Sample records for 99mtechnetium-diethylene triamine pentacetic

  1. A Novel Cobalt(Ⅲ) Complex with Macrocyclic Triamine Ligand for High Capacity Hydrogen Adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hai-Yan; GUO Hui; LI Sai


    The coordination complex of Co(Ⅲ) based on a macrocyclic triamine ligand 1,4-diacetate-1,4,7-triazacyclodecane (L) has been synthesized and characterized. The metal cation is bonded with three nitrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms of L and one chloride ion to form a distorted octahedral geometry. This complex coordinated with macrocyclic ligand possesses large pore volume that will be contributed to observe high H2 adsorption. With respect to the first-principles electronic structure calculations, the feasibility to store hydrogen in the complex is explored. Indeed, the complex has shown a very high total H2 adsorption of 7.2 wt% (wt% = (weight of adsorbed H2)/(weight of host material)), with a binding energy of 0.03 eV/H2

  2. Equilibrium and kinetics study on hexavalent chromium adsorption onto diethylene triamine grafted glycidyl methacrylate based copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksin, Danijela D., E-mail: [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia); Nastasovic, Aleksandra B., E-mail: [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Njegoseva 12, Belgrade (Serbia); Milutinovic-Nikolic, Aleksandra D., E-mail: [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Njegoseva 12, Belgrade (Serbia); Surucic, Ljiljana T., E-mail: [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia); Sandic, Zvjezdana P., E-mail: [Faculty of Science, Mladena Stojanovica 2, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Hercigonja, Radmila V., E-mail: [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Onjia, Antonije E., E-mail: [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methacrylate based copolymers grafted with diethylene triamine as Cr(VI) sorbents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemisorption and pore diffusion are characteristics of this sorption system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Langmuir isotherm provided best fit and maximum adsorption capacity was 143 mg g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr(VI) sorption onto amino-functionalized copolymer was endothermic and spontaneous. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple, efficient and cost-effective hexavalent chromium removal method. - Abstract: Two porous and one non-porous crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [abbreviated PGME] were prepared by suspension copolymerization and functionalized with diethylene triamine [abbreviated PGME-deta]. Samples were characterized by elemental analysis, mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption by PGME-deta were investigated in batch static experiments, in the temperature range 25-70 Degree-Sign C. Sorption was rapid, with the uptake capacity higher than 80% after 30 min. Sorption behavior and rate-controlling mechanisms were analyzed using five kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion and Bangham model). Kinetic studies showed that Cr(VI) adsorption adhered to the pseudo-second-order model, with definite influence of pore diffusion. Equilibrium data was tested with Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption isotherm models. Langmuir model was the most suitable indicating homogeneous distribution of active sites on PGME-deta and monolayer sorption. The maximum adsorption capacity from the Langmuir model, Q{sub max}, at pH 1.8 and 25 Degree-Sign C was 143 mg g{sup -1} for PGME2-deta (sample with the highest amino group concentration) while at 70 Degree-Sign C Q{sub max} reached the high value of 198

  3. Glycidyl methacrylate macroporous copolymer grafted with diethylene triamine as sorbent for Reactive Black 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandić Zvjezdana P.


    Full Text Available In this paper, macroporous glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer functionalized with diethylene triamine [PGME-deta], was evaluated as Reactive Black 5 (RB5 sorbent. Batch RB5 removal from aqueous solution by PGME-deta was investigated by varying pH, contact time, sorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature. The sorption is pH sensitive having maximum at pH 2 (dye removal of 85%, decreasing with the increase of pH (dye removal of 24% at pH=11 after 60 min. Sorption kinetics was fitted to chemical-reaction and particle-diffusion models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Mckay models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model accurately predicted the RB5 amount sorbed under all investigated operating conditions, while the intraparticle diffusion was the dominant rate-limiting mechanism. The diffusion mechanism was more prevalent with the decrease in temperature and the increase in concentration. The isotherm data was best fitted with the Langmuir model, indicating homogeneous distribution of active sites on PGME-deta and monolayer sorption, with the maximum sorption capacity of 353 mg g-1. The calculated sorption rates improved with increasing temperature and an activation energy close to 40 kJ mol-1 was determined, suggesting that chemisorption was also rate-controlling. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009, br. TR 37021 i br. III 45001

  4. siRNA delivery into tumor cells by lipid-based nanoparticles composed of hydroxyethylated cholesteryl triamine. (United States)

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Tsukasa; Ohno, Hiroaki; Fujii, Nobutaka; Maitani, Yoshie


    Previously, we reported that cationic nanoparticles (NP) composed of cholesteryl diamine (OH-Chol, (3S)-N-(2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)ethyl)cholesteryl-3-carboxamide) and Tween 80 could deliver plasmid DNA (pDNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) with high transfection efficiency into various tumor cells. In this study, to facilitate the endosomal escape of siRNA transfected by lipid-based nanoparticles, we synthesized new cationic cholesteryl triamine (OH-N-Chol, (3S)-N-(2-(2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)ethylamino)ethyl)cholesteryl-3-carboxamide) with an ethylenimine extension and prepared cationic nanoparticles (NP-N) composed of cholesteryl triamine and Tween 80. Although NP-N/siRNA complex (NP-N nanoplex) after mixing NP-N with siRNA was >350 nm in size, the vortex-mixing during the nanoplex formation decreased it to about 200 nm, which was an injectable size. NP-N nanoplex was mainly internalized by macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis, as was NP nanoplex, and showed higher gene knockdown efficiency than NP nanoplex in human cervical carcinoma SiHa cells. From these results, cationic nanoparticles composed of OH-N-Chol and Tween 80 may have potential as a gene vector for siRNA transfection to tumor cells.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Chiral Dendrimer-Triamine-Coordinated Gd-MRI Contrast Agents Evaluated by in Vivo MRI and Estimated by in Vitro QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Miyake


    Full Text Available Recently, we developed novel chiral dendrimer-triamine-coordinated Gd-MRI contrast agents (Gd-MRI CAs, which showed longitudinal relaxivity (r1 values about four times higher than that of clinically used Gd-DTPA (Magnevist®, Bayer. In our continuing study of pharmacokinetic differences derived from both the chirality and generation of Gd-MRI CAs, we found that the ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to circulate within the body can be directly evaluated by in vitro MRI (7 T. In this study, the association constants (Ka of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to bovine serum albumin (BSA, measured and calculated with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM in vitro, were found to be an extremely easy means for evaluating the body-circulation ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs. The Ka values of S-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs were generally greater than those of R-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs, which is consistent with the results of our previous MRI study in vivo.

  6. Comparative study on bactericidal activity of benzalkonium chloride and dodecyl two propylene triamine%苯扎氯铵与十二烷基二亚丙三胺杀菌活性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽蓉; 陈维; 邓金花; 宋金武


    Objective To compare bactericidal activity of benzalkonium chloride and dodecyl two propylene triamine.Methods Suspension quantitative germicidal test and antibacterial ring test were used to study bactericidal activity of benzalkonium chloride and dodecyl two propylene triamine.Results The average killing logarithm values of Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus exposed to the concentration of 500 mg/L of the benzalkonium chloride for 1 min were 5.18,7.02 and 7.13 respectively,the average killing logarithm value of Candida albicans was 4.48.The average killing logarithm values of P.aeruginosa,E.coli and S.aureus exposed to the concentration of 500 mg/L of the dodecyl two propylene triamine for 1 min were 5.84,7.32 and 7.13 respectively,the average killing logarithm value of C.albicans was 4.94.Concentration was 50 mg/L,the antibacterial ring diameters of benzalkonium chloride and dodecyl two propylene triamine were 8.3 mm and 8.2 mm respectively.Conclusion The bactericidal effect of dodecyl two propylene triamine is better than that of benzalkonium chloride,there was no significant difference in antibacterial effect.%目的 比较苯扎氯铵与十二烷基二亚丙三胺的杀菌活性.方法 采用悬液定量杀菌试验和抑菌环试验方法,对苯扎氯铵和十二烷基二亚丙三胺的杀菌活性进行比较研究.结果 用含500 mg/L的苯扎氯铵作用1 min,对铜绿假单胞菌、大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的平均杀灭对数值分别为5.18、7.02和7.13,对白色念珠菌的平均杀灭对数值为4.48.用含500 mg/L的十二烷基二亚丙三胺作用1 min,对铜绿假单胞菌、大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的平均杀灭对数值分别为5.84、7.32和7.13,对白色念珠菌的平均杀灭对数值为4.94.浓度为50 mg/L时,苯扎氯铵与十二烷基二亚丙三胺的抑菌环直径分别为8.3 mm和8.2 mm.结论 十二烷基二亚丙三胺的杀菌效果优于苯扎氯铵,抑菌效果无显著差异.

  7. 3-Nitrophenol–1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sangeetha


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C3H6N6·2C6H5NO3, contains one melamine and two 3-nitrophenol molecules. The mean planes of the 3-nitrophenol molecules are almost orthogonal to the plane of melamine, making dihedral angles of 82.77 (4 and 88.36 (5°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via O—H...N, N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The crystal also features weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.9823 (9 Å].

  8. A novel electrochemiluminescent immunosensor based on the quenching effect of aminated graphene on nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing; Han, Tongqian; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Tao; Pang, Xuehui [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Li, Yueyun [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Wei, Qin, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)


    Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) with an average diameter of 2 nm were synthesized by carbonization of diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA). The simple prepared N-CQDs showed excellent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) property and were used as luminophors to fabricate a sandwich-type ECL immunosensor. Aminated graphene (NH{sub 2}-G) was also synthesized and used as a label of secondary antibody. The labeled NH{sub 2}-G could effectively quench the ECL of N-CQDs modified on electrodes due to ECL resonance energy transfer (ERET). Immunological recognition which induced ECL quenching enabled the quantitative determination of biomarkers. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was selected as a model analyte to investigate the analytical performance of the proposed immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between ECL intensity and the logarithm of AFP concentration was obtained in the range of 0.01–100 ng mL{sup −1} with the detection limit of 3.3 pg mL{sup −1}. The proposed ECL immunosensor showed good stability, acceptable selectivity and reproducibility. - Highlights: • ECL behavior of N-CQDs was investigated. • NH{sub 2}-G for quenching N-CQDs emission was investigated. • The linearly range of the immunosensor for AFP was 0.01 ng/mL–100 ng/mL.

  9. Ranitidine increases the bioavailability of imbibed alcohol by accelerating gastric emptying. (United States)

    Amir, I; Anwar, N; Baraona, E; Lieber, C S


    To investigate the mechanism of the increase in alcohol bioavailability by ranitidine, we determined by nuclear scan the changes in gastric emptying of a 10% ethanol solution (containing 0.3 g ethanol/kg body weight and 300 microCi of technetium-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid) in 8 normal men, before and after treatment with 300 mg ranitidine orally each evening for 1 week. We compared these changes with those of ethanol bioavailability, calculated by integration of the Michaelis-Menten function over the entire alcohol curves after random i.v. and, on a separate day, oral administration of the same ethanol dose, pre- and post-ranitidine. With ranitidine, we found an acceleration of gastric emptying in 7 of 8 subjects, with 20% shortening of the time to 50% emptying (51.8 +/- 4.1 min vs 64.3 +/- 3.4, without ranitidine; P ranitidine (P ranitidine increased blood alcohol concentrations (29 +/- 4 mg/dl vs 22 +/- 3, without ranitidine; P < .02), with a corresponding decrease in first pass metabolism of ethanol from 107 +/- 16 mg/kg to 47 +/- 16 (P < .01).

  10. Clearance of /sup 99m/-technetium-labelled DTPA in asbestos-exposed subjects without clinical or radiological evidence of interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellert, A.R.; Langford, J.A.; Winter, R.J.; Lewis, C.A.; Tolfree, S.E.; Rudd, R.M.


    The half-time clearance of an inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/-technetium-labelled diethylene triamine pentacetate from lung to blood (T1/2LB) was measured using a gamma camera in 20 non-smoking subjects (mean age 54, range 40-69 years) with previous occupational asbestos exposure, but no clinical or radiological evidence of asbestosis, and 20 non-smoking normal subjects (mean age 54, range 40-62). Mean T1/2LB was 44.7 minutes (range 12-102) in exposed subjects, significantly less than 57.2 minutes (range 30.5-109) in normal subjects (P less than 0.05). There was no correlation between age and T1/2LB in either group. In exposed subjects T1/2LB showed a weak rank correlation with the membrane component of DLco (Dm) (r = 0.40, P less than 0.05) but no significant correlation with FVC, TLC, DLco, Kco, resting Pao2 or change in Pao2 on exercise. In six exposed subjects T1/2LB was shorter than in any of the normal subjects. These six did not differ from the other 14 exposed subjects in any physiological variables. T1/2LB is abnormal in some asbestos-exposed subjects without clinical, radiological or physiological evidence of asbestosis. Follow-up will show whether it is an early indicator of development of interstitial lung disease.

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and inhibitory activity against bacteria and fungi of acyclic and macrocyclic transition metal complexes containing a triamine coumarine Schiff base ligand. (United States)

    Abou-Hussein, A A; Linert, Wolfgang


    Two series of new mono and binuclear complexes with a Schiff base ligand derived from the condensation of 3-acetylcoumarine and diethylenetriamine, in the molar ratio 2:1 have been prepared. The ligand was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, (1)H-NMR and mass spectra. The reaction of the Schiff base ligand with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and oxovanadium(IV) lead to mono or binuclear species of cyclic or macrocyclic complexes, depending on the mole ratio of metal to ligand and as well as on the method of preparation. The Schiff base ligand behaves as a cyclic bidentate, tetradendate or pentaentadentae ligand. The formation of macrocyclic complexes depends significantly on the dimension of the internal cavity, the rigidity of the macrocycles, the nature of its donor atoms and on the complexing properties of the anion involved in the coordination. Electronic spectra and magnetic moments of the complexes indicate that the geometries of the metal centers are either square pyramidal or octahedral for acyclic or macro-cyclic complexes. The structures are consistent with the IR, UV-visible, ESR, (1)H-NMR, mass spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic moment measurements. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi. Most of the complexes exhibit mild antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  12. Crystal Structures and Theoretical Calculation of Zn(Ⅱ) and Cu(Ⅱ) Supramolecular Complexes Based on Macrocyclic Triamine Ligand 1 ,4,7-Triazacyclodecane (tacd)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUO,Hui; ZHU,Hai-Yan; HE,Xian-Ling; SU,Zhen-Ping; LI,Jun; ZHANG,Feng-Xing


    Two supramolecular complexes [Zn(tacd)2](C6H8O4)·6H2O (1) and [Cu(tacd)2]Cl2·4H2O (2) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, TGA and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal structure showed that the metal ions in complexes 1 and 2 had similar coordination circumstance. But for the complex 2, it formed a novel two-dimensional supramolecular network with 12-membered rings and four-membered rings via hydrogen bond interaction. The thermal gravimetric analyses indicated that the two complexes had similar steps of weight-loss. On the basis of experiment, the two complexes were calculated by DFT-B3LYP/6-31G(d) in Gaussian 03. The results of calculation are in good agreement with the experiment.

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and inhibitory activity against bactria and fungi of acyclic and macrocyclic transition metal complexes containing a triamine coumarine Schiff base ligand (United States)

    Abou-Hussein, A. A.; Linert, Wolfgang


    Two series of new mono and binuclear complexes with a Schiff base ligand derived from the condensation of 3-acetylcoumarine and diethylenetriamine, in the molar ratio 2:1 have been prepared. The ligand was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, 1H-NMR and mass spectra. The reaction of the Schiff base ligand with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and oxovanadium(IV) lead to mono or binuclear species of cyclic or macrocyclic complexes, depending on the mole ratio of metal to ligand and as well as on the method of preparation. The Schiff base ligand behaves as a cyclic bidentate, tetradendate or pentaentadentae ligand. The formation of macrocyclic complexes depends significantly on the dimension of the internal cavity, the rigidity of the macrocycles, the nature of its donor atoms and on the complexing properties of the anion involved in the coordination. Electronic spectra and magnetic moments of the complexes indicate that the geometries of the metal centers are either square pyramidal or octahedral for acyclic or macro-cyclic complexes. The structures are consistent with the IR, UV-visible, ESR, 1H-NMR, mass spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic moment measurements. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi. Most of the complexes exhibit mild antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  14. In Vivo Test for Chemical Induction of Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes for Mouse bone Marrow Cells, Test Article, Diethylene Triamine Trinitrate (DETN) (United States)


    marrow cytogenetics tests : Micronucleus Assay. Revised July 1, 2002, (1). OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals, No. 474. Mammalian Erythrocyte... Micronucleus Test . Adopted July 21, 1997, (2). International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of the Range Finding Test . Five male and five female mice per dose group per harvest time were used in the Micronucleus Assay. The Range Finding Test

  15. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation. Test Article. Diethylene triamine trinitrate (DETN) (United States)


    chromatid interchanges between chromosomes leading to four-armed configurations. This could be asymmetrical with formation of a dicentric and an acentric...fragment which may be misaligned and a shortened monocentric chromosome , and where there is no sister chromatid union. Dicentric - an asymmetrical...Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation Test

  16. Synthesis and properties of , , '-tris-(2-ethoxy-naphthalenen-1-yl)−, , ' triphenylbenzene 1, 3, 5-triamine for dye sensitized solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siji Mathew; Karickal R Haridas


    New starburst ethoxy naphthylamine is synthesized using multi-step organic reactions. The synthesized compound is characterized using UV-Visible, FT–IR and NMR spectrometric techniques. The thermal and electrochemical property of the compound was studied using DSC and cyclic voltammetry. Using this compound and a natural dye, organic dye sensitized solid state solar cell was fabricated and the performance analysed.

  17. Application of estimated glomerular filtration rate formulae for different stages of chronic kidney disease in diabetes%肾小球滤过率预测公式在糖尿病合并慢性肾脏病不同分期中的适用性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙科; 荆春艳; 刘永菊; 王东; 王菊梅; 董林; 姜妍芳; 李素梅


    目的 评价肾小球滤过率(glomerular filtration rate,GFR)预测公式在糖尿病肾脏疾病(diabetic kidney disease,DKD)不同分期中的适用性.方法 收集274例住院2型糖尿病患者的临床资料.采用中国改良肾脏病膳食改善实验(modification of diet in renal disease,MDRD)公式、瑞金公式及慢性肾脏病流行病学合作研究(chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration,CKD-EPI)公式估算的肾小球滤过率(estimated glomerular filtration rate,eG-FR)与99m锝-二乙烯三胺五乙酸(99mTc-diethylene triamine pentacetic acid,99mTc-DTPA)肾动态显像检查双肾GFR(referred glomerular filtration rate,rGFR)作为参考标准比较.比较上述3公式在GFR正常组(A组)、降低组(B组)、慢性肾脏疾病组(C组)的适用性.结果 在A、B两组,瑞金公式和CKD-EPI公式间eGFR的偏差值及偏差绝对值百分数、30%及50%符合率的差异无统计学意义(均有P>0.05);2者较中国改良MDRD公式eGFR的偏差值、偏差绝对值百分数小,30%、50%符合率高,差异有统计学意义(均有P<0.05).C组,3公式的上述指标两两之间的差异均无统计学意义(均有P >0.05).Bland-Altman作图法显示,瑞金方程eGFR的一致性最好.结论 瑞金方程eGFR可能更适合于评估中国DKD患者的GFR,尤其是早期肾功能损害者.

  18. Measurement of the ratio of glomerular filtration rate to plasma volume from the technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid renogram: comparison with glomerular filtration rate in relation to extracellular fluid volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Allison, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Ussov, W.Yu. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom))


    We describe a technique which does not require a blood sample, is already normalised for plasma volume and uses the robust Patlak plot for measuring renal uptake. The rate of kidney uptake, dR(t)/dt, at time = 0, as a fraction of the injected dose, is equal to the fraction of the plasma volume (PV) filtered per minute, i.e. IKGFR/PV. The gradient dR(0)/dt cannot be accurately measured directly but is equal to [[alpha] . LV(0)], where [alpha] is the renal uptake constant (proportional to IKGFR) and LV is the count rate over a left ventricular ROI. LV(0) was obtained by extrapolation of LV(t), while [alpha] is the slope of the Patlak plot up to 3 min. GFR/PV (i.e. right plus left kidneys) in patients with normal renal function was about 0.04 min[sup -1], as would be expected from normal values of GFR (120 ml/min) and plasma volume (3 l). GFR/PV correlated significantly with the ratio of GFR to extracellular fluid volume (ECV), measured from the terminal exponential of the plasma clearance curve (GFR/PV = 3.2.GFR/ECV + 5.3 ml/min/l [r = 0.82, n = 82]). GFR/PV (r = 0.74) and GFR/ECV (r = 0.82) both correlated inversely and non-linearly with plasma creatinine in 43 studies where the measurement was made within 1 week of the [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA study. They also correlated significantly with the plasma cyclosporin trough level in 14 patients with dermatomyositis on the 30 occasions when this measurement was made within 1 week of the renogram (r = -0.38, P < 0.05 for GFR/PV and r = -0.77, P < 0.001 for GFR/ECV). The ratio of GFR/PV to GFR/ECV is the ratio of extracellular fluid volume to plasma volume, and this was 4.0 (SD 0.99). We conclude that both GFR/PV and GFR/ECV can be easily measured with [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and are physiologically valid expressions of GFR. (orig./MG)

  19. N4-phenyl modifications of N2-(2-hydroxyl)ethyl-6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamines enhance glucocerebrosidase inhibition by small molecules with potential as chemical chaperones for Gaucher disease. (United States)

    Huang, Wenwei; Zheng, Wei; Urban, Daniel J; Inglese, James; Sidransky, Ellen; Austin, Christopher P; Thomas, Craig J


    A series of 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamines were prepared and analyzed as inhibitors of glucocerebrosidase. Synthesis, structure activity relationships and the selectivity of chosen analogues against related sugar hydrolases enzymes are described.

  20. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes. (United States)


    ... ether, and by subsequent amination with tri-methyl-amine, di-methyl-amine, di-ethyl-ene-triamine, or di... will be used in the production of grapefruit juice to adjust the ratio of citric acid to total...

  1. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: Transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine (United States)

    Distribution of biogenic amines – the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm) - differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells. These amines are important for cell viability and their intracel...

  2. Polyimide Aerogels with Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)


    A method for creating a three dimensional cross-linked polyimide structure includes dissolving a diamine, a dianhydride, and a triamine in a solvent, imidizing a polyamic acid gel by heating the gel, extracting the gel in a second solvent, supercritically drying the gel, and removing the solvent to create a polyimide aerogel.

  3. A chiral pinwheel supramolecular network driven by the assembly of PTCDI and melamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silly, Fabien; Shaw, Adam Q.; Castell, Martin R.; Briggs, G. A. D.


    The mixing of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide ( PTCDI) and 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine ( melamine) at room temperature in a ratio of 3 : 4 on Au( 111) leads to the formation of a new chiral " pinwheel'' structure.

  4. Mechanism of cleaving DNA through hydrolysis of a novel complex of Mg containing dien ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of metal complexes were designed and synthesized and a novel binuclear magnesium complex has been selected, namely [Mg2(dien)Cl(OH2)2]Cl2·H2O (dien=diethylene-triamine), which can cleave the plasmid pBR322 DNA effectively in close to physiological condition without adding any external materials.Through biological and chemical methods, especially the comparative experiments, we find the interaction between the complex and DNA belongs to hydrolytic mechanism.

  5. Transfer Hydrogenation of Acetophenone Catalyzed by in situ Generated 2,6-Bis(5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole- 3-yl)pyridine-ruthenium(Ⅱ) Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CETIN,Ahmet; DAYAN,Osman


    2,6-Bis(5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)pyridines (3, 4) were used for the first time as ligand in ruthe-nium catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone. The in situ prepared three-component system Ru(ll)/tridentate triamine ligands (3a-3d, 4a-4d) and KOH catalysed the transfer hydrogenation reaction of ace-tophenone in good yields under mild conditions.

  6. In-Situ Landmine Neutralization Using Chemicals to Initiate Low Order Burning of Main Charge (United States)


    of the gun tube. Once the squib is fired, it produces gas pressure, driving a hammer to impact a firing pin , which in turn fires a cartridge. The...Large Reactive Mine Clearance-II (REMIC-II) The large REMIC-II body is cast in two identical polyurethane halves, connected by four small pins ... four prototype chemical delivery systems. Two systems use diethylene triamine (DETA), which is hypergolic with TNT, Tetryl and TNT based

  7. Responses of two grass species to plant growth regulators, fertilizer N, chelated Fe, salinity and water stress


    Nabati, Daryoosh A.


    A series of studies were initiated to investigate growth responses of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa praetensis L.) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) to foliar applications of two plant growth regulators (PGR) and/or chelated Fe (Na Fe diethylene triamine pentaacetate). Environmental variables considered were N levels, soil moisture regimes, and saline irrigations The two materials investigated for PGR properties were a commercial product called Roots (a cold-water extract of seaw...

  8. The Necrosis-Avid Small Molecule HQ4-DTPA as a Multimodal Imaging Agent for Monitoring Radiation Therapy-Induced Tumor Cell Death


    Marieke A. Stammes; Maeda, Azusa; Bu, Jiachuan; Scollard, Deborah A.; Kulbatski, Iris; Medeiros, Philip J; Sinisi, Riccardo; Dubikovskaya, Elena A.; Thomas J A Snoeks; van Beek, Ermond R.; Chan, Alan B.; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; DaCosta, Ralph S.


    textabstractPurpose: Most effective antitumor therapies induce tumor cell death. Non-invasive, rapid and accurate quantitative imaging of cell death is essential for monitoring early response to antitumor therapies. To facilitate this, we previously developed a biocompatible necrosis-avid near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging probe, HQ4, which was radiolabeled with 111Indium-chloride (111In-Cl3) via the chelate diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), to enable clinical translation. T...

  9. Photophysics properties of 4-formacyl-triphenylamine and 4,4’-bisformacyl-triphenylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫亦明; 白凤莲; 张德清; 王竹庭; 朱道本


    The photophysical processes of 4-formacyl-triphenylamine (FTA) and 4,4’-bisformacyl-triphenyl-amine (BTA) have been studied. The fluorescences of FTA and BTA with donor (triamine) and acceptor (formacyl) moieties show the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) emission in polar solvents and photoinduced charge transfer (ICT) emission in nonpolar solvents. These could be supported by the solvent effect, temperature effect and the quenching process by strong electron-deficient compounds.

  10. Organic and inorganic fertilization effects on DTPA-extractable Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn, and their concentration in the edible portion of crops


    Maqueda Porras, Celia; Herencia, Juan F.; Ruiz Porras, J. C.; Hidalgo García, Mª F.


    The application of organic composts to soil may affect the availability of micronutrients and their concentration in plants. The present field research study compared soil micronutrient extractability after 5 years of organic fertilization v. conventional inorganic fertilization. Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) were extracted from soil using diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and the data obtained were compared with the concentration of these micronutrients in th...

  11. Structural alterations of human serum albumin caused by glycative and oxidative stressors revealed by circular dichroism analysis. (United States)

    Monacelli, Fiammetta; Storace, Daniela; D'Arrigo, Cristina; Sanguineti, Roberta; Borghi, Roberta; Pacini, Davide; Furfaro, Anna L; Pronzato, Maria A; Odetti, Patrizio; Traverso, Nicola


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of oxidative and glycative stressors to modify properties of human serum albumin (HSA) by analyzing markers of glycation (pentosidine) and oxidation (advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs)) and assessing fluorescence and circular dichroism. HSA was incubated for up to 21 days with ribose, ascorbic acid (AA) and diethylenetriamine pentacetate (DTPA) in various combinations in order to evaluate influences of these substances on the structure of HSA. Ribose was included as a strong glycative molecule, AA as a modulator of oxidative stress, and DTPA as an inhibitor of metal-catalyzed oxidation. Ribose induced a significant increase in pentosidine levels. AA and DTPA prevented the accumulation of pentosidine, especially at later time points. Ribose induced a mild increase in AOPP formation, while AA was a strong inducer of AOPP formation. Ribose, in combination with AA, further increased the formation of AOPP. DTPA prevented the AA-induced generation of AOPP. Ribose was also a potent inducer of fluorescence at 335nm ex/385nm em, which is typical of pentosidine. AA and DTPA prevented this fluorescence. Circular dichroism showed complex results, in which AA and DTPA were strong modifiers of the percentages of the alpha-helical structure of HSA, while ribose affected the structure of HSA only at later time points.

  12. Renal dynamic scintigraphy with captropil in systemic arterial hypertension diagnosis; Cintilografia renal dinamica com captopril no diagnostico da hipertensao arterial renovascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervo, Marco Antonio Cadorna; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros; Souza, Ricardo Alberto Manhaes; Evangelista, Maria Gardenia [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear


    Forty one patients, 15 male and 16 female presenting systemic arterial hypertension were submitted to Basal RDC and after being simulated by Captopril; the radiotracer used was 99 mTc-DTPA (dietileno triamino pentacetic acid-99 Tc-technetium). From the 41 patients studied, 13 had the GFR (Glomerular filtration rate) Captopril when compared to Basal RDC radioactive, 11 of them were confirmed as having vascular renal disease by Renal Artiography and two of them were false (one case renal litiase and the other chronic pyelonephritis). Two more false negative cases have occurred in the RDC and three patients refused to be submitted to a Renal Arteriography. In the cases which the Total Glomerular Filtration Rate was reduced, there was an agreement of 89,5% between the RDC and the Renal Arteriography. No alterations have been observed in the Renal Arteriography on the remaining 23 patients and in the RDC after Captopril there was normal increase in the Glomerular Filtration Rate when compared to the Basal RDC. The method has showed sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 92%. We can conclude that the RDC with Captopril test is not an invasive method, it has good sensitivity and specificity and it can be indicated as a beginning test to select patients when you intend to detect vascular renal disease; nevertheless the RDC will never be used as a final test of vascular lesion. (author) 22 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Tc-99m DTPA scans in renal allograft rejection and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedroyc, W.; Taube, D.; Fogleman, I.; Neild, G.; Cameron, S.; Maisey, M.


    Renal allograft dysfunction arising from rejection or cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity can currently only be distinguished reliably by allograft biopsy. We have assessed Technetium (Tc)-99m diethylamine pentacetic acid (DTPA) scanning in 30 CsA-treated patients with allograft dysfunction. Scintigrams were performed during 20 biopsy-proved episodes of rejection and during 14 episodes of CsA nephrotoxicity. These results were compared with the scintigrams of 15 allografts showing stable function. Quantitative indices expressing allograft perfusion (flow index) and function (uptake index) derived from the DTPA scintigrams showed no significant differences between the groups of patients with rejection, CsA nephrotoxicity, or stable or improving function. Similarly, the flow and uptake indices of individual allografts obtained during periods of stable or improving function and then during episodes of dysfunction due to rejection or CsA nephrotoxicity did not significantly change. We conclude that Tc-99m DTPA scintigrams are of limited value in the management of allograft dysfunction in patients immunosuppressed with CsA.

  14. Pentamines as substrate for human spermine oxidase (United States)

    Takao, Koichi; Shirahata, Akira; Samejima, Keijiro; Casero, Robert A.; Igarashi, Kazuei; Sugita, Yoshiaki


    Substrate activities of various linear polyamines to human spermine oxidase (hSMO) were investigated. The activities were evaluated by monitoring the amount of H2O2 released from sample polyamines by hSMO. H2O2 was measured by a HPLC method that analyzed fluorescent dimers derived from the oxidation of homovanillic acid in the presence of horseradish peroxidase. Six triamines were tested and were found not to be hSMO substrates. Of sixteen tetramines tested, spermine (Spm) was the most active substrate, followed by homospermine and N-butylated Spm. Pentamines showed a characteristic pattern of substrate activity. Of thirteen pentamines tested, 3343 showed higher substrate activity than Spm, and 4343 showed similar activity to Spm. The activities of the other pentamines were as follows: 3443, 4443, 4344, 3344, 4334, 4444, and 3334 (in decreasing order). Product amines released from these pentamines by hSMO were then analyzed by HPLC. Triamine was the only observed product, and the amount of triamine was nearly equivalent to that of released H2O2. A marked difference in the pH dependency curves between tetramines and pentamines suggested that hSMO favored reactions with a non-protonated secondary nitrogen at the cleavage site. The Km and Vmax values for Spm and 3343 at pH 7.0 and 9.0 were consistent with the higher substrate activity of 3343 compared to Spm, as well as with the concept of a non-protonated secondary nitrogen at the cleavage site being preferred, and 3343 was well degraded at a physiological pH by hSMO. PMID:23449327

  15. Elaboration, structural, spectroscopy, DSC investigations and Hirshfeld surface analysis of a one-dimensional self-assembled organic-inorganic hybrid compound (United States)

    Mesbeh, Radhia; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha


    The new organic-inorganic hybrid of the formula [H2mela]Cu2Cl6, where mela = 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine, has been synthesized by the reaction of 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine and copper(II) chloride dihydrate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. This compound has been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and characterized by FT-IR, Raman, NMR characterization, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis, dielectric measurements and Hirshfeld surface. 1,3,5-triazinidium-2,4,6-triamine hexachlorodicuprate(II) crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c. The final refinement of the structure of the program led to the reliability factors unweighted R1 = 3.53% and weighted WR2 = 8.87%. The observed internal C3sbnd N31sbnd C1 and C3sbnd N23sbnd C2 angle (121.5 and 121.4°) at protanated N-atom are significantly greater the other ring angle C1sbnd N12sbnd C2 (117.1°). The titled compound crystallizes as an organic-inorganic one-dimensional (1D) structure. The crystal structure was stabilized by two types of hydrogen bonding Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Nsbnd H⋯N. The infrared spectra was recorded in the 4000-400 cm-1 frequency region and the Raman spectra was recorded in the external region of the anionic sublattice vibration 4000-50 cm-1 at room temperature. Solid-state 13C and 63Cu MAS-NMR spectroscopies are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) show the presence of a structural phase transition of the title compound at 338 K. Hirshfeld surface analyses for visually analyzing intermolecular interactions in crystal structures employing molecular surface contours and 2D fingerprint plots have been used to examine molecular shapes.

  16. Evaluation of heart perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Dirks, Christina G;


    with acute transmural myocardial infarction were studied using a Turbo-fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI sequence to monitor the first pass of an extravascular contrast agent (CA), gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Quantitation of perfusion, expressed as Ki (mL/100 g/minute), in five......PURPOSE: To investigate the diagnostic ability of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) heart perfusion in acute heart patients, a fast, multislice dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequence was applied to patients with acute myocardial infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients...

  17. 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine-1,3-diium aquapentafluoridoaluminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maisonneuve


    Full Text Available The title compound, (C3H8N6[AlF5(H2O], was obtained by solvothermal synthesis from the reaction of aluminium hydroxide, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (melamine, aqueous HF and water at 323 K for 48 h. The structure consists of [AlF5(H2O]2− octahedra and diprotonated melaminium cations. Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds.

  18. Star polymers by ATRP of styrene and acrylates employing multifunctional initiators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankova, Katja Atanassova; Bednarek, Melania; Hvilsted, Søren


    scission of the ester linkages and the second step corresponds to the normal PS degradation. Star poly(methyl acrylates) with various cores are likewise prepared in a controlled manner by ATRP of methyl acrylate in bulk and in solution at 6080 degrees C with the 1,1,4,7,7-pentamethyldiethylene triamine...... ligand. Under these conditions, higher conversions were possible still maintaining low PDI signaling controlled star growth. Multiarm stars of poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(n-hexyl acrylate) with controlled characteristics have also been prepared....

  19. Comparison of CT and MRI brain tumor imaging using a canine glioma model. (United States)

    Whelan, H T; Clanton, J A; Wilson, R E; Tulipan, N B


    A canine gliosarcoma model was used to study the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast enhancement in defining the histologic margins of brain tumors. The effectiveness of this technique was compared to conventional computed tomography (CT) using iodinated contrast enhancement. Cultured canine gliosarcoma cells were injected into the left hemisphere of adult mongrel dogs. The dogs developed brain tumors and progressive clinical signs. Serial MRI with and without gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid was compared to serial CT with and without sodium iothalamate obtained on the same days. After the final scans, animals were sacrificed; the brains were removed and processed for routine histopathologic study. All tumors were visualized with contrast-enhanced MRI which proved most sensitive. Gadolinium di-ethylene triamine penta-acetic acid caused bright enhancement of tumors in a distribution that consistently corresponded to areas of pathologically proved tumor infiltration. Gross and microscopic autopsy findings correlated better with MRI than with CT which tended to produce poorer resolution and underrepresent the size of viable tumor. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is more accurate than unenhanced MRI, unenhanced CT, or enhanced CT in defining the histologic margins of tumors.

  20. Confirmation of the reaction pathway for obtaining 1-(stearamidoethyl-2-hepta-decyl-2-i midazoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružić Nenad Lj.


    Full Text Available 2-lmidazolines are components of many products, used in industry and households. 1-(Stearamidoethyl-2-heptadecyl-2-imidazoline is a surface active compound, which after quaternization with dimethyl sulfate, is used in lubricants, detergents, shampoos, softeners and cosmetics products. Due to its importance, it was essential to establish the exact reaction pathway for obtaining this compound. Diethylene triamine and stearic acid were used as the starting components. Using titrimetric analysis, and IR and 1H NMR spectros-copic analysis, as well as UV-Vis spectrophotometry it was established that the main intermediate was the 1,3-diamide bis(stearamidoethylamine. Earlier investigations conducted by some authors, using exclusively titrimetric analysis, showed that the main intermediate was the 1,2-diamide. In this paper it was proved that the assumption of these authors that salicylaldehiyde would react only with the primary and not the secondary amine groups was wrong. 1,2-Diamide is the main product of the hydrolysis of 1-(stearamido-ethyl-2-heptadecyl-2-imidazoline. It was shown, in this paper that the reaction of diethylene triamine with stearic acid in xylene at the reflux temperature, yields the salt of 1-(stearamidoethyl-2-heptadecyl-2-imidazoline and stearic acid.

  1. Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots (United States)

    Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.


    The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

  2. A Study on Some Copper(Ⅱ) Complexes of Polyaza Cryptandsand Planar Macrocycles-Synthesis, Characterization and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO, You-Liang; SHEN, Cheng-Yu; TANG, Yin-Yan; LUO, Qin-Hui; YU, Shu-Yan


    Two kinds of macrocyclic copper(Ⅱ) complexes were synthesized. One of them is composed of copper(Ⅱ) cryptates of ligands L1-L4 which are condensation products of 5-R-2methoxy-1,3-phenyldialdehyde (R= OCH3, L1) with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and 5-R-2-methothoxy-1, 3-phenyldialdehyde (R = CH3, L3) with tris(2-aminopropyi)amine as well as their reduced products of L1 and L3 (L2 and L4). The other is composed of two-dimensional macrocyclic copper(Ⅱ) complexcs of ligands L5-L8 of condensation products of diethylene triamine with 4-R-1-methoxy-2, 6-phenyldialdehyde (R = Cl,Br, CH3, OCH3). Therelationship between their structurcs and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was investigated.The results can provide some clues to the synthesis of SOD mimics.

  3. Easy and Efficient 111Indium Labeling of Long-Term Stored DTPA Conjugated Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Buch, Inge; Hesse, Birger


    -diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (cDTAP) was conjugated to a polyclonal immunoglobulin-G (IgG) in borate buffer, pH 8.2 at +4?C for 4 hours. Then the DTPA-conjugate was dialyzed against 50 mmol/l sodium citrate buffer saline, pH 6.0 and stored at -80° C in aliquots of 1 mg/0.5 ml. The DTPA-conjugate was labeled with 111In......-chloride in citrate buffer, pH 6. The labelling reaction was incubated at room temperature (RT) for 30 min and at +4?C for 90 min. Determination of labelling efficiency was performed using ITLC and an instant chromatography scanner equipped with a NaI crystal. The labelling efficiency of the DTPA...

  4. Synthesis of a Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Monolayer through Dynamic Imine Chemistry at the Air/Water Interface. (United States)

    Dai, Wenyang; Shao, Feng; Szczerbiński, Jacek; McCaffrey, Ryan; Zenobi, Renato; Jin, Yinghua; Schlüter, A Dieter; Zhang, Wei


    A two-dimensional covalent organic monolayer was synthesized from simple aromatic triamine and dialdehyde building blocks by dynamic imine chemistry at the air/water interface (Langmuir-Blodgett method). The obtained monolayer was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, which unambiguously confirmed the formation of a large (millimeter range), unimolecularly thin aromatic polyimine sheet. The imine-linked chemical structure of the obtained monolayer was characterized by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and the peak assignment was supported by spectra simulated by density functional theory. Given the modular nature and broad substrate scope of imine formation, the work reported herein opens up many new possibilities for the synthesis of customizable 2D polymers and systematic studies of their structure-property relationships.

  5. Primary adenocarcinoma of ureter: A rare histopathological variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekshi Chaudhary


    Full Text Available Primary carcinoma of ureter is an uncommon malignancy. Of which, mostly are transitional cell carcinomas followed by squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas being the rarest histopathology encountered. We report a case of adenocarcinoma ureter in a middle-aged male along with its clinical scenario. A 62-year-old male, presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Computerized tomography urogram showed a soft tissue lesion at the right ureterovesical junction. Cystoscopic biopsy reported villous adenoma. Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan reported nonfunctioning right kidney. He underwent laparoscopic right nephroureterectomy, and histopathology reported adenocarcinoma of the right lower third of ureter, with positive distal and close radial margins. The patient received external beam radiation to the postoperative bed and lymph nodes, and he is disease-free till date.

  6. Nano-filtration assisted by complexation: A promising process for the separation of trivalent long-lived minor actinides from lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre-Reguillon, A. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, Laboratoire de chimie organique, UMR CNRS 7084, 75 - Paris (France); Sorin, A.; Pellet-Rostaing, St.; Lemaire, M. [Lyon-1 Univ. Claude-Bernard, Laboratoire de Catalyse et Synthese Organique, UMR CNRS 5181, CPE, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Bernier, G. [CEA Valrho, DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCSE, 30 - Marcoule (France)


    For the Am/Eu separation, the chelating agent diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was used to selectively decrease the permeability of Am across the nano-filtration membrane Desal GH. Using an Am/Eu/DTPA mixture, we have showed that the difference of permeability can be explained by the chemical speciation in solution. The membrane selectivity is thus determined by the difference of the stability constants of the 1:1 complexes of Am and Eu with DTPA. The influence of DTPA concentration on the separation factor (SF) was then investigated. The SF determined with an Eu/Am initial ratio of 3700 varied within the range of 1.2-3.5. (authors)

  7. Alveolar epithelial permeability in bronchial asthma in children; An evaluation by [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA inhalation scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Takuji (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))


    To evaluate alveolar epithelial permeability (k[sub ep]) in children with bronchial asthma, [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetate) aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies were performed. There was no correlation between the k[sub ep] value and the severity of asthma. On the other hand, out of 10 cases which had no aerosol deposition defect in the lung field, 4 showed high k[sub ep] values on the whole lung field and 7 had high k[sub ep] value areas, particularly apparent in the upper lung field. These results suggest that even when the central airway lesions are mild, severe damage exists in the alveolar region of the peripheral airway. (author).

  8. Addison’s Disease Patient Presenting with Cushing’s Syndrome Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Doğruk Ünal


    Full Text Available A 24-year-old man with Addison’s disease, who was receiving replacement therapy with prednisolone, was admitted to our hospital due to findings of both hypocortisolism and hypercortisolism. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH was found to be high during and after withdrawal of prednisolone therapy. ACTH was not suppressed with 2 mg or 8 mg of dexamethasone. Gadolinium-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary showed hyperplasia or adenoma. Pituitary hyperplasia or adenoma with high ACTH level was considered to be the result of the insufficient therapy. The combination of hydrocortisone and bedtime dexamethasone reduced plasma ACTH levels and improved imaging findings. Since a reliable biomarker for monitoring the adequacy of replacement therapy has not yet been identified and current glucocorticoid replacement regimens do not mimic normal diurnal biorhythm of cortisol, some patients may require different glucocorticoid replacement regimens or formulas. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 15-8

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of hydrazino-containing polyamine skeletons as drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Hong Wang; Jun Jun Zhou; Song Qing Xie; Qian Li; Jin Zhao; Chao Jie Wang


    A new series of polyamine-toxic cargo conjugates was synthesized with aryl aldehydes conjugating to hydrazino-containing triamine skeletons.The in vitro cytotoxicity of target compounds was evaluated in several cancer cell lines (e.g.,L1210,HeLa and B16) and the cellular entry of these polyamine conjugates via polyamine transporter was investigated on SPD- or DFMO-treated B16 cell line.Of these compounds,6c show significant cytotoxicity on L1210,HeLa and B 16 cell lines (ICs0 value,3.74 μmol/L,5.66 μmol/L and 4.04 μmol/L,respectively).The polyamine transporter assay demonstrated the suitability of hydrazino-containing polyamine backbones for application as vectors in drug delivery systems.

  10. Corrosion Inhibition by Sodium Gluconate-Zn2+-DTPMP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manjula


    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of a phosphonic acid, Diethylene Triamine Pentamethylene Phosphonic acid (DTPMP in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Cl- has been evaluated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of Zn2+. The formulation consisting of DTPMP and Zn2+ has excellent inhibition efficiency (IE. A synergistic effect is noticed between Zn2+ and DTPMP. Addition of sodium gluconate (SG enhances the IE of Zn2+ and DTPMP system. The DTPMP-Zn2+-SG system function as a mixed inhibitor as revealed by polarization study. AC impedance spectrum, optical and atomic force micrographs reveal the formation of a protective film on the metal surface. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+-DTPMP complex, Fe2+-SG complex and Zn(OH2.

  11. Formation of a metal/epoxy resin interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanzow, J.; Horn, P. Schulze; Kirschmann, M.; Zaporojtchenko, V.; Dolgner, K.; Faupel, F.; Wehlack, C.; Possart, W


    Interfaces between cross-linked polymers and metals play a significant role in fields like splicing and coating, metallization of plastics, microelectronics, micro system technology and nanotechnology. In this paper, we present investigations on the interface formation due to metallization (Au, Ag, Cu and Al) by evapouration of the highly cured epoxy resin system diglycidilether of bisphenol a (DGEBA)-diethylene triamine (DETA) with the focus on the structure formation at the interface. A combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a radiotracer technique was used to analyze the metal/epoxy interface. While a strong metal/epoxy interaction was found for Al, the noble metals Au, Ag and Cu grow in a Volmer-Weber mode due to an interplay of surface diffusion and metal cluster growth. Nevertheless, polymer bulk diffusion of these metals is negligible.

  12. Detection of bladder hemangioma in a child by blood-pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Ken; Saitoh, Masahiko; Chida, Shoichi [Department of Pediatrics, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, 19-1 Uchimaru, Morioka (Japan)


    Bladder hemangioma is a rare cause of gross hematuria. A 5-year-old boy was investigated for recurrent episodes of asymptomatic gross hematuria, but no abnormalities were found. Blood-pool scintigraphy using {sup 99m}technetium-human serum albumin combined with diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) revealed an area of increased activity in the right side of the bladder, which was confirmed by cystoscopy as a bladder hemangioma. Endoscopic laser therapy was used to remove two lesions successfully that were diagnosed histologically as cavernous hemangioma. The patient had no further episodes of hematuria in the 2-year period after this treatment. This case study indicates blood-pool scintigraphy may be a useful technique for detecting bladder hemangiomas. (orig.)

  13. Effects of lime on bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during agitated pile composting of water hyacinth. (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S


    In the present study composting of water hyacinth was done with cattle manure and saw dust (6:3:1) ratio and effects of addition of lime (1%, 2% and 3%) on heavy metal bioavailability and leachability was evaluated during 30 days of composting period. The changes in temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and extractable heavy metal contents were measured. Results showed that the total concentration of heavy metals was increased during the composting process. Due to addition of lime initial pH of the compost was raised effectively, caused a decrease in water soluble, diethylene triamine pentracetic acid (DTPA) and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) extractable metal contents in the final compost. Water soluble metals (Ni, Pb and Cd) and DTPA extractable metals (Pb and Cd) were not detected during water soluble fraction. Addition of lime significantly reduced the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting process.

  14. In vivo detection of free radicals in mouse septic encephalopathy using molecular MRI and immuno-spin trapping. (United States)

    Towner, Rheal A; Garteiser, Philippe; Bozza, Fernando; Smith, Nataliya; Saunders, Debra; d' Avila, Joana C P; Magno, Flora; Oliveira, Marcus F; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Lupu, Florea; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramirez, Dario C; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Mason, Ronald P; Castro Faria-Neto, Hugo C


    Free radicals are known to play a major role in sepsis. Combined immuno-spin trapping and molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to detect in vivo and in situ levels of free radicals in murine septic encephalopathy after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). DMPO (5,5-dimethyl pyrroline N-oxide) was injected over 6h after CLP, before administration of an anti-DMPO probe (anti-DMPO antibody bound to albumin-gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-biotin MRI targeting contrast agent). In vitro assessment of the anti-DMPO probe in oxidatively stressed mouse astrocytes significantly decreased T1 relaxation (p free radicals in murine septic encephalopathy.

  15. Combined molecular MRI and immuno-spin-trapping for in vivo detection of free radicals in orthotopic mouse GL261 gliomas. (United States)

    Towner, Rheal A; Smith, Nataliya; Saunders, Debra; De Souza, Patricia Coutinho; Henry, Leah; Lupu, Florea; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Mason, Ronald P; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Ramirez, Dario C


    Free radicals play a major role in gliomas. By combining immuno-spin-trapping (IST) and molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI), in vivo levels of free radicals were detected within mice bearing orthotopic GL261 gliomas. The nitrone spin trap DMPO (5,5-dimethyl pyrroline N-oxide) was administered prior to injection of an anti-DMPO probe (anti-DMPO antibody covalently bound to a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Gd (gadolinium)-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetic acid)-biotin MRI contrast agent) to trap tumor-associated free radicals. mMRI detected the presence of anti-DMPO adducts by either a significant sustained increase (pfree radicals from a glioma model.

  16. Low-temperature intermediates to oxygen reduction reaction catalysts based on amine-modified metal-loaded carbons. An XPS and ss-NMR investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzorati, Stefania [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi, 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ragg, Enzio M. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze per l’Alimentazione, la Nutrizione e l’Ambiente, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Longhi, Mariangela, E-mail: [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi, 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Formaro, Leonardo [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi, 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    Carbon functionalization is a major subject of interest in a number of project applications. Herein we report results on the characterization of nitrogen- and metal-loaded (Me = Fe, Co) carbon derivatives from low-T reaction steps before they are converted to catalysts for electrochemical oxygen reduction by later high-T treatments. The aim is to shed light on the state of carbon and carbon-bonded moieties before thermal modifications take place during any chosen high-T treatment. Though necessary for end catalyst activation, such thermal treatments make difficult to establish a relation between the starting reactants and finally obtained catalysts. Of interest to the paper are {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N solid-state NMR (ss-NMR) and high-resolution X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results on a commercial carbon that was reacted first with aliphatic di- and tri-amines and then with Fe, Co ions in room-T water. Data from natural abundance ss-{sup 15}N NMR in combination with XPS analysis were found especially relevant to assess that, in the adopted conditions, amines preferentially bind to carbon by creating alkylimino functional groups, which spontaneously form hydrous surface metal complexes with soluble Fe and Co ions. A chemical model is thus proposed for metal coordination in such C–N species. - Highlights: • A commercial carbon is nitrogen-doped by a low-T reaction with di- and tri-amines. • In the used conditions alkylimino groups are formed, able to act as ligands with metals (mainly Co). • A combination of {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N NMR and XPS is adopted for product characterization. • A model is proposed for the metal coordination with surface bonded groups.

  17. Chelation gradients for investigation of metal ion binding at silica surfaces. (United States)

    Kannan, Balamurali; Higgins, Daniel A; Collinson, Maryanne M


    Centimeter-long surface gradients in bi- and tridentate chelating agents have been formed via controlled rate infusion, and the coordination of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) to these surfaces has been examined as a function of distance by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). 3-(Trimethoxysilylpropyl)ethylenediamine and 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine were used as precursor silanes to form the chelation gradients. When the gradients were exposed to a metal ion solution, a series of coordination complexes formed along the length of the substrate. For both chelating agents at the three different concentrations studied, the amine content gradually increased from top to bottom as expected for a surface chemical gradient. While the Cu 2p peak area had nearly the same profile as nitrogen, the Zn 2p peak area did not and exhibited a plateau along much of the gradient. The normalized nitrogen-to-metal peak area ratio (N/M) was found to be highly dependent on the type of ligand, its surface concentration, and the type of metal ion. For Cu(2+), the N/M ratio ranged from 8 to 11 on the diamine gradient and was ∼4 on the triamine gradient, while for Zn(2+), the N/M ratio was 4-8 on diamine and 5-7 on triamine gradients. The extent of protonation of amine groups was higher for the diamine gradients, which could lead to an increased N/M ratio. Both 1:1 and 1:2 ligand/metal complexes along with dinuclear complexes are proposed to form, with their relative amounts dependent on the ligand, ligand density, and metal ion. Collectively, the methods and results described herein represent a new approach to study metal ion binding and coordination on surfaces, which is especially important to the extraction, preconcentration, and separation of metal ions.

  18. Preparation of {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis biotin as a system of In vivo generator; Preparacion de {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis biotina como un sistema de generador In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez V, M.R


    The objective of this work was to synthesize the complex {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho - diethylen triamine pentaacetic-bis Biotin ({sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis Biotin) to evaluate its potential as a new radiopharmaceutical in directed radiotherapy. The Dysprosium-166 was obtained for neutron irradiation of {sup 164} Dy{sub 2}0{sub 3} in the TRIGA Mark III reactor. The labelled was carried out in aqueous solution to p H 8.0 for addition of {sup 166} Dy Cl{sub 3} to the diethylen triamine pentaacetic-{alpha}, {omega}-bis Biotin (DTPA-bis Biotin). The radiochemical purity was determined for HPLC and ITLC. The biological integrity of the marked biotin is evaluated by the biological recognition of the avidin for HPLC - molecular exclusion with and without avidin addition. The studies of stability in vitro were made in dilutions of saline solution to 0.9% and with human serum at 37 C incubated 1 and 24 hours. The complex {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis Biotin was obtained with a radiochemical purity of 99.1 {+-} 0.6%. The biological recognition of the complex {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis Biotin for the avidin it doesn't affect the labelling procedure. The studies in vitro demonstrated that the {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis Biotin is stable after the dilution in saline solution and in human serum that there is not translocation of the one radionuclide subsequent son to the beta decay of the {sup 166} Dy that could produce the {sup 166} Ho{sup 3+} liberation. The studies of Biodistribution in healthy mice demonstrated that the one complex {sup 166} Dy/{sup 166} Ho DTPA-bis Biotin have a high renal distribution. In conclusion the radiolabelled biotin in this investigation has the appropriate properties to be used as an In vivo generator system stable for directed radiotherapy. (Author)

  19. Optimizing acid-base bifunctional mesoporous catalysts for the henry reaction: effects of the surface density and site isolation of functional groups. (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna K; Buckley, Robert P; Asefa, Tewodros


    We report on the effects of the surface density and the spacing between grafted organoamines (and residual ungrafted silanols) of amine-functionalized mesoporous materials on their (cooperative) catalytic activity in the Henry reaction. The spacing between the bifunctional groups (amines and silanols), their site isolation, and their surface density were controlled by one-step or two-step grafting of a series of organosilanes containing linear alkylamine, alkyldiamine, alkyltriamine, and meta- and para-substituted aromatic amines onto mesoporous silica in ethanol and/or toluene. The grafting in ethanol produced site-isolated, flexible alkylamines, alkyldiamines, and alkyltriamines of different tether lengths and rigid meta- and para-substituted aromatic amines and high surface area materials, whereas the grafting in toluene resulted in closely spaced organoamines and materials with lower surface areas. The spacing between the organoamine groups was probed by complexing cupric ions with the amines and by measuring the electronic spectra of the complexes. The materials' catalytic activities were dependent not only on the degree of site isolation of the amine groups and the surface areas of the materials, but also on the relative spacing between the functional groups and their surface density. Samples grafted with monoamine groups in ethanol and samples grafted with diamine or triamine groups in toluene for 5 h gave approximately 100% conversion in 16 min of the Henry reaction between p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and nitromethane. However, the corresponding monoamine-grafted sample in toluene and diamine- and triamine-grafted samples in ethanol gave approximately 100% conversion after 1 h. On the basis of turnover number (TON) and TON per surface area, the samples containing optimum concentrations of approximately 0.8 - 1.5 mmol of grafted organoamines/g, which we dubbed as the critical density of organic grafted groups, gave the highest catalytic efficiencies. These samples

  20. Polyamines in plant physiology (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.


    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  1. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis.

  2. Development of Processable PMR-Type Polymides with Star-Branched Structures (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Eby, R. K.; Meador, Michael A.


    In the last two decades, high temperature polyimide matrix composites have found broad applications in aerospace structural components, due to their high specific modulus and high specific strength. As matrix resins, aromatic polyimides exhibit exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties. However, their rodlike structures often result in poor solubility in most common organic solvents, as well as high melt temperature and melt viscosity, making them difficult to process. To overcome this difficulty, flexible linkages including O, SO2 or CH2 non coplanar biphenyl moieties, bulky lateral substituents, and crankshaft structures are often incorporated into the polymer backbones. Addition-curing of low molecular weight polyimides (resins) is another approach to improve processability. One of the most successfully developed materials has been PMR-15 (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants, molecular weight of 1500 g/mol), because of its good combination of thermal and mechanical properties and ease of processability. However, due to the high melt viscosity of PMR-type resins, use of more economical processing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM), is not possible. Recent research has focused on the incorporation of trifunctional monomers into addition-curing polyimides in an attempt to improve the processability of these polymers. The objective of this research is to use an aromatic triamine, 1,3,5 tris (4-aminophenoxy) benzene, to prepare new resin systems with starbranched structures. The glass transition temperatures (Tg's) and thermal oxidative stability TOS) of these polymers are compared to their linear counterparts and PMR-15.

  3. PEG encapsulated by porous triamide-linked polymers as support for solid-liquid phase change materials for energy storage (United States)

    Andriamitantsoa, Radoelizo S.; Dong, Wenjun; Gao, Hongyi; Wang, Ge


    A series of porous triamide-linked polymers labeled as PTP were prepared by condensation of 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl trichloride with benzene-1,4-diamine (A), 4,4‧-methylenediamine (B) and 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (C) respectively. The as-synthesized polymers exhibit permanent porosity and high surface areas which guarantee to hold polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules in their network for shape-stabilized phase change materials. They possess different effects on the phase change properties of the composite due to their different porosities. PTP-A have intrinsic well-ordered morphology, microstructure and good enough pores to keep the PCMs compared to PTP-B and PTP-C. PEG 2000 used as PCMs could be retained up to 85 wt% in PTP-A polymer materials and these composites were defined as form-stable composite PCMs without the leakage of melted PCM. The thermal study revealed a good storage effect of encapsulated polymer and the enthalpy of melting increases in the order PTP-C storage capacity. The latent heats for melting and freezing was found to be 155 and 141.7 kJ/kg with a peak appearing at around 53.13 and 29.67 °C respectively. The study suggests that pore size is important for the preparation of shape-stabilized PCMs.

  4. Copper-, palladium-, and platinum-containing complexes of an asymmetric dinucleating ligand. (United States)

    Halvagar, Mohammad Reza; Neisen, Benjamin; Tolman, William B


    The coordination chemistry of an asymmetric dinucleating hexadentate ligand LH(2) comprising neutral alkyltriamine and potentially dianionic dicarboxamido-pyridyl donor sets with copper, palladium, and platinum has been explored. Monometallic, dicopper, and heterodinuclear Cu-Pd and -Pt complexes have been prepared and characterized, including by NMR, EPR, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. For example, the monometallic complexes [(LH(2))MCl]X (M = Cu, X = OTf; M = Pd or Pt, X = Cl) were prepared, wherein the metal(II) ions are coordinated to the triamine portion and the pyridyldicarboxamide is unperturbed. Treatment of LH(2) with [MesCu](x) (Mes = mesityl) provided a monocopper(I) complex, again with the metal coordinated only to the trialkylamine donor set. Reaction of [(LH(2))CuCl]OTf with NaOMe resulted in an unexpected migration of the copper(II)-chloride fragment to the pyridyldicarboxamide site to yield Na[LCuCl], from which a dicopper complex LCu(2)Cl(2) and mixed-metal complexes LCu(Cl)M(Cl) (M = Pd, Pt) were prepared by addition of CuCl(2) or MCl(2), respectively. The heterodinuclear complexes were also prepared by addition of CuCl(2) to [(LH(2))MCl]Cl.

  5. Determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids at ultra-trace levels by means of online coupling ion exchange chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with indirect detection via their Pd²⁺-complexes. (United States)

    Nette, David; Seubert, Andreas


    A new indirect IC-ICP-MS method for the determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids in water samples is described. It is based on the addition of an excess of Pd(II) to water samples. The analytes are forced into very strong and negatively charged palladium complexes, separated by ion exchange chromatography and detected by their palladium content, utilizing an on-line coupled ICP-MS. This method is suitable to determine the concentration of 8 aminopolycarboxylic acids (nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), (2-carboxyethyl) iminodiacetic acid (β-ADA), methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), 2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1,3-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,3-PDTA) and 1,2-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,2-PDTA) at the ng kg(-1) level. The method is faster and easier than the established gas chromatography (GC)-method ISO 16588:2002 and up to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ion pair chromatography based method of DIN 38413-8. Analytic performance is superior to ISO 16588:2002 and the comparability is good.

  6. Contrasting Effects of Farmyard Manure (FYM) and Compost for Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil. (United States)

    Sabir, Muhammad; Ali, Amanat; Zia-Ur-rehman, Muhammad; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman


    We investigated effect of farm yard manure (FYM) and compost applied to metal contaminated soil at rate of 1% (FYM-1, compost-1), 2% (FYM-2, compost-2), and 3% (FYM-3, compost-3). FYM significantly (P compost increased root dry weight compared to control. Amendments significantly increased nickel (Ni) in shoots and roots of maize except compost applied at 1%. FYM-3 and -1 caused maximum Ni in shoots (11.42 mg kg(-1)) and roots (80.92 mg kg(-1)), respectively while compost-2 caused maximum Ni (14.08 mg kg(-1)) and (163.87 mg kg(-1)) in shoots and roots, respectively. Plants grown in pots amended with FYM-2 and compost-1 contained minimum Cu (30.12 and 30.11 mg kg(-1)) in shoots, respectively. FYM-2 and compost-2 caused minimum zinc (Zn) (59.08 and 66.0 mg kg(-1)) in maize shoots, respectively. FYM-2 caused minimum Mn in maize shoots while compost increased Mn in shoots and roots compared to control. FYM and compost increased the ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) extractable Ni and Mn in the soil and decreased Cu and Zn. Lower remediation factors for all metals with compost indicated that compost was effective to stabilize the metals in soil compared to FYM.

  7. Effect of compost and manure amendments on zinc soil speciation, plant content, and translocation in an artificially contaminated soil. (United States)

    Al Chami, Ziad; Cavoski, Ivana; Mondelli, Donato; Miano, Teodoro


    The addition of organic matter in soil can modify the bioavailability of heavy metals. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out using an edible plant species Eruca vesicaria L. Cavalieri grown on an artificially contaminated soil with Zn (665 mg kg(-1)). In this study, the effect of compost at 20 t ha(-1) (C20) and at 60 t ha(-1) (C60), manure at 10 t ha(-1) (M10) and at 30 t ha(-1) (M30), and chemical fertilizers (NPK) on Zn fate in a soil-plant system was evaluated. At the end of the experiment, the main growth parameters and Zn content in plants were determined. In addition, Zn speciation in the soil was assessed using the original Community Bureau of Reference sequential extraction and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid extraction. Zinc, though an essential element for plant growth, caused toxicity effects in plants grown on control and manure treatments, while in the compost treatments, plants showed no visual toxicity symptoms. The concentrations of Zn in roots were similar for all treatments, while significant differences were observed for shoots. In fact, in the compost treatments, plants showed the lowest Zn concentration in shoots. Zinc speciation seems not to be affected by the applied treatments. Indeed, Zn plant content and translocation to shoots seems to be affected. Compost amendments significantly reduced Zn content and translocation in comparison to other treatments.

  8. Modified combustion synthesis of Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Optimization using Taguchi experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norouzbeigi, Reza, E-mail: [Cement Research Center, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.B. 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majdabadi Farahani, Shahrzad [School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.B. 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Abstarct: Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were prepared by modified combustion of DTPA as a new fuel. Three factors such as fuel to oxidizer ratio (F/O), added fuel type and added to the main fuel ratio were evaluated under Taguchi L{sub 8} experimental design and analysis. Urea and EDTA were selected as added fuels and sterile gauze was used as a template for the first time. The crystal sizes were optimized as the responses of the experiments. Optimum condition for production of smaller crystals was determined as using EDTA as added fuel and added/main fuels molar ratio of 0.75. The structural and morphological properties of the products were characterized using, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy mapping, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). FESEM and TEM micrographs showed agglomerated spherical and cubic nanoparticles with an average particle size of 60 nm. XRD analysis revealed the cubic spinel structure and ferrite phase with high crystallinity in the range of 13–23 nm. - Highlights: • Highly pure Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by modified combustion of Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid as a new fuel. • Sterile gauze was used as template for the first time. • Nickel ferrite powders with average particle size of 60 nm have been successfully synthesized.

  9. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gandolpho


    Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%. In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  10. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults. (United States)

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael


    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine.

  11. Influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on the isothermal cure of an epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Zielinski, B; Becker, N; Krueger, J K; Philipp, M; Mueller, U; Ziehmer, M [University of Luxembourg, 162a avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 (Luxembourg)], E-mail:


    The influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on the curing of an epoxy thermoset based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A was investigated using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and rheology. Diethylene triamine was used as a hardener. TMDSC not only allows for a systematic study of the kinetics of cure but simultaneously gives access to the evolution of the specific heat capacities of the thermosets. The technique thus provides insight into the glass transition behaviour of the nanocomposites and hence makes it possible to shed some light on the interaction between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fillers are shown to accelerate the growth of macromolecules upon isothermal curing. Several mechanisms which possibly could be responsible for the acceleration are described. As a result of the faster network growth chemical vitrification occurs at earlier times in the filled thermosets and the specific reaction heat decreases with increasing nanoparticle concentration. Rheologic measurements of the zero-shear viscosity confirm the faster growth of the macromolecules in the presence of the nanoparticles.

  12. Mechanism of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions sorption from aqueous solutions by macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (United States)

    Nastasović, Aleksandra B.; Ekmeščić, Bojana M.; Sandić, Zvjezdana P.; Ranđelović, Danijela V.; Mozetič, Miran; Vesel, Alenka; Onjia, Antonije E.


    The mechanism of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions sorption from aqueous solutions by macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (PGME) functionalized by reaction of the pendant epoxy groups with diethylene triamine (PGME-deta) was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) were used for the determination of surface morphology of the copolymer particles. The sorption behavior of heavy metals Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions sorption was investigated in batch static experiments under non-competitive conditions at room temperature (298 K). The obtained results were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic model. The kinetics studies showed that Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) sorption obeys the pseudo-second-order model under all investigated operating conditions with evident influence of pore diffusion.

  13. Improving the relationship between soil characteristics and metal bioavailability by using reactive fractions of soil parameters in calcareous soils. (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; van Oort, Folkert; González, Concepción; Quintana, José R; Lafuente, Antonio L; Lamy, Isabelle


    The contribution of the nature instead of the total content of soil parameters relevant to metal bioavailability in lettuce was tested using a series of low-polluted Mediterranean agricultural calcareous soils offering natural gradients in the content and composition of carbonate, organic, and oxide fractions. Two datasets were compared by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis: total concentrations (TC dataset) of main soil parameters (constituents, phases, or elements) involved in metal retention and bioavailability; and chemically defined reactive fractions of these parameters (RF dataset). The metal bioavailability patterns were satisfactorily explained only when the RF dataset was used, and the results showed that the proportion of crystalline Fe oxides, dissolved organic C, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu and Zn, and a labile organic pool accounted for 76% of the variance. In addition, 2 multipollution scenarios by metal spiking were tested that showed better relationships with the RF dataset than with the TC dataset (up to 17% more) and new reactive fractions involved. For Mediterranean calcareous soils, the use of reactive pools of soil parameters rather than their total contents improved the relationships between soil constituents and metal bioavailability. Such pool determinations should be systematically included in studies dealing with bioavailability or risk assessment.

  14. Decorporation of plutonium by pulmonary administration of Ca-DTPA dry powder: a study in rat after lung contamination with different plutonium forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serandour, A.L.; Grillon, G.; Frechou, M.; Fritsch, P.; Poncy, J.L. [CEA/DSV/DRR, Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France); Tsapis, N.; Gervelas, C.; Fattal, E. [Universite Paris-Sud 11 CNRS, UMR 8612, Physico-chimie-Pharmacotechnie-Biopharmacie, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Deverre, J.R. [CEA/DSV/DRM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 91401 Orsay (France); Benech, H. [CEA/DSV/DRM, Service de Pharmacologie et d' Immunologie, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    This study evaluates the decorporation efficacy of a pulmonary administration of a new Ca-DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid) dry powder (18 {mu}mol kg{sup -1} of body mass) after pulmonary contamination of rats with different Pu compounds. After inhalation of PuO{sub 2}, a delayed intratracheal administration of DTPA cannot reduce significantly the retention of Pu in the lungs but limits its transfer in liver and skeleton. After pulmonary contamination by Pu nitrate, early insufflation of the DTPA powder appears twice as more efficient than an i.v injection of DTPA (30 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}) to reduce Pu retention in the lungs and is as effective as i.v. injection to limit the extra-pulmonary deposit. In contrast, a delayed administration of DTPA cannot reduce the lung or extra-pulmonary retention. In conclusion, the improvement of aerodynamic properties of DTPA powder leads to an increase of DTPA amount deposited in the lungs and enhances the body decorporation. (authors)

  15. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido


    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  16. Hematoma in the cervical ligamentum flavum. Report of a case and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Tatsuya; Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Katoh, Shinsuke; Yasui, Natsuo [The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan); Takao, Shoichiro [The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan); Kagawa, Seiko [The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Human Pathology, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)


    Hematoma of the cervical ligamentum flavum is very rare, and its pathogenesis is unknown. We describe a case of ligamentum flavum hematoma in the cervical spine causing severe myelopathy. Postoperative histological examination suggested it was the result of the rupture of a hemangioma or of an arteriovenous malformation in the ligamentum flavum. After removal of the lesion, the patient's condition immediately improved. Review of all three reported cases, including this one, showed that complete resection of the mass resulted in immediate relief of symptoms of incomplete paraplegia. The findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hematoma may vary with time, and they may show no characteristic intensity. However, MRI of this case revealed that the tissues surrounding the mass were enhanced with gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid, and an area of homogeneous iso-intensity was clearly surrounded by a low-intensity area (flavum) on T2-weighed short-tau inversion recovery images. These findings could be characteristic of the ligamentum flavum hematoma and might help in the differentiation from a cervical epidural hematoma. (orig.)

  17. Assessment and control of the bioavailability of nickel in soils. (United States)

    Echevarria, Guillaume; Massoura, Stamatia Tina; Sterckeman, Thibault; Becquer, Thierry; Schwartz, Christophe; Morel, Jean Louis


    Nickel, a potentially toxic metal, is present in all soils with an average concentration of 20 to 30 mg/kg, sometimes exceeding 10,000 mg/kg (e.g., ultramafic soils). The ecotoxicological risk of Ni in soils to organisms is controlled by its availability. It is therefore essential to identify an efficient and reliable method for the evaluation of this risk. This paper presents a complete study of the effect of Ni origin, localization, and soil properties on its availability as assessed with the isotopic exchange kinetics (IEK) method and compares plant response to isotopically exchangeable properties of Ni in soils. We performed IEK on 100 soil samples representing a worldwide range of Ni fate, and concentrations showed that pH was the main influencing parameter and that labile Ni (i.e., isotopically exchangeable Ni, Et) could be reasonably well assessed by a single diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid extraction. The identification of the soil mineral phases that bear Ni (bearing phases) in 16 Ni-rich samples selected among the 100 soils showed a strong effect of the mineralogy of the bearing phases on Ni availability (IEK). Plants with different Ni accumulation strategies all took up Ni from the same labile pool of Ni in four contrasting soils, and the amount taken up by hyperaccumulator plants could be anticipated with the IEK parameters, thus confirming the usefulness of isotopic dilution methods for risk assessment.

  18. Sorption of different phenol derivatives on functionalized macroporous nanocomposite of poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and acid modified bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Sanja R.


    Full Text Available Macroporous nanocomposite of poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and acid modified bentonite was prepared by radical suspension copolymerization. Nanocomposite was functionalized with diethylene triamine (deta, by ring-opening reaction of the pendant epoxy groups. Functionalization was performed in order to enable phenol derivatives sorption. This new, not sufficiently investigated material, with developed porous structure was denoted CP-SA-deta. In this study, the influence of temperature on 4-nitrophenol (4NP sorption on CP-SA-deta was investigated. The chemisorption was estimated as dominant process since activation energy of sorption of 4NP of 54.8 kJ mol-1 was obtained. After determining the optimal sorption conditions for 4NP, the sorption of 2-nitrophenol (2NP and 2-chloro 4-nitrophenol (2Cl4NP on CP-SA-deta was investigated with respect to pH, initial concentration and contact time. The 2NP sorption was seldom tested, while according to our knowledge, the 2Cl4NP sorption was not investigated. The isotherm data were best fitted with Langmuir model, while the sorption dynamics obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model for all derivatives. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001 i br. III 43009

  19. Concentrations of Available Heavy Metals in Mediterranean Agricultural Soils and their Relation with Some Soil Selected Properties: A Case Study in Typical Mediterranean Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rato Nunes


    Full Text Available The characterization of the content of trace metals in soils is an instrument in many programs of environmental protection, including the establishment of regional-level standards to detect sites affected by contamination. The objectives of the present study were to study the available levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in surface horizons of agricultural soils in a typical European Mediterranean region, to establish the geochemical baseline concentration (GBC, background level (BL, and reference value (RV of each of these available metals, and to investigate their possible correlations with soil properties. To establish the GBC and RV values, we used the “standard threshold method”. Topsoil samples (0–20 cm were collected from 630 sites, and extracted with Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA to determine their available heavy metal concentrations. The GBC values established were: 0.04 to 0.90 mg kg−1, 0.70 to 2.50 mg kg−1, 0.10 to 6.30 mg kg−1, 0.30 to 7.90 mg kg−1, 0.29 to 4.50 mg kg−1, and 0.18 to 2.50 mg kg−1 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Soil properties were found to be correlated with the available heavy metal content, suggesting that the enhanced mobility of heavy metals are related to anthropic activities.

  20. Facile fabrication of organic-inorganic hybrid beads by aminated alginate enabled gelation and biomimetic mineralization. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wu, Hong; Liang, Yanpeng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Jiang, Yanjun; Zhang, Lei


    Inspired by biomineralization, design and preparation of biomimetic organic-inorganic composites have become a hot issue and a research frontier in many areas, including enzyme engineering. In this research, a unique and facile method for fabricating organic-inorganic hybrid beads is proposed. Modified alginate with a dual function of gelation and mineralization was synthesized for fabrication of hybrid carriers for enzyme immobilization. With the aid of EDC/NHS conjugation chemistry, the amine groups from diethylene triamine were grafted onto alginate in a controllable way. The resultant aminated alginate served manifold functions: forming a hydrogel via Ca(2+)-cross-linking, inducing the biomimetic silicification and manipulating the distribution of silica nanoparticles. Owing to the compact polymer network structure and the homogeneous silica nanoparticle dispersion, the as-prepared NH2-alginate/silica hybrid beads displayed superior swelling resistance and mechanical stability to pure alginate beads. The hybrid beads were subsequently utilized for encapsulation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). It was found that the thermal stability, pH tolerance and storage stability of the immobilized enzyme were all improved without significantly lowering the catalytic activity.

  1. Gadolinium-chelate nanoparticle entrapped human mesenchymal stem cell via photochemical internalization for cancer diagnosis. (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Sub; Park, Wooram; Na, Kun


    To improve the gadolinium (Gd) internalization efficiency in stem cells, gadolinium-chelate nanoparticles were prepared from a pullulan derivative (pullulan-deoxycholic acid (DOCA)-diethylene triamine pentaacetic (DTPA)-Gd conjugate; PDDG) and then the PDDG was entrapped into human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by the photochemical-internalization (PCI) method for cancer diagnosis via the cancer homing property of hMSCs. The internalization efficiency of Gd in hMSCs was significantly increased to 98 ± 4 pg Gd/cell from 32 ± 2 pg Gd/cell via the PCI method. Moreover, the Gd-entrapped hMSCs revealed a low exocytosis ratio of gadolinium-chelate nanoparticles during cell division in vitro and a high cellular labeling efficiency for at least 21 days in vivo. The cancer-targeting and diagnosis effect of the Gd-entrapped hMSCs were confirmed in a small CT26 tumor-bearing mice model. The stem cells detected an early tumor (∼3 mm(3)) within 2 h using 4.7-T MR and optical imaging. The results demonstrated that the PCI-mediated internalization of Gd-incorporated nanoparticles into hMSCs is a promising protocol for efficient cell labeling and tracking.

  2. Aminosilane-Grafted Zirconia-Titiania-Silica Nanoparticles/Torlon Hollow Fiber Composites for CO2 Capture. (United States)

    Rownaghi, Ali A; Kant, Amit; Li, Xin; Thakkar, Harshul; Hajari, Amit; He, Yingxin; Brennan, Patrick J; Hosseini, Hooman; Koros, William J; Rezaei, Fateme


    In this work, the development of novel binary and ternary oxide/Torlon hollow fiber composites comprising zirconia, titania, and silica as amine supports was demonstrated. The resulting binary (Zr-Si/PAI-HF, Ti-Si/PAI-HF) and ternary (Zr-Ti-Si/PAI-HF) composites were then functionalized with monoamine-, diamine-, and triamine-substituted trialkoxysilanes and were evaluated in CO2 capture. Although the introduction of both Zr and Ti improved the CO2 adsorption capacity relative to that with Si/PAI-HF sorbents, zirconia was found to have a more favorable effect on the CO2 adsorption performance than titania, as previously demonstrated for amine sorbents in the powder form. The Zr-Ti-Si/PAI-HF sample with an oxide content of 20 wt % was found to exhibit a relatively high CO2 capacity, that is, 1.90 mmol g(-1) at atmospheric pressure under dry conditions, owing to more favorable synergy between the metal oxides and CO2 . The ternary fiber sorbent showed improved sorption kinetics and long-term stability in cyclic adsorption/desorption runs.

  3.  A Comparison of Serum Cystatin C and Creatinine with Glomerular FiltrationRate in Indian Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Kumaresan


    Full Text Available  Objectives: There is no literature available on the performance of cystatin C in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD patients of Indian population based on age group. Hence, this study is aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of serum cystatin C and creatinine with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR and estimated GFR (eGFR in subjects of Indian origin. Methods: The study was carried out at Tiruchirappalli, South India during the period of September 2010 to march 2011. One hundred and six CKD patients (82 males, 24 females were enrolled and categorized into three groups based on age. The eGFR was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault (CG and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formulae. Serum cystatin C was measured with a particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (PENIA method. GFR was measured using 99mTC - diethylene triamine penta aceticacid (DTPA renal scan method. Results: Serum cystatin C showed significant correlation with measured GFR in all the three groups (r=-0.9735, r=-0.8975 and r=-0.7994 respectively than serum creatinine (r=-0.7380, r=- 0.6852 and r=-0.5127 respectively. Conclusion: Serum cystatin C showed a high correlation with measured GFR in young and older patients with CKD than creatinine. Thus, cystatin C is a good alternative marker to creatinine in CKD patients.

  4. Penetration and decontamination of americium-241 ex vivo using fresh and frozen pig skin. (United States)

    Tazrart, A; Bolzinger, M A; Moureau, A; Molina, T; Coudert, S; Angulo, J F; Briancon, S; Griffiths, N M


    Skin contamination is one of the most probable risks following major nuclear or radiological incidents. However, accidents involving skin contamination with radionuclides may occur in the nuclear industry, in research laboratories and in nuclear medicine departments. This work aims to measure the penetration of the radiological contaminant Americium ((241)Am) in fresh and frozen skin and to evaluate the distribution of the contamination in the skin. Decontamination tests were performed using water, Fuller's earth and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), which is the recommended treatment in case of skin contamination with actinides such as plutonium or americium. To assess these parameters, we used the Franz cell diffusion system with full-thickness skin obtained from pigs' ears, representative of human skin. Solutions of (241)Am were deposited on the skin samples. The radioactivity content in each compartment and skin layers was measured after 24 h by liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrophotometry. The Am cutaneous penetration to the receiver compartment is almost negligible in fresh and frozen skin. Multiple washings with water and DTPA recovered about 90% of the initial activity. The rest remains fixed mainly in the stratum corneum. Traces of activity were detected within the epidermis and dermis which is fixed and not accessible to the decontamination.

  5. Pre-hydration to increase the sensitivity of diuresis renography for intermittent obstruction in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarz, G.M.; Andrews, J.T.; MacMahon, R.A.; Cusen, L. [Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Paediatrics and Pathology


    Full text: Renal scintigraphy using Tc-99m Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) is useful in the evaluation of glomerular filtration rates and patency of urinary drainage systems, particularly in children who have a finding of hydronephrosis from other imaging techniques. We are studying a group of patients who do not have obstruction demonstrated on diuresis renography and yet have obvious dilatation of the renal pelvis to establish the presence intermittent obstruction using a pre-hydrated imaging technique. To date, 5 children with unilateral hydralephrosis detected by ultrasound have undergone diuresis renography at both normal and pre-hydrated fluid levels. At normal hydration levels, all 5 studies demonstrated half-clearance times of DTPA from both kidneys within normal levels ({<=}15 minutes). Each child then had diuresis renography repeated with pre-hydration of 10-15 mls/kg of fluid either orally or intra-venously. Of these, 2/5 patients showed no change in DTPA clearance from the hydronephrotic kidney, 3/5 patients revealed a unilateral significant change in half clearance times of DTPA (> 15 minutes), strongly suggesting PUJ obstruction in 2 cases (confirmed at surgery) and suspicious of this diagnosis in 1 case (still awaiting surgery). In conclusion, it is of benefit to further investigate hydronephrotic kidneys with pre-hydration diuresis renography to detect the presence of intermittent PUJ obstruction which may cause long term kidney damage if left unattended 1 tab.

  6. sym-Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazine Derivatives as Promising Organic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel in Acidic Solution. (United States)

    El-Faham, Ayman; Dahlous, Kholood A; Al Othman, Zeid A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A


    Triazine derivatives, namely, 2,4,6-tris(quinolin-8-yloxy)-1,3,5-triazine (T3Q), N²,N⁴,N⁶-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (T3AMPy) and 2,2',2''-[(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanediyl)] tris(ethan-1-ol) (T3EA) were synthesized and their inhibition of steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion protection of the prepared compounds increased with increasing concentration and reached up to 98% at 250 ppm. The adsorption of T3Q, T3AMPy, and T3EA on the steel surface was in accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The electrochemical results revealed that T3Q, T3AMPy and T3EA act as excellent organic inhibitors and can labeled as mixed type inhibitors. The efficiencies of the tested compounds were affected by the nature of the side chain present in the triazine ring, where T3EA gave the least inhibition while T3Q and T3AMPy gave higher and almost the same inhibition effects. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the different electrochemical techniques were in good agreement.

  7. Melaminium nitrate–melamine–water (1/1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farook Adam


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title salt, C3H7N6+·NO3−·C3H6N6·H2O, the asymmetric unit consists of two neutral melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine molecules, two melaminium cations, two nitrate anions and two solvent water molecules. One of the nitrate anions is disordered over two sets of positions, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.909 (3:0.091 (3. The cations and neutral molecules are approximately planar, with maximum deviations of 0.018 (2, 0.024 (2, 0.019 (2 and 0.007 (2 Å for each, respectively. In the crystal structure, melaminium cations and netural melamine molecules self-assemble via N—H...N hydrogen bonds to form a supramolecular hexagonal-shaped motif. In addition, the nitrate anions and water molecules are connected by N—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network.

  8. Role of eicosanoids in a model of smoke-induced lung injury. Final report, 1 June 1987-4 June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, M.L.


    Smoke inhalation has been identified as a major cause of lung injury and death in fires with mortality rate of approximately 75%. Soldiers regularly occupy enclosed spaces and travel near flammable fuels. The combination of burning material and an enclosed space are major factors that lead to smoke inhalation. A combination of diesel fuel and polycarbonate plastic was used to generate smoke-induced lung injury. Rabbits were exposed to 60 tidal-volume breaths of smoke in approximately 10 minutes. Acute smoke-exposure caused changes in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and plasma eicosanoid concentration, especially at 0.5 hours post-smoke exposure. In addition, there were decreases in technetium-labeled diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (99mTcDTPA) T1/2, increases in BAL total white cell count and alveolar macrophage acid phosphatase activity, and pathological evidence of pulmonary edema and type 2 pneumocyte injury. It is concluded that lung eicosanoids are involved in the inflammatory process caused by severe smoke inhalation. However, the specific roles these lung eicosanoids play in the smoke-induced injury process are not known at this time.

  9. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Tang, M Matt; Wu, Xueliang; Phillips, Nancy; Galkowski, Dariusz; Jarvis, Gary A; Fan, Huizhou


    Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis.

  10. Comparison of peritoneal equilibration test with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA excretion in the assessment of peritoneal permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B.K.; Senthilnathan, M.S.; Pradhan, P.K.; Nagabhushan, S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, 226014, Lucknow (India); Jeloka, T.K.; Sharma, R.K. [Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)


    Assessment of peritoneal permeability is necessary for successful management of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The objective of this study was to develop an alternative method of assessing the peritoneal permeability and to compare this method with the conventional method, the peritoneal equilibrium test, first described by Twardowski in 1987. Twenty patients undergoing regular CAPD were included in this study. Before starting the peritoneal dialysis, 370 MBq (10 mCi) technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) was injected intravenously. A standard dose of the same quantity was kept and used later for calculations. At the end of 4 h, a dialysate fluid sample (1 ml) was collected and the total dialysis effluent fluid volume was measured. Excretion of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA into the dialysate fluid as a percentage of the injected dose was calculated. Simultaneously, standard peritoneal equilibrium test values were recorded for comparison. Peritoneal excretion of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA ranged from 8% to 25% of the injected dose, depending on the peritoneal membrane permeability. When the results were compared with the conventional method, a good correlation (r=0.79) was found. This innovative radionuclide technique is a simple and convenient method to assess the peritoneal membrane permeability and can be used as an alternative to the peritoneal equilibrium test, which is very cumbersome and associated with many limitations. (orig.)

  11. Acute hydrothorax complicating peritoneal dialysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Dwarkanathan


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute hydrothorax is an uncommon but a well-recognized complication of peritoneal dialysis. No single test is definitive for diagnosis. Although it is not a life-threatening condition, hydrothorax often requires abandonment of peritoneal dialysis. Delay in diagnosis can lead to worsening of the clinical status. Case Presentation A 33-year-old Caucasian woman with lupus, who was successfully treated with temporary peritoneal dialysis 17 years previously, presented with acute dyspnea and a right pleural effusion after recommencing peritoneal dialysis. Investigations eliminated infective, cardiac, and primary respiratory causes. Peritoneal dialysis-related hydrothorax was suggested by biochemistry, and a pleuroperitoneal leak was definitively confirmed by using a Tc-99 m DTPA (diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid scintigraphy scan. Subsequently, she underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy-guided talc pleurodesis and was able to return successfully to peritoneal dialysis. Conclusion Although our case is not the first report that describes the occurrence of acute hydrothorax in peritoneal dialysis, it is an important condition to recognize for the wider general medical community. Furthermore, this case demonstrates that peritoneal dialysis can be continued with a hydrothorax, provided the underlying cause can be corrected. We review the literature pertaining to the utility and reliability of different diagnostic approaches to hydrothorax.

  12. Redox cycling and generation of reactive oxygen species in commercial infant formulas. (United States)

    Boatright, William L; Crum, Andrea D


    Three nationally prominent commercial powdered infant formulas generated hydrogen peroxide, ranging from 10.46 to 11.62 μM, when prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Treating infant formulas with the chelating agent diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) significantly reduced H2O2 generation. In contrast, the addition of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) elevated the level of H2O2 generated in the same infant formulas by approximately 3- to 4-fold above the untreated infant formulas. The infant formulas contained ascorbate radicals ranging from about 138 nM to 40 nM. Treatment with catalase reduced the ascorbate radical contents by as much as 67%. Treatment with DTPA further reduced ascorbate radical signals to below quantifiable levels in most samples, further implicating the involvement of transition metal redox cycling in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Supportive evidence of the generation of ROS is provided using luminol-enhanced luminescence (LEL) in both model mixtures of ascorbic acid and in commercial infant formulas.

  13. Synthesis of a red pigment from gold nanoparticles; Sintesis de un pigmento rojo a partir de nanopartIculas de oro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, S.; Palacios, M. D.; Agut, P.


    A simple method of synthesising red pigments for ceramic glazes, based on gold nanoparticles protected by a refractory oxide capsule, was developed. Gold nanoparticles of an appropriate size were obtained by reaction in an aqueous medium between an Au(III) solution and an ammonium bromide solution, keeping the Br- concentration low during the process. The gold nanoparticles were encapsulated by adding the protective oxide in colloid form and subsequently coagulating it, alkalinising the medium. Diethylen triamine was then added to encourage the interaction between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide nanoparticles. This was followed by adding carboxymethylcellulose to raise medium viscosity, and to avoid segregation and subsequent agglomeration of the gold nanoparticles during drying. The dry residue was directly usable as a glaze pigment without requiring further thermal treatments. Three protective oxides, namely SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SnO{sub 2}, were tested. In the three cases, pigments with a high colouring strength were obtained, which gave rise to reds of different shades in the resulting test glaze. (Author)

  14. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA-HSA lymphoscintigraphy in lymphedema of the lower extremities. Diagnostic significance of dynamic study and muscular exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yoji; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine


    The efficacy of lymphoscintigraphy was evaluated in 25 cases to clarify the diagnostic significance of dynamic study and muscular exercise in the diagnosis of lymphedema. {sup 99m}Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-human serum albumin (DTPA-HSA) was injected subcutaneously, and dynamic imaging was performed in 18 cases. Thirteen patients were asked to walk for 3 minutes. Qualitative evaluation of static images had sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 97%. Diagnostic criteria including qualitative evaluation of dynamic images were less specific (sensitivity 95%, specificity 76%). Interpretation of static images obtained at one hour after injection in the patients without muscular exercise had sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 67%, whereas sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 100% in the patients with muscular exercise. Lympho-scintigraphy was reliable in diagnosis of lymphedema. Dynamic study was limited usefulness because of some false-positive cases. Muscular exercise accelerated migration of the tracer in normal extremities, and improved positive predictive value. (author)

  15. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures. (United States)

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong


    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  16. Non-enzymatic glycation of melamine with sugars and sugar like compounds. (United States)

    Liu, Weixi; Cohenford, Menashi A; Frost, Leslie; Seneviratne, Champika; Dain, Joel A


    Melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) is employed in the manufacture of plastics, laminates and glues, yet, it has been found sometimes added illegally to dairy products to artificially inflate foods' protein content. In 2008, dairy products adulterated with melamine were blamed for the death of several infants in China, a situation that forced Beijing to introduce stricter food safety measures. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to investigate the susceptibility of the amine groups of melamine to glycation with D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose, sugars commonly found in milk, (2) to study the rate and extent of melamine's glycation with methylglyoxal, glyoxal and DL-glyceraldehyde, three highly reactive metabolites of D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose, and (3) to characterize, using mass spectrometry, the Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) of melamine with sugars found commonly in milk and their metabolites. Incubation of D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose with melamine revealed that D-galactose was the most potent glycator of melamine, followed by D-glucose, then lactose. Methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and DL-glyceraldehyde glycated melamine more extensively than D-galactose, with each yielding a broader range of AGEs. The non-enzymatic modification of melamine by sugars and sugar-like compounds warrants further investigation, as this process may influence melamine's toxicity in vivo.

  17. Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane Soft Nanoparticles Obtained by Surfactant-Assisted Interfacial Polymerization. (United States)

    Bossion, Amaury; Jones, Gavin O; Taton, Daniel; Mecerreyes, David; Hedrick, James L; Ong, Zhan Yuin; Yang, Yi Yan; Sardon, Haritz


    Polyurethanes (PUs) are considered ideal candidates for drug delivery applications due to their easy synthesis, excellent mechanical properties, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, methods for preparing well-defined PU nanoparticles required miniemulsion polymerization techniques with a nontrivial control of the polymerization conditions due to the inherent incompatibility of isocyanate-containing monomers and water. In this work, we report the preparation of soft PU nanoparticles in a one-pot process using interfacial polymerization that employs a non-isocyanate polymerization route that minimizes side reactions with water. Activated pentafluorophenyl dicarbonates were polymerized with diamines and/or triamines by interfacial polymerization in the presence of an anionic emulsifier, which afforded non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 200-300 nm. Notably, 5 wt % of emulsifier was required in combination with a trifunctional amine to achieve stable PU dispersions and avoid particle aggregation. The versatility of this polymerization process allows for incorporation of functional groups into the PU nanoparticles, such as carboxylic acids, which can encapsulate the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin through ionic interactions. Altogether, this waterborne synthetic method for functionalized NIPU soft nanoparticles holds great promise for the preparation of drug delivery nanocarriers.

  18. Easy and Efficient 111Indium Labeling of Long-Term Stored DTPA Conjugated Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Buch, Inge; Hesse, Birger


    targeting vehicles such as monoclonal antibodies and receptor directed peptides. The purpose of this study was to monitor the labelling efficiency of a DTPA-conjugate on long-term storage using 111In-chloride at two different temperatures and incubation times for the In-labelling. Method: Cyclic......-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (cDTAP) was conjugated to a polyclonal immunoglobulin-G (IgG) in borate buffer, pH 8.2 at +4?C for 4 hours. Then the DTPA-conjugate was dialyzed against 50 mmol/l sodium citrate buffer saline, pH 6.0 and stored at -80° C in aliquots of 1 mg/0.5 ml. The DTPA-conjugate was labeled with 111In...... months. Conclusion: Our study shows that 111In-labelling can easily be performed within 30 min at RT for thermo-stable proteins like polyclonal, DTPA-conjugated IgG stored long-term at -80°C with a high 111In-labelling efficiency....

  19. Easy and efficient (111)Indium labeling of long-term stored DTPA conjugated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Buch, Inge; Hesse, Birger


    targeting vehicles such as monoclonal antibodies and receptor directed peptides. The purpose of this study was to monitor the labelling efficiency of a DTPA-conjugate on long-term storage using 111In-chloride at two different temperatures and incubation times for the In-labelling. Method: Cyclic......-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (cDTAP) was conjugated to a polyclonal immunoglobulin-G (IgG) in borate buffer, pH 8.2 at +4oC for 4 hours. Then the DTPA-conjugate was dialyzed against 50 mmol/l sodium citrate buffer saline, pH 6.0 and stored at -80o C in aliquots of 1 mg/0.5 ml. The DTPA-conjugate was labeled with 111In...... months. Conclusion: Our study shows that 111In-labelling can easily be performed within 30 min at RT for thermo-stable proteins like polyclonal, DTPA-conjugated IgG stored long-term at -80oC with a high 111In-labelling effi- ciency....

  20. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts; Avaliacao cintilografica pulmonar em trabalhadores de industria de abrasivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra Filho, Mario


    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m} Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate ({sup 99m} Tc DTPA), and {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal {sup 67} Gallium lung scan. (author) 101 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents. (United States)

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H


    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents.

  2. Multifunctional uranyl hybrid materials: structural diversities as a function of pH, luminescence with potential nitrobenzene sensing, and photoelectric behavior as p-type semiconductors. (United States)

    Song, Jian; Gao, Xue; Wang, Zhi-Nan; Li, Cheng-Ren; Xu, Qi; Bai, Feng-Ying; Shi, Zhong-Feng; Xing, Yong-Heng


    A series of uranyl-organic frameworks (UOFs), {[(UO2)2(H2TTHA)(H2O)]·4,4'-bipy·2H2O}n (1), {[(UO2)3(TTHA)(H2O)3]}n (2), and {[(UO2)5(TTHA) (HTTHA)(H2O)3]·H3O}n (3), have been obtained by the hydrothermal reaction of uranyl acetate with a flexible hexapodal ligand (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine hexaacetic acid, H6TTHA). These compounds exhibited three distinct 3D self-assembly architectures as a function of pH by single-crystal structural analysis, although the used ligand was the same in each reaction. Surprisingly, all of the coordination modes of the H6TTHA ligand in this work are first discovered. Furthermore, the photoluminescent results showed that these compounds displayed high-sensitivity luminescent sensing functions for nitrobenzene. Additionally, the surface photovoltage spectroscopy and electric-field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy showed that compounds 1-3 could behave as p-type semiconductors.

  3. In vitro inhibition of rat small intestinal absorption by lipophilic organic cations. (United States)

    Elsenhans, B; Blume, R; Lembcke, B; Caspary, W F


    Cationic, lipid-soluble organic compounds may interfere with cation-mediated membrane transport processes. Thus, small intestinal absorption may be influenced by lipophilic organic cations. Therefore a series of arylalkylamines was studied in the concentration range from 0.5 to 20 mmol/l for their effect on the transport of various monosaccharides and leucine in the rat small intestine in vitro by means of the tissue accumulation technique. Whereas the monophenyl substituted monoamines (e.g. benzylamine, 2-phenylethylamine, 3-phenylpropylamine) did not show a significant effect on the active transport, the corresponding omega,omega-diphenyl derivatives exhibited a strong inhibition of the active transport of the sugars and the amino acid. These monoamines and drugs of similar structure (e.g. benzoctamine, diphenydramine) exhibited a mixed or non-competitive type of inhibition which correlated quite well with their octanol-water partition coefficients. In contrast, di- or triamines (e.g. harmaline, imipramine, pyrilamine) revealed a rather pure competitive type of inhibition. These findings tentatively suggest a different mode of action on the active transport by lipid-soluble organic amines according to the molecular charge distribution. In addition, membrane vesicles were used to examine the effect of the different amines on the sucrase activity. Regarding the cation-dependent hydrolysis of sucrose, however, no distinct pattern developed.

  4. Reversal of effects of intra peritoneally administered beryllium nitrate by tiron and CaNa3DTPA alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol. (United States)

    Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Bhadauria, Monika; Upadhyay, Anil Kumar; Mathur, Ramesh; Mathur, Asha


    To evaluate therapeutic efficacy of chelating agents tiron (Sodium-4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulphonate) and CaNa3DTPA (Calcium trisodium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) in presence of alpha-tocopherol against beryllium induced toxicity, adult female albino rats were exposed to beryllium nitrate for 28 days followed by therapy with tiron (471 mg/kg, i.p.) and CaNa3DTPA (35 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and in combination with alpha-tocopherol (25 mg/kg, p.o.). Results revealed non-significant fall in haemoglobin and total serum protein content while significant fall in blood sugar level and activity of serum alkaline phosphatase. On the other hand, significant rise in the activity of serum transaminases and LDH was noticed after beryllium administration. Significant increase in total and esterified cholesterol was found in liver and kidney after toxicity. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decreased level of reduced glutathione in both the organs showed oxidative stress due to beryllium exposure. Histopathological and ultrastructural observations of liver and kidney revealed lesions due to beryllium toxicity followed by recovery due to combined therapy. CaNa3DTPA showed moderate therapeutic efficacy; however, its effectiveness was enhanced with alpha-tocopherol to some extent. Tiron in combination with alpha-tocopherol exerted statistically more beneficial effects in reversal of beryllium induced biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural alterations.

  5. 胺基接枝纤维的制备及其对铜离子吸附的应用研究%Study on Preparation and Application of Adsorption Copper Ions by Amino-grafted Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫威; 石美玲; 朱红祥


    以漂白蔗渣浆纤维素为基体,二乙烯三胺为单体,硝酸铈铵为引发剂,制备胺基接枝纤维,得到高效重金属吸附剂。研究了单体用量、引发剂用量、温度、时间等反应因素对胺基接枝纤维制备的影响。采用红外光谱、X射线衍射和扫描电镜分析表征胺基接枝纤维的结构。从温度、时间、pH值、接枝纤维加入量和铜离子溶液初始浓度方面对胺基接枝纤维吸附二价铜离子进行研究,探究较好的吸附条件。结果表明,当绝干蔗渣纤维∶单体二乙烯三胺=1∶1(质量比),硝酸铈铵的用量为25%,温度为70℃,时间为2h时,可以获得较高的吸附量,其吸附量可以达到12.8 mg·g-1。通过红外光谱和扫描电镜分析手段对接枝纤维的结构进行表征。胺基接枝纤维对铜离子溶液吸附的较优条件为:时间20min,温度为30℃,pH值为4.5,初始浓度为400mg·L-1。对吸附过程进行动力学研究,拟合得到Lagrange二级动力学方程y=0.0116x+0.021。%In this paper, using bleaching bagasse pulp cellulose as substrate, diethylene triamine as monomer and cerium ammonium nitrate as initiator, amino-grafted fiber was prepared, then it attained efficient heavy metals adsorbent. The influence of monomer dosage, initia-tor dosage, temperature, time and other factors on the preparation of amino-grated fiber were investigated. The structure of amino-grafted fiber was characterized by FTIR spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analysis. In addition, it studied amino-grafted fiber absorbent on Cu (Ⅱ) ions, which did adsorption research to explore better adsorption conditions from the following aspects including temperature, time, pH value, grafted fiber content and the initial concentration of copper ions solution. The results showed that mass ratio both oven dried bagasse fiber and monomer diethylene triamine was 1:1, the dosage of ammonium ceric

  6. New normal values not related to age and sex, of glomerular filtration rate by (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, for the evaluation of living kidney graft donors. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuyi; Shao, Yahui; Wang, Yanming; Tian, Jun; Sun, Ben; Ru, Yanhui; Zhang, Aimin; Hao, Junwen


    The aim of this study was to investigate the normal values of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by technetium-99m diaethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging for living kidney graft donors. In a total of 212 candidate donors, GFR was examined using (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging. Donors with GFR≥80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and as low as with GFR≥70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) but a normal endogenous creatinine clearance rate (CCr) were quantified for living kidney donation. Differences in GFR levels based on sex and age were analyzed using rank correlation coefficient. Out of the 212 candidates, 161 were finally selected as kidney graft donors. The double kidney total GFR between the male and female donor groups, the GFR levels among differently-aged donor groups, and the GFR levels between the elderly (>55 years) and young- and middle-aged (≤55 years) donor groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05). After kidney donation, renal function measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine of all donors returned to normal within one week, and no serious complications were noticed. In conclusion, renal dynamic imaging by (99m)Tc-DTPA had a good accuracy and repeatability in GFR evaluation for living kidney donors. Candidate donors with GFR between 70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and 80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) can be selected as kidney donors after strict screening. In living kidney donors GFR is not significantly correlated with age or sex.

  7. Elimination of polyamine N-acetylation and regulatory engineering improved putrescine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh Q D; Schneider, Jens; Wendisch, Volker F


    Corynebacterium glutamicum has been engineered for production of the polyamide monomer putrescine or 1,4-diaminobutane. Here, N-acetylputrescine was shown to be a significant by-product of putrescine production by recombinant putrescine producing C. glutamicum strains. A systematic gene deletion approach of 18 (putative) N-acetyltransferase genes revealed that the cg1722 gene product was responsible for putrescine acetylation. The encoded enzyme was purified and characterized as polyamine N-acetyltransferase. The enzyme accepted acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA as donors for acetylation of putrescine and other diamines as acceptors, but showed highest catalytic efficiency with the triamine spermidine and the tetraamine spermine and, hence, was named SnaA. Upon deletion of snaA in the putrescine producing strain PUT21, no acteylputrescine accumulated, but about 41% more putrescine as compared to the parent strain. Moreover, a transcriptome approach identified increased expression of the cgmAR operon encoding a putative permease and a transcriptional TetR-family repressor upon induction of putrescine production in C. glutamicum PUT21. CgmR is known to bind to cgmO upstream of cgmAR and gel mobility shift experiments with purified CgmR revealed that putrescine and other diamines perturbed CgmR-cgmO complex formation, but not migration of free cgmO DNA. Deletion of the repressor gene cgmR resulted in expression changes of a number of genes and increased putrescine production of C. glutamicum PUT21 by 19% as compared to the parent strain. Overexpression of the putative transport gene cgmA increased putrescine production by 24% as compared to the control strain. However, cgmA overexpression in PUT21ΔsnaA did not further improve putrescine production, hence, the beneficial effects of both targets were not synergistic at the highest described yield of 0.21 g g(-1).

  8. Polyamines as modulators of microcycle conidiation in Aspergillus flavus. (United States)

    Khurana, N; Saxena, R K; Gupta, R; Rajam, M V


    Since polyamines (PAs) play a potential role in the regulation of growth and developmental processes in a wide variety of organisms, we have examined the influence of the PAs putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) and the PA biosynthetic inhibitors alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) and cyclohexylamine (CHA), singly and in combinations on microcycle conidiation (MC) in Aspergillus flavus. The exogenous application of the diamine Put (concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5 mM) caused a sharp decline of MC in a dose-dependent fashion, but induced vegetative growth. However, the triamine Spd (0.1-5 mM) had a minimal effect on MC and induced a shift from MC to normal condition. PA inhibitors, especially DFMO, MGBG and CHA, produced greater inhibition of MC and complete inhibition of MC was observed at 5 mM of these inhibitors. DFMA even at 5 mM had only a weak inhibitory effect on MC. DFMO also inhibited conidial germination and germ tube growth. MGBG and CHA, while having an inhibitory effect on MC, induced vegetative growth. The inhibitory effect of PA inhibitors was partially reversed by exogenous Put or Spd, with Spd being more effective than Put. The analysis of free PA levels during various phases of MC revealed that undifferentiated spores contained a high Put/Spd ratio and there was a dramatic decrease in Put/Spd ratio before and during microcycle conidiophore maturity. The change in spermine titres could not be detected. These observations imply that Put is essential for vegetative growth, while Spd is involved in MC, and that a low Put/Spd ratio seems to be important for spore differentiation to MC.

  9. Analysis of ultrafine TATB by ultrasonic-assisted equilibrium headspace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D M


    The purpose of this work was to screen different lots of ultrafine 1,3,5-triamine 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) for chemical differences, which may include synthesis and formulation byproducts, decomposition products, and contaminants. The approach used here permits analysis of trapped species as volatile and semivolatile chemicals within a solid. This procedure involves preconcentration of species from the TATB matrix into a surrounding headspace followed by a preconcentration and collection step using solid phase microextraction (SPME) collection. The sample is prepared by sealing it in a glass ampule with a few milliliters of water, ultrasonicating the solution, and then sampling the headspace using SPME collection. Water couples in the ultrasonic energy to fracture the TATB, which permits the release of nonpolar species into the gas phase. However, polar species will favor the aqueous phase and require a separate analysis procedure, which is not included here. Following SPME collection, the sample is transferred to a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GCMS) for analysis. In this work, we analyzed and interpreted outgas signatures from four different lots (1169-135MPS-001, 4271-135M-002, 91190-135M-003, and 98170-135M-001) of ultrafine TATB. Lot 98170-135M-001 is a reprocessing of Lot 4271-135M-002, which was washed to remove the water-soluble polysaccharides. The pedigree for these materials are found in a memo from Tom Stallings and Gordon Osborn of Mason & Hanger Co., Pantex Plant in the Appendix section. Nominally, ultrafine TATB is synthesized via the emulsion-amination method in which an emulsifier is included during the amination of the 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TCTNB) precursor. The ultrafine TATB formulation also includes 0.2% by weight guar gum, a galactomannan polysaccharide, to enhance flow properties. Historically, this polysaccharide was added to PETN to reduce its sublimation temperature, but it was also found to enhance flow

  10. Accumulation and Movement of Four Potentially Toxic Elements in Soils Throughout Five Years, During and After Biosolid Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Zubillaga


    Full Text Available In this research, we have studied the accumulation of four PTEs (Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during and after biosolid application, in two soils with different clay content and their eventual movement with depth. The study was performed in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, on a Typic Argiudoll and on a Typic Hapludoll. Treatments were: control and biosolid application, at doses of 14 Mg ha-1year-1 (dry matter. There were two types of sampling: (i Topsoil sampling, at 0-0.15 m depth, taken throughout five years and (ii Depth soil sampling at regular intervals of 0.33 m from top soil to 3-4 m depth, taken two years after biosolid application. All samples were taken on April. PTEs, extracted hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acids (total or extracted with DiethyleneTriaminePentaacetic acid-DTPA (available, were determined by ICP. Total concentrations of PTEs in topsoils of both soils did not increase significantly due to biosolid application. The exception was the significantly high Pb concentration in the Typic Hapludoll. DTPA extractable metals showed some concentration changes throughout the studied period. Total and available PTEs did not show mobility with the depth of both soils. The exception was total Cd in the Typic Argiudoll, which moved in depth. With only those two exceptions, there is neither PTEs accumulation in topsoils nor PTEs movements in soil depth. The first could be attributed to biosolid composition and dosage used in the region. The lack of movement in depth appears more related to the characteristics of the studied soils.

  11. Characterization and quantification of N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine biocide by NMR, HPLC/MS and titration techniques. (United States)

    Mondin, Andrea; Bogialli, Sara; Venzo, Alfonso; Favaro, Gabriella; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo


    The present paper reports the determination of the tri-amine N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine (TA) present in a raw material called LONZABAC used to formulate various, widely used commercial biocides. The active principle, TA, is present in LONZABAC together with other molecules at lower concentration levels. Three independent analytical approaches, namely solution NMR spectroscopy, liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) and acid-base titration in mixed solvent, were used to overcome the problem of the non-availability of the active principle as high purity standard. NMR analysis of raw material, using a suitable internal standard, evidenced in all analyzed lots the presence of the active principle, the N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine (DA) and the n-dodecylamine (MA) and the absence of non-organic, NMR-inactive species. NMR peak integration led to a rough composition of the MA:DA:TA as 1:9:90. The LC/HRMS analysis allowed the accurate determination of DA and MA and confirmed in all samples the presence of the TA, which was estimated by difference: MA=1.4±0.3%, DA=11.1±0.7%, TA=87.5±1.3%. The obtained results were used to setup an easy, rapid and cheap acid-base titration method able to furnish a sufficiently accurate evaluation of the active principle both in the raw material and in diluted commercial products. For the raw material the results were: TA+MA=91.1±0.8% and DA-MA=8.9±0.8%, statistically coherent with LC/MS ones. The LC/MS approach demonstrated also its great potentialities to recognize trace of the biocide components both in environmental samples and in the formulated commercial products.

  12. Comparison between doppler ultrasonography and renal scintigraphy in assessment of post-transplant renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeo Chang; Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Kim, Seong Min; Ahn, Moon Sang; Yang, Shin Seok [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare the usefulness of Doppler ultrasonography and renal scintigraphy in the assessment of short- and long-term function of transplanted kidneys. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 79 patients who underwent Doppler ultrasonography and technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid renal scintigraphy on the same day, within 4 days of renal transplantation. Image parameters were evaluated for statistical differences. There was a strong positive correlation between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as measured by renal scintigraphy and the estimated GFR (eGFR) based on serum creatinine levels (correlation coefficient = 0.71). Scan grade according to the time-activity curve, resistive index, and end diastolic velocity showed moderate correlations with the eGFR (correlation coefficients = -0.557, -0.329, and 0.370, respectively) in the early post-transplantation period. The mean survival time was longer in patients with lower resistive indices (≤ 0.68, 54.9 months vs. > 0.68, 29.5 months) and lower pulsatility indices (≤ 1.32, 53.8 months vs. > 1.32, 28.7 months); however, there were no statistically significant differences in the long-term follow-up period (p = 0.121 for resistive index and p = 0.074 for pulsatility index). Renal scintigraphy is a more sensitive method than Doppler ultrasonography for assessing transplanted kidney function in the early post-transplantation period. Doppler ultrasonography might reflect the long-term survival time. However, it is difficult to predict long-term renal function using either method.

  13. Pretargetted imaging of colorectal cancer recurrences using an 111In-labelled bivalent hapten and a bispecific antibody conjugate. (United States)

    Chetanneau, A; Barbet, J; Peltier, P; Le Doussal, J M; Gruaz-Guyon, A; Bernard, A M; Resche, I; Rouvier, E; Bourguet, P; Delaage, M


    In 11 patients recurrence of colorectal cancer was suspected by a rise in serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (nine cases), by a subocclusive clinical situation (one case) or by endoscopy (on an anastomosis, one case). Two-step tumour targetting was performed by a first injection of 0.1 mg kg-1 of unlabelled bispecific antibody conjugate (an anti-CEA Fab' fragment chemically coupled to an anti-diethylene triamine pentaacetate (DTPA)-indium fragment) followed 4 to 5 days later by injection of the bivalent DTPA hapten labelled with 5 to 8 mCi 111In. Planar scintigraphy, single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) 360 degrees acquisitions and whole-body scans were obtained 4.5 and 24 h after injection of the radiolabelled hapten. Biodistribution was determined for eight patients at 48 h. The final diagnosis was confirmed histologically in nine patients (eight by second-look surgery, one by laparotomy). Overall, results were one true negative (1-year follow-up) and 10 true positive; however, for the three large liver metastases (3 to 6 cm), only the periphery of the metastasis had high uptake compared to normal liver. For pelvic recurrences, immunoscintigraphic (IS) contrast was better for small tumours. The highest tumour uptake was found for a 1 cm diameter pelvic recurrence (7.2% i.d. kg-1). Mean tumour-to-blood ratios were 6.4. Thus, this two-step tumour targetting technique, which uses a bispecific antibody conjugate and an 111In-labelled bivalent hapten injected sequentially without chasing the excess bispecific antibody, provided satisfactory results in this preliminary clinical trial for detection of recurrent colorectal cancers.

  14. Assessment of ventricular function with first-pass radionuclide angiography using technetium 99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile: A European multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisi, G.; Sciagra, R. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiopatologia Clinica); Buell, U. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Medizinische Fakultaet); Britton, K.E. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Eilles, C. (Luitpoldkrankenhaus, Wuerzburg (Germany, F.R.)); Eissner, D.; Hahn, K. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinikum); Hoeffken, H.; Joseph, K. (Marburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinikum); McKillop, J.H. (Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (UK). Dept. of Medicine); Larock, M.P.; Rigo, P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sart-Tilman, Tilman (Belgium). Service de Medecine Nucleaire); Mueller, S.P.; Reiners, C. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Klinikum)


    In the context of a multicentre study on the use of technetium 99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi), we evaluated the accuracy of the ventricular function assessed at rest by means of first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography acquired during the injection of the tracer for myocardial perfursion scintigraphy. The results were compared with first-pass studies performed using reference tracers sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m or technetium 99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid or with gated radionuclide angiocardiography. A total of 66 patients of the 105 enrolled in the study could be evaluated. The comparison of the first-pass studies was possible in 33 subjects with regard to the left ventricular ejection fraction, yielding r=0.909 (P<10{sup -6}), and in 22 cases with regard to the right ventricular ejection fraction, yielding r=0.712 (P<0.001). The comparison between the first-pass study using {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi and the equilibrium gated radionuclide angiocardiography was possible for the left ventricular ejection fraction in 26 cases, with r = 0.937 (P<10{sup -6}), and for the right ventricular ejection fraction in 15 subjects, with r=0.783 (P<0.001). In conclusion, the assessment of ventricular function performed by acquiring a first-pass radionuclide angiocardiograph during the injection of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi for perfusion myocardial scintigraphy can be considered reliable and accurate, when compared with the usually employed techniques. This result confirms the feasibility of a combined evaluation of perfusion and function at rest and during stress testing, which represents one of the most interesting advantages offered by the use of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi. (orig.).

  15. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration. (United States)

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel


    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.

  16. Colorimetric chemosensor of symmetrical benzoylthiourea derivatives as for detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution (United States)

    Hamedan, N. A.; Hasan, S.; Zaki, H. M.; Alias, N. Z.


    A novel receptor, designed with a combination of oxygen (O), nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) -binding sites for metal ions was synthesized. Ortho (A), meta (B) and para (C) bearing benzoyl thiourea were designed and synthesized with triamine group to apply as colorimetric chemosensors for detection of Cu2+. The structure was confirmed by characterized the compound using Elemental analysis, Fourier Infrared (FTIR) and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. Functional groups of C=O, N-H, C=N and C=S were found at 1677 cm-1, 3240 cm-1, 1591 cm-1, 1024 cm-1 respectively while 1H NMR shows peaks of alkane (CH2), benzene (Ar-H), CONH, CSNH at 3.68 – 4.14, 7.16 – 7.86, 8.74, and 9.2 respectively. Elemental analysis for A, B and C C20H21N5O2S2Br2 found was compatible with the expected theoretical calculation. For an application, all of these three sensors showed excellent colorimetric specific selectivity and high sensitivity for Cu2+ in acetonitrile/water binary solutions, so only A was selected for further studies towards sensitivity. When Cu2+ was added to the solution of A, a dramatic color change from yellow to green, while other cations Fe2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ did not interfere with the recognition process for Cu2+. The detection limit of the sensor C toward Cu2+ was 1.15 x 10-5 M, which is less sensitive that sensor A and B with a detection limit of 6.2 x 10-6 M and 1.5 x 10-6 M respectively. This indicated that the sensor A and B might be useful as an efficient chemical sensor.

  17. Potential use of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine radioaerosol as a marker of pulmonary neuroadrenergic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Calcagni, M.L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Rossi, B. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Fuso, L. [Department of Respiratory Physiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Accardo, D. [Department of Respiratory Physiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Valente, S. [Department of Respiratory Physiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Pistelli, R. [Department of Respiratory Physiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Franceschini, R. [Sorin Biomedica, Saluggia (Italy); Troncone, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy)


    In this study we performed: (1) a chromatographic study of nebulized {sup 123}I-MIBG; (2) a quantitative evaluation of the lung distribution of {sup 123}I-MIBG radioaerosol in normal subjects as compared with that of technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) and (3) an assessment of {sup 123}I-MIBG lung clearance both under control conditions and after pharmacologically induced beta-blockade, again compared with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. For these purposes, eight normal subjects were divided randomly into an ``MIBG group`` and a ``DTPA group`` (four subjects each) and submitted to three scintigraphic studies each: a baseline study, and studies after the administration of a low (80 mg) and a high (160 mg) dose of propranolol. Radiochemical purity of nebulized {sup 123}I-MIBG ranged between 97.18% and 98.70%. The lung distribution of {sup 123}I-MIBG, as judged by the aerosol penetration index, was identical to that of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA under all study conditions. The {sup 123}I-MIBG clearance rate was slower than that of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA under baseline conditions (135{+-}32 min vs 69{+-}27 min, P<0.01) and increased significantly after propranolol administrations, while the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA clearance did not change. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) the nebulization does not affect the radiochemical purity of {sup 123}I-MIBG; (2) the lung distribution of {sup 123}I-MIBG is homogeneous in normal subjects; (3) the pulmonary clearance of {sup 123}I-MIBG reflects the functional status of the neuroadrenergic system of the lungs. Thus this scintigraphic method is suitable for research and perhaps for future clinical use. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Detection of experimental pulmonary emboli using radiolabeled monoclonal antiplatelet antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Tomiyoshi (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))


    This study compared the ability of radiolabeled anti-platelet antibody (7E3) and Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) to detect pulmonary emboli induced by thrombin and barium or by thrombogenic copper coils in mongrel dogs. In-111 diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-7E3-F (ab'){sub 2} was incubated with platelet-rich plasma before i.v. administration to minimize unbound antibody. Serial planar images were obtained over a 4-5 hour, followed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Similarly, planar and SPECT images were obtained after i.v. injection of Tc-99m MAA. The animals were autopsied for the confirmation of embolus localization. A total of 34 emboli were recovered. When the In-111 or Tc-99m activity for the lung distal to an embolus was {le}10% of the normal lung one, an occlusive embolus was regarded as present. Eighteen emboli were considered occlusive and the 16 others non-occlusive. In-111 antibody imaging revealed: 14 emboli (41%)--6 occlusive and 8 non-occlusive emboli--by planar study and 22 emboli (65%)--13 occlusive and 9 non-occlusive-- by SPECT study. In detecting occlusive emboli, SPECT was significantly superior to planar imaging with In-111. Conventional lung perfusion imaging with Tc-99m MAA, whether by planar or SPECT study, revealed 18 emboli (53%), consisting of 11 occlusive and 7 non-occlusive emboli. It is concluded that SPECT with In-111 platelets is equivalent or sometimes superior to lung perfusion imaging with Tc-99m MAA, especially in detecting non-occlusive emboli.

  19. Technetium-99m DTPA inhalation scintigraphy in patients treated with fluoxetine and maprotiline: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, G.C.; Durak, H.; Oezdogan, Oe.; Sayit, E.; Degirmenci, B.; Derebek, E. [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). School of Medicine; Yemez, B.; Turhal, Ue. [Dept. of Psychiatry, Dokuz Eylul Univ. School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)


    Drug-metabolising enzymatic activities have been detected in tracheobronchiolar, bronchiolar and alveolar regions in the lungs. Induction of phospholipidosis by amine drugs such as clorphentermine has also been shown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fluoxetine and maprotiline, which contain amine groups in their structure, on pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability. Twenty-seven patients (mean age 36{+-}12 years) with various psychiatric problems, of whom 17 were treated with fluoxetine and 10 with maprotiline, were included in this study. Technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was performed before and after 4-6 weeks of therapy. Following the inhalation of 1480 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA for 3 min, lung images in a 64 x 64 matrix were obtained every minute for 30 min. Regions of interest were drawn around the periphery of the lungs and on the major airways. Clearance half-times (T{sub 1/2}) were calculated by placing a mono-exponential fit on the curves. Penetration index (PI) was calculated on the first-minute image. There was no difference between the clearance rates of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA before and after therapy for either the fluoxetine or the maprotiline group. After therapy, a significant decrease in PI was found in patients treated with fluoxetine (PI values before and after therapy: 0.53{+-}0.03 and 0.49{+-}0.05 respectively, P{<=}0.05). This finding might have been due to the induction of increased synaptic serotonin (5-HT) by fluoxetine, which acts by inhibiting the re-uptake of 5-HT on presynaptic membranes. Bronchoconstriction of small and medium airways may be caused by direct and indirect effects of 5-HT on smooth muscle contraction. (orig.)

  20. New estradiol based {sup 111}In complex towards the estrogen receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vultos, Filipe; Cunha, Susana; Fernandes, Celia; Oliveira, Maria Cristina; Marques, Fernanda; Santos, Isabel; Gano, Lurdes [Universidade de Lisboa, Bobadela (Portugal). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares C2TN; Botelho, Maria Filomena [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Inst. de Biofisica/Biomatematica


    The oestrogen receptor (ER) is an important tumour target for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy due to its overexpression in many malignant cells as compared to normal cells. Aiming to find new functional molecular imaging/therapeutic agents for ER positive tumours, we have synthesized a new estradiol derivative substituted at the 16-α position with a diethylene triamine tetraacetic acid (DTTA)-like chelating ligand through a four-carbon spacer. The new bioconjugate (H{sub 4}L), was used to synthesize the corresponding indium complexes (InL/[{sup 111}In]L). The radioactive complex [{sup 111}In]L was prepared in high yield (>98%) at final concentrations of 1 x 10{sup -4} M and its chemical identity was ascertained by comparing its HPLC gamma-chromatogram to the HPLC UV-vis-chromatogram of the InL analogue. [{sup 111}In]L is hydrophilic and kinetically stable in the presence of an excess of apo-transferrin and in human blood serum. Cellular studies in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-431) suggest that [{sup 111}In]L uptake may be mediated by an ER dependent mechanism. Biodistribution studies were performed in mice indicating a rapid clearance from most organs and a slow total excretion that occurs mainly by hepatobiliar pathway. High in vivo stability of [{sup 111}In]L was confirmed by HPLC analysis of urine and blood samples. Nevertheless, the hydrophilicity, the low ER affinity and the biodistribution of [{sup 111}In]L indicate that structural modifications are required to improve its behaviour for ER targeting in vivo.

  1. Gd-DTPA T1 relaxivity in brain tissue obtained by convection-enhanced delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, Peter J [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Broaddus, William C; Chen Zhijian; Gillies, George T [Department of Neurosurgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Fatouros, Panos P; Corwin, Frank D, E-mail: wbroaddus@mcvh-vcu.ed [Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)


    A common approach to quantify gadolinium (Gd) contrast agents involves measuring the post-contrast change in T1 rate and then using the constant T1 relaxivity R to determine the contrast agent concentration. Because this method is fast and non-invasive, it could be potentially valuable in many areas of brain research. However, to accurately measure contrast agent concentrations in the brain, the T1 relaxivity R of the specific agent must be accurately known. Furthermore, the macromolecular content and compartmentalization of the brain extracellular space (ECS) are expected to significantly alter R from values measured in aqueous solutions. In this study, the T1 relaxivity R of gadolinium-diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was measured following direct interstitial infusions of three different contrast agent concentrations to the parenchyma of rat brains. Changes in magnetic resonance (MR) T1 values were compared to brain slice concentrations determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to determine R in 15 rats. Additionally, samples of cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine were analyzed to evaluate possible Gd-DTPA clearance from the brain. The T1 relaxivity R of Gd-DTPA in the brain ECS was measured to be 5.35 (mM s){sup -1} in a 2.4 T field. This value is considerably higher than estimations used in studies by other groups. Measurements of brain Gd-DTPA tissue concentrations using MRI and ICP-AES demonstrated a high degree of coincidence. Clearance of Gd-DTPA was minimal at the time point immediately after infusion. These results suggest that the environment of the brain does in fact significantly affect Gd T1 relaxivity, and that MRI can accurately measure contrast agent concentrations when this relaxivity is well characterized.

  2. Development and biodistrubition modeling of 99mTc-DTPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Bricha


    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, the team modeled the biodistribution and the efficiency of two 99m-technetium diethylene triamine penta acetate (99mTc-DTPA based radiopharmaceuticals.Methods: The first radiopharmaceutical (DTPA-CNESTEN is developed at the laboratories of the radiopharmaceutical production unit of the National Center for Nuclear Energy, Sciences and Technologies (CNESTEN-Morocco, and the second one is the commercial DTPA (DTPA-ref. Freeze-dried kits were successfully radiolabeled (radiochemical purity >95% with the 99m Tc. Then drugs were injected to male BALB/c mice. In each 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 1 h and 2 h time points after injections we evaluate tissue’s distributions characteristics. At the end, an automatic modeling of the data were recorded from thyroid, blood and urinary excretion kinetics and biodistribution in mice using both DTPA kits. The study aimed to extract the parameters of the function used to fit the recorded data. Results and Conclusion: the team concluded that the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA can be modeled using a combination of two exponential parts. Moreover, the resultant plots showed that there is strong correlation between the formula found in literature and the one derived on the basis of the fit of data sets in this study. In addition, it was found that the biodistribution behaviors of the developed kit and the commercial one were very close. The obtained results suggest that the developed DTPA has practically the same kinetics as the commercial one.

  3. Study of the degradation mechanisms of amines used for the capture of CO{sub 2} in industrial fumes; Etude des mecanismes de degradation des amines utilisees pour le captage du CO{sub 2} dans les fumees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepaumier, H


    Global warming leads to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Post combustion CO{sub 2} capture with solvent is the most advanced technology to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in industrial fumes. A major problem associated with chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} using the benchmark ethanolamine (MEA) is solvent degradation through irreversible side reactions with CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} which leads to numerous harmful impacts to the process: corrosion, solvent loss, foaming, fouling, and viscosity increase. So, developing new amines with higher chemical stability is essential. This work is based on the chemical stability study of 17 different molecules. Their structures have been chosen in order to establish structure-property relationships: alkanolamines, known for gas treatment application (MEA, DEA, MDEA, AMP...), di-amines, and tri-amines without alcohol function. Impact of temperature, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} on degradation has been studied. Strong experimental conditions have been used to observe significant degradation after a 15 days experiment. Separation, identification and quantification of degradation products have been performed by using different testing instructions such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ionic chromatography and NMR. Different mechanisms are proposed to explain most of degradation compounds. Radical reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, ring-closure reactions and piperazinones formation) are involved under O{sub 2} pressure whereas CO{sub 2} induces ionic reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, addition, ring-closure reactions and oxazolidinones or imidazolidinones formation). Large discrepancies of stability are noticed among the different amines. Knowledge of degradation products and reaction mechanisms has thus permitted to establish some relationships between structure and chemical stability: for example, role of the amine function (primary, secondary, tertiary), impact of alkyl chain length between the two amino groups and steric

  4. Gas-phase acid-base properties of melamine and cyanuric acid. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sumit; Ren, Jianhua


    The thermochemical properties of melamine and cyanuric acid were characterized using mass spectrometry measurements along with computational studies. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was employed with the application of the extended Cooks kinetic method. The proton affinity (PA), gas-phase basicity (GB), and protonation entropy (Δ(p)S) of melamine were determined to be 226.2 ± 2.0 kcal/mol, 218.4 ± 2.0 kcal/mol, and 26.2 ± 2.0 cal/mol K, respectively. The deprotonation enthalpy (Δ(acid)H), gas-phase acidity (Δ(acid)G), and deprotonation entropy (Δ(acid)S) of cyanuric acid were determined to be 330.7 ± 2.0 kcal/mol, 322.9 ± 2.0 kcal/mol, and 26.1 ± 2.0 cal/mol K, respectively. The geometries and energetics of melamine, cyanuric acid, and related ionic species were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory. The computationally predicted proton affinity of melamine (225.9 kcal/mol) and gas-phase deprotonation enthalpy of cyanuric acid (328.4 kcal/mol) agree well with the experimental results. Melamine is best represented as the imide-like triazine-triamine form and the triazine nitrogen is more basic than the amino group nitrogen. Cyanuric acid is best represented as the keto-like tautomer and the N-H group is the most probable proton donor.

  5. Influence of DTPA Treatment on Internal Dose Estimates. (United States)

    Davesne, Estelle; Blanchardon, Eric; Peleau, Bernadette; Correze, Philippe; Bohand, Sandra; Franck, Didier


    In case of internal contamination with plutonium materials, a treatment with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) can be administered in order to reduce plutonium body burden and consequently avoid some radiation dose. DTPA intravenous injections or inhalation can start almost immediately after intake, in parallel with urinary and fecal bioassay sampling for dosimetric follow-up. However, urine and feces excretion will be significantly enhanced by the DTPA treatment. As internal dose is calculated from bioassay results, the DTPA effect on excretion has to be taken into account. A common method to correct bioassay data is to divide it by a factor representing the excretion enhancement under DTPA treatment by intravenous injection. Its value may be based on a nominal reference or observed after a break in the treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of this factor on internal dose by comparing the dose estimated using default or upper and lower values of the enhancement factor for 11 contamination cases. The observed upper and lower values of the enhancement factor were 18.7 and 63.0 for plutonium and 24.9 and 28.8 for americium. For americium, a default factor of 25 is proposed. This work demonstrates that the use of a default DTPA enhancement factor allows the determination of the magnitude of the contamination because dose estimated could vary by a factor of 2 depending on the value of the individual DTPA enhancement factor. In case of significant intake, an individual enhancement factor should be determined to obtain a more reliable dose assessment.

  6. Effect of untreated sewage effluent irrigation on heavy metal content, microbial population and enzymatic activities of soils in Aligarh. (United States)

    Bansal, O P; Singh, Gajraj; Katiyar, Pragati


    The study pertains to the impact of domestic and industrial sewage water irrigation on the chemical, biological and enzymatic activities in alluvial soils of Aligarh District. Results showed that soil enzymatic [dehydogenase (DHA), acid and alkaline phosphatase, urease and catalase] activities in the soils increased up to 14 days of incubation and thereafter inhibited significantly. The enzymatic activity were in the order sewage effluent > partial sewage effluent > ground water irrigated soils. Increase in soil enzymatic activities up to 2nd week of incubation was due to decomposition of organic matter. Maximum inhibition of enzymatic activities, after 14 days of incubation were found in sewage effluent irrigated soils and minimum in ground water irrigated soils. Similar trend was also seen for microbial population. Soil enzymatic activities and microbial population were significantly and positively correlated with soil organic matter. Results also indicated that the microbial population and enzymatic activities in sewage irrigated soils decreased continually with irrigation period. The average concentration of total heavy metals in sewage irrigated soils and partial sewage irrigated soils increased and was 3 and 2 times higher for Zn; 4.5 and 1.7 times higher for Cu; 3.8 and 2.4 times higher for Cr; 5.7 and 3.5 times higher for Pb; 3.5 and 2.2 times higher for Cd and 2.7 and 2.0 times higher for Ni respectively than that of ground water irrigated soils. Results also showed that though total heavy metals concentration increased with period of sewage irrigation but the concentration of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable heavy metals in partial sewage irrigated and sewage irrigated soils remained almost same, which might be due to deposition of heavy metals in crops grown on the soils.

  7. Organic acids inhibit the formation of pyromorphite and Zn-phosphate in phosphorous amended Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil. (United States)

    Debela, F; Arocena, J M; Thring, R W; Whitcombe, T


    Pyromorphite (PY) and some zinc phosphates (Zn-P) are very sparingly soluble minerals and hence can immobilize Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. However, mechanisms leading to the poor efficiency of PY and Zn-P formation in contaminated soils amended with P still remain unclear. We studied the influence of two low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) - oxalic acid and citric acid and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) - in PY and Zn-P formation in a P-amended contaminated soil. Despite the high levels of metals (∼4% Pb and 21% Zn) in the study soil, the addition of up to 1% inorganic P transformed only up to 37% and 17% of the total Pb and Zn to PY and Zn-P, respectively. Semi-quantitative estimates from a linear combination fitting of X-ray absorption near edge spectra (LC-XANES fitting) showed that the formation of PY decreased from 37% to 3% of the total Pb in the presence of oxalic acid and the addition of 1% P. The reduced PY formation may be associated with the increase in organic-bound Pb from 9% to 54% and decrease in carbonate associated Pb from 42% to 12% with oxalic acid addition as indicated by a chemical sequential extraction (SE) technique. Citric acid seemed to have a less adverse effect in PY formation than oxalic acid. Our data also suggests both oxalic and citric acids have less adverse effects on the efficiency of Zn-P formation. From this study we conclude that the abundance of LMWOA in soil environments can be one factor contributing to the poor efficiency of P amendments practices to effectively immobilize Pb and Zn in metal contaminated soils.

  8. Antimyosin imaging in acute transmural myocardial infarctions: results of a multicenter clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.L.; Seldin, D.W.; Becker, L.C.; LaFrance, N.D.; Liberman, H.A.; James, C.; Mattis, J.A.; Dean, R.T.; Brown, J.; Reiter, A.


    Murine monoclonal antimyosin antibody has been shown experimentally to bind selectively to irreversibly damaged myocytes. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of monoclonal antimyosin for identifying acute transmural infarction, 50 patients with acute Q wave myocardial infarction were entered into a phase I/II multicenter trial involving three clinical sites. Indium-111 antimyosin was prepared from an instant kit formulation containing 0.5 mg of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-coupled Fab fragment (R11D10) and 1.2 to 2.4 mCi of indium-111. Average labeling efficiency was 92%. Antimyosin was injected 27 +/- 16 h after the onset of chest pain. Planar or tomographic imaging was performed 27 +/- 9 h after injection in all patients, and repeat imaging was done 24 h later in 39 patients. Of the 50 patients entered, 46 showed myocardial uptake of antimyosin (sensitivity 92%). Thirty-one of 39 planar scans performed at 24 h were diagnostic; 8 showed persistent blood pool activity that cleared by 48 h. Focal myocardial uptake of antimyosin corresponded to electrocardiographic infarct localization. No patient had an adverse reaction to antimyosin. In addition, 125 serum samples, including 21 collected greater than 42 days after injection, were tested for human antimouse antibodies, and all samples were assessed as having undetectable titers. Intensity of antimyosin uptake was correlated with infarct location and the presence or absence of collateral vessels. There was a significant correlation between faint uptake and inferoposterior infarct location. In 21 patients who had coronary angiography close to the time of antimyosin injection, there was a significant correlation between faint tracer uptake and closed infarct-related vessel with absent collateral flow.

  9. Endourological Management of Forgotten Encrusted Ureteral Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma V. R. Murthy


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present our experience and discuss the various endourological approaches for treating forgotten encrusted ureteral stents associated with stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2006 to December 2008, 14 patients (11 men and 3 women with encrusted ureteral stents were analyzed. The average indwelling time of the stent was 4.9 years (range 1 to 12. Plain-film radiography was used to evaluate encrustation, stone burden, and fragmentation of the stents. Intravenous urogram and a Tc99m diethylene triamine penta acetic-acid renogram was used to assess renal function. RESULTS: In seven patients, the entire stent was encrusted, in three patients the encrustation was confined to the ureteral and lower coil part of the stent, two patients had encrustation of the lower coil, and minimal encrustation was observed in two patients. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed in 5 cases and retrograde ureteroscopy with intra-corporeal lithotripsy in 9 patients. Cystolithotripsy was used to manage the distal coil of the encrusted stent in eight patients. Simple cystoscopic removal of the stents with minimal encrustation was carried-out in two cases. Looposcopy and removal of the stent was performed in one patient with an ileal conduit and retained stent. Only one patient required open surgical removal of the stent. Thirteen out of 14 patients were rendered stone and stent free in one session. All except two stents were removed intact and stone analysis of encrustation and calcification revealed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in the majority of the cases. CONCLUSION: Endourological management of forgotten encrusted stents is highly successful and often avoids the need for open surgical techniques.

  10. Influence of neuropathology on convection-enhanced delivery in the rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Kantorovich

    Full Text Available Local drug delivery techniques, such as convention-enhanced delivery (CED, are promising novel strategies for delivering therapeutic agents otherwise limited by systemic toxicity and blood-brain-barrier restrictions. CED uses positive pressure to deliver infusate homogeneously into interstitial space, but its distribution is dependent upon appropriate tissue targeting and underlying neuroarchitecture. To investigate effects of local tissue pathology and associated edema on infusate distribution, CED was applied to the hippocampi of rats that underwent electrically-induced, self-sustaining status epilepticus (SE, a prolonged seizure. Infusion occurred 24 hours post-SE, using a macromolecular tracer, the magnetic resonance (MR contrast agent gadolinium chelated with diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid and covalently attached to albumin (Gd-albumin. High-resolution T1- and T2-relaxation-weighted MR images were acquired at 11.1 Tesla in vivo prior to infusion to generate baseline contrast enhancement images and visualize morphological changes, respectively. T1-weighted imaging was repeated post-infusion to visualize final contrast-agent distribution profiles. Histological analysis was performed following imaging to characterize injury. Infusions of Gd-albumin into injured hippocampi resulted in larger distribution volumes that correlated with increased injury severity, as measured by hyperintense regions seen in T2-weighted images and corresponding histological assessments of neuronal degeneration, myelin degradation, astrocytosis, and microglial activation. Edematous regions included the CA3 hippocampal subfield, ventral subiculum, piriform and entorhinal cortex, amygdalar nuclei, middle and laterodorsal/lateroposterior thalamic nuclei. This study demonstrates MR-visualized injury processes are reflective of cellular alterations that influence local distribution volume, and provides a quantitative basis for the planning of local therapeutic

  11. 水性邻甲酚醛环氧树脂乳液的工艺研究%The Technical Study of O-cresol-formaldehyde Waterborne Epoxy Resin Latex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪婉; 方美珊


    采用化学改性法,以邻甲酚醛环氧树脂和二乙醇胺为原料在85℃下反应7 h,制得具有特定环氧值的改性树脂。制得的这种改性树脂在分子结构上即具有环氧基团,又具有亲水性基团,然后用羧酸成盐后,缓慢加入去离子水制备邻甲酚醛环氧树脂乳液。将水性邻甲酚醛环氧树脂乳液和水性专用固化剂三乙烯四胺按10︰1配比,在常温下放置7~8 d得到性能优良的固化剂。本工艺对制成的水性乳液和固化剂的性能进行红外测试和固化表征。%Through chemical modification,using O-cresol-formaldehyde epoxy resin and iminobisetnanol as materials to the reaction temperature 85 ℃ and the reaction time 8 h.Under the optimal conditions,it gets the modified resin which has certain epoxide degree.The modified resin has not only epoxy group but also hydrophilic groups on flow property.Adopting tricarboxylic acid to form salt and add deionized water slowly to rever the phase,and prepare the O-cresol-formaldehyde.Mixing the waterborne o-cresol-formaldehyde with diethylene triamine of sacred to Waterborne hardener according to the proportion of 10︰1 to keep at ambieut temperature for 7~8 days and then gets the hardener with good properties.The technology tests the Waterborne Latex and hardener by Infrared Thermometer and investigation of solidification.

  12. Combined drug and surgery treatment of plutonium-contaminated wounds: indications obtained using a rodent model. (United States)

    Griffiths, Nina M; Coudert, Sylvie; Wilk, Jean Claude; Renault, Daniel; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne


    There is an important requirement following accidental actinide contamination of wounds to limit the dissemination and retention of such alpha-emitting radionuclides. To reduce wound and systemic contamination, treatment approaches include chelation therapy with or without wound excision. However, it has been hypothesized that wound excision could lead to increased contaminant release and systemic organ retention. This study in the rat addresses this question. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with plutonium nitrate following wounding by deep incision of hind leg muscle. Excision of tissue at the contaminated site was performed 7 d later with or without Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) treatment (30 μmol kg⁻¹ i.v.). Pu urinary excretion was then measured for a further 3 d, and animals were euthanized at 14 d after contamination. Tissue samples were evaluated for Pu activity and histology. At 7 d after contamination, around 50% of the initial activity remained at the wound site. An average of 16% of this activity was then removed by surgery. Surgery alone resulted in increased urinary excretion, suggesting release from the wound site, but no subsequent increases in organ retention (bone, liver) were observed at 14 d. Indeed, organ Pu activity was slightly reduced. The combination of surgery and DTPA or DTPA treatment alone was much more effective than excision alone as shown by the markedly increased urinary Pu excretion and decreased tissue levels. This is the first report in an experimental rodent model of resection of Pu-contaminated wound. Urinary excretion data provide evidence for the release of activity as a result of surgery, but this does not appear to lead to further Pu organ retention. However, a combination of prior DTPA treatment with wound excision is particularly effective.

  13. Evaluation of Renal Histopathological Changes, as a Predictor of Recoverability of Renal Function Following Pyeloplasty for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Pyeloplasty is a widely accepted treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO. However, the renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty is still a matter of debate. Different parameters have been used to predict renal functional recoverability after corrective surgery, with conflicting results. Objectives In this study, renal biopsy was carried on a series of cases of UPJO, during pyeloplasty, to study the extent of histological alterations in renal parenchyma, as a result of obstruction, and its predictive value in renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the renal biopsy obtained during pyeloplasty in 53 adult patients. Histopathological changes were graded on a scale of 1 to 3, according to their severity, and compared with the differential renal function (DRF revealed on the preoperative and postoperative follow up diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA renal scan. A Fischer’s t test was used to evaluate statistical differences between values. Results This study showed a linear relationship between the severity of histological changes and renal function recovery, after pyeloplasty. Out of 24 obstructed renal units (ORU, with minimal histopathological changes (grade I, 21 ORU (87.5%, with > 35% DRF preoperatively, showed significant improvement in renal function after 12 months of pyeloplasty (P 0.05. Renal function deterioration after pyeloplasty was not observed in any of the cases. Conclusions The severity of pathological changes in renal parenchyma, due to UPJO, is a good predictor of renal function recoverability, after pyeloplasty. The ORUs, with DRF > 35%, usually have normal (grade I renal biopsy and might be expected to present better functional recoverability after pyeloplasty.

  14. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

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    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0

  15. Identification and quantification of six major α-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup. (United States)

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Mittelmaier, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika


    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a widely used liquid sweetener produced from corn starch by hydrolysis and partial isomerization of glucose to fructose. During these processing steps, sugars can be considerably degraded, leading, for example, to the formation of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs). The present study performed targeted screening to identify the major α-DCs in HFCS. For this purpose, α-DCs were selectively converted with o-phenylendiamine to the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) detection. 3-Deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxyglucosone), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-deoxyglucosone), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified by enhanced mass spectra as well as MS/MS product ion spectra using the synthesized standards as reference. Addition of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and adjustment of the derivatization conditions ensured complete derivatization without de novo formation for all identified α-DCs in HFCS matrix except for glyoxal. Subsequently, a ultra-high performance LC-DAD-MS/MS method was established to quantify 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, and methylglyoxal in HFCS. Depending on the α-DC compound and concentration, the recovery ranged between 89.2% and 105.8% with a relative standard deviation between 1.9% and 6.5%. Subsequently, the α-DC profiles of 14 commercial HFCS samples were recorded. 3-Deoxyglucosone was identified as the major α-DC with concentrations up to 730 μg/mL HFCS. The total α-DC content ranged from 293 μg/mL to 1,130 μg/mL HFCS. Significantly different α-DC levels were not detected between different HFCS specifications, but between samples of various manufacturers indicating that the

  16. Novel Gd nanoparticles enhance vascular contrast for high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

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    Tot Bui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gadolinium (Gd, with its 7 unpaired electrons in 4f orbitals that provide a very large magnetic moment, is proven to be among the best agents for contrast enhanced MRI. Unfortunately, the most potent MR contrast agent based on Gd requires relatively high doses of Gd. The Gd-chelated to diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA, or other derivatives (at 0.1 mmole/kg recommended dose, distribute broadly into tissues and clear through the kidney. These contrast agents carry the risk of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF, particularly in kidney impaired subjects. Thus, Gd contrast agents that produce higher resolution images using a much lower Gd dose could address both imaging sensitivity and Gd safety. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether a biocompatible lipid nanoparticle with surface bound Gd can improve MRI contrast sensitivity, we constructed Gd-lipid nanoparticles (Gd-LNP containing lipid bound DTPA and Gd. The Gd-LNP were intravenously administered to rats and MR images collected. We found that Gd in Gd-LNP produced a greater than 33-fold higher longitudinal (T(1 relaxivity, r(1, constant than the current FDA approved Gd-chelated contrast agents. Intravenous administration of these Gd-LNP at only 3% of the recommended clinical Gd dose produced MRI signal-to-noise ratios of greater than 300 in all vasculatures. Unlike current Gd contrast agents, these Gd-LNP stably retained Gd in normal vasculature, and are eliminated predominately through the biliary, instead of the renal system. Gd-LNP did not appear to accumulate in the liver or kidney, and was eliminated completely within 24 hrs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The novel Gd-nanoparticles provide high quality contrast enhanced vascular MRI at 97% reduced dose of Gd and do not rely on renal clearance. This new agent is likely to be suitable for patients exhibiting varying degrees of renal impairment. The simple and adaptive nanoparticle design could accommodate

  17. The influence of hydrogen peroxide and histamine on lung permeability and translocation of iridium nanoparticles in the isolated perfused rat lung

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    Takenaka Shinji


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translocation of ultrafine particles (UFP into the blood that returns from the lungs to the heart has been forwarded as a mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the endothelial barrier in the translocation of inhaled UFP from the lung into circulation. Methods The isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL was used under negative pressure ventilation, and radioactive iridium particles (18 nm, CMD, 192Ir-UFP were inhaled during 60 minutes to achieve a lung burden of 100 – 200 μg. Particle inhalation was done under following treatments: i control perfusion, ii histamine (1 μM in perfusate, iii luminal histamine instillation (1 mM, and iv luminal instillation of H2O2. Particle translocation to the perfusate was assessed by the radioactivity of 192Ir isotope. Lung permeability by the use of Tc99m-labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA. In addition to light microscopic morphological evaluation of fixed lungs, alkaline phosphatase (AKP and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in perfusate were measured to assess epithelial and endothelial integrity. Results Particle distribution in the lung was homogenous and similar to in vivo conditions. No translocation of Ir particles at negative pressure inhalation was detected in control IPL, but lungs pretreated with histamine (1 μM in the perfusate or with luminal H2O2 (0.5 mM showed small amounts of radioactivity (2–3 % dose in the single pass perfusate starting at 60 min of perfusion. Although the kinetics of particle translocation were different from permeability for 99mTc-DTPA, the pretreatments (H2O2, vascular histamine caused similar changes in the translocation of particles and soluble mediator. Increased translocation through epithelium and endothelium with a lag time of one hour occurred in the absence of epithelial and endothelial damage. Conclusion Permeability of the lung barrier to UFP or

  18. Preclinical evaluation of Gd-DTPA and gadomelitol as contrast agents in DCE-MRI of cervical carcinoma interstitial fluid pressure

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    Hompland Tord


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High interstitial fluid pressure (IFP in the primary tumor is associated with poor disease-free survival in locally advanced cervical carcinoma. A noninvasive assay is needed to identify cervical cancer patients with highly elevated tumor IFP because these patients may benefit from particularly aggressive treatment. It has been suggested that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI with gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA as contrast agent may provide useful information on the IFP of cervical carcinomas. In this preclinical study, we investigated whether DCE-MRI with contrast agents with higher molecular weights (MW than Gd-DTPA would be superior to Gd-DTPA-based DCE-MRI. Methods CK-160 human cervical carcinoma xenografts were subjected to DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA (MW of 0.55 kDa or gadomelitol (MW of 6.5 kDa as contrast agent before tumor IFP was measured invasively with a Millar SPC 320 catheter. The DCE-MRI was carried out at a spatial resolution of 0.23 × 0.23 × 2.0 mm3 and a time resolution of 14 s by using a 1.5-T whole-body scanner and a slotted tube resonator transceiver coil constructed for mice. Parametric images were derived from the DCE-MRI recordings by using the Tofts iso-directional transport model and the Patlak uni-directional transport model. Results When gadomelitol was used as contrast agent, significant positive correlations were found between the parameters of both pharmacokinetic models and tumor IFP. On the other hand, significant correlations between DCE-MRI-derived parameters and IFP could not be detected with Gd-DTPA as contrast agent. Conclusion Gadomelitol is a superior contrast agent to Gd-DTPA in DCE-MRI of the IFP of CK-160 cervical carcinoma xenografts. Clinical studies attempting to develop DCE-MRI-based assays of the IFP of cervical carcinomas should involve contrast agents with higher MW than Gd-DTPA.

  19. Functionalized macroporous copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate: The type of ligand and porosity parameters influence on Cu(II ion sorption from aqueous solutions

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    Sandić Zvjezdana P.


    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metals from hydro-metallurgical and other industries' wastewaters, their safe storage and possible recovery from waste- water streams is one of the greater ecological problems of modern society. Conventional methods, like precipitation, adsorption and biosorption, electrowinning, membrane separation, solvent extraction and ion exchange are often ineffective, expensive and can generate secondary pollution. On the other hand, chelating polymers, consisting of crosslinked copolymers as a solid support and functional group (ligand, are capable of selectively loading different metal ions from aqueous solutions. In the relatively simple process, the chelating copolymer is contacted with the contaminated solution, loaded with metal ions, and stripped with the appropriate eluent. Important properties of chelating polymers are high capacity, high selectivity and fast kinetics combined with mechanical stability and chemical inertness. Macroporous hydrophilic copolymers of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate modified by different amines show outstanding efficiency and selectivity for the sorption of precious and heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In this study poly(GMA-co-EGDMA copolymers were synthesized with different porosity parameters and functionalized in reactions with ethylene diamine (EDA, diethylene triamine (DETA and triethylene tetramine (TETA. Under non-competitive conditions, in batch experiments at room temperature, the rate of sorption of Cu(II ions from aqueous solutions and the influence of pH on it was determined for four samples of amino-functionalized poly(GMA-co-EGDMA. The sorption of Cu(II for both amino-functionalized samples was found to be very rapid. The sorption half time, t1/2, defined as the time required to reach 50% of the total sorption capacity, was between 1 and 2 min. The maximum sorption capacity for copper (2.80 mmol/g was obtained on SGE-10/12-deta sample. The sorption

  20. Enhanced conjugation stability and blood circulation time of macromolecular gadolinium-DTPA contrast agent

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    Jenjob, Ratchapol [Department of New Drug Development, School of Medicine, Inha University, 2F A-dong, Jeongseok Bldg., Sinheung-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kun, Na [Department of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, 43 Jibong-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 420-743 (Korea, Republic of); Ghee, Jung Yeon [Utah-Inha DDS and Advanced Therapeutics, B-403 Meet-You-All Tower, SongdoTechnopark, 7–50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Xiaoxia [Division of Functional Materials and Nano-Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Street, Zhenhai District, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Cho, Steve K., E-mail: [Division of Liberal Arts and Science, GIST College, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Don Haeng [Utah-Inha DDS and Advanced Therapeutics, B-403 Meet-You-All Tower, SongdoTechnopark, 7–50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon 420-751 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Su-Geun, E-mail: [Department of New Drug Development, School of Medicine, Inha University, 2F A-dong, Jeongseok Bldg., Sinheung-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-712 (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we prepared macromolecular MR T1 contrast agent: pullulan-conjugated Gd diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA-Pullulan) and estimated residual free Gd{sup 3+}, chelation stability in competition with metal ions, plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics, and abdominal MR contrast on rats. Residual free Gd{sup 3+} in Gd-DTPA-Pullulan was measured using colorimetric spectroscopy. The transmetalation of Gd{sup 3+} incubated with Ca{sup 2+} was performed by using a dialysis membrane (MWCO 100–500 Da) and investigated by ICP-OES. The plasma concentration profiles of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan were estimated after intravenous injection at a dose 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd. The coronal-plane abdominal images of normal rats were observed by MR imaging. The content of free Gd{sup 3+}, the toxic residual form, was less than 0.01%. Chelation stability of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan was estimated, and only 0.2% and 0.00045% of Gd{sup 3+} were released from Gd-DTPA-Pullulan after 2 h incubation with Ca{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}, respectively. Gd-DTPA-Pullulan displayed the extended plasma half-life (t{sub 1/2,α} = 0.43 h, t{sub 1/2,β} = 2.32 h), much longer than 0.11 h and 0.79 h of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Abdominal MR imaging showed Gd-DTPA-Pullulan maintained initial MR contrast for 30 min. The extended plasma half-life of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan probably allows the prolonged MR acquisition time in clinic with enhanced MR contrast. - Highlights: • Macromolecule (pullulan) conjugated Gd contrast agent (Gd-DTPA-Pullulan) showed the extended plasma half-life (t{sub 1/2,α} = 0.43 h, t{sub 1/2,β} = 2.32 h) in comparison with Gd-EOB-DTPA • Gd-DTPA-pullulan T1 contrast agent exhibited strong chelation stability against Gd. • The extended blood circulation attributed the enhanced and prolonged MR contrast on abdominal region of rats. • The extended blood circulation may provide prolonged MR acquisition time window in clinics.

  1. Impact of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in soil and transfer rate to leafy vegetable spinach. (United States)

    Coumar, M Vassanda; Parihar, R S; Dwivedi, A K; Saha, J K; Rajendiran, S; Dotaniya, M L; Kundu, S


    Introduction of heavy metals in the environment by various anthropogenic activities has become a potential treat to life. Among the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) shows relatively high soil mobility and has high phyto-mammalian toxicity. Integration of soil remediation and ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration in soils through organic amendments, may provide an attractive land management option for contaminated sites. The application of biochar in agriculture has recently received much attention globally due to its associated multiple benefits, particularly, long-term carbon storage in soil. However, the application of biochar from softwood crop residue for heavy metal immobilization, as an alternative to direct field application, has not received much attention. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in a soil-plant system in cadmium-spiked sandy loam soil. The biochar was prepared from pigeon pea stalk through a slow pyrolysis method at 300 °C. The experiment was designed with three levels of Cd (0, 5, and 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil) and three levels of biochar (0, 2.5, and 5 g kg(-1) soil) using spinach as a test crop. The results indicate that with increasing levels of applied cadmium at 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) soil, the dry matter yield (DMY) of spinach leaf decreased by 9.84 and 18.29 %, respectively. However, application of biochar (at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil) significantly increased the dry matter yield of spinach leaf by 5.07 and 15.02 %, respectively, and root by 14.0 and 24.0 %, respectively, over the control. Organic carbon content in the post-harvest soil increased to 34.9 and 60.5 % due to the application of biochar 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil, respectively. Further, there was a reduction in the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable cadmium in the soil and in transfer coefficient values (soil to plant), as well as its concentrations in spinach leaf and root, indicating that

  2. Land co-applications of Alum-Based Drinking Water Treatment Residuals (Al-WTRs and biosolids: Effects on heavy metals bioavailability and bioaccessibility

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    Full Text Available Two Lysimeter experiments were conducted in Egypt to: explore possible effects of land-applying Al-WTRs and /or biosolids on the environment, and recommends ways to minimize human and animal impacts. The specific objectives were to (1 determine the co-application effects on Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetic acid (DTPA-extractable heavy metals in relation to their accumulation in plant, (2 assess the effectiveness of WTRs in reducing bioavailability of heavy metals in the soils amended with different rates of biosolids, and (3 quantify the optimum application ratio of WTRs to biosolids in relation to the reduction of plant metal accumulation. Thus, in these lysimeter experiments, the WTRs and biosolids were obtained twice in 1999 and 2008. The used soil was classified as Typic torrifluvent. Treatments in both experiments consisted of the combination of WTRs (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 Mg.ha-1 and biosolids (0, 25, and 50 Mg.ha-1, DW by fixing one rate of biosolids and with varying the rate of WTRs. The results showed that land application of biosolids increases the accumulation of toxic metals in corn tissues in slightly alkaline soils. However, WTRs-application of (20, 40, 80 and 160 Mg.ha-1 to the soil amended with (0, 25 and 50 Mg.ha-1 of biosolids decreases significantly the DTPA-extractable metal concentrations. The reduction in DTPA-extractable metals resulting from the application of WTRs to biosolid-amended soils can be explained by formation of metal-sulfate, low solubility product, and the floc-adsorption and the co-precipitation processes, in which the formation of a mixed solid phase by the incorporation of metal ions into the crystal lattice of another precipitating solid phase is expected. The combined studies clearly demonstrate that Al-WTRs should have no negative impacts on the environment when appropriate rates are land applied. Thus, Al-WTRs are safe soil amendments to control heavy metals contamination in soil and water bodies.

  3. Ferrous-activated persulfate oxidation of arsenic(III) and diuron in aquatic system

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    Zhou, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zheng, Wei [Jiangsu Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Research Institute, Nanjing 210007 (China); Ji, Yuefei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Université Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5256, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France); Zhang, Jinfeng; Zeng, Chao; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yang, Xi, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)


    Highlights: • Effective oxidation of As(III)/diuron is achieved by Fe(II)-activated persulfate. • Hydroxyl and sulfate radical play important roles in As(III) and diuron oxidation. • CA and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} are efficient and environmental friendly chelating agents. • DFT calculation is found to be useful for degradation products prediction. -- Abstract: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) can be an effective technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater polluted by organic and inorganic contaminants. This study investigated the oxidation of arsenic(III) (As(III)) and diuron using ferrous activated persulfate-based ISCO. The results indicated that Fe(II)/persulfate oxidation could be an effective method to oxidize As(III) and diuron. Effects of pH, S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} and Fe(II) amounts on the destruction of As(III) and diuron were examined in batch experiments. Acidic conditions favored the removal of As(III) and diuron. Four chelating agents, citric acid (CA), Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}, diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-Na{sub 2}) were used in attempt to maintain the quantity of ferrous ion in solution. In our experiments, CA and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} were found to be more effective than DTPA and EDTA-Na{sub 2}. Our results also revealed a widely practical prospect of inorganic chelating agent Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Hydroxyl and sulfate radical were determined to play key roles in the oxidation process by using ethanol and tertiary butanol as molecular probes. Oxidation of As(III) yielded As(V) via the electron-transfer reaction. In the oxidation process of diuron, a stepwise nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by hydroxyl and a stepwise oxidation process of the methyl on the dimethylurea group by hydroxyl and sulfate radical were proposed.

  4. In vitro detection of mdr1 mRNA in murine leukemia cells with {sup 111}In-labeled oligonucleotide

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    Bai Jingming; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Biotracer Medicine (Nuclear Medicine), Kanazawa (Japan); Shiba, Kazuhiro [Kanazawa University, Radioisotope Center, Kanazawa (Japan); Matsushita, Ryo [Kanazawa University, Laboratory for Development of Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa (Japan); Nomura, Masaaki [Kanazawa University Hospital, Hospital Pharmacy, Kanazawa (Japan)


    The feasibility of intracellular mdr1 mRNA expression detection with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) was investigated in the murine leukemia cell line, P388/S, and its subclonal, adriamycin-resistant cell line, P388/R. The expression level of mdr1 mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Existence of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon was assessed via cellular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (MIBI), a known substrate for P-glycoprotein. A 15-mer phosphorothioate antisense ODN complementary to the sequences located at -1 to 14 of mdr1 mRNA and its corresponding sense ODN were conjugated with the cyclic anhydride of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (cDTPA) via an amino group linked to the terminal phosphate at the 5' end at pH 8-9. The DTPA-ODN complexes at concentrations of 0.1-17.4 {mu}Mwere reacted with {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} at pH 5 for 1 h. The hybridization affinity of labeled ODN was evaluated with size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography following incubation with the complementary sequence. Cellular uptake of labeled ODN was examined in vitro. Furthermore, enhancing effects of synthetic lipid carriers (Transfast) on transmembrane delivery of ODN were assessed. P388/R cells displayed intense mdr1 mRNA expression in comparison with P388/S cells. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake in P388/S cells was higher than that in P388/R cells. Specific radioactivity up to 1,634 MBq/nmol was achieved via elevation of added radioactivity relative to ODN molar amount. The hybridization affinity of antisense {sup 111}In-ODN was preserved at approximately 85% irrespective of specific activity. Cellular uptake of antisense {sup 111}In-ODN did not differ from that of sense {sup 111}In-ODN in either P388/S cells or P388/R cells. However, lipid carrier incorporation significantly increased transmembrane delivery of {sup 111}In-ODN; moreover, specific uptake of antisense {sup 111}In-ODN was demonstrated in P388/R

  5. Effects of gadolinium-based contrast agents on thyroid hormone receptor action and thyroid hormone-induced cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis

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    Noriyuki Koibuchi


    Full Text Available Gadolinium (Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance the quality of magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. After intravenous injection, GBCAs can accumulate in the brain. Thyroid hormones (THs are critical to the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. TH actions in brain are mainly exerted through nuclear TH receptors (TRs. We examined the effects of GBCAs on TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells using transient transfection-based reporter assay and thyroid hormone-mediated cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis in primary culture. We also measured the cellular accumulation and viability of Gd after representative GBCA treatments in cultured CV-1 cells. Both linear (Gd-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-bis methyl acid, Gd-DTPA-BMA and macrocyclic (Gd-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid, Gd-DOTA GBCAs were accumulated without inducing cell death in CV-1 cells. In contrast, Gd chloride (GdCl3 treatment induced approximately 100 times higher Gd accumulation and significantly reduced the number of cells. Low doses of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−8–10−6 M augmented TR-mediated transcription, but the transcription was suppressed at higher dose (10−5 – 10−4 M, with decreased β-galactosidase activity indicating cellular toxicity. TR-mediated transcription was not altered by Gd-DOTA or GdCl3, but the latter induced a significant reduction in β-galactosidase activity at high doses, indicating cellular toxicity. In cerebellar cultures, the dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells induced by 10-9 M T4 was augmented by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−7 M but was suppressed by higher dose (10−5 M. Such augmentation by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA was not observed with 10-9 M T3, probably because of the greater dendrite arborization by T3; however, the arborization by T3 was suppressed by a higher dose of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10-5 M as seen in T4 treatment. The effect of Gd-DOTA on dendrite arborization

  6. Effects of long-term low-dose oxygen supplementation on the epithelial function, collagen metabolism and interstitial fibrogenesis in the guinea pig lung

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    Ishizaka Akitoshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patient population receiving long-term oxygen therapy has increased with the rising morbidity of COPD. Although high-dose oxygen induces pulmonary edema and interstitial fibrosis, potential lung injury caused by long-term exposure to low-dose oxygen has not been fully analyzed. This study was designed to clarify the effects of long-term low-dose oxygen inhalation on pulmonary epithelial function, edema formation, collagen metabolism, and alveolar fibrosis. Methods Guinea pigs (n = 159 were exposed to either 21% or 40% oxygen for a maximum of 16 weeks, and to 90% oxygen for a maximum of 120 hours. Clearance of inhaled technetium-labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Tc-DTPA and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid-to-serum ratio (BAL/Serum of albumin (ALB were used as markers of epithelial permeability. Lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D was measured to evaluate pulmonary edema, and types I and III collagenolytic activities and hydroxyproline content in the lung were analyzed as indices of collagen metabolism. Pulmonary fibrotic state was evaluated by histological quantification of fibrous tissue area stained with aniline blue. Results The clearance of Tc-DTPA was higher with 2 week exposure to 40% oxygen, while BAL/Serum Alb and W/D did not differ between the 40% and 21% groups. In the 40% oxygen group, type I collagenolytic activities at 2 and 4 weeks and type III collagenolytic activity at 2 weeks were increased. Hydroxyproline and fibrous tissue area were also increased at 2 weeks. No discernible injury was histologically observed in the 40% group, while progressive alveolar damage was observed in the 90% group. Conclusion These results indicate that epithelial function is damaged, collagen metabolism is affected, and both breakdown of collagen fibrils and fibrogenesis are transiently induced even with low-dose 40% oxygen exposure. However, these changes are successfully compensated even with continuous exposure to low

  7. Comparative analysis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in head and neck cancer and carcinoma cervix during concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar Bagri


    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is widely used as radio sensitizer in head and neck cancer (HNC and carcinoma cervix (CaCx. This study aims to see comparative nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in HNC and in CaCx without obstructive uropathy treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of HNC and 50 patients of CaCx stage II/III without obstructive uropathy were included in this study. Cisplatin 50 mg intravenous weekly was given before EBRT with adequate hydration and premedication in both groups. Before chemotherapy; blood urea, serum creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were measured. GFR was measured using 99m Tc diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid (DTPA renogram study. Results: At the end of 4 th week, blood urea level 41-45 mg% was in 40 and 4% in HNC and CaCx, respectively (P = 0.018. At the end of 3 rd and 4 th week, blood urea level >45 mg% was 10 and 6% in HNC cases, respectively. At the end of 4 th week, serum creatinine level 1.1-1.5 mg% was 50 and 8% in HNC and CaCx, respectively (P = 0.047. Serum creatinine level >1.5 mg% was 6, 8, and 22% in HNC at the end of 2 nd , 3 rd , and 4 th week, respectively. GFR <80 ml/min at the end of 4 th week was 14% in HNC and only 2% in CaCx. GFR <100ml/min was significant at the end of 4 th week (P = 0.04. Univariate analysis showed significant relation between reduced oral fluid intake and reduced GFR (P < 0.001. Conclusion: In HNC, during concurrent chemoradiation, as the 3 rd -4 th week is reached, oral mucosal reactions increase and affect oral intake which further add to the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In CaCx without obstructive uropathy, renal function impairment is less severe as oral intake of water and liquid is not much impaired.

  8. The effect of vagal nerve blockade using electrical impulses on glucose metabolism in nondiabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathananthan M


    Full Text Available Matheni Sathananthan,1 Sayeed Ikramuddin,2 James M Swain,3,6 Meera Shah,1 Francesca Piccinini,4 Chiara Dalla Man,4 Claudio Cobelli,4 Robert A Rizza,1 Michael Camilleri,5 Adrian Vella1 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of General Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Division of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 5Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 6Scottsdale Healthcare Bariatric Center, Scottsdale, AZ, USA Purpose: Vagal interruption causes weight loss in humans and decreases endogenous glucose production in animals. However, it is unknown if this is due to a direct effect on glucose metabolism. We sought to determine if vagal blockade using electrical impulses alters glucose metabolism in humans. Patients and methods: We utilized a randomized, cross-over study design where participants were studied after 2 weeks of activation or inactivation of vagal nerve blockade (VNB. Seven obese subjects with impaired fasting glucose previously enrolled in a long-term study to examine the effect of VNB on weight took part. We used a standardized triple-tracer mixed meal to enable measurement of the rate of meal appearance, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disappearance. The 550 kcal meal was also labeled with 111In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA to measure gastrointestinal transit. Insulin action and ß-cell responsivity indices were estimated using the minimal model. Results: Integrated glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations did not differ between study days. This was also reflected in a lack of effect on β-cell responsivity and insulin action. Furthermore, fasting and postprandial endogenous glucose production, integrated meal appearance, and glucose

  9. Spatial variability of soil total and DTPA-extractable cadmium caused by long-term application of phosphate fertilizers, crop rotation, and soil characteristics. (United States)

    Jafarnejadi, A R; Sayyad, Gh; Homaee, M; Davamei, A H


    Increasing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is undesirable due to its hazardous influences on human health. Thus, having more information on spatial variability of Cd and factors effective to increase its content on the cultivated soils is very important. Phosphate fertilizers are main contamination source of cadmium (Cd) in cultivated soils. Also, crop rotation is a critical management practice which can alter soil Cd content. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term consumption of the phosphate fertilizers, crop rotations, and soil characteristics on spatial variability of two soil Cd species (i.e., total and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) in agricultural soils. The study was conducted in wheat farms of Khuzestan Province, Iran. Long-term (27-year period (1980 to 2006)) data including the rate and the type of phosphate fertilizers application, the respective area, and the rotation type of different regions were used. Afterwards, soil Cd content (total or DTPA extractable) and its spatial variability in study area (400,000 ha) were determined by sampling from soils of 255 fields. The results showed that the consumption rate of di-ammonium phosphate fertilizer have been varied enormously in the period study. The application rate of phosphorus fertilizers was very high in some subregions with have extensive agricultural activities (more than 95 kg/ha). The average and maximum contents of total Cd in the study region were obtained as 1.47 and 2.19 mg/kg and DTPA-extractable Cd as 0.084 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The spatial variability of Cd indicated that total and DTPA-extractable Cd contents were over 0.8 and 0.1 mg/kg in 95 and 25 % of samples, respectively. The spherical model enjoys the best fitting and lowest error rate to appraise the Cd content. Comparing the phosphate fertilizer consumption rate with spatial variability of the soil cadmium (both total and DTPA extractable) revealed the high

  10. 端氨基超支化聚合物的中试研究%Study on bulk production of amino-terminated hyperbranched polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学川; 高翔; 强涛涛


    Based upon the raw materials and reaction conditions in bench-scale test ,the amino-terminated hyperbranched polymers(NH2-HBP)was synthesized in bulk production .To opti-mize the synthesis process parameters were optimized through orthogonal test in which the yield and amino content were as indexes .The results showed that when the mol ratio of N , N′-methylene bisacrylamide and diethylene triamine was 1∶1 .2 ,the temperature was 80 ℃and reaction time was 24 h ,the NH2-HBP had the best yield and amino content .Compared with the optimal conditions of small scale synthesis of NH2-HBP ,the amount of DETA and temperature were improved .The bulk production of NH2-HBP had repeatability and stabili-ty .The average yield of NH2-HBP was 90 .23% ,the average amino content of NH2-HBP was 2 .717 mmol/g ,and the coefficient of variation were low .But compared to the best synthesis result of NH2-HBP in small scale ,the yield and amino content were slightly lower .%基于小试的反应原料和工艺条件,通过中试合成端氨基超支化聚合物(NH2-HBP),并通过正交试验,以产率和氨基含量为检测指标,对中试合成工艺参数进行优化.结果表明:NH2-HBP的最佳中试合成条件为N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺和二乙烯三胺(DETA)的摩尔比为1∶1.2、反应温度为80℃、总反应时间为24h ,相对于最佳小试合成条件,DETA的用量和反应温度均有所提高;NH2-HBP的中试合成具有重复性和稳定性,平均产率为90.23%,平均氨基含量为2.717 mmol/g ,变异系数均较低,但相对于NH2-HBP的最佳小试实验结果,产率和氨基含量稍有降低.

  11. Anion complexation with cyanobenzoyl substituted first and second generation tripodal amide receptors: crystal structure and solution studies. (United States)

    Hoque, Md Najbul; Gogoi, Abhijit; Das, Gopal


    Anion complexation properties of two new tripodal amide receptors have been extensively studied here. Two tripodal receptors have been synthesized from the reaction of cyanobenzoyl acid chloride with two tri-amine building blocks such as (i) tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and (ii) tris(2-(4-aminophenoxy)ethyl)amine, which resulted in the first (L1) and second (L2) generation tripodal amides respectively. A detailed comparison of their coordination behavior with anions is also described by crystallographic and solution state experiments. The crystal structure demonstrates various types of spatial orientations of tripodal arms in two receptors and concomitantly interacts with anions distinctively. Intramolecular H-bonding between amide N–H and CO prevents opening of the receptor cavity in the crystal, which leads to a locked conformation of L1 having C(3v) symmetry and makes amide hydrogen unavailable for the anion which results in side cleft anion binding. However, in L2 we conveniently shift the anion binding sites to a distant position which increases cavity size as well as rules out any intramolecular H-bonding between amide N–H and CO. The crystal structure shows a different orientation of the arms in L2; it adopts a quasi-planar arrangement with C(2v) symmetry. In the crystal structure two arms are pointed in the same direction and while extending the contact the third arm is H-bonded with the apical N-atom through a –CN group, making a pseudo capsular cavity where the anion interacts. Most importantly spatial reorientation of the receptor L2 from a C(2v) symmetry to a folded conformation with a C(3v) symmetry was observed only in the presence of an octahedral SiF6(2-) anion and forms a sandwich type complex. Receptors L1 and L2 are explored for their solution state anion binding abilities. The substantial changes in chemical shifts were observed for the amide (-NH) and aromatic hydrogen (-CH) (especially for F(-)), indicating the role of these hydrogens in

  12. New technique of stereolithography to local curing in thermosensitive resins using CO2 laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munhoz, A. L. J.


    Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental study of thermosensitive resins used in thermal stereolithography is presented. The process of local curing through the application of infrared radiation, which has proved to be useful in a new technique for the making of prototypes by means of selective heating with CO2 laser (10.6μm, is studied. The ideal composition of the thermosensitive resins has proved to be 10 parts epoxy, 1.4 part diethylene triamine (the curing agent and 0.7 part silica powder. A physical theoretical model is applied for control of the parameters which influence the confinement of the curing in the irradiated bulk. A mathematical model is applied too; it was developed through the resolution of the heat conduction equation dependent on time in cylindrical co-ordinates, which enables to determine the behaviour of curing in terms of irradiation conditions.

    Se presenta un estudio teórico y experimental, sobre resinas termosensibles usadas en estereolitografía térmica. Se estudia el proceso de cura local mediante la aplicación de radiación infrarroja producida por el láser de CO2 (10.6 μm, el cual mostró ser útil en técnicas nuevas, para la fabricación de prototipos por medio de calentamiento selectivo. La composición ideal para cura local de las resinas termosensibles, está en la proporción de 10.0 partes de epoxi, 1.4 partes de dietilentriamina y 0.7 partes de sílice. Para controlar los parámetros que influyen en el confinamiento de la cura a través de la irradiación, se utiliza un modelo teórico-físico. Se utiliza un modelo matemático en coordenadas cilíndricas basado en la ecuación de conducción de calor dependiente del tiempo, que permite determinar el comportamiento de cura en función de las condiciones de irradiación.

  13. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique; Extraccion de metales toxicos y valiosos de los desechos de lodos y cenizas provenientes de la planta tratadora de aguas residuales RECICLAGUA aplicando la tecnica de lixiviado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero D, J.J


    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the

  14. Spin-orbit-induced anomalous pH-dependence in (1)H NMR spectra of Co(III) amine complexes: a diagnostic tool for structure elucidation. (United States)

    Hegetschweiler, Kaspar; Kuppert, Dirk; Huppert, Jochen; Straka, Michal; Kaupp, Martin


    The pH-dependent (1)H NMR characteristics of a series of Co(III)-(polyamin)-aqua and Co(III)-(polyamin)-(polyalcohol) complexes, [Co(tach)(ino-kappa(3)-O(1,3,5))](3+) (1(3+)), [Co(tach)(ino-kappa(3)-Omicron(1,2,6))](3+) (2(3+)), [Co(tach)(taci-kappa-Nu(1)-kappa(2)-O(2,6))](3+) (3(3+)), [Co(ditame)(H(2)O)](3+) (4(3+)), and [Co(tren)(H(2)O)(2)](3+) (5(3+)), were studied in D(2)O by means of titration experiments (tach = all-cis-cyclohexane-1,3,5-triamine, ino = cis-inositol, taci = 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol, tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, ditame = 2,2,6,6-tetrakis-(aminomethyl)-4-aza-heptane). A characteristic shift was observed for H(-C) hydrogen atoms in the alpha-position of a coordinated amino group upon deprotonation of a coordinated oxygen donor. For a cis-H-C-N-Co-O-H arrangement, deprotonation of the oxygen donor resulted in an additional shielding (shift to lower frequency) of the H(-C) proton, whereas for a trans-H-C-N-Co-O-H arrangement, deprotonation resulted in a deshielding (shift to higher frequency). The effect appears to be of rather general nature: it is observed for primary (1(3+)-5(3+)), secondary (4(3+)), and tertiary (5(3+)) amino groups, and for the deprotonation of an alcohol (1(3+)-3(3+)) or a water (4(3+), 5(3+)) ligand. Spin-orbit-corrected density functional calculations show that the high-frequency deprotonation shift for the trans-position is largely caused by a differential cobalt-centered spin-orbit effect on the hydrogen nuclear shielding. This effect is conformation dependent due to a Karplus-type behavior of the spin-orbit-induced Fermi-contact shift and thus only significant for an approximately antiperiplanar H-C-N-Co arrangement. The differential spin-orbit contribution to the deprotonation shift in the trans-position arises from the much larger spin-orbit shift for the protonated than for the deprotonated state. This is in turn due to a trans-effect of the deprotonated (hydroxo or alkoxo) ligand, which weakens

  15. Clinical study of the new intelligent determination and analysis system for glomerular filtration rate%数字化智能检测分析系统测定肾小球滤过率的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾昭球; 吴锡信


    Objective To discuss the clinical application value of determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR)with the new intelligent determination and analysis system for GFR(B&G System).Methods GFR of 216 hospitalized patients suffering from the different diseases was determined accurately by clearance rate of 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentoacetic acid(99mTc-DTPA)(Tc-GFR),and the serum creatinine(SCr)and blood urea nitrogen(BUN)were also determined.At the same time GFR was determined by B&G system and Robert formula(B&G-GFR,Robert-GFR),and creatinine clearance rate(CCr)and GFR were calculated by Cockcroft/Gault formula(CG-CCr-GFR).All the results were compared,and correlation analysis was done for the three groups of data.Results Among 216 patients,B&G-GFR and Tc-GFR in 106 patients with renal insufficiency and 110 patients with normal renal function showed no significant (P0.05),而Robert-GFR(ml·min-1·1.73 m-2:21.45±15.67、93.54±30.01)、CG-CCr-GFR(ml·min-1·1.73 m-2:11.87±8.69、86.27±21.44)均明显低于Tc-GFR (P<0.05或P<0.01).肾功能不全组B&G-GFR、Robert-GFR、CG-CCr-GFR与Tc-GFR差值绝对值(ml·min-1·1.73 m-2:6.15±14.07、13.83±11.36、23.41±24.34)均明显低于肾功能正常组(7.65±6.54、24.94±13.24、32.21±21.81,均P<0.05).两组B&G-GFR、Robert-GFR、CG-CCr-GFR与Tc-GFR 均呈正相关(P<0.05或P<0.01),与SCr均呈负相关(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 B&G-GFR、RobertGFR、CG-CCr-GFR均能在一定程度上准确反映GFR,而以B&G-GFR更准确,可代替Tc-GFR应用于临床.B&G系统较其他GFR检测方法具有更准确、简便、快速、安全而廉价的优势,值得临床推广应用.

  16. Immediate Impact of Uni-nephrectomy among Bangladeshi Healthy Live Kidney Donors: BIRDEM General Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Mitra


    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment option for end stage kidney disease. Live kidney donation is an established form of organ donation; but it carries the risk of an unnecessary surgery in a normal individual. These donors remain at an increased risk of multiple medical problems for the rest of their life. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the immediate impact of uninephrectomy among kidney donors during the period of post-transplant hospital stay. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at BIRDEM General Hospital from January 2006 to June 2014. All kidney donors who had undergone graft nephrectomy during the study period were the study population. All the donors underwent Tc-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA renogram for measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR. GFR was also estimated by different equations in both pre-transplant and post-transplant periods. Pre-uninephrectomy GFR and post-uninephrectomy GFR of donors were compared. Results: Total number of subjects was 81, male 48 and female 33. Mean age was 36.3 ± 9.9 years. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 8.2 ± 2.0 days. The mean pre-operative measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFRDTPA was 99.54 ± 19.06 mL/min/1.73 m2 and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRCKD-EPI was 99.0 ± 18.55 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p=0.855. In post-nephrectomy period mean urine output decreased from 2708.1 ± 842.8 to 2228.4 ± 702.4 mL/day (p=0.000. Mean SBP lowered from 120.3 ± 12.5 to 115.6 ± 9.2 mm of Hg (p=0.000 after nephrectomy. There was significant increase in blood urea (from 19.7 ± 5.7 to 30.4 ± 9.5 mg/dL, p=0.000 and serum creatinine (from 0.90 ± 0.16 to 1.26 ± 0.24 mg/dL, p=0.000 in post-uninephrectomy period. Mean mGFRDTPA of the subjects of non-nephrectomized kidney of the donors was 49.18 ± 9.50 mL/min/1.73 m2 and mean eGFRCKD-EPI of same kidneys was 69.09 ± 16.79 mL/min/1.73m2 (p=0.000 after uni

  17. Is the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine–cystatin C equation useful for glomerular filtration rate estimation in the elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X


    Full Text Available Xun Liu,1,2,* Huijuan Ma,1,* Hui Huang,3 Cheng Wang,1 Hua Tang,1 Ming Li,1 Yanni Wang,1 Tanqi Lou1 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 2College of Biology Engineering, South China University of Technology, 3Department of Cardiology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to the paperBackground: We aimed to evaluate the performance of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI creatinine–cystatin C equation in a cohort of elderly Chinese participants.Materials and methods: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was measured in 431 elderly Chinese participants by the technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging method, and was calibrated equally to the dual plasma sample 99mTc-DTPA-GFR. Performance of the CKD-EPI creatinine–cystatin C equation was compared with the Cockroft–Gault equation, the re-expressed 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation, and the CKD-EPI creatinine equation.Results: Although the bias of the CKD-EPI creatinine–cystatin C equation was greater than with the other equations (median difference, 5.7 mL/minute/1.73 m2 versus a range from 0.4–2.5 mL/minute/1.73 m2; P<0.001 for all, the precision was improved with the CKD-EPI creatinine–cystatin C equation (interquartile range for the difference, 19.5 mL/minute/1.73 m2 versus a range from 23.0–23.6 mL/minute/1.73 m2; P<0.001 for all comparisons, leading to slight improvement in accuracy (median absolute difference, 10.5 mL/minute/1.73 m2 versus 12.2 and 11.4 mL/minute/1.73 m2 for the Cockcroft–Gault equation and the re-expressed 4-variable MDRD equation, P=0.04 for both; 11.6 mL/minute/1.73 m2 for the CKD-EPI creatinine equation, P=0.11, as the optimal scores of performance (6.0 versus a range from 1.0–2.0 for the other

  18. Comtamination of Cadmium and Mercury in Farmland of Tianjin and Extration Methods for Predicting Their Bioavailability%天津农田土壤镉和汞污染及有效态提取剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 王静; 孙红文; 张彦峰


    Irrigation of sewage water has been applied for agriculture production in Tianjin for over SO years, since Tianjin is a city lacking water resource seriously. Heavy metals in soils could not be degraded, but accumulated, causing hazards to human beings though food-chain. Twenty-two sites of samples (including pairing soil and lettuce) were collected from seriously polluted areas along the three sewage rivers in Tianjin, and the contents of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) were measured. Moreover,different extraction methods were studied to check their applicability for predicting bioavailability of the two metals. Nine of the 22 soils exceeded the National Soil Quality Standard Ⅱ for Cd (0.6 mg·kg-1) and 7 exceeded the standard for Hg( 1.0 mg·kg-1). Over 60% percent of Cd concentration in lettuce exceeded the National Food Quality and Safety Standard for Cd(0.2 mg· kg-1), while the Hg concentrations of all the samples exceeded the standard for Hg(0.01 mg·kg-1). Hence, the heavy metal pollution has threatened the safty of vegetable. The metal contents in lettuce did not correlate with those in soils, wich were influenced by soil physico-chemical properties. Of five extraction solvents tested (HC1, CaCl2, NH4AC, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid(DTPA) and M3), M3 and DTPA showed good capacity for predicting the bioavailability of Cd, with the correlative coefficients(R) being 0.92 and 0.88 respectively. M3 showed better correlation, moreover, it cost shorter time for extraction. Hence, M3 was a promising method for Cd bioavailability prediction. However, both M3 and DTPA failed for the prediction of Hg bioavailability, showing a negative correlation for Hg (R=-0.82 and -0.47, respectively). This might be because Hg has caused adverse effects on lettuce, hindering the transfer of Hg from root to the edible part of lettuce.%采集天津3条排污河污灌区重金属污染农田的22个土壤及油麦菜样品,测定镉(Cd)和汞(Hg)的浓度,筛选两种重金

  19. Soil investigation in cities of West Hungary (United States)

    Bidló, A.; Szżcs, P.; Horváth, A.; Kámán, O.; Németh, E.


    The antropogene effects have an influence on the environment since the flow of materials and energy is continuous and mutual. In order to investigate the soil properly we have collected samples from sample spots in three West Hungarian cities (Sopron, Szombathely and Székesfehévár). The soil samples were taken from 0-10 and 10-20 cms depth in each city within a standard network and also at industrial territories. The number of the sampling spots were between 104 and 144, depending on the size of the city and the problematic places in town. We have noted the GPS-coordinates of the point, the elevation over sea level, the date of collecting, the type of the urban area, the information about land usage, vegetation, grass covering, the type of cover and the origin of soil. We described the following characters of soil: the borderline between two layers, the amount of humus, the structure, the compactness, the root system, the skeletal percent, the color, the physical assortment, the separated element and the soil defect. We measured the soil samples in laboratory according to the following parameters: acidity (pHH2O, pHKCl), lime content, hidrolitical and exchange acidity, amount of exchangeable cation, the humus content, the total nitrogen content, the ammonium-lactat-acetous acid (AL) solvent potassium and phosphorus content, the KCl solvent magnesium and calcium content, the strength of ethylene-diamin-tetra-acetous (EDTA) and diethylene-triamin-penta-acetous (DTPA) measurements of manganese, copper, zinc and iron element, as well as the particle size distribution. The results of field and laboratory investigation are represented in a GIS system. We attempted to draw a conclusion in connection with the condition, contamination and history of contamination of soil. The results showed that there is close connection between the soil parameters and geological conditions. However, this connection shows a decrease in the centre of the city. The acidity and calcic soils

  20. Luminescent Di- and Trinuclear Boron Complexes Based on Aromatic Iminopyrrolyl Spacer Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in OLEDs. (United States)

    Suresh, D; Gomes, Clara S B; Lopes, Patrícia S; Figueira, Cláudia A; Ferreira, Bruno; Gomes, Pedro T; Di Paolo, Roberto E; Maçanita, António L; Duarte, M Teresa; Charas, Ana; Morgado, Jorge; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Calhorda, Maria José


    New bis- and tris(iminopyrrole)-functionalized linear (1,2-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -C6 H4 (2), 1,3-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -C6 H4 (3), 1,4-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -C6 H4 (4), 4,4'-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N)2 -(C6 H4 -C6 H4 ) (5), 1,5-(HNC4 H3 C-(H)N)2 -C10 H6 (6), 2,6-(HNC4 H3 C-(H)N)2 -C10 H6 (7), 2,6-(HNC4 H3 C-(H)N)2 -C14 H8 (8)) and star-shaped (1,3,5-(HNC4 H3 -C(H)N-1,4-C6 H4 )3 -C6 H3 (9)) π-conjugated molecules were synthesized by the condensation reactions of 2-formylpyrrole (1) with several aromatic di- and triamines. The corresponding linear diboron chelate complexes (Ph2 B[1,3-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-phenyl]BPh2 (10), Ph2 B[1,4-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-phenyl]BPh2 (11), Ph2 B[4,4'-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-biphenyl]BPh2 (12), Ph2 B[1,5-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-naphthyl]BPh2 (13), Ph2 B[2,6-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-naphthyl]BPh2 (14), Ph2 B[2,6-bis(iminopyrrolyl)-anthracenyl]BPh2 (15)) and the star-shaped triboron complex ([4',4'',4'''-tris(iminopyrrolyl)-1,3,5-triphenylbenzene](BPh2 )3 (16)) were obtained in moderate to good yields, by the treatment of 3-9 with B(C6 H5 )3 . The ligand precursors are non-emissive, whereas most of their boron complexes are highly fluorescent; their emission color depends on the π-conjugation length. The photophysical properties of the luminescent polyboron compounds were measured, showing good solution fluorescence quantum yields ranging from 0.15 to 0.69. DFT and time-dependent DFT calculations confirmed that molecules 10 and 16 are blue emitters, because only one of the iminopyrrolyl groups becomes planar in the singlet excited state, whereas the second (and third) keeps the same geometry. Compound 13, in which planarity is not achieved in any of the groups, is poorly emissive. In the other examples (11, 12, 14, and 15), the LUMO is stabilized, narrowing the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO), and the two iminopyrrolyl groups become planar, extending the size of the π-system, to

  1. Quantification of heavy metals from residual waste and ashes from the treatment plant of residual water Reciclagua and,effects for the health of those workers which manipulate those residuals; Cuantificacion de metales pesados de lodo residual y cenizas de la planta tratadora de aguas residuales Reciclagua y efectos a la salud de los trabajadores que manipulan los residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero D, J.J


    In this work, the technique of leaching using thermostatted column in series is applied, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the toxic metals that are present in the residual muds of the water treatment plant located in the municipality of Lerma Estado de Mexico, named RECICLAGUA, likewise the technique is used of emission spectrometry for plasma and X-ray fluorescence for the qualitative analysis. Its were take samples of residual mud and of incinerated mud of the treatment plant of residual waters of the industrial corridor Toluca -Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma Estado de Mexico. For this study there were mixed 100 g of residual mud with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one pH at 2, 5, 7 and 10, it was added bisulfite, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate sodium and 3.939 of DTPA (triple V) (Diethylene triamine pentaacetate). To this mud and ashes were extracted the toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using thermostatted columns placed in series that were designed by the Dr. Jaime Vite Torres; it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the equipment with those that work it was patented by the same one. With the extraction of these metals benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much the use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors where the metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using emission spectrometry by plasma in solids by this way to be able to know the content of the present metals in the sample before and later of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the X-ray diffraction analysis that provides an elementary content of the samples, identifying elements that are present in

  2. Preparation and properties of a new type alcohol-soluble PUA laminating adhesive with two-components%新型醇溶性双组分PUA复膜胶的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丹丹; 季永新


    With allyl glycidyl ether (AGE), hydroxypropyl acrylate (HPA), ethyl acrylate(EA) and vinyl acetate(Vac) as comonomers,a main agent for laminating adhesive(epoxy-polyacrylate) was prepared. Then,with TDI (toluene diisocyanate) and PPG2000( poly ether diols) as main raw materials, and diethylene triamine as end capping agent,a curing agent for laminating adhesive(amino-terminated polyurethane) was prepared. Finally,a new type alcohol-soluble laminating adhesive with two-components was made by blend between main agent and curing agent with a certain proportion. The research results showed that the main agent had reversely best alcohol-soluble property when reaction temperature and reaction time were 75℃ and 8 h respectively, mass fraction of initiator was 1.8%,and mass ratio of m(EA):m(Vac):m(AGE):m(HPA) was 41:14:35:10. The curing agent had reversely best properties when reaction temperature and reaction time were 70 ℃ and 2 h respectively, and R or molar ratio of n(-NCO)/n(-OH) was 1.25. The properties between laminating adhesive and like import product were adjacent when molar ratio of n(amino):n(epoxy group) was 20:3,curing temperature and curing time were 50℃ and 24 h respectively.%以烯丙基缩水甘油醚(AGE)、丙烯酸羟丙酯(HPA)、丙烯酸乙酯(EA)和醋酸乙烯酯(VAc)作为共聚单体,合成了复膜胶的主剂——环氧基聚丙烯酸酯;以TDI(甲苯二异氰酸酯)、PPG2000(聚醚二元醇)为主要原料,二乙烯三胺为封端剂,合成了复膜胶的固化剂——端氨基PU(聚氨酯);将主剂和固化剂按一定比例共混后,制得新型双组分醇溶性复膜胶.研究结果表明:当反应温度为75℃、反应时间为8h、w(引发剂)=1.8%和m(EA )∶m(VAc )∶m( AGE )∶m(HPA )=41∶14∶35∶10时,主剂的醇溶性相对最好;当反应温度为70℃、反应时间为2h和R=n(-NCO )/n(-OH)=1.25时,固化剂的性能相对最好;当n(氨基)∶n(环氧基)=20∶3、固化温度为50

  3. Pharmacokinetic and pharmaco-technological approaches of actinides decorporation by an in vivo sequestering agent. Application to the development of new treatments; Approches pharmacocinetique et pharmacotechnique de la decorporation d'actinides par un agent complexant in vivo. Application a la mise au point de nouveaux traitements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, G.


    After internal contamination by transuranic actinides, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is the only treatment available to haste the decorporation i.e. the excretion from the body of these radio-contaminants by the natural pathways (urinary and faecal excretion). However, the effectiveness of DTPA is variable and seems to be limited to mobilize efficiently the radionuclides from their sites of deposit and retention which are mainly the liver and the skeleton. Indeed, this molecule displays unfavourable pharmacokinetics (a low tissue distribution and a high urinary excretion) which do not match with the distribution of the actinides in vivo. Moreover, because of its physicochemical properties, DTPA is not able to pass through the plasmic membranes and to penetrate in the cells. Consequently, the use of colloidal vectors such as liposomes could make it possible to modulate DTPA pharmacokinetics as well as to promote the access of the chelating agent to the intracellular compartment of the macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system which also uptake the radionuclides. The objective of this thesis thus was to improve the treatment of decorporation treatments of transuranic actinides, in particular of plutonium (Pu) by the sequestering agent DTPA by a double approach. The strategy consisted in developing liposomes in order to encapsulate and to modify the distribution of DTPA in vivo. The encapsulation of the DTPA in large multi-lamellar (MLV) and conventional liposomes (composed of DOPC:CH:PG) and in stealth MLV liposomes (composed of DOPC:CH:DSPE-PEG) could modify DTPA pharmacokinetics by prolonging its circulation time and by increasing its distribution especially in the liver (conventional MLV) and in the skeleton (stealth MLV). These modifications of the distribution of DTPA were well correlated with an increased de-corporating effect on Pu in the rats. The reduction of the diameter of liposomes to approximately 100 nm made it possible to further

  4. Phytoremediation of lead by jack beans on a Rhodic Hapludox amended with EDTA Fitorremediação de chumbo por feijão-de-porco em um Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico tratado com EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fernando Faria Pereira


    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA addition to soils on the lead (Pb phytoextraction potential of jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis L.. In a pot experimentSoil samples (dystrophic Rhodic Hapludox were treated with six Pb rates (0, 100, 200, 350, 1,200, and 2,400 mg kg-1 soil applied as Pb(NO32 without and with EDTA application (0 and 0.5 g kg-1, respectively. Lead, Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, SO4(2-, H2PO4-, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and DOC (dissolved organic carbon concentrations obtained in a saturation soil extract (soil:water ratio of 1:0.3 were used for Pb speciation by means of the software Visual-Minteq 2.30. Soil Pb-availability was assessed with Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA extraction. EDTA treated soils showed higher Pb (as PbEDTA2-, and Fe (as FeEDTA- concentrations in soil solution leading to higher uptake of these elements by the jack bean. On the other hand, it decreased the concentration of stable complexes as Pb-DOC and Fe-DOC. EDTA also induced better nutrition to plants building up the concentration of non target metals (Ca, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in shoots. Shoot dry matter yield remained constant even at the highest Pb rates after EDTA treatment. Jack bean can be considered as a potential Pb-phytoextractor. In addition, the DTPA solution was effective to assess Pb availability to the plants at all applied Pb rates.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos do ácido etilenodiamino tetraacético (EDTA no potencial fitoextrator do feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis L.. Amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico foram tratadas com seis doses de Pb (0, 100, 200, 350, 1.200 e 2.400 mg kg-1 de solo aplicadas como Pb(NO32 com e sem a aplicação de EDTA (0 e 0,5 g kg-1, respectivamente e colocadas em vasos. A concentração de Pb2+, Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, SO4(2-, H2PO4-, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2

  5. 肾小球滤过率智能检测分析系统的研制及临床应用研究%Preparation and clinical application of an intelligent determination and analysis system for glomerular filtration rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锡信; 屈敏; 冯敏坚; 石俊; 陈江林; 彭健; 吴一武; 郑志雄


    目的 研制肾小球滤过率(GFR)智能检测分析系统(GFRBMAS),并探讨其检测GFR的临床应用价值.方法 采用VB 6.0软件编程,并配置好GFRBMAS.采用99锝m-二:乙烯三胺五乙酸(99Tcm-DTPA)清除率准确测定79例不同疾病住院患者GFR(Tc-GFR),检测并比较GFRBMAS与日立7170S全自动生化仪所测得的血清肌酐(SCr)、尿素氮(BUN)、血尿酸(Uric)、血清钙(Ca)和血清磷(P)值,同时以GFRBMAS、Robert公式测定或测算GFR(GFRBMAS-GFR、Robert-GFR),以Cockcroft/Gault公式计算内生肌酐清除率(CG-CCr),所得数据进行相关分析与对比研究.结果 两种检测方法测得的SCr、BUN、Uric、Ca、P值差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05),且两者均呈显著正相关(P均<0.01).肾功能正常组和不全组Robert-GFR、CG-CCr值均明显小于Tc-GFR值,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.01),而GFRBMAS-GFR值与Tc-GFR值相近.相关分析显示,肾功能不全组及正常组GFRBMAS-GFR、Robert-GFR、CG-CCr与Tc-GFR值均呈显著正相关,与SCr、BUN均呈负相关(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 GFRBMAS-GFR、Robert-GFR、CG-CCr均能在一定程度上准确反映GFR,而GFRBMAS-GFR可代替Tc-GFR应用于临床.%Objective To prepare an intelligent determination and analysis system for renal glomerular filtration rate(GFRBMAS),and to explore its value in clinical setting.Methods GFRBMAS was prepared by programming with VB 6.0 software.GFR of 79 inhospital patients suffering from the different diseases was determined accurately by using clearance rate of 99Tcm-diethylene triamine pentoacetic acid(DTPA) (Tc-GFR).The serum creatinine(SCr),blood urea nitrogen(BUN),serum uric acid(Uric),serum calcium(Ca)and serum phosphorus(P)were determined with both GFRBMAS and 7170S automatic biochemistry determination apparatus(ititachi),and the result of GFR was compared with that determined by using GFRBMAS and 7170S automatic biochemical determination apparatus.At the same time GFR was determined by using