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Sample records for 99mtechnetium-diethylene triamine pentacetic

  1. Detection of diaphragmatic disruptions by peritoneoscintigraphy using technetium-99M diethylene-triamine pentacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraperitoneal injection of a selected radiopharmaceutical results in the diffusion of radioactive material throughout the peritoneum. A diaphragmatic injury should theoretically result in the diffusion of the radioactive material into the chest. To test this hypothesis, Technetium-99m diethylene-triamine pentacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) was administered intraperitoneally by either direct needle injection or catheter into 18 rabbits. Four of the rabbits served as controls and did not have any diaphragmatic injury. Fourteen rabbits had surgically induced diaphragmatic tears of varying size (1/4 to 1 cm) after thoracotomy. Four of the 14 rabbits were dropped from the study because they had inadequate peritoneal injections of the radiopharmaceutical. The remaining ten rabbits showed peritoneoscintigraphic evidence of diaphragmatic injury either by showing passage of the radiotracer into the chest, demonstrating the site of injury as a focal region of increased radiotracer uptake, or showing both of these features. Peritoneoscintigraphy appears to be a potentially useful modality in the detection of diaphragmatic injury

  2. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... coco acid triamine condensate, poly-car-box-ylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-446) is subject to...

  3. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using 99mtechnetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery

  4. Glycidyl methacrylate macroporous copolymer grafted with diethylene triamine as sorbent for Reactive Black 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandić Zvjezdana P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, macroporous glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer functionalized with diethylene triamine [PGME-deta], was evaluated as Reactive Black 5 (RB5 sorbent. Batch RB5 removal from aqueous solution by PGME-deta was investigated by varying pH, contact time, sorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature. The sorption is pH sensitive having maximum at pH 2 (dye removal of 85%, decreasing with the increase of pH (dye removal of 24% at pH=11 after 60 min. Sorption kinetics was fitted to chemical-reaction and particle-diffusion models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Mckay models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model accurately predicted the RB5 amount sorbed under all investigated operating conditions, while the intraparticle diffusion was the dominant rate-limiting mechanism. The diffusion mechanism was more prevalent with the decrease in temperature and the increase in concentration. The isotherm data was best fitted with the Langmuir model, indicating homogeneous distribution of active sites on PGME-deta and monolayer sorption, with the maximum sorption capacity of 353 mg g-1. The calculated sorption rates improved with increasing temperature and an activation energy close to 40 kJ mol-1 was determined, suggesting that chemisorption was also rate-controlling. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009, br. TR 37021 i br. III 45001

  5. Use of gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid, as measured by ELISA, in the determination of glomerular filtration rates in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sox, Erika M; Chiotti, Ruthanne; Goldstein, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a commercially available assay for gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) for use in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cats (Gd-DTPA GFR) with a wide range of GFRs. Eighteen adult cats (11 healthy and seven with chronic kidney disease) were included. Plasma concentrations of Gd-DTPA following intravenous injection were measured with an ELISA kit (FIT-GFR). Results for Gd-DTPA GFR were compared with simultaneously obtained values for plasma clearance of iohexol (iohexol GFR), plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine concentrations. A negative correlation existed between iohexol GFR and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. A positive correlation existed between Gd-DTPA GFR and iohexol GFR. There was no correlation between Gd-DTPA GFR and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. In this study plasma clearance of Gd-DTPA assayed by FIT-GFR did not appear to provide a sufficiently accurate estimation of GFR in cats when compared with plasma clearance of iohexol, and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. PMID:20724186

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Chiral Dendrimer-Triamine-Coordinated Gd-MRI Contrast Agents Evaluated by in Vivo MRI and Estimated by in Vitro QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Miyake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we developed novel chiral dendrimer-triamine-coordinated Gd-MRI contrast agents (Gd-MRI CAs, which showed longitudinal relaxivity (r1 values about four times higher than that of clinically used Gd-DTPA (Magnevist®, Bayer. In our continuing study of pharmacokinetic differences derived from both the chirality and generation of Gd-MRI CAs, we found that the ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to circulate within the body can be directly evaluated by in vitro MRI (7 T. In this study, the association constants (Ka of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to bovine serum albumin (BSA, measured and calculated with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM in vitro, were found to be an extremely easy means for evaluating the body-circulation ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs. The Ka values of S-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs were generally greater than those of R-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs, which is consistent with the results of our previous MRI study in vivo.

  7. Synthesis and study of ruthenium(3) complexes with 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine-N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexaacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reaction of K2Ru(H2O)Cl5 with 1, 3, 5-triazine-2, 4, 6-triamine-N, N, N', N', N'', N)) - hexaacetate complexone complexes with the ratio Ru:L=2:1-Rusub(2)(Hsub(2)L)(Hsub(2)O)sub(4)Clsub(n) (n5(Ru2(H3L)Cl8)x6KCl (2) and also with Ru:L=1:1 - K4Na(RuLCl(OH)xH2O)x5.5H2O(0.5NaCl) (3) ratio are synthesized. Basing on the data of IR-spectra, pH-titration and X-ray electron spectra it is suggested that L in 1, 2 and 3 is coordinated with N, O atoms of iminodiacetate groups being in 1 and 2 bridge ligand. 1 complex is insoluble in water, contains fractional number of Cl ions, has low magnetic moment that testifies to its polymeric structure. Ru2O3 (1), Ru2O3, NaCl, KCl (2) and K2Ru4O4, Na2O, K2O (3) are results of complexonate thermolysis

  8. The APE nebuliser - a new delivery system for the alveolar targeting of particulate technetium 99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the validation of a new delivery system - aerosol production equipment (known by the acronym APE), which generates a particulate aerosol of technetium 99m diehtylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) with a mass-median aerodynamic diameter of 0.35 μm and a geometric standard deviation of 1.8. Twenty subjects were studied; in group 1 were 12 healthy men with normal spirometry; in group 2 were 8 men with AIDS who had mildly abnormal lung function following an episode of pneumocystic pneumonia-spirometry FEV1 3.08 (0.73) L, FVC 4.83 (0.82) L [mean (SD)]. The APE nebulizer was used to form a particulate aerosol with 200 MBq of 99mTc DTPA, which was collected in a 35 l reservoir of air, which was subsequently inhaled. The mean (SD) inhalation time was 4.7 (0.44) min. The output of the nebulizer (% of activity inhaled) was 82%. Using planar imaging, the penetration index (right lung) in group 1 was 0.93 (0.18), mean (SD), and in group 2 it was 0.91 (0.12). There was virtually no tracheal deposition and extrapulmonary deposition (oropharynx and stomach) was less than 5% of the aerosol delivered. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies carried out in five patients from group 1 confirmed homogeneous intrapulmonary deposition of 99mTc-DTPA. In view of the excellent intrapulmonary deposition of 99mTc-DTPA produced by the APE nebulizer, it may provide an alternative to conventional ventilation studies using radioactive gases. (orig.)

  9. Preparation of a chelating flocculant grafted with diethylene triamine and its performance in the removal of mercury%二乙烯三胺接枝螯合絮凝剂的制备及其除汞性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建; 闫英桃; 候兴汉

    2009-01-01

    以聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)、甲醛、二乙烯三胺(DETA)为原料,按照Mannich反应机理制备部分胺化接枝型螯合絮凝剂(CFA),并对其去除水中汞的性能进行了研究.同时,实验考察了螫合絮凝剂合成及从含汞废水中除汞的最佳条件.结果表明,基于在聚丙烯酰胺分子长链上引人具有整合作用的基团,所得的蟹合絮凝剂既具有捕捉Hg~(2+)的螯合作用又具有絮凝作用,对含汞8.1mg·L~(-1)的模拟废水,按0.020%的投加量(絮凝剂与废水质量比),在搅拌速度80~100r·min~(-1)、搅拌时间15min、沉降时间10min的条件下,进行絮凝沉淀处理后,可去除99.5%的汞,除汞效果明显,处理后的水可达到国家排放标准.因此,螯合絮凝剂可用于低浓度含汞废水的处理.同时,该螫合絮凝刑具有合成工艺简单、除汞快速、操作简便等特点,可望成为一种新型、低成本含汞废水处理材料.%A novel and low-cost method to remove mercury from wastewater is obtained. Based on the Mannich-Reaction, a chelating flocculant grafted with diethylene triamine has been prepared from polyacrylamide (PAM) , formaldehyde and diethylcne triamine (DETA). Use of the prepared flocculant to remove mercury from wastewater was studied. The optimal conditions for synthesizing the flocculant and using it to remove mercury were determined.The results show that the as-obtained flocculant possessed good flocculation and mercury capture due to the introduction of the chelating functional group grafted on the long chain of PAM. For wastewater containing 8.1 mg·L~(-1) mercury, 99.5% of mercury was removed from water under the following conditions: added floeculant volumetric concentration 0. 020% ; stirring rate 80 -100 r·min~(-1) ; stirring time 15 min ; and sedimentation time 10 rain.The treated water reached the national standard for wastewatcr released to rivers.

  10. Exploitation of the size-exclusion effect of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography for the direct analysis of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid in therapeutic monoclonal antibody formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jason Z; Liao, Karen; Wang, George; Haby, Thomas; Bolgar, Mark S

    2016-07-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are being widely studied for the treatment of cancers and other diseases. The mAb is typically in a solution formulation and administered as an intravenous infusion. Ready-to-use solutions are favored for their clinical convenience but they can potentially suffer from a shorter shelf life due to accelerated rates of some forms of degradation such as oxidation, relative to lyophilized formulations. To improve stability, the chelating agent diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is often used at very low concentrations in biologics formulations to prevent oxidation induced by metal ions. Because of its low concentration and susceptibility to changes in concentration during stability study or processing, the measurement of DTPA levels during formulation and process development is critical. In response to this need we developed a platform reversed-phase HPLC method that allows for the rapid and direct determination of DPTA concentrations which does not require the prior removal of mAbs in formulation samples. The method exploits the "size exclusion effect" of C18 columns with narrow pore sizes (90-120Å) to elute large mAb at the void volume, enabling direct injections of mAb samples for quantitation of DTPA. The method was found to be suitable for the analysis of DTPA in the range of 2-20μg/mL across multiple drug formulations containing different therapeutic mAb and antibody drug conjugates. The method was successfully validated for specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, and robustness. PMID:27295965

  11. 3-Nitrophenol–1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sangeetha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C3H6N6·2C6H5NO3, contains one melamine and two 3-nitrophenol molecules. The mean planes of the 3-nitrophenol molecules are almost orthogonal to the plane of melamine, making dihedral angles of 82.77 (4 and 88.36 (5°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via O—H...N, N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The crystal also features weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.9823 (9 Å].

  12. A novel electrochemiluminescent immunosensor based on the quenching effect of aminated graphene on nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing; Han, Tongqian; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Tao; Pang, Xuehui [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Li, Yueyun [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Wei, Qin, E-mail: sdjndxwq@163.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-08-19

    Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) with an average diameter of 2 nm were synthesized by carbonization of diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA). The simple prepared N-CQDs showed excellent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) property and were used as luminophors to fabricate a sandwich-type ECL immunosensor. Aminated graphene (NH{sub 2}-G) was also synthesized and used as a label of secondary antibody. The labeled NH{sub 2}-G could effectively quench the ECL of N-CQDs modified on electrodes due to ECL resonance energy transfer (ERET). Immunological recognition which induced ECL quenching enabled the quantitative determination of biomarkers. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was selected as a model analyte to investigate the analytical performance of the proposed immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between ECL intensity and the logarithm of AFP concentration was obtained in the range of 0.01–100 ng mL{sup −1} with the detection limit of 3.3 pg mL{sup −1}. The proposed ECL immunosensor showed good stability, acceptable selectivity and reproducibility. - Highlights: • ECL behavior of N-CQDs was investigated. • NH{sub 2}-G for quenching N-CQDs emission was investigated. • The linearly range of the immunosensor for AFP was 0.01 ng/mL–100 ng/mL.

  13. Ozone exposure increases respiratory epithelial permeability in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown to cause an increase in the permeability of the respiratory epithelium in animals. We used inhaled aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) to investigate whether human respiratory epithelial permeability is similarly affected by exposure to ozone. In a randomized, crossover double-blinded study, 8 healthy, nonsmoking young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise (minute ventilation = 66.8 L/min). SRaw and FVC were measured before and at the end of exposures. Seventy-five minutes after the exposures, the pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was measured by sequential posterior lung imaging with a computer-assisted gamma camera. Ozone exposure caused respiratory symptoms in all 8 subjects and was associated with a 14 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM) decrement in FVC (p less than 0.001) and a 71 +/- 22% increase in SRaw (p = 0.04). Compared with the air exposure day, 7 of the 8 subjects showed increased /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance after the ozone exposure, with the mean value increasing from 0.59 +/- 0.08 to 1.75 +/- 0.43%/min (p = 0.03). These data show that ozone exposure sufficient to produce decrements in the pulmonary function of human subjects also causes an increase in /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

  14. Synthesis and properties of , , '-tris-(2-ethoxy-naphthalenen-1-yl)−, , ' triphenylbenzene 1, 3, 5-triamine for dye sensitized solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siji Mathew; Karickal R Haridas

    2012-02-01

    New starburst ethoxy naphthylamine is synthesized using multi-step organic reactions. The synthesized compound is characterized using UV-Visible, FT–IR and NMR spectrometric techniques. The thermal and electrochemical property of the compound was studied using DSC and cyclic voltammetry. Using this compound and a natural dye, organic dye sensitized solid state solar cell was fabricated and the performance analysed.

  15. Assessment of alveolar epithelial permeability in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using 99mTc-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetate) aerosol inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate alveolar epithelial damage in PSS, we studied pulmonary epithelial permeability by measuring the clearance of inhaled 99mTc-DTPA aerosol and performing thin slice CT scan, pulmonary function tests and right heart catheterization in 28 patients with PSS. The 99mTc-DTPA clearance rate (kep value) in PSS was greater than in 11 non-smoking normal subjects (18.2±7.63x10-3/min vs. 9.12±0.77x10-3/min, p2. In contrast, the kep value showed significant correlations with %DLco (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide), extent of interstitial lesions evaluated by CT scan (CT score), and mean pulmonary artery pressure. On the other hand, the kep value was high in some patients with normal CT scan and normal %DLco. These findings indicate that pulmonary interstitial lesions in PSS are accompanied by alveolar epithelial damage, and that the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA may be an early predictor of interstitial change. (author)

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and inhibitory activity against bactria and fungi of acyclic and macrocyclic transition metal complexes containing a triamine coumarine Schiff base ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hussein, A. A.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Two series of new mono and binuclear complexes with a Schiff base ligand derived from the condensation of 3-acetylcoumarine and diethylenetriamine, in the molar ratio 2:1 have been prepared. The ligand was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, 1H-NMR and mass spectra. The reaction of the Schiff base ligand with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and oxovanadium(IV) lead to mono or binuclear species of cyclic or macrocyclic complexes, depending on the mole ratio of metal to ligand and as well as on the method of preparation. The Schiff base ligand behaves as a cyclic bidentate, tetradendate or pentaentadentae ligand. The formation of macrocyclic complexes depends significantly on the dimension of the internal cavity, the rigidity of the macrocycles, the nature of its donor atoms and on the complexing properties of the anion involved in the coordination. Electronic spectra and magnetic moments of the complexes indicate that the geometries of the metal centers are either square pyramidal or octahedral for acyclic or macro-cyclic complexes. The structures are consistent with the IR, UV-visible, ESR, 1H-NMR, mass spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic moment measurements. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi. Most of the complexes exhibit mild antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  17. Clinical studies of alveolar-capillary permeability using technetium-99m DTPA aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluble radioaerosols such as technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentacetate (DTPA) permit simple quantitative studies of alveolar-capillary permeability to be performed, since the submicronic aerosols are deposited mainly at the lung periphery and are cleared across the alveolar-capillary membrane. Regional alterations in permeability can also be noted using this radionuclide technique. We have measured the pulmonary epithelial permeability in normal subjects and the alteration in smokers, glue-sniffers, patients with inhalation burns, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and patients with lung metastases from thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine 131I. In the normal volunteers, the time taken for 50% of inhaled 99mTc DTPA to be cleared from the lungs (T1/2) was 66 minutes±1 sd of 12 mins. The smokers had a mean T1/2 of 20 mins±1 sd 4 min. In the hard-core glue-sniffing group, the majority were smokers who had stopped smoking and glue-sniffing for periods varying from 1 day to 42 days, and it was possible to note the changes in clearance times against period of abstinence. In the patients with inhalation burns, there was change in lung clearance arising from pulmonary epithelial damage; these patients showed increased rate of clearance (short T1/2) with mean T1/2 of 36 min±1 sd of 11 mins, while the retention images revealed regional lung damage in moderately severe inhalation burns. Twenty-four patients with COPD had inhalation scans done with Tc-99m tin colloid radioaerosol, and these images were compared with the perfusion lung scans done with 99mTc macroaggregated albumin (MAA); in general the perfusion images matched the defects noted in the inhalation scans. The 99mTc DTPA clearance rate in these patients was normal i.e. T1/2=78±14 mins. In the thyroid cancer patients with lung metastases, who had high doses of radioiodine treatment, the T1/2 values were normal or prolonged slightly, mean T1/2=76 min±23. (author)

  18. Application of estimated glomerular filtration rate formulae for different stages of chronic kidney disease in diabetes%肾小球滤过率预测公式在糖尿病合并慢性肾脏病不同分期中的适用性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙科; 荆春艳; 刘永菊; 王东; 王菊梅; 董林; 姜妍芳; 李素梅

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价肾小球滤过率(glomerular filtration rate,GFR)预测公式在糖尿病肾脏疾病(diabetic kidney disease,DKD)不同分期中的适用性.方法 收集274例住院2型糖尿病患者的临床资料.采用中国改良肾脏病膳食改善实验(modification of diet in renal disease,MDRD)公式、瑞金公式及慢性肾脏病流行病学合作研究(chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration,CKD-EPI)公式估算的肾小球滤过率(estimated glomerular filtration rate,eG-FR)与99m锝-二乙烯三胺五乙酸(99mTc-diethylene triamine pentacetic acid,99mTc-DTPA)肾动态显像检查双肾GFR(referred glomerular filtration rate,rGFR)作为参考标准比较.比较上述3公式在GFR正常组(A组)、降低组(B组)、慢性肾脏疾病组(C组)的适用性.结果 在A、B两组,瑞金公式和CKD-EPI公式间eGFR的偏差值及偏差绝对值百分数、30%及50%符合率的差异无统计学意义(均有P>0.05);2者较中国改良MDRD公式eGFR的偏差值、偏差绝对值百分数小,30%、50%符合率高,差异有统计学意义(均有P<0.05).C组,3公式的上述指标两两之间的差异均无统计学意义(均有P >0.05).Bland-Altman作图法显示,瑞金方程eGFR的一致性最好.结论 瑞金方程eGFR可能更适合于评估中国DKD患者的GFR,尤其是早期肾功能损害者.

  19. N4-phenyl modifications of N2-(2-hydroxyl)ethyl-6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamines enhance glucocerebrosidase inhibition by small molecules with potential as chemical chaperones for Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenwei; Zheng, Wei; Urban, Daniel J; Inglese, James; Sidransky, Ellen; Austin, Christopher P; Thomas, Craig J

    2007-11-01

    A series of 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamines were prepared and analyzed as inhibitors of glucocerebrosidase. Synthesis, structure activity relationships and the selectivity of chosen analogues against related sugar hydrolases enzymes are described.

  20. 49 CFR 176.84 - Other requirements for stowage and segregation for cargo vessels and passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 62 Stow “separated from” diborane. 63 Stow “separated from” diethylene triamine. 64 Stow “separated... tetrachloride. 137 For arsenic sulphides, Stow “separated from” acids. 138 Stow “Separated from” peroxides....

  1. New efficient ligand for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions running under air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per-Fredrik Larsson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new efficient ligand, N,N’’-dimethyldiethylene triamine (DMDETA, has been synthesized and evaluated for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions. The efficiency of the ligand was determined by kinetic methods. DMDETA proved to display efficiency similar to DMEDA and, in addition, the resulting catalyst was tolerant to air.

  2. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI in myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis focuses on one aspect of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for noninvasive screening of ischemic heart disease: the identification and quantification of acutely infarcted myocardium using gadolineum-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced T1-weighted MRI in a clinical and experimental setting. (author). 296 refs.; 34 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: Transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution of biogenic amines – the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm) - differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells. These amines are important for cell viability and their intracel...

  4. Polyimide Aerogels with Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for creating a three dimensional cross-linked polyimide structure includes dissolving a diamine, a dianhydride, and a triamine in a solvent, imidizing a polyamic acid gel by heating the gel, extracting the gel in a second solvent, supercritically drying the gel, and removing the solvent to create a polyimide aerogel.

  5. Evaluation in vitro and in rats of161Tb-DTPA-octreotide, a somatostatin analogue with potential for intraoperative scanning and radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong (Marcel); W.A.P. Breeman (Wouter); B.F. Bernard (Bert); E.J. Rolleman (Edgar); L.J. Hoflande (Leo); T.J. Visser (Ton); B. Setyono-Han (Buddy); W.H. Bakker (Willem); M. van der Pluijm (M.); E.P. Krenning (Eric)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe characteristics of terbium-161 diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) labelled octreotide with respect to specific binding to somatostatin (octreotide) receptors on rat brain cortex membranes, biological activity, uptake and excretion by isolated perfused rat livers and metabol

  6. Quantitative ventilation-perfusion lung scans in infants and children: utility of a submicronic radiolabeled aerosol to assess ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative assessment of regional pulmonary ventilation and perfusion provides useful information regarding lung function. Its use in infants and young children, however, has been minimal because of practical and technical limitations when the distribution of ventilation is assessed by radioactive gases. In 16 infants and children we used an inexpensive commercially available nebulizer to produce a submicronic aerosol labeled with 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriamine pentacetic acid to assess ventilation quantitatively, and intravenous injections of 99mtechnetium-labeled macroaggregates of albumin to assess pulmonary perfusion quantitatively. Studies were safely completed in both ambulatory and critically ill patients, including two premature infants who had endotracheal tubes in place for ventilatory support. No sedation or patient cooperation is required. This technique enables any department of nuclear medicine to measure regional pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in infants and children

  7. 99mTc-DTPA Renal Dynamic Imaging Method May Be Unsuitable To Be Used as the Reference Method in Investigating the Validity of CDK-EPI Equation for Determining Glomerular Filtration Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Peng; Huang, Jian-Min; LIU, XIAO-MEI; Wu, Wei-Jie; Pan, Li-Ping; Lin, Hai-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determined by 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging with those estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CDK-EPI) equation and to identify a more accurate measurement of GFR of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in clinical practice. Methods The GFR was determined simultaneously by 3 methods: (a) dual plasma sample clearance method (tGFR); (b) renal dynami...

  8. Mechanism of cleaving DNA through hydrolysis of a novel complex of Mg containing dien ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of metal complexes were designed and synthesized and a novel binuclear magnesium complex has been selected, namely [Mg2(dien)Cl(OH2)2]Cl2·H2O (dien=diethylene-triamine), which can cleave the plasmid pBR322 DNA effectively in close to physiological condition without adding any external materials.Through biological and chemical methods, especially the comparative experiments, we find the interaction between the complex and DNA belongs to hydrolytic mechanism.

  9. Transfer Hydrogenation of Acetophenone Catalyzed by in situ Generated 2,6-Bis(5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole- 3-yl)pyridine-ruthenium(Ⅱ) Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CETIN,Ahmet; DAYAN,Osman

    2009-01-01

    2,6-Bis(5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)pyridines (3, 4) were used for the first time as ligand in ruthe-nium catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone. The in situ prepared three-component system Ru(ll)/tridentate triamine ligands (3a-3d, 4a-4d) and KOH catalysed the transfer hydrogenation reaction of ace-tophenone in good yields under mild conditions.

  10. Biological and radiochemical quality control of indigenous 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological and radiochemical quality control of indigenous (Pinscan) diagnostic cold kits of Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP), Tin-colloid and Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) was performed in parallel with imported Amersham's kits (Amerscan). The results of radiochemical purity, sterility, apyrogenicity and biodistribution of indigenous (Pinscan) kits were good and quantitatively and qualitatively comparable to those obtained with Amersham's (Amerscan) imported kits. (author) 21 refs.; 8 tabs

  11. Evaluation in vitro and in rats of161Tb-DTPA-octreotide, a somatostatin analogue with potential for intraoperative scanning and radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, Marcel; Breeman, Wouter; Bernard, Bert; Rolleman, Edgar; Hoflande, Leo; Visser, Ton; Setyono-Han, Buddy; Willem BAKKER; Pluijm, M.; Krenning, Eric

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe characteristics of terbium-161 diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) labelled octreotide with respect to specific binding to somatostatin (octreotide) receptors on rat brain cortex membranes, biological activity, uptake and excretion by isolated perfused rat livers and metabolism in vivo in normal and tumour-bearing rats were determined and compared to those of indium-111 DTPA-octreotide. The results of the binding studies demonstrate that161Tb-DTPA-octreotide is a high...

  12. Structural alterations of human serum albumin caused by glycative and oxidative stressors revealed by circular dichroism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacelli, Fiammetta; Storace, Daniela; D'Arrigo, Cristina; Sanguineti, Roberta; Borghi, Roberta; Pacini, Davide; Furfaro, Anna L; Pronzato, Maria A; Odetti, Patrizio; Traverso, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of oxidative and glycative stressors to modify properties of human serum albumin (HSA) by analyzing markers of glycation (pentosidine) and oxidation (advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs)) and assessing fluorescence and circular dichroism. HSA was incubated for up to 21 days with ribose, ascorbic acid (AA) and diethylenetriamine pentacetate (DTPA) in various combinations in order to evaluate influences of these substances on the structure of HSA. Ribose was included as a strong glycative molecule, AA as a modulator of oxidative stress, and DTPA as an inhibitor of metal-catalyzed oxidation. Ribose induced a significant increase in pentosidine levels. AA and DTPA prevented the accumulation of pentosidine, especially at later time points. Ribose induced a mild increase in AOPP formation, while AA was a strong inducer of AOPP formation. Ribose, in combination with AA, further increased the formation of AOPP. DTPA prevented the AA-induced generation of AOPP. Ribose was also a potent inducer of fluorescence at 335nm ex/385nm em, which is typical of pentosidine. AA and DTPA prevented this fluorescence. Circular dichroism showed complex results, in which AA and DTPA were strong modifiers of the percentages of the alpha-helical structure of HSA, while ribose affected the structure of HSA only at later time points.

  13. MRI of retroperitoneal lesions using a rapid pulse sequence method and Gd-DTPA enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hideo; Yashiro, Naobumi; Iio, Masahiro; Mano, Isamu.

    1988-04-01

    13 retroperitoneal lesions were examined using a rapid pulse sequence method of MRI, which provided an image in 26 to 51 seconds during respiratory holding of the patients. Pulse sequence utilized was spin echo with TR = 100 to 200 msec and TE = 30 or 40 msec. Dynamic studies of ten of 13 cases were examined using Gd-DTPA (Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentacetic acid) at 0.05 mmol/kg for each patient. We scanned each patient using coronal or sagittal mode without misresistration by holding respiration. The results were as follows: 1) Our method well demonstrated normal adrenal gland surrounded with highly contrast fat tissue and could differentiate cotex and medulla of normal kidney. 2) Hemorrhagic parts in the tumor or the cyst could be more visualized than by X-ray CT. 3) Our method could well visualize tumors containing a lot of adipose tissue as high signal and bone or bone marrow as low signal. 4) Morphologic and kinetic features of adrenal and renal tumors were clearly obtained using dynamic studies of Gd-DTPA enhancement.

  14. Tc-99m DTPA scans in renal allograft rejection and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedroyc, W.; Taube, D.; Fogleman, I.; Neild, G.; Cameron, S.; Maisey, M.

    1986-11-01

    Renal allograft dysfunction arising from rejection or cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity can currently only be distinguished reliably by allograft biopsy. We have assessed Technetium (Tc)-99m diethylamine pentacetic acid (DTPA) scanning in 30 CsA-treated patients with allograft dysfunction. Scintigrams were performed during 20 biopsy-proved episodes of rejection and during 14 episodes of CsA nephrotoxicity. These results were compared with the scintigrams of 15 allografts showing stable function. Quantitative indices expressing allograft perfusion (flow index) and function (uptake index) derived from the DTPA scintigrams showed no significant differences between the groups of patients with rejection, CsA nephrotoxicity, or stable or improving function. Similarly, the flow and uptake indices of individual allografts obtained during periods of stable or improving function and then during episodes of dysfunction due to rejection or CsA nephrotoxicity did not significantly change. We conclude that Tc-99m DTPA scintigrams are of limited value in the management of allograft dysfunction in patients immunosuppressed with CsA.

  15. Synthesis and application of lactosylated, 99mTc chelating albumin for measurement of liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Martinez-Duncker, Ivan; Marty, Anne-Laure; Richard, Cyrille; Prigent, Alain; Moati, Frederic; Sarda-Mantel, Laure; Scherman, Daniel; Bessodes, Michel; Mignet, Nathalie

    2010-04-21

    Neogalactosylated and neolactosylated albumins are currently used as radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging the liver asialoglycoprotein receptors, which allows the quantification of hepatic liver function in various diseases and also in healthy liver transplant donors. We developed an original process for synthesizing a chelating neolactosylated human albumin using maleimidopropyl-lactose and maleimidopropyl-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) derivatives. The lactosylated protein (LACTAL) conjugate showed excellent liver uptake compared to nonlactosylated protein and a very high signal-to-noise ratio, based on functional assessment of biodistribution in mice using (99m)Tc-scintigraphy. PMID:20201600

  16. Estimating GFR in children with 99mTc-DTPA renography: a comparison with single-sample 51Cr-EDTA clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Møller, Michael L; Pfeifer, Andreas K;

    2010-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement by (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and blood sampling in children is usually cumbersome for the patient, parents and laboratory technicians. We have previously developed a method accurately estimating GFR in adults. The aim of the present...... study was to evaluate the accuracy of this non-invasive method in children. We calculated GFR from (99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) renography and compared with (51)Cr-EDTA plasma clearance of 29 children between the age of 1 month and 12 years (mean 4.7 years). The correlation...

  17. New technique of stereolithography to local curing in thermosensitive resins using CO2 laser

    OpenAIRE

    Munhoz, A. L. J.; Wagner, P. R. S.; Ierardi, M. A. C. F.; Kiel, A. E.; Scarparo, M. A. F.; Alien, S. D.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of thermosensitive resins used in thermal stereolithography is presented. The process of local curing through the application of infrared radiation, which has proved to be useful in a new technique for the making of prototypes by means of selective heating with CO2 laser (10.6μm), is studied. The ideal composition of the thermosensitive resins has proved to be 10 parts epoxy, 1.4 part diethylene triamine (the curing agent) and 0.7 pa...

  18. Difficult diagnosis and localization of focal nesidioblastosis: clinical implications of 68Gallium-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide PET scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Ri; Shin, Yong Chan; Cho, Young Min; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Han, Young Min; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-01-01

    Focal nesidioblastosis is a rare cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. Because it is difficult to localize and detect with current imaging modalities, nesidioblastosis is challenging for biliary-pancreatic surgeons. 68Gallium-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide PET scanning and 111indium-pentetreotide diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid octreotide scanning may be superior to conventional imaging modalities in determining the localization of nesidioblastosis. We report the successful surgical treatment of a 54-year-old woman with focal hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans, who experienced frequent hypoglycemic symptoms and underwent various diagnostic examinations with different results. PMID:27433465

  19. Difficult diagnosis and localization of focal nesidioblastosis: clinical implications of (68)Gallium-DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide PET scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Ri; Jang, Jin-Young; Shin, Yong Chan; Cho, Young Min; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Han, Young Min; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-07-01

    Focal nesidioblastosis is a rare cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. Because it is difficult to localize and detect with current imaging modalities, nesidioblastosis is challenging for biliary-pancreatic surgeons. (68)Gallium-DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide PET scanning and (111)indium-pentetreotide diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid octreotide scanning may be superior to conventional imaging modalities in determining the localization of nesidioblastosis. We report the successful surgical treatment of a 54-year-old woman with focal hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans, who experienced frequent hypoglycemic symptoms and underwent various diagnostic examinations with different results. PMID:27433465

  20. Alveolar epithelial permeability in bronchial asthma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate alveolar epithelial permeability (kep) in children with bronchial asthma, 99mTc-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetate) aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies were performed. There was no correlation between the kep value and the severity of asthma. On the other hand, out of 10 cases which had no aerosol deposition defect in the lung field, 4 showed high kep values on the whole lung field and 7 had high kep value areas, particularly apparent in the upper lung field. These results suggest that even when the central airway lesions are mild, severe damage exists in the alveolar region of the peripheral airway. (author)

  1. Photochemistry of phenazopyridine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, J; Gupta, A; Husain, A

    2006-09-01

    Phenazopyridine hydrochloride (1) is an azo dye with local analgesic and anaesthetic effects on the urinary tract. Its photochemistry was studied in different reaction media including the drug adsorbed on silica gel. This resulted in photochemical cyclodehydrogenation, reductive photodegradation and rearrangement of the drug molecule. Four major products were isolated and identified on the basis of IR, NMR and mass spectral studies. The products are: pyrido[3,4-c]cinnoline-2,4-diamine (2), N3-phenylpyridine-2,3,4,6-tetraamine (3), pyridine-2,3,6-triamine (4), 2,6-diamino-1-(4-aminophenyl)pyridin-4(1H)-one (5). PMID:17020148

  2. Pulmonary epithelial permeability in hyaline-membrane disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neonatal hyaline-membrane disease is complicated by pulmonary edema, yet left atrial pressures are normal. Alveolar-capillary-membrane permeability may therefore be increased. To assess pulmonary epithelial permeability, we measured the pulmonary clearance and half-life of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) on 31 occasions in 15 intubated premature infants with hyaline-membrane disease. Three infants with respiratory failure due to other diseases were studied on four occasions. All studies of infants with hyaline-membrane disease that were performed in the first 72 hours of life demonstrated a biphasic clearance curve with a rapid-phase half-life of 1.6 +/- 0.6 minutes (mean +/- S.D.). As these infants recovered, the curve became monophasic with a half-life of 56.0 +/- 32.1 minutes. Two infants remained dependent on oxygen and ventilator support and had persistent biphasic curves with a rapid-phase half-life of 1.5 +/- 0.7 minutes. All infants without hyaline-membrane disease had monophasic curves with a half-life of 65.4 +/- 33.6 minutes. Using a similar technique, we observed that newborn lambs and piglets have a monophasic pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (114 +/- 59 minutes in lambs and 52.5 +/- 16.3 minutes in piglets). We conclude that the lungs of neonates with hyaline-membrane disease are abnormally permeable to small solutes and that this abnormality persists in infants with subsequent chronic lung disease

  3. Polymorphism and spin crossover in mononuclear Fe(II) species containing new dipyridylamino-substituted s-triazine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Tamsyn M; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Neville, Suzanne M; Batten, Stuart R; Murray, Keith S

    2012-02-01

    Four new dipyridylamino-substituted s-triazine ligands DBB (N(2),N(2),N(4),N(4)-tetrabenzyl-N(6),N(6)-di(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine), DDB (N(2),N(2),N(4),N(4)-tetrabutyl-N(6),N(6)-di(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine), DCCl (6-chloro-N(2),N(2)-dicyclohexyl-N(4),N(4)-di(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and DDT (N(2),N(2),N(4),N(4)-tetraphenyl-N(6),N(6)-di(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine), have been incorporated into eight new, 0D Fe(II) compounds of type [Fe(II)(NCX)(2)(L)(2)]·Solvent (where NCX = NCS(-), NCSe(-) or N(CN)(2)(-)). The polymorphic compounds α-trans-[Fe(II)(NCS)(2)(DBB)(2)] (1) and β-trans-[Fe(II)(NCS)(2)(DBB)(2)] (2) display, respectively, a relatively abrupt, complete, one-step spin transition with T(½) ~ 170 K, and a more gradual, complete, one-step spin transition with T(½) ~ 300 K. Gradual, one-step spin transitions are observed for trans-[Fe(II)(N(CN)(2))(2)(DBB)(2)]·2CH(3)CH(2)OH (3) and trans-[Fe(II)(NCSe)(2)(DCCl)(2)]·2CH(3)OH (6) with T(½) ~ 280 K for both, while the one-step spin transition observed for a desolvated sample of trans-[Fe(II)(NCSe)(2)(DDB)(2)]·2CH(3)OH (4) is relatively abrupt, showing hysteresis with T(½↑) = 285 K and T(½↓) = 275 K. The compounds cis-[Fe(II)(NCS)(2)(DDB)(2)] (5) and trans-[Fe(II)(NCS)(2)(DDT)(2)]·4CH(2)Cl(2) (7) remain high spin, while structural data on trans-[Fe(II)(NCSe)(2)(DDT)(2)]·4CH(2)Cl(2) (8) suggests a spin transition at low temperatures. It is likely that distortion of the Fe(II)N(6) octahedron, intermolecular interactions and molecular conformation are crucial in deciding both the T(½) and abruptness of the spin transition for these species, although the nature of their influence varies. Variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction measurements on the polymorphs 1 and 2 reveal anisotropy in the unit cell parameters as the spin transition occurs. PMID:22143200

  4. Formation of a metal/epoxy resin interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interfaces between cross-linked polymers and metals play a significant role in fields like splicing and coating, metallization of plastics, microelectronics, micro system technology and nanotechnology. In this paper, we present investigations on the interface formation due to metallization (Au, Ag, Cu and Al) by evapouration of the highly cured epoxy resin system diglycidilether of bisphenol a (DGEBA)-diethylene triamine (DETA) with the focus on the structure formation at the interface. A combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a radiotracer technique was used to analyze the metal/epoxy interface. While a strong metal/epoxy interaction was found for Al, the noble metals Au, Ag and Cu grow in a Volmer-Weber mode due to an interplay of surface diffusion and metal cluster growth. Nevertheless, polymer bulk diffusion of these metals is negligible

  5. Addison’s Disease Patient Presenting with Cushing’s Syndrome Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Doğruk Ünal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old man with Addison’s disease, who was receiving replacement therapy with prednisolone, was admitted to our hospital due to findings of both hypocortisolism and hypercortisolism. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH was found to be high during and after withdrawal of prednisolone therapy. ACTH was not suppressed with 2 mg or 8 mg of dexamethasone. Gadolinium-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary showed hyperplasia or adenoma. Pituitary hyperplasia or adenoma with high ACTH level was considered to be the result of the insufficient therapy. The combination of hydrocortisone and bedtime dexamethasone reduced plasma ACTH levels and improved imaging findings. Since a reliable biomarker for monitoring the adequacy of replacement therapy has not yet been identified and current glucocorticoid replacement regimens do not mimic normal diurnal biorhythm of cortisol, some patients may require different glucocorticoid replacement regimens or formulas. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 15-8

  6. Anti-scaling agents in kraft pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felissia, F. E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation in the digester during kraft pulping represents a great problem in pulp mills. Scaling reduces pulping control and efficiency, increasing energy costs and leading to cleaning breakdowns, with subsequent losses in productivity. The kraft process promotes CaCO3 scaling due to high calcium ion and carbonate concentrations, as well as high alkalinity and temperature levels, which increase the speed with which liquors reach a state of supersaturation. This work examines the action of diethylene triamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid (DTPMPA, either alone or combined with commercial anti-scaling agents, as an inhibitor of calcium carbonate precipitation in the kraft pulping of Pinus taeda. The theoretical amount of calcium deposited in the digester was obtained by mass balance. Soluble calcium was stable throughout cooking when using the phosphonates alone or combined with anti-scaling agents. When adding only DTPMPA, calcium stays in the pulp, rather than forming deposits.

  7. Primary adenocarcinoma of ureter: A rare histopathological variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekshi Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary carcinoma of ureter is an uncommon malignancy. Of which, mostly are transitional cell carcinomas followed by squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas being the rarest histopathology encountered. We report a case of adenocarcinoma ureter in a middle-aged male along with its clinical scenario. A 62-year-old male, presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Computerized tomography urogram showed a soft tissue lesion at the right ureterovesical junction. Cystoscopic biopsy reported villous adenoma. Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan reported nonfunctioning right kidney. He underwent laparoscopic right nephroureterectomy, and histopathology reported adenocarcinoma of the right lower third of ureter, with positive distal and close radial margins. The patient received external beam radiation to the postoperative bed and lymph nodes, and he is disease-free till date.

  8. A Study on Some Copper(Ⅱ) Complexes of Polyaza Cryptandsand Planar Macrocycles-Synthesis, Characterization and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO, You-Liang; SHEN, Cheng-Yu; TANG, Yin-Yan; LUO, Qin-Hui; YU, Shu-Yan

    2001-01-01

    Two kinds of macrocyclic copper(Ⅱ) complexes were synthesized. One of them is composed of copper(Ⅱ) cryptates of ligands L1-L4 which are condensation products of 5-R-2methoxy-1,3-phenyldialdehyde (R= OCH3, L1) with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and 5-R-2-methothoxy-1, 3-phenyldialdehyde (R = CH3, L3) with tris(2-aminopropyi)amine as well as their reduced products of L1 and L3 (L2 and L4). The other is composed of two-dimensional macrocyclic copper(Ⅱ) complexcs of ligands L5-L8 of condensation products of diethylene triamine with 4-R-1-methoxy-2, 6-phenyldialdehyde (R = Cl,Br, CH3, OCH3). Therelationship between their structurcs and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was investigated.The results can provide some clues to the synthesis of SOD mimics.

  9. Contrast-enhanced fat saturation magnetic resonance imaging for studying the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis of the hips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We imaged 75 hips in 40 patients using fat saturation technique before and after intravenous injection of contrast (0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid, Gd-DTPA). Eighteen hips in 11 patients were determined to be osteonecrotic,either by pathologic or clinical examination. In the osteonecrotic hips, three distinct patterns of enhancement were found: (I) focal area outlined by brightly enhancing rim (7 hips); (II) diffuse enhancement in the femoral head and neck extending into the femoral shaft (3 hips); and (III) a combination of patterns I and II (8 hips). Our data support the hypothesis that early nontraumatic osteonecrosis is associated with hyperemia and/or an increase in capillary permeability rather than acute devascularization, and that diffuse marrow edema is the initial finding in early nontraumatic osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis of a Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Monolayer through Dynamic Imine Chemistry at the Air/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenyang; Shao, Feng; Szczerbiński, Jacek; McCaffrey, Ryan; Zenobi, Renato; Jin, Yinghua; Schlüter, A Dieter; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional covalent organic monolayer was synthesized from simple aromatic triamine and dialdehyde building blocks by dynamic imine chemistry at the air/water interface (Langmuir-Blodgett method). The obtained monolayer was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, which unambiguously confirmed the formation of a large (millimeter range), unimolecularly thin aromatic polyimine sheet. The imine-linked chemical structure of the obtained monolayer was characterized by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and the peak assignment was supported by spectra simulated by density functional theory. Given the modular nature and broad substrate scope of imine formation, the work reported herein opens up many new possibilities for the synthesis of customizable 2D polymers and systematic studies of their structure-property relationships.

  11. Evaluation of heart perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Fritz; Dirks, Christina G; Jensen, Gorm B;

    2004-01-01

    with acute transmural myocardial infarction were studied using a Turbo-fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI sequence to monitor the first pass of an extravascular contrast agent (CA), gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Quantitation of perfusion, expressed as Ki (mL/100 g/minute), in five......PURPOSE: To investigate the diagnostic ability of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) heart perfusion in acute heart patients, a fast, multislice dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequence was applied to patients with acute myocardial infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients...... was clearly beneficial in one case, but had no effect in the two other cases. Over the time-course of the study, normal perfusion values were not reestablished following thrombolytic treatment in all cases investigated. CONCLUSION: This study shows that quantitative MRI perfusion values can be obtained from...

  12. Evaluation of heart perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Dirks, Christina G;

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the diagnostic ability of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) heart perfusion in acute heart patients, a fast, multislice dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequence was applied to patients with acute myocardial infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients...... with acute transmural myocardial infarction were studied using a Turbo-fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI sequence to monitor the first pass of an extravascular contrast agent (CA), gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Quantitation of perfusion, expressed as Ki (mL/100 g/minute), in five...... acutely ill patients following acute myocardial infarction. The technique provides information on both the volume and severity of affected myocardial tissue, enabling the power of treatment regimes to be assessed objectively, and this approach should aid individual patient stratification and prognosis...

  13. Simulation of complex molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined evolution of the electronic structure softwares and computational capabilities makes quantum molecular dynamics simulations available for increasingly complex systems, up to several hundred atoms. Among the various ab initio techniques, Density Functional Theory (DFT) is very successful due to its important computational efficiency with respect to Hartree-Fock type approaches. Its combination with empirical treatments of the weak van der Waals interactions allows the simulation of equilibrium or dynamics properties of numerous systems of interest for the nuclear and defense industry. We present 3 direct applications of quantum molecular dynamics: the determination of the structure of the complex Pu(DTPA) ion where DTPA means diethylen-triamine-penta-acid, the calculation of the equation of state and the Hugoniot curve of TATB monocrystal. (authors)

  14. Easy and Efficient 111Indium Labeling of Long-Term Stored DTPA Conjugated Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Buch, Inge; Hesse, Birger

    2011-01-01

    -diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (cDTAP) was conjugated to a polyclonal immunoglobulin-G (IgG) in borate buffer, pH 8.2 at +4?C for 4 hours. Then the DTPA-conjugate was dialyzed against 50 mmol/l sodium citrate buffer saline, pH 6.0 and stored at -80° C in aliquots of 1 mg/0.5 ml. The DTPA-conjugate was labeled with 111In......-chloride in citrate buffer, pH 6. The labelling reaction was incubated at room temperature (RT) for 30 min and at +4?C for 90 min. Determination of labelling efficiency was performed using ITLC and an instant chromatography scanner equipped with a NaI crystal. The labelling efficiency of the DTPA...

  15. Easy and efficient (111)Indium labeling of long-term stored DTPA conjugated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Buch, Inge; Hesse, Birger

    2011-01-01

    -diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (cDTAP) was conjugated to a polyclonal immunoglobulin-G (IgG) in borate buffer, pH 8.2 at +4oC for 4 hours. Then the DTPA-conjugate was dialyzed against 50 mmol/l sodium citrate buffer saline, pH 6.0 and stored at -80o C in aliquots of 1 mg/0.5 ml. The DTPA-conjugate was labeled with 111In......-chloride in citrate buffer, pH 6. The labelling reaction was incubated at room temperature (RT) for 30 min and at +4oC for 90 min. Determi- nation of labelling efficiency was performed using ITLC and an instant chromatography scanner equipped with a NaI crystal. The labelling efficiency of the DTPA...

  16. Improved paramagnetic chelate for molecular imaging with MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Patrick; Athey, Phillip; Kiefer, Garry; Gulyas, Gyongyi; Frank, Keith; Fuhrhop, Ralph; Robertson, David; Wickline, Samuel; Lanza, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    The relaxivity and transmetallation of two lipophilic paramagnetic chelates incorporated onto perfluorocarbon nanoparticles, i.e., gadolinium-methoxy-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid phosphatidylethanolamine (Gd-MeO-DOTA-PE) and gadolinium-methoxy-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid triglycine phosphatidylethanolamine (Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE (Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE)), were compared to a prototypic gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid bis-oleate (Gd-DTPA-BOA) paramagnetic formulation. Nanoparticles with MeO-DOTA-based chelates demonstrated higher relaxivity (40% higher for Gd-MeO-DOTA-PE and 55% higher for Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE) and less transmetallation than the original Gd-DTPA-BOA-based agent.

  17. Radioactive aerosols study: computer program proposal for processing alveoli-capillary clearance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on alveolar-capillary clearance (ACC) of technetium-99 m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99 mTc-DTPA) allows early presumptive diagnosis of opportunistic lung infections with higher sensitivity than conventional methods. A computer program for processing such studies is developed. Acquired data are then processed by the program which corrects for radioactive decay, allows regions of interest drawing and builds time-activity curves up. The program still apply the least mean square method and gives the user the ACC rate (%/min), the best fitting equations and the time-activity graph. Thirteen non-smoker normal subjects (3 female, 10 male), 22-62 years-old (mean 34 years-old) are studied, using the developed program. (author). 123 refs, 20 figs

  18. Combined molecular MRI and immuno-spin-trapping for in vivo detection of free radicals in orthotopic mouse GL261 gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Rheal A; Smith, Nataliya; Saunders, Debra; De Souza, Patricia Coutinho; Henry, Leah; Lupu, Florea; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Mason, Ronald P; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Ramirez, Dario C

    2013-12-01

    Free radicals play a major role in gliomas. By combining immuno-spin-trapping (IST) and molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI), in vivo levels of free radicals were detected within mice bearing orthotopic GL261 gliomas. The nitrone spin trap DMPO (5,5-dimethyl pyrroline N-oxide) was administered prior to injection of an anti-DMPO probe (anti-DMPO antibody covalently bound to a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Gd (gadolinium)-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetic acid)-biotin MRI contrast agent) to trap tumor-associated free radicals. mMRI detected the presence of anti-DMPO adducts by either a significant sustained increase (pfree radicals from a glioma model.

  19. Primary adenocarcinoma of ureter: A rare histopathological variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Prekshi; Agarwal, Rashi; Srinivasan, Shashank; Singh, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of ureter is an uncommon malignancy. Of which, mostly are transitional cell carcinomas followed by squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas being the rarest histopathology encountered. We report a case of adenocarcinoma ureter in a middle-aged male along with its clinical scenario. A 62-year-old male, presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Computerized tomography urogram showed a soft tissue lesion at the right ureterovesical junction. Cystoscopic biopsy reported villous adenoma. Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan reported nonfunctioning right kidney. He underwent laparoscopic right nephroureterectomy, and histopathology reported adenocarcinoma of the right lower third of ureter, with positive distal and close radial margins. The patient received external beam radiation to the postoperative bed and lymph nodes, and he is disease-free till date.

  20. The Co-III-C bond in (1-thia-4,7-diazacyclodecyl-kappa N-3(4),N-7,C-10)(1,4,7-triazacyclononane-kappa N-3(1),N-4,N-7)-cobalt(III) dithionate hydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Pernille; Kofod, P.; Song, Y.S.;

    2003-01-01

    In the title compound, [Co(C6H15N3)(C7H15N2S)]S2O6.H2O, the Co-C bond distance is 1.9930 (13) Angstrom, which is shorter than for related compounds with the linear 1,6-diamino-3-thiahexan-4-ide anion in place of the macrocyclic 1-thia-4,7-diazacyclodecan-8-ide anion. The coordinated carbanion...... produces an elongation of 0.102 (7) Angstrom of the Co-N bond to the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane N atom in the trans position. This relatively small trans influence is presumably a result of the triamine ligand forming strong bonds to the Co-III atom....

  1. Synthesis and structural and optical characterization of Mn{sup 2+} doped cadmium sulphide nanoparticles stabilized in DETA matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercy, A.; Sakthi Murugesan, K. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005, Tamil Nadu (India); Milton Boaz, B., E-mail: miltonboazcm@yahoo.co.in [PG and Research Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005, Tamil Nadu (India); Jesper Anandhi, A. [Department of Physics, Einstein College of Engineering, Tirunelveli 627 012, Tamil Nadu (India); Kanagadurai, R. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-03-25

    Highlights: ► Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles doped with Mn{sup 2+} ions were successfully synthesized by chemical precipitation method at room temperature. ► Diethylene triamine matrix was found to be a suitable surfactant to keep the particle size stable. ► The optical properties of CdS nanoparticles doped with Mn{sup 2+} ions were found to be increased on varying the pH values. -- Abstract: Mn{sup 2+} doped cadmium sulphide nanoparticles were prepared with different pH values by chemical precipitation method, at room temperature. Diethylene triamine (DETA) was used as stabilizing agent to control the particle size and prevent agglomeration. The samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The average size of the Mn{sup 2+} doped cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, exhibits both cubic and hexagonal structure, calculated from Debye–Scherrer formula was of the order of 2–6 nm. The above value of the particle size was confirmed by using Williamson–Hall plot as well as Henglein’s formula. X-ray peak broadening analysis was done using Williamson–Hall plot. The HRSEM images showed the formation of nanoclusters and EDAX spectra confirms the presence of cadmium, sulphide and manganese elements in the sample. The DRS UV–vis spectra of the samples show blue shift, revealing the strong quantum confinement effect of nanoparticles. The formation of DETA capped Mn{sup 2+} doped CdS nanoparticles were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The synthesized samples show photoluminescence emission, ranging from 400 to 600 nm, in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  2. Chelation gradients for investigation of metal ion binding at silica surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Balamurali; Higgins, Daniel A; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2014-08-26

    Centimeter-long surface gradients in bi- and tridentate chelating agents have been formed via controlled rate infusion, and the coordination of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) to these surfaces has been examined as a function of distance by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). 3-(Trimethoxysilylpropyl)ethylenediamine and 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine were used as precursor silanes to form the chelation gradients. When the gradients were exposed to a metal ion solution, a series of coordination complexes formed along the length of the substrate. For both chelating agents at the three different concentrations studied, the amine content gradually increased from top to bottom as expected for a surface chemical gradient. While the Cu 2p peak area had nearly the same profile as nitrogen, the Zn 2p peak area did not and exhibited a plateau along much of the gradient. The normalized nitrogen-to-metal peak area ratio (N/M) was found to be highly dependent on the type of ligand, its surface concentration, and the type of metal ion. For Cu(2+), the N/M ratio ranged from 8 to 11 on the diamine gradient and was ∼4 on the triamine gradient, while for Zn(2+), the N/M ratio was 4-8 on diamine and 5-7 on triamine gradients. The extent of protonation of amine groups was higher for the diamine gradients, which could lead to an increased N/M ratio. Both 1:1 and 1:2 ligand/metal complexes along with dinuclear complexes are proposed to form, with their relative amounts dependent on the ligand, ligand density, and metal ion. Collectively, the methods and results described herein represent a new approach to study metal ion binding and coordination on surfaces, which is especially important to the extraction, preconcentration, and separation of metal ions.

  3. Low-temperature intermediates to oxygen reduction reaction catalysts based on amine-modified metal-loaded carbons. An XPS and ss-NMR investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzorati, Stefania [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi, 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ragg, Enzio M. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze per l’Alimentazione, la Nutrizione e l’Ambiente, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Longhi, Mariangela, E-mail: mariangela.longhi@unimi.it [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi, 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Formaro, Leonardo [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi, 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Carbon functionalization is a major subject of interest in a number of project applications. Herein we report results on the characterization of nitrogen- and metal-loaded (Me = Fe, Co) carbon derivatives from low-T reaction steps before they are converted to catalysts for electrochemical oxygen reduction by later high-T treatments. The aim is to shed light on the state of carbon and carbon-bonded moieties before thermal modifications take place during any chosen high-T treatment. Though necessary for end catalyst activation, such thermal treatments make difficult to establish a relation between the starting reactants and finally obtained catalysts. Of interest to the paper are {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N solid-state NMR (ss-NMR) and high-resolution X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results on a commercial carbon that was reacted first with aliphatic di- and tri-amines and then with Fe, Co ions in room-T water. Data from natural abundance ss-{sup 15}N NMR in combination with XPS analysis were found especially relevant to assess that, in the adopted conditions, amines preferentially bind to carbon by creating alkylimino functional groups, which spontaneously form hydrous surface metal complexes with soluble Fe and Co ions. A chemical model is thus proposed for metal coordination in such C–N species. - Highlights: • A commercial carbon is nitrogen-doped by a low-T reaction with di- and tri-amines. • In the used conditions alkylimino groups are formed, able to act as ligands with metals (mainly Co). • A combination of {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N NMR and XPS is adopted for product characterization. • A model is proposed for the metal coordination with surface bonded groups.

  4. Preparation of 166 Dy/166 Ho DTPA-bis biotin as a system of In vivo generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to synthesize the complex 166 Dy/166 Ho - diethylen triamine pentaacetic-bis Biotin (166 Dy/166 Ho DTPA-bis Biotin) to evaluate its potential as a new radiopharmaceutical in directed radiotherapy. The Dysprosium-166 was obtained for neutron irradiation of 164 Dy203 in the TRIGA Mark III reactor. The labelled was carried out in aqueous solution to p H 8.0 for addition of 166 Dy Cl3 to the diethylen triamine pentaacetic-α, ω-bis Biotin (DTPA-bis Biotin). The radiochemical purity was determined for HPLC and ITLC. The biological integrity of the marked biotin is evaluated by the biological recognition of the avidin for HPLC - molecular exclusion with and without avidin addition. The studies of stability in vitro were made in dilutions of saline solution to 0.9% and with human serum at 37 C incubated 1 and 24 hours. The complex 166 Dy/166 Ho DTPA-bis Biotin was obtained with a radiochemical purity of 99.1 ± 0.6%. The biological recognition of the complex 166 Dy/166 Ho DTPA-bis Biotin for the avidin it doesn't affect the labelling procedure. The studies in vitro demonstrated that the 166 Dy/166 Ho DTPA-bis Biotin is stable after the dilution in saline solution and in human serum that there is not translocation of the one radionuclide subsequent son to the beta decay of the 166 Dy that could produce the 166 Ho3+ liberation. The studies of Biodistribution in healthy mice demonstrated that the one complex 166 Dy/166 Ho DTPA-bis Biotin have a high renal distribution. In conclusion the radiolabelled biotin in this investigation has the appropriate properties to be used as an In vivo generator system stable for directed radiotherapy. (Author)

  5. Preparation of {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis biotin as a system of In vivo generator; Preparacion de {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis biotina como un sistema de generador In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez V, M.R

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work was to synthesize the complex {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho - diethylen triamine pentaacetic-bis Biotin ({sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis Biotin) to evaluate its potential as a new radiopharmaceutical in directed radiotherapy. The Dysprosium-166 was obtained for neutron irradiation of {sup 164} Dy{sub 2}0{sub 3} in the TRIGA Mark III reactor. The labelled was carried out in aqueous solution to p H 8.0 for addition of {sup 166} Dy Cl{sub 3} to the diethylen triamine pentaacetic-{alpha}, {omega}-bis Biotin (DTPA-bis Biotin). The radiochemical purity was determined for HPLC and ITLC. The biological integrity of the marked biotin is evaluated by the biological recognition of the avidin for HPLC - molecular exclusion with and without avidin addition. The studies of stability in vitro were made in dilutions of saline solution to 0.9% and with human serum at 37 C incubated 1 and 24 hours. The complex {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis Biotin was obtained with a radiochemical purity of 99.1 {+-} 0.6%. The biological recognition of the complex {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis Biotin for the avidin it doesn't affect the labelling procedure. The studies in vitro demonstrated that the {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis Biotin is stable after the dilution in saline solution and in human serum that there is not translocation of the one radionuclide subsequent son to the beta decay of the {sup 166} Dy that could produce the {sup 166} Ho{sup 3+} liberation. The studies of Biodistribution in healthy mice demonstrated that the one complex {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis Biotin have a high renal distribution. In conclusion the radiolabelled biotin in this investigation has the appropriate properties to be used as an In vivo generator system stable for directed radiotherapy. (Author)

  6. Melaminium nitrate–melamine–water (1/1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farook Adam

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title salt, C3H7N6+·NO3−·C3H6N6·H2O, the asymmetric unit consists of two neutral melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine molecules, two melaminium cations, two nitrate anions and two solvent water molecules. One of the nitrate anions is disordered over two sets of positions, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.909 (3:0.091 (3. The cations and neutral molecules are approximately planar, with maximum deviations of 0.018 (2, 0.024 (2, 0.019 (2 and 0.007 (2 Å for each, respectively. In the crystal structure, melaminium cations and netural melamine molecules self-assemble via N—H...N hydrogen bonds to form a supramolecular hexagonal-shaped motif. In addition, the nitrate anions and water molecules are connected by N—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network.

  7. Aminosilane-Grafted Zirconia-Titiania-Silica Nanoparticles/Torlon Hollow Fiber Composites for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rownaghi, Ali A; Kant, Amit; Li, Xin; Thakkar, Harshul; Hajari, Amit; He, Yingxin; Brennan, Patrick J; Hosseini, Hooman; Koros, William J; Rezaei, Fateme

    2016-05-23

    In this work, the development of novel binary and ternary oxide/Torlon hollow fiber composites comprising zirconia, titania, and silica as amine supports was demonstrated. The resulting binary (Zr-Si/PAI-HF, Ti-Si/PAI-HF) and ternary (Zr-Ti-Si/PAI-HF) composites were then functionalized with monoamine-, diamine-, and triamine-substituted trialkoxysilanes and were evaluated in CO2 capture. Although the introduction of both Zr and Ti improved the CO2 adsorption capacity relative to that with Si/PAI-HF sorbents, zirconia was found to have a more favorable effect on the CO2 adsorption performance than titania, as previously demonstrated for amine sorbents in the powder form. The Zr-Ti-Si/PAI-HF sample with an oxide content of 20 wt % was found to exhibit a relatively high CO2 capacity, that is, 1.90 mmol g(-1) at atmospheric pressure under dry conditions, owing to more favorable synergy between the metal oxides and CO2 . The ternary fiber sorbent showed improved sorption kinetics and long-term stability in cyclic adsorption/desorption runs. PMID:27076214

  8. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA-HSA lymphoscintigraphy in lymphedema of the lower extremities. Diagnostic significance of dynamic study and muscular exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yoji; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of lymphoscintigraphy was evaluated in 25 cases to clarify the diagnostic significance of dynamic study and muscular exercise in the diagnosis of lymphedema. {sup 99m}Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-human serum albumin (DTPA-HSA) was injected subcutaneously, and dynamic imaging was performed in 18 cases. Thirteen patients were asked to walk for 3 minutes. Qualitative evaluation of static images had sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 97%. Diagnostic criteria including qualitative evaluation of dynamic images were less specific (sensitivity 95%, specificity 76%). Interpretation of static images obtained at one hour after injection in the patients without muscular exercise had sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 67%, whereas sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 100% in the patients with muscular exercise. Lympho-scintigraphy was reliable in diagnosis of lymphedema. Dynamic study was limited usefulness because of some false-positive cases. Muscular exercise accelerated migration of the tracer in normal extremities, and improved positive predictive value. (author)

  9. Chronic air-flow limitation does not increase respiratory epithelial permeability assessed by aerosolized solute, but smoking does

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the separate influences of smoking and severe air-flow limitation on aerosol deposition and respiratory epithelial permeability, we studied 26 normal nonsmokers, 12 smokers without airway obstruction, 12 nonsmokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 11 smokers with COPD. We aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid to particles approximately 1 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter. Levels of radioactivity were plotted semilogarithmically against time to calculate clearance as percent per minute. The distribution of radioactivity was homogeneous in control subjects and in smokers, but patchy in both groups with COPD. No difference was found between clearances of the control group (1.18 +/- 0.31% min-1), and nonsmoker COPD group (1.37 +/- 0.82% min-1), whereas values in smokers without COPD (4.00 +/- 1.70% min-1) and smokers with COPD (3.62 +/- 2.88% min-1) were significantly greater than in both nonsmoking groups. We conclude that (1) small particles appear to deposit peripherally, even with severe COPD; (2) respiratory epithelial permeability is normal in nonsmokers with COPD; (3) smoking increases permeability by a mechanism unrelated to air-flow limitation

  10. Influence of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the isothermal cure of an epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the curing of an epoxy thermoset based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A was investigated using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and rheology. Diethylene triamine was used as a hardener. TMDSC not only allows for a systematic study of the kinetics of cure but simultaneously gives access to the evolution of the specific heat capacities of the thermosets. The technique thus provides insight into the glass transition behaviour of the nanocomposites and hence makes it possible to shed some light on the interaction between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. The Al2O3 fillers are shown to accelerate the growth of macromolecules upon isothermal curing. Several mechanisms which possibly could be responsible for the acceleration are described. As a result of the faster network growth chemical vitrification occurs at earlier times in the filled thermosets and the specific reaction heat decreases with increasing nanoparticle concentration. Rheologic measurements of the zero-shear viscosity confirm the faster growth of the macromolecules in the presence of the nanoparticles.

  11. Study of glass transition temperature (Tg) of novel stress-sensitive composites using molecular dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the glass transition temperature (Tg) of novel stress-sensitive composites capable of detecting a damage precursor using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The molecular structures of a cross-linked epoxy network (which consist of epoxy resin, hardener and stress-sensitive material) have been simulated and experimentally validated. The chemical constituents of the molecular structures are di-glycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF: epoxy resin), di-ethylene tri-amine (DETA: hardener) and tris-(cinnamoyloxymethyl)-ethane (TCE: stress-sensitive material). The cross-linking degree is varied by manipulating the number of covalent bonds through tuning a cutoff distance between activated DGEBF and DETA during the non-equilibrium MD simulation. A relationship between the cross-linking degree and Tgs has been studied numerically. In order to validate a proposed MD simulation framework, MD-predicted Tgs of materials used in this study have been compared to the experimental results obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two molecular models have been constructed for comparative study: (i) neat epoxy (epoxy resin with hardener) and (ii) smart polymer (neat epoxy with stress-sensitive material). The predicted Tgs show close agreement with the DSC results. (paper)

  12. Middle calyx ureterocalicostomy in ectopic pelvic kidney with ureteropelvic junction obstruction: Only alternative for renal salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaisukh Kalathia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous kidneys are mostly asymptomatic and are often found incidentally during physical or radiological investigations for urological or other medical complaints. The associated genital anomalies ranges from 15% to 45%. Females are associated with bicornuate or unicornuate uterus, rudimentary or absent uterus while males have undescended testes, duplication of the urethra, and hypospadias. A 21 year old married female presented with on and off lower abdomen pain for the past one year with history of primary amenorrhea. On examination an ill defined tender lump palpated in the lower abdomen. USG showed left ectopic pelvic kidney with gross hydronephrosis. The computed tomography confirmed hydronephrotic left ectopic pelvic kidney in front of the sacrum with anteriorly directed renal pelvis with ureter located posteriorly. There was delayed excretion from the ectopic kidney but right kidney was in normal position and function. The diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA scan showed 33% function of the ectopic kidney. On diagnostic laparoscopy, the uterus was small hypoplastic with bilateral ovaries appearing normal. The patient was taken for open pyeloplasty where the ureter was transected below PUJ but for a dependent drainage, the middle calyx as was the most dependent calyx as seen on the CT-scan. So a middle calyx ureterocalicostomy was performed calyx with excellent outcome. The ectopic kidney always remains a challenge because of complex neurovascular anatomy, presence of viscera and associated UPJO, but for a dependent drainage, middle calyx ureterocalicostomy is a feasible option with excellent outcome as was in our case.

  13. Marshall Convergent Spray Formulation Improvement for High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Jack; Patterson,Chat

    2011-01-01

    The Marshall Convergent Coating-1 (MCC-1) formulation was produced in the 1990s, and uses a standard bisphenol A epoxy resin system with a triamine accelerator. With the increasing heat rates forecast for the next generation of vehicles, higher-temperature sprayable coatings are needed. This work substitutes the low-temperature epoxy resins used in the MCC-1 coating with epoxy phenolic, epoxy novalac, or resorcinolinic resins (higher carbon content), which will produce a higher char yield upon exposure to high heat and increased glass transition temperature. High-temperature filler materials, such as granular cork and glass ecospheres, are also incorporated as part of the convergent spray process, but other sacrificial (ablative) materials are possible. In addition, the use of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) nanoparticle hybrids will increase both reinforcement aspects and contribute to creating a tougher silacious char, which will reduce recession at higher heat rates. Use of expanding epoxy resin (lightweight MCC) systems are also useful in that they reduce system weight, have greater insulative properties, and a decrease in application times can be realized.

  14. Influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on the isothermal cure of an epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Zielinski, B; Becker, N; Krueger, J K; Philipp, M; Mueller, U; Ziehmer, M [University of Luxembourg, 162a avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 (Luxembourg)], E-mail: roland.sanctuary@uni.lu

    2009-01-21

    The influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on the curing of an epoxy thermoset based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A was investigated using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and rheology. Diethylene triamine was used as a hardener. TMDSC not only allows for a systematic study of the kinetics of cure but simultaneously gives access to the evolution of the specific heat capacities of the thermosets. The technique thus provides insight into the glass transition behaviour of the nanocomposites and hence makes it possible to shed some light on the interaction between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fillers are shown to accelerate the growth of macromolecules upon isothermal curing. Several mechanisms which possibly could be responsible for the acceleration are described. As a result of the faster network growth chemical vitrification occurs at earlier times in the filled thermosets and the specific reaction heat decreases with increasing nanoparticle concentration. Rheologic measurements of the zero-shear viscosity confirm the faster growth of the macromolecules in the presence of the nanoparticles.

  15. Facile fabrication of organic-inorganic hybrid beads by aminated alginate enabled gelation and biomimetic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wu, Hong; Liang, Yanpeng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Jiang, Yanjun; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by biomineralization, design and preparation of biomimetic organic-inorganic composites have become a hot issue and a research frontier in many areas, including enzyme engineering. In this research, a unique and facile method for fabricating organic-inorganic hybrid beads is proposed. Modified alginate with a dual function of gelation and mineralization was synthesized for fabrication of hybrid carriers for enzyme immobilization. With the aid of EDC/NHS conjugation chemistry, the amine groups from diethylene triamine were grafted onto alginate in a controllable way. The resultant aminated alginate served manifold functions: forming a hydrogel via Ca(2+)-cross-linking, inducing the biomimetic silicification and manipulating the distribution of silica nanoparticles. Owing to the compact polymer network structure and the homogeneous silica nanoparticle dispersion, the as-prepared NH2-alginate/silica hybrid beads displayed superior swelling resistance and mechanical stability to pure alginate beads. The hybrid beads were subsequently utilized for encapsulation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). It was found that the thermal stability, pH tolerance and storage stability of the immobilized enzyme were all improved without significantly lowering the catalytic activity.

  16. Improving the relationship between soil characteristics and metal bioavailability by using reactive fractions of soil parameters in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; van Oort, Folkert; González, Concepción; Quintana, José R; Lafuente, Antonio L; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the nature instead of the total content of soil parameters relevant to metal bioavailability in lettuce was tested using a series of low-polluted Mediterranean agricultural calcareous soils offering natural gradients in the content and composition of carbonate, organic, and oxide fractions. Two datasets were compared by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis: total concentrations (TC dataset) of main soil parameters (constituents, phases, or elements) involved in metal retention and bioavailability; and chemically defined reactive fractions of these parameters (RF dataset). The metal bioavailability patterns were satisfactorily explained only when the RF dataset was used, and the results showed that the proportion of crystalline Fe oxides, dissolved organic C, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu and Zn, and a labile organic pool accounted for 76% of the variance. In addition, 2 multipollution scenarios by metal spiking were tested that showed better relationships with the RF dataset than with the TC dataset (up to 17% more) and new reactive fractions involved. For Mediterranean calcareous soils, the use of reactive pools of soil parameters rather than their total contents improved the relationships between soil constituents and metal bioavailability. Such pool determinations should be systematically included in studies dealing with bioavailability or risk assessment. PMID:25318656

  17. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  18. Modified combustion synthesis of Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Optimization using Taguchi experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norouzbeigi, Reza, E-mail: norouzbeigi@iust.ac.ir [Cement Research Center, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.B. 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majdabadi Farahani, Shahrzad [School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.B. 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Abstarct: Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were prepared by modified combustion of DTPA as a new fuel. Three factors such as fuel to oxidizer ratio (F/O), added fuel type and added to the main fuel ratio were evaluated under Taguchi L{sub 8} experimental design and analysis. Urea and EDTA were selected as added fuels and sterile gauze was used as a template for the first time. The crystal sizes were optimized as the responses of the experiments. Optimum condition for production of smaller crystals was determined as using EDTA as added fuel and added/main fuels molar ratio of 0.75. The structural and morphological properties of the products were characterized using, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy mapping, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). FESEM and TEM micrographs showed agglomerated spherical and cubic nanoparticles with an average particle size of 60 nm. XRD analysis revealed the cubic spinel structure and ferrite phase with high crystallinity in the range of 13–23 nm. - Highlights: • Highly pure Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by modified combustion of Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid as a new fuel. • Sterile gauze was used as template for the first time. • Nickel ferrite powders with average particle size of 60 nm have been successfully synthesized.

  19. Large-Pore Mesoporous Silica with Three-Dimensional Wormhole Framework Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2009-02-01

    Large-pore mesoporous silica with 3D wormhole framework structures (denoted MSU-J) are prepared through a supramolecular hydrogen-bonding assembly pathway from low-cost sodium silicate as the silica source and commercially available mono- and triamine Jeffamine and Surfonamine surfactants as structure-directing porogens. The calcined mesostructures exhibit large pore sizes (up to 8.2 nm), surface areas (632-1030 m(2)/g) and pore volumes (0.5-2.0 cm(3)/g), depending on the surfactant chain length and synthesis temperature (25-65 °C). The textural properties of these new wormhole mesostructures are comparable to those of hexagonal SBA-15 derivatives and large pore MCM-48. However, unlike the SBA-15 structure type, wherein the 3D pore network is formed by connecting 1D cylindrical mesopores through micropores, MSU-J mesophases have wormhole framework structures containing fully interconnected 3D mesopores that can minimize the diffusion limitations often encountered in adsorption and chemical catalysis. Also, unlike large pore MCM-48, which requires cost-intensive tetraethylorthosilicate as a silica source and the use of a co-surfactant as a pore expander under strong acid conditions, MSU-J mesostructures are assembled from low cost sodium silicate in the presence of a single Jeffamine or Surfonamine porogen at near-neutral pH. PMID:20126285

  20. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  1. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts; Avaliacao cintilografica pulmonar em trabalhadores de industria de abrasivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra Filho, Mario

    1995-12-31

    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m} Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate ({sup 99m} Tc DTPA), and {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal {sup 67} Gallium lung scan. (author) 101 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H

    2004-01-01

    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents.

  3. Potential synergy between two renal toxicants: DTPA and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat an accidental contamination with plutonium and uranium oxide mixture (MOX) is administration of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate acid (DTPA) in order to accelerate plutonium excretion. As uranium and DTPA are both nephro-toxic compounds, the administration of DTPA after a contamination containing uranium could enhance the nephro-toxic effects of uranium. The aim of the present work was to study in vitro on a kidney proximal tubule cell line (LLC-PK1) the cytotoxicity induced by increasing concentrations of uranium in presence of 3 different chemical forms of DTPA. The results showed that the DTPA used alone induced no cytotoxicity at the concentration used here (420 μM). However, this concentration of DTPA increased the cytotoxicity induced by uranium. This increase was maximal for uranium concentrations close to the lethal concentration for 50% of the cells and reached 37, 31 and 28% for anhydrous DTPA, Na3CaDTPA and Na3ZnDTPA, respectively. These results suggest that administration of DTPA could enhance the nephrotoxicity induced by uranium. (authors)

  4. Gadolinium-chelate nanoparticle entrapped human mesenchymal stem cell via photochemical internalization for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Sub; Park, Wooram; Na, Kun

    2015-01-01

    To improve the gadolinium (Gd) internalization efficiency in stem cells, gadolinium-chelate nanoparticles were prepared from a pullulan derivative (pullulan-deoxycholic acid (DOCA)-diethylene triamine pentaacetic (DTPA)-Gd conjugate; PDDG) and then the PDDG was entrapped into human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by the photochemical-internalization (PCI) method for cancer diagnosis via the cancer homing property of hMSCs. The internalization efficiency of Gd in hMSCs was significantly increased to 98 ± 4 pg Gd/cell from 32 ± 2 pg Gd/cell via the PCI method. Moreover, the Gd-entrapped hMSCs revealed a low exocytosis ratio of gadolinium-chelate nanoparticles during cell division in vitro and a high cellular labeling efficiency for at least 21 days in vivo. The cancer-targeting and diagnosis effect of the Gd-entrapped hMSCs were confirmed in a small CT26 tumor-bearing mice model. The stem cells detected an early tumor (∼3 mm(3)) within 2 h using 4.7-T MR and optical imaging. The results demonstrated that the PCI-mediated internalization of Gd-incorporated nanoparticles into hMSCs is a promising protocol for efficient cell labeling and tracking.

  5. Redox and Chemical Activities of the Hemes in the Sulfur Oxidation Pathway Enzyme SoxAX*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Justin M.; Marritt, Sophie J.; Kihlken, Margaret A.; Haynes, Kate; Hemmings, Andrew M.; Berks, Ben C.; Cheesman, Myles R.; Butt, Julea N.

    2012-01-01

    SoxAX enzymes couple disulfide bond formation to the reduction of cytochrome c in the first step of the phylogenetically widespread Sox microbial sulfur oxidation pathway. Rhodovulum sulfidophilum SoxAX contains three hemes. An electrochemical cell compatible with magnetic circular dichroism at near infrared wavelengths has been developed to resolve redox and chemical properties of the SoxAX hemes. In combination with potentiometric titrations monitored by electronic absorbance and EPR, this method defines midpoint potentials (Em) at pH 7.0 of approximately +210, −340, and −400 mV for the His/Met, His/Cys−, and active site His/CysS−-ligated heme, respectively. Exposing SoxAX to S2O42−, a substrate analog with Em ∼−450 mV, but not Eu(II) complexed with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Em ∼−1140 mV), allows cyanide to displace the cysteine persulfide (CysS−) ligand to the active site heme. This provides the first evidence for the dissociation of CysS− that has been proposed as a key event in SoxAX catalysis. PMID:23060437

  6. Assessment of municipal solid waste compost quality using standardized methods before preparation of plant growth media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, María Teresa Barral; Menduíña, Ana Moldes; Seijo, Yolanda Cendón; Viqueira, Francisco Díaz-Fierros

    2007-04-01

    The quality of compost and its suitability for agricultural application depend upon physical and chemical parameters such as water-holding capacity, porosity, pH, electrical conductivity, C/N ratio, available nutrients and the absence of toxic substances. In the present study a complete characterization of an industrial municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) based on standardized European methods (CEN) for soil improvers and growing media was obtained, and compared with the quality of other Spanish composted biowaste and conventional substrates such as peat and pine bark. The MSWC was obtained from the main composting plant in Galicia (Spain), which processes organic waste that has been separated at origin and collected from more than 100 000 inhabitants. The MSWC presented a lower C/N ratio (15) than peat (84) and composted pine bark (CPB) (211), but had a similar ratio to other marketed MSWC. The nutrients and heavy metals were extracted using different recommended solvents (water, CaCl2 + diethylen triamin pentaacetic acid, and aqua regia). The nutrient concentrations of composted urban waste or manure were much higher than those of peat, CPB or pine bark. On the basis of the results of the plant tolerance test, the MSWC could be employed directly as a soil improver, but would need to be diluted with other low-salt components such as peat or CPB before being used as a growing media. PMID:17439045

  7. Synthesis of a red pigment from gold nanoparticles; Sintesis de un pigmento rojo a partir de nanopartIculas de oro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, S.; Palacios, M. D.; Agut, P.

    2012-07-01

    A simple method of synthesising red pigments for ceramic glazes, based on gold nanoparticles protected by a refractory oxide capsule, was developed. Gold nanoparticles of an appropriate size were obtained by reaction in an aqueous medium between an Au(III) solution and an ammonium bromide solution, keeping the Br- concentration low during the process. The gold nanoparticles were encapsulated by adding the protective oxide in colloid form and subsequently coagulating it, alkalinising the medium. Diethylen triamine was then added to encourage the interaction between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide nanoparticles. This was followed by adding carboxymethylcellulose to raise medium viscosity, and to avoid segregation and subsequent agglomeration of the gold nanoparticles during drying. The dry residue was directly usable as a glaze pigment without requiring further thermal treatments. Three protective oxides, namely SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SnO{sub 2}, were tested. In the three cases, pigments with a high colouring strength were obtained, which gave rise to reds of different shades in the resulting test glaze. (Author)

  8. Optimum condition for 99mTc-DTPA-ketoconazole labeling as a radiopharmaceutical for fungal infection detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symptoms of infectious disease at an early stage can't be distinguished between bacterial, fungal or viral infections and often make the treatment become improper. Effective treatment, also maximum cure can be achieved if the diagnosis is accurate. In this research, drug-targeting relationship based for fungal infection diagnosis has been developed. The 99mTc-DTPA-ketoconazole radiopharmaceutical as a radiotracer was used for diagnosis of fungi infection present in the body as a target. The objective of this research is to obtain the 99mTc-DTPA-ketoconazole using indirect labeling techniques with diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) as a co-ligand or bifunctional agent. The result showed that the optimum condition for 99mTc-DTPA-ketoconazole labeling with high radiochemical purity of 97.77±0.33% were 2 mg ketoconazole, 1.125 mg DTPA, 37.5 µg SnCl2.2H2O, pH=4.5 and incubation time at room temperature is 5 minutes. Invivo uptake test has been carried out, and the result showed high ratio of infected and non infected organ (I/NI) 2 hours post injection, that was 3.16±0.04 (n=5). From the results, it can be concluded that the optimum condition of 99mTc-DTPA-ketoconazole has been established and meets the radiochemical purity requirement as a radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  9. Mechanism of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions sorption from aqueous solutions by macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasović, Aleksandra B.; Ekmeščić, Bojana M.; Sandić, Zvjezdana P.; Ranđelović, Danijela V.; Mozetič, Miran; Vesel, Alenka; Onjia, Antonije E.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions sorption from aqueous solutions by macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (PGME) functionalized by reaction of the pendant epoxy groups with diethylene triamine (PGME-deta) was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) were used for the determination of surface morphology of the copolymer particles. The sorption behavior of heavy metals Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions sorption was investigated in batch static experiments under non-competitive conditions at room temperature (298 K). The obtained results were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic model. The kinetics studies showed that Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) sorption obeys the pseudo-second-order model under all investigated operating conditions with evident influence of pore diffusion.

  10. An automated method for nonparametric kinetic analysis of clinical DCE-MRI data: application to glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Gregory Z; Xu, Lu; Friesenhahn, Michel; Bernstein, Lisa J; Barboriak, Daniel P; Port, Ruediger E

    2010-05-01

    Here, we describe an automated nonparametric method for evaluating gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) kinetics, based on dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI scans of glioblastoma patients taken before and after treatment with bevacizumab; no specific model or equation structure is assumed or used. Tumor and venous blood concentration-time profiles are smoothed, using a robust algorithm that removes artifacts due to patient motion, and then deconvolved, yielding an impulse response function. In addition to smoothing, robustness of the deconvolution operation is assured by excluding data that occur prior to the plasma peak; an exhaustive analysis was performed to demonstrate that exclusion of the prepeak plasma data does not significantly affect results. All analysis steps are executed by a single R script that requires blood and tumor curves as the sole input. Statistical moment analysis of the Impulse response function yields the area under the curve (AUC) and mean residence time (MRT). Comparison of deconvolution results to fitted Tofts model parameters suggests that AUCMRT and AUC of the Impulse response function closely approximate fractional clearance from plasma to tissue (K(trans)) and fractional interstitial volume (v(e)). Intervisit variability is shown to be comparable when using the deconvolution method (11% [AUCMRT] and 13%[AUC]) compared to the Tofts model (14%[K(trans)] and 24%[v(e)]). AUC and AUCMRT both exhibit a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.005) 1 day after administration of bevacizumab. PMID:20432307

  11. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gandolpho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%. In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  12. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2015-09-01

    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine.

  13. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of 99m Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate (99m Tc DTPA), and 67 Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) 67 Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal 67 Gallium lung scan. (author)

  14. Decorporation of plutonium by pulmonary administration of Ca-DTPA dry powder: a study in rat after lung contamination with different plutonium forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serandour, A.L.; Grillon, G.; Frechou, M.; Fritsch, P.; Poncy, J.L. [CEA/DSV/DRR, Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France); Tsapis, N.; Gervelas, C.; Fattal, E. [Universite Paris-Sud 11 CNRS, UMR 8612, Physico-chimie-Pharmacotechnie-Biopharmacie, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Deverre, J.R. [CEA/DSV/DRM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 91401 Orsay (France); Benech, H. [CEA/DSV/DRM, Service de Pharmacologie et d' Immunologie, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluates the decorporation efficacy of a pulmonary administration of a new Ca-DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid) dry powder (18 {mu}mol kg{sup -1} of body mass) after pulmonary contamination of rats with different Pu compounds. After inhalation of PuO{sub 2}, a delayed intratracheal administration of DTPA cannot reduce significantly the retention of Pu in the lungs but limits its transfer in liver and skeleton. After pulmonary contamination by Pu nitrate, early insufflation of the DTPA powder appears twice as more efficient than an i.v injection of DTPA (30 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}) to reduce Pu retention in the lungs and is as effective as i.v. injection to limit the extra-pulmonary deposit. In contrast, a delayed administration of DTPA cannot reduce the lung or extra-pulmonary retention. In conclusion, the improvement of aerodynamic properties of DTPA powder leads to an increase of DTPA amount deposited in the lungs and enhances the body decorporation. (authors)

  15. Redox cycling and generation of reactive oxygen species in commercial infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, William L; Crum, Andrea D

    2016-04-01

    Three nationally prominent commercial powdered infant formulas generated hydrogen peroxide, ranging from 10.46 to 11.62 μM, when prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Treating infant formulas with the chelating agent diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) significantly reduced H2O2 generation. In contrast, the addition of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) elevated the level of H2O2 generated in the same infant formulas by approximately 3- to 4-fold above the untreated infant formulas. The infant formulas contained ascorbate radicals ranging from about 138 nM to 40 nM. Treatment with catalase reduced the ascorbate radical contents by as much as 67%. Treatment with DTPA further reduced ascorbate radical signals to below quantifiable levels in most samples, further implicating the involvement of transition metal redox cycling in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Supportive evidence of the generation of ROS is provided using luminol-enhanced luminescence (LEL) in both model mixtures of ascorbic acid and in commercial infant formulas.

  16. sym-Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazine Derivatives as Promising Organic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel in Acidic Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Faham, Ayman; Dahlous, Kholood A; Al Othman, Zeid A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-03-31

    Triazine derivatives, namely, 2,4,6-tris(quinolin-8-yloxy)-1,3,5-triazine (T3Q), N²,N⁴,N⁶-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (T3AMPy) and 2,2',2''-[(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanediyl)] tris(ethan-1-ol) (T3EA) were synthesized and their inhibition of steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion protection of the prepared compounds increased with increasing concentration and reached up to 98% at 250 ppm. The adsorption of T3Q, T3AMPy, and T3EA on the steel surface was in accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The electrochemical results revealed that T3Q, T3AMPy and T3EA act as excellent organic inhibitors and can labeled as mixed type inhibitors. The efficiencies of the tested compounds were affected by the nature of the side chain present in the triazine ring, where T3EA gave the least inhibition while T3Q and T3AMPy gave higher and almost the same inhibition effects. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the different electrochemical techniques were in good agreement.

  17. Acute hydrothorax complicating peritoneal dialysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Dwarkanathan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute hydrothorax is an uncommon but a well-recognized complication of peritoneal dialysis. No single test is definitive for diagnosis. Although it is not a life-threatening condition, hydrothorax often requires abandonment of peritoneal dialysis. Delay in diagnosis can lead to worsening of the clinical status. Case Presentation A 33-year-old Caucasian woman with lupus, who was successfully treated with temporary peritoneal dialysis 17 years previously, presented with acute dyspnea and a right pleural effusion after recommencing peritoneal dialysis. Investigations eliminated infective, cardiac, and primary respiratory causes. Peritoneal dialysis-related hydrothorax was suggested by biochemistry, and a pleuroperitoneal leak was definitively confirmed by using a Tc-99 m DTPA (diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid scintigraphy scan. Subsequently, she underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy-guided talc pleurodesis and was able to return successfully to peritoneal dialysis. Conclusion Although our case is not the first report that describes the occurrence of acute hydrothorax in peritoneal dialysis, it is an important condition to recognize for the wider general medical community. Furthermore, this case demonstrates that peritoneal dialysis can be continued with a hydrothorax, provided the underlying cause can be corrected. We review the literature pertaining to the utility and reliability of different diagnostic approaches to hydrothorax.

  18. A scintigraphic analysis of colonic movement in patients with colostomy: changes of colonic transit time after acquaintance with irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, S; Fujii, H; Yamamoto, K; Nakagawa, M; Watanabe, I; Nakano, H

    1992-01-01

    For the purpose of making a functional assessment of colostomy irrigation, eight patients were examined. Group A was composed of four patients whose experience of irrigation was less than one year. Group B was composed of four patients who had undergone irrigation for more than two years. The capacity of the remnant colon was determined by a barium enema. Next, 74 MBq of milking technetium 99 diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) was instilled with a predetermined amount of water (37 degrees C). A dynamic scan was performed for 45 min. The mean evacuation time of Groups A and B were 6 min 56 s +/- 2 min 33 s and 13 min 27 s +/- 10 min 50 s, respectively. The mean half emptying time of Groups A and B were 142.5 s +/- 7.9 s and 309.0 s +/- 181.9 s. The results suggest that the remnant colon may be habituated with irrigation. Colostomy irrigation which uses a single instillation of a measured volume of tepid water is recommended. PMID:1392352

  19. Quantitative imaging and sigmoidoscopy to assess distribution of rectal microbicide surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, C W; Fuchs, E J; Macura, K J; Lee, L A; Parsons, T L; Bakshi, R P; Khan, W A; Guidos, A; Leal, J P; Wahl, R

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of microbicide and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) within the gastrointestinal tract is critical to development of rectal HIV microbicides. A hydroxyethylcellulose-based microbicide surrogate or viscosity-matched semen surrogate, labeled with gadolinium-DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) and 99mTechnetium-sulfur colloid, was administered to three subjects under varying experimental conditions to evaluate effects of enema, coital simulation, and microbicide or semen simulant over 5 h duration. Quantitative assessment used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging, and sigmoidoscopic sampling. Over 4 h, radiolabel migrated cephalad in all studies by a median (interquartile range) of 50% (29-102%; P<0.001), as far as the splenic flexure (approximately 60 cm) in 12% of studies. There was a correlation in concentration profile between endoscopic sampling and SPECT assessments. HIV-sized particles migrate retrograde, 60 cm in some studies, 4 h after simulated ejaculation in our model. SPECT/CT, MRI, and endoscopy can be used quantitatively to facilitate rational development of microbicides for rectal use. PMID:17507921

  20. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolpho, L; Sevillano, M; Barbieri, A; Ajzen, S; Schor, N; Ortiz, V; Heilberg, I P

    2001-06-01

    Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females) were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 +/- 12% to 29 +/- 12% in DTPA and from 21 +/- 15% to 24 +/- 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%). In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis. PMID:11378662

  1. Decorporation of plutonium by pulmonary administration of Ca-DTPA dry powder: a study in rat after lung contamination with different plutonium forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the decorporation efficacy of a pulmonary administration of a new Ca-DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid) dry powder (18 μmol kg-1 of body mass) after pulmonary contamination of rats with different Pu compounds. After inhalation of PuO2, a delayed intratracheal administration of DTPA cannot reduce significantly the retention of Pu in the lungs but limits its transfer in liver and skeleton. After pulmonary contamination by Pu nitrate, early insufflation of the DTPA powder appears twice as more efficient than an i.v injection of DTPA (30 μmol kg-1) to reduce Pu retention in the lungs and is as effective as i.v. injection to limit the extra-pulmonary deposit. In contrast, a delayed administration of DTPA cannot reduce the lung or extra-pulmonary retention. In conclusion, the improvement of aerodynamic properties of DTPA powder leads to an increase of DTPA amount deposited in the lungs and enhances the body decorporation. (authors)

  2. Sorption of different phenol derivatives on functionalized macroporous nanocomposite of poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and acid modified bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Sanja R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous nanocomposite of poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and acid modified bentonite was prepared by radical suspension copolymerization. Nanocomposite was functionalized with diethylene triamine (deta, by ring-opening reaction of the pendant epoxy groups. Functionalization was performed in order to enable phenol derivatives sorption. This new, not sufficiently investigated material, with developed porous structure was denoted CP-SA-deta. In this study, the influence of temperature on 4-nitrophenol (4NP sorption on CP-SA-deta was investigated. The chemisorption was estimated as dominant process since activation energy of sorption of 4NP of 54.8 kJ mol-1 was obtained. After determining the optimal sorption conditions for 4NP, the sorption of 2-nitrophenol (2NP and 2-chloro 4-nitrophenol (2Cl4NP on CP-SA-deta was investigated with respect to pH, initial concentration and contact time. The 2NP sorption was seldom tested, while according to our knowledge, the 2Cl4NP sorption was not investigated. The isotherm data were best fitted with Langmuir model, while the sorption dynamics obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model for all derivatives. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001 i br. III 43009

  3. Synthetic and bioengineered products in nuclear medicine and drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. The supply of radio pharmaceuticals based on pooled human blood products, for example human serum albumin (H S A) and fibrinogen, has previously met with some problems due to the possibility of donor infection A common feature of all biologicals of animal or human origin is the potential risk of viral contamination from the source material. Recombinant DNA technology provides an alternative source of biological materials that have applications throughout medicine. Micro capsules prepared from recombinant human serum albumin (r H S A) are currently under development as ultrasound contrast agents. Similar products would serve as an alternative source of material to serum albumin pooled from human donors and would offer great potential in the production of radio pharmaceuticals. There is a growing interest in the use of macromolecular carriers for therapeutic agents. When labelled with and appropriate gamma-emitter, their biodistribution can be be followed by scintigraphy. The biodistribution of a synthetic branched polypeptide, based on a poly-L-lysine backbone (average molecular mass 45 kDa) is described. The polymer was conjugated to diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid and labelled by chelation with Indium-111. Mice were injected i.v. with labelled material and imaged with a gamma camera with a pin hole collimator. Images showed the majority of tracer remaining in the blood poll, but about 35% appeared in the urinary bladder within 1.5 h

  4.  A Comparison of Serum Cystatin C and Creatinine with Glomerular FiltrationRate in Indian Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Kumaresan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: There is no literature available on the performance of cystatin C in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD patients of Indian population based on age group. Hence, this study is aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of serum cystatin C and creatinine with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR and estimated GFR (eGFR in subjects of Indian origin. Methods: The study was carried out at Tiruchirappalli, South India during the period of September 2010 to march 2011. One hundred and six CKD patients (82 males, 24 females were enrolled and categorized into three groups based on age. The eGFR was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault (CG and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formulae. Serum cystatin C was measured with a particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (PENIA method. GFR was measured using 99mTC - diethylene triamine penta aceticacid (DTPA renal scan method. Results: Serum cystatin C showed significant correlation with measured GFR in all the three groups (r=-0.9735, r=-0.8975 and r=-0.7994 respectively than serum creatinine (r=-0.7380, r=- 0.6852 and r=-0.5127 respectively. Conclusion: Serum cystatin C showed a high correlation with measured GFR in young and older patients with CKD than creatinine. Thus, cystatin C is a good alternative marker to creatinine in CKD patients.

  5. Synthetic and bioengineered products in nuclear medicine and drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frier, M. [Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1997-12-31

    Full text. The supply of radio pharmaceuticals based on pooled human blood products, for example human serum albumin (H S A) and fibrinogen, has previously met with some problems due to the possibility of donor infection A common feature of all biologicals of animal or human origin is the potential risk of viral contamination from the source material. Recombinant DNA technology provides an alternative source of biological materials that have applications throughout medicine. Micro capsules prepared from recombinant human serum albumin (r H S A) are currently under development as ultrasound contrast agents. Similar products would serve as an alternative source of material to serum albumin pooled from human donors and would offer great potential in the production of radio pharmaceuticals. There is a growing interest in the use of macromolecular carriers for therapeutic agents. When labelled with and appropriate gamma-emitter, their biodistribution can be be followed by scintigraphy. The biodistribution of a synthetic branched polypeptide, based on a poly-L-lysine backbone (average molecular mass 45 kDa) is described. The polymer was conjugated to diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid and labelled by chelation with Indium-111. Mice were injected i.v. with labelled material and imaged with a gamma camera with a pin hole collimator. Images showed the majority of tracer remaining in the blood poll, but about 35% appeared in the urinary bladder within 1.5 h

  6. Scintigraphic evaluation of hepatic blood flow after intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, J; Schober, O; Reimer, P; Domschke, W

    1997-06-01

    In patients with liver cirrhosis a transjugularly placed intrahepatic portocaval shunt (TIPS) is a non-surgical portosystemic device which aims to reduce portal venous pressure. In comparison with Doppler sonography, we evaluated in 28 patients the diagnostic impact of liver perfusion scintigraphy (with technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid) in the assessment of changes in the hepatic blood flow after TIPS shunting. The arterial and portal contributions to hepatic flow were calculated from the areas under the biphasic time-activity curve. In the course of TIPS shunting, patency is threatened by reocclusion. Angiography is the gold standard for TIPS shunt reassessment. However, there is a need for a less invasive diagnostic procedure, such as scintigraphy or Doppler sonography, for the early detection of shunt insufficiency. Scintigraphy demonstrated that prior to TIPS shunting the portal venous contribution to hepatic perfusion was reduced to 29.2%, this reduction being due to portal hypertension. After TIPS placement a significant increase in portal venous perfusion was observed (38.2%; Pscintigraphically measured portal venous contribution to hepatic blood flow. Hepatic perfusion scintigraphy appears to be a valuable method to determine the immediate effect of TIPS on hepatic blood flow. Post-TIPS follow-up studies of hepatic haemodynamics by liver perfusion scintigraphy appear able to contribute to the detection of TIPS shunt occlusion before the clinical consequences of this complication have become apparent. PMID:9169570

  7. Large and negative magnetic anisotropy in pentacoordinate mononuclear Ni(ii) Schiff base complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Svoboda, Ingrid; Boča, Roman; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-05-28

    A series of pentacoordinate Ni(ii) complexes of the general formula [Ni(L5)] () with various pentadentate Schiff base ligands H2L5 (originating in a condensation of aromatic ortho-hydroxy-aldehydes and aliphatic triamines) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray structure analysis and magnetometry. The alternations of substituents on the H2L parent ligand resulted in the complexes with the geometry varying between the square-pyramid and trigonal-bipyramid. In the compounds whose chromophore geometry is closer to a trigonal-bipyramid, a large and negative uniaxial anisotropy (D = -64 cm(-1)) was identified. Moreover, the simple linear expression for the axial zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter, D/cm(-1) = 32.7(4.8) - 151(10)τ, was proposed, where τ (in degrees) stands for the Addison parameter. The results of magnetic analysis were also supported by ab initio CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations of the ZFS splitting parameters D and E, and g tensors. Despite large and negative D-values of the reported compounds, slow relaxation of magnetization was not observed either in zero or non-zero static magnetic field, thus no single-molecule magnetic behaviour was detected. PMID:25919125

  8. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis.

  9. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Tang, M Matt; Wu, Xueliang; Phillips, Nancy; Galkowski, Dariusz; Jarvis, Gary A; Fan, Huizhou

    2016-01-01

    Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis.

  10. Comparative chemical analyses of soils formed on carbonate rocks in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Eszter; Sajó, István; Bidló, András

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on the physical and chemical investigation of soils formed primarily on carbonate rocks. One part of the investigated soil profiles originated from the top of the Bükk Hills, the Bükk-Highlands' limestone plateau, which is located in the North-Eastern part of Hungary. The rest of the samples were taken from the Szárhalom Forest (located in West Hungary). The different location and climate of the sites forms a basis of the comparison of the soils with similar base rock. These soils are formed mainly on limestones, however they differ significantly in terms of certain characteristic properties. The following physical parameters were evaluated from the samples: transition, structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, colour, physical assortment, concretion and soil defect. Laboratory analysis involved the measurement of acidity, particle distribution, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble phosphorus- and potassium content, potassium chloride soluble calcium- and magnesium content, ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic-acid (EDTA) and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic-acid (DTPA) soluble copper-, iron-, manganese- and zinc content. X-ray diffraction, thermoanalytical measurements and ICP-OES were also carried out to determine the mineral composition of the soils and the content of heavy metals. Evaluation focused on the comprehensive analysis of the data with a special regard to possible relationships and correlations. Research was supported financially by the "Silva naturalis (TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004)" project.

  11. Clearance of inhaled sup(99m)Tc DTPA from regions of the lung recently affected by pulmonary embolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary emboli lead to regional limitation of pulmonary artery perfusion, often without affecting distribution of ventilation. We have studied the effect of this regional reduction of pulmonary artery perfusion on the integrity of epithelium of alveoli (and possibly bronchioli). Integrity of alveolar epithelium was assessed by measuring regional rates of clearance from lung to blood of an inhaled aerosol of a small molecular weight solute, sup(99m)Tc DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate). Ten patients with pulmonary emboli were studied, where the diagnosis was made from 'mismatching' seen on ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) lung scintigraphy. Rates of clearance of DTPA in regions with normal V/Q ratios were compared with embolized regions with high V/Q ratios. Clearance rates were increased in embolized regions (V/Q ratio > 1) : 2.59 +- (SD) 0.89%. min-1, compared with normal regions (V/Q ratio -1 (p<0.01). In repeat studies in nine patients (one died), after intervals between 2 and 12 weeks, the V/Q ratio of previously embolized regions decreased towards unity in all nine patients, suggesting resolution. The differences in clearance rates for DTPA between normal and embolized regions decreased in association with this return towards normal of V/Q ratios. We surmise that reduction in pulmonary artery perfusion which occurs in pulmonary embolic disease alters the integrity of the alveolar (and possibly bronchiolar) epithelium. This effect is largely reversible, recovering with return of pulmonary artery perfusion

  12. Design and functionalities of the MADOR® software suite for dose-reduction management after DTPA therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, B; Fritsch, P; Bérard, P; Roméo, P-H

    2016-03-01

    A software suite on biokinetics of radionuclides and internal dosimetry intended for the occupational health practitioners of nuclear industry and for expert opinions has been developed under Borland C++ Builder™. These computing tools allow physicians to improve the dosimetric follow-up of workers in agreement with the French regulations and to manage new internal contaminations by radionuclides such as Pu and/or Am after diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid treatments. In this paper, the concept and functionalities of the first two computing tools of this MADOR(®) suite are described. The release 0.0 is the forensic application, which allows calculating the derived recording levels for intake by inhalation or ingestion of the main radioisotopes encountered in occupational environment. Indeed, these reference values of activity are convenient to interpret rapidly the bioassay measurements and make decisions as part of medical monitoring. The release 1.0 addresses the effect of DTPA treatments on Pu/Am biokinetics and the dose benefit. The forensic results of the MADOR(®) suite were validated by comparison with reference data.

  13. Multifunctional uranyl hybrid materials: structural diversities as a function of pH, luminescence with potential nitrobenzene sensing, and photoelectric behavior as p-type semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Gao, Xue; Wang, Zhi-Nan; Li, Cheng-Ren; Xu, Qi; Bai, Feng-Ying; Shi, Zhong-Feng; Xing, Yong-Heng

    2015-09-21

    A series of uranyl-organic frameworks (UOFs), {[(UO2)2(H2TTHA)(H2O)]·4,4'-bipy·2H2O}n (1), {[(UO2)3(TTHA)(H2O)3]}n (2), and {[(UO2)5(TTHA) (HTTHA)(H2O)3]·H3O}n (3), have been obtained by the hydrothermal reaction of uranyl acetate with a flexible hexapodal ligand (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine hexaacetic acid, H6TTHA). These compounds exhibited three distinct 3D self-assembly architectures as a function of pH by single-crystal structural analysis, although the used ligand was the same in each reaction. Surprisingly, all of the coordination modes of the H6TTHA ligand in this work are first discovered. Furthermore, the photoluminescent results showed that these compounds displayed high-sensitivity luminescent sensing functions for nitrobenzene. Additionally, the surface photovoltage spectroscopy and electric-field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy showed that compounds 1-3 could behave as p-type semiconductors.

  14. Autophagy inhibitor Lys05 has single-agent antitumor activity and reproduces the phenotype of a genetic autophagy deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Quentin; Zhang, Zhihui; Samanta, Arabinda; Levi, Samuel M; Ma, Xiao-Hong; Piao, Shengfu; Lynch, John P; Uehara, Takeshi; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Davis, Lisa E; Winkler, Jeffrey D; Amaravadi, Ravi K

    2012-05-22

    Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradative process that protects cancer cells from multiple stresses. In preclinical models, autophagy inhibition with chloroquine (CQ) derivatives augments the efficacy of many anticancer therapies, but CQ has limited activity as a single agent. Clinical trials are underway combining anticancer agents with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), but concentrations of HCQ required to inhibit autophagy are not consistently achievable in the clinic. We report the synthesis and characterization of bisaminoquinoline autophagy inhibitors that potently inhibit autophagy and impair tumor growth in vivo. The structural motifs that are necessary for improved autophagy inhibition compared with CQ include the presence of two aminoquinoline rings and a triamine linker and C-7 chlorine. The lead compound, Lys01, is a 10-fold more potent autophagy inhibitor than HCQ. Compared with HCQ, Lys05, a water-soluble salt of Lys01, more potently accumulates within and deacidifies the lysosome, resulting in impaired autophagy and tumor growth. At the highest dose administered, some mice develop Paneth cell dysfunction that resembles the intestinal phenotype of mice and humans with genetic defects in the autophagy gene ATG16L1, providing in vivo evidence that Lys05 targets autophagy. Unlike HCQ, significant single-agent antitumor activity is observed without toxicity in mice treated with lower doses of Lys05, establishing the therapeutic potential of this compound in cancer. PMID:22566612

  15. Design and functionalities of the MADORR software suite for dose-reduction management after DTPA therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software suite on biokinetics of radionuclides and internal dosimetry intended for the occupational health practitioners of nuclear industry and for expert opinions has been developed under Borland C++ BuilderTM. These computing tools allow physicians to improve the dosimetric follow-up of workers in agreement with the French regulations and to manage new internal contaminations by radionuclides such as Pu and/or Am after diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid treatments. In this paper, the concept and functionalities of the first two computing tools of this MADORR suite are described. The release 0.0 is the forensic application, which allows calculating the derived recording levels for intake by inhalation or ingestion of the main radioisotopes encountered in occupational environment. Indeed, these reference values of activity are convenient to interpret rapidly the bioassay measurements and make decisions as part of medical monitoring. The release 1.0 addresses the effect of DTPA treatments on Pu/Am biokinetics and the dose benefit. The forensic results of the MADORR suite were validated by comparison with reference data. (authors)

  16. Improving the efficiency of phytoremediation using electrically charged plant and chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar

    2016-02-01

    The low efficiency of phytoremediation is a considerable problem that limits the application of this environmentally friendly method on heavy metal-polluted soils. The combination of chelate-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation could offer new opportunities to improve the effectiveness of phytoextraction. The current experiment aims to investigate the effects of electrical fields and chelating agents on phytoremediation efficiency. In a pot experiment using mine soil, poultry manure extract (PME), cow manure extract (CME), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were applied to soil as chelating agents (2 g kg(-1)) at the beginning of the flowering stage. A week later, Helianthus annuus (sunflower) was negatively charged by inserting a stainless steel needle with 10 and 30 V DC electricity in the lowest part of the stems for 1 h each day for a 14-day period. At the end of the experiment, the shoot and root dry weight, lead (Pb) concentration in plant organs, translocation factor (TF), metal uptake index (UI), and soil available Pb (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) were detected. Results indicated that the application of electrical fields had no significant impact on the shoot and root dry weights, while Pb concentration and UI increased in the 10-V EDTA treatment by 500 % compared to control. There was no significant difference between UI in 30- and 10-V EDTA treatments. Soil available Pb significantly increased in the 30-V treated soil. A positive correlation was observed between the available Pb in soil near the root and Pb concentration in shoot, its TF, and UI. In conclusion, a negatively charged plant along with the application of EDTA significantly increased the phytoremediation efficiency.

  17. Effect of background region of interest and time-interval selection on glomerular filtration ratio estimation by percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA in comparison with (51)Cr-EDTA clearance in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyn, Katrien; Vandermeulen, Eva; Saunders, Jimmy H; Dobbeleir, André A; Ham, Hamphrey R; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of glomerular function is a useful part of the diagnostic approach in animals suspected of having renal disease. Time-interval and background region of interest (bg ROI) selection are determining factors when calculating the glomerular filtration ratio (GFR) based on percentage uptake of (99m)technetium-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA). Therefore, three different time intervals (60-120 s, 120-180 s, 60-180 s) and three different bg ROIs (C-shape, caudolateral, cranial + caudal) were investigated. In addition, global GFRs based on percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA for the different time-intervals and bg ROIs were compared with the global GFR based on (51)chromium-ethylene diaminic tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) plasma clearance in nine healthy European domestic shorthair cats. Paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Different time intervals seemed to cause significant variation (P <0.01) in absolute GFR values, regardless of the choice of bg ROI. Significant differences (P <0.01) between bg ROIs were only observed in the 120-180s time interval between the C-shape and cranial + caudal bg ROI, and between the caudolateral and cranial + caudal bg ROI. The caudolateral bg ROI in the 60-180 s time interval showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.882) between (99m)Tc-DTPA and (51)Cr-EDTA, although a significant difference (P <0.05) was present between both techniques. PMID:23349527

  18. Lung inflammation does not affect the clearance kinetics of lipid nanocapsules following pulmonary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aateka; Woods, A; Riffo-Vasquez, Yanira; Babin-Morgan, Anna; Jones, Marie-Christine; Jones, Stuart; Sunassee, Kavitha; Clark, Stephen; T M de Rosales, Rafael; Page, Clive; Spina, Domenico; Forbes, Ben; Dailey, Lea Ann

    2016-08-10

    Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are semi-rigid spherical capsules with a triglyceride core that present a promising formulation option for the pulmonary delivery of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. Whilst the biodistribution of LNCs of different size has been studied following intravenous administration, the fate of LNCs following pulmonary delivery has not been reported. We investigated quantitatively whether lung inflammation affects the clearance of 50nm lipid nanocapsules, or is exacerbated by their pulmonary administration. Studies were conducted in mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation compared to healthy controls. Particle deposition and nanocapsule clearance kinetics were measured by single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging over 48 h. A significantly lower lung dose of (111)In-LNC50 was achieved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated animals compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). When normalised to the delivered lung dose, the clearance kinetics of (111)In-LNC50 from the lungs fit a first order model with an elimination half-life of 10.5±0.9h (R(2)=0.995) and 10.6±0.3h (R(2)=1.000) for healthy and inflamed lungs respectively (n=3). In contrast, (111)In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), a small hydrophilic molecule, was cleared rapidly from the lungs with the majority of the dose absorbed within 20min of administration. Biodistribution to lungs, stomach-intestine, liver, trachea-throat and blood at the end of the imaging period was unaltered by lung inflammation. This study demonstrated that lung clearance and whole body distribution of lipid nanocapsules were unaffected by the presence of acute lung inflammation. PMID:27180635

  19. Assessment of pulmonary aerosol deposition and epithelial permeability in [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA inhalation scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Minoru; Suzuki, Yukio; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Hasegawa, Naoki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Kawashiro, Takeo; Yokoyama, Tetsuro; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-05-01

    The degree of lung injury in bronchiolo-alveolar lesions may be quantitated from the pulmonary epithelial permeability estimated by [sup 99m]Tc-diethylene triamine penta acetate (DTPA) aerosol inhalation scintigram. However, significant aerosol deposition sometimes occurs in the central airways and obscures the peameability change in the lung periphery. The radioaerosol deposition pattern and its effct on assessing the pulmonary epithelial permeability was studied. [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed in 47 patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF), 12 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), and 27 non-smoking and 17 smoking healthy volunteers. The scintigraphic images of the lungs were classified into 4 grades: 0=homogeneous distribution; 1=patchy distribution; 2=hot spots with partial defects; and 3= hot spots with little deposition in the lung field. The rate constant was used as a parameter for the permeability. The smokers and patients with PF showed increased kep values of 2.36[+-]1.21%/min (mean[+-]SD) and 2.49[+-]1.29% min as compared with the nonsmokers with 0.94[+-]0.27% min, respectively. The nonsmokers, smokers and 36 patients with PF were classified as deposition grade 0 or 1, suggesting good aerosol penetration to the lung periphery. All patients with COPD showed either grade 2 or 3 deposition. Aerosol deposition in the central airways can cause underestimation of the permeability because of the thicker lining layer in the bronchus than in the alveolus. In conclusion, the aerosol deposition pattern should be analyzed when the method is applied clinically to assess the permeability of the bronchiolo-alveolar epithelium. (author).

  20. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Metastatic Potential of Melanoma Xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovrebo, Kirsti Marie; Ellingsen, Christine; Galappathi, Kanthi [Group of Radiation Biology and Tumor Physiology, Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Rofstad, Einar K., E-mail: einar.k.rofstad@rr-research.no [Group of Radiation Biology and Tumor Physiology, Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been suggested as a useful noninvasive method for characterizing the physiologic microenvironment of tumors. In the present study, we investigated whether Gd-DTPA-based DCE-MRI has the potential to provide biomarkers for hypoxia-associated metastatic dissemination. Methods and Materials: C-10 and D-12 melanoma xenografts were used as experimental tumor models. Pimonidazole was used as a hypoxia marker. A total of 60 tumors were imaged, and parametric images of K{sup trans} (volume transfer constant of Gd-DTPA) and v{sub e} (fractional distribution volume of Gd-DTPA) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI series. The host mice were killed immediately after DCE-MRI, and the primary tumor and the lungs were resected and prepared for histologic assessment of the fraction of pimonidazole-positive hypoxic tissue and the presence of lung metastases, respectively. Results: Metastases were found in 11 of 26 mice with C-10 tumors and 14 of 34 mice with D-12 tumors. The primary tumors of the metastatic-positive mice had a greater fraction of hypoxic tissue (p = 0.00031, C-10; p < 0.00001, D-12), a lower median K{sup trans} (p = 0.0011, C-10; p < 0.00001, D-12), and a lower median v{sub e} (p = 0.014, C-10; p = 0.016, D-12) than the primary tumors of the metastatic-negative mice. Conclusions: These findings support the clinical attempts to establish DCE-MRI as a method for providing biomarkers for tumor aggressiveness and suggests that primary tumors characterized by low K{sup trans} and low v{sub e} values could have a high probability of hypoxia-associated metastatic spread.

  1. Study of in vitro toxicity and ex vivo and in vivo efficiency of calixarene galenic forms developed for the treatment of cutaneous contamination due to uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of radiological skin contamination by uranium compounds, the only treatments currently available consist in rinsing the contaminated skin area with water and detergent, or with a calcium salt of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Ca-DTPA) solution. However, these procedures are not specific and no efficient treatment for cutaneous contamination due to uranium exists. In the absence of such treatments, uranium diffusion through the skin is fast, inducing an internal exposure after its distribution inside the body through the bloodstream. One part of the bioavailable uranium is up-taken in target organs which are the kidneys and the skeleton, where its toxic effects occur. Therefore a topical formulation consisting of an oil-in-water nano-emulsion incorporating a tricarboxylic calixarene molecule, as a specific chelating agent for uranium, was previously developed. The work achieved in this thesis aimed at evaluating the ex vivo and in vivo decontamination efficiency of this new emergency treatment on intact and superficially wounded skin. For this purpose, skin excoriation model was used. Reproducible models of superficial wounds consisting of micro-cuts and micro-punctures were also developed in order to evaluate the efficiency of the nano-emulsion on physical wounds such as incisions. These studies showed that the calixarene nano-emulsion could be an efficient decontaminating treatment, less aggressive than using the current treatment: soaped water. Its potential cutaneous toxicity was evaluated on in vitro reconstructed human epidermis using three different toxicity tests (MTT, LDH and IL-1-α). These studies demonstrated that the calixarene nano-emulsion did not induce skin toxicity even after 24 h of exposure time. (author)

  2. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms. PMID:27537548

  3. A deconvolution technique for processing small intestinal transit data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deconvolution technique can be used to compute small intestinal impulse response curves from scintigraphic data. Previously suggested approaches, however, are sensitive to noise from the data. We investigated whether deconvolution based on a new simple iterative convolving technique can be recommended. Eight healthy volunteers ingested a meal that contained indium-111 diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid labelled water and technetium-99m stannous colloid labelled omelette. Imaging was performed at 30-min intervals until all radioactivity was located in the colon. A Fermi function=(1+e-αβ)/(1+e(t-α)β) was chosen to characterize the small intestinal impulse response function. By changing only two parameters, α and β, it is possible to obtain configurations from nearly a square function to nearly a monoexponential function. Small intestinal input function was obtained from the gastric emptying curve and convolved with the Fermi function. The sum of least squares was used to find α and β yielding the best fit of the convolved curve to the observed small intestinal time-activity curve. Finally, a small intestinal mean transit time was calculated from the Fermi function referred to. In all cases, we found an excellent fit of the convolved curve to the observed small intestinal time-activity curve, that is the Fermi function reflected the small intestinal impulse response curve. Small intestinal mean transit time of liquid marker (median 2.02 h) was significantly shorter than that of solid marker (median 2.99 h; P<0.02). The iterative convolving technique seems to be an attractive alternative to ordinary approaches for the processing of small intestinal transit data. (orig.)

  4. Determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids at ultra-trace levels by means of online coupling ion exchange chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with indirect detection via their Pd2+-complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 8 important APCA’s analyzed in one run instead of 3 in the previous method. • Pd2+ extents the methods applicability to 3 and more dentate amino carboxylic acids. • Separation system optimized for the isocratic determination of important APCA’s. • Thermodynamic stability of APCA–Pd2+ complexes is higher than for Fe3+ and In3+. • Pd2+ is kinetically much slower than Fe3+ and In3+ and makes the method more rugged. - Abstract: A new indirect IC-ICP-MS method for the determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids in water samples is described. It is based on the addition of an excess of Pd(II) to water samples. The analytes are forced into very strong and negatively charged palladium complexes, separated by ion exchange chromatography and detected by their palladium content, utilizing an on-line coupled ICP-MS. This method is suitable to determine the concentration of 8 aminopolycarboxylic acids (nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), (2-carboxyethyl) iminodiacetic acid (β-ADA), methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), 2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1,3-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,3-PDTA) and 1,2-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,2-PDTA) at the ng kg−1 level. The method is faster and easier than the established gas chromatography (GC)-method ISO 16588:2002 [1] and up to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ion pair chromatography based method of DIN 38413-8. Analytic performance is superior to ISO 16588:2002 and the comparability is good

  5. Survivability of Affordable High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites for Propulsion Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Derrick; Haque, Anwar; Vaidya, Uday; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PMR-type polyimides are regarded as state of the art high temperature polymers, due to their excellent thermo-mechanical properties and thermo-oxidative stability. One of their drawbacks, however is the inability to process them using cost-effective processing methods such as Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Resin Film Infusion (RFI). Development of low viscosity, high temperature polymers has been the subject of intense research. Recently, a new generation of low viscosity polyimides were synthesized by the introduction of twisted biphenyl or binapthyl groups into the backbone. This report details the progress for Year 1, which has involved acquiring samples and initiating Phases I and II of the proposed research. Specifically, studies of the process-property relationships of a series of polymers using oligomers based on 2,3,3' ,4'-biphenyltertracarboxylic dianhydride (PBDA) and a mixture of a diamine, BAX and a triamine, 1,3,5-Tris (4-aminophenoxybenzene), TAB, where the amount of TAB was varied have been initiated. The sample containing 10 percent TAB possesses a slightly higher degree of crystalline order versus that of the 20 percent TAB sample, based on x-ray diffraction studies of the b-staged oligomers. Both systems lose all of the crystalline order upon curing, however. The chemorheology has been studied as a function of the TAB content. While the magnitude of the viscosity is essentially the same for both systems, the cure kinetics of the 10 percent TAB system is faster than that for the 20 percent TAB system. The sample exhibits a melting-recrystallization-remelting behavior before the crosslinking commences. Correlation of other kinetic parameters, such as the activation energies for curing, the Tg and mechanical properties to the structure of these systems is underway. Future studies will involve characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of the pure resins and the fabrication of fiber reinforced composites using these materials.

  6. Influence of neuropathology on convection-enhanced delivery in the rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Kantorovich

    Full Text Available Local drug delivery techniques, such as convention-enhanced delivery (CED, are promising novel strategies for delivering therapeutic agents otherwise limited by systemic toxicity and blood-brain-barrier restrictions. CED uses positive pressure to deliver infusate homogeneously into interstitial space, but its distribution is dependent upon appropriate tissue targeting and underlying neuroarchitecture. To investigate effects of local tissue pathology and associated edema on infusate distribution, CED was applied to the hippocampi of rats that underwent electrically-induced, self-sustaining status epilepticus (SE, a prolonged seizure. Infusion occurred 24 hours post-SE, using a macromolecular tracer, the magnetic resonance (MR contrast agent gadolinium chelated with diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid and covalently attached to albumin (Gd-albumin. High-resolution T1- and T2-relaxation-weighted MR images were acquired at 11.1 Tesla in vivo prior to infusion to generate baseline contrast enhancement images and visualize morphological changes, respectively. T1-weighted imaging was repeated post-infusion to visualize final contrast-agent distribution profiles. Histological analysis was performed following imaging to characterize injury. Infusions of Gd-albumin into injured hippocampi resulted in larger distribution volumes that correlated with increased injury severity, as measured by hyperintense regions seen in T2-weighted images and corresponding histological assessments of neuronal degeneration, myelin degradation, astrocytosis, and microglial activation. Edematous regions included the CA3 hippocampal subfield, ventral subiculum, piriform and entorhinal cortex, amygdalar nuclei, middle and laterodorsal/lateroposterior thalamic nuclei. This study demonstrates MR-visualized injury processes are reflective of cellular alterations that influence local distribution volume, and provides a quantitative basis for the planning of local therapeutic

  7. Chicken manure biochar as liming and nutrient source for acid Appalachian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Amir; Gonzalez, Javier M; Lima, Isabel M; Godwin, Harry W; Halvorson, Jonathan J; Boyer, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Acid weathered soils often require lime and fertilizer application to overcome nutrient deficiencies and metal toxicity to increase soil productivity. Slow-pyrolysis chicken manure biochars, produced at 350 and 700°C with and without subsequent steam activation, were evaluated in an incubation study as soil amendments for a representative acid and highly weathered soil from Appalachia. Biochars were mixed at 5, 10, 20, and 40 g kg into a Gilpin soil (fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludult) and incubated in a climate-controlled chamber for 8 wk, along with a nonamended control and soil amended with agronomic dolomitic lime (AgLime). At the end of the incubation, soil pH, nutrient availability (by Mehlich-3 and ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [AB-DTPA] extractions), and soil leachate composition were evaluated. Biochar effect on soil pH was process- and rate-dependent. Biochar increased soil pH from 4.8 to 6.6 at the high application rate (40 g kg), but was less effective than AgLime. Biochar produced at 350°C without activation had the least effect on soil pH. Biochar increased soil Mehlich-3 extractable micro- and macronutrients. On the basis of unit element applied, increase in pyrolysis temperature and biochar activation decreased availability of K, P, and S compared to nonactivated biochar produced at 350°C. Activated biochars reduced AB-DTPA extractable Al and Cd more than AgLime. Biochar did not increase NO in leachate, but increased dissolved organic carbon, total N and P, PO, SO, and K at high application rate (40 g kg). Risks of elevated levels of dissolved P may limit chicken manure biochar application rate. Applied at low rates, these biochars provide added nutritional value with low adverse impact on leachate composition. PMID:22751051

  8. Potential use of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine radioaerosol as a marker of pulmonary neuroadrenergic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we performed: (1) a chromatographic study of nebulized 123I-MIBG; (2) a quantitative evaluation of the lung distribution of 123I-MIBG radioaerosol in normal subjects as compared with that of technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) and (3) an assessment of 123I-MIBG lung clearance both under control conditions and after pharmacologically induced beta-blockade, again compared with 99mTc-DTPA. For these purposes, eight normal subjects were divided randomly into an ''MIBG group'' and a ''DTPA group'' (four subjects each) and submitted to three scintigraphic studies each: a baseline study, and studies after the administration of a low (80 mg) and a high (160 mg) dose of propranolol. Radiochemical purity of nebulized 123I-MIBG ranged between 97.18% and 98.70%. The lung distribution of 123I-MIBG, as judged by the aerosol penetration index, was identical to that of 99mTc-DTPA under all study conditions. The 123I-MIBG clearance rate was slower than that of 99mTc-DTPA under baseline conditions (135±32 min vs 69±27 min, P99mTc-DTPA clearance did not change. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) the nebulization does not affect the radiochemical purity of 123I-MIBG; (2) the lung distribution of 123I-MIBG is homogeneous in normal subjects; (3) the pulmonary clearance of 123I-MIBG reflects the functional status of the neuroadrenergic system of the lungs. Thus this scintigraphic method is suitable for research and perhaps for future clinical use. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING CHARACTERISTICS AND SURGICAL RESULTS OF ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Xing; Kan Deng; Zu-yuan Ren; Chang-bao Su; Ren-zhi Wang; Yi Yang; Wen-bin Ma; Yong-ning Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and surgical results of adrenocortico-tropin (ACTH) -secreting pituitary adenomas.Methods MRI characteristics and relationship between MRI positive rate and surgical results of 266 patients with pathologically confLrmed Cushing's disease were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent thin-section sagittal and coronal scans of the pituitary gland before and after administration of gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) on a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner, and dynamic enhanced MRI was performed in 39 patients. All patients un-derwent transsphenoidal adenomectomy. Endocrinological examinations and assessments were performed.Results Preoperative MRI revealed normal results in 41 ( 15.4% ) cases, microadenoma in 179 (67.3%), mac-roadenoma in 42 ( 15.8% ), and huge adenoma in 4 ( 1.5% ). Pituitary apoplexy was found in 13 (4.9%) cases.Positive rate of ACTH-secreting adenomas was 84. 6% (225/266) on MRI scans, and that of small microadenomas was 87.2% (34/39) on dynamic enhanced MRI scans. Preoperative endocrinological tests of 199 cases supported the diagno-sis of typical Cushing's disease, while the other 67 cases had atypical endocrinological results. The endocrinological cure rate, remission rate, and inefficacy rate were 85. 7%, 7.9%, and 6. 4%, respectively. There was no difference in the in-itial endoerinological cure rate between the patients with positive and normal MRI results (90% vs. 87. 8%, P =0.904).Conclusions Enhanced coronal pituitary MRI is helpful for preoperative localization of ACTH-seereting pituitary microadenoma. Dynamic enhanced MRI may improve detection rate of microadenoma. There is no marked difference in the surgical results for patients with preoperative MRI results indicating presence or absence of microadenoma.

  10. New estradiol based {sup 111}In complex towards the estrogen receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vultos, Filipe; Cunha, Susana; Fernandes, Celia; Oliveira, Maria Cristina; Marques, Fernanda; Santos, Isabel; Gano, Lurdes [Universidade de Lisboa, Bobadela (Portugal). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares C2TN; Botelho, Maria Filomena [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Inst. de Biofisica/Biomatematica

    2015-07-01

    The oestrogen receptor (ER) is an important tumour target for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy due to its overexpression in many malignant cells as compared to normal cells. Aiming to find new functional molecular imaging/therapeutic agents for ER positive tumours, we have synthesized a new estradiol derivative substituted at the 16-α position with a diethylene triamine tetraacetic acid (DTTA)-like chelating ligand through a four-carbon spacer. The new bioconjugate (H{sub 4}L), was used to synthesize the corresponding indium complexes (InL/[{sup 111}In]L). The radioactive complex [{sup 111}In]L was prepared in high yield (>98%) at final concentrations of 1 x 10{sup -4} M and its chemical identity was ascertained by comparing its HPLC gamma-chromatogram to the HPLC UV-vis-chromatogram of the InL analogue. [{sup 111}In]L is hydrophilic and kinetically stable in the presence of an excess of apo-transferrin and in human blood serum. Cellular studies in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-431) suggest that [{sup 111}In]L uptake may be mediated by an ER dependent mechanism. Biodistribution studies were performed in mice indicating a rapid clearance from most organs and a slow total excretion that occurs mainly by hepatobiliar pathway. High in vivo stability of [{sup 111}In]L was confirmed by HPLC analysis of urine and blood samples. Nevertheless, the hydrophilicity, the low ER affinity and the biodistribution of [{sup 111}In]L indicate that structural modifications are required to improve its behaviour for ER targeting in vivo.

  11. Assessment of pulmonary aerosol deposition and epithelial permeability in 99mTc-DTPA inhalation scintigram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree of lung injury in bronchiolo-alveolar lesions may be quantitated from the pulmonary epithelial permeability estimated by 99mTc-diethylene triamine penta acetate (DTPA) aerosol inhalation scintigram. However, significant aerosol deposition sometimes occurs in the central airways and obscures the peameability change in the lung periphery. The radioaerosol deposition pattern and its effct on assessing the pulmonary epithelial permeability was studied. 99mTc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed in 47 patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF), 12 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), and 27 non-smoking and 17 smoking healthy volunteers. The scintigraphic images of the lungs were classified into 4 grades: 0=homogeneous distribution; 1=patchy distribution; 2=hot spots with partial defects; and 3= hot spots with little deposition in the lung field. The rate constant was used as a parameter for the permeability. The smokers and patients with PF showed increased kep values of 2.36±1.21%/min (mean±SD) and 2.49±1.29% min as compared with the nonsmokers with 0.94±0.27% min, respectively. The nonsmokers, smokers and 36 patients with PF were classified as deposition grade 0 or 1, suggesting good aerosol penetration to the lung periphery. All patients with COPD showed either grade 2 or 3 deposition. Aerosol deposition in the central airways can cause underestimation of the permeability because of the thicker lining layer in the bronchus than in the alveolus. In conclusion, the aerosol deposition pattern should be analyzed when the method is applied clinically to assess the permeability of the bronchiolo-alveolar epithelium. (author)

  12. Chelating impact assessment of biological ad chemical chelates on metal extraction from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination is the result of uncontrolled waste dumping and poor practices by humans. Of all the pollutants heavy metals are of particular concern due to their atmospheric deposition, leaching capacity and non-biodegradability. Heavy metal containing effluent is discharged into the agricultural fields and water bodies. This results in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and the crops grown on that soil. Studies have revealed detrimental impacts on soil fertility and the poor health of animals and humans. Phytoextraction is widely researched for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of phytoextraction heavy metals have to be available to the plants in soluble form. In this study the potential of different chelating agents was assessed in solubilizing the heavy metals making easy for plants to uptake them. For this purpose efficient chemical and biological chelating agent had to be identified. Along with that an optimum dose and application time for chemical chelating agent was determined. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), Nitriloacetic acid (NTA) were applied to the soil, containing Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd, at different concentrations and application time. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were incubated in soil for different time periods. In correspondence with findings of the study, Pb and Cr were best solubilized by 5mM EDTA. For Cd and Cu 5mM DTPA carried out efficient chelation. NTA showed relatively inadequate solubilisation, although for Cr it performed equal to EDTA. A. niger and A. flavus instead of solubilizing adsorbed the metals in their biomass. Adsorption was mainly carried out by A. niger. (author)

  13. Polyamines as modulators of microcycle conidiation in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, N; Saxena, R K; Gupta, R; Rajam, M V

    1996-03-01

    Since polyamines (PAs) play a potential role in the regulation of growth and developmental processes in a wide variety of organisms, we have examined the influence of the PAs putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) and the PA biosynthetic inhibitors alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) and cyclohexylamine (CHA), singly and in combinations on microcycle conidiation (MC) in Aspergillus flavus. The exogenous application of the diamine Put (concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5 mM) caused a sharp decline of MC in a dose-dependent fashion, but induced vegetative growth. However, the triamine Spd (0.1-5 mM) had a minimal effect on MC and induced a shift from MC to normal condition. PA inhibitors, especially DFMO, MGBG and CHA, produced greater inhibition of MC and complete inhibition of MC was observed at 5 mM of these inhibitors. DFMA even at 5 mM had only a weak inhibitory effect on MC. DFMO also inhibited conidial germination and germ tube growth. MGBG and CHA, while having an inhibitory effect on MC, induced vegetative growth. The inhibitory effect of PA inhibitors was partially reversed by exogenous Put or Spd, with Spd being more effective than Put. The analysis of free PA levels during various phases of MC revealed that undifferentiated spores contained a high Put/Spd ratio and there was a dramatic decrease in Put/Spd ratio before and during microcycle conidiophore maturity. The change in spermine titres could not be detected. These observations imply that Put is essential for vegetative growth, while Spd is involved in MC, and that a low Put/Spd ratio seems to be important for spore differentiation to MC.

  14. Assessment of ventricular function with first-pass radionuclide angiography using technetium 99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile: A European multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisi, G.; Sciagra, R. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiopatologia Clinica); Buell, U. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Medizinische Fakultaet); Britton, K.E. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Eilles, C. (Luitpoldkrankenhaus, Wuerzburg (Germany, F.R.)); Eissner, D.; Hahn, K. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinikum); Hoeffken, H.; Joseph, K. (Marburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinikum); McKillop, J.H. (Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (UK). Dept. of Medicine); Larock, M.P.; Rigo, P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sart-Tilman, Tilman (Belgium). Service de Medecine Nucleaire); Mueller, S.P.; Reiners, C. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Klinikum)

    1991-03-01

    In the context of a multicentre study on the use of technetium 99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi), we evaluated the accuracy of the ventricular function assessed at rest by means of first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography acquired during the injection of the tracer for myocardial perfursion scintigraphy. The results were compared with first-pass studies performed using reference tracers sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m or technetium 99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid or with gated radionuclide angiocardiography. A total of 66 patients of the 105 enrolled in the study could be evaluated. The comparison of the first-pass studies was possible in 33 subjects with regard to the left ventricular ejection fraction, yielding r=0.909 (P<10{sup -6}), and in 22 cases with regard to the right ventricular ejection fraction, yielding r=0.712 (P<0.001). The comparison between the first-pass study using {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi and the equilibrium gated radionuclide angiocardiography was possible for the left ventricular ejection fraction in 26 cases, with r = 0.937 (P<10{sup -6}), and for the right ventricular ejection fraction in 15 subjects, with r=0.783 (P<0.001). In conclusion, the assessment of ventricular function performed by acquiring a first-pass radionuclide angiocardiograph during the injection of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi for perfusion myocardial scintigraphy can be considered reliable and accurate, when compared with the usually employed techniques. This result confirms the feasibility of a combined evaluation of perfusion and function at rest and during stress testing, which represents one of the most interesting advantages offered by the use of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi. (orig.).

  15. Using 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scan as compared with computed tomography to detect lung injury in blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of pulmonary contusion in patients with blunt chest trauma is very important so as to commence therapy immediately to avoid irreversible damage. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) aerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in comparison with chest computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of pulmonary contusion at acute blunt chest trauma. Twenty-nine patients with isolated blunt chest trauma were referred to the emergency department of our hospital, and nine healthy people participated in this study. Sixteen patients who had pulmonary contusion on CT scans were referred to as group 1, and 13 patients who had normal CT scans as group 2. Nine healthy people comprised a control group. 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy was performed on the first day in all patients. The mean half time (T1/2) and penetration index values of 99mTc-DTPA clearance were significantly lower in groups 1 and 2 compared with the control group. Among the three groups, there were no significant differences in arterial blood gas analysis except for PO2. The mean T1/2 value of 99mTc-DTPA clearance did correlate with PO2 values but not with pH, PCO2, or HCO3 values. 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging may serve as a useful adjunct and supportive method to chest CT scanning for detecting mild pulmonary contusion. (author)

  16. Detection of alveolar epithelial injury by 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scan following blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DTPA clearance rate is a reliable index of alveolar epithelial permeability, and is a highly sensitive marker of pulmonary epithelial damage, even of mild degree. In this study, 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was used to assess the pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and to investigate the possible application of this permeability value as an indicator of early alveolar or interstitial changes in patients with blunt chest trauma. A total of 26 patients was chest trauma (4 female, 22 male, 31-80 yrs, mean age; 53±13 yrs) who were referred to the emergency department in our hospital participated in this study. Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was performed on the first and thirtieth days after trauma. Clearance half times (T1/2) were calculated by placing a mono-exponential fit on the curves. Penetration index (PI) was calculated on the first-minute image. On the first day, mean T1/2 value of the whole lung was 63±19 minutes (min), and thirtieth day mean T1/2 value was 67±21 min. On the first day, mean PI values of the lung and 30th day mean PI value were 0.60±0.05, and 0.63 ±0.05, respectively. Significant changes were observed in radioaerosol clearance and penetration indices. Following chest trauma, clearance of 99mTc-DTPA increased owing to breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier. This increase in the epithelial permeability of the lung appears to be an early manifestation of lung disease that may lead to efficient therapy in the early phase. (author)

  17. Compensatory changes in the function of the remaining kidney immediately after unilateral nephrectomy in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Live kidney donation is an established form of organ donation but carries the risk of an unnecessary surgery in a normal individual for the benefit of the recipient. Despite a number of recent studies on the renal function of long-term kidney donors, little attention has been paid to the damaging effects of compensatory hyper-filtration on renal tubular cells immediately after donor nephrectomy. The present study therefore aimed to examine the immediate changes in renal function of the remaining kidney using a sheep model of unilateral nephrectomy. We used the gamma camera-based method to measure the glomerular filtration rate and the tubular excretion values after simultaneous injection of 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and 131I-ortho-iodohippurate tracers. Compared were the differences in the functions between the remaining left kidney immediately after clamping the right renal pedicle and the baseline values that were measured one week before unilateral nephrectomy. After radionuclide data acquisition was completed, the right kidney was removed. The mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 52.3% from the baseline values (29.5±2.7 to 45.0±6.7 ml/min; n=40, p<0.001), while the mean effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) increased by 40% (225.5±27.8 to 357.8±38.94 ml/min; p<0.001), respectively. Mean filtration fraction was increased from 0.117 to 0.127 immediately after nephrectomy (p<0.001). We conclude that after unilateral nephrectomy the remaining kidney immediately compensates for the loss of a donated kidney by increasing glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow. (author)

  18. Improving the efficiency of phytoremediation using electrically charged plant and chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar

    2016-02-01

    The low efficiency of phytoremediation is a considerable problem that limits the application of this environmentally friendly method on heavy metal-polluted soils. The combination of chelate-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation could offer new opportunities to improve the effectiveness of phytoextraction. The current experiment aims to investigate the effects of electrical fields and chelating agents on phytoremediation efficiency. In a pot experiment using mine soil, poultry manure extract (PME), cow manure extract (CME), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were applied to soil as chelating agents (2 g kg(-1)) at the beginning of the flowering stage. A week later, Helianthus annuus (sunflower) was negatively charged by inserting a stainless steel needle with 10 and 30 V DC electricity in the lowest part of the stems for 1 h each day for a 14-day period. At the end of the experiment, the shoot and root dry weight, lead (Pb) concentration in plant organs, translocation factor (TF), metal uptake index (UI), and soil available Pb (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) were detected. Results indicated that the application of electrical fields had no significant impact on the shoot and root dry weights, while Pb concentration and UI increased in the 10-V EDTA treatment by 500 % compared to control. There was no significant difference between UI in 30- and 10-V EDTA treatments. Soil available Pb significantly increased in the 30-V treated soil. A positive correlation was observed between the available Pb in soil near the root and Pb concentration in shoot, its TF, and UI. In conclusion, a negatively charged plant along with the application of EDTA significantly increased the phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:26423283

  19. Gd-DTPA T1 relaxivity in brain tissue obtained by convection-enhanced delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, Peter J [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Broaddus, William C; Chen Zhijian; Gillies, George T [Department of Neurosurgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Fatouros, Panos P; Corwin, Frank D, E-mail: wbroaddus@mcvh-vcu.ed [Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2010-06-21

    A common approach to quantify gadolinium (Gd) contrast agents involves measuring the post-contrast change in T1 rate and then using the constant T1 relaxivity R to determine the contrast agent concentration. Because this method is fast and non-invasive, it could be potentially valuable in many areas of brain research. However, to accurately measure contrast agent concentrations in the brain, the T1 relaxivity R of the specific agent must be accurately known. Furthermore, the macromolecular content and compartmentalization of the brain extracellular space (ECS) are expected to significantly alter R from values measured in aqueous solutions. In this study, the T1 relaxivity R of gadolinium-diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was measured following direct interstitial infusions of three different contrast agent concentrations to the parenchyma of rat brains. Changes in magnetic resonance (MR) T1 values were compared to brain slice concentrations determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to determine R in 15 rats. Additionally, samples of cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine were analyzed to evaluate possible Gd-DTPA clearance from the brain. The T1 relaxivity R of Gd-DTPA in the brain ECS was measured to be 5.35 (mM s){sup -1} in a 2.4 T field. This value is considerably higher than estimations used in studies by other groups. Measurements of brain Gd-DTPA tissue concentrations using MRI and ICP-AES demonstrated a high degree of coincidence. Clearance of Gd-DTPA was minimal at the time point immediately after infusion. These results suggest that the environment of the brain does in fact significantly affect Gd T1 relaxivity, and that MRI can accurately measure contrast agent concentrations when this relaxivity is well characterized.

  20. Assessment of Tumor Radioresponsiveness and Metastatic Potential by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It has been suggested that gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) may provide clinically useful biomarkers for personalized cancer treatment. In this preclinical study, we investigated the potential of DCE-MRI as a noninvasive method for assessing the radioresponsiveness and metastatic potential of tumors. Methods and Materials: R-18 melanoma xenografts growing in BALB/c nu/nu mice were used as experimental tumor models. Fifty tumors were subjected to DCE-MRI, and parametric images of Ktrans (the volume transfer constant of Gd-DTPA) and ve (the fractional distribution volume of Gd-DTPA) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI series. The tumors were irradiated after the DCE-MRI, either with a single dose of 10 Gy for detection of radiobiological hypoxia (30 tumors) or with five fractions of 4 Gy in 48 h for assessment of radioresponsiveness (20 tumors). The host mice were then euthanized and examined for lymph node metastases, and the primary tumors were resected for measurement of cell survival in vitro. Results: Tumors with hypoxic cells showed significantly lower Ktrans values than tumors without significant hypoxia (p trans decreased with increasing cell surviving fraction for tumors given fractionated radiation treatment (p trans values than tumors in metastasis-negative mice (p e and tumor hypoxia, radioresponsiveness, or metastatic potential could not be detected. Conclusions: R-18 tumors with low Ktrans values are likely to be resistant to radiation treatment and have a high probability of developing lymph node metastases. The general validity of these observations should be investigated further by studying preclinical tumor models with biological properties different from those of the R-18 tumors.

  1. Pi-stacked interactions in explosive crystals: buffers against external mechanical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaoyang; Wang, Xiaochuan; Huang, Hui

    2008-07-01

    The pi-stacked interactions in some explosive crystal packing are discussed. Taking a typical pi-stacked explosive 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-1,3,5-triamine (TATB) as a sample and using molecular simulations, we investigated the nature of the pi-stacked interactions versus the external mechanical stimuli causing possible slide and compression of explosives. As a result, between the neighbor layers in the TATB unit cell, the electrostatic attraction decreases with a little decrease of vdW attraction when its top layer slides, whereas the vdW attraction increases with a decrease of electrostatic attraction when TATB crystal is compressed along its c axis. Meanwhile, we studied the correlation between the pi-stacked structures and the impact sensitivities of explosives by means of three representatives including TATB with typical planar pi-stacked structures, 2,2-dinitroethylene-1,1-diamine (Fox-7) with wavelike pi-stacked structures, and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) without pi-stacked structure. The results showed that pi-stacked structures, particularly planar layers, can effectively buffer against external mechanical stimuli. That is, pi-stacked structures can partly convert the mechanical energy acting on them into their intermolecular interaction energy, to avoid the increase of the molecular vibration resulting in the explosive decomposition, the formation of hot spots, and the final detonation. This is another reason for the low mechanical sensitivity of pi-stacked explosives besides their stable conjugated molecular structures. PMID:18529058

  2. Comparison between doppler ultrasonography and renal scintigraphy in assessment of post-transplant renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeo Chang; Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Kim, Seong Min; Ahn, Moon Sang; Yang, Shin Seok [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To compare the usefulness of Doppler ultrasonography and renal scintigraphy in the assessment of short- and long-term function of transplanted kidneys. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 79 patients who underwent Doppler ultrasonography and technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid renal scintigraphy on the same day, within 4 days of renal transplantation. Image parameters were evaluated for statistical differences. There was a strong positive correlation between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as measured by renal scintigraphy and the estimated GFR (eGFR) based on serum creatinine levels (correlation coefficient = 0.71). Scan grade according to the time-activity curve, resistive index, and end diastolic velocity showed moderate correlations with the eGFR (correlation coefficients = -0.557, -0.329, and 0.370, respectively) in the early post-transplantation period. The mean survival time was longer in patients with lower resistive indices (≤ 0.68, 54.9 months vs. > 0.68, 29.5 months) and lower pulsatility indices (≤ 1.32, 53.8 months vs. > 1.32, 28.7 months); however, there were no statistically significant differences in the long-term follow-up period (p = 0.121 for resistive index and p = 0.074 for pulsatility index). Renal scintigraphy is a more sensitive method than Doppler ultrasonography for assessing transplanted kidney function in the early post-transplantation period. Doppler ultrasonography might reflect the long-term survival time. However, it is difficult to predict long-term renal function using either method.

  3. Accumulation and Movement of Four Potentially Toxic Elements in Soils Throughout Five Years, During and After Biosolid Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Zubillaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we have studied the accumulation of four PTEs (Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during and after biosolid application, in two soils with different clay content and their eventual movement with depth. The study was performed in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, on a Typic Argiudoll and on a Typic Hapludoll. Treatments were: control and biosolid application, at doses of 14 Mg ha-1year-1 (dry matter. There were two types of sampling: (i Topsoil sampling, at 0-0.15 m depth, taken throughout five years and (ii Depth soil sampling at regular intervals of 0.33 m from top soil to 3-4 m depth, taken two years after biosolid application. All samples were taken on April. PTEs, extracted hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acids (total or extracted with DiethyleneTriaminePentaacetic acid-DTPA (available, were determined by ICP. Total concentrations of PTEs in topsoils of both soils did not increase significantly due to biosolid application. The exception was the significantly high Pb concentration in the Typic Hapludoll. DTPA extractable metals showed some concentration changes throughout the studied period. Total and available PTEs did not show mobility with the depth of both soils. The exception was total Cd in the Typic Argiudoll, which moved in depth. With only those two exceptions, there is neither PTEs accumulation in topsoils nor PTEs movements in soil depth. The first could be attributed to biosolid composition and dosage used in the region. The lack of movement in depth appears more related to the characteristics of the studied soils.

  4. Study of the degradation mechanisms of amines used for the capture of CO2 in industrial fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming leads to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Post combustion CO2 capture with solvent is the most advanced technology to reduce CO2 emissions in industrial fumes. A major problem associated with chemical absorption of CO2 using the benchmark ethanolamine (MEA) is solvent degradation through irreversible side reactions with CO2 and O2 which leads to numerous harmful impacts to the process: corrosion, solvent loss, foaming, fouling, and viscosity increase. So, developing new amines with higher chemical stability is essential. This work is based on the chemical stability study of 17 different molecules. Their structures have been chosen in order to establish structure-property relationships: alkanolamines, known for gas treatment application (MEA, DEA, MDEA, AMP...), di-amines, and tri-amines without alcohol function. Impact of temperature, CO2, and O2 on degradation has been studied. Strong experimental conditions have been used to observe significant degradation after a 15 days experiment. Separation, identification and quantification of degradation products have been performed by using different testing instructions such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ionic chromatography and NMR. Different mechanisms are proposed to explain most of degradation compounds. Radical reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, ring-closure reactions and piperazinones formation) are involved under O2 pressure whereas CO2 induces ionic reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, addition, ring-closure reactions and oxazolidinones or imidazolidinones formation). Large discrepancies of stability are noticed among the different amines. Knowledge of degradation products and reaction mechanisms has thus permitted to establish some relationships between structure and chemical stability: for example, role of the amine function (primary, secondary, tertiary), impact of alkyl chain length between the two amino groups and steric hindrance. (author)

  5. Scintigraphic evaluation of hepatic blood flow after intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, J. [Department of Medicine B, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Schober, O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Reimer, P. [Department of Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Domschke, W. [Department of Medicine B, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    1997-06-10

    In patients with liver cirrhosis a transjugularly placed intrahepatic portocaval shunt (TIPS) is a non-surgical portosystemic device which aims to reduce portal venous pressure. In comparison with Doppler sonography, we evaluated in 28 patients the diagnostic impact of liver perfusion scintigraphy (with technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid) in the assessment of changes in the hepatic blood flow after TIPS shunting. The arterial and portal contributions to hepatic flow were calculated from the areas under the biphasic time-activity curve. In the course of TIPS shunting, patency is threatened by reocclusion. Angiography is the gold standard for TIPS shunt reassessment. However, there is a need for a less invasive diagnostic procedure, such as scintigraphy or Doppler sonography, for the early detection of shunt insufficiency. Scintigraphy demonstrated that prior to TIPS shunting the portal venous contribution to hepatic perfusion was reduced to 29.2%, this reduction being due to portal hypertension. After TIPS placement a significant increase in portal venous perfusion was observed (38.2%; P<0.02). TIPS shunt occlusion was identified in patients by a significant reduction in the scintigraphically measured portal venous contribution to hepatic blood flow. Hepatic perfusion scintigraphy appears to be a valuable method to determine the immediate effect of TIPS on hepatic blood flow. Post-TIPS follow-up studies of hepatic haemodynamics by liver perfusion scintigraphy appear able to contribute to the detection of TIPS shunt occlusion before the clinical consequences of this complication have become apparent. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Organic acids inhibit the formation of pyromorphite and Zn-phosphate in phosphorous amended Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debela, F; Arocena, J M; Thring, R W; Whitcombe, T

    2013-02-15

    Pyromorphite (PY) and some zinc phosphates (Zn-P) are very sparingly soluble minerals and hence can immobilize Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. However, mechanisms leading to the poor efficiency of PY and Zn-P formation in contaminated soils amended with P still remain unclear. We studied the influence of two low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) - oxalic acid and citric acid and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) - in PY and Zn-P formation in a P-amended contaminated soil. Despite the high levels of metals (∼4% Pb and 21% Zn) in the study soil, the addition of up to 1% inorganic P transformed only up to 37% and 17% of the total Pb and Zn to PY and Zn-P, respectively. Semi-quantitative estimates from a linear combination fitting of X-ray absorption near edge spectra (LC-XANES fitting) showed that the formation of PY decreased from 37% to 3% of the total Pb in the presence of oxalic acid and the addition of 1% P. The reduced PY formation may be associated with the increase in organic-bound Pb from 9% to 54% and decrease in carbonate associated Pb from 42% to 12% with oxalic acid addition as indicated by a chemical sequential extraction (SE) technique. Citric acid seemed to have a less adverse effect in PY formation than oxalic acid. Our data also suggests both oxalic and citric acids have less adverse effects on the efficiency of Zn-P formation. From this study we conclude that the abundance of LMWOA in soil environments can be one factor contributing to the poor efficiency of P amendments practices to effectively immobilize Pb and Zn in metal contaminated soils.

  7. Stability of melamine-exfoliated graphene in aqueous media: quantum-mechanical insights at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Antonio M; Muñoz-García, Ana B; Crescenzi, Orlando; Vázquez, Ester; Pavone, Michele

    2016-08-10

    In recent experiments, melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) has been proposed as an effective exfoliating agent to obtain high quality graphene from graphite. After washing out the melamine in excess, small amounts (ppm) are still needed to stabilize the dispersion of graphene flakes in aqueous media. To understand the origin of this behaviour, we investigated the melamine-graphene-water system and the fundamental interactions that determine its structure and energetics. To disentangle the subtle interplay of hydrogen-bonding and dispersive forces we used state-of-the-art ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. First, we focused on the case of water molecules interacting with melamine-graphene assemblies at different melamine coverages. We found that water-melamine interactions provide the driving force for washing off the melamine from graphene. Then, we addressed the interaction of single and double layers of water molecules with the graphene surface in the presence of an adsorbed melamine molecule. We found that this melamine acts as a non-covalent anchor for keeping a number of water molecules conveniently close to the graphene surface, thus helping its stabilization in aqueous media. Our analysis helps understanding how competing weak forces can lead to a stable graphene water suspension thanks to small amounts of adsorbed melamine. From our results, we derive simple indications on how the water-graphene interfacial properties can be tuned via non-covalent adsorption of small functional molecules with H-bond donor/acceptor groups. These new hints can be helpful to prepare stable graphene dispersions in water and so to unlock graphene potential in aqueous environments. PMID:27452832

  8. Chemical features of soils in a natural forest of West Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Eszter; Bidló, András

    2015-04-01

    The present research focuses on the chemical results of soils formed on miocene carbonate rocks in a natural forest of West Hungary. Soil profiles derived from the Szárhalom Forest, located near the Lake Fertő, next to the city of Sopron. Six soil profiles were opened and analysed in this area. In the field the following physical parameters were evaluated from the soil profiles: transition, structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, colour, physical assortment, concretion and soil defect. Laboratory analysis involved the measurement of acidity, particle distribution, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble phosphorus- and potassium content, potassium chloride soluble calcium- and magnesium content, ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic-acid (EDTA) and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic-acid (DTPA) soluble copper-, iron-, manganese- and zinc contents. These soils formed under a hornbeam-oak forest climate mainly and under a beech forest climate diffusely. The location and climate of the sites forms a basis of the comparison of the soils with similar base rock. The formation of the acidic and humus-rich upper layer of the soil profiles is influenced by the mineral composition and the weathering of the rocks. X-ray diffraction (Philips P W3710/PW1050 type X-ray diffractometer), thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter) and ICP-OES (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series) were also carried out to determine the mineral composition of the soils and the content of heavy metals. The soil samples were collected with both traditional and undisturbed (using the Kubiena box) sampling methods to enable further micromorphological investigations as well. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Key words: Natural forest, Miocene limestone, Mineral composition, Thermal analysis, Micromorphology

  9. A deconvolution technique for processing small intestinal transit data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinch, K. [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Glostrup Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, H.B.W. [Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark); Madsen, J.L. [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The deconvolution technique can be used to compute small intestinal impulse response curves from scintigraphic data. Previously suggested approaches, however, are sensitive to noise from the data. We investigated whether deconvolution based on a new simple iterative convolving technique can be recommended. Eight healthy volunteers ingested a meal that contained indium-111 diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid labelled water and technetium-99m stannous colloid labelled omelette. Imaging was performed at 30-min intervals until all radioactivity was located in the colon. A Fermi function=(1+e{sup -{alpha}{beta}})/(1+e{sup (t-{alpha}){beta}}) was chosen to characterize the small intestinal impulse response function. By changing only two parameters, {alpha} and {beta}, it is possible to obtain configurations from nearly a square function to nearly a monoexponential function. Small intestinal input function was obtained from the gastric emptying curve and convolved with the Fermi function. The sum of least squares was used to find {alpha} and {beta} yielding the best fit of the convolved curve to the oberved small intestinal time-activity curve. Finally, a small intestinal mean transit time was calculated from the Fermi function referred to. In all cases, we found an excellent fit of the convolved curve to the observed small intestinal time-activity curve, that is the Fermi function reflected the small intestinal impulse response curve. Small intestinal mean transit time of liquid marker (median 2.02 h) was significantly shorter than that of solid marker (median 2.99 h; P<0.02). The iterative convolving technique seems to be an attractive alternative to ordinary approaches for the processing of small intestinal transit data. (orig.) With 2 figs., 13 refs.

  10. Study of the degradation mechanisms of amines used for the capture of CO{sub 2} in industrial fumes; Etude des mecanismes de degradation des amines utilisees pour le captage du CO{sub 2} dans les fumees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepaumier, H

    2008-10-15

    Global warming leads to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Post combustion CO{sub 2} capture with solvent is the most advanced technology to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in industrial fumes. A major problem associated with chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} using the benchmark ethanolamine (MEA) is solvent degradation through irreversible side reactions with CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} which leads to numerous harmful impacts to the process: corrosion, solvent loss, foaming, fouling, and viscosity increase. So, developing new amines with higher chemical stability is essential. This work is based on the chemical stability study of 17 different molecules. Their structures have been chosen in order to establish structure-property relationships: alkanolamines, known for gas treatment application (MEA, DEA, MDEA, AMP...), di-amines, and tri-amines without alcohol function. Impact of temperature, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} on degradation has been studied. Strong experimental conditions have been used to observe significant degradation after a 15 days experiment. Separation, identification and quantification of degradation products have been performed by using different testing instructions such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ionic chromatography and NMR. Different mechanisms are proposed to explain most of degradation compounds. Radical reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, ring-closure reactions and piperazinones formation) are involved under O{sub 2} pressure whereas CO{sub 2} induces ionic reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, addition, ring-closure reactions and oxazolidinones or imidazolidinones formation). Large discrepancies of stability are noticed among the different amines. Knowledge of degradation products and reaction mechanisms has thus permitted to establish some relationships between structure and chemical stability: for example, role of the amine function (primary, secondary, tertiary), impact of alkyl chain length between the two amino groups and steric

  11. Intradural intramedullary spinal cord meningioma in a seven years old female child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M G; Rahman, M R; Yeamin, M B

    2013-01-01

    Halima, a 7 years old female child was admitted initially in the Department of Neurosurgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Shahbagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh with the complaints of burning sensation in the neck for last four month. Initially pain was mild and gradually it became severe and agonizing at night which awakening her from sleep. Following fifteen days of admission, her left hand gradually became weak and numb. Subsequently, all four limbs became involved within one month. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed expansion of cervical cord with hypo-intense in T1 and inhomogeneous hyper-intense in T2 areas with widening of cervical canal. Post gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) films showed mild heterogeneous contrast enhancement of the cord at the C2-C4 level. The cervical disc showed normal signal intensity on T2WI. During surgical procedure, laminectomy was done at C1-C5 level to release compression and dura matter was opened. Biopsy from involved tissue was taken and sent for histopathological examination and reported as embronal rhabdomyosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of tumor showed negative reaction for desmin, focal positivity for pancytokeratin and positivity for S-100 protein. The tumor was then diagnosed as atypical meningioma,intradural-intramedullary (WHO grade-II). Then, following transfer to the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, BSMMU, protocol based chemotherapy was started followed by subsequent radiotherapy. The child was gradually improving after decompression of dura matter, commencement of chemotherapy and following external beam radiotherapy. So, an awareness of varied clinical manifestation of atypical meningioma of intrdural-intramedullary spinal cord tumor should be suspected to establish a correct diagnosis when the presenting signs and symptoms are enigmatic, presenting with intractable burning sensation or pain in the neck and investigation should be done

  12. Combined drug and surgery treatment of plutonium-contaminated wounds: indications obtained using a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Nina M; Coudert, Sylvie; Wilk, Jean Claude; Renault, Daniel; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2014-06-01

    There is an important requirement following accidental actinide contamination of wounds to limit the dissemination and retention of such alpha-emitting radionuclides. To reduce wound and systemic contamination, treatment approaches include chelation therapy with or without wound excision. However, it has been hypothesized that wound excision could lead to increased contaminant release and systemic organ retention. This study in the rat addresses this question. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with plutonium nitrate following wounding by deep incision of hind leg muscle. Excision of tissue at the contaminated site was performed 7 d later with or without Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) treatment (30 μmol kg⁻¹ i.v.). Pu urinary excretion was then measured for a further 3 d, and animals were euthanized at 14 d after contamination. Tissue samples were evaluated for Pu activity and histology. At 7 d after contamination, around 50% of the initial activity remained at the wound site. An average of 16% of this activity was then removed by surgery. Surgery alone resulted in increased urinary excretion, suggesting release from the wound site, but no subsequent increases in organ retention (bone, liver) were observed at 14 d. Indeed, organ Pu activity was slightly reduced. The combination of surgery and DTPA or DTPA treatment alone was much more effective than excision alone as shown by the markedly increased urinary Pu excretion and decreased tissue levels. This is the first report in an experimental rodent model of resection of Pu-contaminated wound. Urinary excretion data provide evidence for the release of activity as a result of surgery, but this does not appear to lead to further Pu organ retention. However, a combination of prior DTPA treatment with wound excision is particularly effective.

  13. Acidification, heavy metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system of a revegetated acid mine wasteland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Li, Jin-tian; Guo, Tao; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    A revegetation program was established at an extreme acidic and metal-toxic pyrite/copper mine wasteland in Guangdong Province, PR China using a combination of four native grass species and one non-native woody species. It was continued and monitored for 2 y. The emphasis was on acidification, metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system. Our results showed the following: (i) the acid-forming potential of the mine soils decreased steadily with time, which might be due to plant root-induced changes inhibiting the oxidization of sulphide minerals; (ii) heavy metal extractability (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid-extractable Pb and Zn) in the soils increased with time despite an increase in soil pH, which might be attributed to soil disturbance and plant rhizospheric processes, as well as a consequence of the enhanced metal accumulation in plants over time; and (iii) the vegetation cover increased rapidly with time, and plant development accelerated the accumulation of major nutrients (organic matter, total and ammonium-N, and available P and K). The 2-y field experiment demonstrates that direct seeding/planting of native plant species in combination with lime and manure amelioration is a practical approach to the initial establishment of a self-sustaining vegetation cover on this metalliferous and sulphide-bearing mine wasteland. However, heavy metal accumulation in the soil-plant system should be of great concern, and long-term monitoring of ecological risk must be an integral part of such a restoration scheme. PMID:20580409

  14. Field evaluation of the effectiveness of three industrial by-products as organic amendments for phytostabilization of a Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengxiang; Cao, Jianbing; Li, Fengmei; Peng, Xizhu; Peng, Qingjing; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan

    2016-01-01

    Although the potential of industrial by-products as organic amendments for phytostabilization has long been recognized, most of the previous studies addressing this issue have been laboratory-based. In this study, a field trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial by-products [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments for phytostabilization of abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings. Our results showed the following: (i) when compared to the control tailings, the mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 20.8-28.0%, 41.6-49.1%, 17.7-22.7% and 9.5-14.7%, respectively; (ii) the mean values of organic C, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 1.7-2.8, 10.8-14.9 and 3.9-5.1 times as compared with the mine tailings; and (iii) the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil respiration and microbial biomass being 1.5-1.8 and 1.3-1.6 fold higher than those in the control tailings. There were no significant differences in soil biochemical properties among the plots amended with these by-products, suggesting that they were almost equally effective in improving the biochemical conditions of the tailings. In addition, the application of these amendments promoted seed germination, seedling growth, and consequently increased the vegetation cover and its biomass. Moreover, concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in above-ground parts of the plants were below the toxicity limit levels for animals. The results obtained in this field study confirmed that the three organic-rich industrial by-products could be used as amendments for phytostabilization of some types of mine tailings. PMID:26611119

  15. Spatial variability of soil total and DTPA-extractable cadmium caused by long-term application of phosphate fertilizers, crop rotation, and soil characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarnejadi, A R; Sayyad, Gh; Homaee, M; Davamei, A H

    2013-05-01

    Increasing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is undesirable due to its hazardous influences on human health. Thus, having more information on spatial variability of Cd and factors effective to increase its content on the cultivated soils is very important. Phosphate fertilizers are main contamination source of cadmium (Cd) in cultivated soils. Also, crop rotation is a critical management practice which can alter soil Cd content. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term consumption of the phosphate fertilizers, crop rotations, and soil characteristics on spatial variability of two soil Cd species (i.e., total and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) in agricultural soils. The study was conducted in wheat farms of Khuzestan Province, Iran. Long-term (27-year period (1980 to 2006)) data including the rate and the type of phosphate fertilizers application, the respective area, and the rotation type of different regions were used. Afterwards, soil Cd content (total or DTPA extractable) and its spatial variability in study area (400,000 ha) were determined by sampling from soils of 255 fields. The results showed that the consumption rate of di-ammonium phosphate fertilizer have been varied enormously in the period study. The application rate of phosphorus fertilizers was very high in some subregions with have extensive agricultural activities (more than 95 kg/ha). The average and maximum contents of total Cd in the study region were obtained as 1.47 and 2.19 mg/kg and DTPA-extractable Cd as 0.084 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The spatial variability of Cd indicated that total and DTPA-extractable Cd contents were over 0.8 and 0.1 mg/kg in 95 and 25 % of samples, respectively. The spherical model enjoys the best fitting and lowest error rate to appraise the Cd content. Comparing the phosphate fertilizer consumption rate with spatial variability of the soil cadmium (both total and DTPA extractable) revealed the high

  16. Effects of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents on Thyroid Hormone Receptor Action and Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyani, Winda; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Miyazaki, Wataru; Khongorzul, Erdene; Nakajima, Takahito; Kameo, Satomi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance the quality of magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. After intravenous injection, GBCAs can accumulate in the brain. Thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. TH actions in brain are mainly exerted through nuclear TH receptors (TRs). We examined the effects of GBCAs on TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells using transient transfection-based reporter assay and TH-mediated cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis in primary culture. We also measured the cellular accumulation and viability of Gd after representative GBCA treatments in cultured CV-1 cells. Both linear (Gd-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-bis methyl acid, Gd-DTPA-BMA) and macrocyclic (Gd-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid, Gd-DOTA) GBCAs were accumulated without inducing cell death in CV-1 cells. By contrast, Gd chloride (GdCl3) treatment induced approximately 100 times higher Gd accumulation and significantly reduced the number of cells. Low doses of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10(-8) to 10(-6)M) augmented TR-mediated transcription, but the transcription was suppressed at higher dose (10(-5) to 10(-4)M), with decreased β-galactosidase activity indicating cellular toxicity. TR-mediated transcription was not altered by Gd-DOTA or GdCl3, but the latter induced a significant reduction in β-galactosidase activity at high doses, indicating cellular toxicity. In cerebellar cultures, the dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells induced by 10(-9)M T4 was augmented by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (10(-7)M) but was suppressed by higher dose (10(-5)M). Such augmentation by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA was not observed with 10(-9)M T3, probably because of the greater dendrite arborization by T3; however, the arborization by T3 was suppressed by a higher dose of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10(-5)M) as seen in T4 treatment. The effect of Gd-DOTA on dendrite arborization was much weaker

  17. Effects of gadolinium-based contrast agents on thyroid hormone receptor action and thyroid hormone-induced cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Koibuchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gadolinium (Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance the quality of magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. After intravenous injection, GBCAs can accumulate in the brain. Thyroid hormones (THs are critical to the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. TH actions in brain are mainly exerted through nuclear TH receptors (TRs. We examined the effects of GBCAs on TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells using transient transfection-based reporter assay and thyroid hormone-mediated cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis in primary culture. We also measured the cellular accumulation and viability of Gd after representative GBCA treatments in cultured CV-1 cells. Both linear (Gd-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-bis methyl acid, Gd-DTPA-BMA and macrocyclic (Gd-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid, Gd-DOTA GBCAs were accumulated without inducing cell death in CV-1 cells. In contrast, Gd chloride (GdCl3 treatment induced approximately 100 times higher Gd accumulation and significantly reduced the number of cells. Low doses of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−8–10−6 M augmented TR-mediated transcription, but the transcription was suppressed at higher dose (10−5 – 10−4 M, with decreased β-galactosidase activity indicating cellular toxicity. TR-mediated transcription was not altered by Gd-DOTA or GdCl3, but the latter induced a significant reduction in β-galactosidase activity at high doses, indicating cellular toxicity. In cerebellar cultures, the dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells induced by 10-9 M T4 was augmented by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−7 M but was suppressed by higher dose (10−5 M. Such augmentation by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA was not observed with 10-9 M T3, probably because of the greater dendrite arborization by T3; however, the arborization by T3 was suppressed by a higher dose of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10-5 M as seen in T4 treatment. The effect of Gd-DOTA on dendrite arborization

  18. (99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging method may be unsuitable to be used as the reference method in investigating the validity of CDK-EPI equation for determining glomerular filtration rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xie

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR determined by (99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ((99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging with those estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CDK-EPI equation and to identify a more accurate measurement of GFR of chronic kidney disease (CKD patients in clinical practice. METHODS: The GFR was determined simultaneously by 3 methods: (a dual plasma sample clearance method (tGFR; (b renal dynamic imaging method (dGFR; (c CDK-EPI equation (eGFR. The tGFR was employed as the reference method. The correlation, regression, and limit of agreement of dGFR and eGFR were used to demonstrate the validity of the two methods. The comparison of bias, precision, and accuracy between dGFR and eGFR was analyzed to identify the most suitable method. The analysis of bias, precision and accuracy was repeated after stratifying patients by a measured tGFR cutpoint of 60 ml·min(-1·(1.73 m(2(-1. RESULTS: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Both dGFR and eGFR correlated well with tGFR and the regression equation of dGFR and eGFR against tGFR was respectively Y = -4.289+0.962X (r = 0.919; RMSE = 14.323 ml.min(-1. (1.73 m(2(-1; P<0.001 and Y = 2.462+0.914X (r = 0.909; RMSE = 15.123 ml.min(-1. (1.73 m(2(-1; P<0.001. In addition, Bland-Altman analysis showed preferable agreement between the two methods and the reference method. The comparison revealed that eGFR, compared with dGFR, showed better performance on bias and 50% accuracy and similar performance on other indexes in the whole cohort and the lower-GFR subgroup, whereas in the higher-GFR subgroup the difference of the two methods was not significant in all parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Although both CDK-EPI equation and renal dynamic imaging can be used to determine the GFR of CKD patients, CDK-EPI equation is more accurate than renal dynamic imaging. As a result, (99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging

  19. Synthesis, structural and property studies of Ni doped cadmium sulphide quantum dots stabilized in DETA matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercy, A. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005, Tamil Nadu (India); Jesper Anandhi, A. [Department of Physics, Einstein College of Engineering, Tirunelveli 627 012, Tamil Nadu (India); Sakthi Murugesan, K. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005, Tamil Nadu (India); Jayavel, R. [Centre for nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Kanagadurai, R. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005, Tamil Nadu (India); Milton Boaz, B., E-mail: miltonboazcm@yahoo.co.in [PG and Research Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Ni doped CdS nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical precipitation method. • X-ray diffractogram confirms the formation of CdS with dopant. • FTIR spectrum reveals that the nanosamples are encapsulated by DETA. • The UV-VIS absorption spectra shows strong blue shift. - Abstract: Pure and Nickel doped cadmium sulphide nanoparticles at pH value 10 with three different concentrations have been synthesized by chemical precipitation method. Diethylene triamine was used as stabilizing agent to control the particle size as quantum dots without any agglomeration. The synthesized samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Ultraviolet–Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The nano crystalline nature of the as prepared samples is confirmed using XRD analysis. The average size of Ni doped cadmium sulphide nanoparticles calculated from Debye Scherer formula was of the order of 1.5–3 nm and that of pure CdS nanoparticles was of the order of 6–7 nm. The same value of the particle size was confirmed by using Williamson Hall plot as well as Henglein’s formula. X-ray peak broadening analysis was carried out using Williamson–Hall plot. The surface morphology studies of the sample using HRSEM images show the formation of nanoclusters and the EDAX spectra confirms the presence of cadmium sulphide and nickel elements in the sample. TEM images establish the stabilization of CdS nanoparticles in DETA. The UV–VIS absorption spectra of the sample show blue shift in the absorption region due to the quantum confinement effect. FTIR studies have been carried out to establish the presence of bonding by capping agent in the Ni doped samples. The synthesized samples show photoluminescence in the spectral region from 350 to 550

  20. Identification and quantification of six major α-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Mittelmaier, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2012-07-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a widely used liquid sweetener produced from corn starch by hydrolysis and partial isomerization of glucose to fructose. During these processing steps, sugars can be considerably degraded, leading, for example, to the formation of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs). The present study performed targeted screening to identify the major α-DCs in HFCS. For this purpose, α-DCs were selectively converted with o-phenylendiamine to the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) detection. 3-Deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxyglucosone), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-deoxyglucosone), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified by enhanced mass spectra as well as MS/MS product ion spectra using the synthesized standards as reference. Addition of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and adjustment of the derivatization conditions ensured complete derivatization without de novo formation for all identified α-DCs in HFCS matrix except for glyoxal. Subsequently, a ultra-high performance LC-DAD-MS/MS method was established to quantify 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, and methylglyoxal in HFCS. Depending on the α-DC compound and concentration, the recovery ranged between 89.2% and 105.8% with a relative standard deviation between 1.9% and 6.5%. Subsequently, the α-DC profiles of 14 commercial HFCS samples were recorded. 3-Deoxyglucosone was identified as the major α-DC with concentrations up to 730 μg/mL HFCS. The total α-DC content ranged from 293 μg/mL to 1,130 μg/mL HFCS. Significantly different α-DC levels were not detected between different HFCS specifications, but between samples of various manufacturers indicating that the

  1. Impact of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in soil and transfer rate to leafy vegetable spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumar, M Vassanda; Parihar, R S; Dwivedi, A K; Saha, J K; Rajendiran, S; Dotaniya, M L; Kundu, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of heavy metals in the environment by various anthropogenic activities has become a potential treat to life. Among the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) shows relatively high soil mobility and has high phyto-mammalian toxicity. Integration of soil remediation and ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration in soils through organic amendments, may provide an attractive land management option for contaminated sites. The application of biochar in agriculture has recently received much attention globally due to its associated multiple benefits, particularly, long-term carbon storage in soil. However, the application of biochar from softwood crop residue for heavy metal immobilization, as an alternative to direct field application, has not received much attention. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in a soil-plant system in cadmium-spiked sandy loam soil. The biochar was prepared from pigeon pea stalk through a slow pyrolysis method at 300 °C. The experiment was designed with three levels of Cd (0, 5, and 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil) and three levels of biochar (0, 2.5, and 5 g kg(-1) soil) using spinach as a test crop. The results indicate that with increasing levels of applied cadmium at 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) soil, the dry matter yield (DMY) of spinach leaf decreased by 9.84 and 18.29 %, respectively. However, application of biochar (at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil) significantly increased the dry matter yield of spinach leaf by 5.07 and 15.02 %, respectively, and root by 14.0 and 24.0 %, respectively, over the control. Organic carbon content in the post-harvest soil increased to 34.9 and 60.5 % due to the application of biochar 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil, respectively. Further, there was a reduction in the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable cadmium in the soil and in transfer coefficient values (soil to plant), as well as its concentrations in spinach leaf and root, indicating that

  2. Assessment of alveolar epithelial permeability in Behcet's disease with 99mTc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a multisystem disorder characterized by vasculitis, and consists of a triad of recurrent ulcers of the oral and genital mucosa with relapsing uveitis. The prevalance of pulmonary involvement varies in the range of 1-10% in various studies and its complications are severe and life threatening. In this study, we investigated the changes of pulmonary epithelial permeability of patients with BD using technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) aerosol scintigraphy, so as to begin the therapy regimen as soon as possible. Twenty-one nonsmoking patients with BD (8 women, 13 men; mean age 38.67±8.86 years) and 15 healthy volunteer nonsmoking controls (8 women, 7 men; mean age 50.87±12.45 years) underwent 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Subjects inhaled 1480 MBq of 99mTc-DTPA for 4 min in the supine position. Scintigraphic data were recorded dynamically (1 frame/min) in the posterior projection on a 64 x 64 matrix for a 30-min period using a double-headed gamma camera (Infinia, GE, Tirat Hacarmel, Israel) equipped with a low-energy all-purpose parallel hole collimator. Half time of 99mTc-DTPA clearance (T1/2) was calculated by placing a mono-exponential fit on the curves. Penetration index (PI) was also calculated by dividing the peripheral total counts by the sum of the peripheral and central total counts on the first minute image, in order to quantify the distribution of the inhaled aerosol. The clearance half time of 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosols in the BD patients (24.81±6.22 min) was faster than in the normal control group (46.53±22.41 min) (P=0.004). There was also a significant difference between PI of the patients with BD (0.15±0.03) and that of the controls (0.21±0.06) (P=0.002). No correlation was found between the mean T1/2 values of 99mTc-DTPA clearance or the spirometric measurements in the BD patients. Penetration indices were not correlated with PET in the BD

  3. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0

  4. Study on double-shell thermal insulated microcapsules synthesized by interracial polymerization%界面聚合双层蓄热保温微胶囊的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳思; 汪媛; 纪俊玲

    2013-01-01

    Double-shell thermal insulated microcapsules were prepared using phase change paraffin as core material and styrene-maleic anhydride coplymer (SMA) as emulsifier through interfacial polymerization. The outer shell was polyurethane formed by polymerization of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and diethylene triamine (DETA), the inner shell was polyurea formed by polymerization of TDI and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG-1000). The surface morphology, thermal properties of microcapsules were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), laser particle size distribution analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated that the particle size of the prepared double-shell microcapsules was uniform, and the microcapsules had 31.16 ℃ of phase change temperature and 82.669 3 J/g of phase change heat. The thermal stability of the double-layer microcapsules was good.%以相变石蜡为芯材,苯乙烯马来酸酐共聚物(SMA)为乳化剂,采用界面聚合方式制备双层蓄热保温微胶囊.其外壳层为甲苯-2,4-二异氰酸酯(TDI)和二乙烯三胺(DETA)反应生成的聚氨酯,内壳层为TDI和聚乙二醇1000(PEG-1000)反应生成的聚脲.采用傅立叶变换红外光谱仪(FHR)、扫描电镜(SEM)、激光粒度分布仪、示差扫描量热仪(DSC)、热重分析仪(TGA)等分别对微胶囊的表面形态、热性能进行了分析研究.结果表明,所制备的双层微胶囊颗粒分布均匀,相变温度31.16℃,相变热82.669 3 J/g,双层蓄热保温微胶囊热稳定性比较好.

  5. 界面聚合聚脲/聚氨酯双层微胶囊相变材料的研制与性能%Characterization of Polyurea/Polyurethane Double-Shell MicroPCMs Prepared by Interfacial Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆少锋; 邢建伟; 吴钦; 贺江平; 任燕

    2011-01-01

    以硬脂酸丁酯为芯材,苯乙烯马来酸酐共聚物(SMA)为乳化分散剂,采用界面聚合制备双层微胶囊相变材料,其外壳体为甲苯-2,4-二异氰酸酯(TDI)和二乙烯三胺(DETA)反应形成的聚脲壳层,内壳体为TDI与聚丙二醇2000(PPG2000)反应形成的聚氨酯壳层.采用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)、热重分析仪(TGA)、扫描电镜(SEM)、光学显微镜等分别对微胶囊的热性能、表面形态做了研究和分析.结果表明,所制备的双层微胶囊表面光滑致密,相变温度24.1℃,相变热85 J/g.所制备双层微胶囊的致密性和耐热稳定性均比单层微胶囊有很大程度的提高.%Double-shell microcapsules containing butyl stearate were prepared by interracial polymerization. The outer shell is polyurea formed by polymerization of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and diethylene triamine (DETA),the inner shell is polyurethane formed by polymerization of TDI and polypropylene glycol 2000 (PPG2000). Styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA) was used as emulsifier. The thermal properties, surface morphologies of microcapsules were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope, respectively. The results indicate that the surface of the prepared double-shell microPCMs is smooth and compact, and the microPCMs have an phase change temperature of 24.1 ℃ and phase change heat of 85 J/g. The compactness and stabilities of the double-shell microcapsule are obviously improved compared with that of single-shell microcapsule.

  6. Land co-applications of Alum-Based Drinking Water Treatment Residuals (Al-WTRs and biosolids: Effects on heavy metals bioavailability and bioaccessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.Mahdy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Lysimeter experiments were conducted in Egypt to: explore possible effects of land-applying Al-WTRs and /or biosolids on the environment, and recommends ways to minimize human and animal impacts. The specific objectives were to (1 determine the co-application effects on Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetic acid (DTPA-extractable heavy metals in relation to their accumulation in plant, (2 assess the effectiveness of WTRs in reducing bioavailability of heavy metals in the soils amended with different rates of biosolids, and (3 quantify the optimum application ratio of WTRs to biosolids in relation to the reduction of plant metal accumulation. Thus, in these lysimeter experiments, the WTRs and biosolids were obtained twice in 1999 and 2008. The used soil was classified as Typic torrifluvent. Treatments in both experiments consisted of the combination of WTRs (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 Mg.ha-1 and biosolids (0, 25, and 50 Mg.ha-1, DW by fixing one rate of biosolids and with varying the rate of WTRs. The results showed that land application of biosolids increases the accumulation of toxic metals in corn tissues in slightly alkaline soils. However, WTRs-application of (20, 40, 80 and 160 Mg.ha-1 to the soil amended with (0, 25 and 50 Mg.ha-1 of biosolids decreases significantly the DTPA-extractable metal concentrations. The reduction in DTPA-extractable metals resulting from the application of WTRs to biosolid-amended soils can be explained by formation of metal-sulfate, low solubility product, and the floc-adsorption and the co-precipitation processes, in which the formation of a mixed solid phase by the incorporation of metal ions into the crystal lattice of another precipitating solid phase is expected. The combined studies clearly demonstrate that Al-WTRs should have no negative impacts on the environment when appropriate rates are land applied. Thus, Al-WTRs are safe soil amendments to control heavy metals contamination in soil and water bodies.

  7. Identification and quantification of six major α-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Mittelmaier, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2012-07-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a widely used liquid sweetener produced from corn starch by hydrolysis and partial isomerization of glucose to fructose. During these processing steps, sugars can be considerably degraded, leading, for example, to the formation of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs). The present study performed targeted screening to identify the major α-DCs in HFCS. For this purpose, α-DCs were selectively converted with o-phenylendiamine to the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) detection. 3-Deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxyglucosone), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-deoxyglucosone), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified by enhanced mass spectra as well as MS/MS product ion spectra using the synthesized standards as reference. Addition of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and adjustment of the derivatization conditions ensured complete derivatization without de novo formation for all identified α-DCs in HFCS matrix except for glyoxal. Subsequently, a ultra-high performance LC-DAD-MS/MS method was established to quantify 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, and methylglyoxal in HFCS. Depending on the α-DC compound and concentration, the recovery ranged between 89.2% and 105.8% with a relative standard deviation between 1.9% and 6.5%. Subsequently, the α-DC profiles of 14 commercial HFCS samples were recorded. 3-Deoxyglucosone was identified as the major α-DC with concentrations up to 730 μg/mL HFCS. The total α-DC content ranged from 293 μg/mL to 1,130 μg/mL HFCS. Significantly different α-DC levels were not detected between different HFCS specifications, but between samples of various manufacturers indicating that the

  8. Effects of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents on Thyroid Hormone Receptor Action and Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyani, Winda; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Miyazaki, Wataru; Khongorzul, Erdene; Nakajima, Takahito; Kameo, Satomi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance the quality of magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. After intravenous injection, GBCAs can accumulate in the brain. Thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. TH actions in brain are mainly exerted through nuclear TH receptors (TRs). We examined the effects of GBCAs on TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells using transient transfection-based reporter assay and TH-mediated cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis in primary culture. We also measured the cellular accumulation and viability of Gd after representative GBCA treatments in cultured CV-1 cells. Both linear (Gd-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-bis methyl acid, Gd-DTPA-BMA) and macrocyclic (Gd-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid, Gd-DOTA) GBCAs were accumulated without inducing cell death in CV-1 cells. By contrast, Gd chloride (GdCl3) treatment induced approximately 100 times higher Gd accumulation and significantly reduced the number of cells. Low doses of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−8 to 10−6M) augmented TR-mediated transcription, but the transcription was suppressed at higher dose (10−5 to 10−4M), with decreased β-galactosidase activity indicating cellular toxicity. TR-mediated transcription was not altered by Gd-DOTA or GdCl3, but the latter induced a significant reduction in β-galactosidase activity at high doses, indicating cellular toxicity. In cerebellar cultures, the dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells induced by 10−9M T4 was augmented by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−7M) but was suppressed by higher dose (10−5M). Such augmentation by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA was not observed with 10−9M T3, probably because of the greater dendrite arborization by T3; however, the arborization by T3 was suppressed by a higher dose of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−5M) as seen in T4 treatment. The effect of Gd-DOTA on dendrite arborization was much weaker

  9. The influence of hydrogen peroxide and histamine on lung permeability and translocation of iridium nanoparticles in the isolated perfused rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenaka Shinji

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translocation of ultrafine particles (UFP into the blood that returns from the lungs to the heart has been forwarded as a mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the endothelial barrier in the translocation of inhaled UFP from the lung into circulation. Methods The isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL was used under negative pressure ventilation, and radioactive iridium particles (18 nm, CMD, 192Ir-UFP were inhaled during 60 minutes to achieve a lung burden of 100 – 200 μg. Particle inhalation was done under following treatments: i control perfusion, ii histamine (1 μM in perfusate, iii luminal histamine instillation (1 mM, and iv luminal instillation of H2O2. Particle translocation to the perfusate was assessed by the radioactivity of 192Ir isotope. Lung permeability by the use of Tc99m-labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA. In addition to light microscopic morphological evaluation of fixed lungs, alkaline phosphatase (AKP and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in perfusate were measured to assess epithelial and endothelial integrity. Results Particle distribution in the lung was homogenous and similar to in vivo conditions. No translocation of Ir particles at negative pressure inhalation was detected in control IPL, but lungs pretreated with histamine (1 μM in the perfusate or with luminal H2O2 (0.5 mM showed small amounts of radioactivity (2–3 % dose in the single pass perfusate starting at 60 min of perfusion. Although the kinetics of particle translocation were different from permeability for 99mTc-DTPA, the pretreatments (H2O2, vascular histamine caused similar changes in the translocation of particles and soluble mediator. Increased translocation through epithelium and endothelium with a lag time of one hour occurred in the absence of epithelial and endothelial damage. Conclusion Permeability of the lung barrier to UFP or

  10. Impact of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in soil and transfer rate to leafy vegetable spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumar, M Vassanda; Parihar, R S; Dwivedi, A K; Saha, J K; Rajendiran, S; Dotaniya, M L; Kundu, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of heavy metals in the environment by various anthropogenic activities has become a potential treat to life. Among the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) shows relatively high soil mobility and has high phyto-mammalian toxicity. Integration of soil remediation and ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration in soils through organic amendments, may provide an attractive land management option for contaminated sites. The application of biochar in agriculture has recently received much attention globally due to its associated multiple benefits, particularly, long-term carbon storage in soil. However, the application of biochar from softwood crop residue for heavy metal immobilization, as an alternative to direct field application, has not received much attention. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in a soil-plant system in cadmium-spiked sandy loam soil. The biochar was prepared from pigeon pea stalk through a slow pyrolysis method at 300 °C. The experiment was designed with three levels of Cd (0, 5, and 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil) and three levels of biochar (0, 2.5, and 5 g kg(-1) soil) using spinach as a test crop. The results indicate that with increasing levels of applied cadmium at 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) soil, the dry matter yield (DMY) of spinach leaf decreased by 9.84 and 18.29 %, respectively. However, application of biochar (at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil) significantly increased the dry matter yield of spinach leaf by 5.07 and 15.02 %, respectively, and root by 14.0 and 24.0 %, respectively, over the control. Organic carbon content in the post-harvest soil increased to 34.9 and 60.5 % due to the application of biochar 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil, respectively. Further, there was a reduction in the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable cadmium in the soil and in transfer coefficient values (soil to plant), as well as its concentrations in spinach leaf and root, indicating that

  11. The effect of vagal nerve blockade using electrical impulses on glucose metabolism in nondiabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathananthan M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Matheni Sathananthan,1 Sayeed Ikramuddin,2 James M Swain,3,6 Meera Shah,1 Francesca Piccinini,4 Chiara Dalla Man,4 Claudio Cobelli,4 Robert A Rizza,1 Michael Camilleri,5 Adrian Vella1 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of General Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Division of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 5Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 6Scottsdale Healthcare Bariatric Center, Scottsdale, AZ, USA Purpose: Vagal interruption causes weight loss in humans and decreases endogenous glucose production in animals. However, it is unknown if this is due to a direct effect on glucose metabolism. We sought to determine if vagal blockade using electrical impulses alters glucose metabolism in humans. Patients and methods: We utilized a randomized, cross-over study design where participants were studied after 2 weeks of activation or inactivation of vagal nerve blockade (VNB. Seven obese subjects with impaired fasting glucose previously enrolled in a long-term study to examine the effect of VNB on weight took part. We used a standardized triple-tracer mixed meal to enable measurement of the rate of meal appearance, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disappearance. The 550 kcal meal was also labeled with 111In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA to measure gastrointestinal transit. Insulin action and ß-cell responsivity indices were estimated using the minimal model. Results: Integrated glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations did not differ between study days. This was also reflected in a lack of effect on β-cell responsivity and insulin action. Furthermore, fasting and postprandial endogenous glucose production, integrated meal appearance, and glucose

  12. Tumour uptake of the radiolabelled somatostatin analogue [DOTA0,TYR3]octreotide is dependent on the peptide amount

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabelled tumour receptor-binding peptides can be used for in vivo scintigraphic imaging. Recently, the somatostatin analogue [Tyr3]octreotide (d-Phe-c(Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys)-Thr(ol)) was derivatized with the chelator DOTA (tetra-azacyclododecane-tetra-acetic acid), enabling stable radiolabelling with both the high-energy beta particle-emitter yttrium-90 and the Auger electron-emitter indium-111. The thus produced radiolabelled compounds are promising for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Our previous in vitro and in vivo (rat) experiments with these radiolabelled compounds showed favourable binding and biodistribution characteristics with high uptake and retention in the target organs. We also demonstrated receptor-specific, time- and temperature-dependent internalization of radiolabelled [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide in somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2)-positive rat pancreatic tumour cell lines. In this study we have investigated the effects of differences in the amount of injected peptide on tissue distribution of 111In-labelled [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide in normal, i.e. non-tumour-bearing, and CA20948 tumour-bearing rats. This was done in order to find the amount of peptide at which the highest uptake in target tissues is achieved, and thereby to increase the potential of radionuclide therapy while simultaneously ensuring the lowest possible radiotoxicity in normal organs. Uptake of radiolabelled [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide in sst2-positive organs showed different bell-shaped functions of the amount of injected peptide, being highest at 0.05 (adrenals), 0.05-0.1 (pituitary and stomach) and 0.25 (pancreas) μg. Uptake in the tumour was highest at 0.5 μg injected peptide. The highest uptake was found at peptide amounts that were lower than those reported for [111In-DTPA0]octreotide (d-Phe-c(Cys-Phe-d-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys)-Thr(ol), DTPA = diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid), consistent with the higher receptor affinity of the first compound. Our observations of

  13. Functionalized macroporous copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate: The type of ligand and porosity parameters influence on Cu(II ion sorption from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandić Zvjezdana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metals from hydro-metallurgical and other industries' wastewaters, their safe storage and possible recovery from waste- water streams is one of the greater ecological problems of modern society. Conventional methods, like precipitation, adsorption and biosorption, electrowinning, membrane separation, solvent extraction and ion exchange are often ineffective, expensive and can generate secondary pollution. On the other hand, chelating polymers, consisting of crosslinked copolymers as a solid support and functional group (ligand, are capable of selectively loading different metal ions from aqueous solutions. In the relatively simple process, the chelating copolymer is contacted with the contaminated solution, loaded with metal ions, and stripped with the appropriate eluent. Important properties of chelating polymers are high capacity, high selectivity and fast kinetics combined with mechanical stability and chemical inertness. Macroporous hydrophilic copolymers of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate modified by different amines show outstanding efficiency and selectivity for the sorption of precious and heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In this study poly(GMA-co-EGDMA copolymers were synthesized with different porosity parameters and functionalized in reactions with ethylene diamine (EDA, diethylene triamine (DETA and triethylene tetramine (TETA. Under non-competitive conditions, in batch experiments at room temperature, the rate of sorption of Cu(II ions from aqueous solutions and the influence of pH on it was determined for four samples of amino-functionalized poly(GMA-co-EGDMA. The sorption of Cu(II for both amino-functionalized samples was found to be very rapid. The sorption half time, t1/2, defined as the time required to reach 50% of the total sorption capacity, was between 1 and 2 min. The maximum sorption capacity for copper (2.80 mmol/g was obtained on SGE-10/12-deta sample. The sorption

  14. High-Performance Polymers Having Low Melt Viscosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    High-performance polymers that have improved processing characteristics, and a method of making them, have been invented. One of the improved characteristics is low (relative to corresponding prior polymers) melt viscosities at given temperatures. This characteristic makes it possible to utilize such processes as resin-transfer molding and resin-film infusion and to perform autoclave processing at lower temperatures and/or pressures. Another improved characteristic is larger processing windows that is, longer times at low viscosities. Other improved characteristics include increased solubility of uncured polymer precursors that contain reactive groups, greater densities of cross-links in cured polymers, improved mechanical properties of the cured polymers, and greater resistance of the cured polymers to chemical attack. The invention is particularly applicable to poly(arylene ether)s [PAEs] and polyimides [PIs] that are useful as adhesives, matrices of composite materials, moldings, films, and coatings. PAEs and PIs synthesized according to the invention comprise mixtures of branched, linear, and star-shaped molecules. The monomers of these polymers can be capped with either reactive end groups to obtain thermosets or nonreactive end groups to obtain thermoplastics. The synthesis of a polymeric mixture according to the invention involves the use of a small amount of a trifunctional monomer. In the case of a PAE, the trifunctional monomer is a trihydroxy- containing compound for example, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB). In the case of a PI, the trifunctional monomer is a triamine for example, triamino pyrimidine or melamine. In addition to the aforementioned trifunctional monomer, one uses the difunctional monomers of the conventional formulation of the polymer in question (see figure). In cases of nonreactive end caps, the polymeric mixtures of the invention have melt viscosities and melting temperatures lower than those of the corresponding linear polymers of equal

  15. In vitro detection of mdr1 mRNA in murine leukemia cells with {sup 111}In-labeled oligonucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Jingming; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Biotracer Medicine (Nuclear Medicine), Kanazawa (Japan); Shiba, Kazuhiro [Kanazawa University, Radioisotope Center, Kanazawa (Japan); Matsushita, Ryo [Kanazawa University, Laboratory for Development of Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa (Japan); Nomura, Masaaki [Kanazawa University Hospital, Hospital Pharmacy, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2004-11-01

    The feasibility of intracellular mdr1 mRNA expression detection with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) was investigated in the murine leukemia cell line, P388/S, and its subclonal, adriamycin-resistant cell line, P388/R. The expression level of mdr1 mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Existence of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon was assessed via cellular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (MIBI), a known substrate for P-glycoprotein. A 15-mer phosphorothioate antisense ODN complementary to the sequences located at -1 to 14 of mdr1 mRNA and its corresponding sense ODN were conjugated with the cyclic anhydride of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (cDTPA) via an amino group linked to the terminal phosphate at the 5' end at pH 8-9. The DTPA-ODN complexes at concentrations of 0.1-17.4 {mu}Mwere reacted with {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} at pH 5 for 1 h. The hybridization affinity of labeled ODN was evaluated with size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography following incubation with the complementary sequence. Cellular uptake of labeled ODN was examined in vitro. Furthermore, enhancing effects of synthetic lipid carriers (Transfast) on transmembrane delivery of ODN were assessed. P388/R cells displayed intense mdr1 mRNA expression in comparison with P388/S cells. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake in P388/S cells was higher than that in P388/R cells. Specific radioactivity up to 1,634 MBq/nmol was achieved via elevation of added radioactivity relative to ODN molar amount. The hybridization affinity of antisense {sup 111}In-ODN was preserved at approximately 85% irrespective of specific activity. Cellular uptake of antisense {sup 111}In-ODN did not differ from that of sense {sup 111}In-ODN in either P388/S cells or P388/R cells. However, lipid carrier incorporation significantly increased transmembrane delivery of {sup 111}In-ODN; moreover, specific uptake of antisense {sup 111}In-ODN was demonstrated in P388/R

  16. Sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and its relationship with duodenal-biliary reflux, plasma motilin and serum gastrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Hai Zhang; Shuo-Dong Wu; Bing Wang; Yang Su; Jun-Zhe Jin; Jing Kong; Hao-Lin Wang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To detect whether patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy have duodenalbiliary reflux by measuring the radioactivity of Tc99m-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) in the bile and whether the patients with duodenal-biliary reflux have sphincter of Oddi hypomotility, by measuring the level of plasma and serum gastrin of the patients. Finally to if there is close relationship among sphincter of Oddi hypomotility, duodenal-biliary reflux and gastrointestinal peptides.METHODS: Forty-five patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy were divided into reflux group and control group. The level of plasma and serum gastrin of the patients and of 12 healthy volunteers were measured by radioimmunoassay. Thirty-four were selected randomly to undergo choledochoscope manometry. Sphincter of Oddi basal pressure (SOBP), amplitude (SOCA), frequency of contractions (SOF), duration of contractions (SOD), duodenal pressure (DP) and common bile duct pressure (CBDP) were scored and analyzed.RESULTS: Sixteen (35.6%) patients were detected to have duodenal-biliary reflux. SOBP, SOCA and CBDP in the reflux group were much lower than the control group (t=5.254, 3.438 and 3.527, P<0.001). SOD of the reflux group was shorter than the control group (t=2.049, P<0.05). The level of serum gastrin and plasma motilin of the reflux group was much lower than the control group (t=-2.230 and -2.235, P<0.05). There was positive correlation between the level of plasma motilin and SOBP and between the level of serum gastrin and SOBP and CBDP.CONCLUSION: About 35.9% of the patients with a T tube after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy have duodenal-biliary reflux. Most of them have sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and the decreased level of plasma motilin and serum gastrin. The disorder of gastrointestinal hormone secretion may result in sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. There is a close relationship between sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and

  17. Several novel N-donor tridentate ligands formed in chemical studies of new fac-Re(CO)3 complexes relevant to fac-99mTc(CO)3 radiopharmaceuticals: attack of a terminal amine on coordinated acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Theshini; Marzilli, Patricia A; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate syntheses of fac-[Re(CO)(3)L](+) complexes in organic solvents, we treated fac-[Re(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)(3)]PF(6)/BF(4) in acetonitrile with triamine ligands (L). When L had two primary or two tertiary terminal amine groups, the expected fac-[Re(CO)(3)L](+) complexes formed. In contrast, N,N-dimethyldiethylenetriamine (N,N-Me(2)dien) formed an unusual compound, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(DAE)]BF(4) {DAE = (Z)-N'-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethylamino)ethyl)acetimidamide = (Me(2)NCH(2)CH(2))NH(CH(2)CH(2)N=C(NH(2))Me)}. DAE is formed by addition of acetonitrile to the N,N-Me(2)dien terminal primary amine, converting this sp(3) nitrogen to an sp(2) nitrogen with a double bond to the original acetonitrile sp carbon. The three Ns bound to Re derive from N,N-Me(2)dien. The pathway to fac-[Re(CO)(3)(DAE)]BF(4) is suggested by a second unusual compound, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(MAE)]PF(6) {MAE = N-methyl-N-(2-(methyl-(2-(methylamino)ethyl)amino)ethyl)acetimidamide = MeN(H)-CH(2)CH(2)-N(Me)-CH(2)CH(2)-N(Me)-C(Me)=NH}, isolated after treating fac-[Re(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)(3)]PF(6) with N,N',N''-trimethyldiethylenetriamine (N,N',N''-Me(3)dien). MAE chelates via a terminal and a central sp(3) N from N,N',N''-Me(3)dien and via one sp(2) NH in a C(Me)=NH group. This group is derived from acetonitrile by addition of the other N,N',N''-Me(3)dien terminal amine to the nitrile carbon. This addition creates an endocyclic NMe group within a seven-membered chelate ring. The structure and other properties of fac-[Re(CO)(3)(MAE)]PF(6) allow us to propose a reaction scheme for the formation of the unprecedented DAE ligand. The new compounds advance our understanding of the spectral and structural properties of Re analogues of (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:20104873

  18. New technique of stereolithography to local curing in thermosensitive resins using CO2 laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munhoz, A. L. J.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental study of thermosensitive resins used in thermal stereolithography is presented. The process of local curing through the application of infrared radiation, which has proved to be useful in a new technique for the making of prototypes by means of selective heating with CO2 laser (10.6μm, is studied. The ideal composition of the thermosensitive resins has proved to be 10 parts epoxy, 1.4 part diethylene triamine (the curing agent and 0.7 part silica powder. A physical theoretical model is applied for control of the parameters which influence the confinement of the curing in the irradiated bulk. A mathematical model is applied too; it was developed through the resolution of the heat conduction equation dependent on time in cylindrical co-ordinates, which enables to determine the behaviour of curing in terms of irradiation conditions.

    Se presenta un estudio teórico y experimental, sobre resinas termosensibles usadas en estereolitografía térmica. Se estudia el proceso de cura local mediante la aplicación de radiación infrarroja producida por el láser de CO2 (10.6 μm, el cual mostró ser útil en técnicas nuevas, para la fabricación de prototipos por medio de calentamiento selectivo. La composición ideal para cura local de las resinas termosensibles, está en la proporción de 10.0 partes de epoxi, 1.4 partes de dietilentriamina y 0.7 partes de sílice. Para controlar los parámetros que influyen en el confinamiento de la cura a través de la irradiación, se utiliza un modelo teórico-físico. Se utiliza un modelo matemático en coordenadas cilíndricas basado en la ecuación de conducción de calor dependiente del tiempo, que permite determinar el comportamiento de cura en función de las condiciones de irradiación.

  19. [Effects of Three Industrial Organic Wastes as Amendments on Plant Growth and the Biochemical Properties of a Pb/Zn Mine Tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi-zhu; Yang, Sheng-xiang; Li, Feng-mei; Cao, Jian-bing; Peng, Qing-jing

    2016-01-15

    A field trial was conducted in an abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial wastes [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments on plant growth, soil nutrients and enzyme activities, and heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues and the mine tailings. (1) The main findings were as follows: (1) The mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 24.2%-27.3%, 45.7%-48.3%, 18.0%-20.9% and 10.1%-14.2% as compared to the control tailings. When compared to the control tailings, the mean values of organic matter, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 2.27-2.32, 12.4-12.8 and 4.04-4.74 times, respectively. Similarly, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, urease and phosphatase), being 5.51-6.37, 1.72-1.96, 6.32-6.62 and 2.35-2.62 times higher than those in the control tailings. (2) The application of these wastes promoted seed germination and seedling growth. The vegetation cover reached 84%, 79% and 86% at SSV, MHR and SMC subplots. For Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC led to significant increases in the shoot biomass yields with 4.2-5.6 and 15.7-17.3 times greater than those in the tailings. Moreover, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly reduced the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the shoots of L. perenne and C. dactylon in comparison with the control tailings. (3) Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the vegetation cover and biomass were positively correlated with soil nutrient elements and enzyme activities. Significant negative correlations were observed between DTPA-extractable metal concentrations and vegetation cover and biomass. The metal concentrations in plants were positively correlated with

  20. Genotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Julia; Felder, Eva; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Kaltbeitzel, Anke; Heinrich, Ulf Ruediger; Brochhausen, Christoph; Mailänder, Volker; Tremel, Wolfgang; Brieger, Juergen

    2015-05-01

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles has currently provoked public and scientific discussions, and attempts to develop generally accepted handling procedures for nanoparticles are under way. The investigation of the impact of nanoparticles on human health is overdue and reliable test systems accounting for the special properties of nanomaterials must be developed. Nanoparticular zinc oxide (ZnO) may be internalised through ambient air or the topical application of cosmetics, only to name a few, with unpredictable health effects. Therefore, we analysed the determinants of ZnO nanoparticle (NP) genotoxicity. ZnO NPs (15-18 nm in diameter) were investigated at concentrations of 0.1, 10 and 100 μg mL-1 using the cell line A549. Internalised NPs were only infrequently detectable by TEM, but strongly increased Zn2+ levels in the cytoplasm and even more in the nuclear fraction, as measured by atom absorption spectroscopy, indicative of an internalised zinc and nuclear accumulation. We observed a time and dosage dependent reduction of cellular viability after ZnO NP exposure. ZnCl2 exposure to cells induced similar impairments of cellular viability. Complexation of Zn2+ with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) resulted in the loss of toxicity of NPs, indicating the relevant role of Zn2+ for ZnO NP toxicity. Foci analyses showed the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by ZnO NPs and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Treatment of the cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) resulted in strongly decreased intracellular ROS levels and reduced DNA damage. However, a slow increase of ROS after ZnO NP exposure and reduced but not quashed DSBs after NAC-treatment suggest that Zn2+ may exert genotoxic activities without the necessity of preceding ROS-induction. Our data indicate that ZnO NP toxicity is a result of cellular Zn2+ intake. Subsequently increased ROS-levels cause DNA damage. However, we found evidence for

  1. Pharmacokinetic and pharmaco-technological approaches of actinides decorporation by an in vivo sequestering agent. Application to the development of new treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After internal contamination by transuranic actinides, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is the only treatment available to haste the decorporation i.e. the excretion from the body of these radio-contaminants by the natural pathways (urinary and faecal excretion). However, the effectiveness of DTPA is variable and seems to be limited to mobilize efficiently the radionuclides from their sites of deposit and retention which are mainly the liver and the skeleton. Indeed, this molecule displays unfavourable pharmacokinetics (a low tissue distribution and a high urinary excretion) which do not match with the distribution of the actinides in vivo. Moreover, because of its physicochemical properties, DTPA is not able to pass through the plasmic membranes and to penetrate in the cells. Consequently, the use of colloidal vectors such as liposomes could make it possible to modulate DTPA pharmacokinetics as well as to promote the access of the chelating agent to the intracellular compartment of the macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system which also uptake the radionuclides. The objective of this thesis thus was to improve the treatment of decorporation treatments of transuranic actinides, in particular of plutonium (Pu) by the sequestering agent DTPA by a double approach. The strategy consisted in developing liposomes in order to encapsulate and to modify the distribution of DTPA in vivo. The encapsulation of the DTPA in large multi-lamellar (MLV) and conventional liposomes (composed of DOPC:CH:PG) and in stealth MLV liposomes (composed of DOPC:CH:DSPE-PEG) could modify DTPA pharmacokinetics by prolonging its circulation time and by increasing its distribution especially in the liver (conventional MLV) and in the skeleton (stealth MLV). These modifications of the distribution of DTPA were well correlated with an increased de-corporating effect on Pu in the rats. The reduction of the diameter of liposomes to approximately 100 nm made it possible to further

  2. Clinical Use of Magnetic Resonance Plaque Imaging for Intracranial Arteries%磁共振颅内动脉斑块成像技术的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明利; 徐蔚海; 冯逢; 金征宇

    2012-01-01

    (26 cases) had a significantly larger wall area (P = 0. 000) , greater remodeling ratio ( P = 0. 000 ) , higher prevalence of expansive remodeling ( outward expansion of the vessel wall) ( P = 0. 003 ) , and lower prevalence of constrictive remodeling ( P = 0. 008 ). Arteritis of middle cerebral artery (3 cases) showed circular wall-thicking with apparent gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-biotin enhancement. Conclusion The MR plaque imaging is helpful in the evaluation of intracranial arteries stenosis, although it still has the limitations such as short scan range and low resolution.

  3. Experimental studies on apoptosis imaging of 153Sm-Annexin V%153Sm-Annexin V凋亡显像的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江; 赵颖如; 王健; 孙雷娜; 牛瑞芳; 徐文贵

    2013-01-01

      Objective: This work aimed to investigate the feasibility of apoptosis imaging of Annexin V labeled with the radionu-clide 153Sm. Methods: 153Sm-Annexin V was prepared by using the cyclic diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) method, after which physical, chemical, and biological assays of the protein were conducted. Apoptosis imaging experiment both for in vitro cell cul-ture and for tumor-bearing mice was performed using 153Sm-Annexin V. Results: The features of 153Sm-Annexin V prepared via the cy-clic DTPA method are as follows: colorless and transparent, pH 7.4, radioactivity of 100 μg/10 mCi/2 mL, radiochemical purity of over 90%, and 88.6% radiolabeling rate. Annexin V is sterile, pyrogen-free, and presents an LD50 of 333 μg/kg body weight and plasma half-life of 13 min. Positive apoptosis images were obtained from both cultured cells and tumor-bearing mice. Conclusion: 153Sm-An-nexin V, as a radionuclide-labeled apoptosis imaging agent, exhibits a high labeling rate and relatively long half-life. The agent can effi-ciently facilitate continuous tracking and capturing of apoptotic peak activity, thus establishing an optimal apoptosis imaging window period. These advantages indicate that the proposed imaging method has great potential in many clinical applications.%  目的:探讨放射性核素153Sm 标记 Annexin V 凋亡显像的可行性。方法:采用环二乙三胺五醋酸(DTPA)法进行153Sm-Annexin V制备,并进行物理、化学及生物学检测。应用153Sm-Annexin V进行体外细胞培养及荷瘤小鼠动物凋亡显像实验。结果:经环DTPA法制备的153Sm-Annexin V无色透明,pH为7.4,比活度100μg/10 mCi/2 mL;放化纯RCP>90%,标记率为88.6%;无菌,无热原,LD50>333μg/kg体质量,血浆半衰期13 min;体外细胞培养及荷瘤小鼠动物凋亡显像实验均阳性。结论:153Sm-Annex⁃in V作为放射性核素凋亡显像剂,标记率高,半衰期相对较长,利于

  4. Clinical study of the new intelligent determination and analysis system for glomerular filtration rate%数字化智能检测分析系统测定肾小球滤过率的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾昭球; 吴锡信

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical application value of determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR)with the new intelligent determination and analysis system for GFR(B&G System).Methods GFR of 216 hospitalized patients suffering from the different diseases was determined accurately by clearance rate of 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentoacetic acid(99mTc-DTPA)(Tc-GFR),and the serum creatinine(SCr)and blood urea nitrogen(BUN)were also determined.At the same time GFR was determined by B&G system and Robert formula(B&G-GFR,Robert-GFR),and creatinine clearance rate(CCr)and GFR were calculated by Cockcroft/Gault formula(CG-CCr-GFR).All the results were compared,and correlation analysis was done for the three groups of data.Results Among 216 patients,B&G-GFR and Tc-GFR in 106 patients with renal insufficiency and 110 patients with normal renal function showed no significant (P0.05),而Robert-GFR(ml·min-1·1.73 m-2:21.45±15.67、93.54±30.01)、CG-CCr-GFR(ml·min-1·1.73 m-2:11.87±8.69、86.27±21.44)均明显低于Tc-GFR (P<0.05或P<0.01).肾功能不全组B&G-GFR、Robert-GFR、CG-CCr-GFR与Tc-GFR差值绝对值(ml·min-1·1.73 m-2:6.15±14.07、13.83±11.36、23.41±24.34)均明显低于肾功能正常组(7.65±6.54、24.94±13.24、32.21±21.81,均P<0.05).两组B&G-GFR、Robert-GFR、CG-CCr-GFR与Tc-GFR 均呈正相关(P<0.05或P<0.01),与SCr均呈负相关(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 B&G-GFR、RobertGFR、CG-CCr-GFR均能在一定程度上准确反映GFR,而以B&G-GFR更准确,可代替Tc-GFR应用于临床.B&G系统较其他GFR检测方法具有更准确、简便、快速、安全而廉价的优势,值得临床推广应用.

  5. Immediate Impact of Uni-nephrectomy among Bangladeshi Healthy Live Kidney Donors: BIRDEM General Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Mitra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment option for end stage kidney disease. Live kidney donation is an established form of organ donation; but it carries the risk of an unnecessary surgery in a normal individual. These donors remain at an increased risk of multiple medical problems for the rest of their life. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the immediate impact of uninephrectomy among kidney donors during the period of post-transplant hospital stay. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at BIRDEM General Hospital from January 2006 to June 2014. All kidney donors who had undergone graft nephrectomy during the study period were the study population. All the donors underwent Tc-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA renogram for measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR. GFR was also estimated by different equations in both pre-transplant and post-transplant periods. Pre-uninephrectomy GFR and post-uninephrectomy GFR of donors were compared. Results: Total number of subjects was 81, male 48 and female 33. Mean age was 36.3 ± 9.9 years. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 8.2 ± 2.0 days. The mean pre-operative measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFRDTPA was 99.54 ± 19.06 mL/min/1.73 m2 and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRCKD-EPI was 99.0 ± 18.55 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p=0.855. In post-nephrectomy period mean urine output decreased from 2708.1 ± 842.8 to 2228.4 ± 702.4 mL/day (p=0.000. Mean SBP lowered from 120.3 ± 12.5 to 115.6 ± 9.2 mm of Hg (p=0.000 after nephrectomy. There was significant increase in blood urea (from 19.7 ± 5.7 to 30.4 ± 9.5 mg/dL, p=0.000 and serum creatinine (from 0.90 ± 0.16 to 1.26 ± 0.24 mg/dL, p=0.000 in post-uninephrectomy period. Mean mGFRDTPA of the subjects of non-nephrectomized kidney of the donors was 49.18 ± 9.50 mL/min/1.73 m2 and mean eGFRCKD-EPI of same kidneys was 69.09 ± 16.79 mL/min/1.73m2 (p=0.000 after uni

  6. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique; Extraccion de metales toxicos y valiosos de los desechos de lodos y cenizas provenientes de la planta tratadora de aguas residuales RECICLAGUA aplicando la tecnica de lixiviado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero D, J.J

    2004-07-01

    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the

  7. Luminescent Di- and Trinuclear Boron Complexes Based on Aromatic Iminopyrrolyl Spacer Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, D; Gomes, Clara S B; Lopes, Patrícia S; Figueira, Cláudia A; Ferreira, Bruno; Gomes, Pedro T; Di Paolo, Roberto E; Maçanita, António L; Duarte, M Teresa; Charas, Ana; Morgado, Jorge; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Calhorda, Maria José

    2015-06-15

    New bis- and tris(iminopyrrole)-functionalized linear (1,2-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -C6 H4 (2), 1,3-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -C6 H4 (3), 1,4-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -C6 H4 (4), 4,4'-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -(C6 H4 -C6 H4 ) (5), 1,5-(HNC4 H3 C-(H)N)2 -C10 H6 (6), 2,6-(HNC4 H3 C-(H)N)2 -C10 H6 (7), 2,6-(HNC4 H3 C-(H)N)2 -C14 H8 (8)) and star-shaped (1,3,5-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N-1,4-C6 H4 )3 -C6 H3 (9)) π-conjugated molecules were synthesized by the condensation reactions of 2-formylpyrrole (1) with several aromatic di- and triamines. The corresponding linear diboron chelate complexes (Ph2 B[1,3-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-phenyl]BPh2 (10), Ph2 B[1,4-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-phenyl]BPh2 (11), Ph2 B[4,4'-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-biphenyl]BPh2 (12), Ph2 B[1,5-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-naphthyl]BPh2 (13), Ph2 B[2,6-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-naphthyl]BPh2 (14), Ph2 B[2,6-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-anthracenyl]BPh2 (15)) and the star-shaped triboron complex ([4',4'',4'''-tris(iminopyrrolyl)-1,3,5-triphenylbenzene](BPh2 )3 (16)) were obtained in moderate to good yields, by the treatment of 3-9 with B(C6 H5 )3 . The ligand precursors are non-emissive, whereas most of their boron complexes are highly fluorescent; their emission color depends on the π-conjugation length. The photophysical properties of the luminescent polyboron compounds were measured, showing good solution fluorescence quantum yields ranging from 0.15 to 0.69. DFT and time-dependent DFT calculations confirmed that molecules 10 and 16 are blue emitters, because only one of the iminopyrrolyl groups becomes planar in the singlet excited state, whereas the second (and third) keeps the same geometry. Compound 13, in which planarity is not achieved in any of the groups, is poorly emissive. In the other examples (11, 12, 14, and 15), the LUMO is stabilized, narrowing the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO), and the two iminopyrrolyl groups become planar, extending the size of the π-system, to

  8. Quantification of heavy metals from residual waste and ashes from the treatment plant of residual water Reciclagua and,effects for the health of those workers which manipulate those residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the technique of leaching using thermostatted column in series is applied, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the toxic metals that are present in the residual muds of the water treatment plant located in the municipality of Lerma Estado de Mexico, named RECICLAGUA, likewise the technique is used of emission spectrometry for plasma and X-ray fluorescence for the qualitative analysis. Its were take samples of residual mud and of incinerated mud of the treatment plant of residual waters of the industrial corridor Toluca -Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma Estado de Mexico. For this study there were mixed 100 g of residual mud with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one pH at 2, 5, 7 and 10, it was added bisulfite, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate sodium and 3.939 of DTPA (triple V) (Diethylene triamine pentaacetate). To this mud and ashes were extracted the toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using thermostatted columns placed in series that were designed by the Dr. Jaime Vite Torres; it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the equipment with those that work it was patented by the same one. With the extraction of these metals benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much the use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors where the metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using emission spectrometry by plasma in solids by this way to be able to know the content of the present metals in the sample before and later of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the X-ray diffraction analysis that provides an elementary content of the samples, identifying elements that are present in

  9. Is the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine–cystatin C equation useful for glomerular filtration rate estimation in the elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Xun Liu,1,2,* Huijuan Ma,1,* Hui Huang,3 Cheng Wang,1 Hua Tang,1 Ming Li,1 Yanni Wang,1 Tanqi Lou1 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 2College of Biology Engineering, South China University of Technology, 3Department of Cardiology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to the paperBackground: We aimed to evaluate the performance of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI creatinine–cystatin C equation in a cohort of elderly Chinese participants.Materials and methods: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was measured in 431 elderly Chinese participants by the technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging method, and was calibrated equally to the dual plasma sample 99mTc-DTPA-GFR. Performance of the CKD-EPI creatinine–cystatin C equation was compared with the Cockroft–Gault equation, the re-expressed 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation, and the CKD-EPI creatinine equation.Results: Although the bias of the CKD-EPI creatinine–cystatin C equation was greater than with the other equations (median difference, 5.7 mL/minute/1.73 m2 versus a range from 0.4–2.5 mL/minute/1.73 m2; P<0.001 for all, the precision was improved with the CKD-EPI creatinine–cystatin C equation (interquartile range for the difference, 19.5 mL/minute/1.73 m2 versus a range from 23.0–23.6 mL/minute/1.73 m2; P<0.001 for all comparisons, leading to slight improvement in accuracy (median absolute difference, 10.5 mL/minute/1.73 m2 versus 12.2 and 11.4 mL/minute/1.73 m2 for the Cockcroft–Gault equation and the re-expressed 4-variable MDRD equation, P=0.04 for both; 11.6 mL/minute/1.73 m2 for the CKD-EPI creatinine equation, P=0.11, as the optimal scores of performance (6.0 versus a range from 1.0–2.0 for the other

  10. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the

  11. Quantification of heavy metals from residual waste and ashes from the treatment plant of residual water Reciclagua and,effects for the health of those workers which manipulate those residuals; Cuantificacion de metales pesados de lodo residual y cenizas de la planta tratadora de aguas residuales Reciclagua y efectos a la salud de los trabajadores que manipulan los residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero D, J.J

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the technique of leaching using thermostatted column in series is applied, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the toxic metals that are present in the residual muds of the water treatment plant located in the municipality of Lerma Estado de Mexico, named RECICLAGUA, likewise the technique is used of emission spectrometry for plasma and X-ray fluorescence for the qualitative analysis. Its were take samples of residual mud and of incinerated mud of the treatment plant of residual waters of the industrial corridor Toluca -Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma Estado de Mexico. For this study there were mixed 100 g of residual mud with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one pH at 2, 5, 7 and 10, it was added bisulfite, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate sodium and 3.939 of DTPA (triple V) (Diethylene triamine pentaacetate). To this mud and ashes were extracted the toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using thermostatted columns placed in series that were designed by the Dr. Jaime Vite Torres; it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the equipment with those that work it was patented by the same one. With the extraction of these metals benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much the use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors where the metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using emission spectrometry by plasma in solids by this way to be able to know the content of the present metals in the sample before and later of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the X-ray diffraction analysis that provides an elementary content of the samples, identifying elements that are present in

  12. Preparation and properties of a new type alcohol-soluble PUA laminating adhesive with two-components%新型醇溶性双组分PUA复膜胶的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丹丹; 季永新

    2012-01-01

    With allyl glycidyl ether (AGE), hydroxypropyl acrylate (HPA), ethyl acrylate(EA) and vinyl acetate(Vac) as comonomers,a main agent for laminating adhesive(epoxy-polyacrylate) was prepared. Then,with TDI (toluene diisocyanate) and PPG2000( poly ether diols) as main raw materials, and diethylene triamine as end capping agent,a curing agent for laminating adhesive(amino-terminated polyurethane) was prepared. Finally,a new type alcohol-soluble laminating adhesive with two-components was made by blend between main agent and curing agent with a certain proportion. The research results showed that the main agent had reversely best alcohol-soluble property when reaction temperature and reaction time were 75℃ and 8 h respectively, mass fraction of initiator was 1.8%,and mass ratio of m(EA):m(Vac):m(AGE):m(HPA) was 41:14:35:10. The curing agent had reversely best properties when reaction temperature and reaction time were 70 ℃ and 2 h respectively, and R or molar ratio of n(-NCO)/n(-OH) was 1.25. The properties between laminating adhesive and like import product were adjacent when molar ratio of n(amino):n(epoxy group) was 20:3,curing temperature and curing time were 50℃ and 24 h respectively.%以烯丙基缩水甘油醚(AGE)、丙烯酸羟丙酯(HPA)、丙烯酸乙酯(EA)和醋酸乙烯酯(VAc)作为共聚单体,合成了复膜胶的主剂——环氧基聚丙烯酸酯;以TDI(甲苯二异氰酸酯)、PPG2000(聚醚二元醇)为主要原料,二乙烯三胺为封端剂,合成了复膜胶的固化剂——端氨基PU(聚氨酯);将主剂和固化剂按一定比例共混后,制得新型双组分醇溶性复膜胶.研究结果表明:当反应温度为75℃、反应时间为8h、w(引发剂)=1.8%和m(EA )∶m(VAc )∶m( AGE )∶m(HPA )=41∶14∶35∶10时,主剂的醇溶性相对最好;当反应温度为70℃、反应时间为2h和R=n(-NCO )/n(-OH)=1.25时,固化剂的性能相对最好;当n(氨基)∶n(环氧基)=20∶3、固化温度为50

  13. Pharmacokinetic and pharmaco-technological approaches of actinides decorporation by an in vivo sequestering agent. Application to the development of new treatments; Approches pharmacocinetique et pharmacotechnique de la decorporation d'actinides par un agent complexant in vivo. Application a la mise au point de nouveaux traitements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, G.

    2005-05-24

    After internal contamination by transuranic actinides, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is the only treatment available to haste the decorporation i.e. the excretion from the body of these radio-contaminants by the natural pathways (urinary and faecal excretion). However, the effectiveness of DTPA is variable and seems to be limited to mobilize efficiently the radionuclides from their sites of deposit and retention which are mainly the liver and the skeleton. Indeed, this molecule displays unfavourable pharmacokinetics (a low tissue distribution and a high urinary excretion) which do not match with the distribution of the actinides in vivo. Moreover, because of its physicochemical properties, DTPA is not able to pass through the plasmic membranes and to penetrate in the cells. Consequently, the use of colloidal vectors such as liposomes could make it possible to modulate DTPA pharmacokinetics as well as to promote the access of the chelating agent to the intracellular compartment of the macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system which also uptake the radionuclides. The objective of this thesis thus was to improve the treatment of decorporation treatments of transuranic actinides, in particular of plutonium (Pu) by the sequestering agent DTPA by a double approach. The strategy consisted in developing liposomes in order to encapsulate and to modify the distribution of DTPA in vivo. The encapsulation of the DTPA in large multi-lamellar (MLV) and conventional liposomes (composed of DOPC:CH:PG) and in stealth MLV liposomes (composed of DOPC:CH:DSPE-PEG) could modify DTPA pharmacokinetics by prolonging its circulation time and by increasing its distribution especially in the liver (conventional MLV) and in the skeleton (stealth MLV). These modifications of the distribution of DTPA were well correlated with an increased de-corporating effect on Pu in the rats. The reduction of the diameter of liposomes to approximately 100 nm made it possible to further

  14. Comparison of renal dynamic imaging and modified MDRD equation in determining the stage of chronic kidney disease patients%肾动态显像法与MDRD改良方程法在慢性肾脏病患者分期中的价值比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解朋; 刘晓梅; 黄建敏; 张芳; 潘莉萍; 吴炜杰; 高建青

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价、比较肾动态显像法与肾脏病膳食改良试验(MDRD)改良方程法两种方法在慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者分期中的准确率,确定临床实践中首选的分期方法.方法 对169例CKD患者同时采用双血浆法、肾动态显像法与MDRD改良方程法测定肾小球滤过率(GFR),以双血浆法测定的GFR作为“金标准”对患者进行分期,统计分析肾动态显像法与MDRD改良方程法在CKD患者分期中的准确率,并根据分期比较两种方法在各期中的准确率.结果 在纳入的共169例CKD患者中,肾动态显像法分期的准确率为56.80%,MDRD改良方程法的准确率为68.64%,二者的差异有统计学意义(P=0.019<0.05).根据分期对各期准确率的比较发现,两种方法仅对肾衰竭期患者的分期准确率差异有统计学意义(P=0.012<0.05),而对其他各期患者的分期准确率差异均无统计学意义(P分别为0.180、0.424、0.629和0.754,均>0.05).结论 MDRD改良方程法对CKD患者分期的准确率要优于肾动态显像法,其优越性主要体现在对肾衰竭期患者的分期中,而对其他各期的患者,两种方法的分期准确率差异则无统计学意义,然而,由于MDRD改良方程法更加简便、经济,临床实践中对CKD患者进行分期应首选MDRD改良方程法.%Objective To compare the accuracy of 99Tcm-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (99Tcm-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging and modified modification of diet in renal disease trail (MDRD)equation in determining the stage of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in clinical practice.Methods A total of 169 patients were enrolled whose glomeruar filtration rate (GFR) were determined simultaneously by 3 methods:dual plasma sample clearance method,renal dynamic imaging and modified MDRD equation.The dual plasma sample clearance method was employed as the reference method.The accuracy of the other methods in determining the stage of CKD patients was compared and the

  15. 肾小球滤过率智能检测分析系统的研制及临床应用研究%Preparation and clinical application of an intelligent determination and analysis system for glomerular filtration rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锡信; 屈敏; 冯敏坚; 石俊; 陈江林; 彭健; 吴一武; 郑志雄

    2008-01-01

    目的 研制肾小球滤过率(GFR)智能检测分析系统(GFRBMAS),并探讨其检测GFR的临床应用价值.方法 采用VB 6.0软件编程,并配置好GFRBMAS.采用99锝m-二:乙烯三胺五乙酸(99Tcm-DTPA)清除率准确测定79例不同疾病住院患者GFR(Tc-GFR),检测并比较GFRBMAS与日立7170S全自动生化仪所测得的血清肌酐(SCr)、尿素氮(BUN)、血尿酸(Uric)、血清钙(Ca)和血清磷(P)值,同时以GFRBMAS、Robert公式测定或测算GFR(GFRBMAS-GFR、Robert-GFR),以Cockcroft/Gault公式计算内生肌酐清除率(CG-CCr),所得数据进行相关分析与对比研究.结果 两种检测方法测得的SCr、BUN、Uric、Ca、P值差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05),且两者均呈显著正相关(P均<0.01).肾功能正常组和不全组Robert-GFR、CG-CCr值均明显小于Tc-GFR值,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.01),而GFRBMAS-GFR值与Tc-GFR值相近.相关分析显示,肾功能不全组及正常组GFRBMAS-GFR、Robert-GFR、CG-CCr与Tc-GFR值均呈显著正相关,与SCr、BUN均呈负相关(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 GFRBMAS-GFR、Robert-GFR、CG-CCr均能在一定程度上准确反映GFR,而GFRBMAS-GFR可代替Tc-GFR应用于临床.%Objective To prepare an intelligent determination and analysis system for renal glomerular filtration rate(GFRBMAS),and to explore its value in clinical setting.Methods GFRBMAS was prepared by programming with VB 6.0 software.GFR of 79 inhospital patients suffering from the different diseases was determined accurately by using clearance rate of 99Tcm-diethylene triamine pentoacetic acid(DTPA) (Tc-GFR).The serum creatinine(SCr),blood urea nitrogen(BUN),serum uric acid(Uric),serum calcium(Ca)and serum phosphorus(P)were determined with both GFRBMAS and 7170S automatic biochemistry determination apparatus(ititachi),and the result of GFR was compared with that determined by using GFRBMAS and 7170S automatic biochemical determination apparatus.At the same time GFR was determined by using

  16. Phytoremediation of lead by jack beans on a Rhodic Hapludox amended with EDTA Fitorremediação de chumbo por feijão-de-porco em um Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico tratado com EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fernando Faria Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA addition to soils on the lead (Pb phytoextraction potential of jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis L.. In a pot experimentSoil samples (dystrophic Rhodic Hapludox were treated with six Pb rates (0, 100, 200, 350, 1,200, and 2,400 mg kg-1 soil applied as Pb(NO32 without and with EDTA application (0 and 0.5 g kg-1, respectively. Lead, Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, SO4(2-, H2PO4-, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and DOC (dissolved organic carbon concentrations obtained in a saturation soil extract (soil:water ratio of 1:0.3 were used for Pb speciation by means of the software Visual-Minteq 2.30. Soil Pb-availability was assessed with Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA extraction. EDTA treated soils showed higher Pb (as PbEDTA2-, and Fe (as FeEDTA- concentrations in soil solution leading to higher uptake of these elements by the jack bean. On the other hand, it decreased the concentration of stable complexes as Pb-DOC and Fe-DOC. EDTA also induced better nutrition to plants building up the concentration of non target metals (Ca, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in shoots. Shoot dry matter yield remained constant even at the highest Pb rates after EDTA treatment. Jack bean can be considered as a potential Pb-phytoextractor. In addition, the DTPA solution was effective to assess Pb availability to the plants at all applied Pb rates.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos do ácido etilenodiamino tetraacético (EDTA no potencial fitoextrator do feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis L.. Amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico foram tratadas com seis doses de Pb (0, 100, 200, 350, 1.200 e 2.400 mg kg-1 de solo aplicadas como Pb(NO32 com e sem a aplicação de EDTA (0 e 0,5 g kg-1, respectivamente e colocadas em vasos. A concentração de Pb2+, Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, SO4(2-, H2PO4-, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2