for the low beta module has been designed. The resonator has been carefully modelled to optimize the electromagnetic parameters. In order to validate them, a room-temperature copper model has been built and tested. In this paper we present details of the electromagnetic design of the low beta resonator, briefly discuss the mechanical and engineering design, and present results from the measurements on the room-temperature copper model.

  10. Resonance linewidth and inhomogeneous broadening in a metamaterial array

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Stewart D

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of inhomogeneous broadening on the collective response of a planar metamaterial consisting of asymmetric split ring resonators. We show that such a response leads to a transmission resonance that can persist when the broadening of individual meta-atom resonance frequencies is roughly one half the frequency characterizing the split ring asymmetry. We also find that larger degrees of inhomogeneous broadening can drastically alter the cooperative response, destroying this resonance. The reduced effect of cooperative response due to inhomogeneous broadening may find applications in producing metamaterial samples that more closely mimic homogeneous magneto-dielectric medium with well-defined susceptibility and permittivity.

  11. A Convenient Formalism for Auger and Autoionization of Overlapping Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanli, M. M.; Peacher, J. L.; Madison, D. H.

    2003-05-01

    Following the works of Fano [1], Balashov [2], and Davis and Feldkamp [3], we have developed a general formalism for cross sections near overlapping autoionizing resonances [4]. We show that the effect of the interaction between different resonances can be treated as a correction factor to the isolated resonances treatment of the problem. We present a simple correction factor, which can be calculated using only the energy and the width of the resonances. We have applied our approach to four physically important cases as a representative of two overlapping resonances. Our results indicate that even in the case where the resonances are only somewhat overlapping, the correction factor makes a considerable contribution and the agreement between the relative experimental cross section and the isolated resonances calculation does not necessarily imply that the resonance-resonance interactions are negligible. [1] U. Fano, Phys. Rev. 124,.1866 (1961) [2] V. V. Balashov, S. S. Lipovetsky and V. S. Senashenko, Sov. Phys. JETP 36, 858 (1973) [3] L. C. Davis and L. A. Feldkamp, Phys. Rev B. 15, 2961 (1977) [4] M. M. Tabanli, J. L. Peacher and D. H. Madison, J. Phys. B 36, 217 (2003)

  12. Simulation of a birdcage and a ceramic cavity HF-resonator for high magnetic fields in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, E; Golombeck, M A; Junge, S; Dössel, O

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was the 3D-simulation of a dielectric resonator for high-field-MRI. A 12-rod-bird-cage-resonator was simulated in a first step, in order to verify the capability of the commercial simulation software MAFIA to simulate homogeneous, transversal B-fields in resonators. The second step was the simulation of frequency-independent dielectric ceramic resonators for static magnetic field strengths of 7 T and 12 T (294 MHz and 504 MHz respectively). The results were compared to the measured results of a manufactured TiO2- and a Al2O3-resonator. Only minor deviations showed up. These results led to the conclusion that dielectric resonators for high field MRI can be optimised using numerical field calculation software.

  13. A resonance without resonance. Scrutinizing the diphoton excess at 750 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Reuter, Juergen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ruiz de Austri, Roberto [IFIC-UV/CSIC, Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular

    2015-12-15

    Motivated by the recent diphoton excesses reported by both ATLAS and CMS collaborations, we suggest that a new heavy spinless particle is produced in gluon fusion at the LHC and decays to a couple of lighter pseudoscalars which then decay to photons. The new resonances could arise from a new strongly interacting sector and couple to Standard Model gauge bosons only via the corresponding Wess-Zumino-Witten anomaly. We present a detailed recast of the newest 13 TeV data from ATLAS and CMS together with the 8 TeV data to scan the consistency of the parameter space for those resonances.

  14. Integrated structure for a resonant micro-gyroscope and accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zega

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of the mechanical behavior of a microstructure designed to detect acceleration and angular velocity simultaneously. The new resonant micro-sensor proposed, fabricated by the ThELMA© surface-micromachining technique, bases detection of two components of external acceleration (one in-plane component and one out-of plane component and two components of angular velocity (roll and yaw on the variation of frequency of several elements set in resonance. The device, despite its small dimensions, provides a differential decoupled detection of four external quantities thanks to the presence of four slender beams resonating in bending and four torsional resonators.

  15. Lineshape Engineering in an All-Pass Ring Resonator with Backreflection Coupled to a Symmetrical Fabry-Perot Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Melnikov, Vasily

    2012-11-10

    We derive transfer functions for an all-pass ring resonator with internal backreflection coupled to a symmetrical Fabry-Perot resonator and demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano-like lineshapes tunable by backreflection in the ring resonator.

  16. Impact of resonance regeneration and decay on the net proton fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahrgang, Marlene [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bluhm, Marcus [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Alba, Paolo [Universita degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INFN, Turin (Italy); Bellwied, Rene; Ratti, Claudia [University of Houston, Department of Physics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate net proton fluctuations as important observables measured in heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. Special emphasis is given to effects which are a priori not inherent in a thermally and chemically equilibrated HRG approach. In particular, we point out the importance of taking into account the successive regeneration and decay of resonances after the chemical freeze-out, which lead to a randomization of the isospin of nucleons and thus to additional fluctuations in the net proton number. We find good agreement between our model results and the recent STAR measurements of the higher-order moments of the net proton distribution. (orig.)

  17. Effect of energy and momentum conservation on fluid resonances for resonant magnetic perturbations in a tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Peter; Heyn, Martin F.; Kernbichler, Winfried [Fusion@ÖAW, Institut für Theoretische Physik—Computational Physics, TU Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Ivanov, Ivan B. [Fusion@ÖAW, Institut für Theoretische Physik—Computational Physics, TU Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); St. Petersburg State University, Institute of Physics, Ulyanovskaya 1, Petrodvoretz 198504 (Russian Federation); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina, Leningrad Oblast (Russian Federation); Kasilov, Sergei V. [Fusion@ÖAW, Institut für Theoretische Physik—Computational Physics, TU Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology,” Ul. Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the impact of momentum and energy conservation of the collision operator in the kinetic description for Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) in a tokamak is studied. The particle conserving differential collision operator of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type is supplemented with integral parts such that energy and momentum are conserved. The application to RMP penetration in a tokamak shows that energy conservation in the electron collision operator is important for the quantitative description of plasma shielding effects at the resonant surface. On the other hand, momentum conservation in the ion collision operator does not significantly change the results.

  18. Progressive and resonant wave helices application to electron paramagnetic resonance; Helices a ondes progressives et resonnantes application a la resonance paramagnetique electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volino, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    We show that helices can be used as resonant systems. Their properties are theoretically and experimentally studied. We describe resonant helices for electron paramagnetic resonance in X-band and develop a comparison between their sensitivity and the sensitivity of a normal resonant cavity. For cylindrical samples less than 3 mm diameter, the helix is more sensitive and can produce more intense microwave magnetic fields. (author) [French] Il est montre que les helices peuvent etre utilisees comme systeme resonnant. Leurs proprietes sont discutees theoriquement et experimentalement. Des helices resonnantes en bande X pour la resonance paramagnetique electronique sont decrites et leur sensibilite est comparee a celle des cavites resonnantes. Pour des echantillons cylindriques de moins de 3 mm de diametre, l'helice est plus sensible et peut produire des champs magnetiques hyper fins plus intenses. (auteur)

  19. Portal biliopathy, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskan, Ozdil; Erol, Cengiz; Sahingoz, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Portal biliopathy (PB) is a rare disorder, characterized by biliary ductal and gallbladder wall abnormalities seen in patients with portal hypertension. It most commonly occurs due to idiopathic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). The abnormalities consist mainly of bile duct compression, stenoses, fibrotic strictures and dilation of both extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts, as well as gallbladder varices. PB may mimic cholangiocarcinoma, sclerosing cholangitis, or choledocholithiasis. Misdiagnosis can be avoided using appropriate imaging modalities to prevent complications. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) features of three patients with PB. PMID:25216728

  20. Modelling a singly resonant, intracavity ring optical parametric oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Wei, Hou;

    2003-01-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the dynamics of a single-frequency, unidirectional ring laser with an intracavity nonlinear singly resonant OPO-crystal in a coupled resonator. We find for a range of operating conditions good agreement between model results and measurements of the laser ...

  1. A time domain based method for the accurate measurement of Q-factor and resonance frequency of microwave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyüre, B.; Márkus, B. G.; Bernáth, B.; Simon, F., E-mail: ferenc.simon@univie.ac.at [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and MTA-BME Lendület Spintronics Research Group (PROSPIN), P.O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Murányi, F. [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT’IS), Zeughausstrasse 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation.

  2. Eigenvalue study of a chaotic resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banova, Todorka [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Schlossgartenstrasse 8, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Graduate School of Computational Engineering, Dolivostrasse 15, D-64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Ackermann, Wolfgang; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Schlossgartenstrasse 8, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The field of quantum chaos comprises the study of the manifestations of classical chaos in the properties of the corresponding quantum systems. Within this work, we compute the eigenfrequencies that are needed for the level spacing analysis of a microwave resonator with chaotic characteristics. The major challenges posed by our work are: first, the ability of the approaches to tackle the large scale eigenvalue problem and second, the capability to extract many, i.e. order of thousands, eigenfrequencies for the considered cavity. The first proposed approach for an accurate eigenfrequency extraction takes into consideration the evaluated electric field computations in time domain of a superconducting cavity and by means of signal-processing techniques extracts the eigenfrequencies. The second approach is based on the finite element method with curvilinear elements, which transforms the continuous eigenvalue problem to a discrete generalized eigenvalue problem. Afterwards, the Lanczos algorithm is used for the solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem. In the poster, a summary of the applied algorithms, as well as, critical implementation details together with the simulation results are provided.

  3. A SAW resonator with two-dimensional reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solal, Marc; Gratier, Julien; Kook, Taeho

    2010-01-01

    It is known that a part of the loss of leaky SAW resonators is due to radiation of acoustic energy in the bus-bars. Many researchers are working on so-called phononic crystals. A 2-D grating of very strong reflectors allows these devices to fully reflect, for a given frequency band, any incoming wave. A new device based on the superposition of a regular SAW resonator and a 2-D periodic grating of reflectors is proposed. Several arrangements and geometries of the reflectors were studied and compared experimentally on 48 degrees rotated Y-cut lithium tantalate. In particular, a very narrow aperture (7.5 lambda) resonator was manufactured in the 900 MHz range. Because of its small size, this resonator has a resonance Q of only 575 when using the standard technology, whereas a resonance Q of 1100 was obtained for the new device without degradation of the other characteristics. Because of the narrow aperture, the admittance of the standard resonator showed a very strong parasitic above the resonance frequency, whereas this effect is drastically reduced for the new device. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the new approach.

  4. A loop-gap resonator for chirality-sensitive nuclear magneto-electric resonance (NMER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, Piotr; Fischer, Peer; Krämer, Steffen

    2016-09-14

    Direct detection of molecular chirality is practically impossible by methods of standard nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) that is based on interactions involving magnetic-dipole and magnetic-field operators. However, theoretical studies provide a possible direct probe of chirality by exploiting an enantiomer selective additional coupling involving magnetic-dipole, magnetic-field, and electric field operators. This offers a way for direct experimental detection of chirality by nuclear magneto-electric resonance (NMER). This method uses both resonant magnetic and electric radiofrequency (RF) fields. The weakness of the chiral interaction though requires a large electric RF field and a small transverse RF magnetic field over the sample volume, which is a non-trivial constraint. In this study, we present a detailed study of the NMER concept and a possible experimental realization based on a loop-gap resonator. For this original device, the basic principle and numerical studies as well as fabrication and measurements of the frequency dependence of the scattering parameter are reported. By simulating the NMER spin dynamics for our device and taking the (19)F NMER signal of enantiomer-pure 1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-ol, we predict a chirality induced NMER signal that accounts for 1%-5% of the standard achiral NMR signal.

  5. A loop-gap resonator for chirality-sensitive nuclear magneto-electric resonance (NMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, Piotr; Fischer, Peer; Krämer, Steffen

    2016-09-01

    Direct detection of molecular chirality is practically impossible by methods of standard nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) that is based on interactions involving magnetic-dipole and magnetic-field operators. However, theoretical studies provide a possible direct probe of chirality by exploiting an enantiomer selective additional coupling involving magnetic-dipole, magnetic-field, and electric field operators. This offers a way for direct experimental detection of chirality by nuclear magneto-electric resonance (NMER). This method uses both resonant magnetic and electric radiofrequency (RF) fields. The weakness of the chiral interaction though requires a large electric RF field and a small transverse RF magnetic field over the sample volume, which is a non-trivial constraint. In this study, we present a detailed study of the NMER concept and a possible experimental realization based on a loop-gap resonator. For this original device, the basic principle and numerical studies as well as fabrication and measurements of the frequency dependence of the scattering parameter are reported. By simulating the NMER spin dynamics for our device and taking the 19F NMER signal of enantiomer-pure 1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-ol, we predict a chirality induced NMER signal that accounts for 1%-5% of the standard achiral NMR signal.

  6. Diphoton resonance from a warped extra dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Hörner, Clara; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a warped extra dimension, which successfully address the hierarchy and flavor problems of elementary particle physics, can provide an elegant explanation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. A gauge-singlet bulk scalar with {O} (1) couplings to fermions is identified as the new resonance S, and the vector-like Kaluza-Klein excitations of the SM quarks and leptons mediate its loop-induced couplings to photons and gluons. The electroweak gauge symmetry almost unambiguously dictates the bulk matter content and hence the hierarchies of the Sto γ γ, W W,ZZ,Zγ, toverline{t} and dijet decay rates. We find that the S → Zγ decay mode is strongly suppressed, such that Br( S → Zγ) /Br( S → γγ) converge and can be calculated in closed form with a remarkably simple result. Reproducing the observed pp → S → γγ signal requires Kaluza-Klein masses in the multi-TeV range, consistent with bounds from flavor physics and electroweak precision observables.

  7. A model for ferrite-loaded transversely biased coaxial resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a simple model for shortened coaxial cavity resonators with transversely biased ferrite elements. The ferrite allows the resonance frequency to be tuned, and the presented model provides a method of approximately calculating these frequencies to generate the tuning curve...

  8. Diphoton Resonance from a Warped Extra Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Martin; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a warped extra dimension, which successfully address the hierarchy and flavor problems of elementary particle physics, can provide an elegant explanation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. A gauge-singlet bulk scalar with O(1) couplings to fermions is identified as the new resonance S, and the vector-like Kaluza-Klein excitations of the SM quarks and leptons mediate its loop-induced couplings to photons and gluons. The electroweak gauge symmetry almost unambiguously dictates the bulk matter content and hence the hierarchies of the S->\\gamma\\gamma, WW, ZZ, Z\\gamma, t\\bar t and dijet decay rates. We find that the S->Z\\gamma decay mode is strongly suppressed, such that Br(S->Z\\gamma)Br(S->\\gamma\\gamma)S->\\gamma\\gamma signal requires Kaluza-Klein masses in the multi-TeV range, in perfect agreement with bounds from flavor physics and electroweak precision observables.

  9. Classical decoherence in a nanomechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, O.; Vavrek, F.; Fefferman, A. D.; Bourgeois, O.; Collin, E.

    2016-07-01

    Decoherence is an essential mechanism that defines the boundary between classical and quantum behaviours, while imposing technological bounds for quantum devices. Little is known about quantum coherence of mechanical systems, as opposed to electromagnetic degrees of freedom. But decoherence can also be thought of in a purely classical context, as the loss of phase coherence in the classical phase space. Indeed the bridge between quantum and classical physics is under intense investigation, using, in particular, classical nanomechanical analogues of quantum phenomena. In the present work, by separating pure dephasing from dissipation, we quantitatively model the classical decoherence of a mechanical resonator: through the experimental control of frequency fluctuations, we engineer artificial dephasing. Building on the fruitful analogy introduced between spins/quantum bits and nanomechanical modes, we report on the methods available to define pure dephasing in these systems, while demonstrating the intrinsic almost-ideal properties of silicon nitride beams. These experimental and theoretical results, at the boundary between classical nanomechanics and quantum information fields, are prerequisite in the understanding of decoherence processes in mechanical devices, both classical and quantum.

  10. A Composite Capacitor/Inductor Assembly for Resonant Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. P.; Scholfield, D. W.

    2001-06-01

    Resonant structures are of interest due to their ability to produce oscillatory voltages in circuits. Past resonant structures have typically been designed using a lumped element capacitor for energy storage and a separate inductor. A composite capacitor/inductor assembly has been developed which merges the capacitance utilized for energy storage into the inductor, creating a consolidated electrical component. Composite capacitor/inductor assemblies are of interest due to the ability of these devices to produce resonant responses with one half the number of parts required by more traditional resonant structures. This composite capacitor/inductor could be utilized in applications of frequency band suppression or frequency band pass for frequencies in excess of 100 MHz, or where a resonant circuit is required to reside in an area of minimum space - such as a printed circuit board or an integrated circuit. The device and the mathematical treatment to predict the device's performance are described.

  11. Electromagnetic coupling in a planar periodic configuration of resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jouvaud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We are studying arrays composed of a periodic arrangement of sub-wavelength resonators. An analytical model is developed inside an array of 4 by 4 multi-gap split ring resonators. To describe the frequency splitting of the single fundamental resonance, we propose a simple model based on the approximation of each resonator as an electrical dipole and a magnetic dipole that are driven by the same complex amplitude. We show that the relative strength of the two dipoles strongly depends on cell symmetry. With this approximation, the dispersion relation can be obtained for an infinite size array. A simple matrix diagonalization provides a powerful way to deduce the resonant frequencies for finite size array. These results are comforted by numerical simulations. Finally, an experimental demonstration of a tunable antenna based on this study is presented.

  12. Resonant microsphere gyroscope based on a double Faraday rotator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chengfeng; Tang, Jun; Cui, Danfeng; Wu, Dajin; Zhang, Chengfei; Li, Chunming; Zhen, Yongqiu; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun

    2016-10-15

    The resonant microsphere gyroscope is proposed based on a double Faraday rotator system for the resonant microsphere gyroscope (RMSG) that is characterized by low insertion losses and does not destroy the reciprocity of the gyroscope system. Use of the echo suppression structure and the orthogonal polarization method can effectively inhibit both the backscattering noise and the polarization error, and reduce them below the system sensitivity limit. The resonance asymmetry rate dropped from 34.2% to 2.9% after optimization of the backscattering noise and the polarization noise, which greatly improved the bias stability and the scale factor linearity of the proposed system. Additionally, based on the optimum parameters for the double Faraday rotator system, a bias stability of 0.04°/s has been established for an integration time of 10 s in 1000 s in a resonator microsphere gyroscope using a microsphere resonator with a diameter of 1 mm and a Q of 7.2×106.

  13. Phase Matching of Diverse Modes in a WGM Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan; Matsko, Andrey; Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Phase matching of diverse electromagnetic modes (specifically, coexisting optical and microwave modes) in a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonator has been predicted theoretically and verified experimentally. Such phase matching is necessary for storage of microwave/terahertz and optical electromagnetic energy in the same resonator, as needed for exploitation of nonlinear optical phenomena. WGM resonators are used in research on nonlinear optical phenomena at low optical intensities and as a basis for design and fabrication of novel optical devices. Examples of nonlinear optical phenomena recently demonstrated in WGM resonators include low-threshold Raman lasing, optomechanical oscillations, frequency doubling, and hyperparametric oscillations. The present findings regarding phase matching were made in research on low-threshold, strongly nondegenerate parametric oscillations in lithium niobate WGM resonators. The principle of operation of such an oscillator is rooted in two previously observed phenomena: (1) stimulated Raman scattering by polaritons in lithium niobate and (2) phase matching of nonlinear optical processes via geometrical confinement of light. The oscillator is partly similar to terahertz oscillators based on lithium niobate crystals, the key difference being that a novel geometrical configuration of this oscillator supports oscillation in the regime. The high resonance quality factors (Q values) typical of WGM resonators make it possible to achieve oscillation at a threshold signal level much lower than that in a non-WGM-resonator lithium niobate crystal.

  14. Bifurcation and resonance in a fractional Mathieu-Duffing oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. H.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Liu, H. G.

    2015-11-01

    The bifurcation and resonance phenomena are investigated in a fractional Mathieu-Duffing oscillator which contains a fast parametric excitation and a slow external excitation. We extend the method of direct partition of motions to evaluate the response for the parametrically excited system. Besides, we propose a numerical method to simulate different types of local bifurcation of the equilibria. For the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of the considered system, the linear stiffness coefficient is a key factor which influences the resonance phenomenon directly. Moreover, the fractional-order damping brings some new results that are different from the corresponding results in the ordinary Mathieu-Duffing oscillator. Especially, the resonance pattern, the resonance frequency and the resonance magnitude depend on the value of the fractional-order closely.

  15. RCCS operation with a resonant frequency error in the KOMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Hyuk

    2015-10-01

    The resonance control cooling systems (RCCSs) of the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex have been operated for cooling the drift tubes (DT) and controlling the resonant frequency of the drift tube linac (DTL). The DTL should maintain a resonant frequency of 350 MHz during operation. A RCCS can control the temperature of the cooling water to within ±0.1 °C by using a 3-way valve opening and has a constant-cooling-water-temperature control mode and resonant-frequency-control mode. In the case of the resonant-frequency control, the error in the frequency is measured by using the low-level radio-frequency control system, and the RCCS uses a proportional-integral-derivative control algorithm to compensate for the error by controlling the temperature of the cooling water to the DT.

  16. Squeezing of light via reflection from a silicon micromechanical resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Hill, Jeff T; Chan, Jasper; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Painter, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    We present the measurement of squeezed light generation using an engineered optomechanical system fabricated from a silicon microchip and composed of a micromechanical resonator coupled to a nanophotonic cavity. Laser light is used to measure the fluctuations in the position of the mechanical resonator at a measurement rate comparable to the free dynamics of the mechanical resonator, and greater than its thermal decoherence rate. By approaching the strong continuous measurement regime we observe, through homodyne detection, non-trivial modifications of the reflected light's vacuum fluctuation spectrum. In spite of the mechanical resonator's highly excited thermal state ($10,000$ phonons), we observe squeezing at the level of $4.5 \\pm 0.5%$ below that of shot-noise over a few MHz bandwidth around the mechanical resonance frequency of 28 MHz. This squeezing is interpreted as an unambiguous quantum signature of radiation pressure shot-noise.

  17. Resonance Photon Generation in a Vibrating Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Dodonov, V V

    1998-01-01

    The problem of photon creation from vacuum due to the nonstationary Casimir effect in an ideal one-dimensional Fabry--Perot cavity with vibrating walls is solved in the resonance case, when the frequency of vibrations is close to the frequency of some unperturbed electromagnetic mode: $\\omega_w=p(\\pi c/L_0)(1+\\delta)$, $|\\delta|\\ll 1$, (p=1,2,...). An explicit analytical expression for the total energy in all the modes shows an exponential growth if $|\\delta|$ is less than the dimensionless amplitude of vibrations $\\epsilon\\ll 1$, the increment being proportional to $p\\sqrt{\\epsilon^2-\\delta^2}$. The rate of photon generation from vacuum in the (j+ps)th mode goes asymptotically to a constant value $cp^2\\sin^2(\\pi j/p)\\sqrt{\\epsilon^2-\\delta^2}/[\\pi L_0 (j+ps)]$, the numbers of photons in the modes with indices p,2p,3p,... being the integrals of motion. The total number of photons in all the modes is proportional to $p^3(\\epsilon^2-\\delta^2) t^2$ in the short-time and in the long-time limits. In the case of st...

  18. Photonic crystal resonator integrated in a microfluidic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2008-01-01

    -free refractive index detection. The resonator was fabricated in a silicon oxynitride platform, to support electro-osmotic flow, and operated at =1.55 m. Different aqueous solutions of ethanol with refractive indices ranging from n1.3330 to 1.3616 were pumped into the column/resonator, and the transmission...

  19. A comparison of approaches to estimate the resonance energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, Marcin; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Jenneskens, Leonardus W.; van Lenthe, Joop H.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss Ab Initio approaches to calculate the energy lowering (stabilisation) due to aromaticity. We compare the valence bond method and the block-localised wave function approaches to calculate the resonance energy. We conclude that the valence bond approach employs a Pauling-Wheland resonance e

  20. A comparison of approaches to estimate the resonance energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, M.L.; Havenith, R.W.A.; Jenneskens, L.W.; van Lenthe, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss Ab Initio approaches to calculate the energy lowering (stabilisation) due to aromaticity. We compare the valence bond method and the block-localised wave function approaches to calculate the resonance energy. We conclude that the valence bond approach employs a Pauling–Wheland resonance e

  1. Josephson soliton oscillators in a superconducting thin film resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, J.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    . Different modes of half-wave resonances in the thin-film structure impose different magnetic field configurations at the boundaries of the junctions. The DC I-V characteristic shows zero-field steps with a number of resonator-induced steps. These structures are compared to RF-induced steps generated...

  2. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Hyde, James S. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Mett, Richard R. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Department of Physics and Chemistry, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (United States); Swarts, Steven G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32610 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Department of Radiology, Geisel Medical School at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg{sup 2+} doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

  3. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Mett, Richard R.; Swarts, Steven G.; Swartz, Harold M.; Hyde, James S.

    2014-10-01

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg2+ doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

  4. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidabras, Jason W; Varanasi, Shiv K; Mett, Richard R; Swarts, Steven G; Swartz, Harold M; Hyde, James S

    2014-10-01

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg(2+) doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

  5. Optimized Coplanar Waveguide Resonators for a Superconductor-Atom Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, M A; Booth, D; Pritchard, J D; Saffman, M; McDermott, R

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide cavities tailored to facilitate strong coupling between superconducting quantum circuits and single trapped Rydberg atoms. For initial superconductor-atom experiments at 4.2 K, we show that resonator quality factors above $10^4$ can be readily achieved. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the incorporation of thick-film copper electrodes at a voltage antinode of the resonator provides a route to enhance the zero-point electric fields of the resonator in a trapping region that is 40 $\\mu$m above the chip surface, thereby minimizing chip heating from scattered trap light. The combination of high resonator quality factor and strong electric dipole coupling between the resonator and the atom should make it possible to achieve the strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics with this system.

  6. Resonant tunneling in a pulsed phonon field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kral, P.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    , The nonequilibrium spectral function for the resonance displays the formation and decay of the phonon sidebands on ultrashort time scales. The time-dependent tunneling current through the individual phonon satellites reflects this quasiparticle formation by oscillations, whose time scale is set by the frequency...

  7. Subharmonic resonance in a mixing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, N. N.; Hussain, Fazle; Buell, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The subharmonic resonance phenomenon in a spatially evolving mixing layer is studied using direct simulations of the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations. The computational domain extends to + or - infinity in the cross-stream direction with U(1) = 1.25 and U(2) = 0.25 imposed at + infinity and - infinity respectively. The domain is finite in the streamwise direction with inflow and outflow boundary conditions imposed at x/delta sub omega = 0 and 100, respectively. A hyperbolic-tangent mean velocity profile is assumed at the inlet and the Reynolds number based on the inlet vorticity thickness and velocity difference is Re = 600. It is observed that the phase angle between the fundamental and its subharmonic plays a key role in the spatial development of these modes. Contour plots of vorticity show that varying the phase will have a dramatic effect on the dynamics of the vortices. Pairing or shredding is observed depending on the phase. Fourier decomposition of the time traces show that the fundamental grows, saturates and decays with the downstream distance. The subharmonic has a similar behavior. However, the level at which the modes will saturate is affected by the phase. At 0 deg phase, it was found that as the fundamental saturates, the growth rate of the subharmonic is enhanced. At 90 deg phase, it was found that as the fundamental saturates, the growth rate of the subharmonic is inhibited. In the later case, the growth rate of the subharmonic recovers after saturation of the fundamental. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  8. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nikhil [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: nikhil_ms26@yahoo.co.in; Kakar, Arun K. [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India); Chowdhury, Veena [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India); Gulati, Praveen [MR Centre, A-23 Green Park, New Delhi (India); Shankar, L. Ravi [Department of Radioiodine Uptake and Imaging, Institute of Nucler Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Timarpur, New Delhi (India); Vindal, Anubhav [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India)

    2007-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of solitary thyroid nodules and its correlation with histopathology. Materials and methods: In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out on 26 patients having solitary thyroid nodules. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on a 1.5 T super conductive system with gradient strength of 33 mTs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done after MRS. All 26 patients underwent surgery either because of cytopathologically proven malignancy or because of cosmetic reasons. Findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared with histopathology of thyroid specimens. Results and conclusion: It was seen that presence or absence of choline peak correlates very well with presence or absence of malignant foci with in the nodule (sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 88.88%). These results indicate that magnetic resonance spectroscopy may prove to be an useful diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid.

  9. Center mode of a doubly resonant optical periodic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-07-01

    An optical periodic structure with a single spatial resonance exhibits a stopband. When a second spatial resonance very close to the first one is added, the resulting doubly resonant structure exhibits a Gaussian enveloped, high quality factor transmission state right at the center of the original stopband. Using a slowly varying envelope approximation, we describe the optical characteristics of this transmission state analytically. The transmission state exists despite an optical structure of low refractive index contrast, and has potential applications in nano-optics, and photonics.

  10. Conjecture Regarding a Possible nnΛ Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, B. F.; Afnan, I. R.

    The question of whether there may exist a resonance in the nnΛ system is addressed. A rank-one separable potential formulation of the Hamiltonian is utilized. We examine the eigenvalues of the kernel of the relevant Faddeev equations in the complex energy plane in order that we may analytically continue the kernel onto the second Riemann energy sheet. In particular, we follow the largest eigenvalue as the nΛ potentials are scaled and the pole in the nnΛ continuum evolves from a sub-threshold resonance into a physically observable resonance and then into a bound state as the scale factor is increased.

  11. Resonant Inerter Based Absorbers for a Selected Global Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents calibration and efficiency analyses for two different configurations of a resonant vibration absorber consisting of a spring, a damper and an inerter element. In the two configurations the damper is either in parallel with the spring or with the inerter element. A calibration......-resonant modes. The calibration procedure is given a unified format for the two absorber types, and the high efficiency – evaluated as the ability to reproduce the selected dynamic amplification level of the resonant mode – is demonstrated....

  12. Resonant cancellation of off-resonant effects in a multilevel qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, L; Tian, Lin; Lloyd, Seth

    2000-01-01

    Off-resonant effects are a significant source of error in quantumcomputation. This paper presents a group theoretic proof that off-resonanttransitions to the higher levels of a multilevel qubit can be completelyprevented in principle. This result can be generalized to prevent unwantedtransitions due to qubit-qubit interactions. A simple scheme exploiting dynamicpulse control techniques is presented that can cancel transitions to higherstates to arbitrary accuracy.

  13. Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy: A Versatile Technique in a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy is a powerful, label-free technique to monitor noncovalent molecular interactions in real time and in a noninvasive fashion. As a label-free assay, SPR does not require tags, dyes, or specialized reagents (e.g., enzymes-substrate complexes) to elicit a visible or a fluorescence signal. During the last…

  14. A superheterodyne spectrometer for electronic paramagnetic. Resonance; Spectrometre superheterodyne de resonance paramagnetique electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffon, J.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-12-15

    After a few generalities about electron paramagnetic resonance, a consideration of different experimental techniques authorises the choice of a particular type of apparatus. An EPR superheterodyne spectrometer built in the laboratory and having a novel circuit is described in detail. With this apparatus, many experimental results have been obtained and some of these are described as example. (author) [French] Apres quelques generalites sur le phenomene de resonance paramagnetique electronique, une synthese des differentes techniques experimentales, permet de fixer le choix d'un type d'appareillage. Un spectrometre de RPE superheterodyne realise en laboratoire et comportant un circuit original est expose dans le detail. Cet appareil a permis de nombreux resultats experimentaux dont quelques-uns sont decrits a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  15. Nonlinear Resonance Islands and Modulational Effects in a Proton Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, Todd Jeffrey [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We examine both one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. We also examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, we examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three paramders: the strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. These. models are compared to particle tracking with excellent agreement. The tune modulation model is also successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are also examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. We present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking; therefore in this circumstance such a model is inadequate. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and we make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment.

  16. Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Justin D; MacCabe, Gregory S; Groblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Painter, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Using an optical probe along with single photon detection we have performed effective phonon counting measurements of the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a nanomechanical resonator. Applying these measurements in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss set-up, phonon correlations of the nanomechanical resonator are explored from below to above threshold of a parametric instability leading to self-oscillation of the resonator. Discussion of the results in terms of a "phonon laser", and analysis of the sensitivity of the phonon counting technique are presented.

  17. A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sean M.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Migaszewski, Cezary; Ford, Eric B.; Petigura, Erik; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-05-01

    Surveys have revealed many multi-planet systems containing super-Earths and Neptunes in orbits of a few days to a few months. There is debate whether in situ assembly or inward migration is the dominant mechanism of the formation of such planetary systems. Simulations suggest that migration creates tightly packed systems with planets whose orbital periods may be expressed as ratios of small integers (resonances), often in a many-planet series (chain). In the hundreds of multi-planet systems of sub-Neptunes, more planet pairs are observed near resonances than would generally be expected, but no individual system has hitherto been identified that must have been formed by migration. Proximity to resonance enables the detection of planets perturbing each other. Here we report transit timing variations of the four planets in the Kepler-223 system, model these variations as resonant-angle librations, and compute the long-term stability of the resonant chain. The architecture of Kepler-223 is too finely tuned to have been formed by scattering, and our numerical simulations demonstrate that its properties are natural outcomes of the migration hypothesis. Similar systems could be destabilized by any of several mechanisms, contributing to the observed orbital-period distribution, where many planets are not in resonances. Planetesimal interactions in particular are thought to be responsible for establishing the current orbits of the four giant planets in the Solar System by disrupting a theoretical initial resonant chain similar to that observed in Kepler-223.

  18. A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sean M; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Migaszewski, Cezary; Ford, Eric B; Petigura, Erik; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-05-26

    Surveys have revealed many multi-planet systems containing super-Earths and Neptunes in orbits of a few days to a few months. There is debate whether in situ assembly or inward migration is the dominant mechanism of the formation of such planetary systems. Simulations suggest that migration creates tightly packed systems with planets whose orbital periods may be expressed as ratios of small integers (resonances), often in a many-planet series (chain). In the hundreds of multi-planet systems of sub-Neptunes, more planet pairs are observed near resonances than would generally be expected, but no individual system has hitherto been identified that must have been formed by migration. Proximity to resonance enables the detection of planets perturbing each other. Here we report transit timing variations of the four planets in the Kepler-223 system, model these variations as resonant-angle librations, and compute the long-term stability of the resonant chain. The architecture of Kepler-223 is too finely tuned to have been formed by scattering, and our numerical simulations demonstrate that its properties are natural outcomes of the migration hypothesis. Similar systems could be destabilized by any of several mechanisms, contributing to the observed orbital-period distribution, where many planets are not in resonances. Planetesimal interactions in particular are thought to be responsible for establishing the current orbits of the four giant planets in the Solar System by disrupting a theoretical initial resonant chain similar to that observed in Kepler-223.

  19. Optical combs with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Ilchenko, Vladimir S; Solomatine, Iouri; Seidel, David; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a tunable monolithic optical frequency comb generator. The device is based on the four-wave mixing in a crystalline calcium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonator. The frequency spacing of the comb is given by an integer number of the free spectral range of the resonator. We select the desired number by tuning the pumping laser frequency with respect to the corresponding resonator mode. We also observe interacting optical combs and high-frequency hyperparametric oscillation, depending on the experimental conditions. A potential application of the comb for generating narrowband frequency microwave signals is demonstrated.

  20. Coherent stochastic resonance in the presence of a field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Moshe; Weiss, George H.

    1995-11-01

    A recent paper by Bulsara, Lowen, and Rees [Phys. Rev. E 49, 4989 (1994)] presents a perturbation analysis of coherent stochastic resonance in a half-space in the presence of a field. We believe that the analysis there was flawed due to an improper use of the method of images and that a correct version of a perturbation analysis can be given by using a transformation of the underlying equations. The result still exhibits stochastic resonance.

  1. Controller for Driving a Piezoelectric Actuator at Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu

    2008-01-01

    A digital control system based partly on an extremum-seeking control algorithm tracks the changing resonance frequency of a piezoelectric actuator or an electrically similar electromechanical device that is driven by a sinusoidal excitation signal and is required to be maintained at or near resonance in the presence of uncertain, changing external loads and disturbances. Somewhat more specifically, on the basis of measurements of the performance of the actuator, this system repeatedly estimates the resonance frequency and alters the excitation frequency as needed to keep it at or near the resonance frequency. In the original application for which this controller was developed, the piezoelectric actuator is part of an ultrasonic/sonic drill/corer. Going beyond this application, the underlying principles of design and operation are generally applicable to tracking changing resonance frequencies of heavily perturbed harmonic oscillators. Resonance-frequency-tracking analog electronic circuits are commercially available, but are not adequate for the present purpose for several reasons: The input/output characteristics of analog circuits tend to drift, often necessitating recalibration, especially whenever the same controller is used in driving a different resonator. In the case of an actuator in a system that has multiple modes characterized by different resonance frequencies, an analog controller can tune erroneously to one of the higher-frequency modes. The lack of programmability of analog controllers is problematic when faults occur, and is especially problematic for preventing tuning to a higher-frequency mode. In contrast, a digital controller can be programmed to restrict itself to a specified frequency range and to maintain stability even when the affected resonator is driven at high power and subjected to uncertain disturbances and variable loads. The present digital control system (see figure) is implemented by means of an algorithm that comprises three main

  2. Sensitivity improvements of a resonance-based tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Yoshinobu; Lindahl, Olof A

    2017-02-01

    Resonance-based contact-impedance measurement refers to the application of resonance sensors based on the measurement of the changes in the resonance curve of an ultrasonic resonator in contact with a surface. The advantage of the resonance sensor is that it is very sensitive to small changes in the contact impedance. A sensitive micro tactile sensor (MTS) was developed, which measured the elasticity of soft living tissues at the single-cell level. In the present paper, we studied the method of improving the touch and stiffness sensitivity of the MTS. First, the dependence of touch sensitivity in relation to the resonator length was studied by calculating the sensitivity coefficient at each length ranging from 9 to 40 mm. The highest touch sensitivity was obtained with a 30-mm-long glass needle driven at a resonance frequency of 100 kHz. Next, the numerical calculation of contact impedance showed that the highest stiffness sensitivity was achieved when the driving frequency was 100 kHz and the contact-tip diameter of the MTS was 10 μm. The theoretical model was then confirmed experimentally using a phase-locked-loop-based digital feedback oscillation circuit. It was found that the developed MTS, whose resonant frequency was 97.030 kHz, performed with the highest sensitivity of 53.2 × 10(6) Hz/N at the driving frequency of 97.986 kHz, i.e. the highest sensitivity was achieved at 956 Hz above the resonant frequency.

  3. A Search for ttbar Resonances with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Livermore, SSA

    2012-01-01

    A search for resonant production of ttbar pairs with data collected in 2011 by ATLAS. The analyses presented here concentrate on the lepton + jets and fully leptonic final states, with datasets corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 2.05 and 1.04 fb-1 respectively. Limits are set on the production cross-section times branching ratio to top quark pairs of resonances predicted by key benchmark models. Prospects are also presented for an analysis tailored to the search for high mass resonances which decay to pairs of "boosted" top quarks with large transverse momenta.

  4. Broadband converging plasmon resonance at a conical nanotip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunshan; Plouraboue, Franck; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2013-03-11

    We propose an analytical theory which predicts that Converging Plasmon Resonance (CPR) at conical nanotips exhibits a red-shifted and continuous band of resonant frequencies and suggests potential application of conical nanotips in various fields, such as plasmonic solar cells, photothermal therapy, tip-enhanced Raman and other spectroscopies. The CPR modes exhibit superior confinement and ten times broader scattering bandwidth over the entire solar spectrum than smooth nano-structures. The theory also explicitly connects the optimal angles and resonant optical frequencies to the material permittivities, with a specific optimum half angle that depends only on the real permittivity for high-permittivity and low-loss materials.

  5. Control of critical coupling in a coiled coaxial cable resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Wei, Tao; Wang, Tao; Fan, Jun; Xiao, Hai

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports a coiled coaxial cable resonator fabricated by cutting a slot in a spring-like coiled coaxial cable to produce a periodic perturbation. Electromagnetic coupling between two neighboring slots was observed. By manipulating the number of slots, critical coupling of the coiled coaxial cable resonator can be well controlled. An ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio (over 50 dB) at the resonant frequency band was experimentally achieved from a coiled coaxial cable resonator with 38 turns. A theoretic model is developed to understand the device physics. The proposed device can be potentially used as a high quality and flexibly designed band-stop filter or a sensor in structural health monitoring.

  6. Parameter-induced stochastic resonance with a periodic signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian-Long; Xu Bo-Hou

    2006-01-01

    In this paper conventional stochastic resonance (CSR) is realized by adding the noise intensity. This demonstrates that tuning the system parameters with fixed noise can make the noise play a constructive role and realize parameterinduced stochastic resonance (PSR). PSR can be interpreted as changing the intrinsic characteristic of the dynamical system to yield the cooperative effect between the stochastic-subjected nonlinear system and the external periodic force. This can be realized at any noise intensity, which greatly differs from CSR that is realized under the condition of the initial noise intensity not greater than the resonance level. Moreover, it is proved that PSR is different from the optimization of system parameters.

  7. Optical resonance problem in metamaterial arrays: a lattice dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanguo

    2016-11-01

    A systematic dynamic theory is established to deal with the optical collective resonance in metamaterial arrays. As a reference model, we consider an infinite split ring resonator (SRR) array illuminated by a linearly polarized wave and introduce an N-degree-of-freedom forced oscillator equation to simplify the coupled-mode vibration problem. We derive a strict formula of resonance frequency (RF) and its adjustable range from the steady-state response. Unlike a single SRR possesses invariant RF, it successfully explains the mechanism of RF shift effect in the SRR array when the incident angle changes. Instead of full wave analysis, only one or two adjacent resonance modes can give an accurate response line shape. Our approach is applicable for metallic arrays with any N-particle cell at all incident angles and well matched with numerical results. It provides a versatile way to study the vibration dynamics in optical periodic many-body systems.

  8. Experimental Verification of Predicted Oscillations Near a Spin Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, V.S.; /Michigan U.; Chao, A.W.; /Michigan U. /SLAC; Krisch, A.D.; Leonova, M.A.; Raymond, R.S.; Sivers, D.W.; Wong, V.K.; /Michigan U.; Ganshvili, A.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /Erlangen - Nuremberg U.; Gebel, R.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Stockhorst, H.; Welsch, D.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum; Hinterberger, F.; Ulbrich, K.; /Bonn U., HISKP; Schnase, A.; /JAEA, Ibaraki; Stephenson, E.J.; /Indiana U., IUCF; Brantjes, N.P.M.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; /Groningen U.

    2011-12-06

    The Chao matrix formalism allows analytic calculations of a beam's polarization behavior inside a spin resonance. We recently tested its prediction of polarization oscillations occurring in a stored beam of polarized particles near a spin resonance. Using a 1.85?GeV/c polarized deuteron beam stored in COSY, we swept a new rf solenoid's frequency rather rapidly through 400 Hz during 100 ms, while varying the distance between the sweep's end frequency and the central frequency of an rf-induced spin resonance. Our measurements of the deuteron's polarization for sweeps ending near and inside the resonance agree with the Chao formalism's predicted oscillations.

  9. A Second Peak in Diphoton (or Diboson) Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, Marcela; Ismail, Ahmed; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R; Wagner, Carlos E M

    2016-01-01

    A resonant diphoton peak can be explained by gluon fusion production of a new neutral scalar which subsequently decays into a pair of photons. Loop-induced couplings of the new scalar to gluons and photons should be mediated by particles carrying color and electric charge. We point out that, if the loop particles hadronize before decaying, their bound states will induce a second peak in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum near twice their mass. Using the recently reported 750 GeV excess as a benchmark, we discuss implications of this second peak for resonance searches at the LHC. The second peak could be present for resonances in the $gg$ and $Z\\gamma$ channels, or even in the $WW$ and $ZZ$ channels for a pseudo-scalar resonance, where the couplings are mediated by new loop particles.

  10. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible.

  11. The geometry of resonance tongues : a singularity theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Hendrik; Golubitsky, Martin; Vegter, Gert

    2003-01-01

    Resonance tongues and their boundaries are studied for nondegenerate and (certain) degenerate Hopf bifurcations of maps using singularity theory methods of equivariant contact equivalence and universal unfoldings. We recover the standard theory of tongues (the nondegencrate case) in a straightforwar

  12. Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Fiber Tracking in a Neonate with Hemimegalencephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Thomas J.; Scarciolla, Laura; Takahashi, Emi; Specchio, Nicola; Bernardi, Bruno De; Longo, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic resonance diffusion fiber tracking study in neonate diagnosed with left hemisphere hemimegalencephaly is presented. Despite diffuse morphologic deformities identified in conventional imaging, all major pathways were identifiable bilaterally with minor aberrations in vicinity of morphologic lesions.

  14. Resonator-assisted quantum bath engineering of a flux qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Peng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum bath engineering for preparation of any orbital state with the controllable phase factor of a superconducting flux qubit assisted by a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator. We investigate the polarization efficiency of the arbitrary direction rotating on the Bloch sphere, and obtain an effective Rabi frequency by using the convergence condition of the Markovian master equation. The processes of polarization can be implemented effectively in a dissipative environment created by resonator photon loss when the spectrum of the microwave resonator matches with the specially tailored Rabi and resonant frequencies of the drive. Our calculations indicate that state-preparation fidelities in excess of 99% and the required time on the order of magnitude of a microsecond are in principle possible for experimentally reasonable sample parameters. Furthermore, our proposal could be applied to other systems with spin-based qubits.

  15. A silicon single-crystal cryogenic optical resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Wiens, Eugen; Ernsting, Ingo; Luckmann, Heiko; Rosowski, Ulrich; Nevsky, Alexander; Schiller, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    We report on the demonstration and characterization of a silicon optical resonator for laser frequency stabilization, operating in the deep cryogenic regime at temperatures as low as 1.5 K. Robust operation was achieved, with absolute frequency drift less than 20 Hz over 1 hour. This stability allowed sensitive measurements of the resonator thermal expansion coefficient ($\\alpha$). We found $\\alpha=4.6\\times10^{-13}$ ${\\rm K^{-1}}$ at 1.6 K. At 16.8 K $\\alpha$ vanishes, with a derivative equal to $-6\\times10^{-10}$ ${\\rm K}^{-2}$. The temperature of the resonator was stabilized to a level below 10 $\\mu$K for averaging times longer than 20 s. The sensitivity of the resonator frequency to a variation of the laser power was also studied. The corresponding sensitivities and the expected Brownian noise indicate that this system should enable frequency stabilization of lasers at the low-$10^{-17}$ level.

  16. Global Dynamics of a Compressor Blade with Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Bian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global bifurcations and chaotic dynamics of a thin-walled compressor blade for the resonant case of 2 : 1 internal resonance and primary resonance are investigated. With the aid of the normal theory, the desired form associated with a double zero and a pair of pure imaginary eigenvalues for the global perturbation method is obtained. Based on the simpler form, the method developed by Kovacic and Wiggins is used to find the existence of a Shilnikov-type homoclinic orbit. The results obtained here indicate that the orbit homoclinic to certain invariant sets for the resonance case which may lead to chaos in the sense of Smale horseshoes for the system. The chaotic motions of the rotating compressor blade are also found by using numerical simulation.

  17. Observation of optomechanical coupling in a microbottle resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, Motoki; Chen, Weijian; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Ikuta, Rikizo; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Yang, Lan; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report optomechanical coupling, resolved sidebands and phonon lasing in a solid-core microbottle resonator fabricated on a single mode optical fiber. Mechanical modes with quality factors (Q_m) as high as 1.57*10^4 and 1.45*10^4 were observed, respectively, at the mechanical frequencies f_m=33.7 MHz and f_m=58.9 MHz. The maximum f_m*Q_m~0.85*10^12 Hz is close to the theoretical lower bound of 6*10^12 Hz needed to overcome thermal decoherence for resolved-sideband cooling of mechanical motion at room temperature, suggesting microbottle resonators as a possible platform for this endeavor. In addition to optomechanical effects, scatter-induced mode splitting and ringing phenomena, which are typical for high-quality optical resonances, were also observed in a microbottle resonator.

  18. Resonance fluorescence from a telecom-wavelength quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khuzheyri, R; Huwer, J; Santana, T S; Szymanska, J Skiba-; Felle, M; Ward, M B; Stevenson, R M; Farrer, I; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J; Gerardot, B D

    2016-01-01

    We report on resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot emitting at telecom wavelengths. We perform high-resolution spectroscopy and observe the Mollow triplet in the Rabi regime--a hallmark of resonance fluorescence. The measured resonance-fluorescence spectra allow us to rule out pure dephasing as a significant decoherence mechanism in these quantum dots. Combined with numerical simulations, the experimental results provide robust characterisation of charge noise in the environment of the quantum dot. Resonant control of the quantum dot opens up new possibilities for on-demand generation of indistinguishable single photons at telecom wavelengths as well as quantum optics experiments and direct manipulation of solid-state qubits in telecom-wavelength quantum dots.

  19. Stochastic resonance enhanced by dichotomic noise in a bistable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenfeld, Robert [Institute for Physics, Humboldt University at Berlin, D-10115, Berlin, (Germany); Neiman, Alexander [Center for Neurodynamics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States); Schimansky-Geier, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Humboldt University at Berlin, D-10115, Berlin, (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    We study linear responses of a stochastic bistable system driven by dichotomic noise to a weak periodic signal. We show that the effect of stochastic resonance can be greatly enhanced in comparison with the conventional case when dichotomic forcing is absent, that is, both the signal-to-noise ratio and the spectral power amplification reach much greater values than in the standard stochastic resonance setup. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  20. A microprocessor-based multichannel subsensory stochastic resonance electrical stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Gwo-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic resonance electrical stimulation is a novel intervention which provides potential benefits for improving postural control ability in the elderly, those with diabetic neuropathy, and stroke patients. In this paper, a microprocessor-based subsensory white noise electrical stimulator for the applications of stochastic resonance stimulation is developed. The proposed stimulator provides four independent programmable stimulation channels with constant-current output, possesses linear voltage-to-current relationship, and has two types of stimulation modes, pulse amplitude and width modulation.

  1. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: A functional analytic description

    OpenAIRE

    Lapke, Martin; Oberrath, Jens; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2012-01-01

    The term "Active Plasma Resonance Spectroscopy" refers to a class of diagnostic methods which employ the ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the plasma frequency. The basic idea dates back to the early days of discharge physics: An signal in the GHz range is coupled to the plasma via an electrical probe; the spectral response is recorded, and then evaluated with a mathematical model to obtain information on the electron density and other plasma parameters. In recent years, the concept h...

  2. Theory of a resonance oscillator with relay interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, G. A.; Mikhailov, V. I.; Pivovarova, A. G.

    A theoretical analysis is presented of an open-resonator oscillator the operation of which is based on the relay interaction of a broad ribbon-shaped electron beam with the spatial harmonic of the HF field of the resonator. Relations of the general theory of oscillator excitation are used to investigate the dependence of the output characteristics on the parameters of the problem, assuming the distribution of HF amplitude to be uniform along the periodic structure.

  3. Stochastic Resonance in a Coupled Array Without Periodic Driving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱敏; 张雪娟

    2002-01-01

    We manifest a stochastic resonance in a two-dimensional square array of coupled oscillators subjected only to white noise and constant driving forces. The result shows that the coherent output of every single oscillator plays the role of periodic input to its neighbours. Even without periodic driving, the cooperation of the white noise and the coupling can also result in the array enhanced stochastic resonance effect. In our investigation, global as well as local noise perturbation is taken into account.

  4. Resonant Phase Patterns in a Reaction-Diffusion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Anna L.; Bertram, Matthias; Martinez, Karl; Swinney, Harry L.; Ardelea, Alexandre; Carey, Graham F.

    2000-05-01

    Resonance regions similar to the Arnol'd tongues found in single oscillator frequency locking are observed in experiments using a spatially extended periodically forced Belousov-Zhabotinsky system. We identify six distinct 2:1 subharmonic resonant patterns and describe them in terms of the position-dependent phase and magnitude of the oscillations. Some experimentally observed features are also found in numerical studies of a forced Brusselator reaction-diffusion model. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. A wavelength demultiplexing structure based on graphene nanoribbon resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huawei; Sheng, Shiwei; Kong, Fanmin; Li, Kang; Wang, Yuling

    2016-12-01

    A wavelength demultiplexing (WDM) structure based on graphene nanoribbon resonators is proposed and numerically investigated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The demultiplexing wavelength can be easily derived by adjusting the length of the resonator, which is accurately explained by the Fabry-Perot (F-P) resonant theory. Meanwhile, the transmission characteristics of the WDM structure are influenced by the coupling distance between the resonator and drop/bus waveguides, and the performance of the WDM device is analyzed at different nanoribbon width and chemical potential. In addition, in order to improve the transmission efficiency from the drop waveguide, a reflection structure is introduced at the end of the bus waveguide. The exact mechanism for the WDM structure is analyzed in detail using the temporal coupled-mode theory. The proposed structure will have potential applications in the field of ultra-compact WDM systems in highly integrated optical circuits.

  6. Investigation of a delayed feedback controller of MEMS resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Masri, Karim M.

    2013-08-04

    Controlling mechanical systems is an important branch of mechanical engineering. Several techniques have been used to control Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators. In this paper, we study the effect of a delayed feedback controller on stabilizing MEMS resonators. A delayed feedback velocity controller is implemented through modifying the parallel plate electrostatic force used to excite the resonator into motion. A nonlinear single degree of freedom model is used to simulate the resonator response. Long time integration is used first. Then, a finite deference technique to capture periodic motion combined with the Floquet theory is used to capture the stable and unstable periodic responses. We show that applying a suitable positive gain can stabilize the MEMS resonator near or inside the instability dynamic pull in band. We also study the stability of the resonator by tracking its basins of attraction while sweeping the controller gain and the frequency of excitations. For positive delayed gains, we notice significant enhancement in the safe area of the basins of attraction. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  7. Resonantly Enhanced Emission from a Luminescent Nanostructured Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Yasuhisa; Hashiya, Akira; Nitta, Mitsuru; Tomita, Shogo; Tsujimoto, Akira; Suzuki, Masa-aki; Yamaki, Takeyuki; Hirasawa, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the characteristics of photon emission represents a significant challenge for both fundamental science and device technologies. Research on microcavities, photonic crystals, and plasmonic nanocavities has focused on controlling spontaneous emission by way of designing a resonant structure around the emitter to modify the local density of photonic states. In this work, we demonstrate resonantly enhanced emission using luminescent nanostructured waveguide resonance (LUNAR). Our concept is based on coupling between emitters in the luminescent waveguide and a resonant waveguide mode that interacts with a periodic nanostructure and hence outcouples via diffraction. We show that the enhancement of resonance emission can be controlled by tuning the design parameters. We also demonstrate that the enhanced emission is attributable to the accelerated spontaneous emission rate that increases the probability of photon emission in the resonant mode, accompanied by enhanced the local density of photonic states. This study demonstrates that nanostructured luminescent materials can be designed to exhibit functional and enhanced emission. We anticipate that our concept will be used to improve the performance of a variety of photonic and optical applications ranging from bio/chemical sensors to lighting, displays and projectors. PMID:27682993

  8. Resonantly Enhanced Emission from a Luminescent Nanostructured Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Yasuhisa; Hashiya, Akira; Nitta, Mitsuru; Tomita, Shogo; Tsujimoto, Akira; Suzuki, Masa-Aki; Yamaki, Takeyuki; Hirasawa, Taku

    2016-09-01

    Controlling the characteristics of photon emission represents a significant challenge for both fundamental science and device technologies. Research on microcavities, photonic crystals, and plasmonic nanocavities has focused on controlling spontaneous emission by way of designing a resonant structure around the emitter to modify the local density of photonic states. In this work, we demonstrate resonantly enhanced emission using luminescent nanostructured waveguide resonance (LUNAR). Our concept is based on coupling between emitters in the luminescent waveguide and a resonant waveguide mode that interacts with a periodic nanostructure and hence outcouples via diffraction. We show that the enhancement of resonance emission can be controlled by tuning the design parameters. We also demonstrate that the enhanced emission is attributable to the accelerated spontaneous emission rate that increases the probability of photon emission in the resonant mode, accompanied by enhanced the local density of photonic states. This study demonstrates that nanostructured luminescent materials can be designed to exhibit functional and enhanced emission. We anticipate that our concept will be used to improve the performance of a variety of photonic and optical applications ranging from bio/chemical sensors to lighting, displays and projectors.

  9. Broadband converging plasmon resonance at a conical nanotip

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yunshan; Plouraboué, Franck; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We propose an analytical theory which predicts that Converging Plasmon Resonance (CPR) at conical nanotips exhibits a red-shifted and continuous band of resonant frequencies and suggests potential application of conical nanotips in various fields, such as plasmonic solar cells, photothermal therapy, tip-enhanced Raman and other spectroscopies. The CPR modes exhibit superior confinement and ten times broader scattering bandwidth over the entire solar spectrum than smoot...

  10. Longitudinal mode structure in a non-planar ring resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jaberi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  The structure of longitudinal modes of a passively Q-switched, non-planar unidirectional ring-resonator,with Nd:YAG active medium is described in this article. Two different techniques are used to study the longitudinal mode structure of the laser resonator. At first, the fast-fourier transform technique is applied for analyzing the mode beating of the optical fields by intensity frequency structure of the laser pulses to determine the number of longitudinal modes. Then, an analyzer etalon is used to observe Fabry-Perot fringes to compute the numbers of the resonator longitudinal modes. The results of two techniques are in good agreement with each other. Under the proper conditions, a reliable single longitudinal mode of the non-planar ring-resonator can be achieved with a good spatial mode profile that originates from the unidirectional travelling optical field propagation in the resonator having a very low sensitivity of the non-planar ring resonator to the optical elements misalignment.

  11. Atom loss resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmack, Christian; Smith, D Hudson; Braaten, Eric

    2013-07-12

    Atom loss resonances in ultracold trapped atoms have been observed at scattering lengths near atom-dimer resonances, at which Efimov trimers cross the atom-dimer threshold, and near two-dimer resonances, at which universal tetramers cross the dimer-dimer threshold. We propose a new mechanism for these loss resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms. As the scattering length is ramped to the large final value at which the atom loss rate is measured, the time-dependent scattering length generates a small condensate of shallow dimers coherently from the atom condensate. The coexisting atom and dimer condensates can be described by a low-energy effective field theory with universal coefficients that are determined by matching exact results from few-body physics. The classical field equations for the atom and dimer condensates predict narrow enhancements in the atom loss rate near atom-dimer resonances and near two-dimer resonances due to inelastic dimer collisions.

  12. Numerical Investigations of Resonant Layers in a Periodically—Driven Pendulum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbertC.L.LUO

    1999-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the presence of resonant layers formed near a resonant separatrix in a periodically driven pendulum are presented through an energy spectrum method.The analytical predictions are also presented.The resonant layers are illustrated through the Poincare mapping sections.For the strong excitation.The sub-resonance effects should be considered through the self-similarity of resonance in the resonant layers.

  13. Resonant Phenomenon in a Stochastic Delayed Bistable Chemical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxuan; Yang, Tao

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the resonant phenomenon for a bistable chemical system in the presence of noises and delayed feedback is investigated. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated when periodic signal is introduced additively (or multiplicatively). The impacts of the parameter μ of the reaction, time delay τ, strength K of the feedback loop, multiplicative ( D) and additive ( Q) noise strengths and cross-correlation strength λ between two noises on the SNR are discussed. When the periodic signal is introduced additively, our results show (i) the SNR as a function of the parameter μ exhibits a maximum, the existence of the maximum is a characteristic of the parametric resonance (PR) phenomenon; (ii) the SNR as a function of D exhibits only a maximum, however, for the case of SNR as a function of Q exhibits not only a maximum, but also a minimum. The existence of the maximum and minimum in the SNR is the identifying characteristics of the stochastic resonance (SR) and reverse-resonance (RR); and (iii) the increases of τ, K and λ enhance the SR and weaken the RR. Finally, we compare the resonant phenomenon for the additive periodic signal with that for multiplicative one in the chemical system.

  14. Pitchfork bifurcation and vibrational resonance in a fractional-order Duffing oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J H Yang; M A F Sanjuán; W Xiang; H Zhu

    2013-12-01

    The pitchfork bifurcation and vibrational resonance are studied in a fractional-order Duffing oscillator with delayed feedback and excited by two harmonic signals. Using an approximation method, the bifurcation behaviours and resonance patterns are predicted. Supercritical and subcritical pitchfork bifurcations can be induced by the fractional-order damping, the exciting highfrequency signal and the delayed time. The fractional-order damping mainly determines the pattern of the vibrational resonance. There is a bifurcation point of the fractional order which, in the case of double-well potential, transforms vibrational resonance pattern from a single resonance to a double resonance, while in the case of single-well potential, transforms vibrational resonance from no resonance to a single resonance. The delayed time influences the location of the vibrational resonance and the bifurcation point of the fractional order. Pitchfork bifurcation is the necessary condition for the double resonance. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  15. The diphoton resonance as a gravity mediator of dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Han

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the possibility of interpreting the recently reported diphoton excess at 750 GeV as a spin-two massive particle (such as a Kaluza–Klein graviton in warped extra-dimensions which serves as a mediator to Dark Matter via its gravitational couplings to the dark sector and to the Standard Model (SM. We model non-universal couplings of the resonance to gauge bosons in the SM and to Dark Matter as a function on their localization in the extra dimension. We find that scalar, fermion or vector dark matter can saturate the dark matter relic density by the annihilation of dark matter into a pair of the SM particles or heavy resonances, in agreement with the diphoton resonance signal strength. We check the compatibility of our hypothesis with other searches for the KK graviton. We show that the invisible decay rate of the resonance into a pair of dark matter is subdominant in the region of the correct relic density, hence leading to no constraints from the mono-jet bound at 8 TeV via the gluon coupling. We also discuss the kinematic features of the decay products of a KK graviton to distinguish the KK graviton from the SM backgrounds or a scalar particle interpretation of the diphoton resonance.

  16. The diphoton resonance as a gravity mediator of dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengcheng; Lee, Hyun Min; Park, Myeonghun; Sanz, Verónica

    2016-04-01

    We consider the possibility of interpreting the recently reported diphoton excess at 750 GeV as a spin-two massive particle (such as a Kaluza-Klein graviton in warped extra-dimensions) which serves as a mediator to Dark Matter via its gravitational couplings to the dark sector and to the Standard Model (SM). We model non-universal couplings of the resonance to gauge bosons in the SM and to Dark Matter as a function on their localization in the extra dimension. We find that scalar, fermion or vector dark matter can saturate the dark matter relic density by the annihilation of dark matter into a pair of the SM particles or heavy resonances, in agreement with the diphoton resonance signal strength. We check the compatibility of our hypothesis with other searches for the KK graviton. We show that the invisible decay rate of the resonance into a pair of dark matter is subdominant in the region of the correct relic density, hence leading to no constraints from the mono-jet bound at 8 TeV via the gluon coupling. We also discuss the kinematic features of the decay products of a KK graviton to distinguish the KK graviton from the SM backgrounds or a scalar particle interpretation of the diphoton resonance.

  17. Ferromagnetic resonance and resonance modes in kagome lattices: From an open to a closed kagome structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowik, J.; Kuświk, P.; Matczak, M.; Bednarski, W.; Stobiecki, F.; Aleshkevych, P.; Szymczak, H.; Kisielewski, M.; Kisielewski, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) investigations of 20 nm thick permalloy (Ni80Fe20 ) elements (width W =200 nm, length L =470 nm, period a =500 nm) arranged in open and closed artificial kagome lattices. The measurements were done at 9.4 and 34 GHz to ensure a saturated or near-saturated magnetic state of the kagome structures. The FMR data are analyzed in the framework of an analytical macrospin model which grasps the essential features of the bulk and edge modes at these microwave frequencies and is in agreement with the results of micromagnetic simulations. Polar plots of the resonance fields versus the field angle made by the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the main symmetry directions of the kagome lattice are compared with the results of the analytical model. The measured FMR spectra with a sixfold rotational symmetry qualitatively reproduce the structure expected from the theory. Magnetic dipolar interactions between the elements of the kagome lattices result in the mixing of edge and bulklike excitations at 9.4 GHz and in a systematic deviation from the model, especially for the closed kagome lattice.

  18. Parametric Resonance in the Early Universe - A Fitting Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    Particle production via parametric resonance in the early Universe, is a non-perturbative, non-linear and out-of-equilibrium phenomenon. Although it is a well studied topic, whenever a new scenario exhibits parametric resonance, a full re-analysis is normally required. To avoid this tedious task, many works present often only a simplified linear treatment of the problem. In order to surpass this circumstance in the future, we provide a fitting analysis of parametric resonance through all its relevant stages: initial linear growth, non-linear evolution, and relaxation towards equilibrium. Using lattice simulations in an expanding grid in $3+1$ dimensions, we parametrise the dynamics' outcome scanning over the relevant ingredients: role of the oscillatory field, particle coupling strength, initial conditions, and background expansion rate. We emphasise the inaccuracy of the linear calculation of the decay time of the oscillatory field, and propose a more appropriate definition of this scale based on the subsequ...

  19. Harmonic-Resonance Analysis in a Maglev Feeding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeeda, Hidenori; Okui, Akinobu; Akagi, Hirofumi

    A feeding circuit for a superconducting magnetic levitation train system, or the so-called “maglev” consists of feeder cables and armature coils which show characteristics of a distributed-parameter line. Electric power is supplied to the cables and coils by PWM inverters whose output voltage contains a large amount of harmonics. As a result, a harmonic resonance may occur in the feeding circuit. Besides the above characteristics, the connecting point of sections (groups of armature coils) or the feeder cables length changes according to the movement of a maglev train, thus causing changes in the harmonic-resonance characteristics of the feeding circuit. This paper describes analytical results of the harmonic resonance in the feeding circuit for the maglev, with the focus on changes in the connecting point of sections and the feeder cables length.

  20. Proliferation detection using a remote resonance Raman chemical sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, A.J.; Chen, C.L.; Dougherty, D.R.

    1993-08-01

    The authors discussed the potential of the resonance Raman chemical sensor as a remote sensor that can be used for gases, liquids or solids. This spectroscopy has the fundamental advantage that it is based on optical fingerprints that are insensitive to environmental perturbations or excitation frequency. By taking advantage of resonance enhancement, the inelastic scattering cross-section can increase anywhere from 4 to 6 orders of magnitude which translates into increased sensing range or lower detection limits. It was also shown that differential cross-sections as small as 10{sup {minus}27} cm{sup 2}/sr do not preclude the use of this technique as being an important component in one`s remote-sensing arsenal. The results obtained in the early 1970s on various pollutants and the more recent work on atmospheric water cast a favorable light on the prospects for the successful development of a resonance Raman remote sensor. Currently, of the 20 CW agent-related {open_quotes}signature{close_quotes} chemicals that the authors have investigated, 18 show enhancements ranging from 3 to 6 orders of magnitude. The absolute magnitudes of the measured resonance enhanced Raman cross-sections for these 18 chemicals suggest that detection and identification of trace quantities of the {open_quotes}signature{close_quotes} chemicals, through a remote resonance Raman chemical sensor, could be achieved.

  1. Measuring ac losses in superconducting cables using a resonant circuit:Resonant current experiment (RESCUE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Däumling, Manfred; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Rasmussen, Carsten;

    1998-01-01

    be recorded using, for example, a digital oscilloscope. The amplitude decay of the periodic voltage or current accurately reflects the power loss in the system. It consists of two components-an ohmic purely exponential one (from leads, contacts, etc.), and a nonexponential component originating from......A simple way to obtain true ac losses with a resonant circuit containing a superconductor, using the decay of the circuit current, is described. For the measurement a capacitor is short circuited with a superconducting cable. Energy in the circuit is provided by either charging up the capacitors...... with a certain voltage, or letting a de flow in the superconductor. When the oscillations are started-either by opening a switch in case a de is flowing or by closing a switch to connect the charged capacitors with the superconductor-the current (via a Rogowski coil) or the voltage on the capacitor can...

  2. A quadratic-shaped-finger comb parametric resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Congzhong; Fedder, Gary K.

    2013-09-01

    A large-stroke (8 µm) parametric resonator excited by an in-plane ‘shaped-finger’ electrostatic comb drive is fabricated using a 15 µm thick silicon-on-insulator microelectromechanical systems (SOI-MEMS) process. A quadratic capacitance-engagement response is synthesized by engineering a custom-shaped comb finger profile. A folded-flexure suspension allows lateral motion while constraining rotational modes. The excitation of the nonlinear parametric resonance is realized by selecting an appropriate combination of the linear and cubic electrostatic stiffness coefficients through a specific varying-gap comb-finger design. The large-amplitude parametric resonance promotes high signal-to-noise ratio for potential use in sensitive chemical gravimetric sensors, strain gauges, and mode-matched gyroscope applications.

  3. A planar left-handed metamaterial based on electric resonators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chun-Hui; Qu Shao-Bo; Wang Jia-Fu; Ma Hua; Wang Xin-Hua; Xu Zhuo

    2011-01-01

    A planar left-handed metamaterial(LHM) composed of electric resonator pairs is presented in this paper. Theoretical analysis, an equivalent circuit model and simulated results of a wedge sample show that this material exhibits a negative refraction pass-band around 9.6GHz under normal-incidence and is insensitive to a change in incidence angle. Furthermore, as the angle between the arm of the electric resonators and the strip connecting the arms increases, the frequency range of the pass-band shifts downwards. Consequently, this LHM guarantees a relatively stable torlerence of errors when it is practically fabricated. Moreover, it is a candidate for designing multi-band LHM through combining the resonator pairs with different angles.

  4. Optical wavelength conversion via optomechanical coupling in a silica resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chunhua; Fiore, Victor; Kuzyk, Mark C.; Wang, Hailin [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Tian, Lin [University of California, Merced, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In an optomechanical resonator, an optically active mechanical mode can couple to any of the optical resonances via radiation pressure. This unique property can enable a remarkable phenomenon: conversion of optical fields via optomechanical coupling between vastly different wavelengths. Here we expand an earlier experimental study [Science 338, 1609 (2012)] on classical wavelength conversion of coherent optical fields by coupling two optical modes to a mechanical breathing mode in a silica resonator. Heterodyne detection of the converted optical fields shows that the wavelength conversion process is coherent and bidirectional. The conversion efficiency obtained features a distinct saturation behavior that arises from optomechanical impedance matching. A measurement of the coherent mechanical excitation involved in the wavelength conversion process also provides additional insight on the underlying optomechanical interactions. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Electron spin resonance detected by a superconducting qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Y; Grezes, C; Umeda, T; Isoya, J; Sumiya, H; Yamamoto, T; Abe, H; Onoda, S; Ohshima, T; Jacques, V; Dréau, A; Roch, J -F; Auffeves, A; Vion, D; Esteve, D; Bertet, P

    2012-01-01

    A new method for detecting the magnetic resonance of electronic spins at low temperature is demonstrated. It consists in measuring the signal emitted by the spins with a superconducting qubit that acts as a single-microwave-photon detector, resulting in an enhanced sensitivity. We implement this new type of electron-spin resonance spectroscopy using a hybrid quantum circuit in which a transmon qubit is coupled to a spin ensemble consisting of NV centers in diamond. With this setup we measure the NV center absorption spectrum at 30mK at an excitation level of \\thicksim15\\,\\mu_{B} out of an ensemble of 10^{11} spins.

  6. Ultra-luminescent a-SiOx resonant structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Rossano; Vallini, Felipe; Frateschi, Newton C

    2011-01-01

    We have fabricated ultra-luminescent samples with erbium-doped amorphous silicon sub-oxide (a-SiOx) layers deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. The layer thicknesses were designed to provide a resonance with low Q and large modal effective volume at 1540 nm and resonances in the wavelength range between 600 - 1200 nm. Within this range, strong light emission from a-SiOx defect-related radiative centers is observed. The Er3+ optical transition 4I11/2 - 4I15/2 (980 nm) is also observed. Two-fold improvement in photoluminescence intensity is achieved in the wavelength range between 800 - 1000 nm due to the resonator structure. The photoluminescence intensity in the wavelength range between 1400 - 1700 nm (region of Er3+ 4I13/2 - 4I15/2 transition) is increased four times. This improvement is apparently caused by optical pumping at 980 nm, close to the resonance wavelength where the emission from the 4I13/2 level couples to the low Q resonance at 1540 nm. After efficient dangling-bond engineering by temperature annea...

  7. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dahai; Wu, Lingqi; Yan, Meizhi; Cui, Mingyang; You, Zheng; Hu, Muzhi

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor's vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment.

  8. Quantized amplitudes in a nonlinear resonant electrical circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Cretin, B

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple nonlinear resonant analog circuit which demonstrates quantization of resonating amplitudes, for a given excitation level. The system is a simple RLC resonator where C is an active capacitor whose value is related to the current in the circuit. This variation is energetically equivalent to a variation of the potential energy and the circuit acts as a pendulum in the gravitational field. The excitation voltage, synchronously switched at the current frequency, enables electrical supply and keeping the oscillation of the system. The excitation frequency has been set to high harmonic of the fundamental oscillation so that anisochronicity can keep constant the amplitude of the circuit voltage and current. The behavior of the circuit is unusual: different stable amplitudes have been measured depending on initial conditions and excitation frequency, for the same amplitude of the excitation. The excitation frequency is naturally divided by the circuit and the ratio is kept constant without external...

  9. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahai Ren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor’s vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment.

  10. Evidence for a Missing Nucleon Resonance in Kaon Photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mart, T

    2000-01-01

    New SAPHIR p(gamma,K+)Lambda total cross section data show a resonance structure at a total c.m. energy around 1900 MeV. We investigate this feature with an isobar model and find that the structure can be well explained by including a new D_{13} resonance at 1895 MeV. Such a state has been predicted by a relativistic quark model at 1960 MeV with significant gamma-N and K-Lambda branching ratios. We demonstrate how the measurement of the photon asymmetry can be used to further study this resonance. In addition, verification of the predicted large decay widths into the eta-N and eta'-N channels would allow distinguishing between other nearby D_{13} states.

  11. Diboson Resonance as a Portal to Hidden Strong Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new explanation for excess events observed in the search for a high-mass resonance decaying into dibosons by the ATLAS experiment. The resonance is identified as a composite spin-$0$ particle that couples to the Standard Model gauge bosons via dimension-5 operators. The excess events can be explained if the dimension-5 operators are suppressed by a mass scale of ${\\cal O}(1$--$10$) TeV. We also construct a model of hidden strong gauge dynamics which realizes the spin-$0$ particle as its lightest composite state, with appropriate couplings to Standard Model gauge bosons.

  12. About Titan's rotation: A forced "free" resonant wobble

    CERN Document Server

    Noyelles, B

    2007-01-01

    In Noyelles et al. (2007), a resonance involving the wobble of Titan is being suspected. This paper studies the probability of this scenario and its consequences. The first step is to build an accurate analytical model that would help to feel the likely resonances in the rotation of every synchronous body. I n this model, I take the orbital eccentricity of the body into account, and also two terms in its orbital inclination. Then an analytical study using the theory of the adiabatic invariant is being performed to study the interesting resonance. Finally, I study the dissipative consequences of this resonance. I find that this resonance might have increased the wobble of Titan of several degrees. Thanks to an original formula, I find that the dissipation involved by the forced wobble might not be negligeable compared to the contribution of the eccentricity. I also suspect that, due to the forced wobble, Titan's period of rotation might be a little underestimated by observers. I finally use the analytical mode...

  13. A Microring Resonator Based Negative Permeability Metamaterial Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Huang, Ming; Yang, Jing-Jing; Li, Ting-Hua; Lan, Yao-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificial multifunctional materials that acquire their material properties from their structure, rather than inheriting them directly from the materials they are composed of, and they may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors. In this paper, we derive the dispersion relation of a cylindrical dielectric waveguide loaded on a negative permeability metamaterial (NPM) layer, and compute the resonant frequencies and electric field distribution of the corresponding Whispering-Gallery-Modes (WGMs). The theoretical resonant frequency and electric field distribution results are in good agreement with the full wave simulation results. We show that the NPM sensor based on a microring resonator possesses higher sensitivity than the traditional microring sensor since with the evanescent wave amplification and the increase of NPM layer thickness, the sensitivity will be greatly increased. This may open a door for designing sensors with specified sensitivity. PMID:22164062

  14. Analysis of a Precambrian resonance-stabilized day length

    CERN Document Server

    Bartlett, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Stromatolite data suggest the day length throughout much of the Precambrian to be relatively constant near 21 hours; this period would have been resonant with the semidiurnal atmospheric tide. At this point, the atmospheric torque would have been nearly maximized, being comparable in magnitude but opposite in direction to the lunar torque, halting Earth's angular deceleration, as suggested by Zahnle and Walker [1987]. Computational simulations of this scenario indicate that, depending on the atmospheric $Q$-factor, a persistent increase in temperature larger than ~10K over a period of time less than $10^7$ years will break resonance, such as the deglaciation following a snowball event near the end of the Precambrian. The resonance was found to be relatively unaffected by other forms of climate fluctuation (thermal noise). Our model provides a simulated day length over time that matches existing records of day length, though further data is needed.

  15. A Microring Resonator Based Negative Permeability Metamaterial Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Zhong Lan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials are artificial multifunctional materials that acquire their material properties from their structure, rather than inheriting them directly from the materials they are composed of, and they may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors. In this paper, we derive the dispersion relation of a cylindrical dielectric waveguide loaded on a negative permeability metamaterial (NPM layer, and compute the resonant frequencies and electric field distribution of the corresponding Whispering-Gallery-Modes (WGMs. The theoretical resonant frequency and electric field distribution results are in good agreement with the full wave simulation results. We show that the NPM sensor based on a microring resonator possesses higher sensitivity than the traditional microring sensor since with the evanescent wave amplification and the increase of NPM layer thickness, the sensitivity will be greatly increased. This may open a door for designing sensors with specified sensitivity.

  16. Observation of decoherence in a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ben H; Singh, Vibhor; Venstra, Warner J; Meerwaldt, Harold B; Steele, Gary A

    2014-12-19

    In physical systems, decoherence can arise from both dissipative and dephasing processes. In mechanical resonators, the driven frequency response measures a combination of both, whereas time-domain techniques such as ringdown measurements can separate the two. Here we report the first observation of the mechanical ringdown of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. Comparing the mechanical quality factor obtained from frequency- and time-domain measurements, we find a spectral quality factor four times smaller than that measured in ringdown, demonstrating dephasing-induced decoherence of the nanomechanical motion. This decoherence is seen to arise at high driving amplitudes, pointing to a nonlinear dephasing mechanism. Our results highlight the importance of time-domain techniques for understanding dissipation in nanomechanical resonators, and the relevance of decoherence mechanisms in nanotube mechanics.

  17. Transforming Fabry-Perot resonances into a Tamm mode

    CERN Document Server

    Durach, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel photonic structure composed of metal nanolayer, Bragg mirror and metal nanolayer. The structure supports resonances that are transitional between Fabry-Perot and Tamm modes. When the dielectric contrast of the DBR is removed these modes are a pair of conventional Fabry-Perot resonances. They spectrally merge into a Tamm mode at high contrast. Such behavior differs from the results for structures supporting Tamm modes reported earlier. The optical properties of the structure in the frequency range of the DBR stop band, including highly beneficial 50% transmittivity through thick structures, are determined by the introduced in the paper hybrid resonances. The results can find a wide range of photonic applications.

  18. Resonance spectrum of a bulk fermion on branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Peng; Du, Yun-Zhi; Guo, Wen-Di; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-03-01

    It is known that there are two mechanisms for localizing a bulk fermion on a brane: one is the well-known Yukawa coupling, and the other is the new coupling proposed in [Phys. Rev. D 89, 086001 (2014)]. In this paper, we investigate the localization and resonance spectrum of a bulk fermion on the same branes with the two localization mechanisms. It is found that both of the two mechanisms can result in a volcano-like effective potential of the fermion Kaluza-Klein modes. The left-chiral fermion zero mode can be localized on the brane, and there exist some discrete massive-fermion Kaluza-Klein modes that quasilocalized on the branes (also called fermion resonances). The number of the fermion resonances increases linearly with the coupling parameter.

  19. Acoustic resonances in cylinder bundles oscillating in a compressibile fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1984-12-01

    This paper deals with an analytical study on acoustic resonances of elastic oscillations of a group of parallel, circular, thin cylinders in an unbounded volume of barotropic, compressible, inviscid fluid. The perturbed motion of the fluid is assumed due entirely to the flexural oscillations of the cylinders. The motion of the fluid disturbances is first formulated in a three-dimensional wave form and then casted into a two-dimensional Helmholtz equation for the harmonic motion in time and in axial space. The acoustic motion in the fluid and the elastic motion in the cylinders are solved simultaneously. Acoustic resonances were approximately determined from the secular (eigenvalue) equation by the method of successive iteration with the use of digital computers for a given set of the fluid properties and the cylinders' geometry and properties. Effects of the flexural wavenumber and the configuration of and the spacing between the cylinders on the acoustic resonances were thoroughly investigated.

  20. Observation of decoherence in a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ben H.; Singh, Vibhor; Venstra, Warner J.; Meerwaldt, Harold B.; Steele, Gary A.

    2014-12-01

    In physical systems, decoherence can arise from both dissipative and dephasing processes. In mechanical resonators, the driven frequency response measures a combination of both, whereas time-domain techniques such as ringdown measurements can separate the two. Here we report the first observation of the mechanical ringdown of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. Comparing the mechanical quality factor obtained from frequency- and time-domain measurements, we find a spectral quality factor four times smaller than that measured in ringdown, demonstrating dephasing-induced decoherence of the nanomechanical motion. This decoherence is seen to arise at high driving amplitudes, pointing to a nonlinear dephasing mechanism. Our results highlight the importance of time-domain techniques for understanding dissipation in nanomechanical resonators, and the relevance of decoherence mechanisms in nanotube mechanics.

  1. Resonance spectrum of a bulk fermion on branes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu-Peng; Guo, Wen-Di; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are two mechanisms for localizing a bulk fermion on a brane, one is the well-known Yukawa coupling and the other is the new coupling proposed in [Phys. Rev. D 89, 086001 (2014)]. In this paper, we investigate localization and resonance spectrum of a bulk fermion on the same branes with the two localization mechanisms. It is found that both the two mechanisms can result in a volcano-like effective potential of the fermion Kaluza-Klein modes. The left-chiral fermion zero mode can be localized on the brane and there exist some discrete massive fermion Kaluza-Klein modes that quasilocalized on the brane (also called fermion resonances). The number of the fermion resonances increases linearly with the coupling parameter.

  2. Head-Positioning Control Using Virtual Resonant Modes in a Hard Disk Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Takenori

    In conventional control systems in hard disk drives, it is difficult to compensate for disturbances above the primary mechanical resonance. In this paper, a design method that uses a virtual resonant mode in head-positioning systems of hard disk drives was developed. The virtual resonant mode is a digital filter that works like a mechanical resonant mode. Using the proposed method, stable resonant modes in a control system can be designed with a high degree of accuracy to compensate for disturbances whose frequencies are higher than that of the primary mechanical resonance. Application of this method to a hard disk drive showed that it significantly suppresses disturbances beyond the primary mechanical resonance.

  3. Micromechanical resonators as a tool for polymer characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta

    -static Tg of polymers while the quality factor change provided the frequency dependent shift of Tg to higher temperature. Microcantilevers were successfully employed as a platform for fast estimation of polymer degradation rate with minute amount of sample compared to conventional techniques. A detailed......The aim of this Ph.D. project was the evaluation of micromechanical resonators like cantilevers and strings as analytical tools for characterization of polymers. Spray coating was used as the technique to coat one side of the micromechanical resonators with polymer. Process optimization......-substrate distance, the temperature of the substrate and the speed of the spraying nozzle. Micromechanical string resonators were successfully developed as an analytical tool for sensitive and fast thermal characterization of polymers with only a few nanograms of sample. Both the glass transition (Tg) and sub...

  4. Anthropogenic sources stimulate resonance of a natural rock bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Thorne, Michael S.; Koper, Keith D.; Wood, John R.; Goddard, Kyler; Burlacu, Relu; Doyle, Sarah; Stanfield, Erik; White, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    The natural modes of vibration of bedrock landforms, as well as the sources and effects of stimulated resonance remain poorly understood. Here we show that seismic energy created by an induced earthquake and an artificial reservoir has spectral content coincident with the natural modes of vibration of a prominent rock bridge. We measured the resonant frequencies of Rainbow Bridge, Utah using data from two broadband seismometers placed on the span, and identified eight distinct vibrational modes between 1 and 6 Hz. A distant, induced earthquake produced local ground motion rich in 1 Hz energy, stimulating a 20 dB increase in measured power at the bridge's fundamental mode. Moreover, we establish that wave action on Lake Powell, an artificial reservoir, generates microseismic energy with peak power ~1 Hz, also exciting resonance of Rainbow Bridge. These anthropogenic sources represent relatively new energy input for the bridge with unknown consequences for structural fatigue.

  5. A modern Michelson-Morley experiment using ultrastable optical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Achim

    2005-05-01

    This talk will describe a modern version of the classic Michelson-Morley experiment testing the isotropy of light propagation and thus the foundations of Special Relativity. The latest experimental setup employs of an assembly of orthogonal ultrastable optical resonators mounted inside a liquid Helium cryostat, which itself is actively rotated using a high performance air-supported turntable. The cavity resonance frequencies are continuously monitored using monolithic Nd:YAG lasers and analyzed for periodic modulations indicating violations of Lorentz-invariance. Compared to pervious experiments using cryogenic optical resonators (COREs), but relying solely on Earth's rotation, this new version is expected to lead to orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to Lorentz-Invariance violation. We present the initial results of this experimental effort at the δc(θ)/c ˜ 10-16 level for an direction dependent variation of the speed of light and discuss the potential for future improvements.

  6. Dynamical resonances and SSF singularities for a magnetic Schroedinger operator

    CERN Document Server

    Astaburuaga, Maria Angélica; Bruneau, Vincent; Fernandez, Claudio; Raikov, Georgi

    2007-01-01

    We consider the Hamiltonian $H$ of a 3D spinless non-relativistic quantum particle subject to parallel constant magnetic and non-constant electric field. The operator $H$ has infinitely many eigenvalues of infinite multiplicity embedded in its continuous spectrum. We perturb $H$ by appropriate scalar potentials $V$ and investigate the transformation of these embedded eigenvalues into resonances. First, we assume that the electric potentials are dilation-analytic with respect to the variable along the magnetic field, and obtain an asymptotic expansion of the resonances as the coupling constant $\\varkappa$ of the perturbation tends to zero. Further, under the assumption that the Fermi Golden Rule holds true, we deduce estimates for the time evolution of the resonance states with and without analyticity assumptions; in the second case we obtain these results as a corollary of suitable Mourre estimates and a recent article of Cattaneo, Graf and Hunziker \\cite{cgh}. Next, we describe sets of perturbations $V$ for ...

  7. Fermi resonance as a tool for probing peridinin environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Elizabeth; Mendes Pinto, Maria Manuela; Bovi, Daniele; Basire, Marie; Guidoni, Leonardo; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Robert, Bruno; Spezia, Riccardo; Mezzetti, Alberto

    2014-06-05

    In the present paper, we provide an extended study of the vibrational signature of a butenolide carotenoid, peridinin, in various solvents by combining resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) with theoretical calculations. The presence of a Fermi resonance due to coupling between the lactonic C═O stretching and the overtone of the wagging of the C-H in the lactonic ring provides a spectroscopic way of differentiating between peridinins lying in different environments. This is a significant achievement, given that simultaneous presence of several peridinins (each with a peculiar photophysical role) in different environments occurs in the most important peridinin containing proteins, the peridinin-chlorophyll proteins (PCPs) and the Chl a-c2-peridinin binding proteins. In RRS, small modifications of solvent polarity can give rise to large differences in the intensity and splitting between the two bands, resulting from the Fermi resonance. By changing the polarity, we can tune the frequency of stretching of the C═O and, while the C-H wagging frequency is almost always constant in different solvents, move the system from a perfect resonance condition to off-resonance ones. We have corroborated our spectroscopic findings with a quasi-classical dynamical model of two coupled oscillators, and DFT calculations on peridinin in different solvents; we have also used calculations to complete the peridinin vibrational mode assignments in the 800-1600 cm(-1) region of RRS spectra, corresponding to polyene chain motion. Finally, the presence of Fermi resonance has been used to reinterpret previous vibrational spectroscopic experiments in PCPs.

  8. A Prototype-Based Resonance Model of Rhythm Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bååth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Categorization of rhythmic patterns is prevalent in musical practice, an example of this being the transcription of (possibly not strictly metrical music into musical notation. In this article we implement a dynamical systems' model of rhythm categorization based on the resonance theory of rhythm perception developed by Large (2010. This model is used to simulate the categorical choices of participants in two experiments of Desain and Honing (2003. The model accurately replicates the experimental data. Our results support resonance theory as a viable model of rhythm perception and show that by viewing rhythm perception as a dynamical system it is possible to model central properties of rhythm categorization.

  9. A prototype-based resonance model of rhythm categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bååth, Rasmus; Lagerstedt, Erik; Gärdenfors, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Categorization of rhythmic patterns is prevalent in musical practice, an example of this being the transcription of (possibly not strictly metrical) music into musical notation. In this article we implement a dynamical systems' model of rhythm categorization based on the resonance theory of rhythm perception developed by Large (2010). This model is used to simulate the categorical choices of participants in two experiments of Desain and Honing (2003). The model accurately replicates the experimental data. Our results support resonance theory as a viable model of rhythm perception and show that by viewing rhythm perception as a dynamical system it is possible to model central properties of rhythm categorization.

  10. A new algorithm for reliable and general NMR resonance assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Elena; Güntert, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The new FLYA automated resonance assignment algorithm determines NMR chemical shift assignments on the basis of peak lists from any combination of multidimensional through-bond or through-space NMR experiments for proteins. Backbone and side-chain assignments can be determined. All experimental data are used simultaneously, thereby exploiting optimally the redundancy present in the input peak lists and circumventing potential pitfalls of assignment strategies in which results obtained in a given step remain fixed input data for subsequent steps. Instead of prescribing a specific assignment strategy, the FLYA resonance assignment algorithm requires only experimental peak lists and the primary structure of the protein, from which the peaks expected in a given spectrum can be generated by applying a set of rules, defined in a straightforward way by specifying through-bond or through-space magnetization transfer pathways. The algorithm determines the resonance assignment by finding an optimal mapping between the set of expected peaks that are assigned by definition but have unknown positions and the set of measured peaks in the input peak lists that are initially unassigned but have a known position in the spectrum. Using peak lists obtained by purely automated peak picking from the experimental spectra of three proteins, FLYA assigned correctly 96-99% of the backbone and 90-91% of all resonances that could be assigned manually. Systematic studies quantified the impact of various factors on the assignment accuracy, namely the extent of missing real peaks and the amount of additional artifact peaks in the input peak lists, as well as the accuracy of the peak positions. Comparing the resonance assignments from FLYA with those obtained from two other existing algorithms showed that using identical experimental input data these other algorithms yielded significantly (40-142%) more erroneous assignments than FLYA. The FLYA resonance assignment algorithm thus has the

  11. Resonance-like tunneling across a barrier with adjacent wells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mahadevan; P Prema; S K Agarwalla; B Sahu; C S Shastry

    2006-09-01

    We examine the behavior of transmission coefficient across the rectangular barrier when attractive potential well is present on one or both sides and also the same is studied for a smoother barrier with smooth adjacent wells having Woods–Saxon shape. We find that presence of well with suitable width and depth can substantially alter at energies below the barrier height leading to resonant-like structures. In a sense, this work is complementary to the resonant tunneling of particles across two rectangular barriers, which is being studied in detail in recent years with possible applications in mind. We interpret our results as due to resonant-like positive energy states generated by the adjacent wells. We describe in detail the possible potential application of these results in electronic devices using n-type oxygen-doped gallium arsenide and silicon dioxide. It is envisaged that these results will have applications in the design of tunneling devices.

  12. Control of a resonant tunneling structure by intense laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, S.; Kes, H.; Boz, F. K.; Okan, S. E.

    2016-10-01

    The intense laser field effects on a resonant tunneling structure were studied using computational methods. The considered structure was a GaAs/InxGa1-xAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As/InyGa1-yAs/AlAs/GaAs well-barrier system. In the presence of intense laser fields, the transmission coefficient and the dwell time of the structure were calculated depending on the depth and the width of InGaAs wells. It was shown that an intense laser field provides full control on the performance of the device as the geometrical restrictions on the resonant tunneling conditions overcome. Also, the choice of the resonant energy value becomes possible depending on the field strength.

  13. Analytic Solution of the Electromagnetic Eigenvalues Problem in a Cylindrical Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Checchin, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Resonant accelerating cavities are key components in modern particles accelerating facilities. These take advantage of electromagnetic fields resonating at microwave frequencies to accelerate charged particles. Particles gain finite energy at each passage through a cavity if in phase with the resonating field, reaching energies even of the order of $TeV$ when a cascade of accelerating resonators are present. In order to understand how a resonant accelerating cavity transfers energy to charged particles, it is important to determine how the electromagnetic modes are exited into such resonators. In this paper we present a complete analytical calculation of the resonating fields for a simple cylindrical-shaped cavity.

  14. Quantum Light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode Disk Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, J. U.; Strekalov, D. V.; Elser, D.;

    2011-01-01

    Optical parametric down-conversion has proven to be a valuable source of nonclassical light. The process is inherently able to produce twin-beam correlations along with individual intensity squeezing of either parametric beam, when pumped far above threshold. Here, we present for the first time...... the direct observation of intensity squeezing of -1.2 dB of each of the individual parametric beams in parametric down-conversion by use of a high quality whispering-gallery-mode disk resonator. In addition, we observed twin-beam quantum correlations of -2.7 dB with this cavity. Such resonators feature...

  15. Properties of Nucleon Resonances by means of a Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C; Udias, A; Udias, J M

    2008-01-01

    We present an optimization scheme that employs a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to determine the properties of low-lying nucleon excitations within a realistic photo-pion production model based upon an effective Lagrangian. We show that with this modern optimization technique it is possible to reliably assess the parameters of the resonances and the associated error bars as well as to identify weaknesses in the models. To illustrate the problems the optimization process may encounter, we provide results obtained for the nucleon resonances $\\Delta$(1230) and $\\Delta$(1700). The former can be easily isolated and thus has been studied in depth, while the latter is not as well known experimentally.

  16. Stochastic Resonance in Linear Regime of a Single- Mode Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang-Ying; CAO Li; WU Da-Jin; WANG Jun

    2003-01-01

    We present an analytic investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio by studying the linear model of a single-mode laser driven by coloured pump noise (TI) and coloured quantum noise (TZ) with coloured cross-correlation (TS), and obtain an exact analytic expression of the signal-to-noise ratio. We detect that the stochastic resonance occurs when the noise correlation coefficient A < 0. Furthermore, we analyse the effect of TI , T2 and Ta on the signal-to-noise ratio, and derive the condition under which the stochastic resonance occurs.

  17. Initial state dependence of a quantum-resonance ratchet

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Jiating; Dadras, Siamak; Borunda, Mario F; Wimberger, Sandro; Summy, Gil S

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum resonance ratchets created with Bose-Einstein condensates exposed to pulses of an off-resonant standing light wave. We show how some of the basic properties of the ratchets are controllable through the creation of different initial states of the system. In particular, our results prove that through an appropriate choice of initial state it is possible to reduce the extent to which the ratchet state changes with respect to time. We develop a simple theory to explain our results and indicate how ratchets might be used as part of a matter wave interferometer or quantum-random walk experiment.

  18. Magnetic resonance spectrometer with a dc SQUID detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C.; Chang, J.; Pines, A.

    1990-03-01

    We describe a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) based magnetic resonance spectrometer particularly suited to measurements in the frequency range of 100 kHz to several megahertz. Results are presented for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of boron-11 in boron nitride at 4.2 K, yielding ωQ =1467±2 kHz. We also present a direct measurement of the methyl group tunneling frequency, ωt =210±10 kHz, of propionic acid in low field, at 4.2 K.

  19. Synchrobetatron resonant coupling mechanism in a storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Jimbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear synchrobetatron resonant coupling of Mg ion beam was observed experimentally in the horizontal laser beam cooling experiment in small laser equipped storage ring. Synchrotron and horizontal betatron motions were intentionally coupled in a rf cavity. Using the Hamiltonian which is composed of coasting, synchrotron and betatron motions, physical mechanism of the coupling is analyzed to explain the observed horizontal betatron tune jump near the synchrobetatron resonant coupling point. There energy exchange between the synchrotron oscillation and the horizontal betatron oscillation was mediated by coasting particles and the freedom of the horizontal direction is connected with the freedom of the longitudinal direction.

  20. A widely tunable laser using silica-waveguide ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Morio; Suzuki, Kouichi; Deki, Yukari; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Takaesu, Sekizen; Horie, Mika; Sato, Kenji; Kudo, Koji

    2005-10-01

    A Wide wavelength tunable laser is needed for Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing (ROADM) networks, since it realizes flexible network, effectively employing wavelength resources, and inventory cost reduction. Several types currently exist, but they all are difficult to produce; that is, their mass producibility is not high and they have many components. In particular, monolithically integrated wavelength tunable lasers, such as DFB array, and SG(Sampled Grating)-DBR based structures, have been developed. While these lasers have good performance, they require complex InP growth steps and processing. The external cavity lasers also have good performance, but require precise manual assembly and have moving parts. We have proposed novel tunable laser consisting of silica waveguide ring resonator connected directly to semiconductor optical amplifier. This laser structure has several advantages, such as a simple laser structure suitable for mass-production and high reliability due to having a stable thermal optic phase shifter and no moving parts. This paper gives recent progress in waveguide ring resonator based tunable laser. Low loss and high performance silica waveguide ring resonator, which was suitable for tunable laser, was successfully fabricated using high index contrast SiON core. Double-ring resonators successfully attained 45-nm and 160-nm wavelength tuning operations, which was the largest wavelength tuning range in a tunable laser with no mechanical moving parts reported to date. Triple-ring resonator demonstrated stable full L-band tuning operations with 50-GHz wavelength spacing. We believe that silica waveguide ring resonator based tunable laser is very suitable for not only mass production, but also widely wavelength tuning and stable single mode operations.

  1. Observation of thermoacoustic shock waves in a resonance tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biwa, Tetsushi; Sobata, Kazuya; Otake, Shota; Yazaki, Taichi

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports thermally induced shock waves observed in an acoustic resonance tube. Self-sustained oscillations of a gas column were created by imposing an axial temperature gradient on the short stack of plates installed in the resonance tube filled with air at atmospheric pressure. The tube length and axial position of the stack were examined so as to make the acoustic amplitude of the gas oscillations maximum. The periodic shock wave was observed when the acoustic pressure amplitude reached 8.3 kPa at the fundamental frequency. Measurements of the acoustic intensity show that the energy absorption in the stack region with the temperature gradient tends to prevent the nonlinear excitation of harmonic oscillations, which explains why the shock waves had been unfavorable in the resonance tube thermoacoustic systems.

  2. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of a Free Radical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Hansen, K. B.

    1975-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of a 10−3 molar solution of the stable diphenyl-pikryl-hydrazyl radical in benzene was obtained using a single laser pulse of 10 mJ energy and 600 ns duration from a flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser. Spectra were recorded using an image intensifier coupled to a TV...

  3. Resonances of the helium atom in a strong magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Al-Hujaj, Omar-Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present an investigation of the resonances of a doubly excited helium atom in a strong magnetic field covering the regime B=0–100  a.u. A full-interaction approach which is based on an anisotropic Gaussian basis set of one-particle functions being nonlinearly optimized for each field strength...

  4. A sound absorptive element comprising an acoustic resonance nanofibrous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinova, Klara

    2015-01-01

    As absorption of sound of lower frequencies is quite problematic with fibrous material made up of coarser fibers, development of highly efficient sound absorption material is called for. This is why this work deals with the development of new high sound absorption material. To absorb the low frequencies, especially the structures based on resonance principle of nanofibrous layers are used, when through resonance of some elements the acoustic energy is transferred into thermal energy. The goal of the invention is achieved by a sound absorbing means which contains resonance membrane formed by a layer of polymeric nanofibers, which is attached to a frame. For production of nanofibrous membranes, the cord electrospinning was used. The resonance membrane was then, upon impact of sound waves of low frequency, brought into forced vibrations, whereby the kinetic energy of the membrane was converted into thermal energy by friction of individual nanofibers, by the friction of the membrane with ambient air and possibly with other layers of material arranged in its proximity, and some of the energy was also transmitted to the frame, through which the vibrations of the resonance membrane were damped. The density and shape of the mesh of frame formations determine the resonance frequency of the acoustic means. The goal of the invention is therefore to eliminate or at least reduce the disadvantages of the present state of the art and to propose sound absorbing means that would be capable of absorbing, with good results sounds in as broadest frequency range as possible. Here, we also discussed some patents relevant to the topic.

  5. Effect of resonance decay on conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Mohanty, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of charged secondaries coming from resonance decay on the net-baryon, net-charge, and net-strangeness fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. We emphasize the importance of including weak decays along with other resonance decays in the HRG, while comparing with the experimental observables. The effect of kinematic cuts on resonances and primordial particles on the conserved number fluctuations are also studied. The HRG model calculations with the inclusion of resonance decays and kinematical cuts are compared with the recent experimental data from STAR and PHENIX experiments. We find good agreement between our model calculations and the experimental measurements for both net-proton and net-charge distributions.

  6. Dual-Resonator Speed Meter for a Free Test Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Braginsky, V B; Khalili, F Ya; Thorne, K S; Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2000-01-01

    A description and analysis are given of a ``speed meter'' for monitoring a classical force that acts on a test mass. This speed meter is based on two microwave resonators (``dual resonators''), one of which couples evanescently to the position of the test mass. The sloshing of the resulting signal between the resonators, and a wise choice of where to place the resonators' output waveguide, produce a signal in the waveguide that (for sufficiently low frequencies) is proportional to the test-mass velocity (speed) rather than its position. This permits the speed meter to achieve force-measurement sensitivities better than the standard quantum limit (SQL), both when operating in a narrow-band mode and a wide-band mode. A scrutiny of experimental issues shows that it is feasible, with current technology, to construct a demonstration speed meter that beats the wide-band SQL by a factor 2. A concept is sketched for an adaptation of this speed meter to optical frequencies; this adaptation forms the basis for a possib...

  7. Coherence-Resonance Chimeras in a Network of Excitable Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Nadezhda; Zakharova, Anna; Anishchenko, Vadim; Schöll, Eckehard

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that chimera behavior can be observed in nonlocally coupled networks of excitable systems in the presence of noise. This phenomenon is distinct from classical chimeras, which occur in deterministic oscillatory systems, and it combines temporal features of coherence resonance, i.e., the constructive role of noise, and spatial properties of chimera states, i.e., the coexistence of spatially coherent and incoherent domains in a network of identical elements. Coherence-resonance chimeras are associated with alternating switching of the location of coherent and incoherent domains, which might be relevant in neuronal networks.

  8. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, William H.; Mitchell, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propagated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  9. Atomic force microscope characterization of a resonating nanocantilever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abadal, G.; Davis, Zachary James; Borrise, X.

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) is used as a nanometer-scale resolution tool for the characterization of the electromechanical behaviour of a resonant cantilever-based mass sensor. The cantilever is actuated electrostatically by applying DC and AC voltages from a driver electrode placed closely...

  10. Development of a novel ultrasonic motor resonator using topology optimization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    M'Boungui, G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of topology optimization in the design of a novel stator for an ultrasonic motor (USM) is investigated. The design challenge is to produce a stator, with two resonant modes whose frequencies are in a ratio of 1:2. When driven together...

  11. The generation of resonant turbulence for a premixed burner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, A.A.; Pos, R.C.; Stoffels, G.G.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Meer, van der Th.H.

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to optimize the turbulent combustion of a low swirl burner by using resonance in turbulence? To that end an active grid is constructed that consists of two perforated disks of which one is rotating, creating a system of pulsating jets, which in the end can be used as a central blockin

  12. Thermoelectric Detection of Ferromagnetic Resonance of a Nanoscale Ferromagnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F. L.; Flipse, J.; Slachter, A.; Wagenaar, D.; van Wees, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present thermoelectric measurements of the heat dissipated due to ferromagnetic resonance of a Permalloy strip. A microwave magnetic field, produced by an on-chip coplanar strip waveguide, is used to drive the magnetization precession. The generated heat is detected via Seebeck measurements on a

  13. Demonstration of a refractometric sensor based on optical microfiber resonator

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a refractometric sensor based on a coated optical microfiber coil resonator. It is robust, compact, and comprises an intrinsic fluidic channel. A sensitivity of about 40 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) has been measured, in agreement with predictions.

  14. A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on parametric resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surappa, Sushruta; Satir, Sarp; Levent Degertekin, F.

    2017-07-01

    A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on a parametric resonator structure is described and experimentally demonstrated. The transducer structure, which we call capacitive parametric ultrasonic transducer (CPUT), uses a parallel plate capacitor with a movable membrane as part of a degenerate parametric series RLC resonator circuit with a resonance frequency of fo. When the capacitor plate is driven with an incident harmonic ultrasonic wave at the pump frequency of 2fo with sufficient amplitude, the RLC circuit becomes unstable and ultrasonic energy can be efficiently converted to an electrical signal at fo frequency in the RLC circuit. An important characteristic of the CPUT is that unlike other electrostatic transducers, it does not require DC bias or permanent charging to be used as a receiver. We describe the operation of the CPUT using an analytical model and numerical simulations, which shows drive amplitude dependent operation regimes including parametric resonance when a certain threshold is exceeded. We verify these predictions by experiments with a micromachined membrane based capacitor structure in immersion where ultrasonic waves incident at 4.28 MHz parametrically drive a signal with significant amplitude in the 2.14 MHz RLC circuit. With its unique features, the CPUT can be particularly advantageous for applications such as wireless power transfer for biomedical implants and acoustic sensing.

  15. Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matova, S.P.; Elfrink, R.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Schaijk, R. van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with adju

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Characterize a Rodent Model of Covert Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sheryl Lyn

    Covert stroke (CS) comprises lesions in the brain often associated by risk factors such as a diet high in fat, salt, cholesterol and sugar (HFSCS). Developing a rodent model for CS incorporating these characteristics is useful for developing and testing interventions. The purpose of this thesis was to determine if magnetic resonance (MR) can detect brain abnormalities to confirm this model will have the desired anatomical effects. Ex vivo MR showed brain abnormalities for rats with the induced lesions and fed the HFSCS diet. Spectra acquired on the fixed livers had an average percent area under the fat peak relative to the water peak of (20+/-4)% for HFSCS and (2+/-2)% for control. In vivo MR images had significant differences between surgeries to induce the lesions (p=0.04). These results show that applying MR identified abnormalities in the rat model and therefore is important in the development of this CS rodent model.

  17. Evaluation of toroidal torque by non-resonant magnetic perturbations in tokamaks for resonant transport regimes using a Hamiltonian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Christopher G; Kapper, Gernot; Kasilov, Sergei V; Kernbichler, Winfried; Martitsch, Andreas F

    2016-01-01

    Toroidal torque generated by neoclassical viscosity caused by external non-resonant, non-axisymmetric perturbations has a significant influence on toroidal plasma rotation in tokamaks. In this article, a derivation for the expressions of toroidal torque and radial transport in resonant regimes is provided within quasilinear theory in canonical action-angle variables. The proposed approach treats all low-collisional quasilinear resonant NTV regimes including superbanana plateau and drift-orbit resonances in a unified way and allows for magnetic drift in all regimes. It is valid for perturbations on toroidally symmetric flux surfaces of the unperturbed equilibrium without specific assumptions on geometry or aspect ratio. The resulting expressions are shown to match existing analytical results in the large aspect ratio limit. Numerical results from the newly developed code NEO-RT are compared to calculations by the quasilinear version of the code NEO-2 at low collisionalities. The importance of the magnetic shea...

  18. Temperature compensation of resonant cavities with a teflon post

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The negative temperature coefficient of E for teflon is used to compensate the frequency drift of a metal cavity due to thermal expansion. An experimental X-band transmission resonator was compensated in this way with a 10 mm teflon post. The results are considered of great interest for the compensation of waveguide millimiter wave oscillators. Peer Reviewed

  19. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunobiosensor for Detection of Phytophthora infestans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter; Frøkiær, Hanne; Hejgaard, Jørn;

    In this study we focused on the development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunosensor for Phytophthora infestans detection. The fungus-like organism is the cause of potato late blight and is a major problem in potato growing regions of the world. Efficient control is dependent on early...

  20. Predicting vibration-induced displacement for a resonant friction slider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, A.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider, sandwiched between friction layers with different coefficients of friction, and equipped with an imbedded resonator that oscillates at high frequency and small amplitude. This model is highly nonlinear, involving non...

  1. Euclidean resonance and a new type of nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, B I

    2003-01-01

    The extremely small probability of quantum tunneling through an almost classical potential barrier may become not small under the action of the specially adapted nonstationary field. The tunneling rate has a sharp peak as a function of the particle energy when it is close to the certain resonant value defined by the nonstationary field (Euclidean resonance). Alpha decay of nuclei has a small probability since the alpha particle should tunnel through a very nontransparent Coulomb barrier. The incident proton, due to the Coulomb interaction with the tunneling alpha particle, plays the role of a nonstationary field which may result in Euclidean resonance in tunneling of the alpha particle. At the resonant proton energy, which is of the order of 0.2 Mev, the alpha particle escapes the nucleus and goes to infinity with no influence of the nuclear Coulomb barrier. The process is inelastic since the alpha particle releases energy and the proton gains it. This stimulation of alpha decay by a proton constitutes a new ...

  2. Breakdown of Effective Field Theory for a Gluon Initiated Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    de la Puente, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Gauge invariance dictates that a resonance produced from initial state gluons must be produced through a non-renormalizable operator or a loop process. Should such a resonance be discovered, uncovering the dynamics that give rise to its couplings to gluons will be crucial to understanding the nature of the new state. Here we study how the production of this resonance at high transverse momentum in association with one (or more) jets can be used to directly measure the scale of the operator or the mass of the particles in the loop. We use a 750 GeV diphoton resonance as an example application, and we study how the non-renormalizable operator case can be described by a slowly converging effective field theory (EFT) expansion with operators of dimension five and seven. We show that with O(100) events, one can put strong constraints on the scale of the EFT, particularly in theories with strong coupling. We also compare the EFT analysis to that of a UV completion with vector-like quarks, and outline how the mass o...

  3. Electron paramagnetic resonance: a powerful tool to support magnetic resonance imaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Pierre; Gallez, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the areas where electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has provided unique information to MRI developments. The field of application mainly encompasses the EPR characterization of MRI paramagnetic contrast agents (gadolinium and manganese chelates, nitroxides) and superparamagnetic agents (iron oxide particles). The combined use of MRI and EPR has also been used to qualify or disqualify sources of contrast in MRI. Illustrative examples are presented with attempts to qualify oxygen sensitive contrast (i.e. T1 - and T2 *-based methods), redox status or melanin content in tissues. Other areas are likely to benefit from the combined EPR/MRI approach, namely cell tracking studies. Finally, the combination of EPR and MRI studies on the same models provides invaluable data regarding tissue oxygenation, hemodynamics and energetics. Our description will be illustrative rather than exhaustive to give to the readers a flavour of 'what EPR can do for MRI'.

  4. Analytical investigation into the resonance frequencies of a curling probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-08-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) denotes a class of closely related plasma diagnostic methods which utilize the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} ; an electrical radio frequency signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or a probe, the spectral response is recorded and a mathematical model is employed to determine plasma parameters such as the plasma density and the electron temperature. The curling probe, recently invented by Liang et al (2011 Appl. Phys. Express 4 066101), is a novel realization of the APRS concept which has many practical advantages. In particular, it can be miniaturized and flatly embedded into the chamber wall, thus allowing the monitoring of plasma processes without contamination nor disturbance. Physically, the curling probe can be understood as a ‘coiled’ form of the hairpin probe (Stenzel 1976 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47 603). Assuming that the spiralization of the probe has little electrical effect, this paper investigates the characteristcs of a ‘straightened’ curling probe by modeling it as an infinite slot-type resonator that is in direct contact with the plasma. The diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot is calculated by solving the cold plasma model and Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. The resonance frequencies of the probe are derived and are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  5. The diphoton resonance as a gravity mediator of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Chengcheng; Park, Myeonghun; Sanz, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility of interpreting the recently reported diphoton excess at 750 GeV as a spin-two massive particle (such as a Kaluza-Klein graviton in warped extra-dimensions) which serves as a mediator to Dark Matter via its gravitational couplings to the dark sector and to the Standard Model (SM). We model non-universal couplings of the resonance to gauge bosons in the SM and to Dark Matter as a function on their localization in the extra dimension. We find that scalar, fermion or vector dark matter can saturate the dark matter relic density by the annihilation of dark matter into a pair of the SM particles or heavy resonances, in agreement with the diphoton resonance signal strength. We check the compatibility of our hypothesis with other searches for the KK graviton. We show that the invisible decay rate of the resonance into a pair of dark matter is subdominant in the region of the correct relic density, hence leading to no constraints from the mono-jet bound at 8 TeV via the gluon coupling. We ...

  6. Strong nonlinear harmonic generation in a PZT/Aluminum resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenthoine, D; Haumesser, L; Meulen, F Vander; Tran-Huu-Hue, L-P, E-mail: parenthoine@univ-tours.f [University Francois Rabelais of Tours, U 930 Imagerie et Cerveau, CNRS 2448, ENIVL, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP 3410, 41034 Blois (France)

    2009-11-01

    In this work, the extentional vibration mode of a coupled PZT/ Aluminum rod resonator is studied experimentally. Geometrical characteristics of the PZT are its 27 mm length and its 4x4 mm{sup 2} cross section area. The excitation voltage consists in sinusoidal bursts in the frequency range (20-80 kHz). Velocity measurements are performed at both ends of this system, using a laser probe. Strong harmonic distortions in the mechanical response (up to -20 dB with respect to the primary wave amplitude) have been observed. The corresponding input levels are far lower than those which are necessary to observe quadratic second harmonic generation in a free PZT resonator. The strong nonlinear effect can be explained as a super-harmonic resonance of the system due to a specific ratio between the eigen frequencies of the two parts of the resonator. Evolution of fundamental and harmonic responses are observed as a function of input levels, highlighting hysteretic behavior.

  7. Temperature and density evolution during decay in a 2.45 GHz hydrogen electron cyclotron resonance plasma: Off-resonant and resonant cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortázar, O. D. [ESS Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Landabarri 2, 48940-Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain); Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, ETSII, C.J. Cela s/n, 13170 Ciudad Real (Spain); Megía-Macías, A.; Vizcaíno-de-Julián, A. [ESS Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Landabarri 2, 48940-Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Time resolved electron temperature and density measurements during the decay stage in a hydrogen electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma are presented for a resonance and off-resonance magnetic field configurations. The measurements are conducted on a ECR plasma generator excited at 2.45 GHz denominated test-bench for ion-sources plasma studies at ESS Bilbao. The plasma parameters evolution is studied by Langmuir probe diagnostic with synchronized sample technique developed for repetitive pulsed plasmas with a temporal resolution of 200 ns in typical decay processes of about 40 μs. An afterglow transient is clearly observed in the reflected microwave power signal from the plasma. Simultaneously, the electron temperature evolution shows rebounding peaks that may be related to the interplay between density drop and microwave coupling with deep impact on the Electron Energy Distribution Function. The correlation of such structures with the plasma absorbed power and the coupling quality is also reported.

  8. Analyzing a Vibrating Wire Transducer using Coupled Resonator Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POP, S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to be an approach on the vibrating wire transducer from the perspective of the necessary rules used for a correct measurement procedure. There are several studies which analyze the vibrating wire transducer as a mechanical system. However, a comparative time-domain analysis between the mechanical and the electrical model is lacking. The transducer analysis is based on a theoretical analysis of the equivalent circuit, on both excitation and response time intervals. The electrical model consists of two magnetic coupled resonating circuits. When connected to an excitation source, there will be an energy transfer from the coil to the wire. The maximum energy transfer will occur at the vibrating wire's frequency of resonance. Using the transient regime analysis, it has been proven that, in the response time interval - when the wire vibrates freely, the current through the circuit that models the wire describes the oscillating movement of the wire. A complex signal is obtained, that contains both coil's and wire's frequencies of resonance, strongly dependent with theirs parasitic elements. The mathematical analysis highlights the similarity between mechanical and electrical model and the procedures in order to determine the wire frequency of resonance from the output signal.

  9. Investigation on driving characteristics of a piezoelectric stick–slip actuator based on resonant/off-resonant hybrid excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tinghai; Li, Hengyu; He, Meng; Zhao, Hongwei; Lu, Xiaohui; Gao, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    A resonant/off-resonant hybrid excitation of a piezoelectric stick–slip actuator is proposed in this paper. It is accomplished by a resonant sinusoidal friction regulation wave (RSFR-wave) and an off-resonant saw-tooth wave (ORST-wave). The RSFR-wave is applied to the rapid deformation stage of the ORST-wave. In this stage, the first-order longitudinal vibration mode of the stator can be obtained. By this longitudinal vibration mode, the kinetic friction between the slider and frictional rod is obviously decreased utilizing ultrasonic friction reduction. The backward displacement is remarkably restrained. The high velocity, large mass of load and smooth displacement are achieved. The operation principle of hybrid excitation was discussed in detail, and a prototype was simulated, designed, and fabricated. A series of experiments were carried out and the results indicate that the step efficiency under the saw-tooth excitation and resonant/off-resonant hybrid excitation can realize 36.9% and 91.2%, respectively. The output velocity is increased by 147.23% relative to saw-tooth excitation. The minimum input power and the minimum driving voltage are decreased by 89.56% and 58.33%, respectively. Besides, the maximum mass of load capacity is 2.88 times that of saw-tooth excitation. The driving capacity of the actuator is increased by 466.13%.

  10. Realization of a Quantum Scheduling Algorithm Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Fu; DENG Zhi-Wei; PAN Yan-Na; LU Zhi-Heng

    2004-01-01

    The quantum scheduling algorithm proposed by Grover is generalized to extend its scope of applications. The generalized algorithm proposed here is realized on a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer. The experimental results show that the generalized algorithm can work efficiently in the case that Grover's scheduling algorithm is completely invalid, and represent the quantum advantages when qubits replace classical bits.

  11. Analytical calculation of the wake potential of a spherical resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ratschow

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical formula for the wake potential of a closed spherical resonator with perfectly conducting walls is presented. Mode analysis is used for the calculation. For every rotationally symmetric TM mode the loss parameter is calculated and the formula for the determination of the corresponding frequency is given. The final wake potential is an infinite sum over all modes mentioned above.

  12. A Quantum Mechanical Review of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Odaibo, Stephen G

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we review the quantum mechanics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We traverse its hierarchy of scales from the spin and orbital angular momentum of subatomic particles to the ensemble magnetization of tissue. And we review a number of modalities used in the assessment of acute ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury.

  13. Experimental Analysis of Stochastic Resonance in a Duffing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fu-Zhong; CHEN Wei-Shi; QIN Guang-Rong; GUO De-Yong; LIU Jun-Ling

    2003-01-01

    An experimental circuit is used to study the stochastic resonance (SR) phenomena in a Duffing system. The characteristics ofSR are investigated from various aspects by varying all the possible parameters. The deviations between the experimental results and the adiabatic theory are presented.

  14. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. Ramskov

    1986-01-01

    Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Fiber Tracking in a Neonate with Hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Thomas J; Scarciolla, Laura; Takahashi, Emi; Specchio, Nicola; Bernardi, Bruno; Longo, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic resonance diffusion fiber tracking study in neonate diagnosed with left hemisphere hemimegalencephaly is presented. Despite diffuse morphologic deformities identified in conventional imaging, all major pathways were identifiable bilaterally with minor aberrations in vicinity of morphologic lesions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser (*)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, A.; Lordi, N. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.); Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. A few words about resonances in the electroweak effective Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Ignasi [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y de la Computación, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, c/ Sant Bartomeu 55, 46115 Alfara del Patriarca, València (Spain); Pich, Antonio; Santos, Joaquín [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València – CSIC, Apt. Correus 22085, 46071 València (Spain); Sanz-Cillero, Juan José [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-01-22

    Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models including both a light Higgs-like boson and massive spin-1 resonances are not in conflict with experimental constraints on the oblique S and T parameters. We use an effective Lagrangian implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU (2){sub L} ⊗ SU (2){sub R} → SU (2){sub L+R} that contains the Standard Model gauge bosons coupled to the electroweak Goldstones, one Higgs-like scalar state h with mass m{sub h} = 126 GeV and the lightest vector and axial-vector resonance multiplets V and A. We have considered the one-loop calculation of S and T in order to study the viability of these strongly-coupled scenarios, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the calculation. Once we have constrained the resonance parameters, we do a first approach to the determination of the low energy constants of the electroweak effective theory at low energies (without resonances). We show this determination in the case of the purely Higgsless bosonic Lagrangian.

  18. Nonlinear resonances of a single-wall carbon nanotube cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I. K.; Lee, S. I.

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of an electrostatically actuated carbon nanotube (CNT) cantilever are discussed by theoretical and numerical approaches. Electrostatic and intermolecular forces between the single-walled CNT and a graphene electrode are considered. The CNT cantilever is analyzed by the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, including its geometric and inertial nonlinearities, and a one-mode projection based on the Galerkin approximation and numerical integration. Static pull-in and pull-out behaviors are adequately represented by an asymmetric two-well potential with the total potential energy consisting of the CNT elastic energy, electrostatic energy, and the Lennard-Jones potential energy. Nonlinear dynamics of the cantilever are simulated under DC and AC voltage excitations and examined in the frequency and time domains. Under AC-only excitation, a superharmonic resonance of order 2 occurs near half of the primary frequency. Under both DC and AC loads, the cantilever exhibits linear and nonlinear primary and secondary resonances depending on the strength of the excitation voltages. In addition, the cantilever has dynamic instabilities such as periodic or chaotic tapping motions, with a variation of excitation frequency at the resonance branches. High electrostatic excitation leads to complex nonlinear responses such as softening, multiple stability changes at saddle nodes, or period-doubling bifurcation points in the primary and secondary resonance branches.

  19. Reversible Fano resonance by transition from fast light to slow light in a coupled-resonator-induced transparency structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yundong; Zhang, Xuenan; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Ruidong; Gai, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Ping

    2013-04-08

    We theoretically propose and experimentally perform a novel dispersion tuning scheme to realize a tunable Fano resonance in a coupled-resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) structure coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We reveal that the profile of the Fano resonance in the resonator coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometers (RCMZI) is determined not only by the phase shift difference between the two arms of the RCMZI but also by the dispersion (group delay) of the CRIT structure. Furthermore, it is theoretically predicted and experimentally demonstrated that the slope and the asymmetry parameter (q) describing the Fano resonance spectral line shape of the RCMZI experience a sign reversal when the dispersion of the CRIT structure is tuned from abnormal dispersion (fast light) to normal dispersion (slow light). These theoretical and experimental results indicate that the reversible Fano resonance which holds significant implications for some attractive device applications such as highly sensitive biochemical sensors, ultrafast optical switches and routers can be realized by the dispersion tuning scheme in the RCMZI.

  20. Interpreting a 750 GeV diphoton resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rick S.; Jäger, Sebastian; Kats, Yevgeny; Perez, Gilad; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the implications of the significant excesses in the diphoton final state observed by the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS around a diphoton invariant mass of 750 GeV. The interpretation of the excess as a spin-zero s-channel resonance implies model-independent lower bounds on both its branching ratio and its coupling to photons, which stringently constrain dynamical models. We consider both the case where the excess is described by a narrow and a broad resonance. We also obtain model-independent constraints on the allowed couplings and branching fractions to final states other than diphotons, by including the interplay with 8 TeV searches. These results can guide attempts to construct viable dynamical models of the resonance. Turning to specific models, our findings suggest that the anomaly cannot be accounted for by the presence of only an additional singlet or doublet spin-zero field and the Standard Model degrees of freedom; this includes all two-Higgs-doublet models. Likewise, heavy scalars in the MSSM cannot explain the excess if stability of the electroweak vacuum is required, at least in a leading-order analysis. If we assume that the resonance is broad we find that it is challenging to find a weakly coupled explanation. However, we provide an existence proof in the form of a model with vectorlike quarks with large electric charge that is perturbative up to the 100 TeV scale. For the narrow-resonance case a similar model can be perturbative up to high scales also with smaller charges. We also find that, in their simplest form, dilaton models cannot explain the size of the excess. Some implications for flavor physics are briefly discussed.

  1. Design of a loop resonator with a split-ring-resonator (SRR) for a human-body coil in 3 T MRI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyeok Woo; Cho, Young Ki; Kim, Byung Mun; Back, Hyun Man; Yoo, Hyoungsuk

    2016-04-01

    A new radio-frequency (RF) resonator for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging at clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems is proposed in this paper. An approach based on the effects of the properties of metamaterials in split-ring resonators (SRRs) is used to design a new loop resonator with a SRR for NMR imaging. This loop resonator with a SRR is designed for NMR imaging at 3 T MRI systems. The 3D electromagnetic simulation was used to optimize the design of the proposed RF resonator and analyze it's performance at 3 T MRI systems. The proposed RF resonator provides strong penetrating magnetic fields at the center of the human phantom model, approximately 10%, as compared to the traditional loop-type RF resonator used for NMR imaging at clinical MRI systems. We also designed an 8-channel body coil for human-body NMR imaging by using the proposed loop resonator with a SRR. This body coil also produces more homogeneous and highly penetrating magnetic fields into the human phantom model.

  2. A Theoretical Distinction Between Time-Resolved Resonance Raman andResonance Fluorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jing; DU Si-De; FAN Kang-Nian; Lee Soo-Ying

    2000-01-01

    Based on the time-dependent theory, an analysis of the distinction between resonance Raman (RR) and resonance fluorescence (RF) with pulse excitation was presented. The real population of the intermediate state gives two optical components-the independent time evolution of intermediate ket and bra states generates RR while RF originates from the phase coherent between ket and bra states. In cw limit, the transition probability of spontaneous emission with pulse excitation can be reduced to the classical theory.

  3. Spoof surface plasmon Fabry-Perot open resonators in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    We report on the proposal and experimental realization of a spoof surface plasmon Fabry-Perot (FP) open resonator in a surface-wave photonic crystal. This surface-wave FP open resonator is formed by introducing a finite line defect in a surface-wave photonic crystal. The resonance frequencies of the surface-wave FP open resonator lie exactly within the forbidden band gap of the surface-wave photonic crystal and the FP open resonator uses this complete forbidden band gap to concentrate surface waves within a subwavelength cavity. Due to the complete forbidden band gap of the surface-wave photonic crystal, a new FP plasmonic resonance mode that exhibits monopolar features which is missing in traditional FP resonators and plasmonic resonators is demonstrated. Near-field response spectra and mode profiles are presented in the microwave regime to characterize properties of the proposed FP open resonator for spoof surface plasmons.

  4. Photothermal resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a material utilising a mechanically temperature sensitive resonator (20) and a sample being arrange in thermal communication with the temperature sensitive resonator. The present invention further relates to an ap......The present invention relates to a method for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a material utilising a mechanically temperature sensitive resonator (20) and a sample being arrange in thermal communication with the temperature sensitive resonator. The present invention further relates...... to an apparatus for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a sample....

  5. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties.

  6. Validity - a matter of resonant experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    across researcher’s past experience from the case study and her own life. The autobiographic way of analyzing conventional interview material is exemplified with a case of a junior researcher researching newcomer innovation of others, drawing on her own experience of being newcomer in work community...

  7. Band Structure for a Lattice with a Single Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, G.; Moshinsky, M.

    1998-03-01

    We study the band structure of a chain of scatterers that in general cannot be described by means of a potential. In order to describe these kind of systems we have followed the ideas of Wigner who stressed though that an interaction should be described by a R matrix. In particular, we have considered an infinite sequence of scatterers, each one described by means of a R matrix with a single resonance. This study is an extension of a recent paper ( M. Moshinsky and G. Monsivais, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 23), 573-588, (1997) where we have studied the delay time for a single scatterer using a R matrix. We compare our results with those than appear in the description of some superlattices.

  8. Triadic instability of a non-resonant precessing fluid cylinder

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, R; Eloy, C

    2015-01-01

    Flows forced by a precessional motion can exhibit instabilities of crucial importance, whether they concern the fuel of a flying object or the liquid core of a telluric planet. So far, stability analyses of these flows have focused on the special case of a resonant forcing. Here, we address the instability of the flow inside a precessing cylinder in the general case. We first show that the base flow forced by the cylinder precession is a superposition of a vertical or horizontal shear flow and an infinite sum of forced modes. We then perform a linear stability analysis of this base flow by considering its triadic resonance with two free Kelvin modes. Finally, we derive the amplitude equations of the free Kelvin modes and obtain an expression of the instability threshold and growth rate.

  9. Resonance and Transcendence of a Bodily Presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck; Farsø, Mads

    2017-01-01

    and developed in closer relation to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. Through an analysis of first two works by the Austrian Filmmaker Johann Lurf and then three studio...... and its sound – if being integrated as design studio tool – comes to amplify sensory dimensions. The studio films illustrate how the surface of the film´s picture frame almost become like a skin, and with its surface and sound, projecting both a site and near sensual experience, the film media reflects...

  10. Scattering resonances in a degenerate Fermi gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challis, Katharine; Nygaard, Nicolai; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We consider elastic single-particle scattering from a one-dimensional trapped two-component superfluid Fermi gas when the incoming projectile particle is identical to one of the confined species. Our theoretical treatment is based on the Hartree-Fock ground state of the trapped gas and a configur......We consider elastic single-particle scattering from a one-dimensional trapped two-component superfluid Fermi gas when the incoming projectile particle is identical to one of the confined species. Our theoretical treatment is based on the Hartree-Fock ground state of the trapped gas...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of a phakomatous choristoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Josephin; Sorge, Ina [Leipzig University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Horn, Lars-Christian [Leipzig University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Leipzig (Germany); Sterker, Ina [Leipzig University Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Phakomatous choristoma is a rare congenital benign tumour in the inferomedial eyelid or orbit that is thought to be of lenticular anlage origin. We describe the MRI findings in an infant boy with histopathologically confirmed phakomatous choristoma. (orig.)

  12. Diphoton resonance from a new strong force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, Howard; Nakai, Yuichiro

    2016-10-01

    We explore a "partial unification" model that a new strong gauge group is combined with the ordinary color and hypercharge gauge groups. The VEV responsible for the combination is of the order of the S U (2 )×U (1 ) breaking scale, but the coupling of the new physics to standard model particles is suppressed by the strong interaction of the new gauge group. This simple extension of the standard model has a rich phenomenology, including composite particles of the new confining gauge interaction, a coloron and a Z' which are rather weakly coupled to standard model particles, and massive vector bosons charged under both the ordinary color and hypercharge gauge groups and the new strong gauge group. The new scalar glueball could be produced by gluon fusion and decay into two photons, both through loops of the new massive vector bosons. The simplest version of the model has some issues: the massive vector bosons are stable and the coloron and the Z' are strongly constrained by search data. An extension of the model to include additional fermions with the new gauge coupling, though not as simple and elegant, can address both issues and more. It allows the massive vector boson to decay into a colorless, neutral state that could be a candidate of the dark matter. And the coloron and Z' can decay dominantly into the new fermions, completely changing the search bounds. If the massive vector bosons are still long lived, they could form new bound states, "vector bosoniums" with additional interesting phenomenology. The model is an explicit example of how new physics at small scales could be hidden by strong interactions.

  13. In search for a possible statistical basis of Stochastic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Vodyanoy, Igor

    2000-03-01

    Stochastic Resonance (SR) is a phenomenon of enhancing the information content at the system output by adding noise to the input signal. Originally, SR was shown in dynamical systems ranging from glaciers to superconducting junctions. Later it was found to occur in non-dynamical systems with and without thresholds. Now a growing number of publications report SR practically everywhere: in meteorology, sociology, finance, psycho-physics, electrophysiology, chemistry, etc. We seek a general statistical mechanism which would capture and, thus, explain the essence of SR independently of the system where it is found. Though, at present, this problem is far from solved, we think that the doubly-stochastic Poisson process approach described here represents a significant step toward such a generalization. Using this approach, we show that, in contrast to the current point of view, an activation barrier is not a necessary prerequisite of a Stochastic Resonator.

  14. Tuning the resonance properties of 2D carbon nanotube networks towards a mechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Haifei; Zhang, Guiyong; Zhang, Baocheng; Bell, John M.; Gu, Yuantong

    2015-08-01

    The capabilities of the mechanical resonator-based nanosensors in detecting ultra-small mass or force shifts have driven a continuing exploration of the palette of nanomaterials for such application purposes. Based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we have assessed the applicability of a new class of carbon nanomaterials for nanoresonator usage, i.e. the single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) network. It is found that SWNT networks inherit excellent mechanical properties from the constituent SWNTs, possessing a high natural frequency. However, although a high quality factor is suggested from the simulation results, it is hard to obtain an unambiguous Q-factor due to the existence of vibration modes in addition to the dominant mode. The nonlinearities resulting from these extra vibration modes are found to exist uniformly under various testing conditions including different initial actuations and temperatures. Further testing shows that these modes can be effectively suppressed through the introduction of axial strain, leading to an extremely high quality factor in the order of 109 estimated from the SWNT network with 2% tensile strain. Additional studies indicate that the carbon rings connecting the SWNTs can also be used to alter the vibrational properties of the resulting network. This study suggests that the SWNT network can be a good candidate for applications as nanoresonators.

  15. Transition from double coherence resonances to single coherence resonance in a neuronal network with phase noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanbing; Gu, Huaguang

    2015-12-01

    The effect of phase noise on the coherence dynamics of a neuronal network composed of FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons is investigated. Phase noise can induce dissimilar coherence resonance (CR) effects for different coupling strength regimes. When the coupling strength is small, phase noise can induce double CRs. One corresponds to the average frequency of phase noise, and the other corresponds to the intrinsic firing frequency of the FHN neuron. When the coupling strength is large enough, phase noise can only induce single CR, and the CR corresponds to the intrinsic firing frequency of the FHN neuron. The results show a transition from double CRs to single CR with the increase in the coupling strength. The transition can be well interpreted based on the dynamics of a single neuron stimulated by both phase noise and the coupling current. When the coupling strength is small, the coupling current is weak, and phase noise mainly determines the dynamics of the neuron. Moreover, the phase-noise-induced double CRs in the neuronal network are similar to the phase-noise-induced double CRs in an isolated FHN neuron. When the coupling strength is large enough, the coupling current is strong and plays a key role in the occurrence of the single CR in the network. The results provide a novel phenomenon and may have important implications in understanding the dynamics of neuronal networks.

  16. A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagaev, S. N.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Skvortsov, M. N. [Laser Physics Institute SB RAS, Novosibirsc (Russian Federation); Bezrukov, L. B.; Krysanov, V. A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, S. I.; Motylev, A. M.; Popov, S. M.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Yudin, I. S. [Lomonosov MSU, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rudenko, V. N. [Institute of Nuclear Physics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov MSU, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-15

    A new setup OGRAN—the large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare events—gravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.

  17. Resonance through a Strictly Singular Perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    subspace of singularity with respect to H is empty. The question one now tries to answer is, if there exists a modification of the former definition...Foundations of Quantum Physics, chap. 5, sec. 3, Benjamin, London (1976). (7] J. Hadamard, Enseignement Math., 35, 5 (1936). (8) R. S. Phillips, Semi-groups

  18. Implementation of a Biaxial Resonant Fatigue Test Method on a Large Wind Turbine Blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowberg, D.; Dana, S.; Hughes, S.; Berling, P.

    2014-09-01

    A biaxial resonant test method was utilized to simultaneously fatigue test a wind turbine blade in the flap and edge (lead-lag) direction. Biaxial resonant blade fatigue testing is an accelerated life test method utilizing oscillating masses on the blade; each mass is independently oscillated at the respective flap and edge blade resonant frequency. The flap and edge resonant frequency were not controlled, nor were they constant for this demonstrated test method. This biaxial resonant test method presented surmountable challenges in test setup simulation, control and data processing. Biaxial resonant testing has the potential to complete test projects faster than single-axis testing. The load modulation during a biaxial resonant test may necessitate periodic load application above targets or higher applied test cycles.

  19. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Pixelated Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The design of a wideband circularly polarized pixelated dielectric resonator antenna using a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) is presented for far-field wireless power transfer applications. The antenna consists of a dielectric resonator (DR) which is discretized into 8 × 8 grid DR bars. The real-coded GA is utilized to estimate the optimal heights of the 64 DR bars to realize circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited by a narrow rectangular slot etched on the ground plane. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. The measured −10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths are 32.32% (2.62–3.63 GHz) and 14.63% (2.85–3.30 GHz), respectively. A measured peak gain of 6.13 dBic is achieved at 3.2 GHz. PMID:27563897

  20. A Faraday effect position sensor for interventional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, M; Umathum, R; Sikora, J; Brenner, S; Aguor, E N; Semmler, W

    2006-02-21

    An optical sensor is presented which determines the position and one degree of orientation within a magnetic resonance tomograph. The sensor utilizes the Faraday effect to measure the local magnetic field, which is modulated by switching additional linear magnetic fields, the gradients. Existing methods for instrument localization during an interventional MR procedure often use electrically conducting structures at the instruments that can heat up excessively during MRI and are thus a significant danger for the patient. The proposed optical Faraday effect position sensor consists of non-magnetic and electrically non-conducting components only so that heating is avoided and the sensor could be applied safely even within the human body. With a non-magnetic prototype set-up, experiments were performed to demonstrate the possibility of measuring both the localization and the orientation in a magnetic resonance tomograph. In a 30 mT m(-1) gradient field, a localization uncertainty of 1.5 cm could be achieved.

  1. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Pixelated Dielectric Resonator Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-08-23

    The design of a wideband circularly polarized pixelated dielectric resonator antenna using a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) is presented for far-field wireless power transfer applications. The antenna consists of a dielectric resonator (DR) which is discretized into 8 × 8 grid DR bars. The real-coded GA is utilized to estimate the optimal heights of the 64 DR bars to realize circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited by a narrow rectangular slot etched on the ground plane. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. The measured -10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths are 32.32% (2.62-3.63 GHz) and 14.63% (2.85-3.30 GHz), respectively. A measured peak gain of 6.13 dBic is achieved at 3.2 GHz.

  2. Bubble cloud dynamics in a high-pressure spherical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Phillip Andrew

    A bubble cloud is a population of bubbles confined to a region within a fluid. Bubble clouds play a large role in a variety of naturally occurring phenomena and man-made applications (e.g., ocean noise, cavitation damage, sonoluminescence, ultrasonic cleaning, drug delivery, lithotripsy). It is important, therefore, to understand the behavior of bubble clouds so that their effects may be enhanced or diminished as desired. This work explores and characterizes the properties of bubble clouds nucleated inside a high-pressure spherical acoustic resonator, in connection with recent interest in acoustic inertial confinement fusion (acoustic ICF). A laser system was developed to repeatably nucleate a cloud of bubbles inside the resonator. The resulting events were then observed, primarily with schlieren imaging methods. Preliminary studies of the bubble cloud dynamics showed the sensitivity of the initial cloud to nucleation parameters including the phase of nucleation, the laser energy, and the acoustic power. After many acoustic cycles, some bubble clouds are observed to evolve into a tight cluster. The formation of these clusters correlates with initial bubble distributions which have a large cloud interaction parameter, β. Cluster dynamics are seen to be largely driven by reconverging shock waves from previous collapses reflected from the resonator's interior surface. Initial expansion of the cluster boundary is on the order of 8 mm/µs and the maximum radius approaches 3 mm. Shock pressures are estimated to be > 10 GPa at a radius of 100 µm using weak shock theory.

  3. Modeling a Large Ring Resonator Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    3ri leni -y ptprtni t ht -al fkrni) p1csamiiu lnvra ~~-sur ma khc 3scalled alcrforil wminh c~nara prazs in -)scil ator wr’.c isae ay wite 3 i possile 1...34 10 S H2 1- S, ( 10) 102 "- 0.1- K101 SIEGMAN-1967 1 10 100 101 102 10 3 10 4 P(,uW) f(Hz) Figure 3. Power spectral density of a Figure 4. Power...el al (1977) 101 -] i-28 ee IG AE G LASE 0 03 BILGER &SAYE\\H (1983) DORSCHNER el al 1o)-311 (1980) 10-5 10-4 10- 3 10-2 10-’ 100 10.1 10- 10-5 󈧈

  4. Baryonic Resonances Mass Spectrum from a Modified Perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Oca, Alejandro Cabo Montes de; Madrazo, Marcos Rigol

    2001-01-01

    A recently proposed modified perturbation expansion for QCD incorporating gluon condensation effects is employed to evaluate the quark self-energy in the simplest approximation. One of the solutions of the modified mass shell predicts mass values which increases monotonically with the corresponding Lagrangian mass for each kind of flavour. The mass spectrum of the ground states within the various groups of hadronic resonances and a class of mesonic ones is well predicted by the simple addition of the calculated constituent quark masses. These results suggest the gluon condensate nature of many baryonic resonances and the possibility of their description by a modified perturbative theory. Finally, it is conjectured that this procedure, after also introducing quark condensates in a same token as the gluonic ones, could predict the Lagrangian quark masses as well as the non-colored fermion (leptons and neutrinos) mass spectrum, through higher order radiative correction. Such a picture, if verified, would furnish...

  5. Fidelity for kicked atoms with gravity near a quantum resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Dubertrand, Rémy; Wimberger, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Kicked atoms under a constant Stark or gravity field are investigated for experimental setups with cold and ultra cold atoms. The parametric stability of the quantum dynamics is studied using the fidelity. In the case of a quantum resonance, it is shown that the behavior of the fidelity depends on arithmetic properties of the gravity parameter. Close to a quantum resonance, the long time asymptotics of the fidelity is studied by means of a {\\em pseudo-classical} approximation first introduced by Fishman {\\em et al.} [J. Stat. Phys. {\\bf 110}, 911 (2003)]. The long-time decay of fidelity arises from the tunneling out of pseudo-classical stable islands, and a simple ansatz is proposed which satisfactorily reproduces the main features observed in numerical simulations.

  6. Breathers in a locally resonant granular chain with precompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifeng; James, Guillaume; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Vainchtein, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We study a locally resonant granular material in the form of a precompressed Hertzian chain with linear internal resonators. Using an asymptotic reduction, we derive an effective nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) modulation equation. This, in turn, leads us to provide analytical evidence, subsequently corroborated numerically, for the existence of two distinct types of discrete breathers related to acoustic or optical modes: (a) traveling bright breathers with a strain profile exponentially vanishing at infinity and (b) stationary and traveling dark breathers, exponentially localized, time-periodic states mounted on top of a non-vanishing background. The stability and bifurcation structure of numerically computed exact stationary dark breathers is also examined. Stationary bright breathers cannot be identified using the NLS equation, which is defocusing at the upper edges of the phonon bands and becomes linear at the lower edge of the optical band.

  7. Correlations between resonances in a statistical scattering model

    CERN Document Server

    Gorin, T; Müller, M; Rotter, I; Seligman, T H

    1997-01-01

    The distortion of the regular motion in a quantum system by its coupling to the continuum of decay channels is investigated. The regular motion is described by means of a Poissonian ensemble. We focus on the case of only few channels K<10. The coupling to the continuum induces two main effects, due to which the distorted system differs from a chaotic system (described by a Gaussian ensemble): 1. The width distribution for large coupling becomes broader than the corresponding $\\chi^2_K$ distribution in the GOE case. 2. Due to the coupling to the continuum, correlations are induced not only between the positions of the resonances but also between positions and widths. These correlations remain even in the strong coupling limit. In order to explain these results, an asymptotic expression for the width distribution is derived for the one channel case. It relates the width of a trapped resonance state to the distance between its two neighboring levels.

  8. Correlations between resonances in a statistical scattering model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorin, T. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik; Dittes, F.M. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik; Mueller, M. [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Rotter, I. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik; Seligman, T.H. [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    The distortion of the regular motion in a quantum system by its coupling to the continuum of decay channels is investigated. The regular motion is described by means of a Poissonian ensemble. We focus on the case of only few channels K < 10. The coupling to the continuum induces two main effects, due to which the distorted system differs from a chaotic system (described by a Gaussian ensemble): 1. The width distribution for large coupling becomes broader than the corresponding {chi}{sup 2}{sub K} distribution in the GOE case. 2. Due to the coupling to the continuum, correlations are induced not only between the positions of the resonances but also between positions and widths. These correlations remain even in the strong coupling limit. In order to explain these results, an asymptotic expression for the width distribution is derived for the one channel case. It relates the width of a trapped resonance state to the distance between its two neighboring levels. (orig.)

  9. Coupling a thermal atomic vapor to an integrated ring resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Ralf; Pernice, Wolfram; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Strongly interacting atom-cavity systems within a network with many nodes constitute a possible realization for a quantum internet which allows for quantum communication and computation on the same platform. To implement such large-scale quantum networks, nanophotonic resonators are promising candidates because they can be scalably fabricated and interconnected with waveguides and optical fibers. By integrating arrays of ring resonators into a vapor cell we show that thermal rubidium atoms above room temperature can be coupled to photonic cavities as building blocks for chip-scale hybrid circuits. Although strong coupling is not yet achieved in this first realization, our approach provides a key step towards miniaturization and scalability of atom-cavity systems.

  10. A Multidisciplinary Approach to High Throughput Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Pourmodheji; Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh; Sebastian Magierowski

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a non-contact, powerful structure-elucidation technique for biochemical analysis. NMR spectroscopy is used extensively in a variety of life science applications including drug discovery. However, existing NMR technology is limited in that it cannot run a large number of experiments simultaneously in one unit. Recent advances in micro-fabrication technologies have attracted the attention of researchers to overcome these limitations and significantly accelera...

  11. Quantum force of tunneling macrospins with a mechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Hee

    2017-09-01

    We study force dynamics of macropsin of molecular magnets coupled to a torsional resonator. In the presence of an ac field and a static field with a gradient, the force is shown to display various types of quantum oscillations which depend upon the coupling strength and the frequency of torsional oscillations. Optimal conditions for observing them will be discussed within the framework of experimentally controllable parameters.

  12. Reverse stochastic resonance in a hippocampal CA1 neuron model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Dominique M; Kawaguchi, Minato; Mino, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a ubiquitous and counter- intuitive phenomenon whereby the addition of noise to a non-linear system can improve the detection of sub-threshold signals. The "signal" is normally periodic or deterministic whereas the "noise" is normally stochastic. However, in neural systems, signals are often stochastic. Moreover, periodic signals are applied near neurons to control neural excitability (i.e. deep brain stimulation). We therefore tested the hypothesis that a quasi-periodic signal applied to a neural network could enhance the detection of a stochastic neural signal (reverse stochastic resonance). Using computational methods, a CA1 hippocampal neuron was simulated and a Poisson distributed subthreshold synaptic input ("signal") was applied to the synaptic terminals. A periodic or quasi periodic pulse train at various frequencies ("noise") was applied to an extracellular electrode located near the neuron. The mutual information and information transfer rate between the output and input of the neuron were calculated. The results display the signature of stochastic resonance with information transfer reaching a maximum value for increasing power (or frequency) of the "noise". This result shows that periodic signals applied extracellularly can improve the detection of subthreshold stochastic neural signals. The optimum frequency (110 Hz) is similar to that used in patients with Parkinson's suggesting that this phenomenon could play a role in the therapeutic effect of high frequency stimulation.

  13. A model realizing inverse seesaw and resonant leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Mayumi; Takahashi, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    We construct a model realizing the inverse seesaw mechanism. The model has two types of gauge singlet fermions in addition to right-handed neutrinos. A required Majorana mass scale (keV scale) for generating the light active neutrino mass in the conventional inverse seesaw can be naturally explained by a "seesaw" mechanism between the two singlet fermions in our model. We find that our model can decrease the magnitude of hierarchy among mass parameters by $\\mathcal{O}(10^4)$ from that in the conventional inverse seesaw model. We also show that a successful resonant leptogenesis occurs for generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe in our model. The desired mass degeneracy for the resonant leptogenesis can also be achieved by the "seesaw" between the two singlet fermions.

  14. Hodological resonance, hodological variance, psychosis and schizophrenia: A hypothetical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brian eLawrie Birkett

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a disorder with a large number of clinical, neurobiological, and cognitive manifestations, none of which is invariably present. However it appears to be a single nosological entity. This article considers the likely characteristics of a pathology capable of such diverse consequences. It is argued that both deficit and psychotic symptoms can be manifestations of a single pathology. A general model of psychosis is proposed in which the informational sensitivity or responsivity of a network ("hodological resonance" becomes so high that it activates spontaneously, to produce a hallucination, if it is in sensory cortex, or another psychotic symptom if it is elsewhere. It is argued that this can come about because of high levels of modulation such as those assumed present in affective psychosis, or because of high levels of baseline resonance, such as those expected in deafferentation syndromes associated with hallucinations, for example, Charles Bonnet. It is further proposed that schizophrenia results from a process (probably neurodevelopmental causing widespread increases of variance in baseline resonance; consequently some networks possess high baseline resonance and become susceptible to spontaneous activation. Deficit symptoms might result from the presence of networks with increased activation thresholds. This hodological variance model is explored in terms of schizo-affective disorder, transient psychotic symptoms, diathesis-stress models, mechanisms of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy and persistence of genes predisposing to schizophrenia. Predictions and implications of the model are discussed. In particular it suggests a need for more research into psychotic states and for more single case-based studies in schizophrenia.

  15. Microelectromechanical Resonant Accelerometer Designed with a High Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Su, Yan; Shi, Qin; Qiu, An-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and experimental evaluation of a silicon micro-machined resonant accelerometer (SMRA). This type of accelerometer works on the principle that a proof mass under acceleration applies force to two double-ended tuning fork (DETF) resonators, and the frequency output of two DETFs exhibits a differential shift. The dies of an SMRA are fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) processing and wafer-level vacuum packaging. This research aims to design a high-sensitivity SMRA because a high sensitivity allows for the acceleration signal to be easily demodulated by frequency counting techniques and decreases the noise level. This study applies the energy-consumed concept and the Nelder-Mead algorithm in the SMRA to address the design issues and further increase its sensitivity. Using this novel method, the sensitivity of the SMRA has been increased by 66.1%, which attributes to both the re-designed DETF and the reduced energy loss on the micro-lever. The results of both the closed-form and finite-element analyses are described and are in agreement with one another. A resonant frequency of approximately 22 kHz, a frequency sensitivity of over 250 Hz per g, a one-hour bias stability of 55 μg, a bias repeatability (1σ) of 48 μg and the bias-instability of 4.8 μg have been achieved. PMID:26633425

  16. Microelectromechanical Resonant Accelerometer Designed with a High Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and experimental evaluation of a silicon micro-machined resonant accelerometer (SMRA. This type of accelerometer works on the principle that a proof mass under acceleration applies force to two double-ended tuning fork (DETF resonators, and the frequency output of two DETFs exhibits a differential shift. The dies of an SMRA are fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI processing and wafer-level vacuum packaging. This research aims to design a high-sensitivity SMRA because a high sensitivity allows for the acceleration signal to be easily demodulated by frequency counting techniques and decreases the noise level. This study applies the energy-consumed concept and the Nelder-Mead algorithm in the SMRA to address the design issues and further increase its sensitivity. Using this novel method, the sensitivity of the SMRA has been increased by 66.1%, which attributes to both the re-designed DETF and the reduced energy loss on the micro-lever. The results of both the closed-form and finite-element analyses are described and are in agreement with one another. A resonant frequency of approximately 22 kHz, a frequency sensitivity of over 250 Hz per g, a one-hour bias stability of 55 μg, a bias repeatability (1σ of 48 μg and the bias-instability of 4.8 μg have been achieved.

  17. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: a functional analytic description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapke, M.; Oberrath, J.; Mussenbrock, T.; Brinkmann, R. P.

    2013-04-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ denotes a class of diagnostic methods which employ the ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the plasma frequency. The basic idea dates back to the early days of discharge physics: a signal in the GHz range is coupled to the plasma via an electrical probe; the spectral response is recorded, and then evaluated with a mathematical model to obtain information on the electron density and other plasma parameters. In recent years, the concept has found renewed interest as a basis of industry compatible plasma diagnostics. This paper analyzes the diagnostic technique in terms of a general description based on functional analytic (or Hilbert Space) methods which hold for arbitrary probe geometries. It is shown that the response function of the plasma-probe system can be expressed as a matrix element of the resolvent of an appropriately defined dynamical operator. A specialization of the formalism to a symmetric probe design is given, as well as an interpretation in terms of a lumped circuit model consisting of series resonance circuits. We present ideas for an optimized probe design based on geometric and electrical symmetry.

  18. A broad 750 GeV diphoton resonance? Not alone

    CERN Document Server

    Roig, P

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a possible resonance in the diphoton channel with mass of 750 GeV is still under study and will be hopefully clarified this summer. If confirmed with a large width, it will be difficult to accommodate within weakly interacting beyond Standard Model theories, hinting a composite scenario. By means of forward sum-rules for $\\gamma\\gamma$ and $gg$ scattering we show that a spin-0 resonance with mass of the order of the TeV and a sizable $\\gamma\\gamma$ or $gg$ partial width -of the order of a few GeV- must be accompanied by higher spin resonances with $J_R\\geq 2$ with similar properties, as expected in strongly coupled extensions of the Standard Model or, alternatively, in higher dimensional deconstructed duals. Furthermore, independently of whether the 750 GeV candidate is a scalar or a tensor, the large contribution to the forward sum-rules in the referred scenario implies the presence of states in the spectrum with $J_R\\geq 2$, being these high spin particles a manifestation of new extra-dimen...

  19. Parametric resonance in the early Universe—a fitting analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Daniel G.; Torrentí, Francisco

    2017-02-01

    Particle production via parametric resonance in the early Universe, is a non-perturbative, non-linear and out-of-equilibrium phenomenon. Although it is a well studied topic, whenever a new scenario exhibits parametric resonance, a full re-analysis is normally required. To avoid this tedious task, many works present often only a simplified linear treatment of the problem. In order to surpass this circumstance in the future, we provide a fitting analysis of parametric resonance through all its relevant stages: initial linear growth, non-linear evolution, and relaxation towards equilibrium. Using lattice simulations in an expanding grid in 3+1 dimensions, we parametrize the dynamics' outcome scanning over the relevant ingredients: role of the oscillatory field, particle coupling strength, initial conditions, and background expansion rate. We emphasize the inaccuracy of the linear calculation of the decay time of the oscillatory field, and propose a more appropriate definition of this scale based on the subsequent non-linear dynamics. We provide simple fits to the relevant time scales and particle energy fractions at each stage. Our fits can be applied to post-inflationary preheating scenarios, where the oscillatory field is the inflaton, or to spectator-field scenarios, where the oscillatory field can be e.g. a curvaton, or the Standard Model Higgs.

  20. Rb optical resonance inside a random porous medium

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba, S; Laliotis, A; Lenci, L; Barreiro, S; Lezama, A

    2012-01-01

    We studied absorption and fluorescence of Rb atoms confined to the interstitial cavities of a random porous glass. Due to the diffusive light propagation in the porous sample, resonant light absorption is almost entirely compensated by atomic fluorescence at low atomic densities. For higher densities, radiation trapping increases the probability of non-radiative decay via atom-wall collisions. A simple connection of the fluorescence/absorption yield to the sample porosity is given.

  1. Angular characteristics of a multimode fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Zhixin; Li, Xuejin; Chen, Yuzhi; Hong, Xueming; Fan, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the angular characteristics of a multimode fiber SPR sensor are investigated theoretically. By separating the contributions of beams incident at different angles, a compact model is presented to predict the shift of the resonance wavelength with respect to the angle and the environmental refractive index. The result suggests that the performance of conventional fiber SPR sensors can be substantially improved by optimizing the incident angle.

  2. Internal signal stochastic resonance of a synthetic gene network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhiwei; HOU; Zhonghuai; XIN; Houwen

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics behavior of a synthetic gene network controlled by random noise is investigated using a model proposed recently. The phenomena of noise induced oscillation (NIO) of the protein concentrations and internal signal stochastic resonance (SR) are studied by computer simulation. We also find that there exists an optimal noise intensity that can most favor the occurrence of effective oscillation (EO). Finally we discuss the potential constructive roles of SR on gene expression systems.

  3. Phonon Counting and Intensity Interferometry of a Nanomechanical Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-04

    this work consists of a patterned silicon nanobeam which forms an optomechanical crystal ( OMC ) [24, 25] Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...chanical resonator [6]. For the OMC cavities of this work, with their large optomechanical coupling rate and near millisecond-long thermal decoherence time...preparation (2014). Appendix A: Optical and mechanical design The optomechanical crystal ( OMC ) studied in this work is numerically optimized for both

  4. Resonance Conversion as a Catalyzer of Nuclear Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KARPESHIN Feodor; ZHANG Jing-Bo; ZHANG Wei-Ning

    2006-01-01

    @@ It is shown that resonance internal conversion offers a feasible tool for mastering nuclear processes with laser or synchrotron radiation. The physics of the process is discussed in detail in a historical aspect. Possible experimental application is shown in the case of the M1 70.6-keV transition in nuclei of 169 Yb. The nuclear transition rate in hydrogen-like ions of this nuclide can be enhanced by up to four orders of magnitude.

  5. Test Measurements On A Resonance Filter Spectrometer Using Electronvolt Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Newport, Robert J.; Seeger, P. A.; Williams, W. G.

    1985-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on a prototype spectrometer at the WNR pulsed neutron facility are presented. Energy transfers are determined by differencing time-of-flight spectra taken with and without absorbing foils containing sharp nuclear resonances which define the scattered neutron energy. The quality of the spectra are enhanced by i) applying a double difference technique to improve line shape and ii) using fixed incident and scattered beam filters which discrim...

  6. Coralling a distant planet with extreme resonant Kuiper belt objects

    CERN Document Server

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2016-01-01

    The four longest period Kuiper belt objects have orbital periods close to small integer ratios with each other. A hypothetical planet with orbital period $\\sim$17,117 years, semimajor axis $\\sim$665 AU, would have N/1 and N/2 period ratios with these four objects. The orbital geometries and dynamics of resonant orbits constrain the orbital plane, the orbital eccentricity and the mass of such a planet, as well as its current location in its orbital path.

  7. Fabrication of a Resonant Photoacoustic Cell for Samples Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Kapil

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Nondestructive treatment of a sample in photoacoustic spectroscopy is helpful in the study of thermal and optical properties of ice and snow. In the present study, a  low-temperature resonant photoacoustic cell, based on Helmholtz resonator model, has been designed and fabricated for the study of samples like ice or snow. Its performance has also been studied using carbon black as a standard sample and various other samples like water, ice, glass, plexi-glass, polycarbonate, etc. Thermal diffusivity of ice, water, and many other transparent materials has been determined by varying chopping frequency and recording corresponding phase changes in the photoacoustic signal. The results obtained are in good agreement with those predicted by Rosencwaig-Gersho (R-G' theory.

  8. A Search for Heavy Resonances in the Dilepton Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics which predict the addition of a U(1 symmetry, and/or extra spatial dimensions, which give rise to new high mass resonances such as the Z′ and Randall-Sundrum graviton. The LHC provides a unique opportunity to explore the TeV scale where these phenomena may become apparent, and can be searched for using the precision tracking and high energy resolution calorimetry of the ATLAS detector. This poster presents the search for high mass resonances in the dilepton channel, and was conducted with an integrated luminosity of 1.08/1.21 fb−1 in the dielectron/dimuon channel respectively, at a centre of mass energy √s = 7 TeV.

  9. Evaluation of toroidal torque by non-resonant magnetic perturbations in tokamaks for resonant transport regimes using a Hamiltonian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Christopher G.; Heyn, Martin F.; Kapper, Gernot; Kasilov, Sergei V.; Kernbichler, Winfried; Martitsch, Andreas F.

    2016-08-01

    Toroidal torque generated by neoclassical viscosity caused by external non-resonant, non-axisymmetric perturbations has a significant influence on toroidal plasma rotation in tokamaks. In this article, a derivation for the expressions of toroidal torque and radial transport in resonant regimes is provided within quasilinear theory in canonical action-angle variables. The proposed approach treats all low-collisional quasilinear resonant neoclassical toroidal viscosity regimes including superbanana-plateau and drift-orbit resonances in a unified way and allows for magnetic drift in all regimes. It is valid for perturbations on toroidally symmetric flux surfaces of the unperturbed equilibrium without specific assumptions on geometry or aspect ratio. The resulting expressions are shown to match the existing analytical results in the large aspect ratio limit. Numerical results from the newly developed code NEO-RT are compared to calculations by the quasilinear version of the code NEO-2 at low collisionalities. The importance of the magnetic shear term in the magnetic drift frequency and a significant effect of the magnetic drift on drift-orbit resonances are demonstrated.

  10. Quantum resonance catastrophe for conductance through a periodically driven barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuberg, Daniel; Reyes, Sebastián A.; Eggert, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    We consider the quantum conductance in a tight-binding chain with a locally applied potential which is oscillating in time. The steady state for such a driven impurity can be calculated exactly for any energy and applied potential using the Floquet formalism. The resulting transmission has a nontrivial, nonmonotonic behavior depending on incoming momentum, driving frequency, and the strength of the applied periodic potential. Hence there is an abundance of tuning possibilities, which allows finding the resonances of total reflection for any choice of incoming momentum and periodic potential. Remarkably, this implies that even for an arbitrarily small infinitesimal impurity potential it is always possible to find a resonance frequency at which there is a catastrophic breakdown of the transmission T =0 . The points of zero transmission are closely related to the phenomenon of Fano resonances at dynamically created bound states in the continuum. The results are relevant for a variety of one-dimensional systems where local AC driving is possible, such as quantum nanodot arrays, ultracold gases in optical lattices, photonic crystals, or molecular electronics.

  11. Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region are traditionally difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a RF field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter.

  13. Graphene plasmonics: multiple sharp Fano resonances in silver split concentric nanoring/disk resonator dimers on a metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Sinha, Raju; Pala, Nezih

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a platform based on plasmonic metamaterials to design various optical devices. A simple structure brokenring with a nanodisk at the center is utilized to excite and hybridize the plasmon resonant modes. We show that the proposed nanoantenna is able to support strong sub- and superradiant plasmon resonances because of its unique geometrical features. Using the concentric ring/disk in a dimer orientation as a nanoantenna on a multilayer metasurface consisting of graphene monolayer, we induced double sharp plasmonic Fano resonant modes in the transmission window across the visible to the near-infrared region. Considering the strong polarization-dependency of the broken-ring/disk dimer antenna, it is shown that the proposed plasmonic metamaterial can be tailored as an optical router device for fast switching applications. This understanding opens new paths to employ plasmonic metamaterials with simple geometrical nanoscale blocks for sensing and switching applications.

  14. Optically tunable Fano resonance in a grating-based Fabry-Perot cavity-coupled microring resonator on a silicon chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Wangzhe; Yao, Jianping

    2016-06-01

    A grating-based Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity-coupled microring resonator on a silicon chip is reported to demonstrate an all-optically tunable Fano resonance. In the device, an add-drop microring resonator (MRR) is employed, and one of the two bus waveguides is replaced by an FP cavity consisting of two sidewall Bragg gratings. By choosing the parameters of the gratings, the resonant mode of the FP cavity is coupled to one of the resonant modes of the MRR. Due to the coupling between the resonant modes, a Fano resonance with an asymmetric line shape resulted. Measurement results show a Fano resonance with an extinction ratio of 22.54 dB, and a slope rate of 250.4 dB/nm is achieved. A further study of the effect of the coupling on the Fano resonance is performed numerically and experimentally. Thanks to the strong light-confinement capacity of the MRR and the FP cavity, a strong two-photon absorption induced nonlinear thermal-optic effect resulted, which is used to tune the Fano resonance optically.

  15. Resonance compression of an acoustic beam in a crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshits, V. I., E-mail: alshits@ns.crys.ras.ru; Bessonov, D. A.; Lyubimov, V. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Crystallography Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    The resonance excitation of an intense acoustic beam in a crystal is described for a special geometry of pump-wave reflection from the crystal surface. The resonance appears in the vicinity of the total internal reflection angle under the condition that the wave field in a compressed reflected beam propagating almost parallel to the surface is close to the volume eigenmode satisfying the free boundary condition. Criteria for the existence of such modes are considered in detail. Conversion conditions are analyzed under which a “parasitic” reflected wave of the same branch as the incident wave is absent and entire energy from the incident wave falls within a narrow intense acoustic beam of another branch. It is shown that, when the surface is chosen parallel to the crystal symmetry plane, the conversion criterion is reduced to the sole condition on the elastic moduli of the medium. Analysis is performed by analytic and numerical methods for skew cuts of monoclinic, rhombic, trigonal, and hexagonal crystals, when the boundary is the symmetry plane, while the sagittal plane has no symmetry. A number of crystals are found in which resonance excitation is very close to conversion.

  16. Electromagnetically induced transparency with resonant nuclei in a cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhlsberger, Ralf; Wille, Hans-Christian; Schlage, Kai; Sahoo, Balaram

    2012-02-08

    The manipulation of light-matter interactions by quantum control of atomic levels has had a profound impact on optical sciences. Such manipulation has many applications, including nonlinear optics at the few-photon level, slow light, lasing without inversion and optical quantum information processing. The critical underlying technique is electromagnetically induced transparency, in which quantum interference between transitions in multilevel atoms renders an opaque medium transparent near an atomic resonance. With the advent of high-brilliance, accelerator-driven light sources such as storage rings or X-ray lasers, it has become attractive to extend the techniques of optical quantum control to the X-ray regime. Here we demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency in the regime of hard X-rays, using the 14.4-kiloelectronvolt nuclear resonance of the Mössbauer isotope iron-57 (a two-level system). We exploit cooperative emission from ensembles of the nuclei, which are embedded in a low-finesse cavity and excited by synchrotron radiation. The spatial modulation of the photonic density of states in a cavity mode leads to the coexistence of superradiant and subradiant states of nuclei, respectively located at an antinode and a node of the cavity field. This scheme causes the nuclei to behave as effective three-level systems, with two degenerate levels in the excited state (one of which can be considered metastable). The radiative coupling of the nuclear ensembles by the cavity field establishes the atomic coherence necessary for the cancellation of resonant absorption. Because this technique does not require atomic systems with a metastable level, electromagnetically induced transparency and its applications can be transferred to the regime of nuclear resonances, establishing the field of nuclear quantum optics.

  17. A resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil employing a fractal capacitor bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E.

    2013-09-01

    The design and construction of a series resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil for the production of magnetic fields as large as 500 G in the range of 100-2500 Hz is described. Important aspects of ac coil design are discussed, including: minimizing power losses due to the expected Joule heating, self-induced eddy currents, and skin resistance; controlling the stray capacitance; maximizing field homogeneity; and keeping peak voltages at acceptable levels. The design and construction of a computer-controlled, optically isolated fractal capacitor bank is then treated, and various aspects of capacitor selection and characterization were discussed. The system performance is demonstrated, including stability and the possibility of field component dephasing with typical magnetic samples.

  18. A resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil employing a fractal capacitor bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E

    2013-09-01

    The design and construction of a series resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil for the production of magnetic fields as large as 500 G in the range of 100-2500 Hz is described. Important aspects of ac coil design are discussed, including: minimizing power losses due to the expected Joule heating, self-induced eddy currents, and skin resistance; controlling the stray capacitance; maximizing field homogeneity; and keeping peak voltages at acceptable levels. The design and construction of a computer-controlled, optically isolated fractal capacitor bank is then treated, and various aspects of capacitor selection and characterization were discussed. The system performance is demonstrated, including stability and the possibility of field component dephasing with typical magnetic samples.

  19. A possible proton pygmy resonance in 17Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The low-lying electric dipole strengths in proton-rich nuclei 17F and 17Ne, which can be produced at HIRFL-CSR in Lanzhou, are investigated. In the framework of the covariant density functional theory the self-consistent relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov model and the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation with the NL3 parameter set and Gogny pairing interaction are adopted in the calculations. A pronounced dipole peak appears below 10 MeV in17Ne, but does not occur in 17F. The prop erties of this low-lying E1 excitation in 17Ne are studied, which may correspond to a proton pygmy resonance with different characteristics from those of giant dipole resonance.

  20. Visualization of subsurface nanoparticles in a polymer matrix using resonance tracking atomic force acoustic microscopy and contact resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kei; Yao, Atsushi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2016-10-01

    A visualization technique of subsurface features with a nanometer-scale spatial resolution is strongly demanded. Some research groups have demonstrated the visualization of subsurface features using various techniques based on atomic force microscopy. However, the imaging mechanisms have not yet been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated the visualization of subsurface Au nanoparticles buried in a polymer matrix 900 nm from the surface using two techniques; i.e., resonance tracking atomic force acoustic microscopy and contact resonance spectroscopy. It was clarified that the subsurface features were visualized by the two techniques as the area with a higher contact resonance frequency and a higher Q-factor than those in the surrounding area, which suggests that the visualization is realized by the variation of the contact stiffness and damping of the polymer matrix due to the existence of the buried nanoparticles.

  1. Resonance Conversion as a Catalyser of Nuclear Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Karpeshin, Feodor; Zhang, Weining

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that resonance interal conversion offers a feasible tool for mastering nuclear processes with laser or synchrotron radiation. Physics of the process is discussed in detail in historical aspect. Possible way of experimental applicaytion is shown in the case of the $M1$ 70.6-keV transition in nuclei of $^{169}$Yb. Nuclear transition rate in hydrogenlike ions of this nuclide can be enhanced by up to four orders of magnitude.

  2. Transforming Fabry-Pérot resonances into a Tamm mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durach, Maxim; Rusina, Anastasia

    2012-12-01

    We propose an optical structure composed of two metal nanolayers enclosing a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror. The structure is an open photonic system whose bound modes are coupled to external radiation. We apply the special theoretical treatment based on inversion symmetry of the structure to classify its resonances. We show that the structure supports resonances transitional between Fabry-Pérot modes and Tamm plasmons. When the dielectric contrast of the DBR is removed these modes are a pair of conventional Fabry-Pérot resonances. They spectrally merge into a Tamm mode at high contrast. The optical properties of the structure in the frequency range of the DBR stop band, including highly beneficial 50% transmittivity through thick structures with sub-skin-depth metal films, are determined by the hybrid quasinormal modes of the open nonconservative structure under consideration. The results can find a broad range of applications in photonics and optoelectronics, including the possibility of coherent control over optical fields in the class of structures similar to the one proposed here.

  3. A dual-mode microwave resonator for double electron-electron spin resonance spectroscopy at W-band microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Igor; Sicoli, Giuseppe; Höbartner, Claudia; Bennati, Marina

    2011-04-01

    We present a dual-mode resonator operating at/near 94 GHz (W-band) microwave frequencies and supporting two microwave modes with the same field polarization at the sample position. Numerical analysis shows that the frequencies of both modes as well as their frequency separation can be tuned in a broad range up to GHz. The resonator was constructed to perform pulsed ELDOR experiments with a variable separation of "pump" and "detection" frequencies up to Δ ν = 350 MHz. To examine its performance, test ESE/PELDOR experiments were performed on a representative biradical system.

  4. Low-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, N. Q.; Clarke, John

    1991-06-01

    A sensitive spectrometer, based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device, for the direct detection of low-frequency pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), is described. The frequency response extends from about 10 to 200 kHz, and the recovery time after the magnetic pulse is removed is typically 50 μs. As examples, NMR spectra are shown from Pt and Cu metal powders in a magnetic field of 6 mT, and NQR spectra are shown from 2D in a tunneling methyl group and 14N in NH4ClO4.

  5. Tunability of resonance frequencies in a superconducting microwave resonator by using SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric films

    CERN Document Server

    Sok, J; Lee, E H

    1998-01-01

    An applied dc voltage varies the dielectric constant of ferroelectric SrTiO sub 3 films. A tuning mechanism for superconducting microwave resonators was realized by using the variation in the dielectric constant of SrTiO sub 3 films. In order to estimate the values of the capacitance, C, and the loss tangent, tan delta, of SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric capacitors, we used high-temperature superconducting microwave resonators which were composed of two ports, two poles, and dc bias circuits at the zero-field points. SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric capacitors successfully controlled the resonant frequency of the resonator. Resonant frequencies of 3.98 GHz and 4.20 GHz were measured at bias voltages of 0 V and 50 V which correspond to capacitance values of 0.94 pF and 0.7pF, respectively. The values of the loss tangent, tan delta sub e sub f sub f , obtained in this measurements, were about 0.01.

  6. Probing a new strongly interacting sector via composite diboson resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, P.; Yu, Chaehyun; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2017-06-01

    Diphoton resonance was a crucial discovery mode for the 125 GeV Standard Model Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This mode or the more general diboson modes may also play an important role in probing for new physics beyond the Standard Model. In this paper, we consider the possibility that a diphoton resonance is due to a composite scalar or pseudoscalar boson, whose constituents are either new hyperquarks Q or scalar hyperquarks Q ˜ confined by a new hypercolor force at a confinement scale Λh. Assuming the mass mQ (or mQ ˜) ≫Λh, a diphoton resonance could be interpreted as either a Q Q ¯ (1S0) state ηQ with JP C=0-+ or a Q ˜ Q˜ †(1S0) state ηQ ˜ with JP C=0++. For the Q Q ¯ scenario, there will be a spin-triplet partner ψQ which is slightly heavier than ηQ due to the hyperfine interactions mediated by hypercolor gluon exchange; while for the Q ˜Q˜† scenario, the spin-triplet partner χQ ˜ arises from higher radial excitation with nonzero orbital angular momentum. We consider productions and decays of ηQ, ηQ ˜, ψQ, and χQ ˜ at the LHC using the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach. We discuss how to test these scenarios by using the Drell-Yan process and the forward dijet azimuthal angular distributions to determine the JP C quantum number of the diphoton resonance. Constraints on the parameter space can be obtained by interpreting some of the small diphoton "excesses" reported by the LHC as the composite scalar or pseudoscalar of the model. Another important test of the model is the presence of a nearby hypercolor-singlet but color-octet state like the 1S0 state ηQ8 or ηQ˜8, which can also be constrained by dijet or monojet plus monophoton data. Both possibilities of a large or small width of the resonance can be accommodated, depending on whether the hyper-glueball states are kinematically allowed in the final state or not.

  7. ABC Effect in Double-Pionic Fusion - a New Resonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricking, A.; Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Perez del Rio, E.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    ABC effect, an intriguing low-mass enhancement in the ππ invariant mass spectrum — known since more than 50 years from inclusive measurements of double-pionic fusion reactions — is reexamined. To this end exclusive and kinematically complete high-statistics experiments of the fusion reactions to d, 3He and 4He have been carried out with WASA at COSY. These measurements cover the full energy region, where the ABC effect has been observed previously. They also complement the systematic measurements of nucleon-nucleon induced two-pion production. An isospin decomposition of all three basic double-pionic fusion reactions leading to the deuteron uniquely shows that solely the isoscalar reaction part exhibits the ABC effect tightly correlated with a narrow resonance structure in the total cross section. The peak energy of the resonance structure is about 90 MeV below the nominal ΔΔ threshold of 2 mΔ and its width of only 70 MeV is much less than the 2 ГΔ expected from the conventional t-channel ΔΔ process. Based on angular distributions the quantum numbers I(JP) = 0(3+) have been assigned. In the double-pionic fusion reaction dd→4Heπ0π0 again the ABC effect is observed to be correlated with the appearance of a resonance-like structure in the total cross section at the same excess energy. From this we conclude that this resonance structure obviously is strong enough to survive even in nuclei.

  8. Resonance of a rectangular microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin-Lu; Row, Jeen-Sheen; Kuo, Chih-Wen; Huang, Kuang-Chih

    1993-04-01

    Effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the complex resonant frequency of the microstrip patch antenna are investigated in terms of an integral equation formulation. The complex resonant frequency of the microstrip patch antenna is calculated by using Galerkin's method in solving the integral equation. The sinusoidal functions are selected as the basis functions, which show fast numerical convergence. Numerical results also indicate that both the resonant frequency and the half-power bandwidth are increased due to the positive uniaxial anisotropy and, on the other hand, decreased due to the negative uniaxial anisotropy.

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vipin K Yadav; D Bora

    2004-09-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma is produced and studied in a small cylindrical system. Microwave power is delivered by a CW magnetron at 2.45 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extraordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the first two ECR surfaces ( = 875.0 G and = 437.5 G) reside in the system. ECR plasma is produced with hydrogen with typical plasma density e as 3.2 × 1010 cm-3 and plasma temperature e between 9 and 15 eV. Various cut-off and resonance positions are identified in the plasma system. ECR heating (ECRH) of the plasma is observed experimentally. This heating is because of the mode conversion of X-wave to electron Bernstein wave (EBW) at the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer. The power mode conversion efficiency is estimated to be 0.85 for this system. The experimental results are presented in this paper.

  10. Resonance fluorescence of a trapped three-level atom

    CERN Document Server

    Bienert, M; Morigi, G; Bienert, Marc; Merkel, Wolfgang; Morigi, Giovanna

    2003-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spectrum of resonance fluorescence of a harmonically trapped atom, whose internal transitions are $\\Lambda$--shaped and driven at two-photon resonance by a pair of lasers, which cool the center--of--mass motion. For this configuration, photons are scattered only due to the mechanical effects of the quantum interaction between light and atom. We study the spectrum of emission in the final stage of laser--cooling, when the atomic center-of-mass dynamics is quantum mechanical and the size of the wave packet is much smaller than the laser wavelength (Lamb--Dicke limit). We use the spectral decomposition of the Liouville operator of the master equation for the atomic density matrix and apply second order perturbation theory. We find that the spectrum of resonance fluorescence is composed by two narrow sidebands -- the Stokes and anti-Stokes components of the scattered light -- while all other signals are in general orders of magnitude smaller. For very low temperatures, however, th...

  11. A cubic Henon-like map in the unfolding of degenerate homoclinic orbit with resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M; Naudot, [No Value; Yang, JZ

    2005-01-01

    In this Note, we study the unfolding of a vector field that possesses a degenerate homoclinic (of inclination-flip type) to a hyperbolic equilibrium point where its linear part possesses a resonance. For the unperturbed system, the resonant term associated with the resonance vanishes. After suitable

  12. A Generalized Approach for the Steady-State Analysis of Dual-Bridge Resonant Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Yuan Hu; Xiaodong Li; Bo-Yue Luan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a dual-bridge DC/DC resonant converter with a generalized series and parallel resonant tank is analyzed. A general approach based on Fundamental Harmonic Approximation is used to find the universal steady-state solutions. The analysis results for particular resonant tank configurations are exemplified with several typical resonant tank configurations respectively. The corresponded soft-switching conditions are discussed too. To illustrate the usefulness of the generalized appro...

  13. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a paramagnetic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, G. P.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    We consider theoretically extension of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) replacing a ferromagnetic probe on a cantilever tip (CT) with a paramagnetic one (PMRFM). The dynamics of the interaction between the paramagnetic probe and a local magnetic moment in a sample is analyzed, using a quasi-classical approach. We show that the application of a proper sequence of electromagnetic pulses provides a significant deflection of the CT from the initial equilibrium position. Periodic application of these sequences of pulses results in quasi-periodic CT deflections from the equilibrium, which can be used for detection of the magnetic moment in a sample.

  14. Low-energy neutron flux measurement using a resonance absorption filter surrounding a lithium glass scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghal-Eh, N.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.; Hamidi, S.

    2007-06-01

    The resonance absorption filter technique has been used to determine the thermal/epithermal neutron flux. The main idea in this technique is to use an element with a high and essentially singular resonance in the neutron absorption cross section as a filter surrounding a miniature-type lithium glass scintillator. The count with and without the filter surrounding the detector gives the number of resonance-energy neutrons. Some preliminary results and a comparison with the MCNP code are shown.

  15. Linewidth broadening and emission saturation of a resonantly excited quantum dot monitored via an off-resonant cavity mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhaq, A.; Ates, Serkan; Weiler, S.;

    2010-01-01

    We report on the robustness of a detuned mode channel for reading out the relevant s-shell properties of a resonantly excited coupled quantum dot (QD) in a pillar microcavity. The line broadening of the QD s-shell is “monitored” by the mode signal with high conformity to the directly measured QD ...

  16. Strong and Coherent Coupling of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle to a Subwavelength Fabry-Pérot Resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Alexander; Kern, Andreas M; Brecht, Marc; Meixner, Alfred J

    2015-07-08

    A major aim in experimental nano- and quantum optics is observing and controlling the interaction between light and matter on a microscopic scale. Coupling molecules or atoms to optical microresonators is a prominent method to alter their optical properties such as luminescence spectra or lifetimes. Until today strong coupling of optical resonators to such objects has only been observed with atom-like systems in high quality resonators. We demonstrate first experiments revealing strong coupling between individual plasmonic gold nanorods (GNR) and a tunable low quality resonator by observing cavity-length-dependent nonlinear dephasing and spectral shifts indicating spectral anticrossing of the luminescent coupled system. These phenomena and experimental results can be described by a model of two coupled oscillators representing the plasmon resonance of the GNR and the optical fields of the resonator. The presented reproducible and accurately tunable resonator allows us to precisely control the optical properties of individual particles.

  17. Development of a Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a Double Saw Resonator System at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Yunusa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A double SAW resonator system was developed as a novel method for gas sensing applications. The proposed system was investigated for hydrogen sensing. Commercial Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW resonators with resonance frequencies of 433.92 MHz and 433.42 MHz were employed in the double SAW resonator system configuration. The advantages of using this configuration include its ability for remote measurements, and insensitivity to vibrations and other external disturbances. The sensitive layer is composed of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers which were deposited on pre-patterned platinum metal electrodes fabricated on a piezoelectric substrate. This was mounted into the DSAWR circuit and connected in parallel. The sensor response was measured as the difference between the resonance frequencies of the SAW resonators, which is a measure of the gas concentration. The sensor showed good response towards hydrogen with a minimum detection limit of 1%.

  18. Development of a hydrogen gas sensor using a double SAW resonator system at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusa, Zainab; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Ismail, Alyani; Mohd Isa, Maryam; Yaacob, Mohd Hanif; Rahmanian, Saeed; Ibrahim, Siti Azlida; Shabaneh, Arafat A A

    2015-02-26

    A double SAW resonator system was developed as a novel method for gas sensing applications. The proposed system was investigated for hydrogen sensing. Commercial Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators with resonance frequencies of 433.92 MHz and 433.42 MHz were employed in the double SAW resonator system configuration. The advantages of using this configuration include its ability for remote measurements, and insensitivity to vibrations and other external disturbances. The sensitive layer is composed of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers which were deposited on pre-patterned platinum metal electrodes fabricated on a piezoelectric substrate. This was mounted into the DSAWR circuit and connected in parallel. The sensor response was measured as the difference between the resonance frequencies of the SAW resonators, which is a measure of the gas concentration. The sensor showed good response towards hydrogen with a minimum detection limit of 1%.

  19. Role of depth and location of minima of a double-well potential on vibrational resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekar, S [School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India); Jeyakumari, S; Chinnathambi, V [Department of Physics, Sri KGS Arts College, Srivaikuntam 628 619, Tamilnadu (India); Sanjuan, M A F, E-mail: rajasekar@cnld.bdu.ac.i [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-19

    We report our investigation into the role of depth and location of minima of a double-well potential on vibrational resonance in both underdamped and overdamped Duffing oscillators. The systems are driven by both low- and high-frequency periodic forces. We obtain theoretical expressions for the amplitude g of the high-frequency force at which resonances occur. The depth and location of the minima of the potential wells have a distinct effect on vibrational resonance in the underdamped and overdamped cases. In the underdamped system at least one resonance and at most two resonances occur and the number of resonances can be altered by varying the depth and location of the minima of the potential wells. We show that in the overdamped system there is always one and only one resonance, and the value of g at which resonance occurs is independent of the depth of the wells, but varies linearly with the locations of the minima of the wells.

  20. Conceptual Design of a Microwave Confocal Resonator Pick-up

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Lofnes, T; Syratchev, I V; Ziemann, Volker

    2004-01-01

    A confocal resonator may be used as a pick-up for frequencies in the multi-GHz region. In this report we present the design, by analytical and numerical methods, of such a device. Furthermore, we discuss engineering issues, such as the damping of unwanted modes, shielding of image fields and manufacturing tolerances. Such a device can be used both as a pick-up and a kicker where the actual structure is several wavelengths away from the beam in the transverse direction. It is intended for highly relativistic beams and does not require changing the particle trajectory, as opposed to a diagnostic wiggler.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Study on the Resonance Properties of a Nano Resonator Based on a Graphene Sheet with Two Types of Vacancy Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the excellent electronic, optical, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties of graphene, it has been applied in microdevices and nanodevices. However, there are some structural defects in graphene limiting its application in micro electromechanical systems (MEMS. These structural defects are inevitable during processing, and it is difficult to assess their effect on the micro/nano devices. Therefore, this communication used molecular dynamics to study the resonance properties of a nanoelectromechanical systems (NMES resonator based on a graphene sheet with a single vacancy defect and edge defects. This communication focuses on three factors: vacancy types, external force, and temperature. The resonance frequencies of both types of graphene increased with external stress loading, and the resonance frequency of the graphene showed a clear step-shaped variation. Nonlinear deformation of the sheet occurred between resonant processes. When the external force was less than 15.91 nN, the resonance frequencies of the two types of graphene showed a consistent trend. The maximum frequency was up to 132.90 GHz. When the external force was less than 90 nN, the resonance frequencies of graphene with edge defects were greater and changed more rapidly. Temperature did not have a huge influence on the resonance frequencies of either type of graphene structure. The resonance frequencies of graphene with two different vacancy defects showed a consistent trend.

  2. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marco A. B., E-mail: marcobrizzotti@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Pérez, Nicolás [Centro Universitario de Paysandú, Universidad de la República, Ruta 3 km 363, 60000 Paysandú (Uruguay); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, Av. Mello Moraes, 2231, 05508-030 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-01-05

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  3. Complications after liver transplantation: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a single session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boraschi, P.; Donati, F.; Gigoni, R. [Pisa Univ. Hospital, Second Dept. of Radiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: p.boraschi@do.med.unipi.it; Salemi, S. [Univ. of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Urbani, L.; Filipponi, F. [Univ. of Pisa, Liver Transplant Unit of the Dept. of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Falaschi, F. [Pisa Univ. Hospital, Second Dept. of Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Bartolozzi, C. [Univ. of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate a comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol as noninvasive diagnostic modality for simultaneous detection of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications after liver transplantation. Fifty-two liver transplant recipients suspected to have parenchymal, biliary, and (or) vascular complications underwent our MRI protocol at 1.5T unit using a phased array coil. After preliminary acquisition of axial T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w sequences, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) was performed through a breath-hold, thin- and thick-slab, single-shot T{sub 2}w sequence in the coronal plane. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) was obtained using a 3-dimensional coronal spoiled gradient-echo sequence, which enabled acquisition of 32 partitions 2.0 mm thick. A fixed dose of 20 ml gadobenate dimeglumine was administered at 2 mL/s. A post-contrast T{sub 1}w sequence was also performed. Two observers in conference reviewed source images and 3-dimensional reconstructions to determine the presence of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications. MRI findings were correlated with surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), biopsy, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and imaging follow-up. MRI revealed abnormal findings in 32 out of 52 patients (61%), including biliary complications (anastomotic and nonanastomotic strictures, and lithiasis) in 31, vascular disease (hepatic artery stenosis and thrombosis) in 9, and evidence of hepatic abscess and hematoma in 2. ERC confirmed findings of MRC in 30 cases, but suggested disease underestimation in 2. DSA confirmed 7 magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) findings, but suggested disease overestimation in 2. MRI combined with MRC and CEMRA can provide a comprehensive assessment of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications in most recipients of liver transplantation. (author)

  4. Double-notch-shaped microdisk resonator devices with gapless coupling on a silicon chip Invited Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianshu Luo; Andrew W. Poon

    2009-01-01

    We propose novel double-notch-shaped microdisk resonator-based devices with gapless waveguide-to- microdisk and inter-cavity coupling via the two notches of the microdisk. Both finite-difference time- domain simulations and experimental demonstrations reveal the high-quality-factor multimode resonances in such microdisks. Using such double-notch microdisk resonators, we experimentally demonstrate the many-element linearly cascaded-microdisk resonator devices with up to 50 elements on a silicon chip.

  5. Magnetic resonance, a phenomenon with a great potential in medicine, but with a complex physical background – Part 2: The basics of magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Božič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is a very complex diagnostic technique. Therefore, both practical experiences and theoretical understanding is needed for effective diagnostics. It is therefore important that physicians are sufficiently familiar with the basic physical principles of magnetic resonance. In the interpretation of physical concepts, we will rely both on the classical as well as on the quantum-mechanical view of the signal formation in magnetic resonance, which are to some extent complementary. The signal appearance in magnetic resonance imaging will be discussed. A special emphasis will be put on the role of the resonance frequency and the pulse sequences. Furthermore, the spin echo as one of the most used classical signal sequences in diagnostic investigations will be described.

  6. Method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Matkso, Andrey B. (Inventor); Iltchenko, Vladimir S. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR) is provided. The WGMR can be fabricated from a particular material, annealed, and then polished. The WGMR can be repeatedly annealed and then polished. The repeated polishing of the WGMR can be carried out using an abrasive slurry. The abrasive slurry can have a predetermined, constant grain size. Each subsequent polishing of the WGMR can use an abrasive slurry having a grain size that is smaller than the grain size of the abrasive slurry of the previous polishing iteration.

  7. Noise control zone for a periodic ducted Helmholtz resonator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenzhi; Mak, Cheuk Ming

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the dispersion characteristics of sound wave propagation in a periodic ducted Helmholtz resonator (HR) system. The predicted result fits well with a numerical simulation using a finite element method. This study indicates that for the same system, no matter how many HRs are connected or what the periodic distance is, the area under average transmission loss T L¯ curves is always the same. The broader the noise attenuation band, the lower the peak attenuation amplitude. A noise control zone compromising the attenuation bandwidth or peak amplitude is proposed for noise control optimization.

  8. Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hsin-Yu; Cunningham, Brian T [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1406 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Zhang Wei [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mathias, Patrick C, E-mail: bcunning@illinois.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 W Springfield Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-03-26

    Using a one-dimensional grating surface photonic crystal (PC), we experimentally demonstrate that the detection of fluorescent molecules on a PC surface can be substantially magnified through the combined effects of resonance-enhanced excitation of the fluorescent dye, resonance-enhanced extraction of the fluorescence emission and a dielectric nanorod surface coating increasing the surface area available for fluorophore-PC interaction. Enhanced excitation is obtained by engineering a high-Q TM resonant mode to efficiently couple with an incident TM-polarized {lambda} = 633 nm laser for exciting Cyanine-5 (Cy5). Enhanced extraction results from a low-Q TE resonance designed to spectrally overlap the Cy5 emission spectrum for channeling TE-polarized emission towards the detection instrument. The entire PC surface is coated with a porous film of TiO{sub 2} nanorods that allows more fluorophores to penetrate into the region of enhanced near-electric fields. Experimental results reveal a 588-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity relative to an unpatterned glass surface.

  9. Study on tunable resonator using a cantilevered carbon nanotube encapsulating a copper nanocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Ki-Sub; Park, Jungchul; Hwang, Ho Jung

    2011-02-01

    We investigated an ultrahigh frequency carbon nanotube resonator encapsulating a nanocluster, as another tunable resonator, via classical molecular dynamics simulations and continuum models. The fundamental frequency of cantilevered carbon nanotube resonator encapsulating a copper nanocluster could be adjusted by controlling the position of the encapsulated copper nanocluster. Data obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations were analyzed with continuum theory, and we found that statistically the change in the effective mass factor was greatly correlated with the position change of the encapsulated nanocluster.

  10. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  11. A resonant series counterpulse technique for high current opening switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, E. van [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. for Power Electronics and Electrical Machines; Gelder, P. van [TNO PML-Pulse Physics Lab., Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A counterpulse technique for the controlled interruption of very high currents in inductive storage pulsed power systems is described and analyzed, and some simulation results of its performance are presented. The accompanying circuit comprises a pre-charged capacitor bank, connected in series with the inductive load, which has to be provided with a current pulse. Upon actuation, a resonant counterpulse current is created in the opening switch, connected in parallel with the current source and the load. In this way, the opening switch is opened at low current. A separate closing switch prevents closing of the opening switch at high voltage. Operation of the opening switch, often a mechanical switch, at low current and low voltage prevents arc erosion of the contacts. The advantage of this circuit compared to other counterpulse circuits is that the capacitor bank does not experience a voltage reversal. Electrolytic capacitors, which have a high energy density, are applied. The remaining energy of the capacitor bank after opening the opening switch, is transferred to the load. The required initial voltage of the capacitor bank is only a few hundred volts, whereas it may be above a kilovolt in other circuits. Another advantage of the method described here is that the load does not experience a pre-current, causing unwanted preheating of the load, before the resonant current is activated. At the moment, work is being performed at the Pulse Physics Laboratory to develop the resonant series counterpulse circuit for use with rail accelerators, which must be supplied with current pulses in the millisecond range up to the mega-ampere level.

  12. Brillouin Lasing with a CaF_2 Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Grudinin, Ivan S; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering with both pump and Stokes beams in resonance with whispering gallery modes of an ultra high Q CaF_2 resonator is demonstrated for the first time. The resonator is pumped with 1064 nm light and has a Brillouin lasing threshold of 3.5 microwatt. Potential applications include optical generation of microwaves and sensitive gyros.

  13. Teaching the Concept of Resonance with the Help of a Classical Guitar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, M. Kaan; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Sengoren, Serap Kaya

    2012-12-01

    Resonance refers to the vibrations of larger amplitude that are produced under the effect of a harmonic driving force. Although resonance is an essential concept behind many events happening in nature, students usually have difficulty in learning and explaining the phenomenon. Various demonstrations are carried out in physics classes to clarify the concept of resonance.2-6

  14. Baryon resonances from a novel fat-link fermion action

    CERN Document Server

    Melnitchouk, W; Bonnet, F D R; Coddington, P D; Leinweber, D B; Williams, A G; Zanotti, J M; Zhang, J B; Lee, F X

    2002-01-01

    We present first results for masses of positive and negative parity excited baryons in lattice QCD using an O(a^2) improved gluon action and a Fat Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action in which only the irrelevant operators are constructed with fat links. The results are in agreement with earlier calculations of N^* resonances using improved actions and exhibit a clear mass splitting between the nucleon and its chiral partner, even for the Wilson fermion action. The results also indicate a splitting between the lowest J^P = 1/2^- states for the two standard nucleon interpolating fields.

  15. Racetrack resonator as a loss measurement platform for photonic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam M; DeRose, Christopher T; Lentine, Anthony L; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew T S; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-11-02

    This work represents the first complete analysis of the use of a racetrack resonator to measure the insertion loss of efficient, compact photonic components. Beginning with an in-depth analysis of potential error sources and a discussion of the calibration procedure, the technique is used to estimate the insertion loss of waveguide width tapers of varying geometry with a resulting 95% confidence interval of 0.007 dB. The work concludes with a performance comparison of the analyzed tapers with results presented for four taper profiles and three taper lengths.

  16. Electron-volt spectroscopy at a pulsed neutron source using a resonance detector technique

    CERN Document Server

    Andreani, C; Senesi, R; Gorini, G; Tardocchi, M; Bracco, A; Rhodes, N; Schooneveld, E M

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of the neutron resonance detector spectrometer for deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements has been assessed by measuring the Pb scattering on the eVS spectrometer at ISIS pulsed neutron source and natural U foils as (n,gamma) resonance converters. A conventional NaI scintillator with massive shielding has been used as gamma detector. A neutron energy window up to 90 eV, including four distinct resonance peaks, has been assessed. A net decrease of the intrinsic width of the 6.6 eV resonance peak has also been demonstrated employing the double difference spectrum technique, with two uranium foils of different thickness.

  17. Electron Transport Through a Quantum Wire with a Side-Coupled Quantum Dot:Fano Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊永建; 贺舟波

    2004-01-01

    The Fano resonance of a quantum wire (QW) with a side-coupled quantum dot (QD) is investigated. The QD has multilevel and is in the Coulomb blockade regime. We show that there are two aspects in contribution to asymmetric Fano dip line shape of conductance: (1) the quantum interference between the resonant level and non-resonant levels, (2) the asymmetric electron occupation of levels in the two sides of a resonant level in the QD. The smearing of the asymmetry of the dip structure with the increasing temperature is partially attributed to fluctuation of electron state in the QD.

  18. Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Seán M.; Maccabe, Gregory S.; Gröblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Painter, Oskar

    2015-04-01

    In optics, the ability to measure individual quanta of light (photons) enables a great many applications, ranging from dynamic imaging within living organisms to secure quantum communication. Pioneering photon counting experiments, such as the intensity interferometry performed by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure the angular width of visible stars, have played a critical role in our understanding of the full quantum nature of light. As with matter at the atomic scale, the laws of quantum mechanics also govern the properties of macroscopic mechanical objects, providing fundamental quantum limits to the sensitivity of mechanical sensors and transducers. Current research in cavity optomechanics seeks to use light to explore the quantum properties of mechanical systems ranging in size from kilogram-mass mirrors to nanoscale membranes, as well as to develop technologies for precision sensing and quantum information processing. Here we use an optical probe and single-photon detection to study the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a silicon nanomechanical resonator, and perform a measurement similar to that used by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure correlations in the emitted phonons as the resonator undergoes a parametric instability formally equivalent to that of a laser. Owing to the cavity-enhanced coupling of light with mechanical motion, this effective phonon counting technique has a noise equivalent phonon sensitivity of 0.89 +/- 0.05. With straightforward improvements to this method, a variety of quantum state engineering tasks using mesoscopic mechanical resonators would be enabled, including the generation and heralding of single-phonon Fock states and the quantum entanglement of remote mechanical elements.

  19. A 58 sq m Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. L.; Simmons, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    A 7.62 x 7.62 m Passive Ring Resonator Laser Gyro (PRRLG) is analyzed. Each element of the PRRLG is consistent with the requirements for geophysical applications, which would include precision measurements of earth rotation and polar wobble. The shot noise limit was calculated to be about 3 x 10 to the -8th ERU (tau = 1 sec), and, with a predicted transition Fourier frequency between white noise and 1/f noise at about 200 microHz, a resolution on the order of about 4 x 10 to the -10th ERU is feasible.

  20. Optical wavelength conversion via optomechanical coupling in a silica resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Chunhua; Kuzyk, Mark C; Tian, Lin; Wang, Hailin

    2012-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of converting coherent optical fields between two different optical wavelengths by coupling two optical modes to a mechanical breathing mode in a silica resonator. The experiment is based on an itinerant approach, in which state-mapping from optical to mechanical and from mechanical to another optical state takes place simultaneously. In contrast to conventional nonlinear optical processes, optomechanical impedance matching as well as efficient optical input-output coupling, instead of phase-matching, plays a crucial role in optomechanics-based wavelength conversion.

  1. Design and fabrication of a phononic-crystal-based Love wave resonator in GHz range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Wei Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for designing and fabricating a Love wave resonator utilizing the phononic crystal (PC as the reflectors. The PCs were formed by depositing 2D, periodically etched silica film on a quartz substrate. We analyzed the PC structure, and within its partial bandgap we designed a one-port resonator that contained a set of inter-digital transducer (IDT inside the resonant cavity bonded by two PC arrays. With sub-micrometer structures, the resonator was designed to operate at 1.25 GHz. The device was fabricated by employing the microelectromechanical system (MEMS fabrication technology and the resonant performance was evaluated.

  2. A Quarter Ellipse Microstrip Resonator for Filters in Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Á. Jaramillo-Flórez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of computational simulations and construction of quadrant elliptical resonators excited by coplanar slot line waveguide for designing microwave filters in RF communications systems. By means of the equation of optics, are explained the fundamentals of these geometry of resonators proposed. Are described the construction of quadrant elliptical resonators, one of microstrip and other two of cavity, of size different, and an array of four quadrant elliptical resonators in cascade. The results of the measures and the computational calculus of scattering S11 and S21 of elliptical resonators is made for to identify the resonant frequencies of the resonators studied, proving that these have performance in frequency as complete ellipses by the image effect due to their two mirror in both semiaxis, occupying less area, and the possible applications are discussed.

  3. Baryon resonances without quarks: A chiral soliton perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karliner, M.

    1987-03-01

    In many processes involving low momentum transfer it is fruitful to regard the nucleon as a soliton or ''monopole-like'' configuration of the pion field. In particular, within this framework it is possible to obtain detailed predictions for pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes and for properties of baryon resonances. One can also derive model-independent linear relations between scattering amplitudes, such as ..pi..N and anti KN. A short survey of some recent results is given, including comparison with experimental data.

  4. A Boost Test of Anomalous Diphoton Resonance at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Xie, Ke-Pan; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The recent observed diphoton resonance around 750 GeV at the LHC Run-2 could be interpreted as a weak singlet scalar. Adapting the approach of effective field theory we argue that the scalar might also decay into $WW$ or $ZZ$ pairs, which are highly boosted and appear as two fat vector-jets in the detector. We demonstrate that the signature of two vector-jets provides a powerful tool to crosscheck the diphoton anomaly and should be explored in the LHC Run-II experiment.

  5. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  6. Reservoir engineering of a mechanical resonator: generating a macroscopic superposition state and monitoring its decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asjad, Muhammad; Vitali, David

    2014-02-01

    A deterministic scheme for generating a macroscopic superposition state of a nanomechanical resonator is proposed. The nonclassical state is generated through a suitably engineered dissipative dynamics exploiting the optomechanical quadratic interaction with a bichromatically driven optical cavity mode. The resulting driven dissipative dynamics can be employed for monitoring and testing the decoherence processes affecting the nanomechanical resonator under controlled conditions.

  7. A Secular Resonance Between Iapetus and the Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Matija; Dones, Henry C. Luke; Nesvorny, David; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2017-06-01

    Iapetus is the outermost of the regular satellites of Saturn, and its origin and evolution present a number of unsolved problems. From the point of view of orbital dynamics, it is remarkable that Iapetus has a large inclination (8 degrees) and a significantly smaller eccentricity (0.03), contrary to the pattern expected if its orbit was excited by encounters between Saturn and other planets early in the Solar System's history (Nesvorny et al, 2014). Here we report our long-term numerical integrations of Iapetus's orbit that show multi-Myr oscillations of Iapetus's eccentricity with an amplitude on the order of 0.01. We find that the basic argument causing this behavior is the sum of the longitude of pericenter and the longitude of the node of Iapetus, with a 0.3 Myr period. This argument appears to be in resonance with the period of the g5 mode in the eccentricity and perihelion of Saturn. We find that our nominal solution, including Saturn's oblateness, Titan, Iapetus and all four giant planets, shows librations of the argument: ǎrpi_Iapetus - ǎrpi_g5 + \\Omega_Iapetus - \\Omega_SaturnEq, where ǎrpi and \\Omega are the longitudes of pericenters and nodes, respectively, and \\Omega_SaturnEq is Saturn's equinox. While planetary perturbations are crucial in generating the g5 mode and therefore maintaining this resonance, we find that Iapetus is affected by the planets only indirectly, with the Sun being the dominant direct perturber. The libration is stable for tens of Myr for the nominal rate of Saturn's pole precession (French et al, 2017), and appears stable indefinitely if we assume a secular resonance between Saturn's node and the secular mode g18 (Ward and Hamilton, 2004; Hamilton and Ward, 2004). We will present the implication of this resonance for the origin of Iapetus's orbit and the dynamical history of Saturn's system. This research is funded by NASA Outer Planets Research Program award NNX14AO38G. References: French, R. G., McGhee-French, C. A

  8. Fano resonance control in a photonic crystal structure and its application to ultrafast switching

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yi; Hu, Hao; Xue, Weiqi; Peucheret, Christophe; Chen, Yaohui; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Fano resonances appear in quantum mechanical as well as classical systems as a result of the interference between two paths: one involving a discrete resonance and the other a continuum. Compared to a conventional resonance, characterized by a Lorentzian spectral response, the characteristic asymmetric and sharp spectral response of a Fano resonance is suggested to enable photonic switches and sensors with superior characteristics. While experimental demonstrations of the appearance of Fano resonances have been made in both plasmonic and photonic-crystal structures, the control of these resonances is experimentally challenging, often involving the coupling of near-resonant cavities. Here, we experimentally demonstrate two simple structures that allow surprisingly robust control of the Fano spectrum. One structure relies on controlling the amplitude of one of the paths and the other uses symmetry breaking. Short-pulse dynamic measurements show that besides drastically increasing the switching contrast, the tra...

  9. Resonant and non-resonant internal kink modes excited by the energetic electrons on HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. M.; Chen, W.; Jiang, M.; Shi, Z. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Li, Y. G.; Ma, R. R.; Shi, P. W.; Song, S. D.; Yuan, B. S.; Zhou, Y.; Ma, R.; Song, X. M.; Dong, J. Q.; Xu, M.; Liu, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Xu, Y. H.; Duan, X. R.; HL-2A Team

    2017-03-01

    Strong resonant and non-resonant internal kink modes (abbreviated as RKs and NRKs, respectively), which are also called resonant and non-resonant fishbones, are observed on HL-2A tokamak with high-power ECRH  +  ECCD‑ (or ECRH) and ECRH  +  ECCD+, respectively. (‘Resonant’ derives from the existence of q  =  1 surface (the resonant surface), and ‘non-resonant’ originates from the absence of q  =  1 surface ({{q}\\text{min}}>1 ). ECCD+ and ECCD‑ mean the driving direction of energetic electrons is the same and opposite to plasma current, respectively.) RK has features of periodic strong bursting amplitude and rapid chirping-down frequency, but NRK usually has the saturated amplitude, slow changed or constant frequency and long-lasting time. The NRK excited by energetic electrons is found for the first time. The reversed q-profiles are formed, and q min decreases during plasma current ramp-up. The value of q min is slightly smaller and a bit bigger than unity for RK and NRK conditions, respectively. The internal kink mode (IKM) structures of RKs and NRKs are confirmed by the ECEI system. Although there are different current drive directions of ECCD for excitation of RK and NRK, they all propagate in electron diamagnetic directions in poloidal. The radial mode structures, frequency and growth rate for IKMs are obtained by solving the dispersion relationship. The NRK is stable when q min is larger than a certain value, and with the decreasing q min the frequency drops, but the growth rate almost keeps constant when {{q}\\text{min}}>1 . This result is in agreement with experimental observation. Studying IKMs excited by energetic electrons can provide important experimental experiences for ITER, because the NRKs may be excited by high-power non-inductive drive of ECCD or ECRH in the operation of hybrid scenarios.

  10. Reaching a Fermi-superfluid state near an orbital Feshbach resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjun; Zhang, Ren; Cheng, Yanting; Zhang, Peng; Qi, Ran; Zhai, Hui

    2016-09-01

    We propose to realize a strongly interacting Fermi superfluid near a narrow Feshbach resonance using the recently discovered "orbital Feshbach resonance." The orbital Feshbach resonance is a type of magnetic field tunable scattering resonance theoretically predicted and experimentally observed recently in the alkaline-earth-metal-like 173Yb atom. We first show that the orbital Feshbach resonance is a narrow resonance in energy, while it is hundreds Gauss wide in terms of magnetic field strength, taking the advantage that the magnetic moment difference between the open and closed channels is quite small. Therefore, this is an ideal platform for the experimental realization of a strongly interacting Fermi superfluid with narrow resonance. We further show that the transition temperature for the Fermi superfluid in this system, especially at the BCS side of the resonance, is even higher than that in a wide resonance, which is also due to the narrow character of this resonance. Our results will encourage experimental efforts to realize Fermi superfluid in the alikaline-earth-metal-like 173Yb system, the properties of which will be complementary to extensively studied Fermi superfluids nearby a wide resonance in alkali-metal 40K and 6Li systems.

  11. Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

  12. Detecting the mass and position of an adsorbate on a drum resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Zhao, Y P

    2014-10-08

    The resonant frequency shifts of a circular membrane caused by an adsorbate are the sensing mechanism for a drum resonator. The adsorbate mass and position are the two major (unknown) parameters determining the resonant frequency shifts. There are infinite combinations of mass and position which can cause the same shift of one resonant frequency. Finding the mass and position of an adsorbate from the experimentally measured resonant frequencies forms an inverse problem. This study presents a straightforward method to determine the adsorbate mass and position by using the changes of two resonant frequencies. Because detecting the position of an adsorbate can be extremely difficult, especially when the adsorbate is as small as an atom or a molecule, this new inverse problem-solving method should be of some help to the mass resonator sensor application of detecting a single adsorbate. How to apply this method to the case of multiple adsorbates is also discussed.

  13. Fluctuations, response, and resonances in a simple atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, Andrey; Lucarini, Valerio

    2017-06-01

    We study the response of a simple quasi-geostrophic barotropic model of the atmosphere to various classes of perturbations affecting its forcing and its dissipation using the formalism of the Ruelle response theory. We investigate the geometry of such perturbations by constructing the covariant Lyapunov vectors of the unperturbed system and discover in one specific case-orographic forcing-a substantial projection of the forcing onto the stable directions of the flow. This results into a resonant response shaped as a Rossby-like wave that has no resemblance to the unforced variability in the same range of spatial and temporal scales. Such a climatic surprise corresponds to a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, in agreement with the basic tenets of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The resonance can be attributed to a specific group of rarely visited unstable periodic orbits of the unperturbed system. Our results reinforce the idea of using basic methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and high-dimensional chaotic dynamical systems to approach the problem of understanding climate dynamics.

  14. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: A functional analytic description

    CERN Document Server

    Lapke, Martin; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2012-01-01

    The term "Active Plasma Resonance Spectroscopy" refers to a class of diagnostic methods which employ the ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the plasma frequency. The basic idea dates back to the early days of discharge physics: An signal in the GHz range is coupled to the plasma via an electrical probe; the spectral response is recorded, and then evaluated with a mathematical model to obtain information on the electron density and other plasma parameters. In recent years, the concept has found renewed interest as a basis of industry compatible plasma diagnostics. This paper analyzes the diagnostics technique in terms of a general description based on functional analytic (or Hilbert Space) methods which hold for arbitrary probe geometries. It is shown that the response function of the plasma-probe system can be expressed as a matrix element of the resolvent of an appropriately defined dynamical operator. A specialization of the formalism for a symmetric probe desing is given, as well as an interpreation...

  15. Optomechanical THz detection with a sub-wavelength resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Belacel, Cherif; Barbieri, Stefano; Gacemi, Djamal; Favero, Ivan; Sirtori, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The terahertz spectral domain offers a myriad of applications spanning chemical spectroscopy, medicine, security and imaging [1], it has also recently become a playground for fundamental studies of light-matter interactions [2-6]. Terahertz science and technology could benefit from optomechanical approaches, which harness the interaction of light with miniature mechanical resonators [7,8]. So far, optomechanics has mostly focused on the optical and microwave domains, leading to new types of quantum experiments [9-11] and to the development of optical-microwave converters [12-14]. Here we propose and validate the concept of terahertz optomechanics, by coupling far-infrared photons to the mechanical degrees of freedom of the flexible part of a sub-wavelength split-ring resonator [15]. The resulting mechanical signal is read-out optically, allowing our semiconductor/metal device to operate as a compact and efficient terahertz detector with a noise equivalent power of 8 nW/Hz^0.5 and a linear dynamics over five d...

  16. External laser locking using a pressure-tunable microbubble resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Madugani, Ramgopal; Le, Vu H; Ward, Jonathan M; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    The tunability of an optical cavity is an essential requirement for many areas of research especially for the rapidly progressing field of photonics. In particular, low-cost laser tuning methods and miniaturization of the optical components are desirable. By applying aerostatic pressure to the interior surface of a microbubble resonator, optical mode shift rates of around $58$ GHz/MPa are achieved. The micobubble can measure pressure with a limit of detection of $2\\times 10^{-4}$ MPa. Here we use the Pound-Drever-Hall technique, whereby a laser is locked to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) of the microbubble resonator, to show that linear tuning of the WGM and the corresponding locked laser display almost zero hysteresis. The long-term frequency stability of this tuning method for different input pressures is measured. The frequency noise of the WGM, measured over 10 minutes, with a maximum input pressure of 0.5 MPa has a standard deviation of 36 MHz.

  17. Observation of the frozen charge of a Kondo resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, M. M.; Viennot, J. J.; Dartiailh, M. C.; Bruhat, L. E.; Delbecq, M. R.; Lee, M.; Choi, M.-S.; Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.

    2017-04-01

    The ability to control electronic states at the nanoscale has contributed to our modern understanding of condensed matter. In particular, quantum dot circuits represent model systems for the study of strong electronic correlations, epitomized by the Kondo effect. We use circuit quantum electrodynamics architectures to study the internal degrees of freedom of this many-body phenomenon. Specifically, we couple a quantum dot to a high-quality-factor microwave cavity to measure with exceptional sensitivity the dot’s electronic compressibility, that is, its ability to accommodate charges. Because electronic compressibility corresponds solely to the charge response of the electronic system, it is not equivalent to the conductance, which generally involves other degrees of freedom such as spin. Here, by performing dual conductance and compressibility measurements in the Kondo regime, we uncover directly the charge dynamics of this peculiar mechanism of electron transfer. The Kondo resonance, visible in transport measurements, is found to be ‘transparent’ to microwave photons trapped in the high-quality cavity, thereby revealing that (in such a many-body resonance) finite conduction is achieved from a charge frozen by Coulomb interaction. This freezing of charge dynamics is in contrast to the physics of a free electron gas. We anticipate that the tools of cavity quantum electrodynamics could be used in other types of mesoscopic circuits with many-body correlations, providing a model system in which to perform quantum simulation of fermion-boson problems.

  18. Electrical conductivity of Jupiter's shallow interior and the formation of a resonant of a resonant planetary-ionospheric cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The present consideration of hydrogenic atmospheric reactions on Jupiter, to a depth of 4000 km, notes the primary ion constituents at these depths to be both positive and negative ions of molecular hydrogen contributing less than 20 percent to total electrical conductivity by free electrons. An electrical surface defined by the boundary beneath which the interior is electrically conducting exists at depths which vary according to EM wave frequency, from 1100 km for 1 mHz to 3000 for 1 MHz. The presence of a lower electrical boundary within the shallow interior suggests that a planetary-ionosphere resonant cavity analogous to the earth-ionosphere cavity may exist.

  19. A Complex Frequency Method for A Loaded Resonant Cavity of Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGChanghong; LILong; SUTao; FANShengcai

    2004-01-01

    A complex frequency method for analyzing a loaded resonant cavity of transmission lines is presented in this paper. A sub-resonance system theory is used to treat the various loaded transmission lines cavity more effectively. Some practice examples are given to illustrate the application and validity of the proposed approach in this paper.

  20. Sweeping a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate across a Feshbach resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, M.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the dissociation of a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate during a magnetic-field sweep through a Feshbach resonance that starts on the molecular side of the resonance and ends on the atomic side. In particular, we determine the energy distribution of the atoms produced after the sweep. W

  1. Changing the colour of light in a silicon resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, Stefan F.; Xu, Qianfan; Lipson, Michal

    2007-05-01

    As the demand for high bandwidths in microelectronic systems increases, optical interconnect architectures are now being considered that involve schemes commonly used in telecommunications, such as wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and wavelength conversion. In such on-chip architectures, the ability to perform wavelength conversion is required. So far wavelength conversion on a silicon chip has only been demonstrated using schemes that are fundamentally all-optical, making their integration on a microelectronic chip challenging. In contrast, we show wavelength conversion obtained by inducing ultrafast electro-optic tuning of a microcavity. It is well known that tuning the parameters of an optical cavity induces filtering of different colours of light. Here we demonstrate that it can also change the colour of light. This is an effect often observed in other disciplines, for example, in acoustics, where the sound generated by a resonating guitar string can be modified by changing the length of the strings (that is, the resonators). Here we show this same tuning effect in optics, enabling compact on-chip electrical wavelength conversion. We demonstrate a change in wavelength of up to 2.5 nm with up to 34% on-off conversion efficiency.

  2. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-20

    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  3. Controllable Optical Switch in a One-Dimensional Resonator Waveguide Coupled to a Whispering-Gallery Resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Jia-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Single photon transport properties in a one-dimensional array of coupled microcavities waveguide coupled to a whispering-gallery resonator interacting with a A-type system are theoretically investigated.The calculations reveal that the transport properties of single photons with arbitrary energy can be controlled by varying the Rabi frequency and detuning the control optical field.This phenomenon can be used for controllable optical switching.Single photon transport properties in a onedimensional waveguide coupled to a two-level[1-10] or multi-level[11-17] system have been studied theoretically and experimentally for their potential applications in quantum information and all-optical devices.A coupled cavity array is considered as a one-dimensional waveguide and the single photon transport properties in such a system coupled to a two-level and multi-level system have been studied.%Single photon transport properties in a one-dimensional array of coupled microcavities waveguide coupled to a whispering-gallery resonator interacting with a A-type system are theoretically investigated. The calculations reveal that the transport properties of single photons with arbitrary energy can be controlled by varying the Rabi frequency and detuning the control optical field. This phenomenon can be used for controllable optical switching.

  4. A Refined Analysis on the $X(3872)$ Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Ce; Shi, Meng; Yao, De-Liang; Zheng, Han-Qing

    2014-01-01

    We study the property of the $X(3872)$ meson by analyzing the $B\\to K D\\bar D^*$ and $B\\to K J/\\psi \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay processes. The competition between the rescattering mediated through a Breit-Wigner resonance and the rescattering generated from a local $D\\bar{D}^* \\to D\\bar{D}^*$ interaction is carefully studied through an effective lagrangian approach. Three different fits are performed: pure Breit-Wigner case, pure $D\\bar{D}^*$ molecule case with only local rescattering vertices (generated by the loop chain), and the mixed case. It is found that data supports the picture where X(3872) is mainly a ($\\bar cc$) Breit-Wigner resonance with a small contribution to the self-energy generated by $\\bar DD^*$ final state interaction. For our optimal fit, the pole mass and width are found to be: $M_X=3871.2\\pm0.7$MeV and $\\Gamma_X=6.5\\pm1.2$MeV.

  5. Jet activity as a probe of diphoton resonance production

    CERN Document Server

    Harland-Lang, L A; Ryskin, M G; Spannowsky, M

    2016-01-01

    We explore the method of using the measured jet activity associated with a high mass resonance state to determine the corresponding production modes. To demonstrate the potential of the approach, we concentrate on the scenario that the excess of diphoton events around 750 GeV observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations corresponds to a new scalar resonance. We perform a Monte Carlo study, and show that the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $gg$ and light and heavy $q\\overline{q}$ initiated cases lead to distinct predictions for the jet multiplicity distributions. We apply this result to the existing ATLAS data for the spin-0 selection, and demonstrate that a dominantly $gg$-initiated signal hypothesis is already mildly disfavoured, while the $\\gamma\\gamma$ and light quark cases give good descriptions within the limited statistics. We also comment on the $b\\overline{b}$ initial state, which can already be constrained by the measured $b$-jet multiplicity, and the $W$, $Z$ initial states, for which the diphoton transverse moment...

  6. Observation of a surface lattice resonance in a fractal arrangement of gold nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ting Lee; Segerink, Frans B; Dikken, Dirk Jan; Herek, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    The collective response of closely spaced metal particles in non-periodic arrangements has the potential to provide a beneficial angular and frequency dependence in sensing applications. In this paper, we investigate the optical response of a Sierpinski fractal arrangement of gold nanoparticles and show that it supports a collective resonance similar to the surface lattice resonances that exist in periodic arrangements of plasmonic resonators. Using back focal plane microscopy, we observe the leakage of radiation out of a surface lattice resonance that is efficiently excited when the wavenumber of the incident light matches a strong Fourier component of the fractal structure. The efficient coupling between localized surface plasmons leads to a collective resonance and a Fano-like feature in the scattering spectrum. Our experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on the coupled-dipole approximation and finite-difference time-domain methods. This work presents a first step towards the...

  7. Mie scattering as a cascade of Fano resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Samusev, Kirill B; Sinev, Ivan S; Semouchkin, George; Semouchkina, Elena; Kivshar, Yuri S; Limonov, Mikhail F

    2013-12-02

    We reveal that the resonant Mie scattering by high-index dielectric nanoparticles can be presented through cascades of Fano resonances. We employ the exact solution of Maxwell's equations and demonstrate that the Lorenz-Mie coefficients of the Mie problem can be expressed generically as infinite series of Fano functions as they describe interference between the background radiation originated from an incident wave and narrow-spectrum Mie scattering modes that lead to Fano resonances.

  8. A Controllability Approach for Resonant Compliant Systems: Applied to a Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies a controllability approach for general resonant compliant systems. These systems exploit resonance to obtain a specific dynamic response at relatively low actuation power. This type of systems is often lightweight, is scalable and minimizes frictional losses through the use of co

  9. Particle-in-cell investigation on the resonant absorption of a plasma surface wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Chao-Hui; Hu Xi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The resonant absorption of a plasma surface wave is supposed to be an important and efficient mechanism of power deposition for a surface wave plasma source.In this paper,by using the particle-in-cell method and Monte Carlo simulation,the resonance absorption mechanism is investigated.Simulation results demonstrate the existence of surface wave resonance and show the high efficiency of heating electrons.The positions of resonant points,the resonance width and the spatio-temporal evolution of the resonant electric field are presented,which accord well with the theoretical results.The paper also discusses the effect of pressure on the resonance electric field and the plasma density.

  10. Performance optimization analysis of a thermoelectric refrigerator with two resonances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Xiao-Guang; He Ji-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Based on electron transport theory, the performance of kx and kr filtered thermoelectric refrigerators with two resonances are studied in this paper. The performance characteristic curves between the cooling rate and the coefficient of performance are plotted by numerical calculation. It is shown that the maximum cooling rate of the thermoelectric refrigerator with two resonances increases but the maximum coefficient of performance decreases compared with those with one resonance. No matter which resonance mechanism is used (kx or kr filtered), the cooling rate and the performance coefficient of the kr filtered refrigerator are much better than those of the kx filtered one.

  11. A Map for a Group of Resonant Cases in a Quartic Galactic Hamiltonian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. D. Caranicolas

    2001-12-01

    We present a map for the study of resonant motion in a potential made up of two harmonic oscillators with quartic perturbing terms. This potential can be considered to describe motion in the central parts of non-rotating elliptical galaxies. The map is based on the averaged Hamiltonian. Adding on a semi-empirical basis suitable terms in the unperturbed averaged Hamiltonian, corresponding to the 1:1 resonant case, we are able to construct a map describing motion in several resonant cases. The map is used in order to find the - Poincare phase plane for each resonance. Comparing the results of the map, with those obtained by numerical integration of the equation of motion, we observe, that the map describes satisfactorily the broad features of orbits in all studied cases for regular motion. There are cases where the map describes satisfactorily the properties of the chaotic orbits as well.

  12. A statistical model for combustion resonance from a DI diesel engine with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodisco, Timothy; Low Choy, Samantha; Masri, Assaad; Brown, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    Introduced in this paper is a Bayesian model for isolating the resonant frequency from combustion chamber resonance. The model shown in this paper focused on characterising the initial rise in the resonant frequency to investigate the rise of in-cylinder bulk temperature associated with combustion. By resolving the model parameters, it is possible to determine: the start of pre-mixed combustion, the start of diffusion combustion, the initial resonant frequency, the resonant frequency as a function of crank angle, the in-cylinder bulk temperature as a function of crank angle and the trapped mass as a function of crank angle. The Bayesian method allows for individual cycles to be examined without cycle-averaging-allowing inter-cycle variability studies. Results are shown for a turbo-charged, common-rail compression ignition engine run at 2000 rpm and full load.

  13. Continuous ammonia monitor using a Stark microwave cavity resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, H; Ijuuin, Y; Morino, Y; Kamidate, T; Nakamura, A; Imai, H

    1980-03-01

    An ammonia monitor has been made by using a rectangular Stark microwave cavity tightly coupled through an iris to a Gunn oscillator. The Stark electrode installed inside the cavity is provided with a 100 kHz sinusoidal modulation voltage and a dc sweep voltage. The oscillation of the Gunn diode is tuned with the coupled Stark cavity to a frequency near a J,K=3,3 transition (23870.1 MHz) of ammonia. By fixing the Stark dc bias to a voltage which gives a peak intensity of the derivative output of the electric-resonance signal, ammonia is continuously monitored. An extremely good long-term stability is obtained. The noise level corresponds to 0.08 ppm of ammonia.

  14. Power meter ratio method of stabilizing a resonant modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Cox, Jonathan Albert

    2016-10-11

    Methods and systems for stabilizing a resonant modulator include receiving pre-modulation and post-modulation portions of a carrier signal, determining the average power from these portions, comparing an average input power to the average output power, and operating a heater coupled to the modulator based on the comparison. One system includes a pair of input structures, one or more processing elements, a comparator, and a control element. The input structures are configured to extract pre-modulation and post-modulation portions of a carrier signal. The processing elements are configured to determine average powers from the extracted portions. The comparator is configured to compare the average input power and the average output power. The control element operates a heater coupled to the modulator based on the comparison.

  15. Collective behavior of quantum resonators coupled to a metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felbacq, Didier; Rousseau, Emmanuel

    2016-09-01

    We study a device that consist of quantum resonators coupled to a mesoscopic photonic structure, such as a metasurface or a 2D metamaterial. For metasurfaces, we use surface Bloch modes in order to reach various coupling regimes between the metasurface and a quantum emitter, modelized semi-classically by an oscillator. Using multiple scattering theory and complex plane techniques, we show that the coupling can be characterized by means of a pole-and-zero structure. The regime of strong coupling is shown to be reached when the pole-and- zero pair is broken. For 2D metamaterial, we show the possibility of controlling optically the opening or closing of a gap.

  16. DESIGN OF A 500W RESONANT INDUCTION HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Sami SAZAK

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a complete design procedure for a 500W induction heating system is given. An induction heating system basically consists of a coil and a DC/AC inverter. The use of a single switch resonant inverter, which is operated with Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, allows the switching device to turn off under zero current conditions, therefore switching losses are much reduced. This inverter system transforms the DC into AC for the induction heater coil. The proposed coil design method is applicable to a load of any shape so long as the coil surrounds the workpiece. The basis of this method of coil design is the reduction of the induction heater coil and workpiece to their equivalent resistance and inductance.

  17. Hybrid polaritons in a resonant inorganic/organic semiconductor microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höfner, M., E-mail: mhoefner@physik.hu-berlin.de; Sadofev, S.; Henneberger, F. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr.15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kobin, B.; Hecht, S. [Institut für Chemie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrated the strong coupling regime in a hybrid inorganic-organic microcavity consisting of (Zn,Mg)O quantum wells and ladder-type oligo(p-phenylene) molecules embedded in a polymer matrix. A Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed by an epitaxially grown lower ZnMgO Bragg reflector and a dielectric mirror deposited atop of the organic layer. A clear anticrossing behavior of the polariton branches related to the Wannier-Mott and Frenkel excitons, and the cavity photon mode with a Rabi-splitting reaching 50 meV, is clearly identified by angular-dependent reflectivity measurements at low temperature. By tailoring the structural design, an equal mixing with weights of about 0.3 for all three resonances is achieved for the middle polariton branch at an incidence angle of about 35°.

  18. Coupled mode parametric resonance in a vibrating screen model

    CERN Document Server

    Slepyan, Leonid I

    2013-01-01

    We consider a simple dynamic model of the vibrating screen operating in the parametric resonance (PR) mode. This model was used in the course of designing and setting of such a screen in LPMC. The PR-based screen compares favorably with conventional types of such machines, where the transverse oscillations are excited directly. It is characterized by larger values of the amplitude and by insensitivity to damping in a rather wide range. The model represents an initially strained system of two equal masses connected by a linearly elastic string. Self-equilibrated, longitudinal, harmonic forces act on the masses. Under certain conditions this results in transverse, finite-amplitude oscillations of the string. The problem is reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations coupled by the geometric nonlinearity. Damping in both the transverse and longitudinal oscillations is taken into account. Free and forced oscillations of this mass-string system are examined analytically and numerically. The energy e...

  19. QUANTUM MECHANICS. Quantum squeezing of motion in a mechanical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, E E; Lei, C U; Weinstein, A J; Suh, J; Kronwald, A; Marquardt, F; Clerk, A A; Schwab, K C

    2015-08-28

    According to quantum mechanics, a harmonic oscillator can never be completely at rest. Even in the ground state, its position will always have fluctuations, called the zero-point motion. Although the zero-point fluctuations are unavoidable, they can be manipulated. Using microwave frequency radiation pressure, we have manipulated the thermal fluctuations of a micrometer-scale mechanical resonator to produce a stationary quadrature-squeezed state with a minimum variance of 0.80 times that of the ground state. We also performed phase-sensitive, back-action evading measurements of a thermal state squeezed to 1.09 times the zero-point level. Our results are relevant to the quantum engineering of states of matter at large length scales, the study of decoherence of large quantum systems, and for the realization of ultrasensitive sensing of force and motion.

  20. Geometry effects on cooling in a standing wave cylindrical thermoacousic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Ghazali, Normah; Ghazali, Ahmad Dairobi; Ali, Irwan Shah; Rahman, Muhammad Aminullah A.

    2012-06-01

    Numerous reports have established the refrigeration applications of thermoacoustic cooling without compressors and refrigerants. Significant cooling effects can be obtained in a thermoacoustic resonator fitted with a heat exchanging stack and operated at resonance frequency. Past studies, however, have hardly referred to the fundamental relationship between resonant frequency and the resonator geometry. This paper reports the thermoacoustic cooling effects at resonance obtained by changing the diameter of the resonator while holding the length constant and vice versa. Experiments were completed at atmospheric pressure with air as the working fluid using a number of pvc tubes having parallel plate stack from Mylar. The temperature difference measured across the stack showed that a volume increase in the working fluid in general increases the temperature gradient for the quarter-and half-wavelength resonators. Doubling the diameter from 30 mm to 60 mm produced the highest temperature difference due to the greater number of stack plates resulting in a higher overall thermoacaoustic cooling. Increasing the resonator length only produced a small increase in temperature gradient since the resonant frequency at operation is only slightly changed. Investigation on the aspect ratio exhibits no influence on the temperature difference across the stack. This study have shown that the resonator length and diameter do affect the temperature difference across the thermoacoustic stack, and further research should be done to consider the contribution of the stack mass on the overall desired thermoacoustic cooling.

  1. Resonant-state expansion for a simple dispersive medium

    CERN Document Server

    Doost, M B; Muljarov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The resonant-state expansion (RSE), a rigorous perturbative method developed in electrodynamics for non-dispersive optical systems is applied to media with an Ohm's law dispersion, in which the frequency dependent part of the permittivity scales inversely with the frequency, corresponding to a frequency-independent conductivity. This dispersion has only a single pole at zero frequency, which is already present in the non-dispersive RSE, allowing to maintain not only the linearity of the eigenvalue problem of the RSE but also its size. Media which can be described by this dispersion over the relevant frequency range, such as optical glass or doped semiconductors, can be treated in the RSE without additional complexity. Results are presented using analytically solvable homogeneous spheres, for doped silicon and BK7 glass, both for a perturbation of the system going from non-dispersive to dispersive media and the reverse, from dispersive to non-dispersive media.

  2. Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in a double magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2011-08-09

    We present quasi-classical approach to calculate a spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in double magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJ) FML/I/FMW/I/FMR, where the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer FMW can be aligned parallel or antiparallel with respect to the fixed magnetizations of the left FML and right FMR ferromagnetic electrodes. The transmission coefficients for components of the spin-dependent current, and TMR are calculated as a function of the applied voltage. As a result, we found a high resonant TMR. Thus, DMTJ can serve as highly effective magnetic nanosensor for biological applications, or as magnetic memory cells by switching the magnetization of the inner ferromagnetic layer FMW.© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

  3. Planar Multipol-Resonance-Probe: A Spectral Kinetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Michael; Gong, Junbo; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Oberrath, Jens; Wilczek, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Measuring plasma parameters, e.g. electron density and electron temperature, is an important procedure to verify the stability and behavior of a plasma process. For this purpose the multipole resonance probe (MRP) represents a satisfying solution to measure the electron density. However the influence of the probe on the plasma through its physical presence makes it unattractive for some processes in industrial application. A solution to combine the benefits of the spherical MRP with the ability to integrate the probe into the plasma reactor is introduced by the planar model of the MRP (pMRP). Introducing the spectral kinetic formalism leads to a reduced simulation-circle compared to particle-in-cell simulations. The model of the pMRP is implemented and first simulation results are presented.

  4. A double-resonance spectrometer for pure NQR detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ader, Roman; Shporer, Mordechai

    The design of a high-sensitivity double-resonance NQR spectrometer is described. An NQR frequency is scanned in zero magnetic field and absorption is detected via an NMR signal in a high magnetic field. The sample is kept stationary and the magnetic field is turned on and off electronically. A new approach was used to switch the magnetic field. The solenoid consists of two coils. The current in one of the coils is kept constant. Current driven in parallel direction in the other coil yields a high magnetic field and when reversed the magnetic field vanishes. In this manner the power dissipation of the system remains constant and thermal swings during magnetic field switching are avoided.

  5. Classifying the transmission resonances of a subwavelength aperture within a thin metallic film by breaking the symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavil, M. Afshari [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun Xiudong, E-mail: xdsun@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Huang Feng [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Here by introducing an I-shape structure to break the symmetry of a thin metallic film, the contributions of Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance-like modes and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance-like are determined. The finite difference-time domain (FDTD) simulation is utilized to provide a clear picture of the electromagnetic field distribution and transmission profile. The FP matrix method is employed to specify the contribution of FP resonance. Some of the predicted resonances of the FP matrix method coincide with the simulation result which is labeled as FP resonance-like modes. The remaining resonance modes in transmission profile are considered as SPP resonance-like modes. Our results provide explicit evidence that both FP resonator modes and SPP resonance are responsible for extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through a subwavelength aperture.

  6. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for pulmonary embolism: a multicenter prospective study (PIOPED III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D; Chenevert, Thomas L; Fowler, Sarah E; Goodman, Lawrence R; Gottschalk, Alexander; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Leeper, Kenneth V; Naidich, David P; Sak, Daniel J; Sostman, H Dirk; Tapson, Victor F; Weg, John G; Woodard, Pamela K

    2010-04-06

    The accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography and magnetic resonance venography for diagnosing pulmonary embolism has not been determined conclusively. To investigate performance characteristics of magnetic resonance angiography, with or without magnetic resonance venography, for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. Prospective, multicenter study from 10 April 2006 to 30 September 2008. 7 hospitals and their emergency services. 371 adults with diagnosed or excluded pulmonary embolism. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were measured by comparing independently read magnetic resonance imaging with the reference standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. Reference standard diagnosis or exclusion was made by using various tests, including computed tomographic angiography and venography, ventilation-perfusion lung scan, venous ultrasonography, d-dimer assay, and clinical assessment. Magnetic resonance angiography, averaged across centers, was technically inadequate in 25% of patients (92 of 371). The proportion of technically inadequate images ranged from 11% to 52% at various centers. Including patients with technically inadequate images, magnetic resonance angiography identified 57% (59 of 104) with pulmonary embolism. Technically adequate magnetic resonance angiography had a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 99%. Technically adequate magnetic resonance angiography and venography had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 96%, but 52% of patients (194 of 370) had technically inadequate results. A high proportion of patients with suspected embolism was not eligible or declined to participate. Magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography should be considered only at centers that routinely perform it well and only for patients for whom standard tests are contraindicated. Magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography and magnetic resonance venography combined have a higher sensitivity than magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography

  7. Search for a Z' at the Z resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Atamanchuk, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Behrens, J.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bosetti, M.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Brooks, M.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Castello, R.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Chung, S.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coan, T. E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Contin, A.; Cui, X. T.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; DiBitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Djambasov, L.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Easo, S.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.; Filthaut, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Foreman, T.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzalez, E.; Gougas, A.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M.; Gu, C.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Hangarter, K.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. F.; He, J. T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Herten, G.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jezequel, S.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapinos, P.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, D.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Koffeman, E.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kraemer, R. W.; Kramer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krivshich, A.; Kuijten, H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kunin, A.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D. M.; Leedom, I.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leytens, X.; Li, C.; Li, H. T.; Li, P. J.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Lista, L.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Malhotra, P. K.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marion, F.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Mazumdar, K.; McBride, P.; McMahon, T.; McNally, D.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mir, Y.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Nippe, A.; Nowak, H.; Organtini, G.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Pascala, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plasil, F.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Qi, Z. D.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Rizvi, H. A.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Röhmer, M.; Röhner, S.; Romero, L.; Rose, J.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Salicio, J.; Salicio, J. M.; Sanders, G. S.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. S.; Sartorelli, G.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Shotkin, S.; Schreiber, H. J.; Shukla, J.; Schulte, R.; Schulte, S.; Schultze, K.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Scott, I.; Sehgal, R.; Seiler, P. G.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Sheer, I.; Shen, D. Z.; Shevchenko, S.; Shi, X. R.; Shumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Spartiotis, C.; Spickermann, T.; Spillantini, P.; Starosta, R.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Sticozzi, F.; Stone, H.; Strauch, K.; Stringfellow, B. C.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Syben, O.; Syed, A. A.; Tang, X. W.; Taylor, L.; Terzi, G.; C. C. Ting, Samuel; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Urbán, L.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vikas, P.; Vikas, U.; Vivargent, M.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vuilleumier, L.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, C. R.; Wang, G. H.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, A.; Weber, J.; Weill, R.; Wenaus, T. J.; Wenninger, J.; White, M.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wright, D.; Wu, S. X.; Wysłouch, B.; Xie, Y. Y.; Xu, J. G.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z. L.; Yan, D. S.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, G.; Ye, C. H.; Ye, J. B.; Ye, Q.; Yeh, S. C.; Yin, Z. W.; You, J. M.; Yunus, N.; Yzerman, M.; Zaccardelli, C.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, G. J.; Zhou, J. F.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; van der Zwaan, B. C. C.; L3 Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    The search for an additional heavy gauge boson Z‧ is described. The models considered are based on either a superstring-motivated E 6 or on a left-right symmetry and assume a minimal Higgs sector. Cross sections and asymmetries measured with the L3 detector in the vicinity of the Z resonance during the 1990 and 1991 running periods are used to determine limits on the Z-Z‧ gauge boson mixing angle and on the Z‧ mass. For Z‧ masses above the direct limits, we obtain the following allowed ranges of the mixing angle, θ M at the 95% confidence level: -0.004 ⪕ θ M ⪕ 0.015 for the χ model, -0.003 ⪕ θ M ⪕ 0.020 for the ψ model, -0.029 ⪕ θ M ⪕ 0.010 for the η model, -0.002 ⪕ θ M ⪕ 0.020 for the LR model,

  8. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vipin K Yadav; K Sathyanarayana; D Bora

    2008-03-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma breakdown is studied in a small linear cylindrical system with four different gases - hydrogen, helium, argon and nitrogen. Microwave power in the experimental system is delivered by a magnetron at 2.45 ± 0.02 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extra-ordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental ECR surface ( = 875.0 G) resides at the geometrical centre of the plasma system. ECR breakdown parameters such as plasma delay time and plasma decay time from plasma density measurements are carried out at the centre using a Langmuir probe. The operating parameters such as working gas pressure (1 × 10-5 -1 × 10-2 mbar) and input microwave power (160{800 W) are varied and the corresponding effect on the breakdown parameters is studied. The experimental results obtained are presented in this paper.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Biomarker for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most common neoplasm arising from the kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC continues to have a significant impact on global health. Conventional cross-sectional imaging has always served an important role in the staging of RCC. However, with recent advances in imaging techniques and postprocessing analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI now has the capability to function as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarker for RCC. For this narrative literature review, a PubMed search was conducted to collect the most relevant and impactful studies from our perspectives as urologic oncologists, radiologists, and computational imaging specialists. We seek to cover advanced MR imaging and image analysis techniques that may improve the management of patients with small renal mass or metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  10. Cyclotron resonance maser experiments in a bifilar helical waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony; Drori; Jerby

    2000-11-01

    Oscillator and amplifier cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) experiments in a spiral bifilar waveguide are presented in this paper. The slow-wave CRM device employs a low-energy low-current electron beam (2-12 keV, approximately 0.5 A). The pitch angle of the helical waveguide is relatively small; hence, the phase velocity in this waveguide, V(ph) congruent with0.8c (where c is the speed of light), is much faster than the axial velocity of the electrons, V(ez)traveling-wave-tube-type interactions are eliminated in this device. According to the CRM theory, the dominant effect in this operating regime, V(ez)2%). The wide tunable range of this CRM device due to the nondispersive bifilar helix is discussed.

  11. Resonance Related Spiral Substructure in a Galactic Gaseous Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Yáñez, Miguel A; Martos, Marco A; Hayes, John C

    2007-01-01

    We use high resolution 2D hydrodynamic simulations to study the formation of spiral substructure in the gaseous disk of a galaxy. The obtained gaseous response is driven by a self-consistent non-axisymmetric potential obtained from an imposed spiral mass distribution. We highlight the importance of ultraharmonic resonances in generating these features. The temporal evolution of the system is followed with the parallel ZEUS-MP code, and we follow the steepening of perturbations induced by the spiral potential until large-scale shocks emerge. These shocks exhibit bifurcations that protrude from the gaseous arms and continue to steepen until new shocks are formed. When the contribution from the spiral potential relative to the axisymmetric background is increased from our default value, spurs protrude from the main arms after several revolutions of the gaseous disk. Such spurs overlap on top of the aforementioned shocks. These results support the hypothesis that a complicated gaseous response can coexist with an...

  12. Remote vibration measurement: a wireless passive surface acoustic wave resonator fast probing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedt, J-M; Droit, C; Ballandras, S; Alzuaga, S; Martin, G; Sandoz, P

    2012-05-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators can advantageously operate as passive sensors which can be interrogated through a wireless link. Amongst the practical applications of such devices, structural health monitoring through stress measurement and more generally vibration characteristics of mechanical structures benefit from the ability to bury such sensors within the considered structure (wireless and battery-less). However, measurement bandwidth becomes a significant challenge when measuring wideband vibration characteristics of mechanical structures. A fast SAW resonator measurement scheme is demonstrated here. The measurement bandwidth is limited by the physical settling time of the resonator (Q/π periods), requiring only two probe pulses through a monostatic RADAR-like electronic setup to identify the sensor resonance frequency and hence stress on a resonator acting as a strain gauge. A measurement update rate of 4800 Hz using a high quality factor SAW resonator operating in the 434 MHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band is experimentally demonstrated.

  13. A Lateral Differential Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on SOI-Glass Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Xie; Yonghao Xing; Yanshuang Wang; Jian Chen; Deyong Chen; Junbo Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a resonant pressure microsensor based on SOI-glass wafer-level vacuum packaging. The SOI-based pressure microsensor consists of a pressure-sensitive diaphragm at the handle layer and two lateral resonators (electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection) on the device layer as a differential setup. The resonators were vacuum packaged with a glass cap using anodic bonding and the wire interconnection was realized using a mask-free ...

  14. Quantum phase transition of light in a 1-D photon-hopping-controllable resonator array

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chun-Wang; Deng, Zhi-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2011-01-01

    We give a concrete experimental scheme for engineering the insulator-superfluid transition of light in a one-dimensional (1-D) array of coupled superconducting stripline resonators. In our proposed architecture, the on-site interaction and the photon hopping rate can be tuned independently by adjusting the transition frequencies of the charge qubits inside the resonators and at the resonator junctions, respectively, which permits us to systematically study the quantum phase transition of light in a complete parameter space. By combining the techniques of photon-number-dependent qubit transition and fast read-out of the qubit state using a separate low-Q resonator mode, the statistical property of the excitations in each resonator can be obtained with a high efficiency. An analysis of the various decoherence sources and disorders shows that our scheme can serve as a guide to coming experiments involving a small number of coupled resonators.

  15. Observation of Efimov resonances in a mixture with extreme mass imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, R; Ulmanis, J; Häfner, S; Repp, M; Arias, A; Kuhnle, E D; Weidemüller, M

    2014-06-27

    We observe two consecutive heteronuclear Efimov resonances in an ultracold Li-Cs mixture by measuring three-body loss coefficients as a function of magnetic field near a Feshbach resonance. The first resonance is detected at a scattering length of a_((0))=-320(10)a_((0)), corresponding to ∼7(∼3) times the Li-Cs (Cs-Cs) van der Waals range. The second resonance appears at 5.8(1.0)a_((0)), close to the unitarity-limited regime at the sample temperature of 450 nK. Indication of a third resonance is found in the atom loss spectra. The scaling of the resonance positions is close to the predicted universal scaling value of 4.9 for zero temperature. Deviations from universality might be caused by finite-range and temperature effects, as well as magnetic field-dependent Cs-Cs interactions.

  16. Experimental studies on perturbed acoustic resonant spectroscopy by a small rock sample in a cylindrical cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dehua; WANG Xiuming; CONG Jiansheng; XU Delong; SONG Yanjie; MA Shuilong

    2006-01-01

    A measurement system for acoustic resonant spectroscopy (ARS) is established,and the effects of resonant cavity geometry,inner perturbation samples and environmental temperature on the ARS are investigated.The ARSs of the small samples with various sizes and acoustic properties are measured.The results show that at the normal pressure,the resonant frequency decreases gradually with the increase of liquid temperature in the cylindrical cavity,while the resonant amplitude increases.At certain pressure and temperature,both the resonant frequency and the amplitude decrease greatly when there exist air bubbles inside the cavity fluid.The ARS is apparently affected by the sample porosity and the sample location in the resonant cavity.At the middle of the cavity,the resonant frequencies reach their maximum values for all of the measurement samples.The resonant frequencies of the porous rock samples are smaller than those of the compacted samples if other acoustic parameters are the same.As the sample is moved from the top to the middle of the cavity along its axis,the resonant amplitude increases gradually for the compacted rocks while decreases for the unconsolidated rocks.Furthermore,the resonant amplitude increases firstly and then decreases if the porosity of the rock sample is relatively small.In addition,through the comparisons between the experimental and theoretical results,it is found that the effects of the acoustic parameters and sizes of the samples and the size of the cylindrical cavity on the laboratory results agree well with the theoretical ones qualitatively.These results may provide basic reference for the experiment study of rock acoustic properties in a low frequency using ARS.

  17. Current at a distance and resonant transparency in Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ady; Baum, Yuval; Berg, Erez; Parameswaran, Siddharth

    Surface Fermi arcs are the most prominent manifestation of the topological nature of Weyl semimetals. In the presence of a static magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the sample surface, their existence leads to unique inter-surface cyclotron orbits. We propose two experiments which directly probe the Fermi arcs: a magnetic field dependent non-local DC voltage and sharp resonances in the transmission of electromagnetic waves at frequencies controlled by the field. We show that these experiments are insensitive to small momentum scattering and do not rely on quantum mechanical phase coherence, which renders them far more robust and experimentally accessible than quantum effects. We also comment on the applicability of these ideas to Dirac semimetals.

  18. Stochastic Resonance in a Bistable System Subject to Dichotomous Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu-Rong; PAN Hui-Mei; GUO Feng; PANG Xiao-Feng

    2008-01-01

    The stochastic resonance phenomenon in a bistable system subject to Markov dichotomous noise (DN) is investigated. Based on the adiabatic elimination and the two-state theories, the explicit expressions for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the spectral power amplification (SPA) have been obtained. It is shown that two peaks can occur on the curve of SNR versus the intensity of the DN. Moreover, the SNR is a non-monotonic function of the correlation time of the DN. The SPA varies non-monotonously with the strength of the DN. The dependence of the SNR on the frequency and the amplitude of the external periodic signal are discussed. The effect of the external frequency and the correlation time of the DN on the SPA are analyzed.

  19. Airflow resistance measurement for a layer of granular material based on the Helmholtz resonance phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizu, Takahisa; Tomatsu, Eiji; Katsuno, Nakako

    2017-04-01

    A Helmholtz resonance technique was employed to predict the airflow resistance of layers of granular materials, namely glass beads, brown rice, soybean, adzuki beans, and corn kernels. Each granular sample was placed on the tube mouth of an open-type Helmholtz resonator. The resonant frequency was determined by measuring the electric impedance of a loudspeaker that was installed in the resonator and driven by a chirp signal linearly sweeping from 90 to 220 Hz for 6.0 s. For a changing sample layer thickness, the resonant frequency was measured, and the specific airflow resistance was calculated by measuring the static pressure drop required for N2 gas to flow through the layer at a constant velocity of 0.042 m/s. When the thickness of the layer was fixed, the Helmholtz resonant frequency decreased as the specific airflow resistance increased, regardless of the kind of granular material.

  20. A review of magnetic resonance imaging compatible manipulators in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhawary, H; Zivanovic, A; Davies, B; Lampérth, M

    2006-04-01

    Developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coupled with parallel progress in the field of computer-assisted surgery, mean that an ideal environment has been created for the development of MRI-compatible robotic systems and manipulators, capable of enhancing many types of surgical procedure. However, MRI does impose severe restrictions on mechatronic devices to be used in or around the scanners. In this article a review of the developments in the field of MRI-compatible surgical manipulators over the last decade is presented. The manipulators developed make use of different methods of actuation, but they can be reduced to four main groups: actuation transmitted through hydraulics, pneumatic actuators, ultrasonic motors based on the piezoceramic principle and remote manual actuation. Progress has been made concerning material selection, position sensing, and different actuation techniques, and design strategies have been implemented to overcome the multiple restrictions imposed by the MRI environment. Most systems lack the clinical validation needed to continue on to commercial products.

  1. Magnification of mantle resonance as a cause of tectonics

    CERN Document Server

    Omerbashich, M

    2006-01-01

    Variance spectral analysis of superconducting gravimeter (SG) decadal data (noise inclusive) suggests conceptually that the Earth tectonogenesis could in part be based on magnification of the mantle mechanical resonance, in addition to previously hypothesized causes. Aanalogously to the atmospheric tidal forcing of global high frequency free oscillation, I propose that the Moon synodically recurring pull could likewise drive the long-periodic (12 to 120 minutes) oscillation of the Earth. To demonstrate this, I show that the daily magnitudes of mass (gravity) oscillation, as a relative measure of the Earth kinetic energy, get synodically periodic while correlating up to 0.97 with seismic energies on the day of shallow and 3 days before deep earthquakes. The forced oscillator equations for the mantle usual viscosity and the Earth springtide and grave mode periods successfully model an identical 3 days phase. Finally, whereas reports on gravest earthquakes (of around M9.5) put the maximum coseismic displacement ...

  2. Stochastic resonance in a parallel array of linear elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Xiao-Juan

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon in a parallel array of linear elements with noise. Employing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) theory, it obtains the output SNR, and investigates the effects on the output SNR of the system with signal-independent noise and signal-dependent noise respectively. Numerical results show: the curve of the output SNR is monotone with signal-independent noise; whereas SR appears with signal-dependent noise. Moreover, the output SNR enhances rapidly with the increase of N which is the number of elements in this parallel array linear system. This result may provide smart array of simple linear sensors which are capable of acting as noise-aided amplifiers.

  3. A 77-118 GHz Resonance-free Septum Polarizer

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Teng, Hsiao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the polarized radiation often reveal specific physical properties of emission sources, such as strengths and orientations of magnetic fields offered by synchrotron radiation and Zeeman line emission, and the electron density distribution by free-free emission. Polarization-capable, millimeter/sub-millimeter telescopes are normally equipped with either septum polarizers or ortho-mode transducers (OMT) for the detection of polarized radiation. While the septum polarizer is traditionally conceived to be limited to a significantly narrower bandwidth than the OMT, it does possess advantageous features for astronomical polarization measurements unparalleled by the OMT. Challenging the conventional bandwidth limit, we design an extremely wideband circular waveguide septum polarizer, covering $42\\%$ bandwidth, from 77 GHz to 118 GHz, without any undesired resonance. Stokes parameters constructed from the measured data in between 77 GHz and 115 GHz show that the leakage from $I$ to $Q$ and $U$ is below...

  4. Microwave broadband permittivity measurement with a multimode helical resonator for studying catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussy, Georges; Thiebaut, Jean-Marie; Ename-Obiang, Francis; Marchal, Eric

    2001-04-01

    The authors present a resonant permittivity measurement method which works over a large microwave frequency domain, with a very small volume sample of dielectric material. The cell is a helical resonator having many modes of resonance. The shifts of resonance frequency and Q-factors are better interpreted with a bilinear function which depends on the complex permittivity of the material than by applying the classical perturbation formula. Results concerning two different catalysts which are used in the coupling oxidation methane reaction are given as a function of the temperature and the frequency to illustrate the correlation of both data sets and the differences in catalytic mechanisms.

  5. NERO a code for evaluation of nonlinear resonances in 4D symplectic mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, Ezio; Giovannozzi, Massimo

    1998-01-01

    A code to evaluate the stability, the position and the width of nonlinear resonances in four-dimensional symplectic mappings is described. NERO is based on the computation of the resonant perturbative series through the use of Lie transformation implemented in the code ARES, and on the analysis of the resonant orbits of the interpolating Hamiltonian. The code is aimed at studying the nonlinear moti on of a charged particle moving in a circular accelerator under the influence of nonlinear forces.

  6. Ultracompact resonator with high quality-factor based on a hybrid grating structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    We numerically investigate the properties of a hybrid grating structure acting as a resonator with ultrahigh quality factor. This reveals that the physical mechanism responsible for the resonance is quite different from the conventional guided mode resonance (GMR). The hybrid grating consists...... of a subwavelength grating layer and an un-patterned high-refractive-index cap layer, being surrounded by low index materials. Since the cap layer may include a gain region, an ultracompact laser can be realized based on the hybrid grating resonator, featuring many advantages over high-contrast-grating resonator...... lasers. The effect of fabrication errors and finite size of the structure is investigated to understand the feasibility of fabricating the proposed resonator....

  7. Realizing of plasmon Fano resonance with a metal nanowall moving along MIM waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Yao, Duanzheng

    2016-06-01

    A larger number of complicated plasmonic nanostructures have been realized to exhibit Fano interference. In this paper, we demonstrate a simple nanostructure, side coupled waveguide resonator system with a metal nanowall located in the metal-insulator-metal waveguide (MIM), which can also achieve multiple plasmonic Fano resonance. In the proposed nanostructure, the asymmetric line shape originates from the interference between the slot resonator and the new resonator. Therefore, the Fano line shape can be actively controlled by the phase difference of the two resonators and the thickness of the metal nanowall. A scattering matrix method is used to calculate the transmission spectra. Results obtained by the scattering matrix theory are consistent with those from the finite-difference time-domain simulations (FDTD). Moreover, Fano resonances in the proposed structure show high sensitivity, which may have important application in plasmonic nanosensor and modulator.

  8. A study of the higher order Lamb resonances on elastic shells: Their prediction and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werby, M. F.; Broadhead, M. K.; Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1992-04-01

    We study all the resonances generated on elastic shells for a ka from 0 to 500 for steel and aluminum for a thickness of 5%. We observe the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric model or Lamb resonances, waterborne and pseudo-Stoneley resonances and the higher order Lamb modes A and S, where i = 1, 2, 3 ... . We plot some of the phase velocities of some of the relevant resonances out to a ka of 500 and indicate simple expressions that predict the onset of each of the resonances. We demonstrate by use of partial wave analysis that the new expressions that predict the onset (critical frequencies) of the higher order Lamb modes are reliable. Further, interesting phenomena occur at the inception of some of the resonances and we discuss some of those cases.

  9. A nonlinear plasmonic resonator for three-state all-optical switching

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear plasmonic resonator design is proposed for three-state all-optical switching at frequencies including near infrared and lower red parts of the spectrum. The tri-stable response required for three-state operation is obtained by enhancing nonlinearities of a Kerr medium through multiple (higher order) plasmons excited on resonator\\'s metallic surfaces. Indeed, simulations demonstrate that exploitation of multiple plasmons equips the proposed resonator with a multi-band tri-stable response, which cannot be obtained using existing nonlinear plasmonic devices that make use of single mode Lorentzian resonances. Multi-band three-state optical switching that can be realized using the proposed resonator has potential applications in optical communications and computing. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  10. A nanoelectromechanical systems actuator driven and controlled by Q-factor attenuation of ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B.; Cai, H.; Ng, G. I.; Kropelnicki, P.; Tsai, J. M.; Randles, A. B.; Tang, M.; Gu, Y. D.; Suo, Z. G.; Liu, A. Q.

    2013-10-01

    In this Letter, an optical gradient force driven Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS) actuator, which is controlled by the Q-factor attenuation of micro-ring resonator, is demonstrated. The actuator consists of a tunable actuation ring resonator, a sensing ring resonator, and a mechanical actuation arc. The actuation displacement can reach up to 14 nm with a measured resolution of 0.8 nm, when the Q-factor of the ring resonator is tuned from 15 × 103 to 6 × 103. The potential applications of the NEMS actuator include single molecule manipulation, nano-manipulation, and high sensitivity sensors.

  11. Study on A Control Method of PAPF for Resonance Damping and Harmonics Compensation in Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fang; Wu, Longhui; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    In power system, capacitors are widely used to compensate reactive power, which generally cause resonance problems in harmonic distorted network. In this paper, A method of using a parallel active power filter (PAPF) to damp the resonances is proposed. The proposed method is compound with traditi......In power system, capacitors are widely used to compensate reactive power, which generally cause resonance problems in harmonic distorted network. In this paper, A method of using a parallel active power filter (PAPF) to damp the resonances is proposed. The proposed method is compound...

  12. A new type of resonant neutrino conversions induced by magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, S; Valle, José W F

    1995-01-01

    We consider resonant neutrino conversions in magnetised matter, such as a degenerate electron gas. We show how magnetisation effects caused by axial vector interactions of neutrinos with the charged leptons in the medium can induce a new type of resonant neutrino conversion which may occur even in situations where the MSW effect does not occur, such as the case of degenerate or inverted neutrino mass spectra. Our new resonance may simultaneously affect anti-neutrino \\bar{\

  13. Computer Simulation Of A CO2 High Power Laser With Folded Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisterhofer, E.; Lippitsch, M. E.

    1984-03-01

    Based on the iterative solution of a generalized Kirchhoff-Fresnel integral equation we have developed a computer model for realistic simulation of arbitrary linear or folded resonators. With known parameters of the active medium (small signal gain, saturation intensity, volume) we can determine the optimal parameters for the resonator (e.g. out-put mirror transmission, radius of curvature of mirrors, diameter and place of diaphragms, length of resonator) to get highest output power with a certain mode pattern. The model is tested for linear as well as folded resonators.

  14. Measurements of complex coupling coefficients in a ring resonator of a laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonov, A. S.; Makeev, A. P.; Petrukhin, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    A method is proposed for measuring complex coupling coefficients in a ring optical resonator in the absence of an active gas mixture. A setup is described on which measurements are performed in ring resonators of ring He-Ne lasers with a wavelength of 632.8 nm. A model of backscattering field interference between conservative and dissipative sources is presented. Within the framework of this model, the unusual behaviour of backscattering fields in ring resonators observed in experiments is explained: a significant difference in the moduli of coupling coefficients of counterpropagating waves and variation of the magnitude of the total phase shift in a wide range. It is proposed to use this method as a metrological method when assembling and aligning a ring resonator of a laser gyroscope.

  15. A Study of Electromagnetic Transition of △(1232) Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-Bing; LIU Jian

    2004-01-01

    Point form relativistic dynamics of relativistic quantum mechanics is employed to estimate the photon and electroproduction amplitudes of △(1232) resonance. Results are compared with the non-relativistic work, and the differences between the two frame works are discussed.

  16. Design and fabrication of a high performance resonant MEMS temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Talha; Azgin, Kivanc; Akin, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a high performance MEMS temperature sensor comprised of a double-ended-tuning-fork (DETF) resonator and strain-amplifying beam structure. The temperature detection is based on the ‘thermal strain induced frequency variations’ of the DETF resonator. The major source of thermal strain leading to the frequency shifts is the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate and the device layers of the fabricated structures. By selecting the substrate as glass and the device layers as single crystal silicon, i.e. materials with different thermal expansion coefficients, the tines of the resonators are exposed to axial load with the changing temperature, which causes a change in the resonance frequency of the resonators. This resonance frequency shift can be related with the changing temperature by taking the thermal strain relations into consideration, which enables utilization of the resonator as a highly sensitive temperature sensor. The resonators used in this study have been fabricated by utilizing the advanced MEMS process that incorporates the simple silicon-on-glass process with the wafer level vacuum packaging Torunbalci et al (2015 J. Microelectromech. Syst. 24 556-64). The fabricated resonators have been tested in a temperature-controlled oven between  -20 °C and 60 °C, and the results of two distinct designs are compared to be able to observe the effectiveness of the strain amplifying beam. Measurement results show that the design with the strain amplifying beam increases the temperature coefficient of frequency of the resonators by 33 times when compared to the one-end free DETF resonators. Minimum detectable temperature variations observed by the resonators used in this study is 0.0011 °C. This kind of very high resolution temperature sensing can be achieved by integrating this MEMS temperature sensor with any type of physical MEMS sensor where its fabrication process includes different materials for the substrate

  17. Inverse Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg interferometry for the measurement of a resonator's state using a qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Sergey; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2013-03-01

    We consider theoretically a superconducting qubit - nanomechanical resonator system, which was realized recently by LaHaye et al. [Nature 459, 960 (2009)]. We formulate and solve the inverse Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg problem, where we assume the driven qubit's state to be known (i.e. measured by some other device) and aim to find the parameters of the qubit's Hamiltonian. In particular, for our system the qubit's bias is defined by the nanomechanical resonator's displacement. This may provide a tool for monitoring the nanomechanical resonator 's position. [S. N. Shevchenko, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 85, 094502 (2012).

  18. Parametrics Resonances of a Forced Modified Rayleigh-Duffing Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Miwadinou, C H; Chabi, J B

    2013-01-01

    We investigate in this paper the superharmonic and subharmonic resonances of forced modified Rayleigh-Duffing oscillator. We analyse this equation by method of multiple scales and we obtain superharmonic and subharmonic resonances order-two and order-three. We obtain also regions where steady-state subharmonic responses exist. Finally, we use the amplitude-frequency curve for demonstrate the effect of various parameters on the response of the system.

  19. Nonlinear resonance phenomena of a doped fibre laser under cavity-loss modulation: Experimental demonstrations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ghosh; B K Goswami; R Vijaya

    2010-11-01

    Our experiments with an erbium-doped fibre ring laser (CW, single transverse mode and multiaxial mode) with an intracavity LiNbO3 electro-optic modulator (EOM) display the characteristic features of a nonlinear oscillator (e.g., harmonic and period-2 sub-harmonic resonances) when the EOM driver voltage is modulated periodically. Harmonic resonance leads to period-1 bistability and hysteresis. Inside the period-2 sub-harmonic resonance region, the laser exhibits Feigenbaum sequence and generalized bistability.

  20. NERO: a code for the nonlinear evaluation of resonances in one-turn mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, E.; Gemmi, M.; Giovannozzi, M.

    1997-10-01

    We describe a code that evaluates the stability, the position and the width of resonances in four-dimensional symplectic mappings. The code is based on the computation of the resonant perturbative series through the program ARES, and on the analysis of the resonant orbits of the interpolating Hamiltonian. The code is dedicated to the study and to the comparison of the nonlinear behaviour in one-turn betatronic maps.

  1. Photon antibunching and bunching in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zihao; Zhou, Yao; Shen, Jung-Tsung

    2016-07-15

    We numerically investigate the photonic state generation and its nonclassical correlations in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system. Specifically, we discuss photon antibunching and bunching in various scenarios, including the imperfect resonator with backscattering and dissipations. Our numerical results indicate that an imperfect ring resonator with backscattering can enhance the quality of antibunching. In addition, we also identify the quantum photonic halo phenomenon in the photon scattering dynamics and the shoulder effect in the second-order correlation function.

  2. Optimum design of a polymer electro-optic microring resonator switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Novel transfer functions are presented for a polymer electro-optic microring resonator switches. The resonating process of the light in the microring is simulated using the formulas. Then the optimization of the structural parameters is performed,and the characteristics are analyzed, such as the resonance time, output spectrum, operation voltage, insertion loss and crosstalk were analyzed. The simulation results show that the designed device exhibits favorable switching functions.

  3. A new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer based on electrostatic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Dai, Bo; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-05

    Presented in the paper is the design, the simulation, the fabrication and the experiment of a new z-axis resonant accelerometer based on the electrostatic stiffness. The new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer, which consists of a torsional accelerometer and two plane resonators, decouples the sensing movement of the accelerometer from the oscillation of the plane resonators by electrostatic stiffness, which will improve the performance. The new structure and the sensitive theory of the acceleration are illuminated, and the equation of the scale factor is deduced under ideal conditions firstly. The Ansys simulation is implemented to verify the basic principle of the torsional accelerometer and the plane resonator individually. The structure simulation results prove that the effective frequency of the torsional accelerometer and the plane resonator are 0.66 kHz and 13.3 kHz, respectively. Then, the new structure is fabricated by the standard three-mask deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process and encapsulated by parallel seam welding. Finally, the detecting and control circuits are designed to achieve the closed-loop self-oscillation, to trace the natural frequency of resonator and to measure the system frequency. Experimental results show that the new z-axis resonant accelerometer has a scale factor of 31.65 Hz/g, a bias stability of 727 µg and a dynamic range of over 10 g, which proves that the new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer is practicable.

  4. A New Z-axis Resonant Micro-Accelerometer Based on Electrostatic Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented in the paper is the design, the simulation, the fabrication and the experiment of a new z-axis resonant accelerometer based on the electrostatic stiffness. The new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer, which consists of a torsional accelerometer and two plane resonators, decouples the sensing movement of the accelerometer from the oscillation of the plane resonators by electrostatic stiffness, which will improve the performance. The new structure and the sensitive theory of the acceleration are illuminated, and the equation of the scale factor is deduced under ideal conditions firstly. The Ansys simulation is implemented to verify the basic principle of the torsional accelerometer and the plane resonator individually. The structure simulation results prove that the effective frequency of the torsional accelerometer and the plane resonator are 0.66 kHz and 13.3 kHz, respectively. Then, the new structure is fabricated by the standard three-mask deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG process and encapsulated by parallel seam welding. Finally, the detecting and control circuits are designed to achieve the closed-loop self-oscillation, to trace the natural frequency of resonator and to measure the system frequency. Experimental results show that the new z-axis resonant accelerometer has a scale factor of 31.65 Hz/g, a bias stability of 727 µg and a dynamic range of over 10 g, which proves that the new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer is practicable.

  5. Baryon resonances in the mean field approach and a simple explanation of the Theta+ pentaquark

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonov, Dmitri

    2008-01-01

    We suggest to classify baryon resonances as single-quark states in a mean field, and/or as its collective excitations. Identifying the Roper resonance N(1440), the nucleon resonance N(1535), and the singlet hyperon Lambda(1405) as single-quark excitations, we find that there must be an exotic S=+1 baryon resonance Theta+ (the "pentaquark") with a mass about 1440+1535-1405=1570 MeV and spin-parity one-half-plus. We argue that Theta+ is an analog of the Gamov--Teller excitation long known in nuclear physics.

  6. A dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Wang, Ya

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports a dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter (RROC) for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting from ambient vibrations. An approximate theoretical model has been established to integrate the electromechanical coupling into a comprehensive electromagnetic-dynamic model of the dual resonant RROC. Numerical simulation has proved the nature of dual resonances by revealing that both the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be achieved when the stand-alone rectilinear oscillator (RLO) and the stand-alone rotary oscillator (RTO) were excited independently. Simulation on the magnetically coupled RROC has also shown that the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be obtained simultaneously in the low-frequency region (2-14 Hz) with well-defined restoring torque (M r ) and the initial rotation angle of the RLO (ψ). The magnetic interaction patterns between the rectilinear and the RTOs have been categorized based on aforementioned simulation results. Both simulation and experimental results have demonstrated broadband output attributing from the dual resonances. Experimental results have also indicated that the RROC could have wide bandwidth in a much lower frequency region (2-8 Hz) even without the rotary resonance as long as the system parameters are carefully tuned. Parameter analysis on different values of M r and ψ are experimentally carried out to provide a quantitative guidance of designing the RROC to achieve an optimal power density.

  7. Above-threshold scattering about a Feshbach resonance for ultracold atoms in an optical collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Milena S J; Thomas, Ryan; Tiesinga, Eite; Deb, Amita B; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2017-09-06

    Ultracold atomic gases have realized numerous paradigms of condensed matter physics, where control over interactions has crucially been afforded by tunable Feshbach resonances. So far, the characterization of these Feshbach resonances has almost exclusively relied on experiments in the threshold regime near zero energy. Here, we use a laser-based collider to probe a narrow magnetic Feshbach resonance of rubidium above threshold. By measuring the overall atomic loss from colliding clouds as a function of magnetic field, we track the energy-dependent resonance position. At higher energy, our collider scheme broadens the loss feature, making the identification of the narrow resonance challenging. However, we observe that the collisions give rise to shifts in the center-of-mass positions of outgoing clouds. The shifts cross zero at the resonance and this allows us to accurately determine its location well above threshold. Our inferred resonance positions are in excellent agreement with theory.Studies on energy-dependent scattering of ultracold atoms were previously carried out near zero collision energies. Here, the authors observe a magnetic Feshbach resonance in ultracold Rb collisions for above-threshold energies and their method can also be used to detect higher partial wave resonances.

  8. Interferences in the transverse profile of a toluene beam induced by a resonant RF electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, M; Cáceres, J O; Gonzálvez, A G; González Ureña, A

    2009-12-31

    In this work, the interaction of a supersonic beam of toluene diluted in He with a resonant oscillating RF field is investigated both experimental and theoretically. It is shown how the resonant field induces a peak structure in the transverse beam profile which can be explained by the onset of molecular interferences. Specifically, the interaction of a toluene beam of 0.12 eV of translational energy with a resonant RF field of 1.12 kV/m amplitude, and -610 kV/m(2) of gradient at the horizontal plane, during 160 micros produces a series of maxima in the transverse beam profile. The observed structure was satisfactorily reproduced by a quantum interference model based on the interaction of two coherent superpositions induced by the resonant RF field. It appears the present experimental technique could be useful to investigate the spectroscopy and dynamical behavior of coherent beams of polar molecules.

  9. Experimental Investigation on a Fibre-Optic Hydrophone with a Cylindrical Helmholtz Resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ze-Feng; HUNG Yong-Ming; MENG Zhou; NI Ming

    2008-01-01

    A novel mechanical anti-aliasing filtering fibre-optic hydrophone with a cylindrical Helmholtz resonator is constructed and tested.The experimental results show that the hydrophone has a function of low-pass filtering.The low frequency acoustic sensitivity is about -160 dB (1 rad/μPa),and the response curve has a resonance determined by the Helmholtz resonator.Theoretical and experimental results both show that the resonant frequency moves towards high frequency with the increasing orifice diameters.The sensitivity attenuation of high frequency is larger than 10 dB.This new fibre-optic hydrophone is a prototype device for a c/ass of sensors used to eliminate the aliasing in future sonar systems.

  10. Resonant infrared pulsed-laser deposition of a sorbent chemoselective polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubb, D.M.; Horwitz, J.S.; McGill, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fluoropolyol, a sorbent chemoselective polymer, has been deposited as a thin film by resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition using a free electron laser operating at 2.90 mum, a wavelength resonant with the hydroxl stretch. A comparison of the infrared absorbance of the deposited film...

  11. Chaotic scattering in the presence of a dense set of overlapping Feshbach resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Jachymski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Complex quantum systems consisting of large numbers of strongly coupled states exhibit characteristic correlations in the level spacing distribution which can be described by Random Matrix Theory. Scattering resonances observed in ultracold atomic and molecular systems exhibit similar features as a consequence of their energy level structure. We study how the overlap between Feshbach resonances affects the distribution of resonance spacings. We find that the level repulsion between resonances leads to correlations that resemble the results known for quantum chaotic systems even when the assumptions of Random Matrix Theory are not fulfilled.

  12. Development of a Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Sherwood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR and ultrasound (US image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1–4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle.

  13. A model for precalculus students to determine the resonance frequency of a trumpet mouthpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert C.

    2004-05-01

    The trumpet mouthpiece as a Helmholtz resonator is used to show precalculus students a mathematical model for determining the approximate resonance frequency of the mouthpiece. The mathematics is limited to algebra and trigonometry. Using a system of mouthpieces that have interchangeable cups and backbores, students are introduced to the acoustics of this resonator. By gathering data on 51 different configurations of mouthpieces, the author modifies the existing Helmholtz resonator equation to account for both cup volumes and backbore configurations. Students then use this model for frequency predictions. Included are how to measure the different physical attributes of a trumpet mouthpiece at minimal cost. This includes methods for measuring cup volume, backbore volume, backbore length, throat area, etc. A portion of this phase is de-signed for students to become acquainted with some of the vocabulary of acoustics and the physics of sound.

  14. Hybrid circuit cavity quantum electrodynamics with a micromechanical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkkalainen, J-M; Cho, S U; Li, Jian; Paraoanu, G S; Hakonen, P J; Sillanpää, M A

    2013-02-14

    Hybrid quantum systems with inherently distinct degrees of freedom have a key role in many physical phenomena. Well-known examples include cavity quantum electrodynamics, trapped ions, and electrons and phonons in the solid state. In those systems, strong coupling makes the constituents lose their individual character and form dressed states, which represent a collective form of dynamics. As well as having fundamental importance, hybrid systems also have practical applications, notably in the emerging field of quantum information control. A promising approach is to combine long-lived atomic states with the accessible electrical degrees of freedom in superconducting cavities and quantum bits (qubits). Here we integrate circuit cavity quantum electrodynamics with phonons. Apart from coupling to a microwave cavity, our superconducting transmon qubit, consisting of tunnel junctions and a capacitor, interacts with a phonon mode in a micromechanical resonator, and thus acts like an atom coupled to two different cavities. We measure the phonon Stark shift, as well as the splitting of the qubit spectral line into motional sidebands, which feature transitions between the dressed electromechanical states. In the time domain, we observe coherent conversion of qubit excitation to phonons as sideband Rabi oscillations. This is a model system with potential for a quantum interface, which may allow for storage of quantum information in long-lived phonon states, coupling to optical photons or for investigations of strongly coupled quantum systems near the classical limit.

  15. Surface plasmon resonance microscopy: Achieving a quantitative optical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alexander W.; Halter, Michael; Plant, Anne L.; Elliott, John T.

    2016-09-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging allows real-time label-free imaging based on index of refraction and changes in index of refraction at an interface. Optical parameter analysis is achieved by application of the Fresnel model to SPR data typically taken by an instrument in a prism based figuration. We carry out SPR imaging on a microscope by launching light into a sample and collecting reflected light through a high numerical aperture microscope objective. The SPR microscope enables spatial resolution that approaches the diffraction limit and has a dynamic range that allows detection of subnanometer to submicrometer changes in thickness of biological material at a surface. However, unambiguous quantitative interpretation of SPR changes using the microscope system could not be achieved using the Fresnel model because of polarization dependent attenuation and optical aberration that occurs in the high numerical aperture objective. To overcome this problem, we demonstrate a model to correct for polarization diattenuation and optical aberrations in the SPR data and develop a procedure to calibrate reflectivity to index of refraction values. The calibration and correction strategy for quantitative analysis was validated by comparing the known indices of refraction of bulk materials with corrected SPR data interpreted with the Fresnel model. Subsequently, we applied our SPR microscopy method to evaluate the index of refraction for a series of polymer microspheres in aqueous media and validated the quality of the measurement with quantitative phase microscopy.

  16. A surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for detecting a dioxin precursor using a gold binding polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soh, N; Tokuda, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensor was developed for monitoring 2,4-dichlorophenol, a known dioxin precursor, using an indirect competitive immunoassay. The SPR sensor was fabricated by immobilizing a gold-thin layer on the surface of an SPR sensor chip with an anti-(2,4-dichloroph......A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensor was developed for monitoring 2,4-dichlorophenol, a known dioxin precursor, using an indirect competitive immunoassay. The SPR sensor was fabricated by immobilizing a gold-thin layer on the surface of an SPR sensor chip with an anti-(2...

  17. Resonance phenomena of a solitonlike extended object in a bistable potential

    CERN Document Server

    González, J A; Reyes, L I; Guerrero, L E

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a soliton that behaves as an extended particle. The soliton motion in an effective bistable potential can be chaotic in a similar way as the Duffing oscillator. We generalize the concept of geometrical resonance to spatiotemporal systems and apply it to design a nonfeedback mechanism of chaos control using localized perturbations.We show the existence of solitonic stochastic resonance.

  18. The efficiency of resonant relaxation around a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Eilon, Ehud; Alexander, Tal

    2008-01-01

    Resonant relaxation (RR) is a rapid relaxation process that operates in the nearly-Keplerian potential near a massive black hole (MBH). RR dominates the dynamics of compact remnants that inspiral into a MBH and emit gravitational waves (extreme mass ratio inspiral events, EMRIs). RR can either increase the EMRI rate, or strongly suppress it, depending on its still poorly-determined efficiency. We use small-scale Newtonian N-body simulations to measure the RR efficiency and to explore its possible dependence on the stellar number density profile around the MBH, and the mass-ratio between the MBH and a star (a single-mass stellar population is assumed). We develop an efficient and robust procedure for detecting and measuring RR in N-body simulations. We present a suite of simulations with a range of stellar density profiles and mass-ratios, and measure the mean RR efficiency in the near-Keplerian limit. We do not find a statistically significant dependence on the density profile or the mass-ratio. Our numerical...

  19. The bead on a rotating hoop revisited: an unexpected resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviola, Lisandro A.; Véliz, Maximiliano E.; Salomone, Horacio D.; Olivieri, Néstor A.; Rodríguez, Eduardo E.

    2017-01-01

    The bead on a rotating hoop is a typical problem in mechanics, frequently posed to junior science and engineering students in basic physics courses. Although this system has a rich dynamics, it is usually not analysed beyond the point particle approximation in undergraduate textbooks, nor empirically investigated. Advanced textbooks show the existence of bifurcations owing to the system's nonlinear nature, and some papers demonstrate, from a theoretical standpoint, its points of contact with phase transition phenomena. However, scarce experimental research has been conducted to better understand its behaviour. We show in this paper that a minor modification to the problem leads to appealing consequences that can be studied both theoretically and empirically with the basic conceptual tools and experimental skills available to junior students. In particular, we go beyond the point particle approximation by treating the bead as a rigid spherical body, and explore the effect of a slightly non-vertical hoop's rotation axis that gives rise to a resonant behaviour not considered in previous works. This study can be accomplished by means of digital video and open source software. The experience can motivate an engaging laboratory project by integrating standard curriculum topics, data analysis and experimental exploration.

  20. A versatile computer-controlled pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gregory; MacNamara, Ernesto; Santini, Robert E.; Raftery, Daniel

    1999-12-01

    A new, pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrometer capable of performing a variety of pulsed and swept experiments is described. The spectrometer features phase locked, superheterodyne detection using a commercial spectrum analyzer and a fully automatic, computer-controlled tuning and matching network. The tuning and matching network employs stepper motors which turn high power air gap capacitors in a "moving grid" optimization strategy to minimize the reflected power from a directional coupler. In the duplexer circuit, digitally controlled relays are used to switch different lengths of coax cable appropriate for the different radio frequencies. A home-built pulse programmer card controls the timing of radio frequency pulses sent to the probe, while data acquisition and control software is written in Microsoft Quick Basic. Spin-echo acquisition experiments are typically used to acquire the data, although a variety of pulse sequences can be employed. Scan times range from one to several hours depending upon the step resolution and the spectral range required for each experiment. Pure NQR spectra of NaNO2 and 3-aminopyridine are discussed.

  1. Fluctuations, Response, and Resonances in a Simple Atmospheric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsun, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    We study the response of a simple quasi-geostrophic barotropic model of the atmosphere to various classes of perturbations affecting its forcing and its dissipation using the formalism of the Ruelle response theory. We investigate the geometry of such perturbations using the covariant Lyapunov vectors on the unperturbed system and discover in one specific case - orographic forcing - a substantial projection of the perturbation onto the stable directions of the flow. As a result, we find a clear violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, in agreement with the basic tenets of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. This results into a very strong response in the form of a forced Rossby-like wave that has no resemblance to the natural variability in the same range of spatial and temporal scales. We further analyze such a feature and discover it can be interpreted as resonant response to a specific group of rarely visited unstable periodic orbits of the unperturbed system. Our results reinforce the idea of u...

  2. Two-dimensional imaging of optical emission in a multicusp-ECR microwave resonant cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, C.B.; Brake, M.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1996-02-01

    Optical emission of the electron-cyclotron resonant (ECR) region of a multicusp microwave resonant cavity plasma source has been imaged onto a two-dimensional charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The technique provides a real-time diagnostic of the plasma emission around the ECR region within a wavelength region defined by low-bandpass filters.

  3. Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulla, S.M.C.; Kauppinen, L.J.; Dijkstra, M.; Boer, de M.J.; Berenschot, E.; Jansen, H.V.; Ridder, de R.M.; Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The principle, fabrication and characterization of a dielectric MEMS cantilever located a few 100 nm above a racetrack ring resonator are presented. After fabrication of the resonators on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers in a foundry process, the cantilevers were integrated by surface micromachinin

  4. Probing the quantum coherence of a nanomechanical resonator using a superconducting qubit: I. Echo scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, A D [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Blencowe, M P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)], E-mail: andrew.armour@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: miles.p.blencowe@dartmouth.edu

    2008-09-15

    We propose a scheme in which the quantum coherence of a nanomechanical resonator can be probed using a superconducting qubit. We consider a mechanical resonator coupled capacitively to a Cooper pair box and assume that the superconducting qubit is tuned to the degeneracy point so that its coherence time is maximized and the electro-mechanical coupling can be approximated by a dispersive Hamiltonian. When the qubit is prepared in a superposition of states, this drives the mechanical resonator progressively into a superposition which in turn leads to apparent decoherence of the qubit. Applying a suitable control pulse to the qubit allows its population to be inverted resulting in a reversal of the resonator dynamics. However, the resonator's interactions with its environment mean that the dynamics is not completely reversible. We show that this irreversibility is largely due to the decoherence of the mechanical resonator and can be inferred from appropriate measurements on the qubit alone. Using estimates for the parameters involved based on a specific realization of the system, we show that it should be possible to carry out this scheme with existing device technology.

  5. Nondestructive relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements using a split-cylinder resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janezic, Michael Daniel

    To keep pace with the expanding wireless and electronics industries, manufacturers are developing innovative materials for improving system performance, and there is a critical need to accurately characterize the electrical properties of these new materials at microwave frequencies. To address this need, this thesis develops a nondestructive method for measuring the relative permittivity and loss tangent of dielectric substrates using a split-cylinder resonator. Three theoretical models for the split-cylinder resonator are derived using mode-matching, least-squares boundary residual, and Hankel-transform methods, from which one can calculate the relative permittivity and loss tangent of a dielectric substrate from measurements of the split-cylinder resonator's TE0np resonant frequency and quality factor. Each of these models has several advantages over previously published models. First, the accuracy of the relative permittivity measurement is increased because each model accurately models the fringing fields that extend beyond the cylindrical-cavity sections. Second, to increase the accuracy of the loss tangent measurement, each model accurately separates the conductive metal losses of the split-cylinder resonator from the dielectric losses of the substrate. Finally, in contrast to previous models for the split-cylinder resonator that use only the TE011 resonant mode, each of the new models include the higher-order TE0np resonant modes, thereby broadening the frequency range over which one can make relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements. In a comparison of the three models, the mode-matching method was found to be superior on the basis of measurement accuracy and computational speed. Relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements for several dielectric materials are performed using a split-cylinder resonator and are in good agreement with measurements made using a circular-cylindrical cavity, split-post resonator, and dielectric post resonator

  6. Generalization of a 3-D Acoustic Resonator Model for the Simulation of Spherical Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutilleux Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A rectangular enclosure has such an even distribution of resonances that it can be accurately and efficiently modelled using a feedback delay network. Conversely, a nonrectangular shape such as a sphere has a distribution of resonances that challenges the construction of an efficient model. This work proposes an extension of the already known feedback delay network structure to model the resonant properties of a sphere. A specific frequency distribution of resonances can be approximated, up to a certain frequency, by inserting an allpass filter of moderate order after each delay line of a feedback delay network. The structure used for rectangular boxes is therefore augmented with a set of allpass filters allowing parametric control over the enclosure size and the boundary properties. This work was motivated by informal listening tests which have shown that it is possible to identify a basic shape just from the distribution of its audible resonances.

  7. Steady-state entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a nanomechanical resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Asjad, Muhammad; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.033606

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state entanglement between Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical cavity with a moving end mirror (nanomechanical resonator) driven by a single mode laser. The quantized laser field mediates the interaction between the Bose-Einstein condensate and nanomechanical resonator. In particular, we study the influence of temperature on the entanglement of the coupled system, and note that the steady-state entanglement is fragile with respect to temperature.

  8. A Resonant Scanning Dipole-Antenna Probe for Enhanced Nanoscale Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, L.; Oever, van 't J.J.F.; Hulst, van N.F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a scanning antenna probe that provides 35 nm optical hotspots with a 16-fold excitation enhancement. A resonant optical antenna, tuned to operation in the visible, is carved into the aluminum-coated scanning probe. The antenna resonances, field localization, excitation, and polarization r

  9. On the resonances of a rotating black hole analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Sam R; Crispino, Luís C B

    2011-01-01

    Under certain conditions, sound waves in a fluid may be governed by a Klein-Gordon equation on an `effective spacetime' determined by the background flow properties. Here we study the `draining bathtub' (DBT) system, a circulating, draining flow whose effective spacetime has key features in common with the rotating black hole (Kerr) spacetime. We investigate the spectrum of quasinormal (QN) mode and Regge pole resonances exhibited by the DBT, and we compare with the equivalent Kerr spectra. First, to demonstrate the ubiquity of `QN ringing', we simulate the evolution of a perturbation in the time domain by applying a finite-difference method. Next, we solve the wave equation in the frequency domain, using the continued-fraction method to compute QN frequencies. We explore the geometric link between null geodesic orbits and QN frequencies, and apply an asymptotic method to provide an expansion of QN frequencies in inverse powers of mode number $m$. The same range of methods is then applied to study the (closel...

  10. A new electron paramagnetic resonance method to identify irradiated soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Sharma, Arun

    2009-10-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation causes minimal changes in food matrix making identification of radiation-processed foods a challenging task. In the present study, soybean samples were irradiated with commercially permitted gamma radiation dose in the 0.25 to 1.0 kGy range for insect disinfestations of food. Immediately after irradiation electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the skin part of soybean showed a triplet signal (g = 2.0046, hyperfine coupling constant hfcc = 3.0 mT) superimposed on naturally present singlet. These signals were characterized as cellulose and phenoxyl radicals using EPR spectrum simulation technique. Kernel part of the samples exhibited a short-lived, radiation-induced singlet of carbon-centered radical superimposed on naturally present sextet signal of Mn2+. A detailed study on relaxation and thermal behavior of induced radicals in skin part was carried out using EPR spectroscopy. These findings revealed that progressive saturation and thermal characteristics of the induced radicals may be the most suitable parameters to distinguish soybean subjected to radiation dose as low as 0.25 kGy from thermally treated and nonirradiated samples, even after a prolonged period of storage.

  11. A magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible remote catheter navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallaei, Mohammad Ali; Thakur, Yogesh; Haider, Syed; Drangova, Maria

    2013-04-01

    A remote catheter navigation system compatible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed to facilitate MRI-guided catheterization procedures. The interventionalist's conventional motions (axial motion and rotation) on an input catheter - acting as the master - are measured by a pair of optical encoders, and a custom embedded system relays the motions to a pair of ultrasonic motors. The ultrasonic motors drive the patient catheter (slave) within the MRI scanner, replicating the motion of the input catheter. The performance of the remote catheter navigation system was evaluated in terms of accuracy and delay of motion replication outside and within the bore of the magnet. While inside the scanner bore, motion accuracy was characterized during the acquisition of frequently used imaging sequences, including real-time gradient echo. The effect of the catheter navigation system on image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was also evaluated. The results show that the master-slave system has a maximum time delay of 41 ± 21 ms in replicating motion; an absolute value error of 2 ± 2° was measured for radial catheter motion replication over 360° and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm in axial catheter motion replication over 100 mm of travel. The worst-case SNR drop was observed to be 2.5%.

  12. Stellar Dynamics around a Massive Black Hole II: Resonant Relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Sridhar, S

    2015-01-01

    We present a first-principles theory of Resonant Relaxation (RR) of stellar systems orbiting within the sphere of influence of massive black holes in galactic nuclei. We extend the rigorous kinetic theory of Gilbert (1968) to include the Keplerian field of a black hole of mass $M_\\bullet$, and specialize to a (Keplerian) stellar system of mass $M \\ll M_\\bullet$. Using the results of the secular collisionless theory of Paper I, we orbit-average the kinetic equation through perturbative development in the small parameter $\\varepsilon = M/M_\\bullet$. This is supplemented with contributions from general relativistic corrections up to 1.5 post-Newtonian order and external gravitational sources. The result is a kinetic equation for a secular distribution function (DF) in 5-dim (Gaussian Ring) space, with explicit forms for the fluctuation and dissipation components of the collision integral. For general DFs, both apsidal and nodal precessions contribute to RR; so the traditional, physically-motivated distinction be...

  13. Ferromagnetic Resonance of a Single Magnetochiral Metamolecule of Permalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Toshiyuki; Tomita, Satoshi; Kato, Takeshi; Oshima, Daiki; Iwata, Satoshi; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Kitakami, Osamu; Hosoito, Nobuyoshi; Yanagi, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of a single chiral structure of a ferromagnetic metal—the magnetochiral (MCh) metamolecule. Using a strain-driven self-coiling technique, micrometer-sized MCh metamolecules of metallic permalloy (Py) are fabricated without any residual Py films. The magnetization curves of ten Py MCh metamolecules obtained by an alternating gradient magnetometer show soft magnetic behavior. In cavity FMR with a magnetic-field sweep and coplanar-waveguide (CPW) FMR with a frequency sweep, the Kittel-mode FMR of the single Py metamolecule is observed. The CPW-FMR results, which are consistent with the cavity-FMR results, bring about the effective g factor, effective magnetization, and Gilbert damping of the single metamolecule. Together with calculations using these parameters, the angle-resolved cavity FMR reveals that the magnetization in the Py MCh metamolecule is most likely to be the hollow-bar type of configuration when the external magnetic field is applied parallel to the chiral axis, although the expected magnetization state at remanence is the corkscrew type of configuration.

  14. A set of triple-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance experiments for structural characterization of organophosphorus compounds in mixture samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, Harri, E-mail: Harri.T.Koskela@helsinki.fi [VERIFIN, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 31}P triple-resonance NMR pulse experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of organophosphorus (OP) compounds in complex matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selective extraction of {sup 1}H, {sup 31}P, and {sup 13}C chemical shifts and connectivities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More precise NMR identification of OP nerve agents and their degradation products. - Abstract: The {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C correlation NMR spectroscopy utilizes J{sub CH} couplings in molecules, and provides important structural information from small organic molecules in the form of carbon chemical shifts and carbon-proton connectivities. The full potential of the {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C correlation NMR spectroscopy has not been realized in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) related verification analyses due to the sample matrix, which usually contains a high amount of non-related compounds obscuring the correlations of the relevant compounds. Here, the results of the application of {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 31}P triple-resonance NMR spectroscopy in characterization of OP compounds related to the CWC are presented. With a set of two-dimensional triple-resonance experiments the J{sub HP}, J{sub CH} and J{sub PC} couplings are utilized to map the connectivities of the atoms in OP compounds and to extract the carbon chemical shift information. With the use of the proposed pulse sequences the correlations from the OP compounds can be recorded without significant artifacts from the non-OP compound impurities in the sample. Further selectivity of the observed correlations is achieved with the application of phosphorus band-selective pulse in the pulse sequences to assist the analysis of multiple OP compounds in mixture samples. The use of the triple-resonance experiments in the analysis of a complex sample is shown with a test mixture containing typical scheduled OP compounds, including the characteristic degradation

  15. A Micromachined Pressure Sensor with Integrated Resonator Operating at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Ren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel resonant pressure sensor with an improved micromechanical double-ended tuning fork resonator packaged in dry air at atmospheric pressure is presented. The resonator is electrostatically driven and capacitively detected, and the sensor is designed to realize a low cost resonant pressure sensor with medium accuracy. Various damping mechanisms in a resonator that is vibrating at atmospheric pressure are analyzed in detail, and a formula is developed to predict the overall quality factor. A trade-off has been reached between the quality factor, stress sensitivity and drive capability of the resonator. Furthermore, differential sense elements and the method of electromechanical amplitude modulation are used for capacitive detection to obtain a large signal-to-noise ratio. The prototype sensor chip is successfully fabricated using a micromachining process based on a commercially available silicon-on-insulator wafer and is hermetically encapsulated in a custom 16-pin Kovar package. Preliminary measurements show that the fundamental frequency of the resonant pressure sensor is approximately 34.55 kHz with a pressure sensitivity of 20.77 Hz/kPa. Over the full scale pressure range of 100–400 kPa and the whole temperature range of −20–60 °C, high quality factors from 1,146 to 1,772 are obtained. The characterization of the prototype sensor reveals the feasibility of a resonant pressure sensor packaged at atmospheric pressure.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Welsch, Goetz H; Potter, Hollis G

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries.

  17. Resonant frequency calculations using a hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James F.; Andersen, Carl M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-step hybrid perturbation Galerkin technique is applied to the problem of determining the resonant frequencies of one or several degrees of freedom nonlinear systems involving a parameter. In one step, the Lindstedt-Poincare method is used to determine perturbation solutions which are formally valid about one or more special values of the parameter (e.g., for large or small values of the parameter). In step two, a subset of the perturbation coordinate functions determined in step one is used in Galerkin type approximation. The technique is illustrated for several one degree of freedom systems, including the Duffing and van der Pol oscillators, as well as for the compound pendulum. For all of the examples considered, it is shown that the frequencies obtained by the hybrid technique using only a few terms from the perturbation solutions are significantly more accurate than the perturbation results on which they are based, and they compare very well with frequencies obtained by purely numerical methods.

  18. A neuron model of stochastic resonance using rectangular pulse trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, Zachary; Grill, Warren M

    2015-02-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is the enhanced representation of a weak input signal by the addition of an optimal level of broadband noise to a nonlinear (threshold) system. Since its discovery in the 1980s the domain of input signals shown to be applicable to SR has greatly expanded, from strictly periodic inputs to now nearly any aperiodic forcing function. The perturbations (noise) used to generate SR have also expanded, from white noise to now colored noise or vibrational forcing. This study demonstrates that a new class of perturbations can achieve SR, namely, series of stochastically generated biphasic pulse trains. Using these pulse trains as 'noise' we show that a Hodgkin Huxley model neuron exhibits SR behavior when detecting weak input signals. This result is of particular interest to neuroscience because nearly all artificial neural stimulation is implemented with square current or voltage pulses rather than broadband noise, and this new method may facilitate the translation of the performance gains achievable through SR to neural prosthetics.

  19. A possible application of magnetic resonance imaging for pharmaceutical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Joanna; Tritt-Goc, Jadwiga

    2011-03-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive method, the experiment can be conducted in situ and allows the studying of the sample and the different processes in vitro or in vivo. 1D, 2D or 3D imaging can be undertaken. MRI is nowadays most widely used in medicine as a clinical diagnostic tool, but has still seen limited application in the food and pharmaceutical sciences. The different imaging pulse sequences of MRI allow to image the processes that take place in a wide scale range from ms (dissolution of compact tablets) to hours (hydration of drug delivery systems) for mobile as well as for rigid spins, usually protons. The paper gives examples of MRI application of in vitro imaging of pharmaceutical dosage based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose which have focused on water-penetration, diffusion, polymer swelling, and drug release, characterized with respect to other physical parameters such as pH and the molecular weight of polymer. Tetracycline hydrochloride was used as a model drug. NMR imaging of density distributions and fast kinetics of the dissolution behavior of compact tablets is presented for paracetamol tablets.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bacterial Meningoencephalitis in a Foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Viu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in equidae suffering meningoencephalitis (ME has not been described. The objective of this paper is to describe brain MRI findings in a foal with bacterial ME. A five-month-old, 200 kg bwt Arabian filly was referred with a history of abnormal mental status and locomotion. The filly was recumbent and obtunded, and pupillary light reflexes were sluggish, and oculocephalic movements were normally present. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral optic neuritis. Hematology revealed leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed neutrophilic pleocytosis with intracellular bacteria. On brain MRI, there were multifocal cortical areas of mild hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI affecting both hemispheres. The lesions had ill-delineated margins, and there was loss of differentiation between gray and white matter. Diffuse hyperintensity was also identified in the left cerebellar cortex on T2WI. Neither mass effect nor cerebral midline shift were identified. On FLAIR images, the lesions were also hyperintense and, in some areas, they seemed to coalescence to form diffuse cortical areas of hyperintensity. The MRI findings described were similar to the MRI features described in cases of humans and small animals with ME. Brain MRI can be a useful diagnostic tool in foals and small-sized equidae with intracranial disease.

  1. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.; Moster, M.L.; Sedwick, L.A.; Quisling, R.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Jr.; Protzko, E.E.; Schiffman, J. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence of both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Adam P; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I

    2013-08-28

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment.

  3. Tilted resonators in a triangular elastic lattice: chirality, Bloch waves and negative refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Tallarico, Domenico; Movchan, Alexander B; Colquitt, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    We consider a vibrating triangular mass-truss lattice whose unit cell contains a resonator of a triangular shape. The resonators are connected to the triangular lattice by trusses. Each resonator is tilted, i.e. it is rotated with respect to the triangular lattice's unit cell through an angle $\\vartheta_0$. This geometrical parameter is responsible for the emergence of a resonant mode in the Bloch spectrum for elastic waves and strongly affects the dispersive properties of the lattice. Additionally, the tilting angle $\\vartheta_0$ triggers the opening of a band gap at a Dirac-like point. We provide a physical interpretation of these phenomena and discuss the dynamical implications on elastic Bloch waves. The dispersion properties are used to design a structured interface containing tilted resonators which exhibit negative refraction and focussing, as in a "flat elastic lens".

  4. A Lateral Differential Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on SOI-Glass Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Xing, Yonghao; Wang, Yanshuang; Chen, Jian; Chen, Deyong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a resonant pressure microsensor based on SOI-glass wafer-level vacuum packaging. The SOI-based pressure microsensor consists of a pressure-sensitive diaphragm at the handle layer and two lateral resonators (electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection) on the device layer as a differential setup. The resonators were vacuum packaged with a glass cap using anodic bonding and the wire interconnection was realized using a mask-free electrochemical etching approach by selectively patterning an Au film on highly topographic surfaces. The fabricated resonant pressure microsensor with dual resonators was characterized in a systematic manner, producing a quality factor higher than 10,000 (~6 months), a sensitivity of about 166 Hz/kPa and a reduced nonlinear error of 0.033% F.S. Based on the differential output, the sensitivity was increased to two times and the temperature-caused frequency drift was decreased to 25%.

  5. A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-08-01

    More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with Im ω/TBH gg 1 (here ω and TBH are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequency of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).

  6. A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2016-08-30

    More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with ℑω/T{sub BH}≫1 (here ω and T{sub BH} are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequency of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).

  7. Theory of Optical Leaky-Wave Antenna Integrated in a Ring Resonator for Radiation Control

    CERN Document Server

    Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    The integration of a leaky-wave antenna with a ring resonator is presented using analytical guided wave models. The device consists of a ring resonator fed by a directional coupler, where the ring resonator path includes a leaky-wave antenna segment. The resonator integration provides two main advantages: the high-quality factor ensures effective control of radiation intensity by controlling the resonance conditions and the efficient radiation from a leaky-wave antenna even when its length is much smaller than the propagation length of the leaky wave. We devise an analytical model of the guided wave propagation along a directional coupler and the ring resonator path including the antenna and non-radiating segments. The trade-offs regarding the quality factor of resonance and the antenna efficiency of such a design is reported in terms of the coupler parameters, leaky-wave constant and radiation length. Finally a CMOS-compatible OLWA design suitable for the ring resonator integration is designed where Silicon ...

  8. Induced two-body scattering resonances from a square-well potential with oscillating depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson Smith, D.

    2016-03-01

    In systems of ultracold atoms, pairwise interactions can be resonantly enhanced by a new mechanism which does not rely upon a magnetic Feshbach resonance. In this mechanism, interactions are controlled by tuning the frequency of an oscillating parallel component of the magnetic field close to the Bohr frequency for the transition to a two-atom bound state. The real part of the s-wave scattering length a has a resonance as a function of the oscillation frequency near the Bohr frequency. The resonance parameters can be controlled by varying the amplitude of the oscillating field. The amplitude also controls the imaginary part of a which arises predominantly because the oscillating field converts atom pairs into molecules. For the case of a shallow bound state in the scattering channel, the dimensionless resonance parameters are universal functions of the dimensionless oscillation amplitude.

  9. Resonance of a Metal Drop under the Effect of Amplitude-Modulated High Frequency Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiahong; Lei, Zuosheng; Zhu, Hongda; Zhang, Lijie; Magnetic Hydrodynamics(Siamm) Team; Magnetic Mechanics; Engineering(Smse) Team

    2016-11-01

    The resonance of a sessile and a levitated drop under the effect of high frequency amplitude-modulated magnetic field (AMMF) is investigated experimentally and numerically. It is a new method to excite resonance of a metal drop, which is different from the case in the presence of a low-frequency magnetic field. The transient contour of the drop is obtained in the experiment and the simulation. The numerical results agree with the experimental results fairly well. At a given frequency and magnetic flux density of the high frequency AMMF, the edge deformations of the drop with an azimuthal wave numbers were excited. A stability diagram of the shape oscillation of the drop and its resonance frequency spectrum are obtained by analysis of the experimental and the numerical data. The results show that the resonance of the drop has a typical character of parametric resonance. The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51274237 and 11372174).

  10. A review: aluminum nitride MEMS contour-mode resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunhong, Hou; Meng, Zhang; Guowei, Han; Chaowei, Si; Yongmei, Zhao; Jin, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Over the past several decades, the technology of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) has advanced. A clear need of miniaturization and integration of electronics components has had new solutions for the next generation of wireless communications. The aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS contour-mode resonator (CMR) has emerged and become promising and competitive due to the advantages of the small size, high quality factor and frequency, low resistance, compatibility with integrated circuit (IC) technology, and the ability of integrating multi-frequency devices on a single chip. In this article, a comprehensive review of AlN MEMS CMR technology will be presented, including its basic working principle, main structures, fabrication processes, and methods of performance optimization. Among these, the deposition and etching process of the AlN film will be specially emphasized and recent advances in various performance optimization methods of the CMR will be given through specific examples which are mainly focused on temperature compensation and reducing anchor losses. This review will conclude with an assessment of the challenges and future trends of the CMR. Project supported by National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61274001, 61234007, 61504130), the Nurturing and Development Special Projects of Beijing Science and Technology Innovation Base's Financial Support (No. Z131103002813070), and the National Defense Science and Technology Innovation Fund of CAS (No. CXJJ-14-M32).

  11. Cybernetic Control in a Supply Chain: Wave Propagation and Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Dozier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The cybernetic control and management of production can be improved by an understanding of the dynamics of the supply chains for the production organizations. This paper describes an attempt to better understand the dynamics of a linear supply chain through the application of the normal mode analysis technique of physics. A model is considered in which an organization's response to a perturbation from the steady state is affected by the inertia which the company naturally exhibits. This inertia determines how rapidly an organization can respond to deviations from the steady state of its own inventories and those of the two organizations immediately preceding and following it in the chain. The model equations describe the oscillatory phenomena of the naturally occurring normal modes in the chain, in which waves of deviations from the steady state situation travel forward and backwards through the chain. It would be expected that the most effective cybernetic control occurs when resonant interventions cause either amplification or damping of the deviations from the steady state.

  12. Mechanical Properties of a Primary Cilium Measured by Resonant Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Andrew

    Primary cilia are ubiquitous mammalian cellular substructures implicated in an ever-increasing number of regulatory pathways. The well-established `ciliary hypothesis' states that physical bending of the cilium (for example, due to fluid flow) initiates signaling cascades, yet the mechanical properties of the cilium remain incompletely measured, resulting in confusion regarding the biological significance of flow-induced ciliary mechanotransduction. In this work we measure the mechanical properties of a primary cilium by using an optical trap to induce resonant oscillation of the structure. Our data indicate 1), the primary cilium is not a simple cantilevered beam, 2), the base of the cilium may be modeled as a nonlinear rotatory spring, the linear spring constant `k' of the cilium base calculated to be (4.6 +/- 0.62)*10-12 N/rad and nonlinear spring constant ` α' to be (-1 +/- 0.34) *10-10 N/rad2 , and 3) the ciliary base may be an essential regulator of mechanotransduction signalling. Our method is also particularly suited to measure mechanical properties of nodal cilia, stereocilia, and motile cilia, anatomically similar structures with very different physiological functions.

  13. A 77-118 GHz RESONANCE-FREE SEPTUM POLARIZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiueh, Tzihong; Teng, Hsiao-Feng, E-mail: chiuehth@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 106 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of polarized radiation often reveal specific physical properties of emission sources, such as the strengths and orientations of magnetic fields offered by synchrotron radiation and Zeeman line emission, and the electron density distribution caused by free-free emission. Polarization-capable, millimeter/sub-millimeter telescopes are normally equipped with either septum polarizers or ortho-mode transducers (OMT) to detect polarized radiation. Though the septum polarizer is limited to a significantly narrower bandwidth than the OMT, it possesses advantageous features unparalleled by the OMT when it comes to determining astronomical polarization measurements. We design an extremely wide-band circular waveguide septum polarizer, covering 42% bandwidth, from 77 GHz to 118 GHz, without any undesired resonance, challenging the conventional bandwidth limit. Stokes parameters, constructed from the measured data between 77 GHz and 115 GHz, show that the leakage from I to Q and U is below ±2%, and the Q – U mutual leakage is below ±1%. Such a performance is comparable to other modern polarizers, but the bandwidth of this polarizer can be at least twice as wide. This extremely wide-band design removes the major weakness of the septum polarizer and opens up a new window for future astronomical polarization measurements.

  14. A 77-118 GHz Resonance-free Septum Polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiueh, Tzihong; Teng, Hsiao-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of polarized radiation often reveal specific physical properties of emission sources, such as the strengths and orientations of magnetic fields offered by synchrotron radiation and Zeeman line emission, and the electron density distribution caused by free-free emission. Polarization-capable, millimeter/sub-millimeter telescopes are normally equipped with either septum polarizers or ortho-mode transducers (OMT) to detect polarized radiation. Though the septum polarizer is limited to a significantly narrower bandwidth than the OMT, it possesses advantageous features unparalleled by the OMT when it comes to determining astronomical polarization measurements. We design an extremely wide-band circular waveguide septum polarizer, covering 42% bandwidth, from 77 GHz to 118 GHz, without any undesired resonance, challenging the conventional bandwidth limit. Stokes parameters, constructed from the measured data between 77 GHz and 115 GHz, show that the leakage from I to Q and U is below ±2%, and the Q - U mutual leakage is below ±1%. Such a performance is comparable to other modern polarizers, but the bandwidth of this polarizer can be at least twice as wide. This extremely wide-band design removes the major weakness of the septum polarizer and opens up a new window for future astronomical polarization measurements.

  15. A new Skyrme energy density functional for a better description of spin-isospin resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Maza, X., E-mail: xavier.roca.maza@mi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colò, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Li-Gang [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, ITP, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Sagawa, H. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Center for Mathematics and Physics, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan); RIKEN, Nishina Center, Wako, 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    A correct determination of the isospin and spin-isospin properties of the nuclear effective interaction should lead to an accurate description of the Gamow-Teller resonance (GT), the Spin Dipole Resonance (SDR), the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) or the Antianalog Giant Dipole Resonance (AGDR), among others. A new Skyrme energy density functional named SAMi is introduced with the aim of going a step forward in setting the bases for a more precise description of spin-isospin resonances [1, 2]. In addition, we will discuss some new features of our analysis on the AGDR in {sup 208}Pb [3] as compared with available experimental data on this resonance [4, 5, 6], and on the GDR [7]. Such study, guided by a simple yet physical pocket formula, has been developed by employing the so called SAMi-J family of systematically varied interactions. This set of interactions is compatible with experimental data for values of the symmetry energy at saturation J and slope parameter L falling in the ranges 31−33 MeV and 75−95 MeV, respectively.

  16. Triply-resonant Continuous Wave Parametric Source with a Microwatt Pump

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Aude; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Debuisschert, Thierry; Lian, Jin; Sokolov, Sergey; Mosk, Allard P; de Rossi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a nanophotonic parametric light source with a record high normalized conversion efficiency of $3\\times 10^6\\, W^{-2}$, owing to resonantly enhanced four wave mixing in coupled high-Q photonic crystal resonators. The rate of spontaneously emitted photons reaches 14 MHz.

  17. Nuclear Tuning and Detuning of the Electron Spin Resonance in a Quantum Dot: Theoretical Consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danon, J.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    2008-01-01

    We study nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot close to the conditions of electron spin resonance. We show that at a small frequency mismatch, the nuclear field detunes the resonance. Remarkably, at larger frequency mismatch, its effect is opposite: The nuclear system is bistable, and in one of the

  18. Maturation of limbic regions in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and structural magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Finian M; Page, Lisa; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Bolton, Patrick; Sharma, Ajay; Baird, Gillian; Daly, Eileen; Hallahan, Brian; Conroy, Ronán M; Foy, Catherine; Curran, Sarah; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2010-11-30

    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, including Asperger syndrome) may have developmental abnormalities in the amygdala-hippocampal complex (AHC). However, in vivo, age-related comparisons of both volume and neuronal integrity of the AHC have not yet been carried out in people with Asperger syndrome (AS) versus controls. We compared structure and metabolic activity of the right AHC of 22 individuals with AS and 22 healthy controls aged 10-50 years and examined the effects of age between groups. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) to measure the volume of the AHC, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr), myo-inositol (mI) and choline (Cho). The bulk volume of the amygdala and the hippocampus did not differ significantly between groups, but there was a significant difference in the effect of age on the hippocampus in controls. Compared with controls, young (but not older) people with AS had a significantly higher AHC concentration of NAA and a significantly higher NAA/Cr ratio. People with AS, but not controls, had a significant age-related reduction in NAA and the NAA/Cr ratio. Also, in people with AS, but not controls, there was a significant relationship between concentrations of choline and age so that choline concentrations reduced with age. We therefore suggest that people with AS have significant differences in neuronal and lipid membrane integrity and maturation of the AHC.

  19. Fermion localization and resonances on a deSitter thick brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xiao; Yang, Jie; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Fu, Chun-E.; Duan, Yi-Shi

    2009-09-01

    In C. A. S. Almeida, R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., and A. R. Gomes, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 125022 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.125022, the simplest Yukawa coupling ηΨ¯ϕχΨ was considered for a two-scalar-generated Bloch brane model. Fermionic resonances for both chiralities were obtained, and their appearance is related to branes with internal structure. Inspired on this result, we investigate the localization and resonance spectrum of fermions on a one-scalar-generated de Sitter thick brane with a class of scalar-fermion couplings ηΨ¯ϕkΨ with positive odd integer k. A set of massive fermionic resonances for both chiralities is obtained when provided large coupling constant η. We find that the masses and lifetimes of left and right chiral resonances are almost the same, which demonstrates that it is possible to compose massive Dirac fermions from the left and right chiral resonances. The resonance with lower mass has longer lifetime. For a same set of parameters, the number of resonances increases with k and the lifetime of the lower level resonance for larger k is much longer than the one for smaller k.

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and the brain: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie S M; Wu, Sharon L; Webb, Sarah E; Gluskin, Katie; Yew, D T

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is employed in many behavior analysis studies, with blood oxygen level dependent- (BOLD-) contrast imaging being the main method used to generate images. The use of BOLD-contrast imaging in fMRI has been refined over the years, for example, the inclusion of a spin echo pulse and increased magnetic strength were shown to produce better recorded images. Taking careful precautions to control variables during measurement, comparisons between different specimen groups can be illustrated by fMRI imaging using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Differences have been observed in comparisons of active and resting, developing and aging, and defective and damaged brains in various studies. However, cognitive studies using fMRI still face a number of challenges in interpretation that can only be overcome by imaging large numbers of samples. Furthermore, fMRI studies of brain cancer, lesions and other brain pathologies of both humans and animals are still to be explored. PMID:28144401