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Sample records for 99mtc-ecd brain spect

  1. Brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Anosmic Subjects Ater Closed Head Trauma

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    Roozbeh Banan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anosmia following head trauma is relatively common and in many cases is persistent and irreversible. The ability to objectively measure such a decline in smelling, for both clinical and medicolegal goals, is very important. The aim of this study was to find results of brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT in anosmic subjects after closed head trauma. This case-control cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary referral University Hospital. The brain perfusion state of nineteen anosmic patients and thirteen normal controls was evaluated by means of the SPECT with 99mtc- ECD infusion- before and after olfactory stimulation. The orbitofrontal lobe of the brain was assumed as the region of interest and changes in perfusion of this area before and after the stimulations were compared in two groups. The mean of brain perfusion in controls before and after the stimulation was 8.26% ± 0.19% and 9.89% ± 0.54%, respectively (P < 0.0001. Among patients group, these quantities were 7.97% ± 1.05% and 8.49% ± 1.5%, respectively (P < 0.004. The difference between all the measures in cases and controls were statistically significant (P < 0.0001. There were no differences in age and sex between two groups. The brain SPECT is an objective technique suitable for evaluating anosmia following the head trauma and it may be used with other diagnostic modalities

  2. Brain SPECT. SPECT in der Gehirndiagnostik

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    Feistel, H. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1991-12-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG).

  3. Crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion in brain perfusion SPECT

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    Jinnouchi, Seishi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Nishii, Ryuuichi; Futami, Shigemi; Tamura, Shozo [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan); Kawai, Keiichi

    2000-10-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis is a well-known brain SPECT finding in stroke patients. Few reports, however, have described supratentorial and contralateral cerebellar hyperperfusion (crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion, CCH). We assessed the incidence of CCH in 33 patients with cerebral hyperperfusion. Brain SPECT showed CCH in five patients out of 20 epilepsy and three of 13 patients with acute encephalitis. These eight patients with CCH had recent epileptic attack. CCH was found in ECD SPECT as well as HM-PAO. The contralateral cerebellar activity correlated with the cerebral activity in patients with CCH. CCH would have a relation with supratentrial hyperfunction in epilepsy and acute encephalitis. (author)

  4. Brain SPECT imaging in Sydenham's chorea

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    Barsottini O.G.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine whether brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging is capable of detecting perfusional abnormalities. Ten Sydenham's chorea (SC patients, eight females and two males, 8 to 25 years of age (mean 13.4, with a clinical diagnosis of SC were submitted to brain SPECT imaging. We used HMPAO labeled with technetium-99m at a dose of 740 MBq. Six examinations revealed hyperperfusion of the basal ganglia, while the remaining four were normal. The six patients with abnormal results were females and their data were not correlated with severity of symptoms. Patients with abnormal brain SPECT had a more recent onset of symptoms (mean of 49 days compared to those with normal SPECT (mean of 85 days but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Brain SPECT can be a helpful method to determine abnormalities of the basal ganglia in SC patients but further studies on a larger number of patients are needed in order to detect the phase of the disease during which the examination is more sensitive.

  5. Brain pertechnetate SPECT in perinatal asphyxia

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    Sfakianakis, G.; Curless, R.; Goldberg, R.; Clarke, L.; Saw, C.; Sfakianakis, E.; Bloom, F.; Bauer, C.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain was performed in 6 patients with perinatal asphyxis aged 8-26 days. A single-head (LFOV) commercial SPECT system (Picker) was used and data were acquired 2-3 hr after an IV injection of 1-2 mCi Tc-99m-pertechnetate (360/sup 0/ rotation, 60 views, 64 x 64 matrix, 50K cts/view). Reconstruction in three planes was performed using MDS software (Hanning medium resolution filter, with or without attenuation correction using Sorenson's technique). For each clinical study, a ring type phantom source was used to identify the level of reconstruction noise in the tomographic planes. Abnormalities were found in all patients studied, 3 central (moderate intensity), 2 peripheral (1 severe, 1 moderate) and 1 diffuse (mild intensity). Despite use of oral perchlorate (50 mg) in one patient the choroid plexus was visible. Since attenuation correction tended to amplify noise, the clinical studies were interpreted both with and without this correction. All 3 patients with central lesions were found abnormal on early (1-4 mo) neurologic follow-up examination, whereas the others were normal. No correlation was found between SPECT and 24 hr blood levels of CPK, ammonia, base excess, or the Apgar scores. Ct scans were reported abnormal (3 diffuse, 1 peripheral, 1 central and 1 questionable). Planar scintigrams obtained immediately after SPECT were normal (2), questionable (2) and abnormal (2). Follow-up SPECT brain scintigrams in two of the patients showed partial resolution. SPECT of the brain appears promising in perinatal asphyxia but long-term correlation with patient development is necessary.

  6. Comparison of heterogeneity quantification algorithms for brain SPECT perfusion images

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    Modzelewski, Romain; Janvresse, Elise; De La Rue, Thierry; Vera, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background Several algorithms from the literature were compared with the original random walk (RW) algorithm for brain perfusion heterogeneity quantification purposes. Algorithms are compared on a set of 210 brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) simulations and 40 patient exams. Methods Five algorithms were tested on numerical phantoms. The numerical anthropomorphic Zubal head phantom was used to generate 42 (6 × 7) different brain SPECT simulations. Seven diffuse cortical ...

  7. PET/SPECT imaging: From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

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    Meerwaldt, Robbert [Department of Surgery, Isala Clinics, Zwolle (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, Gooitzen M. van [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijckx, Gert-Jan [Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: czeebregts@hotmail.com

    2010-04-15

    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could improve selection of patients with a vulnerable plaque and evaluation of brain viability in ischemic stroke. Objective: To describe the current applications of PET and SPECT as a diagnostic tool in relation to ischemic stroke. Methods: A literature search using PubMed identified articles. Manual cross-referencing was also performed. Results: Several papers, all observational studies, identified PET/SPECT to be used as a tool to monitor systemic atheroma modifying treatment and to select high-risk patients for surgery regardless of the degree of luminal stenosis in carotid lesions. Furthermore, PET/SPECT is able to quantify the penumbra region during ischemic stroke and in this way may identify those patients who may benefit from timely intervention. Discussion: Functional imaging modalities such as PET/SPECT may become important tools for risk-assessment and evaluation of treatment strategies in carotid plaque vulnerability and brain viability. Prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PET/SPECT.

  8. Clinical Significance of Brain SPECT in Zipeprol Abusers

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    Cho, Dai Ok; Kim, Jae Phil; Kim, Deog Yoon; Yang, Hyung In; Koh, Eun Mi; Kim, Kwang Won; Choi, Young Kil [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Drug abuse is widespread in worldwide and has been associated with neurologic complication. Zipeprol is one of drugs which been abused for psychological satisfaction in some adolescents. This agent is non-opioid antitussive agent, which is not legally considered as being capable of creating dependence or abuse liability at therapeutic serum levels. But it has been reported that acute or chronic overdose create neurologic complication such as convulsion as well as dependence. Recently we experienced six zipeprol abusers who admitted due to convulsion and variable neurologic symptoms. The aim of our study was to determine the role of Tc-99m- HMPAO brain SPECT in those patients. EEG and brain CT showed no abnormal finding, but brain SPECT showed focal or multiple perfusion abnormalities in frontal, parietal, occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and especially at temporal cortex. These results suggest that brain SPECT may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate the cerebral dysfunction induced by zipeprol abuse.

  9. Brain abscess uptake at TI-201 brain SPECT

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    Lee, Won Hyoung; Han, Eun Ji; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Chung, Yong An; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Choi, Yeong Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    A 22-year-old woman with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was hospitalized for headache and vomiting CT scan showed a well-defined, ring like enhancing mass in the left frontal lobe with surrounding edema and midline shift. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a round homogeneous mass with a ring of enhancement in the left frontal lobe. TI-201 brain SPECT showed increased focal uptake coinciding with the CT and MRI abnormality. Aspiration of the lesion performed through a burr hole yielded many neutrophils, a few lymphocytes and histiocytes with some strands of filamentous microorganism-like material. Modified AFB stained negative for norcardia. Gram stain showed a few white blood cells and no microorganism. Antibiotics were started and produced a good clinical response. After one month, CT scan showed markedly reduction in size and extent was observed.

  10. Brain SPECT in children; Explorations scintigraphiques en neurologie et psychiatrie de l`enfant

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    Guyot, M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1996-12-31

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author). 18 refs.

  11. Scatter and attenuation correction in Technetium-99m brain SPECT

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    Hashimoto, Jun [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-11-01

    The imaging in the nuclear medicine is inferior to other modalities in the spatial resolution, but it can quantitatively evaluate the biological function. The attempt to measure the absolute or the relative values of local functions quantitatively based on the SPECT of the brain or the heart, has become popular recently. It is not only necessary to introduce an appropriate analytical model for each radioisotope tracer for the correct quantification, but also to be equipped with the photographing system to measure correctly the accumulation of the tracer. The main cause to decrease the precision of the photographing system is the scatter and the absorption (attenuation) of photon. In the present study we attempted to enhance the quantification of the brain SPECT by the usable and practical correction method for the scatter and the attenuation in the daily clinical business. We used the triple-energy-window (TEW) method as the scatter correction and the attenuation calculation map obtained from the transmission scanning (TCT) by the external source as the attenuation correction. We examined the brain SPECT in combination with these two correction methods. We could not measure correctly the amount of the tracer accumulation by only one correction method, and obtain the excellent quantitative SPECT images in combination with both correction methods. We could get excellently stable data by collecting the emission and the transmission data simultaneously as well as separately, and the excellent images by the arithmetical treatment of data between the scatter beam and the detector correction when we used {sup 99m}Tc as the source which is economically cheap, and adopted the combination of the tracers labeled by the same kind of radioisotopes. Altogether we expect that our method is very practical and will contribute to enhance the accuracy in quantitative analysis of clinical brain SPECT imaging. (K.H.)

  12. The need of appropriate brain SPECT templates for SPM comparisons

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    Morbelli, S.; Altrinetti, V.; Piccardo, A. [S Martino Univ Hosp, Nucl MedUnit DIMI, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Rodriguez, G.; Brugnolo, A.; Nobili, F. [S Martino Univ Hosp, Clin Neurophysiol Unit DiSEM, DiTeC, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Mignone, A. [Osped Riuniti Bergamo, Nucl Med Unit, I-24100 Bergamo (Italy); Pupi, A. [Univ Florence, Nucl Med Unit DFP, Florence (Italy); Koulibaly, P.M. [CEA-Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, TIRO, Dept Nucl Med, Ctr Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)

    2008-07-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is used worldwide to compare brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. The default template within the SPM package used for SPECT image normalization includes images of a group of healthy subjects studied with {sup 99m}TcHMPAO. Since [{sup 99m}Tc] HMPAO and [{sup 99m}Tc] ECD have shown to distribute differently in SPECT studies, we formulated the hypothesis that comparing set of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD data normalized by means of a [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template may lead to incorrect results. A customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template was built with SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 22 neurologically healthy women. Then, two sets of subjects, i.e. a group of patients with very early Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and a matched control group, studied by means of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT, were chosen for comparisons. The same statistical approach (t-test between eAD patients and controls and correlation analysis between brain SPECT and a cognitive score) was applied twice, i.e. after normalization with either the default [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template or the customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template. In the comparison between eAD and controls, a cluster of difference in the posterior-cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres was only highlighted when using the customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template, but was missed when using the default [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template. In the correlation between brain perfusion and a cognitive score, the significant cluster was more significant and far more extended, also including the right superior temporal gyrus, using the customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template than using the default [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template. These data suggest the need of customized, radiopharmaceutical-matched SPECT templates to be used within the SPM package. The present customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template is now freely available on the web. (authors)

  13. Collimator design for a multipinhole brain SPECT insert for MRI

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    Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Holen, Roel; Vanhove, Christian; Vandenberghe, Stefaan [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University-iMinds Medical IT, MEDISIP-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B/5, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is an important clinical tool, with unique tracers for studying neurological diseases. Nowadays, most commercial SPECT systems are combined with x-ray computed tomography (CT) in so-called SPECT/CT systems to obtain an anatomical background for the functional information. However, while CT images have a high spatial resolution, they have a low soft-tissue contrast, which is an important disadvantage for brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, has a very high soft-tissue contrast and does not involve extra ionizing radiation. Therefore, the authors designed a brain SPECT insert that can operate inside a clinical MRI. Methods: The authors designed and simulated a compact stationary multipinhole SPECT insert based on digital silicon photomultiplier detector modules, which have shown to be MR-compatible and have an excellent intrinsic resolution (0.5 mm) when combined with a monolithic 2 mm thick LYSO crystal. First, the authors optimized the different parameters of the SPECT system to maximize sensitivity for a given target resolution of 7.2 mm in the center of the field-of-view, given the spatial constraints of the MR system. Second, the authors performed noiseless simulations of two multipinhole configurations to evaluate sampling and reconstructed resolution. Finally, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared the SPECT insert with a clinical system with ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) fan beam collimators, based on contrast-to-noise ratio and a visual comparison of a Hoffman phantom with a 9 mm cold lesion. Results: The optimization resulted in a stationary multipinhole system with a collimator radius of 150.2 mm and a detector radius of 172.67 mm, which corresponds to four rings of 34 diSPM detector modules. This allows the authors to include eight rings of 24 pinholes, which results in a system volume sensitivity of 395 cps/MBq. Noiseless simulations

  14. Collimator design for a multipinhole brain SPECT insert for MRI.

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    Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Holen, Roel; Vanhove, Christian; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2015-11-01

    Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is an important clinical tool, with unique tracers for studying neurological diseases. Nowadays, most commercial SPECT systems are combined with x-ray computed tomography (CT) in so-called SPECT/CT systems to obtain an anatomical background for the functional information. However, while CT images have a high spatial resolution, they have a low soft-tissue contrast, which is an important disadvantage for brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, has a very high soft-tissue contrast and does not involve extra ionizing radiation. Therefore, the authors designed a brain SPECT insert that can operate inside a clinical MRI. The authors designed and simulated a compact stationary multipinhole SPECT insert based on digital silicon photomultiplier detector modules, which have shown to be MR-compatible and have an excellent intrinsic resolution (0.5 mm) when combined with a monolithic 2 mm thick LYSO crystal. First, the authors optimized the different parameters of the SPECT system to maximize sensitivity for a given target resolution of 7.2 mm in the center of the field-of-view, given the spatial constraints of the MR system. Second, the authors performed noiseless simulations of two multipinhole configurations to evaluate sampling and reconstructed resolution. Finally, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared the SPECT insert with a clinical system with ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) fan beam collimators, based on contrast-to-noise ratio and a visual comparison of a Hoffman phantom with a 9 mm cold lesion. The optimization resulted in a stationary multipinhole system with a collimator radius of 150.2 mm and a detector radius of 172.67 mm, which corresponds to four rings of 34 diSPM detector modules. This allows the authors to include eight rings of 24 pinholes, which results in a system volume sensitivity of 395 cps/MBq. Noiseless simulations show sufficient axial

  15. Brain FDG-PET Scan and Brain Perfusion SPECT in the Diagnosis of Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes

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    Eylem Değirmenci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroacanthocytosis syndromes (NA include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. Fluor 18 -2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG-PET positron emission tomography (PET and technetium 99m -d, l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT have been increasingly used for the detection of neurologic disorders, such as dementia, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In this case report, we report two patients with neuroacanthocytosis syndromes with the imaging features of brain metabolism by PET and brain perfusion by SPECT. Brain PET and brain SPECT findings of patients with neuroacanthocytosis syndromes were also reviewed.

  16. Brain SPECT in neurology: A critical review; Hirn-SPECT in der Neurologie: Eine kritische Uebersicht

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    Bartenstein, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik]|[Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie; Weiller, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik]|[Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    1994-10-01

    SPECT of the brain with radiopharmaceuticals monitoring regional cerebral blood flow, receptor binding and metabolism offers a wide variety of potentially clinically useful applications. These can be found in neuro-oncology, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, extrapyramidal disorders, dementia and the determination of brain death. The evaluation of the benefit of these methods in routine use requires a close cooperation between nuclear medicine physicians and neurologists, not only in the interpretation and analysis of the actual clinical studies, but also in the design and realization of clinically oriented research with large series of patients. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die SPECT-Untersuchung des Gehirnes bietet mit Radiopharmaka des regionalen zerebralen Blutflusses, Rezeptorliganden und Stoffwechselmarkern ein breites Spektrum diagnostischer Moeglichkeiten in der Neuro-Onkologie, die Epilepsiediagnostik, bei zerebrovaskulaeren Erkrankungen, extrapyramidalen Bewegungsstoerungen, dementiellen Syndromen und der Hirntodbestimmung. Zur Evaluierung klinisch sinnvoller Indikationen in der Routinediagnostik bedarf es einer engen Zusammenarbeit zwischen Nuklearmedizinern und Neurologen bei der Auswertung und Interpretation der Befunde, aber auch beim Design und der Durchfuehrung klinischer Studien mit ausreichend grossen Patientenzahlen. (orig.)

  17. Robin Hood caught in Wonderland: brain SPECT findings.

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    Morland, David; Wolff, Valérie; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Marescaux, Christian; Namer, Izzie Jacques

    2013-12-01

    We present the case of a 53-year-old woman presenting several episodes of body image distortions, ground deformation illusions, and problems assessing distance in the orthostatic position corresponding to the Alice in Wonderland syndrome. No symptoms were reported when sitting or lying down. She had uncontrolled hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and a history of head trauma. Her condition had been diagnosed with left internal carotid artery dissection 2 years earlier. Brain SPECT with 99mTc-ECD performed after i.v. injection of the radiotracer in supine and in standing positions showed hypoperfusion in the healthy contralateral frontoparietal operculum (Robin Hood syndrome), deteriorating when standing up.

  18. Multipinhole collimator with 20 apertures for a brain SPECT application

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    Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Ellin, Justin R.; Shrestha, Uttam; Seo, Youngho, E-mail: youngho.seo@ucsf.edu [Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94107 (United States); Huang, Qiu [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Gullberg, Grant T. [Department of Radiotracer Development and Imaging Technology, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Several new technologies for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) instrumentation with parallel-hole collimation have been proposed to improve detector sensitivity and signal collection efficiency. Benefits from improved signal efficiency include shorter acquisition times and lower dose requirements. In this paper, the authors show a possibility of over an order of magnitude enhancement in photon detection efficiency (from 7.6 × 10{sup −5} to 1.6 × 10{sup −3}) for dopamine transporter (DaT) imaging of the striatum over the conventional SPECT parallel-hole collimators by use of custom-designed 20 multipinhole (20-MPH) collimators with apertures of 0.75 cm diameter. Methods: Quantifying specific binding ratio (SBR) of {sup 123}I-ioflupane or {sup 123}I-iometopane’s signal at the striatal region is a common brain imaging method to confirm the diagnosis of the Parkinson’s disease. The authors performed imaging of a striatal phantom filled with aqueous solution of I-123 and compared camera recovery ratios of SBR acquired between low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) parallel-hole collimators and 20-MPH collimators. Results: With only two-thirds of total acquisition time (20 min against 30 min), a comparable camera recovery ratio of SBR was achieved using 20-MPH collimators in comparison to that from the LEHR collimator study. Conclusions: Their systematic analyses showed that the 20-MPH collimator could be a promising alternative for the DaT SPECT imaging for brain over the traditional LEHR collimator, which could give both shorter scan time and improved diagnostic accuracy.

  19. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

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    Tzourio, N.; Sutton, D. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Joliot, M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot INSERM, Orsay (France)); Mazoyer, B.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Antenne d' Information Medicale, C.H.U. Bichat, Paris (France)); Charlot, V. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France). Service de Psychiatrie); Salamon, G. (CHU La Timone, Marseille (France). Service de Neuroradiologie)

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional ([sup 133]Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient [approx equal]0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning ([approx equal]3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.).

  20. Diamox-enhanced brain SPECT in cerebrovascular diseases

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    Choi, Yun Young [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Acute event in cerebrovascular disease is the second most common cause of death in Korea following cancer, and it can also cause serious neurologic deficits. Understanding of perfusion status is important for clinical applications in management of patients with cerebrovascular diseases, and then the attacks of ischemic neurologic symptoms and the risk of acute events can be reduced. Therefore, the normal vascular anatomy of brain, various clinical applications of acetazolamide-enhanced brain perfusion SPECT, including meaning and role of assessment of vascular reserve in carotid stenosis before procedure, in pediatric Moyamoya disease before and after operation, in prediction of development of hyperperfusion syndrome before procedure, and in prediction of vasospasm and of prognosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage were reviewed in this paper.

  1. 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion SPECT/CT in the diagnosis of brain death.

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    Derlin, Thorsten; Weiberg, Desiree

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of brain death (BD) evaluated by 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). A 16-year-old boy with a history of rapid unexpected brain herniation due to pilocytic astrocytoma underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT for evaluation of brain death in the context of organ donation. Flow images demonstrated lack of blood flow to the brain, and delayed images showed absence of demonstrable radionuclide activity within the brain. SPECT/CT confirmed absence of tracer accumulation, and was deemed helpful for evaluation of the brain stem. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT is a valuable tool enabling imaging-based confirmation of BD.

  2. Cerebral perfusion changes in traumatic diffuse brain injury. IMP SPECT studies

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    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Onuma, Takehide

    1997-05-01

    Diffuse brain injury (DBI) is characterized by axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which cause diffuse brain atrophy. We have investigated the time course of abnormalities in cerebral perfusion distribution in cases of DBI by using Iodine-123-IMP SPECT, and the relationship to the appearance of diffuse brain atrophy. SPECT scans were performed on eight patients with diffuse brain injury due to closed cranial trauma in acute and chronic stages. All patients showed abnormalities in cerebral perfusion with decreases in perfusion, even in non-depicted regions on MRI, and the affected areas varied throughout the period of observation. Diffuse brain atrophy appeared in all patients. In some patients, diffuse brain atrophy was observed at or just after the time when the maximum number of lesions on SPECT were seen. The abnormalities in cerebral perfusion in cases of DBI might therefore be related to axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which causes diffuse brain atrophy. (author)

  3. GATE simulation of a new design of pinhole SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

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    Uzun Ozsahin, D.; Bläckberg, L.; El Fakhri, G.; Sabet, H.

    2017-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging has gained an increased interest over the past decade since it is an excellent tool for developing new drugs and tracers. Therefore, there is a huge effort on the development of cost-effective SPECT detectors with high capabilities. The aim of this study is to simulate the performance characteristics of new designs for a cost effective, stationary SPECT system dedicated to small animal imaging with a focus on mice brain. The conceptual design of this SPECT system platform, Stationary Small Animal SSA-SPECT, is to use many pixelated CsI:TI detector modules with 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm pixels in order to achieve excellent intrinsic detector resolution where each module is backed by a single pinhole collimator with 0.3 mm hole diameter. In this work, we present the simulation results of four variations of the SSA-SPECT platform where the number of detector modules and FOV size is varied while keeping the detector size and collimator hole size constant. Using the NEMA NU-4 protocol, we performed spatial resolution, sensitivity, image quality simulations followed by a Derenzo-like phantom evaluation. The results suggest that all four SSA-SPECT systems can provide better than 0.063% system sensitivity and < 1.5 mm FWHM spatial resolution without resolution recovery or other correction techniques. Specifically, SSA-SPECT-1 showed a system sensitivity of 0.09% in combination with 1.1 mm FWHM spatial resolution.

  4. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grova, C.; Jannin, P.; Biraben, A.; Buvat, I.; Benali, H.; Bernard, A. M.; Scarabin, J. M.; Gibaud, B.

    2003-12-01

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were found within

  5. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  6. Brain PET and technetium-99m-ECD SPECT imaging in Lhermitte-Duclos disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, K.; Yasuda, S.; Beppu, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Doi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Ogawa, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    Two patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease were evaluated by brain positron emission tomography (PET) and technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the lesions in both patients, hyperperfusion was detected on cerebral blood flow images obtained by PET, and hyperactivity by standard {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT. Dynamic {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT images demonstrated a plateau of activity in each lesion. These findings suggest that lesions in Lhermitte-Duclos disease have a retention mechanism for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD equivalent to that of normal neural tissue. (orig.)

  7. The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in acute measles encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    Since the prognosis of measles encephalitis is poor, early diagnosis and proper management are very important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT (SPECT) with MR imaging (MRI) for the detection of acute measles encephalitis. Eleven patients (M : F=4 : 7, age range 18 months-14 yrs) with acute measles encephalitis were enrolled in this studies. All of them underwent both MRI and SPECT. The results of SPECT were scored from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe defect) according to perfusion state. We compared two image modalities for the detection of brain abnormality in acute measles encephalitis. Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) revealed high signal intensity in the white matter on T2WI of MRI, on the other hand all patients (100%) showed hypoperfusion on SPECT. Severe perfusion deficits above score 2 were located with decreasing frequencies in the frontal lobe (81.8%), temporal lobe (72.7%), occipital lobe (27.3%), basal ganglia (27.3%), and parietal lobe (9.1%). We conclude that SPECT is more useful than MRI for the detection of brain involvement in patients with acute measles encephalitis.

  8. Evaluation of therapeutic effects of radiosurgery using 99 Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT in patients with brain tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yi-xiang; SHI Wei-min; PENG Wu-he

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of radiosurgery on brain tumor using 99Tcm-MIBI brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods : Fifteen normal volunteers and 49patients with brain tumor underwent 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT, and the tumor to non-tumor ratio (T/N)was calculated and compared before and after radiosurgery. The patients were regrouped according to different schedules for postoperative reexamination, and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT evaluated against that of conventional CT and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: After radiosurgery, the lesions were reduced or even disappeared in 22 cases, and tumor remnants or recurrence were found in 27 cases. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT were 85.2%, 68. 2% and 77.6%,respectively. The sensitivity of postoperative 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT at 5.8 months was 92%, significantly higher than that at 3.1 months (89%, u=2. 2545, P<0. 05), and its accuracy was also higher than those at3. 1 months (u=2. 5927, P<0. 05) and at 9. 4 months (u=2. 1760, P<0. 05). The preoperative T/N ratio averaged 9.5±7. 6, significantly lowered to 2.9±5.1 postoperatively (t=4. 4373, P<0. 001). T/N ratio of recurrence group was remarkably higher than those of tumor remnants group (t=2. 1496, P<0. 05), edema group (t= 9. 2186, P<0. 001) and cicatrization group (t= 6. 3906, P<0. 001). Conclusion: 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT is more accurate than CT in distinguishing tumor residuals from benign lesions such as edema and cicatrization. At about 6 months after radiosurgery, 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT can obtain optimal diagnostic effects.

  9. Neuropsychological Correlates of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients with Macrophagic Myofasciitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Van Der Gucht

    Full Text Available Patients with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF complain of arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue and cognitive deficits. This study aimed to characterize brain perfusion in these patients.Brain perfusion SPECT was performed in 76 consecutive patients (aged 49±10 y followed in the Garches-Necker-Mondor-Hendaye reference center for rare neuromuscular diseases. Images were acquired 30 min after intravenous injection of 925 MBq 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD at rest. All patients also underwent a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests, within 1.3±5.5 mo from SPECT. Statistical parametric maps (SPM12 were obtained for each test using linear regressions between each performance score and brain perfusion, with adjustment for age, sex, socio-cultural level and time delay between brain SPECT and neuropsychological testing.SPM analysis revealed positive correlation between neuropsychological scores (mostly exploring executive functions and brain perfusion in the posterior associative cortex, including cuneus/precuneus/occipital lingual areas, the periventricular white matter/corpus callosum, and the cerebellum, while negative correlation was found with amygdalo-hippocampal/entorhinal complexes. A positive correlation was also observed between brain perfusion and the posterior associative cortex when the time elapsed since last vaccine injection was investigated.Brain perfusion SPECT showed a pattern of cortical and subcortical changes in accordance with the MMF-associated cognitive disorder previously described. These results provide a neurobiological substrate for brain dysfunction in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced MMF patients.

  10. Validation of a method for accurate and highly reproducible quantification of brain dopamine transporter SPECT studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S; Ziebell, Morten; Skouboe, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine brain imaging, it is important to delineate regions of interest (ROIs) so that the outcome is both accurate and reproducible. The purpose of this study was to validate a new time-saving algorithm (DATquan) for accurate and reproducible quantification of the striatal dopamine...... transporter (DAT) with appropriate radioligands and SPECT and without the need for structural brain scanning....

  11. Cerebral infarction mimicking brain tumor on Tc-99m tetrofosmin brain SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon [College of Medicine, Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Zeon, Seok Kil; Won, Kyoung Sook [School of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    A 43-year-old man was presented with persistent headache for two weeks. T2 weighted MR imaging showed high signal intensity with surrounding edema in the left frontal lobe. These findings were considered with intracranial tumor such as glioma or metastasis. Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT showed focal radiotracer accumulation in the left frontal lobe. The operative specimen contained cerebral infarction with organizing leptomeningeal hematoma by pathologist. Another 73-year-old man was hospitalized for chronic headache. Initial CT showed ill-defined hypodensity with mass effect in the right parietal lobe. Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT showed focal radiotracer uptake in the right parietal lobe. These findings were considered with low-grade glioma or infarction. Follow-up CT after 5 months showed slightly decreased in size of low density in the right parietal lobe, and cerebral infarction is more likely than others. Tc-99m tetrofosmin has been proposed as a cardiotracer of myocardial perfusion imaging and an oncotropic radiotracer. Tc-99 tetrofosmin SPECT image provides a better attractive alternative agent than TI-201 as a tumor-imaging agent, with characteristics such as high-energy flux, short half-life, favorable biodistribution, dosimetry and lower background radioactivity. We have keep in mind on the analysis of Tc-99m tetrofosmin imaging when cerebral infarction is being differentiated from brain tumor.

  12. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Joon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Jai Keun; Nam, Ji Eun; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Yoon, Choon Sik; Lee, Jong Doo [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT findings of MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy in correlation with MR imaging in search of specific imaging features. Subjects were five patients (four females and one male; age range, 1 to 25 year) who presented with repeated stroke like episodes, seizures or developmental delay or asymptomatic but had elevated lactic acid in CSF and serum. Conventional non-contrast MR imaging and Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion SPECT were performed and imaging features were analyzed. MRI demonstrated increased T2 signal intensities in the affected areas of gray and white matters mainly in the parietal (4/5) and occipital lobes (4/5) and in the basal ganglia (1/5), which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. SPECT demonstrated decreased perfusion in the corresponding regions of MRI lesions. In addition, there were perfusion defects in parietal (1 patient), temporal (2), and frontal (1) lobes and basal ganglia (1) and thalami (2). In a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who had normal MRI, decreased perfusion was noted in left parietal area and bilateral thalami. Tc-99m ECD SPECT imaging in patients with MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy showed hypoperfusion of parieto-occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and temporal cortex, which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. There were no specific imaging features on SPECT. The significance of abnormal perfusion on SPECT without corresponding MR abnormalities needs to be evaluated further in larger number of patients.

  13. Interictal brain SPECT in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy; SPECT cerebral interictal em pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal de dificil controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraus, Maria Emilia Cosenza

    2000-06-01

    The brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is s functional neuroimaging method that can detect localized changes in cerebral blood flow. The temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common epileptic syndrome in adults, and more than 50% are medically refractory. The SPECT can contribute to investigation of epileptogenic focus and is one of the methods of pre-surgical evaluation of these patients. (author)

  14. 5-HT Radioligands for Human Brain Imaging With PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M.; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Nutt, David J.; Pike, Victor W.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main caveats. The success of a PET or SPECT radioligand can ultimately be assessed by its frequency of use, its utility in humans, and the number of research sites using it relative to its invention date, and so these aspects are also covered. In conclusion, the development of PET and SPECT radioligands to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging. PMID:21674551

  15. Registration and display of brain SPECT and MRI using external markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjonen, H; Nikkinen, P; Sipilä, O; Launes, J; Salli, E; Salonen, O; Karp, P; Ylä-Jääski, J; Katila, T; Liewendahl, K

    1996-02-01

    Accurate anatomical localisation of abnormalities observed in brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is difficult, but can be improved by correlating data from SPECT and other tomographic imaging modalities. For this purpose we have developed software to register, analyse and display 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime SPECT and 1.0 T MRI of the brain. For registration of SPECT and MRI data external skin markers containing 99mTc (220 kBq) in 50 microliters of coconut butter were used. The software is coded in the C programming language, and the X Window system and the OSF/Motif standards are used for graphics and definition of the user interface. The registration algorithm follows a noniterative least-squares method using singular value decomposition of a 3 x 3 covariance matrix. After registration, the image slices of both data sets are shown at identical tomographic levels. The registration error in phantom studies was on average 4 mm. In the two-dimensional display mode the orthogonal cross-sections of the data sets are displayed side by side. In the three-dimensional mode MRI data are displayed as a surface-shaded 3 D reconstruction and SPECT data as cut planes. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated in patients with cerebral infarcts, brain tumour, herpes simplex encephalitis and epilepsy.

  16. Registration and display of brain SPECT and MRI using external markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjonen, H. [Medical Engineering Centre, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Stenbaeckinkatu 9, FIN-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Nikkinen, P. [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Sipilae, O. [Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Launes, J. [Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Salli, E. [Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Salonen, O. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Karp, P. [Medical Engineering Centre, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Stenbaeckinkatu 9, FIN-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Ylae-Jaeaeski, J. [Graphic Arts Laboratory, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Katila, T. [Medical Engineering Centre, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Stenbaeckinkatu 9, FIN-00290 Helsinki (Finland)]|[Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Liewendahl, K. [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-02-01

    Accurate anatomical localisation of abnormalities observed in brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is difficult, but can be improved by correlating data from SPECT and other tomographic imaging modalities. For this purpose we have developed software to register, analyse and display {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime SPECT and 1.0 T MRI of the brain. For registration of SPECT and MRI data external skin markers containing {sup 99m}Tc (220 kBq) in 50 {mu}l of coconut butter were used. The software is coded in the C programming language, and the X Window system and the OSF/Motif standards are used for graphics and definition of the user interface. The registration algorithm follows a noniterative least-squares method using singular value decomposition of a 3 x 3 covariance matrix. After registration, the image slices of both data sets are shown at identical tomographic levels. The registration error in phantom studies was on average 4 mm. In the two-dimensional display mode the orthogonal cross-sections of the data sets are displayed side by side. In the three-dimensional mode MRI data are displayed as a surface-shaded 3 D reconstruction and SPECT data as cut planes. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated in patients with cerebral infarcts, brain tumour, herpes simplex encephalitis and epilepsy. (orig.). With 9 figs.

  17. 5-HT radioligands for human brain imaging with PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Kornum, Birgitte R; Nutt, David J

    2013-01-01

    for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists...... to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging.......The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used...

  18. The Performance of Ictal Brain SPECT Localizing for Epileptogenic Zone in Neocortical Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Sik; Lee, Dong Soo; Hyun, In Young; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Sang Kun; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    The epileptogenic zones should be localized precisely before surgical resection of these zones in intractable epilepsy. The localization is more difficult in patients with neocortical epilepsy than in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. This study aimed at evaluation of the usefulness of ictal brain perfusion SPECT for the localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy. We compared the performance of ictal SPECT with MRI referring to ictal scalp electroencephalography (sEEG). Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT were done in twenty-one patients. Ictal EEG were also obtained during video monitoring. MRI were reviewed. According to the ictal sEEG and semiology, 8 patients were frontal lobe epilepsy, 7 patients were lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, 2 patients were parietal lobe epilepsy, and 4 patients were occipital lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in 14 patients(67%) in the zones which were suspected to be epileptogenic according to ictal EEG and semiology. MRI found morphologic abnormalities in 9 patients(43%). Among the 12 patients, in whom no epileptogenic zones were revealed by MR1, ictal SPECT found zones of hyperperfusion concordant with ictal sEEG in 9 patients(75%). However, no zones of hyperperfusion were found in 4 among 9 patients who were found to have cerebromalacia, abnormal calcification and migration anomaly in MRI. We thought that ictal SPECT was useful for localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy and especially in patients with negative findings in MRI.

  19. Quantitative analysis of L-SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tasneem; Tahtali, Murat; Pickering, Mark R.

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of a newly proposed L-SPECT system for small animal brain imaging. The L-SPECT system consists of an array of 100 × 100 micro range diameter pinholes. The proposed detector module has a 48 mm by 48 mm active area and the system is based on a pixelated array of NaI crystals (10×10×10 mm elements) coupled with an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). The performance of this system was evaluated with pinhole radii of 50 μm, 60 μm and 100 μm. Monte Carlo simulation studies using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) software package validate the performance of this novel dual head L-SPECT system where a geometric mouse phantom is used to investigate its performance. All SPECT data were obtained using 120 projection views from 0° to 360° with a 3° step. Slices were reconstructed using conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. We have evaluated the quality of the images in terms of spatial resolution (FWHM) based on line spread function, the system sensitivity, the point source response function and the image quality. The sensitivity of our newly proposed L- SPECT system was about 4500 cps/μCi at 6 cm along with excellent full width at half-maximum (FWHM) using 50 μm pinhole aperture at several radii of rotation. The analysis results show the combination of excellent spatial resolution and high detection efficiency over an energy range between 20-160 keV. The results demonstrate that SPECT imaging using a pixelated L-SPECT detector module is applicable in a quantitative study of mouse brain imaging.

  20. Brain SPECT in childhood; Temp cerebrale chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Unite Inserm 316, 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-04-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  1. Pre and post betahistine therapy 99m Tc - HMPAO brain spect studies in patients with vertigo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna B

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertebro basilar insufficiency (VBI is a well known cause of vertigo. Brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT is an important diagnostic tool to detect and to quantitate the perfusion abnormalities in different areas of the brain. Effect of an antivertigo drug Betahistine on improving the hypoperfusion in different areas of the brain in vertigo patients was studied using brain SPECT. Betahistine at a dose of 16 mg three times daily was shown to improve perfusion in the hypoperfused areas of the brain resulting in relief from symptoms of vertigo. The cerebellar region, which is the most important area involved in vertigo patients with vascular pathology, showed almost complete normalisation of perfusion following Betahistine therapy.

  2. The role of Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young [Nuclear Medicne, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Sun Woo; Ghi, Lek Sung; Song, Chang June [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    We studied whether brain perfusion SPECT is useful in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-nine patients (M:F=58:11, age 39 {+-} 14 years) who underwent Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT, brain MRI and neuropsychological (NP) tests during hospitalization in psychiatric wards for the psychiatric disability evaluation were included; the severity of injury was mild in 31, moderate in 17 and severe in 21. SPECT, MRI, NP tests were performed 6 {approx} 61 months (mean 23 months) post-injury. Diagnostic accuracy of SPECT and MRI to show hypoperfusion or abnormal signal intensity in patients with cognitive impairment represented by NP test results were compared. Forty-two patients were considered to have cognitive impairment on NP tests and 27 not. Brain SPECT showed 71% sensitivity and 85% specificity, while brain MRI showed 62% sensitivity and 93% specificity (p>0.05, McNemar test). SPECT found more cortical lesions and MRI was superior in detecting white matter lesions. sensitivity and specificity of 31 mild TBI patients were 45%, 90% for SPECT and 27%, 100% for MRI (p>0.05, McNemar test). Among 41 patients with normal brain MRI, SEPCT showed 63% sensitivity (50% for mild TBI) and 88% specificity (85% for malingerers). Brain SPECT has a supplementary role to neuropsychological tests in the psychiatric disability evaluation of chronic TBI patients by detecting more cortical lesions than MRI.

  3. The study of low level laser irradiation therapy on brain infarction with SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xuechang; Jia Shaowei; Zleng Xiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Effect of rCBF and brain function on ILIB treating brain infarction will be investigated by SPECT brain perfusion imaging. Method: 3 1 patients with brain infarction, 17 patients were treated by ILIB on standard pharmaceutial treatment. SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after ILIB therapy with comparison of oneself. They were quantified with BFCR% model effect during ILIB in 14 patients were observed. Result: ILIB 30 rnme SPECT showed the improvement of rCBF and cerebral function in 14 patients with brain infarction, and in 17 patients locus were prominence than mirror regions att er ILIB therapy, both are higher singnitficant difference ( t=4.4052, P<0.0001 ), but mirror regions were not singnificant difference before and after ILIB (t=1.6995, P>0.05). BFCR% quantitative results of locus were higher mirror regions, and higher singnificant difference (t=4.5278 p<0.0001 )。 Conclusion: ILIB can improve the rCBF and cerebral function of patients with brain infarction, and provoke function of brain cells. Some new evidence was provided for ILIB treatment of cerebral ischemia

  4. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for ketamine response in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Taieb, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-08-15

    Ketamine has been used successfully in various proportions of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. However, the response to this specific treatment remains largely unpredictable. We evaluated brain SPECT perfusion before treatment with ketamine, using voxel-based analysis. The objective was to determine the predictive value of brain SPECT for ketamine response. Seventeen women with FM (48 {+-} 11 years; ACR criteria) were enrolled in the study. Brain SPECT was performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. We considered that a patient was a good responder to ketamine if the VAS score for pain decreased by at least 50% after treatment. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2, in comparison to a group of ten healthy women matched for age. The VAS score for pain was 81.8 {+-} 4.2 before ketamine and 31.8 {+-} 27.1 after ketamine. Eleven patients were considered ''good responders'' to ketamine. Responder and non-responder subgroups were similar in terms of pain intensity before ketamine. In comparison to responding patients and healthy subjects, non-responding patients exhibited a significant reduction in bilateral perfusion of the medial frontal gyrus. This cluster of hypoperfusion was highly predictive of non-response to ketamine (positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 91%). Brain perfusion SPECT may predict response to ketamine in hyperalgesic FM patients. (orig.)

  5. Dynamic SPECT of the brain using a lipophilic technetium-99m complex, PnAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, S; Andersen, A R; Vorstrup, S;

    1985-01-01

    The lipophilic 99mTc-labeled oxime propylene amine oxime (PnAO) should, according to recent reports behave like 133Xe in the human brain. This study compares SPECT images of the two tracers in six subjects: four stroke cases, one transitory ischemic attack case and one normal subject. Technetium-99...

  6. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Taieb, David; Cammilleri, Serge; Lussato, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 05 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-01-15

    Neuro-imaging studies with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in fibromyalgia (FM) patients have reported only limited subcortical hypoperfusion. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT is known to provide better evaluation of areas of high cerebral blood flow and regional metabolic rate. We evaluated a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic patients with FM using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT. The aim of this study was to investigate brain processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 49 years, range 25-63 years; American College of Rheumatology criteria) and ten healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Visual Analogue Scale score for pain was 82{+-}4 at the time of the SPECT study. Compared with control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis, with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. In the present study, performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in the sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective-attentional dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on the two components of pain, we hypothesise that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic strategy and provide objective follow-up of pain processing recovery under treatment. (orig.)

  7. Semi-automatic Epileptic Hot Spot Detection in ECD brain SPECT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Laszlo; Zuhayra, Maaz; Henze, Eberhard

    A method is proposed to process ECD brain SPECT images representing epileptic hot spots inside the brain. For validation 35 ictal —interictal patient image data were processed. The images were registered by a normalized mutual information method, then the separation of the suspicious and normal brain areas were performed by two threshold-based segmentations. Normalization between the images was performed by local normal brain mean values. Based on the validation made by two medical physicians, minimal human intervention in the segmentation parameters was necessary to detect all epileptic spots and minimize the number of false spots inside the brain.

  8. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of brain SPECT perfusion in Fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: eric.guedj@ap-hm.fr; Taieb, David [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Cammilleri, Serge [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Lussato, David [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Niboyet, Jean [Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Clinique La Phoceanne, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT at rest, without noxious stiumuli, in a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic FM patients. We performed a voxel-based analysis in comparison to a control group, matched for age and gender. Under such conditions, we made the assumption that significant cerebral perfusion abnormalities could be demonstrated, evidencing altered cerebral processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. The secondary objective was to study the reversibility and the prognostic value of such possible perfusion abnormalities under specific treatment. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 48 yr; range 25-63 yr; ACR criteria) and 10 healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). All brain SPECT were performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. A second SPECT was performed a month later after specific treatment by Ketamine. Compared to control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. We also found that a medial frontal and anterior cingulate hypoperfusions were highly predictive (PPV=83%; NPV=91%) of non-response on Ketamine, and that only responders showed significant modification of brain perfusion, after treatment. In the present study performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on both components of pain, we hypothesize that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic

  9. Pattern of brain blood perfusion in tinnitus patients using technetium-99m SPECT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mahmoudian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Tinnitus is associated with an increased activity in central auditory system as demonstrated by neuroimaging studies. Brain perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was done to understand the pattern of brain blood perfusion of tinnitus subjects and find the areas which are mostly abnormal in these patients. Materials and Methods: A number of 122 patients with tinnitus were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. They underwent SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain, and the images were fused to find the regions with abnormal perfusion. Results: SPECT scan results were abnormal in 101 patients (83%. Most patients had bilateral abnormal perfusion (N = 65, 53.3%, and most subjects had abnormality in middle-temporal gyrus (N = 83, 68% and temporoparietal cortex (N = 46, 37.7%. Patients with multifocal involvement had the least mean age than other 2 groups (patients with no abnormality and unifocal abnormality (P value = 0.045. Conclusions: Brain blood perfusion pattern differs in patient with tinnitus than others. These patients have brain perfusion abnormality, mostly in auditory gyrus (middle temporal and associative cortex (temporoparietal cortex. Multifocal abnormalities might be due to more cognitive and emotional brain centers involvement due to tinnitus or more stress and anxiety of tinnitus in the young patients.

  10. Normal cerebral perfusion of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Evaluation by an anatomical standardization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Ryuta; Koyama, Masamichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Seiro; Sato, Kazunori; Ono, Shuichi; Goto, Ryoi; Sato, Tachio; Fukuda, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer

    1996-01-01

    A single photon emitter labeled tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD), has now been used for rCBF studies with SPECT. However, normal distribution pattern of this agent in the brain still remains unclear. Therefore, the specific purpose of this study was to investigate the normal distribution pattern of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT image. Regional cerebral distribution was measured with SPECT and 984{+-}17 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in ten normal subjects. During the SPECT measurement, subjects were placed comfortably in a supine position with their eyes closed. Each SPECT image was anatomically standardized using a computerized brain atlas system of Roland et al. (HBA: Human Brain Atlas) and X-CT image. Anatomically standardized SPECT images were globally normalized to 100 count/voxel. Then, the mean and SD images of brain SPECT were calculated voxel-by-voxel basis. The highest radioactivity was found in the medial aspect of the occipital lobe. The results indicate that the normal distribution pattern of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in the human brain may be not simply reflect the regional cerebral blood flow. (author).

  11. Tc-99m-bicisate (ECD)-brain-SPECT in rapidly progressive dementia; Hirn-SPECT mit Tc-99m-Bicisat (ECD) bei rasch progredientem dementiellen Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marienhagen, J.; Eilles, C. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Weingaertner, U.; Blaha, L. [Bezirkskrankenhaus Mainkofen (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik; Zerr, I.; Poser, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    1999-07-01

    We present a 61-year-old male patient with progressive dementia. A brain SPECT with Tc-99m-bicisate was performed for confirmation of clinically suspected Alzheimer-dementia. At the time of the SPECT-investigation marked apraxia and aphasia besides severe dementia were present. Electrophysiological as well as anatomical neuroimaging findings showed non-diagnostic alterations. SPECT revealed distinct perfusion defects, which made Alzheimer Dementia unlikely. The further course of the patient was determined by rapidly progressive deterioration with development of akinetic mutism. Thereafter, increased levels of neuron-specific enolase as well as 14-3-3 proteins were found in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The patient finally died with signs of cerebral decortication. Due to the clinical course and the CSF-findings the patient's final diagnosis was Creutzfeld-Jakob-disease, nevertheless no autopsy was performed. The presented case report underscores the clinical utility of perfusion brain SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementias. (orig.) [German] Wir berichten ueber einen 61jaehrigen Patienten mit progredientem dementiellen Syndrom, der unter der Verdachtsdiagnose einer Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT) zur Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung mit TC-99m-Bicisat (ECD) vorgestellt wurde. Zum Untersuchungszeitpunkt bestanden neben dem Vollbild einer Demenz eine ausgepraegte Apraxie und Aphasie bei unspezifischen Veraenderungen im EEG sowie der neuroradiologischen Bildgebung. In der Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung fanden sich fuer eine DAT untypische ausgedehnte, vorwiegend rechtshemisphaerische Perfusionsstoerungen. Im weiteren Verlauf rasche Progredienz des Krankheitsbildes mit Entwicklung eines akinetischen Mutismus sowie Nachweis erhoehter Werte der neuronspezifischen Enolase und des 14-3-3-Proteins im Liquor. Der Patient verstarb schliesslich unter dem Bild einer Decortication. Aufgrund des klinischen Verlaufs sowie der Liquorbefunde wurde, da eine autoptische Befundsicherung

  12. Visual and semi-quantitative assessment of brain tumors using (201)Tl-SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Ayumi; Otsuka, Hideki; Nose, Hayato; Otomi, Yoichi; Terazawa, Kaori; Harada, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of (201)Tl-SPECT in differentiating benign from malignant brain tumors. Eighty-eight patients (44 males and 44 females) with 58 high-grade (WHO grade III-IV) and 30 low-grade (WHO grade I-II) tumors were evaluated with (201)Tl-SPECT. (1) Visual assessment was performed by board-certificated radiologists using (201)Tl-SPECT. Tumors were classified in two groups (Tl-positive and Tl-negative) and scored using the five grade evaluation system. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed in the Tl-positive group. (2) Semi-quantitative assessment involved measurement of early and delayed (201)Tl uptake, and the retention index (RI) was applied as follows: RI=delayed uptake ratio/early uptake ratio. Three combinations of RI using mean and maximum values of the region of interest were calculated. (1) Seventy-four Tl-positive and 14 Tl-negative tumors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) estimated by three radiologists exceeded a value of 0.7. The value was greater when estimated by the more experienced radiologist. (2) In all RIs, the difference of RI between high-grade tumors and low-grade tumors was statistically significant. A visual and semi-quantitative assessment using (201)Tl-SPECT was found to be useful for differentiating benign from malignant brain tumors.

  13. Thallium SPECT-based stereotactic targeting for brain tumor biopsies. A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemm, S; Vayssiere, Nathalie; Zanca, Michel; Ravel, Patrice; Coubes, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    MR or CT images acquired under stereotactic conditions are often used to plan and guide brain tumor biopsies. The objective of this study was to design and test a methodology to increase target selection reliability by acquiring stereotactic 201Tl-SPECT data and by integrating them into the surgical planning. The three-headed Philips gamma camera system (Prism 3000) was adapted to stereotactic acquisitions (patient pallet, headholder). A software was developed for the stereotactic target determination based on SPECT images (pixel with the highest metabolic activity inside the tumor). The whole system accuracy was tested with the Elekta phantom adapted to SPECT imaging. The methodology was applied to one brain tumor biopsy. Comparison of the specific phantom coordinates evaluated in SPECT with the theoretical ones did not reveal any significant difference. In this way, our methodology including our homemade software (identification of the stereotactic frame, determination of the pixel with highest metabolic activity within the tumor in the stereotactic coordinate system) was validated. No significant geometric deformations were detected. Clinical feasibility was confirmed in 1 patient with a brain glioma. This study illustrates the feasibility and the accuracy of SPECT acquisitions with the stereotactic Leksell G-frame. The clinical relevance of this methodology is under evaluation. This definition of the target, based on the point with the highest metabolic activity within the tumor, might lead to improved diagnosis in biopsies and patient management. Furthermore, it might prepare the future for therapy aimed at delivering a therapeutic agent within a tumor. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  15. sup 201 Tl SPECT for evaluation of brain tumors as compared with sup 123 I-IMP SPECT and sup 18 F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriuchi, Noboru (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    Clinical usefulness of {sup 201}Tl SPECT for evaluation of brain tumors was studied in comparison with {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET. {sup 201}Tl SPECT and {sup 123}IMP SPECT were performed in 73 patients with brain neoplasm (group 1) and 15 patients with non-tumor cerebral diseases (group 2). Among them, 31 patients in group 1 and 5 patients in group 2 received {sup 18}F-FDG PET. SPECT was done with a ring type machine (HEADTOME SET011) and PET with a neuro PET (PCT H1). Forty-eight of 73 (65.8%) patients in group 1 showed increased accumulation of {sup 201}Tl in tumor site, whereas only 9 (12.3%) patients showed increased radioactivity of {sup 123}I-IMP in the lesion. Eighteen of 31 (58.1%) patients with neoplasm demonstrated increased regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRgl) in the lesion. Only two out of 15 (13.3%) patients with non-tumor lesion demonstrated increased accumulation of {sup 201}Tl. None of them showed accumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP or increased rCMRgl. Patients with malignant neoplasm demonstrated higher uptake of {sup 201}Tl in the lesion than those with benign neoplasm or non-tumor lesions. Post-therapeutic patients with glioblastoma or metastatic tumors showed lower {sup 201}Tl uptake than before therapy. Superimposed images of both {sup 201}Tl and {sup 123}I-IMP resemble rCMRgl functional images, suggesting increased {sup 201}Tl radioactivity in viable tumor tissue with decreased radioactivity in surrounding areas. {sup 201}Tl SPECT is useful for diagnosis of brain tumors and evaluation of effectiveness of therapy or evidence of residual tumor tissue. It may differentiate malignant tumors from benign tumors or non-tumor intracranial diseases including radiation injury and detect tumor recurrence earlier. (author).

  16. Brain perfusion SPECT and EEG findings in Rett syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, R. [Children`s Castle Hospital, Dept. of Child Neurology, Helsinki (Finland); Liewendahl, K.; Nikkinen, P. [Univ. Central Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Laboratory Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Sainio, K.; Riikonen, R.S. [Univ. Central Hospital, Child Neurology, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-01-01

    Thirteen patients (mean age 8.4 + 5.3 years) with Rett syndrome (RS) were studied with EEG and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT. Eleven patients had background abnormalities and 10 patients paroxysmal activity in EEG. Hypoperfusion of varying severity was detected in 11 patients, 7 patients having multiple lesions. Bifrontal hypoperfusion, observed in 6 patients, was the most distinctive finding. Hypoperfusion was observed also in other cortical regions, except for the occipital lobes. There was no correlation between severity of the background abnormality or presence of paroxysmal activity in EEG and grade of hypoperfusion. There was, however, an association between the severity of hypoperfusion and early manifestation of symptoms in patients with RS. Whether this early-onset group of patients represents a different disease entity or only reflects disease variability the basic pathology being the same, is a possibility that deserves further clarification. (au) 37 refs.

  17. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  18. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of brain SPECT perfusion in Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Eric; Taïeb, David; Cammilleri, Serge; Lussato, David; de Laforte, Catherine; Niboyet, Jean; Mundler, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT at rest, without noxious stiumuli, in a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic FM patients. We performed a voxel-based analysis in comparison to a control group, matched for age and gender. Under such conditions, we made the assumption that significant cerebral perfusion abnormalities could be demonstrated, evidencing altered cerebral processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. The secondary objective was to study the reversibility and the prognostic value of such possible perfusion abnormalities under specific treatment. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 48 yr; range 25-63 yr; ACR criteria) and 10 healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 ( ppain care unit. A second SPECT was performed a month later after specific treatment by Ketamine. Compared to control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. We also found that a medial frontal and anterior cingulate hypoperfusions were highly predictive (PPV=83%; NPV=91%) of non-response on Ketamine, and that only responders showed significant modification of brain perfusion, after treatment. In the present study performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on both components of pain, we hypothesize that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic strategy and provide objective follow-up of pain-processing recovery under treatment.

  19. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A; McDonald, Benjamin S; Durko, Heather L; Furenlid, Lars R; Wilson, Donald W; Peterson, Todd E

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 1024 strips on each side gives rise to a detector with over one million pixels. Combining four high-resolution DSSDs into a SPECT system offers an unprecedented space-bandwidth product for the imaging of single-photon emitters. The system consists of two camera heads with two silicon detectors stacked one behind the other in each head. The collimator has a focused pinhole system with cylindrical-shaped pinholes that are laser-drilled in a 250 μm tungsten plate. The unique ability to collect projection data at two magnifications simultaneously allows for multiplexed data at high resolution to be combined with lower magnification data with little or no multiplexing. With the current multi-pinhole collimator design, our SPECT system will be capable of offering high spatial resolution, sensitivity and angular sampling for small field-of-view applications, such as molecular imaging of the mouse brain.

  20. Ophthalmoplegic migraine with reversible thalamic ischemia by Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimer brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Dong Jin; Kang, Sung Soo [Gachon Medical School, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Two patients presented with ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) underwent EEG, Brain-MRI, cerebral angiography, and Tc-99m ECD SPECT during an attack. Follow-up SPECT was performed after neurologic symptoms resolved. In both cases, SPECT during an attack of ophthalmoplegia and headache demonstrated a significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamus to the side of ophthalmoplegia, which was normalized on the follow-up SPECT during a symptom free recovery phase (Lesion to Non-lesion thalamic ratio=1.19 to 0.96 and 1.16 to 0.98, respectively). The other roentgenographic and laboratory findings were normal. These findings are suggestive the ischemia in the perforators of PCA results in third nerve palsy because the portion of oculomotor nerve behind the cavernous sinus derives its blood supply from small perforating branches of the basilar and PCA. Matched ictal hypoperfusion of the thalamus to the site of ophthalmoplegic migraine is suggestive of the ischemic neuropathy as an etiology of OM.

  1. Functional brain abnormalities localized in 55 chronic tinnitus patients: fusion of SPECT coincidence imaging and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Saeid; Saddadi, Fariba; Karimian, Ali Reza; Mirzaee, Mohammad; Ahmadizadeh, Majid; Ghasemikian, Khosro; Gholami, Saeid; Ghoreyshi, Esmaeel; Beyty, Saeid; Shamshiri, Ahmadreza; Madani, Sedighe; Bakaev, Valery; Moradkhani, Seddighe; Raeisali, Gholamreza

    2010-04-01

    Tinnitus is often defined as the perception of sounds or noise in the absence of any external auditory stimuli. The pathophysiology of subjective idiopathic tinnitus remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional brain activities and possible involved cerebral areas in subjective idiopathic tinnitus patients by means of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) coincidence imaging, which was fused with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this cross-sectional study, 56 patients (1 subject excluded) with subjective tinnitus and 8 healthy controls were enrolled. After intravenous injection of 5 mCi F18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), all subjects underwent a brain SPECT coincidence scan, which was then superimposed on their MRIs. In the eight regions of interest (middle temporal, inferotemporal, medial temporal, lateral temporal, temporoparietal, frontal, frontoparietal, and parietal areas), the more pronounced values were represented in medial temporal, inferotemporal, and temporoparietal areas, which showed more important proportion of associative auditory cortices in functional attributions of tinnitus than primary auditory cortex. Brain coincidence SPECT scan, when fused on MRI is a valuable technique in the assessment of patients with tinnitus and could show the significant role of different regions of central nervous system in functional attributions of tinnitus.

  2. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  3. Three modality image registration of brain SPECT/CT and MR images for quantitative analysis of dopamine transporter imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yuzuho; Takeda, Yuta; Hara, Takeshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Matsusako, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuki; Hosoya, Kazuhiko; Nihei, Tsutomu; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Important features in Parkinson's disease (PD) are degenerations and losses of dopamine neurons in corpus striatum. 123I-FP-CIT can visualize activities of the dopamine neurons. The activity radio of background to corpus striatum is used for diagnosis of PD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The specific activity can be observed in the corpus striatum on SPECT images, but the location and the shape of the corpus striatum on SPECT images only are often lost because of the low uptake. In contrast, MR images can visualize the locations of the corpus striatum. The purpose of this study was to realize a quantitative image analysis for the SPECT images by using image registration technique with brain MR images that can determine the region of corpus striatum. In this study, the image fusion technique was used to fuse SPECT and MR images by intervening CT image taken by SPECT/CT. The mutual information (MI) for image registration between CT and MR images was used for the registration. Six SPECT/CT and four MR scans of phantom materials are taken by changing the direction. As the results of the image registrations, 16 of 24 combinations were registered within 1.3mm. By applying the approach to 32 clinical SPECT/CT and MR cases, all of the cases were registered within 0.86mm. In conclusions, our registration method has a potential in superimposing MR images on SPECT images.

  4. Assessment of SPM in perfusion brain SPECT studies. A numerical simulation study using bootstrap resampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, Deborah; Aguiar, Pablo; Pavía, Javier; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Cot, Albert; Falcón, Carles; Benabarre, Antoni; Lomeña, Francisco; Vieta, Eduard; Ros, Domènec

    2008-07-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) has become the technique of choice to statistically evaluate positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain studies. Nevertheless, only a few methodological studies have been carried out to assess the performance of SPM in SPECT. The aim of this paper was to study the performance of SPM in detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in hypo- and hyperperfused areas in brain SPECT studies. The paper seeks to determine the relationship between the group size and the rCBF changes, and the influence of the correction for degradations. The assessment was carried out using simulated brain SPECT studies. Projections were obtained with Monte Carlo techniques, and a fan-beam collimator was considered in the simulation process. Reconstruction was performed by using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with and without compensation for attenuation, scattering, and spatial variant collimator response. Significance probability maps were obtained with SPM2 by using a one-tailed two-sample t-test. A bootstrap resampling approach was used to determine the sample size for SPM to detect the between-group differences. Our findings show that the correction for degradations results in a diminution of the sample size, which is more significant for small regions and low-activation factors. Differences in sample size were found between hypo- and hyperperfusion. These differences were larger for small regions and low-activation factors, and when no corrections were included in the reconstruction algorithm.

  5. Functional brain substrate of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: A brain SPECT multidimensional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget-Agius, Catherine; Boyer, Laurent; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe; Guedj, Eric

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functional brain substrate of quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia. Participants comprised 130 right-handed patients with schizophrenia who underwent whole-brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with (99m)Tc-labeled ethylcysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) for exploring correlations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with the eight dimensions score of the Schizophrenia Quality of Life questionnaire (S-QoL 18). A significant positive correlation was found between the global index of the S-QoL 18 and rCBF in the right superior temporal sulcus and between psychological well-being dimension and rCBF in Brodmann area (BA)6, BA8, BA9, and BA10 and between self-esteem dimension and rCBF in striatum and between family relationship dimension and rCBF in BA1, BA2, BA3, BA4, BA8, BA22, BA40, BA42 and BA44 and between relationship with friends dimension and rCBF in BA44 and between physical well-being dimension and rCBF in parahippocampal gyrus, and finally between autonomy dimension and rCBF in cuneus and precuneus. A significant negative correlation was found between resilience dimension and rCBF in precuneus and between sentimental life dimension and rCBF in BA10. Our findings provide neural correlates of QoL. Brain regions involved in cognitions, emotional information processing and social cognition underlie the different QoL dimensions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET findings in a patient with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Kim, Sang Jin [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Ballism is a very rare presentation in association with hyperthyroidism. We describe a 22-year-old lady with episodes of recurrent ballism and hyperthyroidism. A 22-year-old lady was admitted to Neurology department because of sudden development of vigorous involuntary movement and dysarthria. She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism at the age 12 and treated irregularly. She arrived at the emergency room because of sudden onset of involuntary movement. Computed tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain was normal. Serum levels of thyroid hormone were increased (Free T4 3.15 ng/dl; normal range 0.93-1.71 ng/dl), whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was undetectable. The thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged and exophthalmos was found. She had been given antithyroid medication from local clinic but medicated irregularly. Technetium thyroid scan reveals diffusely enlarged thyroid with increased radioactivity. Radioiodine uptake in 24 hours was 71 %. Brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD reveals asymmetrical perfusion pattern in basal ganglia. Brain PET using F-18 FDG reveals increased metabolism at both caudate nucleus and putamen. She was treated with radioiodine and involuntary movement was improved. There is only few report on ballism associated with hyperthyroidism and no report on functional brain imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET may give useful information about functional status of brain in patients with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism in case of normal anatomical finding on CT/MRI.

  7. PET/SPECT imaging : From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; Tio, Rene A.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)

  8. Cortical neuron loss in post-traumatic higher brain dysfunction using (123)I-iomazenil SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaaki; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    In patients with higher brain dysfunction (HBD) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), diagnostic imaging of cortical neuron loss in the frontal lobes was studied using SPECT with (123)I-iomazenil (IMZ), as a radioligand for central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR). Statistical imaging analysis using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) for (123)I-IMZ SPECT was performed in 17 patients. In all patients with HBD defined by neuropsychological tests, cortical neuron loss was indicated in the bilateral medial frontal lobes in 14 patients (83 %). A comparison between the group of 17 patients and the normal database demonstrated common areas of cortical neuron loss in the bilateral medial frontal lobes involving the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). In an assessment of cortical neuron loss in the frontal medial cortex using the stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) method (level 3), significant cortical neuron loss was observed within bilateral MFG in 9 patients and unilateral MFG in 4, and bilateral ACG in 12 and unilateral ACG in 3. Fourteen patients showed significant cortical neuron loss in bilateral MFG or ACG. In patients with MTBI, HBD seemed to correlate with selective cortical neuron loss within the bilateral MFG or ACG where the responsible lesion could be. 3D-SSP and SEE level 3 analysis for (123)I-IMZ SPECT could be valuable for diagnostic imaging of HBD after MTBI.

  9. Increased cerebral blood flow in MELAS shown by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, N.J.; Tsay, D.G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Liu, R.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (Taiwan); Li, J.Y.; Kong, K.W. [Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Kwok, C.G.; Strauss, H.W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    We report cerebral SPECT studies on two siblings with the syndrome of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT was performed 8, 19 and 30 days after a stroke-like episode in one case and 10 days after a stroke-like episode, 6 h after a partial seizure and as a follow-up study in the other. Increased blood flow was seen in both these patients with stroke-like episodes due to MELAS. The cause of the increased blood flow is uncertain, but it may be related to the decreased pH created by local increase in lactic acid. (orig.)

  10. Clinical correlative evaluation of an iterative method for reconstruction of brain SPECT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio E-mail: fnobili@smartino.ge.it; Vitali, Paolo; Calvini, Piero; Bollati, Francesca; Girtler, Nicola; Delmonte, Marta; Mariani, Giuliano; Rodriguez, Guido

    2001-08-01

    Background: Brain SPECT and PET investigations have showed discrepancies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) when considering data deriving from deeply located structures, such as the mesial temporal lobe. These discrepancies could be due to a variety of factors, including substantial differences in gamma-cameras and underlying technology. Mesial temporal structures are deeply located within the brain and the commonly used Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) technique does not fully take into account either the physical parameters of gamma-cameras or geometry of collimators. In order to overcome these limitations, alternative reconstruction methods have been proposed, such as the iterative method of the Conjugate Gradients with modified matrix (CG). However, the clinical applications of these methods have so far been only anecdotal. The present study was planned to compare perfusional SPECT data as derived from the conventional FBP method and from the iterative CG method, which takes into account the geometrical and physical characteristics of the gamma-camera, by a correlative approach with neuropsychology. Methods: Correlations were compared between perfusion of the hippocampal region, as achieved by both the FBP and the CG reconstruction methods, and a short-memory test (Selective Reminding Test, SRT), specifically addressing one of its function. A brain-dedicated camera (CERASPECT) was used for SPECT studies with {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime in 23 consecutive patients (mean age: 74.2{+-}6.5) with mild (Mini-Mental Status Examination score {>=}15, mean 20.3{+-}3), probable AD. Counts from a hippocampal region in each hemisphere were referred to the average thalamic counts. Results: Hippocampal perfusion significantly correlated with the MMSE score with similar statistical significance (p<0.01) between the two reconstruction methods. Correlation between hippocampal perfusion and the SRT score was better with the CG method (r=0.50 for both hemispheres, p<0

  11. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Gastroenterology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Sias, Alessandro [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Radiology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Marrosu, Francesco [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Neurology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating

  12. Brain SPECT guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment resistant major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shailesh; Chadda, Rakesh K; Kumar, Nand; Bal, C S

    2016-06-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a potential treatment in treatment resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there is no consensus about the exact site of stimulation for rTMS. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offers a potential technique in deciding the site of stimulation. The present study was conducted to assess the difference in outcome of brain SPECT assisted rTMS versus standard protocol of twenty sessions of high frequency rTMS as add on treatment in 20 patients with treatment resistant MDD, given over a period of 4 weeks. Thirteen subjects (group I) received high frequency rTMS over an area of hypoperfusion in the prefrontal cortex, as identified on SPECT, whereas 7 subjects (group II) were administered rTMS in the left dorsoslateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area. Improvement was monitored using standardized instruments. Patients in the group I showed a significantly better response compared to those in the group II. In group I, 46% of the subjects were responders on MADRS, 38% on BDI and 77% on CGI. The parallel figures of responders in Group II were 0% on MADRS, 14% on BDI and 43% on CGI. There were no remitters in the study. No significant untoward side effects were noticed. The study had limitations of a small sample size and non-controlled design, and all the subjects were also receiving the standard antidepressant therapy. Administration of rTMS over brain SPECT specified area of hypoperfusion may have a better clinical outcome compared to the standard protocol.

  13. In vivo quantification by SPECT of [{sup 123}I] ADAM bound to serotonin transporters in the brains of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, X.-X. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hwang, J.-J. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.-F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chi-Mei Foundation Medical Center, Yungkang City 710, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-C. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw; Chou, Y.-T. [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Tu, K.-Y. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mackey Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan 104 (China); Wey, S.-P. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333 (China); Ting Gann [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao- Yuan 335, Taiwan (China)

    2004-11-01

    Background: A novel radioiodine ligand [{sup 123}I] ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine) has been suggested as a promising serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent for the central nervous system. In this study, the biodistribution of SERTs in the rabbit brain was investigated using [{sup 123}I] ADAM and mapping images of the same animal produced by both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and microautoradiography. A semiquantification method was adopted to deduce the optimum time for SPECT imaging, whereas the input for a simple fully quantitative tracer kinetic model was provided from arterial blood sampling data. Methods: SPECT imaging was performed on female rabbits postinjection of 185 MBq [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The time-activity curve obtained from the SPECT images was used to quantify the SERTs, for which the binding potential was calculated from the kinetic modeling of [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The kinetic data were analyzed by the nonlinear least squares method. The effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on rabbits were also evaluated. After scanning, the same animal was sacrificed and the brain was removed for microautoradiography. Regions-of-interest were analyzed using both SPECT and microautoradiography images. The SPECT images were coregistered manually with the corresponding microautoradiography images for comparative study. Results: During the time interval 90-100 min postinjection, the peak specific binding levels in different brain regions were compared and the brain stem was shown to have the highest activity. The target-to-background ratio was 1.89{+-}0.02. Similar studies with fluoxetine and PCA showed a background level for SERT occupation. Microautoradiography demonstrated a higher level of anatomical details of the [{sup 123}I] ADAM distribution than that obtained by SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain with

  14. Evolution of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT and brain mapping in a patient presenting with echolalia and palilalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, R A; Saerens, J; De Deyn, P P; Verslegers, W; Marien, P; Vandevivere, J

    1991-08-01

    A 78-yr-old woman presented with transient echolalia and palilalia. She had suffered from Parkinson's disease for 2 yr. Routine laboratory examination showed hypotonic hyponatremia, but was otherwise unremarkable. Brain mapping revealed a bifrontal delta focus, more pronounced on the right. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain with technetium-99m labeled d,l hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO), performed during the acute episode showed relative frontoparietal hypoactivity. Brain mapping performed after disappearance of the echolalia and palilalia, which persisted only for 1 day, was normal. By contrast, SPECT findings persisted for more than 3 wk. Features of particular interest in the presented patient are the extensive defects seen on brain SPECT despite the absence of morphologic lesions, the congruent electrophysiologic changes and their temporal relationship with the clinical evolution.

  15. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo, E-mail: juarezbarbara@hotmail.co [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Radiology; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Neurology

    2010-04-15

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  16. Normal cerebral perfusion of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. Evaluation by an anatomical standardization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Masamichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Ito, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Single photon labeled tracer {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) has been used for rCBF studies by SPECT. However, normal perfusion pattern of this agent still remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate normal {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT image voxel by voxel. Eighteen male subjects without any prior or present history of medical illness participated in this study. All SPECT images were globally normalized to 100 count/voxel. Each subject had an X-ray CT scan at the same day of SPECT measurement. All subjects had normal X-ray CT scans. The standard anatomical structures of the computerized brain atlas of Roland et al. were fitted to X-ray CT images of a subject by linear and non-linear parameters. These parameters were subsequently used to transform SPECT images of the subject. After the anatomical standardization, mean and SD images of eight standardized images were calculated voxel-by-voxel basis. In the mean image, following structures showed relatively higher radioactivity; the putamen, the cerebellum, and the frontal lobe. In addition, the occipital lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and the putamen showed large degree of SD. Anatomical standardization of SPECT images may be useful as a reference to diagnose and evaluate various brain disorders. (author).

  17. A new method for brain functional study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Iio, Masahiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    The distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in brain is in proportion to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and can be interpreted as functional mapping. To evaluate local changes in CBF during neuropsychological testing, we developed a new subtraction method using HMPAO and SPECT. With patients resting, 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected and the first acquisition was performed, lasting a total of 10 minutes. Soon after the end of the first scan, patients were requested to undergo Buschke's memory test or to repeat words or numbers (repetition test). During the task, an additional 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected using the same position as in the first scan, and a second acquisition was started. A functional image was made by subtracting the image in the first scan from that in the second. In two patients with transient global amnesia and two normal controls, Buschke's memory test was performed in combination with SPECT. A relative increase in activity was seen in the thalamus, subthalamic area, hippocampus, and some cortial areas, apparently reflecting local functional change induced by the memory task. In two patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease with severe memory loss, no increase was detected in these areas. In one patient with aphasia, the repetition test with SPECT was correlated with the WADA test and dichotic listening test, and good agreement was obtained. In conclusion, our new SPECT technique is useful in detecting alterations in rCBF during mental activity and can be applied to neurophysiological studies. (author).

  18. SPECT imaging for brain improvement quantification in a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Bardes, Ignasi; Jacas, Carlos; Jubany, Lluis; Lorenzo-Bosquet, Carles; Cuberas-Borrós, Gemma; Vilardell-Tarres, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare recessive autosomal disease caused by mutations of the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene (CYP27), which leads to reduced synthesis of bile acids, particularly chenodeoxycholic acid (Cali et al, J Biol Chem. 1991;266:7779-7783; Gallus et al, Neurol Sci. 2006;27:143-149). The disease is characterized by progressive neurologic dysfunction due to accumulation of cholestanol in neurologic tissues (Moghadasian et al, Arch Neurol. 2002;59:527-529; Selva-O'Callaghan et al, Rheumatology. 2007;46:1212-1213). Long-term treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid can arrest or even reverse progression of the disease (Pierre et al, J Inherit Metab Dis. In press).Brain SPECT with 740 MBq of Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer, using a double-head gamma camera (Siemens E.cam) with high-resolution, low-energy parallel collimators was performed in our patient at onset and 2 years after starting chenodeoxycholic acid treatment. SPECT acquisitions were performed using a 360-degree orbit, 1 image/30 seg/3 degree, and 128 × 128 matrix. Reconstruction was by means of filtered back-projection, Butterworth 5/0.25, without attenuation correction. Pre- and post-SPECT dicom images were reoriented into Talairach space using NeuroGam (Segami Corporation). To visually identify abnormal perfusion regions, volume render brain image was computed, where abnormal perfusion regions were found by comparing with age-matched normal database, and Brodmann areas (BA) were quantified. Pre- versus post-treatment changes were computed by means of relative percentage between counts. Post-treatment SPECT showed better perfusion than pretreatment SPECT with an increase between 5% and 10% in frontal cortex (BA 9, BA 24, BA 32, BA 46, BA 47), parietal cortex (BA 5, BA 31), and temporal cortex (BA 20, BA 22, BA 28, BA 36, BA 37, BA 38), and with an increase of more than 10% in frontal cortex (BA 45) and parietal cortex (BA 23). This case illustrates the benefit of bile acid therapy for

  19. Brain perfusion SPECT with Brodmann areas analysis in differentiating frontotemporal dementia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the known validity of clinical diagnostic criteria, significant overlap of clinical symptoms between Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subtypes exists in several cases, resulting in great uncertainty of the diagnostic boundaries. We evaluated the perfusion between FTD subtypes using brain perfusion (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT with Brodmann areas (BA) mapping. NeuroGam software was applied on single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) studies for the semi-quantitative evaluation of perfusion in BA and the comparison with the software's normal database. We studied 91 consecutive FTD patients: 21 with behavioural variants (bvFTD), 39 with language variants (lvFTD) [12 with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), 27 with semantic dementia (SD)], and 31 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)/corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Stepwise logistic regression analyses showed that the BA 28L and 32R could independently differentiate bvFTD from lvFTD, while the BA 8R and 25R could discriminate bvFTD from SD and PNFA, respectively. Additionally, BA 7R and 32R were found to discriminate bvFTD from CBD/PSP. The only BA that could differentiate SD from PNFA was 6L. BA 6R and 20L were found to independently differentiate CBD/PSP from lvFTD. Moreover, BA 20L and 22R could discriminate CBD/PSP from PNFA, while BA 6R, 20L and 45R were found to independently discriminate CBD/PSP from SD. Brain perfusion SPECT with BA mapping can be a useful additional tool in differentiating FTD variants by improving the definition of brain areas that are specifically implicated, resulting in a more accurate differential diagnosis in atypical or uncertain forms of FTD.

  20. Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, T [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Fleming, J S [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S M A [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Kemp, P M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-21

    Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

  1. Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, T.; Fleming, J. S.; Hoffmann, S. M. A.; Kemp, P. M.

    2005-11-01

    Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

  2. A CLINICAL STUDY FOR EVALUATING EARLY RADIOTHERAPY EFFECT IN PATIENTS WITH BRAIN TUMOR USING 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; ZHANG Yong-xue; ZHANG Cheng-gang; LAN Sheng-min; WANG Zhong-min; ZHANG Xiu-fu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early radiotherapy effect using 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT in patients with brain tumors. Methods: Twenty-one patients with brain tumors who were treated by radiotherapy were studied. KPS grade, tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT , tumor size on MRI, and ratio of T/N (tumor counts/sec over normal brain tissue counts/sec) were investigated before ,during and after radiotherapy. Results: The average tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT and MRI was 11.34(5.88 cm2, 9.46(5.66 cm2, respectively before radiotherapy. The tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT was not in accordance with to that on MRI (P<0.05). KPS grade, tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT and ratio of T/N had significance differences before, during and after radiotherapy (P<0.05), but the tumor size on MRI imaging had no significance differences before, during and after radiotherapy (P>0.05). The rate of symptom improvement was 80% during radiotherapy and 100% after radiotherapy. The rates of imaging remission based on the brain tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT, MRI and T/N were 75%, 15%, and 80%, respectively during radiotherapy. The agreement rates between imaging remission diagnosed by those three methods and symptom improvement were 70%, 40%, and 60% respectively during radiotherapy. The rates of imaging remission based on the brain tumor sizes on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT, MRI and T/N were 100%, 25%, and 95% respectively after radiotherapy. The agreement rates between imaging remission diagnosed by those three methods and symptoms improvement were 100%, 20%, and 95% respectively after radiotherapy. Conclusion: The tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT is a valuable tool for evaluating early radiotherapy effect of brain tumor in process of radiotherapy. T/N is not a feasible method in evaluating radiotherapy effect of brain tumor because it may show elevation unrelated to the curative effect during radiotherapy.

  3. Uptake of SPECT radiopharmaceuticals in neocortical brain cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, B.M. de; Royen, E.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The uptake, retention and uptake antagonism of /sup 201/Tl-DDC, /sup 201/Tl-Cl, /sup 123/I-IMP, /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO and /sup 99m/Tc-O4/sup -/ were compared in rat neocortex cultures. /sup 201/Tl-DDC and /sup 123/I-IP revealed the highest uptake of radioactivity in the cultures. /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO and /sup 123/I-IMP showed the highest retention of radioactivity within the tissue in washout experiments. Blocking of bioelectric activity by tetrodotoxin did not significantly affect the uptake of the radiopharmaceuticals (RPHA). Inhibition of Na K ATPase by ouabain inhibited the uptake of /sup 201/Tl-Cl (77%) and /sup 201/Tl-DDC (27%). Imipramine showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect on /sup 123/I-IMP uptake in comparison with the effect on other RPHA. /sup 99m/Tc-O4/sup -/ was not concentrated within the cultured tissue. Under the in vitro conditions used in this study, the various RPHA were characterised by distinct differences in their interaction with cortical brain tissue.

  4. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Kim, Hahn Young; Roh, Hong Gee; Han, Seol Heui [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr {approx} 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1{approx}9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI.

  5. In-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. Clinical significance in evaluating acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinuma, Kunihiko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-02-01

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated that leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the progression of ischemic cellular damage or post perfusion brain injury. However, only a few clinical studies have been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of leukocyte accumulation in the ischemic brain tissue. Seventy six patients (49 men, 27 women; mean age: 65.5{+-}13.9 years) with acute ischemic stroke were studied by leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. A diagnosis included cardioembolism (n=46), atherothrombotic infarction (n=24), TIA (n=3) and lacuna (n=3). Immediately after the CBF study using Tc-99m-ECD (600 MBq), indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes were injected. A brain scan for leukocytes was performed 48 hours later. The leukocyte-SPECT study was made 11.1{+-}7.7 days after the onset of stroke. Regional accumulation of leukocytes in the ischemic tissue was evaluated both by visual assessment and by measuring the hemispheric asymmetry index for leukocyte (AI-leuko), and was evaluated by comparison with variable factors including age, gender, infarction size, hemorrhagic transformation, timing of study after the onset, type of stroke and functional outcome. Of the 61 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 2 weeks of onset, 28 patients showed the accumulation of leukocytes in the central zone of ischemia. Six of 7 patients with repeated studies showed a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with time after the onset. Factors significantly associated with the higher accumulation of leukocyte included cardioembolic stroke, larger size of infarct, presence of hemorrhagic transformation and significant reduction in flow. In the 61 patients within 2 weeks of onset, the functional outcome was significantly correlated with the accumulation of leukocyte (p<0.001). The accumulation of leukocytes was seen more in patients with embolic stroke, larger infarction, and hemorrhagic transformation. The higher accumulation

  6. Brain imaging with sup 123 I-IMP-SPECT in migraine between attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlake, H.P.; Boettger, I.G.G.; Grotemeyer, K.H.; Husstedt, I.W.

    1989-06-01

    {sup 123}I-IMP-SPECT brain imaging was performed in patients with classic migraine (n = 5) and migraine accompagnee (n = 18) during the headache-free interval. A regional reduction of tracer uptake into brain was observed in all patients with migraine accompagnee, while in patients with classic migraine only one case showed an area of decreased activity. The most marked alteration was found in a patient with persisting neurological symptoms (complicated migraine). In most cases the areas of decreased tracer uptake corresponded to headache localization as well as to topography of neurologic symptoms during migraine attacks. It may be concluded that migraine attacks occur in connection with exacerbations of preexisting changes of cerebral autoregulation due to endogenous or exogenous factors.

  7. Functional improvement after carotid endarterectomy: demonstrated by gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, G. E.; Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, D. G.; Moon, D. H. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Scientific documentation of neurologic improvement following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has not been established. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate whether CEA performed for the internal carotid artery flow lesion improves gait and cerebrovascular hemodynamic status in patients with gait disturbance. We prospectively performed pre- and postCEA gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT (Acz-SPECT) with Tc-99m ECD in 91 patients (M/F: 81/10, mean age: 64.1 y) who had gait disturbance before receiving CEA. Gait performance was assessed using a Vicon 370 motion analyzer. The gait improvement after CEA was correlated to cerebrovascular hemodynamic change as well as symptom duration. 12 hemiparetic stroke patients (M/F=9/3, mean age: 51 y) who did not receive CEA as a control underwent gait analysis twice in a week interval to evaluate whether repeat testing of gait performance shows learning effect. Of 91 patients, 73 (80%) patients showed gait improvement (change of gait speed > 10%) and 42 (46%) showed marked improvement (change of gait speed > 20%), but no improvement was observed in control group at repeat test. Post-operative cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement was noted in 49 (54%) of 91 patients. There was marked gait improvement in patients group with cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement compared to no change group (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement and cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement were noted in 53% and 61% of the patient who had less than 3 month history of symptom compared to 31% and 24% of the patients who had longer than 3 months, respectively (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement was obtained in patients who had improvement of cerebrovascular hemodynamic status on Acz-SPECT after CEA. These results suggest functional improvement such as gait can result from the improved perfusion of misery perfusion area, which is viable for a longer period compared to literatures previously reported.

  8. Cerebrovascular disease in newborn infants: report of three cases with clinical follow-up and brain SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana L. de; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria; Vale-Cavalcanti, Mariza; Etchebehere, Elba C.S.C.; Camargo, Edwaldo E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    1999-07-01

    The clinical and neurological findings of three neonates with the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease are reported. The neuropsychological evaluation disclosed impairment of fine motor function, coordination, language, perception and behavioral disturbances. Brain SPECT imaging revealed perfusional deficits in the three cases. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the effects of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with brain involvement by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, S.S.; Kao, C.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Huang, W.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, J.J.H. [Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medicine University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Chang, C.P. [Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Wang, J.J. [Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-07-01

    Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) was introduced to avoid life-threatening complications in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with brain manifestations; however, the efficacy of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement is still uncertain and needs to be objectively evaluated. We enrolled 15 female SLE patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations in this study. All patients had normal brain MRI and abnormal brain HMPAO-SPECT findings. Follow-up HMPAO-SPECT studies were conducted 2 weeks after MPT. Serum levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and anti-ribosomal P antibodies (anti-P) were measured before and after MPT. Before MPT, 7 patients were positive for ACA and 7 patients were positive for anti-P. After MPT, none of the 15 patients demonstrated positive serologic findings or neuropsychiatric manifestations. Based on the follow up brain HMPAO-SPECT images following MPT, 13 patients showed disappearance of the perfusion defects and 2 patients showed partial recovery of rCBF. Brain HMPAO-SPECT imaging is a logical and objective tool for measuring the effects of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement by determining of changes in rCBF. (orig.)

  10. Ictal and interictal 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT of a MELAS case presented with epilepsy-like visual hallucination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cheng-Yu; Hsiao, Heng-Long; Chen, Shang-Chi; Hung, Guang-Uei; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2012-09-01

    A 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with the syndrome of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). She was referred for Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT because of visual hallucinations, which were suspected to be related to epileptic seizures. Ictal SPECT images showed remarkable hyperperfusion in the left occipital cortex, which returned to near-normal status on the interictal SPECT images after treatment with anticonvulsants. It is very rare to see such an ictal SPECT image of epileptic or epilepsy-like disorders, especially in the setting of MELAS syndrome with visual hallucination.

  11. Ligands for SPECT and PET imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors of the heart and brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H. [and others

    1995-06-01

    Interest in the potential use of cerebral SPECT and PET imaging for determination of the density and activity of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) has been stimulated by the changes in these receptors which occur in many neurological diseases. In addition, the important involvement of mAChR in modulating negative inotropic cardiac activity suggests that such receptor ligands may have important applications in evaluation of changes which may occur in cardiac disease. In this paper, the properties of several key muscarinic receptor ligands being developed or which have been used for clinical SPECT and PET are discussed. In addition, the ORNL development of the new iodinated IQNP ligand based on QNB and the results of in vivo biodistribution studies in rats, in vitro competitive binding studies and ex vivo autoradiographic experiments are described. The use of radioiodinated IQNP may offer several advantages in comparison to IQNB because of its easy and high yield preparation and high brain uptake and the potential usefulness of the {open_quotes}partial{close_quotes} subtype selective IONP isomers. We also describe the development of new IQNP-type analogues which offer the opportunity for radiolabeling with positron-emitting radioisotopes (carbon-11, fluorine-18 and bromine-76) for potential use with PET.

  12. Clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0{+-}4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22{+-}0.09>0.87{+-}0.22 p<0.01). The lenticular nuclear uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.26{+-}0.15>1.02{+-}0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)

  13. Segmentation of the Striatum from MR Brain Images to Calculate the -TRODAT-1 Binding Ratio in SPECT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Fen Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of regional -TRODAT-1 binding ratio in the striatum regions in SPECT images is essential for differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Defining the region of the striatum in the SPECT image is the first step toward success in the quantification of the TRODAT-1 binding ratio. However, because SPECT images reveal insufficient information regarding the anatomical structure of the brain, correct delineation of the striatum directly from the SPECT image is almost impossible. We present a method integrating the active contour model and the hybrid registration technique to extract regions from MR T1-weighted images and map them into the corresponding SPECT images. Results from three normal subjects suggest that the segmentation accuracy using the proposed method was compatible with the expert decision but has a higher efficiency and reproducibility than manual delineation. The binding ratio derived by this method correlated well (R2 = 0.76 with those values calculated by commercial software, suggesting the feasibility of the proposed method.

  14. Clinical Evaluation of Brain Perfusion SPECT with Brodmann Areas Mapping in Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on clinical criteria alone may be problematic, while current and future treatments should be administered earlier in order to be more effective. Thus, various disease biomarkers could be used for early detection of AD. We evaluated brain perfusion with 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Brodmann areas (BAs) mapping in mild AD using an automated software (NeuroGam) for the semi-quantitative evaluation of perfusion in BAs and the comparison with the software's normal database. We studied 34 consecutive patients with mild AD: 9 men, 25 women, mean age 70.9 ± 8.1 years, mean Mini-Mental State Examination 22.6 ± 2.5. BAs 25L, 25R, 38L, 38R, 28L, 28R, 36L, and 36R had the lower mean perfusion values, while BAs 31L, 31R, 19R, 18L, 18R, 17L, and 17R had the higher mean values. Compared with healthy subjects of the same age, perfusion values in BAs 25L, 25R, 28R, 28L, 36L, and 36R had the greatest deviations from the healthy sample, while the lowest deviations were found in BAs 32L, 32R, 19R, 24L, 17L, 17R, 18L, and 18R. A percentage of ≥94% of patients had perfusion values more than -2SDs below the mean of healthy subjects in BAs 38R, 38L, 36L, 36R, 23L, 23R, 22L, 44L, 28L, 28R, 25L, and 25R. The corresponding proportion was less than 38% for BAs 11L, 19R, 32L, 32R, 18L, 18R, 24L, and 17R. In conclusion, brain SPECT studies with automated perfusion mapping could be useful as an ancillary tool in daily practice, revealing perfusion impairments in early AD.

  15. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richieri, Raphaelle; Lancon, Christophe [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); Boyer, Laurent [La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Department of Public Health, Marseille (France); Farisse, Jean [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); Colavolpe, Cecile; Mundler, Olivier [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Of the patients, 18 (54.5%) were responders to rTMS and 15 were non-responders (45.5%). There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  16. Transient hyperperfusion after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery on brain perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Oh, Chang Wan; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We designed this study to investigate the transient relative hyperperfusion and its clinical implication after STA (superficial temporal artery) to MCA (middle cerebral artery) bypass surgery in patients with ischemic cerebral stroke. In 25 patients, comprising of 11 moyamoya disease (MMD) and 14 atherosclerotic disease (ASD), STA-MCA anastomosis was performed to distal cortical branches of middle cerebral artery for revascularization. 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT was performed before, 3 days and then 10 days after bypass surgery. Each image was spatially normalized into the standard space and changes of brain perfusion in the entire internal carotid artery (ICA) territory were evaluated using standardized ROIs. In the overall analysis including all patients, the surgery effectively increased ICA territory perfusion on the 3rd and 10th day after bypass surgery in comparison with the preoperative one (p<0.01 and p=0.03). The 3rd day perfusion was significantly higher than the 10th day one (p<0.01), demonstrating transient relative hyperperfusion on the 3rd day compared with the 10th day. In MMD group, such transient increase of perfusion was most severe in the vicinity of the anastomosis site, and more definite than the ASD group. Three patients, 2 ASD and one MMD, showed temporary neurological deterioration (dysphasia or dysarthria) beginning within 3 days after surgery and resolving completely within 2 weeks after onset, without hemorrhage, infarction or other serious defects on CT scan. Their neurological changes correlated well with the focal perfusion changes confirmed by SPECT images on the 3rd and 10th postoperative day. Transient relative hyperperfusion was observed on postoperative 3rd day compared with the 10th day following STA-MCA bypass surgery. In some patients, such transient increase of focal perfusion seems to provoke temporary neurological deterioration.

  17. Including anatomical and functional information in MC simulation of PET and SPECT brain studies. Brain-VISET: a voxel-based iterative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Fuster, Berta; Esteban, Oscar; Thielemans, Kris; Setoain, Xavier; Santos, Andres; Ros, Domenec; Pavia, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation provides a flexible and robust framework to efficiently evaluate and optimize image processing methods in emission tomography. In this work we present Brain-VISET (Voxel-based Iterative Simulation for Emission Tomography), a method that aims to simulate realistic [ (99m) Tc]-SPECT and [ (18) F]-PET brain databases by including anatomical and functional information. To this end, activity and attenuation maps generated using high-resolution anatomical images from patients were used as input maps in a MC projector to simulate SPECT or PET sinograms. The reconstructed images were compared with the corresponding real SPECT or PET studies in an iterative process where the activity inputs maps were being modified at each iteration. Datasets of 30 refractory epileptic patients were used to assess the new method. Each set consisted of structural images (MRI and CT) and functional studies (SPECT and PET), thereby allowing the inclusion of anatomical and functional variability in the simulation input models. SPECT and PET sinograms were obtained using the SimSET package and were reconstructed with the same protocols as those employed for the clinical studies. The convergence of Brain-VISET was evaluated by studying the behavior throughout iterations of the correlation coefficient, the quotient image histogram and a ROI analysis comparing simulated with real studies. The realism of generated maps was also evaluated. Our findings show that Brain-VISET is able to generate realistic SPECT and PET studies and that four iterations is a suitable number of iterations to guarantee a good agreement between simulated and real studies.

  18. Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: a drastic improvement in brain perfusion by antiplatelet therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Uchino, Akira; Kudo, Sho [Dept. of Radiology, Saga Medical School (Japan); Matsui, Makoto; Kuroda, Yasuo [Dept. of Neurology, Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) with repeated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple cerebral infarcts and ischemic changes in the cerebral white matter. Cerebral angiographies showed no abnormalities. Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD) brain SPECT showed multiple decreased perfusion areas, which were more extensive than the lesions demonstrated on MRI. After treatment with an antiplatelet agent, the patient subsequently recovered from the TIAs. Although no interval changes were observed by MRI after therapy, follow-up Tc-99m-ECD SPECT revealed a marked improvement in brain perfusion. This is the first imaging report of remarkable post-therapy improvement in brain perfusion in APS cases. (orig.)

  19. Amnesia syndrome following left anterior thalamic infarction; with intrahemispheric and crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis on brain SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. H.; Hong, S. B.; Roh, J. K.

    1994-01-01

    We report a 61-year-old right-handed man developing disturbance of memory after a discrete thalamic infarction. Neuropsychological assessment revealed deficits in memory with retrograde and anterograde components, especially for verbal material. Brain MRI showed a left anterior thalamic infarction with normal angiographic findings. Despite the small lesion in the thalamus, he showed prolonged memory disturbance and a Brain SPECT image revealed decreased uptake in the ipsilateral fronto-temporo-parietal cortex and contralateral cerebellum. This diaschisis, a phenomenon caused by disconnection of the neural pathway helped us to evaluate the functional state of the patient and this imaging technique was valuable for obtaining to get more information for the evaluation of the neurological state and neuronal connections. In conclusion our findings correspond well with the understanding of amnesia as a disconnection syndrome because of the evidence of diaschisis on the Brain SPECT image. PMID:7702792

  20. Impact of extraneous mispositioned events on motion-corrected brain SPECT images of freely moving animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelis, Georgios I., E-mail: georgios.angelis@sydney.edu.au; Ryder, William J.; Bashar, Rezaul; Meikle, Steven R. [Faculty of Health Sciences and Brain and Mind Research Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Fulton, Roger R. [Faculty of Health Sciences and Brain and Mind Research Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Medical Physics, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging of freely moving small animals would allow a wide range of important neurological processes and behaviors to be studied, which are normally inhibited by anesthetic drugs or precluded due to the animal being restrained. While rigid body motion of the head can be tracked and accounted for in the reconstruction, activity in the torso may confound brain measurements, especially since motion of the torso is more complex (i.e., nonrigid) and not well correlated with that of the head. The authors investigated the impact of mispositioned events and attenuation due to the torso on the accuracy of motion corrected brain images of freely moving mice. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a realistic voxelized mouse phantom and a dual compartment phantom were performed. Each phantom comprised a target and an extraneous compartment which were able to move independently of each other. Motion correction was performed based on the known motion of the target compartment only. Two SPECT camera geometries were investigated: a rotating single head detector and a stationary full ring detector. The effects of motion, detector geometry, and energy of the emitted photons (hence, attenuation) on bias and noise in reconstructed brain regions were evaluated. Results: The authors observed two main sources of bias: (a) motion-related inconsistencies in the projection data and (b) the mismatch between attenuation and emission. Both effects are caused by the assumption that the orientation of the torso is difficult to track and model, and therefore cannot be conveniently corrected for. The motion induced bias in some regions was up to 12% when no attenuation effects were considered, while it reached 40% when also combined with attenuation related inconsistencies. The detector geometry (i.e., rotating vs full ring) has a big impact on the accuracy of the reconstructed images, with the full ring detector being more

  1. Presentation of regional cerebral blood flow in amphetamine abusers by [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-HMPAO brain SPECT. [Hexamethylpropyleneamine oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.H.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H. (Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ([sup 99]Tc[sup m]-HMPAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in amphetamine abusers. Twenty-one amphetamine abusers were included and [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-HMPAO brain SPECT performed to evaluate rCBF. The drug-using periods ranged from 1 month to several years. The demonstrated neuropsychogenic symptoms and signs of the abusers were from normal presentation to various neurologic complications. The brain SPECT scans were interpreted visually as either normal or abnormal. The degree of abnormality was classified into mild or severe. The results revealed that (a) most SPECT studies in abusers show small defects (95%, 20/21 cases); 71% (15/21) of cases revealed multiple defects over both hemispheres (classified as severe); 24% (5/21) of the cases had focal defects (classified as mild); and only one case (5%, 1/21) demonstrated a normal SPECT finding; (b) the degree of abnormality on SPECT scans was not related to the dose and duration of drug use or the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs. In conclusion, [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-HMPAO brain SPECT is a sensitive but not specific test for neuropsychogenic abnormalities associated with amphetamine abuse. (Author).

  2. Compartment analysis of {sup 123}I-iomazenil brain SPECT in patients with moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Shoki; Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Maruoka, Shin; Abe, Yoetsu

    1999-12-01

    We investigated 11 patients with moyamoya disease about {sup 123}I-Iomazenil kinetics in the brain using three-compartment, two-parameter model. The transition rate constant (K1) from the blood to the brain and the binding potential (BP) of the benzodiazepine to the receptors were calculated for every ROI (right and left side of cerebellum, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe; 10 ROIs a case). The K1 value correlated with BP value significantly, but not so closely (r=0.639). And there is no significant difference in BP valued among low-K1 group (mean (of K1)-S.D.{<=}K1{<=}mean) and high-K1 group (meanSPECT presents an important information about the viability of the hypoperfused area in moyamoya disease patients' brain. (author)

  3. A Computer-Aided Analysis Method of SPECT Brain Images for Quantitative Treatment Monitoring: Performance Evaluations and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wentao; Huang, Qiu; Wan, Jieqing; Huang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The objective and quantitative analysis of longitudinal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are significant for the treatment monitoring of brain disorders. Therefore, a computer aided analysis (CAA) method is introduced to extract a change-rate map (CRM) as a parametric image for quantifying the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in longitudinal SPECT brain images. The performances of the CAA-CRM approach in treatment monitoring are evaluated by the computer simulations and clinical applications. The results of computer simulations show that the derived CRMs have high similarities with their ground truths when the lesion size is larger than system spatial resolution and the change rate is higher than 20%. In clinical applications, the CAA-CRM approach is used to assess the treatment of 50 patients with brain ischemia. The results demonstrate that CAA-CRM approach has a 93.4% accuracy of recovered region's localization. Moreover, the quantitative indexes of recovered regions derived from CRM are all significantly different among the groups and highly correlated with the experienced clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, the proposed CAA-CRM approach provides a convenient solution to generate a parametric image and derive the quantitative indexes from the longitudinal SPECT brain images for treatment monitoring. PMID:28251150

  4. Corneal Dose Reduction Using a Bismuth-Coated Latex Shield over the Eyes During Brain SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutomo, Norikazu; Fukunaga, Masaaki; Onishi, Hideo; Yamamoto, Tomoaki

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a bismuth-coated latex shield (B-shield) could protect the eyes during brain SPECT/CT. Methods: A shield containing the heavy metal bismuth (equivalent to a 0.15-mm-thick lead shield) was placed over a cylindric phantom and the eyes of a 3-dimensional brain phantom filled with (99m)Tc solution. Subsequently, phantoms with and without the B-shield were compared using SPECT/CT. The CT parameters were 30-200 mA and 130 kV. The dose reduction achieved by the B-shield was measured using a pencil-shaped ionization chamber. The protective effects of the B-shield were determined by evaluating relative radioactivity concentration as well as artifacts (changes in CT number), linear attenuation coefficients, and coefficients of variation on SPECT images. Results: The radiation doses with and without the B-shield were 0.14-0.77 and 0.36-1.93 mGy, respectively, and the B-shield decreased the average radiation dose by about 60%. The B-shield also increased the mean CT number, but only at locations just beneath the surface of the phantom. Streaks of higher density near the underside of the B-shield indicated beam hardening. Linear attenuation coefficients and the coefficients of variation did not significantly differ between phantoms with and without the B-shield, and the relative (99m)Tc radioactivity concentrations were not affected. Conclusion: The B-shield decreased the radiation dose without affecting estimated attenuation correction or radioactivity concentrations. Although surface artifacts increased with the B-shield, the quality of the SPECT images was acceptable. B-shields can help protect pediatric patients and patients with eye diseases who undergo SPECT imaging. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  5. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Euy Neyng; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Yang, Dong Won [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 23 patients with PTSD and 21 age matched normal controls without re-exposure to accident-related stimuli. The relative rCBF maps in patients with PTSD and controls were compared. In patients with PTSD, significant increased rCBF was found along the limbic system in the brain. There were a few foci of decreased rCBF in the superior frontal gyrus, parietal and temporal region. PTSD is associated with increased rCBF in limbic areas compared with age-matched normal controls. These findings implicate regions of the limbic brain, which may mediate the response to aversive stimuli in healthy individuals, play on important role in patients suffering from PTSD and suggest that ongoing hyperfunction of 'overlearned survival response' or flashbacks response in these regions after painful, life threatening, or horrifying events without re-exposure to same traumatic stimulus.

  6. Follow-up of pain processing recovery after ketamine in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia patients using brain perfusion ECD-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille, Cedex 5 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the follow-up of pain processing recovery in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia (FM) could be objectively evaluated with brain perfusion ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon computerized tomography (ECD-SPECT) after administration of ketamine. We enrolled 17 hyperalgesic FM women patients (48.5 {+-} 11 years, range 25-63). After treatment with subcutaneous ketamine, 11 patients were considered as 'good responders', with a decrease in pain intensity, evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), greater than 50%. On the other hand, six patients were considered as 'poor responders'. A voxel-based analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was conducted (p{sub voxel} < 0.001uc), in the two subgroups of patients, before and after treatment, in comparison to a group of ten healthy subjects, matched for age and gender. In comparison to baseline brain SPECT, midbrain rCBF showed a greater increase after ketamine in the responder group than in the nonresponder group (p{sub cluster} = 0.016c). In agreement with the clinical response, the change in midbrain rCBF after ketamine was highly correlated with the reduction of VAS pain score (r = 0.7182; p = 0.0041). This prospective study suggests that blockade of facilitatory descending modulation of pain with ketamine can be evaluated in the periaqueductal grey with brain perfusion SPECT. (orig.)

  7. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Yee Jin; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medecine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  8. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  9. Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, G.C.; Pekcanlar, A.; Bekis, R.; Ada, E.; Miral, S.; Emiroglu, N.; Durak, H. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobehavioral syndrome with an onset in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of regional perfusion changes in ADHD by means of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. Thirteen children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 7 healthy, age-matched controls were included in this study. Hypoperfusion was observed on the right temporal cortex in 9, and on the left temporal cortex in 3 children. The distribution of the lesions showed right lateral temporal cortex involvement in 3, right medial temporal cortex in 9 and left medial temporal cortex in 8 children. Asymmetric perfusion was seen on the caudate nucleus in 4, on the thalamus in 3 and on the frontal cortex in 6 children. There was a significant difference between children with ADHD and controls in right medial temporal cortex: cerebellum and right lateral temporal cortex: cerebellum ratios. Hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal cortex was significantly and inversely correlated with Du Paul teachers' questionnaire rating scale (r=-0.71, p=0.006). It has been postulated that difficulty in self regulating response to stimuli in ADHD is mediated by underfunctioning of the orbital frontal cortex and subsequent connection to the limbic system. Decreased temporal cortex perfusion may dysfunction of the limbic system or the orbito-frontal-limbic axis. (author)

  10. Dependency of energy and spatial distributions of photons on edge of object in brain SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Deloar, H M; Kudomi, N; Kim, K M; Aoi, T; Iida, H

    2003-01-01

    Accurate mu maps are important for quantitative image reconstruction in SPECT. The Compton scatter energy window (CSW) technique has been proposed to define the outline of objects. In this technique, a lower energy window image is acquired in addition to the main photo-peak energy window. The image of the lower energy window is used to estimate the edge of the scanned object to produce a constant attenuation map. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependency of CSW on the spatial and energy distribution of radioisotope to predict the edges of objects. Two particular cases of brain study were considered, namely uniform distribution and non-uniform distribution using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments with uniform cylindrical phantom and hotspot phantom. The phantoms were filled with water and a radioactive solution of sup 9 sup 9 sup m Tc. For each phantom, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% thresholds of the mean profile were applied to estimate E sub w sub t , the energy window for minimum difference betwee...

  11. The Performance of Ictal Brain SPECT for Localizing Epileptogenic Foci in Temporal Lobe epilepsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Sil; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, Chun Kee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Anterior temporal lobectomy has become a widely used respective surgery in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsies. Prerequisites of this resection include the accurate localization of the epileptogenic focus and the determination that the proposed resection would not result in unacceptable postoperative memory or language deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of ictal SPECT compared to MRI findings for localization of epileptogenic foci in this group of patients. 11 patients who had been anterior temporal oral lobectomy were evaluated with ictal {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT and MRI. MRI showed 8/11(73%) concordant lesion to the side of surgery and ictal SPECT also showed 8/11(73%) concordant hyperperfusion. In 3 cases with incorrect or nonlocalizing findings of MRI, ictal SPECT showed concordant hyperperfusion. In 2 cases confirmed by pre-resectional invasive EEG, MRI showed bilateral and contralateral lesion but ictal SPECT showed concordant hyperperfusion. 3 delayed injection of ictal SPECT showed discordant hyperperfusion. Thus, ictal SPECT was a useful method for localizing epileptogenic foci in temporal lobe epilepsies and appeared complementay to MRI.

  12. Tc-{sup 99m} ECD brain SPECT in MELAS syndrome: comparison with MR finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Joon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Jai Keun; Nam, Ji Eun; Lee, Jong Doo [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Hee [Poondang Cha Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonnon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate SPECT findings of MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy and correlate them with MR findings in search of specific imaging features and to assess the role of SPECT in MELAS syndrome. Five patients (four females and one male; age range, 1 to 25 years) who presented with repeated stroke-like episodes or seizures or developmental delay or were asymptomatic but had elevated lactic acid in CSF and serum were evaluated with conventional noncontrast MR imaging and SPECT. MRI demonstrated increased T2 signal intensities in the affected areas of gray and white matters mainly on the parietal (4/5) and occipital lobes (4/5) and in the basal ganglias (1/5), which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. SPECT demonstrated decreased uptake of Tc-99m ECD on parietal (5/5) and occipital (4/5) and temporal (2/5) and frontal (1/5) lobe and basal ganglia (2/5) and thalami (2/5). In a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who had normal MRI, decreased perfusion is noted on left parietal area and bilateral thalami. Comparison of the numbers of abnormal findings revealed that decreased perfusion seen on SPECT were more numerous than anatomical abnormalities seen on MRI. SPECT may be a sensitive method for pathophysiological study of metabolic disturbances in MELAS. Moreover, in patients with mitochondrial myopathy without clinical encephalopathy, SPECT may play a role in evaluating subclinical encephalopathy even with normal conventional MR findings.

  13. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  14. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Paulos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Patras (Greece); Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neuropsychology Section, Patras (Greece); Constantoyannis, Costas; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Patras (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) scale. During all assessments patients were ''on'' standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings. (orig.)

  15. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT in acute onset pediatric CNS diseases. In comparison with CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Chikatsu, Hiroko; Nishiyama, Hiromune; Endo, Hiroko; Kono, Tatsuo; Iimura, Fumitoshi; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Saiki, Natoru; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa [Dokkyo Univ., Mibu, Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by {sup 99m}Tc-L, L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain SPECT in the acute onset type of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Thirteen children (7 girls, 6 boys, 4 month-12 years of age) who were diagnosed with 9 cases of viral encephalitis, two cases of febrile convulsion and one each of migraine and metabolic disorder underwent {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT, CT and/or MRI within one week interval. The incidence of abnormal findings in the 13 patients was 96.4% (30/31) on {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT, 17.6% (3/17) on CT and 63.6% (14/22) on MRI. The positive detection rate of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT was statistically (P<0.01 by a {chi}{sup 2} and/or Fisher's exact probability test) higher than those of CT and MRI. And the changes in rCBF were demonstrated. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT is a useful examination for the diagnosis and follow up management in patients with the acute onset type of pediatric CNS diseases. (author)

  16. Vasodilatation and disruption of the blood brain barrier determine hyperfixation with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT in subacute stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, I. H.; Won, K. J.; Lee, H. W. [College of Medicine, Yungnam Univ., Kyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Norihico, Kume; Koheai, Hayasida [National Cardiovascular Center, Osacar (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Hyperfixation characterized by excess tracer activity compared with cerebral blood flow (CBF) using {sup 99m}Tc-d, l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain single photon emission tomography (SPECT), has not been measured in terms of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO{sub 2}) oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). We studied four patients with subacute stroke who showed hot uptake in infarct areas with {sup 99C}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in the same hot uptake areas in SPECT and PET images. The average counts per pixel of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and the absolute values of CBF, CMRO{sub 2} OEF and DBV with PET were then obtained. The hyperfixation rate with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO is expressed as the surplus rate compared with PET-CBF. PET parameters in the hot uptake area were compared with those of 5 normal controls. OEF and CMRO{sub 2} at the hot uptake areas in the 4 patients were significantly lower than those of normal controls (P<0.01), but CBF and CBV were not significantly different between patients and normal controls (ns). The hyperfixation rate of 4 patients was 0.30{+-}0.15, which correlated well with CBV (r=0.97, y=11.75 + 0.42 ; P<0.05). The hyperfixation rate by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT correlated with CBV in the PET study and reflected Gd-DTPA enhancement by MR imaging. Therefore, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO hyperfixation in the infarct area might be caused by vascular dilatation and disruption of the blood brain barrier in terms of an increased capillary permeability-surface product.

  17. Brain areas involved in acupuncture needling sensation of de qi: a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Rong; Li, Gan-Long; Zhang, Gui-Feng; Huang, Yong; Wang, Shu-Xia; Lu, Na

    2012-12-01

    De qi is a sensory response elicited by acupuncture stimulation. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), de qi is essential for clinical efficacy. However, the understanding of the neurobiological basis of de qi is still limited. To investigate the relationship between brain activation and de qi by taking a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan while applying acupuncture at TE5. A total of 24 volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups, and received verum or sham acupuncture at true acupuncture point TE5 or a nearby sham point according to grouping. All subjects then received a (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT scan. All six subjects in the verum acupuncture at true acupuncture point group experienced de qi sensation; in contrast, all six subjects in the sham acupuncture at the sham point group responded with nothing other than non-sensation. Compared to the scan results from subjects who experienced non-sensation, SPECT scans from subjects with de qi sensation demonstrated significant activated points mainly located in brodmann areas 6, 8, 19, 21, 28, 33, 35, 37, 47, the parahippocampal gyrus, lentiform nucleus, claustrum and red nucleus; deactivated points were seen in brodmann areas 9 and 25. Verum acupuncture at true acupuncture points is more likely to elicit de qi sensation. De qi sensations mainly resulted in brain area activations, but not deactivations. These brain areas are related to the curative effect of Te5. The acupuncture needle sensations of de qi and sharp pain are associated with different patterns of activations and deactivations in the brain.

  18. A Standardized Method for the Construction of Tracer Specific PET and SPECT Rat Brain Templates : Validation and Implementation of a Toolbox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez Garcia, David; Casteels, Cindy; Schwarz, Adam J.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Koole, Michel; Doorduin, Janine

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution anatomical image data in preclinical brain PET and SPECT studies is often not available, and inter-modality spatial normalization to an MRI brain template is frequently performed. However, this procedure can be challenging for tracers where substantial anatomical structures present l

  19. CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with uniform attenuation correction in brain perfusion SPECT imaging for dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Rebecca; Firbank, Michael J.; Lloyd, Jim; O'Brien, John T.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated if the appearance and diagnostic accuracy of HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT images could be improved by using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with the uniform attenuation correction method. A cohort of subjects who were clinically categorized as Alzheimer’s Disease (n=38 ), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (n=29 ) or healthy normal controls (n=30 ), underwent SPECT imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO and a separate CT scan. The SPECT images were processed using: (a) correction map derived from the subject’s CT scan or (b) the Chang uniform approximation for correction or (c) no attenuation correction. Images were visually inspected. The ratios between key regions of interest known to be affected or spared in each condition were calculated for each correction method, and the differences between these ratios were evaluated. The images produced using the different corrections were noted to be visually different. However, ROI analysis found similar statistically significant differences between control and dementia groups and between AD and DLB groups regardless of the correction map used. We did not identify an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in images which were corrected using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction, compared with those corrected using a uniform correction map.

  20. Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT imaging: localization of seizure foci and correlation with semiology in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Ryu, Jin Sook; Lee, Hee Kyung; Ma, Hyeo Il; Lee, Sang Ahm; Lee, Jung Kyo; Kang, Joong Koo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients for presurgical localization of seizure foci, and to correlate ictal SPECT patterns with the semiology of seizure. ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD Brain SPECT was performed in 23 TLE patients whose MRI showed unilateral hippocampal atrophy (18 patients), other focal temporal lesions (4 patients) and normal finding (1 patient). Under CCTV monitoring, injection was done during ictal period in all patients with the mean delay of 38.5{+-}17.3 sec (mean seizure duration : 90.5{+-}35.9 sec). Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD Brain SPECT was visually analysed by three blinded observers. All patients underwent temporal lobectomy with a minimum 3 months follow-up (range 3-29 months) ; all had good post-surgical seizure control (Engel's calssification class I). Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD Brain SPECT showed unilateral temporal hyperperfusion concordant with epileptic foci in 22/23 (95.7%), whereas non-lateralization in 1/23 (4.3%). The hyperperfusion of the ipsilateral basal ganglia was present in 72.7% (16/22) of patients with dystonic/tonic posture of the contralateral hand. The contralateral cerebellar hyperperfusion was observed in the 7/22 (32%). The group with secondary generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTC) had brain stem and bilateral thalamic hyperperfusion in 4/7 (57.1%) while the group without secondary GTC had the same hyperperfusion in 1/16 (6.3%). There was statistically significant difference in brain stem and bilateral thalamic perfusion between two groups. Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD Brain SPECT is a useful modality in pre-surgical localization of the epileptic foci and well correlated with the semiology of seizure.

  1. Performance of a novel collimator for high-sensitivity brain SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong; Zimmerman, Robert E; Fischman, Alan J; Kijewski, Marie Foley

    2006-01-01

    We assessed improvements in performance in detection and estimation tasks due to a novel brain single photon computed tomography collimator. Data were acquired on the CeraSPECT scanner using both new and standard collimators. The new variable focusing collimator SensOgrade samples the projections unequally, with central regions more heavily represented, to compensate for attenuation of counts from central brain structures. Furthermore, it utilizes more of the cylindrical crystal surface. Two phantom studies were performed. The first phantom was a 21-cm-diameter cylindrical background containing nine spheres ranging from 0.5 to 5 cm3 in volume. 99mTc sphere to background activity ratio was 10:1. Twenty-nine 10-min datasets were acquired with each collimator. The second phantom was the Radiology Support Devices (Long Beach, CA) striatal phantom with striatal-background ratios of 10:1 on the left and 5:1 on the right. Twenty-nine 4-min datasets were acquired with each collimator. Perfusion imaging using 99mTc-HMPAO was also performed in three healthy volunteers using both collimators under identical simulations. Projections were reconstructed by filtered backprojection with an unwindowed ramp filter. The nonprewhitening matched filter signal-to-noise ratio (NPW-SNR) was computed as a surrogate for human performance in detecting spherical lesions. Sphere activity concentration, radius, and location coordinates were simultaneously estimated by fitting images to an assumed model using an iterative nonlinear algorithm. Resolution recovery was implicit in the estimation procedure, as the point spread function was incorporated into the model. NPW-SNR for sphere detection was 1.5 to 2 times greater with the new collimator; for the striatal phantom the improvement in SNR was 54%. The SNR for estimating sphere activity concentration improved by 46 to 89% for spheres located more than 5 cm from the phantom center. Images acquired with the standard collimator were too noisy in

  2. Correlation with neuropsychological assessment and SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative condition of unknown aetiology that produces an akinetic-rigid form of parkinsonism characterised by early falls, dementia and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The patterns of decreased regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in PSP compared with normal control have been insufficiently investigated and a limited number of studies have been performed. We evaluated clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and neuropsychological profiles in patients with PSP. Eleven patients with PSP diagnosed by the clinical criteria of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP) (mean age: 70.5{+-}5.6 years, educational period: 4.5{+-}4.7 years) and age-matched 10 healthy control subjects (mean age: 68.1{+-}4.5 years, educational period: 6.5{+-}4.1 years) participated in this study were participated. All patients were given a neurologic examination, brain MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. We concomittently evaluated several cognitive profiles using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, left middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus in the patients with PSP compared with age-matched healthy control (uncorrected p<0.01). On neuropsychological assessment, cognitive deficits on verbal and visual memory, word fluency and frontal executive functions were prominent in most patients with PSP compared with healthy control subjects. Our findings suggest that measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by perfusion SPECT and voxel-based SPM analysis with neuropsychological assessment are useful to understanding the correlation between perfusion deficits and abnormal cognitive profiles in patients with PSP.

  3. Quantification of GABAA receptors in the rat brain with [(123)I]Iomazenil SPECT from factor analysis-denoised images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsalis, Stergios; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Dumas, Noé; Tournier, Benjamin B; Ghezzi, Catherine; Charnay, Yves; Ginovart, Nathalie; Millet, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In vivo imaging of GABAA receptors is essential for the comprehension of psychiatric disorders in which the GABAergic system is implicated. Small animal SPECT provides a modality for in vivo imaging of the GABAergic system in rodents using [(123)I]Iomazenil, an antagonist of the GABAA receptor. The goal of this work is to describe and evaluate different quantitative reference tissue methods that enable reliable binding potential (BP) estimations in the rat brain to be obtained. Five male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for [(123)I]Iomazenil brain SPECT scans. Binding parameters were obtained with a one-tissue compartment model (1TC), a constrained two-tissue compartment model (2TCc), the two-step Simplified Reference Tissue Model (SRTM2), Logan graphical analysis and analysis of delayed-activity images. In addition, we employed factor analysis (FA) to deal with noise in data. BPND obtained with SRTM2, Logan graphical analysis and delayed-activity analysis was highly correlated with BPF values obtained with 2TCc (r=0.954 and 0.945 respectively, p<0.0001). Equally significant correlations were found between values obtained with 2TCc and SRTM2 in raw and FA-denoised images (r=0.961 and 0.909 respectively, p<0.0001). Scans of at least 100min are required to obtain stable BPND values from raw images while scans of only 70min are sufficient from FA-denoised images. These images are also associated with significantly lower standard errors of 2TCc and SRTM2 BP values. Reference tissue methods such as SRTM2 and Logan graphical analysis can provide equally reliable BPND values from rat brain [(123)I]Iomazenil SPECT. Acquisitions, however, can be much less time-consuming either with analysis of delayed activity obtained from a 20-minute scan 50min after tracer injection or with FA-denoising of images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain spect in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Buchpiguel

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients consists of neurological examination, intensive electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring and anatomical studies (CT and MRI. Functional methods such as PET and SPECT imaging are now used more frequently. We have studied pre-operatively 15 adult epileptic patients (8 female, 7 male using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc_HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas. In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions. Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hyperperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: (a in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; (b in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; (c in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10 SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and hete-rogenicity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery.

  5. Brain SPECT imaging and whole-body biodistribution with [{sup 123}I]ADAM - a serotonin transporter radiotracer in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, K.-J. [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-Y. [Neuroscience Research Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Psychiatry, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Wey, S.-P. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, I.-T. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jay [Health Physics Divisions, Atomic Energy Council, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao-Yuan 325, Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.-K. [Atomic Energy Council, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao-Yuan 325, Taiwan (China); Yen, T.-C. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China) and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yen1110@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2006-02-15

    Introduction: [{sup 123}I]-2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine ([{sup 123}I]ADAM), a novel radiotracer, has promising application in the imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the human brain. In this study, the optimal scanning time for acquiring brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images was determined by performing dynamic SPECT studies at intervals from 0 to 6 h postinjection of [{sup 123}I]ADAM. Additionally, radiation-absorbed doses were determined for three healthy human subjects using attenuation-corrected images. Methods: Twelve subjects were randomized into one of three study groups as follows: whole-body distribution imaging (n=3), dynamic SPECT imaging (n=3) and brain SPECT imaging (n=6). The radiation-absorbed dose was calculated using MIRDOSE 3.0 software with attenuation-corrected data. The specific binding (SB) ratio of the brain stem was measured from dynamic SPECT images to determine the optimal scanning time. Results: Dynamic SPECT images showed that the SB of the brain stem gradually increased to a maximum 4 h postinjection. Single photon emission computed tomography images at 4 h postinjection showed a high uptake of the radiotracer (SB) in the hypothalamus (1.40{+-}0.12), brain stem (1.44{+-}0.16), pons (1.13{+-}0.14) and medial temporal lobe (0.59{+-}0.10). The mean adult male value of effective dose was 3.37x10{sup -2} mSv/MBq with a 4.8-h urine-voiding interval. Initial high uptake in SERT-rich sites was demonstrated in the lung and brain. A prominent washout of the radiotracer from the lung further increased brain radioactivity that reached a peak value of 5.03% of injected dose 40 min postinjection. Conclusions: [{sup 123}I]ADAM is a promising radiotracer for SPECT imaging of SERT in humans with acceptable dosimetry and high uptake in SERT-rich regions. Brain SPECT images taken within 4 h following injection show optimal levels of radiotracer uptake in known SERT sites. However, dynamic

  6. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity.

  7. Implementation of a fully 3D system model for brain SPECT with fan- beam-collimator OSEM reconstruction with 3D total variation regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongwei; Krol, Andrzej; Lipson, Edward D.; Lu, Yao; Xu, Yuesheng; Lee, Wei; Feiglin, David H.

    2007-03-01

    In order to improve tomographically reconstructed image quality, we have implemented a fully 3D reconstruction, using an ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm for fan-beam collimator (FBC) SPECT, along with a volumetric system model-fan-volume system model (FVSM), a modified attenuation compensation, a 3D depth- and angle-dependent resolution and sensitivity correction, and a 3D total variation (TV) regularization. SPECT data were acquired in a 128x64 matrix, in 120 views with a circular orbit. The numerical Zubal brain phantom was used to simulate a FBC HMPAO Tc-99m brain SPECT scan, and a low noise and scatter-free projection dataset was obtained using the SimSET Monte Carlo package. A SPECT scan for a mini-Defrise phantom and brain HMPAO SPECT scans for five patients were acquired with a triple-head gamma camera (Triad 88) equipped with a low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) FBC. The reconstructed images, obtained using clinical filtered back projection (FBP), OSEM with a line-length system model (LLSM) and 3D TV regularization, and OSEM with FVSM and 3D TV regularization were quantitatively studied. Overall improvement in the image quality has been observed, including better axial and transaxial resolution, better integral uniformity, higher contrast-to-noise ration between the gray matter and the white matter, and better accuracy and lower bias in OSEM-FVSM, compared with OSEM-LLSM and clinical FBP.

  8. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 102...

  9. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 102...

  10. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidahara, Miho; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Research Institute, Department of Brain Science and Molecular Imaging, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita (Japan); Kato, Rikio [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Radiology, Obu (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe: correlation between ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Avaliacao de foco epileptogenico do lobo temporal: correlacao entre SPECT ictal, ressonancia magnetica e ressonancia magnetica com espectroscopia de protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegues, Maria Elena Martins [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: emartyns@terra.com.br; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of concordance between radiological and radioisotopic methods and, if positive, to evaluate the usefulness of ictal SPECT in the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were performed on six patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT was performed after withdrawal of the anti-epileptogenic drugs during video-EEG monitoring, using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD, administered to patients at the time of the ictus. MRI was performed in T1, T2 and FLAIR sequences and MRS was obtained using the PRESS technique, with a single voxel positioned in both hippocampi. The statistical analysis included the determination of the values of Kappa (k), standard error (se) and significance level (p) for the lateralization of the ictal focus. The analysis of all findings was based on EEG localization of the ictal discharge, seizure duration (109-280 s; 152 s average) and time of radiotracer injection (30-262 s; 96 s average). We obtained correlated data in four patients (67 per cent) and values of k = 0.67, se = 0.38, and p 0.041. We concluded that there is a concordance between ictal SPECT, MRI and MRS data and the usefulness of the radioisotopic procedure is related to a non diagnostic EEG and when there is a discordant or misleading diagnosis after a comparative analysis of EEG and MRS. (author)

  12. Comparative value of brain perfusion SPECT and [{sup 123}I]MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in distinguishing between dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Shimizu, Soichiro; Hirao, Kentaro; Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Chikamori, Taishiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Yamashina, Akira [Tokyo Medical University, 2. Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    Both decreased occipital perfusion on brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and reduction in cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake are characteristic features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and potentially support the clinical diagnosis of DLB. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of these two methods for differentiation of DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study population comprised 19 patients with probable DLB and 39 patients with probable AD who underwent both SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. Objective and quantitative measurement of perfusion in the medial occipital lobe, including the cuneus and lingual gyrus, was performed by the use of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections. Medial occipital perfusion was significantly decreased in the DLB group compared with the AD group. The mean heart/mediastinum ratios of MIBG uptake were significantly lower in the DLB group than in the AD group. Although SPECT failed to demonstrate significant hypoperfusion in the medial occipital lobe in five patients with DLB, marked reduction of MIBG uptake was found in all patients with DLB. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that MIBG myocardial scintigraphy enabled more accurate discrimination between DLB and AD than was possible with perfusion SPECT. MIBG myocardial scintigraphy may improve the sensitivity in the detection of DLB. In particular, this method may provide a powerful differential diagnostic tool when it is difficult to distinguish cases of DLB from AD using brain perfusion SPECT. (orig.)

  13. Clinical application of 3D arterial spin-labeled brain perfusion imaging for Alzheimer disease: comparison with brain perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ishii, K; Hosokawa, C; Hyodo, T; Kashiwagi, N; Matsuki, M; Ashikaga, R; Murakami, T

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder with dementia, and a practical and economic biomarker for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is needed. Three-dimensional arterial spin-labeling, with its high signal-to-noise ratio, enables measurement of cerebral blood flow precisely without any extrinsic tracers. We evaluated the performance of 3D arterial spin-labeling compared with SPECT, and demonstrated the 3D arterial spin-labeled imaging characteristics in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. This study included 68 patients with clinically suspected Alzheimer disease who underwent both 3D arterial spin-labeling and SPECT imaging. Two readers independently assessed both images. Kendall W coefficients of concordance (K) were computed, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed for each reader. The differences between the images in regional perfusion distribution were evaluated by means of statistical parametric mapping, and the incidence of hypoperfusion of the cerebral watershed area, referred to as "borderzone sign" in the 3D arterial spin-labeled images, was determined. Readers showed K = 0.82/0.73 for SPECT/3D arterial spin-labeled imaging, and the respective areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.82/0.69 for reader 1 and 0.80/0.69 for reader 2. Statistical parametric mapping showed that the perisylvian and medial parieto-occipital perfusion in the arterial spin-labeled images was significantly higher than that in the SPECT images. Borderzone sign was observed on 3D arterial spin-labeling in 70% of patients misdiagnosed with Alzheimer disease. The diagnostic performance of 3D arterial spin-labeling and SPECT for Alzheimer disease was almost equivalent. Three-dimensional arterial spin-labeled imaging was more influenced by hemodynamic factors than was SPECT imaging. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with traumatic brain injury: evaluating distribution of hypoperfusion and assessment of cognitive and behavioral impairment in relation to thalamic hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated the distribution of hypoperfusion in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the relationship of thalamic hypoperfusion to severity of cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Tc-99m ECD SPECT and MRI were performed in 103 patients (M/F=81/22, mean age 34.7{+-} 15.4 yrs) from 0.5 to 55 months (mean 10.3 months) after TBI. The patients were divided into three groups showing no abnormalities (G1), focal (G2) and diffuse injury (G3) on MRI. Psychometric tests assessed 11 cognitive or behavioral items. In all patients, we evaluated the distribution of hypoperfused areas in SPECT, and in 57/103 patients, neuropsychological (NP) abnormalities in patients with thalamic hypoperfusion were compared with those of patients without thalamic hypoperfusion. The perfusion dificits were most frequently located in the frontal lobe (G1, 42.3%: G2 34.5%: G3 33.3%), temporal lobe (24{approx}26%) thalami (21{approx}22.4%), parietal and occipital lobe ({<=}10%). Numbers of NP abnormalities in the cases of cortical hypoperfusion with or without concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion were following: the former 4.7{+-}1.5 and the latter 3.2{+-}1.4 in G1, 5.0{+-}1.1 and 4.8{+-}1.2 in G2, 6.8{+-}1.8 and 6.3{+-}1.1 in G3, respectively. This difference according to thalamic hypoperfusion was significant in G1 (p=0.002), but was not significant in G2 or G3. SPECT in patients with TBI had demonstrated hypoperfusion mostly involving the frontal, temporal and thalami. In normal group on MRI, frontal hypoperfusion was more prominent than that of any other group, Furthermore in this group, SPECT could predict severity of NP outcome by concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion with cerebral cortical abnormalities.

  15. Differences at brain SPECT between depressed females with and without adult ADHD and healthy controls: etiological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsson Hans

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and mood disorders is common. Alterations of the cerebellum and frontal regions have been reported in neuro-imaging studies of ADHD and major depression. Methods Thirty chronically depressed adult females of whom 16 had scores below, and 14 scores above, cut-offs on the 25-items Wender Utah Retrospective Scale (WURS-25 and the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS were divided into subgroups designated "Depression" and "Depression + ADHD", respectively. Twenty-one of the patients had some audiological symptom, tinnitus and/or hearing impairment. The patients were investigated with other rating scales and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. Controls for 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were 16 healthy females. SPECT was analyzed by both statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 and the computerized brain atlas (CBA. Discriminant analysis was performed on the volumes of interest generated by the CBA, and on the scores from rating scales with the highest group differences. Results The mean score of a depression rating scale (MADRS-S was significantly lower in the "Depression" subgroup compared to in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake within the bilateral cerebellum at both SPM and CBA in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in the controls. No decrease of cerebellar tracer uptake was observed in "Depression". Significantly increased tracer uptake was found at SPM within some bilateral frontal regions (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10, 32 in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in "Depression". An accuracy of 100% was obtained for the discrimination between the patient groups when thalamic uptake was used in the analysis along with scores from Socialization and Impulsivity scales. Conclusion The findings confirm the previous observation of a cerebellar involvement in ADHD. Higher bilateral frontal 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in

  16. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Bora [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong-Won [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: neuroman@catholic.ac.kr; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-An [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); East-West Research Institute of Translational Medicine (EWTM), Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon 403-720 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nm@catholic.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  17. Serial {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT for Assessing Perfusion Improvement after DEAS in Moyamoya Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Sang Hyung; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Kwark, Chul Eun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myoung Chul; Cho, Byoung Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    Encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) is a relatively new surgical procedure for treatment of childhood moyamoya disease. We assessed regional cerebral perfusion in moyamoya patients before (1.3 mo) and after (6.8 mo) EDAS with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. A total of 21 EDAS operations in 17 moyamoya patients was included. Preoperative CT or MRI showed cerebral infarction in 14 patients and carotid angiography showed Suzuki grade 1 to V stenosis in 6%, 9%, 62%, 12% and 12% of the hemispheres respectively. Preoperative SPECT showed regional hypoperfusion in all patients, bilateral frontal and temporal loves being the most frequently involved site. 4 X 4 pixel sized ROIs were applied on the frontotemmporal cortex in 3 slice averaged transverse tomographic images. An index of regional perfusion was measured as; PI (%)=average FT activity/average cerebellar activity X 100 Pre-EDAS ipsilateral PI ranged from 23.7 to 98.4% (mean:74.3 +- 17%) and increased significantly after operation (81.4 +- 17%, p<0.001). Individual post-EDAS PI improved in 15/21 cases, showed no significant change in 5 and was slightly aggravated in 1. The amount of clinical improvement XCI) was graded with a scale of 0 to 4 based on frequency and severity of TIA attacks. When patients were grouped according to pre-EDAS PI, group II (PI 70approx89) showed a significantly higher CI (3.3) compared to group I (PI<70, 1.57) of group III (PI>90, 0.5) (p<0.001). The amount of perfusion improvement (PI) showed significant correlation with CI (r-0.42, p=0.04). PI did not, however, correlate with the amount of neovascularization assessed angiographically in 8 patients. Serial HMPAO SPECT is an useful noninvasive study for assessing perfusion improvement after EDAS in childhood moyamoya patients.

  18. Simulating technetium-99m cerebral perfusion studies with a three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom. Collimator and filter selection in SPECT neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Joung; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Moon, Dae-Hyuk; Lee, Hee-Kyung [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Karp, J.S.; Mozley, P.D.; Kung, H.F.; Alavi, A.

    1996-02-01

    The choice of a collimator and the selection of a filter can affect the quality of clinical SPECT images of the brain. The compromises that 4 different collimators make between spatial resolution and sensitivity were studied by imaging a three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom. The planar data were acquired with each collimator on a three-headed SPECT system and were reconstructed with both a standard Butterworth filter and a Wiener pre-filter. The reconstructed images were then evaluated by specialists in nuclear medicine and were also quantitatively analyzed with specific regions of interest (ROI) in the brain. All observers preferred the Wiener filter reconstructed images regardless of the collimator used to acquire the planar images. With this filter, the ultrahigh-resolution fan-beam collimator was the most subjectively preferable and quantitatively produced the highest contrast ratios. The findings support suggestions that higher resolution collimators are preferable to higher sensitivity collimators, and indicate that fan-beam collimators are preferable to parallel-hole collimators for clinical SPECT studies of cerebral perfusion. The results also suggest that the Wiener filter enhances the quality of SPECT brain images regardless of which collimator is used to acquire the data. (author).

  19. Evaluation of the quality of picture in studies of sect brain acquired with various collimators; Evaluacion de la calidad de imagen en estudios de spect cerebral adquiridos con distintos colimadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran Velasco, V.; Prieto Azcarete, E.; Barbes Fernandez, B.; Sancho rodriguez, L.; Ribelles Segura, M. J.; Richter echevarria, J. A.; Arbizu Lostao, J.; Marti-Climent, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    On the practice clinic , the performance of the systems SPECT depends on in large measurement of the quality of image. The goal of East study was evaluate how affect the parameters of reconstruction of studies SPECT of perfusion brain acquired with a collimator of holes parallel (LEHR) and other of holes in fan (Fan-Beam). (Author)

  20. Serial cerebral hemodynamic change after extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery: evaluated by acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT(acz-SPECT)

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    Hong, Il Ki; Kim, Jae Seung; Ahn, Jae Sung; Im, Ki Chun; Kim, Euy Nyong; Mun, Dae Hyeog [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated serial cerebral hemodynamic changes after EC-IC bypass surgery in symptomatic pts with atherosclerotic occlusion of internal carotid (lCA) or mid-cerebral artery (MCA) using Acz-SPECT. 25 symptomatic pts (M/F 19/6, 53{+-}10 y) with ICA and MCA occlusion (16 uni - and 9 bilateral) prospectively underwent Acz-SPECT using Tc-99m ECD before and 1 week after EC-IC bypass surgery. Of these, 16 underwent additional f/u Acz-SPECT 5 mo later. Cerebral perfusion and perfusion reserve of MCA territory were evaluated visually and SPECT findings were classified into 4 groups: N/N; R/N; N/R; and R/R (perfusion/perfusion reserve: N = normal, R = reduced). For semiquantitative analysis, all SPECT images were normalized to MNI template and mean counts of MCA territory and cerebellum were obtained by AAL. Cerebral perfusion index (PI =C{sub region}/C{sub cere}) and perfusion reserve index (RI = (PI{sub Acz} - PI{sub basal}) /Pl{sub basal}) were calculated. Preop SPECT findings of ipsilateral MCA in 25 pts were R/N (4%), N/R (12%), and R/R (84% ). Early postop SPECT showed improvement of perfusion (26%) and/or reserve (68%) in ipsilateral MCA. Of 16 pts with 5mo f/u SPECT, 6 (38%) showed further improvement of perfusion or reserve. However, 4 (25%) showed aggravation of perfusion and one of these underwent revision surgery. Preop PI (1.1{+-}0.1) and RI (0.11{+-}0.07) of ipsilateral MCA were significantly lower than those of contralateral hemispheres (p<0.05). After surgery, PIs of bilateral MCA did not change at early postop period but improved in ipsilateral MCA at 5mo. Rls of ipsilateral MCA increased significantly (68%) at early postop period (P<0.001) and then did not changed. Cerebral perfusion and perfusion reserve changed with different manner during 5 mo after bypass surgery and perfusion reserve changed more dramatically than perfusion. Acz-SPECT is a feasible method for evaluating cerebral hemodynamic change after EC-IC bypass surgery.

  1. Differential diagnosis of posterior fossa brain tumors: Multiple discriminant analysis of Tl-SPECT and FDG-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Moritaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Okada, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the combined capability of thallium-201 (Tl)-SPECT and fluorine-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-PET for differential diagnosis of posterior fossa brain tumors using multiple discriminant analysis.This retrospective study was conducted under approval of the institutional review board. In the hospital information system, 27 patients with posterior fossa intra-axial tumor between January 2009 and June 2015 were enrolled and grouped as the following 7 entities: low grade glioma (LGG) 6, anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) 2, glioblastoma (GBM) 3, medulloblastoma (MB) 3, hemangioblastoma (HB) 6, metastatic tumor (Mets) 3, and malignant lymphoma (ML) 4. Tl and FDG uptakes were measured at the tumors and control areas, and several indexes were derived. Using indexes selected by the stepwise method, discriminant analysis was conducted with leave-one-out cross-validation.The predicted accuracy for tumor classification was 70.4% at initial analysis and 55.6% at cross-validation to differentiate 7 tumor entities. HB, LGG, and ML were well-discriminated, but AA was located next to LGG. GBM, MB, and Mets largely overlapped and could not be well distinguished even applying multiple discriminant analysis. Correct classification in the original and cross-validation analyses was 44.4% and 33.3% for Tl-SPECT and 55.6% and 48.1% for FDG-PET.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in {sup 99m}Tc- HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, Ra Hyeong; Suh, Tae Suk; Kwark, Chul Eun; Choe, Bo Young; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of '9{sup 9m}Tc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map(SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50{+-}5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, R. H.; Suh, T. S.; Chung, Y. A. [The Catholic Univ., of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99mTc- HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map (SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50{+-}5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann.

  4. Perfusion impairments in children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) on {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Sin, E. J.; Cheon, K. A.; Yoon, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, T. J. [Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed to reveal that severe disturbance of attachment relationship with primary care-giver can affect functional and anatomical brain development by measuring cerebral perfusion on {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT and correlative MRI. We included 18 children aged 31 to 76 months who met the diagnostic criteria of RAD as defined in DSM-IV and ICD-10 and SSP and CARS. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT was performed using CERASPECT. MRI was performed in all patients. SPECT data were visually assessed. 15 of 18 children had abnormal perfusion on SPECT, revealing decreased perfusion of Lt.thalamus (7/15) and Rt.thalamus (3/15), and bilateral thalami (5/15). Perfusion of basal ganglia was decreased in 8 children. Decreased perfusion of Lt. parietal area was seen in 2. Whereas, all patients had normal MR findings. Perfusion abnormalities involving thalamus, BG in most children with RAD were found in this study. These results suggest that brain development of infant could be impeded by severe pathologic care and early nurturing environment would be important for normal development.

  5. SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P., E-mail: kelly.cosgrove@yale.ed [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Staley, Julie K.; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Bois, Frederic [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Plisson, Christophe [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Seibyl, John P. [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Goodman, Mark M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles D. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Serotonin dysfunction has been linked to a variety of psychiatric diseases; however, an adequate SPECT radioligand to probe the serotonin transporter system has not been successfully developed. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine the in vivo selectivity of iodine-123-labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane, [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, in nonhuman primate brain. Methods: Two ovariohysterectomized female baboons participated in nine studies (one bolus and eight bolus to constant infusion at a ratio of 9.0 h) to evaluate [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT. To evaluate the selectivity of [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, the serotonin transporter blockers fenfluramine (1.5, 2.5 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 mg/kg), the dopamine transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and the norepinephrine transporter blocker nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) were given at 8 h post-radiotracer injection. Results: In the bolus to constant infusion studies, equilibrium was established by 4-8 h. [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT was 93% and 90% protein bound in the two baboons and there was no detection of lipophilic radiolabeled metabolites entering the brain. In the high-density serotonin transporter regions (diencephalon and brainstem), fenfluramine and citalopram resulted in 35-71% and 129-151% displacement, respectively, whereas methylphenidate and nisoxetine did not produce significant changes (<10%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT is a favorable compound for in vivo SPECT imaging of serotonin transporters with negligible binding to norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

  6. 123I-FP-CIT brain SPECT (DaTSCAN imaging in the diagnosis of patients with movement disorders: First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauković Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. 123I-FP-CIT brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, DaTSCAN imaging, offers a possibility to study structural and biochemical integrity of presinaptic dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 123I-FP-CIT brain SPECT scintigraphy in patients with extrapyramidal diseases. Methods. Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females, aged 26-81 years, presenting with extrapyramidal symptoms entered the study. Out of them, 7 patients were diagnosed with definite clinical form of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD or clinical probable for PD clinical stage 2-4 using the Hoehn&Yahr scale (H&Y; 6 patients were with atypical parkinsonism (AP, 1 patient with essential, and 1 with psychogenic tremor. SPECT was performed 180 min after injection of 185 MBq 123IFP- CIT using a dual head Gamma camera. Sixty four one minutes’ frames were acquired using a noncircular rotation mode into a 128 × 128 image matrix. Transverse slices were reconstructed using a 0.6 order Butterworth filter. Visual interpretation was based on striatal uptake, left to right asymmetry and substructures most affected. The ratio of binding for the entire striatum, caudate and putamen to nonspecific binding in occipital cortex was calculated. SPECT findings were categorized as normal and abnormal (incipient, moderate and severe presinaptic deficit. Results. 123I-FP-CIT uptake was reduced in the striatum of 6/7 patients with PD and 5/6 patients with AP. Two patients with PD and AP showed a negative finding. The remaining 2 negative results were obtained in the patients diagnosed with essential tremor and psychogenic tremor. The mean striato-occipital ratio (SDR of the most affected side was lower in the patients with PD. Conclusion. Our first results confirm the usefulness of 123I-FPCIT brain SPECT in differential diagnosis of extrapyramidal diseases.

  7. NeuroGam Software Analysis in Epilepsy Diagnosis Using 99mTc-ECD Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Gao, Jianqing; Jing, Jianmin; Pan, Liping; Li, Dongxue; Wei, Lingge

    2015-09-20

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the value of NeuroGam software in diagnosis of epilepsy by 99Tcm-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS NeuroGam was used to analyze 52 cases of clinically proven epilepsy by 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging. The results were compared with EEG and MRI, and the positive rates and localization to epileptic foci were analyzed. RESULTS NeuroGam analysis showed that 42 of 52 epilepsy cases were abnormal. 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging revealed a positive rate of 80.8% (42/52), with 36 out of 42 patients (85.7%) clearly showing an abnormal area. Both were higher than that of brain perfusion SPECT, with a consistency of 64.5% (34/52) using these 2 methods. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was observed in frontal (18), temporal (20), and parietal lobes (2). Decreased rCBF was seen in frontal and temporal lobes in 4 out of 36 patients, and in temporal and parietal lobes of 2 out of 36 patients. NeuroGam further showed that the abnormal area was located in a different functional area of the brain. EEG abnormalities were detected in 29 out of 52 patients (55.8%) with 16 cases (55.2%) clearly showing an abnormal area. MRI abnormalities were detected in 17 out of 43 cases (39.5%), including 9 cases (52.9%) clearly showing an abnormal area. The consistency of NeuroGam software analysis, and EEG and MRI were 48.1% (25/52) and 34.9% (15/43), respectively. CONCLUSIONS NeuroGam software analysis offers a higher sensitivity in detecting epilepsy than EEG or MRI. It is a powerful tool in 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging.

  8. Estudio sobre las alteraciones de la perfusión cerebral valorado mediante SPECT cerebral, en pacientes usuarios de drogas de abuso Study of brain perfusion anomalies assessed with cerebral SPECT in drug abuse patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Raimondo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El abuso de sustancias psicotóxicas representa un gran problema de Salud Pública en los diferentes distritos estatales. Este trabajo pretende determinar cuáles son los efectos nocivos de estas sustancias sobre el parénquima cerebral de los pacientes en los que se ha demostrado un consumo activo de drogas prohibidas. Para ello se empleó la técnica de SPECT cerebral con ECD - 99mTc aplicada a aquellos pacientes adictos, a los cuales previamente se les realizó una encuesta para conocer el tipo de droga, el tiempo y la duración de su adicción. Como resultado se detectó que el mayor número de defectos de perfusión corticales, es decir, déficits funcionales, se localizaron en la corteza órbito-frontal y en los lóbulos temporales, lo cual explicaría los importantes trastornos de conducta y personalidad que manifiestan estos pacientes. Se demostró con este método que el SPECT cerebral es un excelente método para detectar las zonas afectadas por estas drogas psicoadictivas, su extensión y la evolución y posible respuesta al tratamiento.Psychoactive drug abuse is a major public health problem in many districts. This study seeks to determine the harmful effects of such drugs on the brain parenchyma of patients known to abuse illegal drugs. Brain scans were obtained using 99 M Tc- ECD SPECT from drug addicts that had been previously surveyed to ascertain the type of drug, the timing and duration of their addiction SPECT findings showed a larger number of cortical perfusion defects, that is to say functional defects located in the orbital-frontal cortex and in the temporal lobes that may explain the significant behavior and personality disorders these patients display. Cerebral SPECT showed to be an excellent method to detect areas affected by psychoactive drugs, their extent, likely evolution and response to treatment.

  9. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  10. Role of brain perfusion SPECT with 99mTc HMPAO in the assessment of response to drug therapy in patients with autoimmune vasculitis: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberatore Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of vasculitis in the brain remains a quite difficult achievement. To the best of our knowledge, there is no imaging method reported in literature which is capable of reaching to a diagnosis of vasculitis with very high sensitivity. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT can be usefully employed in monitoring the treatment of vasculitis, allowing treating only potentially responder patients and avoiding the side effects on patients who do not respond. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (two males and 18 females suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; n = 5, Behcet′s disease (BD; n = 5, undifferentiated vasculitis (UV; n = 5, and Sjogren′s syndrome (SS; n = 5 were included in the study. All patients underwent a wide neurological anamnestic investigation, a complete objective neurological examination and SPECT of the brain with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propylene-aminoxime (HMPAO. The brain SPECT was then repeated after appropriate medical treatment. The neurological and neuropsychiatric follow-up was performed at 6 months after the start of the treatment. Results: Overall, the differences between the scintigraphic results obtained after and before the medical treatment indicated a statistically significant increase of the cerebral perfusion (CP. In 19 out of 200 regions of interest (ROI studied, the difference between pre- and post treatment percentages had negative sign, indicating a worsening of CP. This latter event has occurred six times (five in the same patients in the UV, 10 times (eight in the same patients in the SLE, never in BD, and three times (two in the same patient in the SS. Conclusion: The reported results seem to indicate the possibility of identifying, by the means of a brain SPECT, responder and nonresponder (unchanged or worsened CP patients, affected by autoimmune vasculitis, to the therapy.

  11. A study on thallium-201 SPECT in brain metastases of lung cancer. With special reference to tumor size and tumor to normal brain thallium uptake ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togawa, Takashi; Yui, Nobuharu; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Yanagisawa, Masamichi; Namba, Hiroki [Chiba Cancer Center (Japan). Hospital

    1995-03-01

    Thallium-201 brain SPECT was performed on 20 patients with brain metastases of lung cancer using a three-head rotating gamma camera and the effect of tumor size on tumor detectability and tumor to normal brain thallium uptake ratio (T/N ratio) was studied. Among 71 metastatic lesions, only 9 (22.5%) of 40 lesions of 13 mm diameter or below and 31 (100%) of 31 lesions of 14 mm diameter or above could be detected in this study. There was significant correlation between T/N ratio and tumor size (r=0.75, p<0.001). The greater the metastatic lesion, the higher the T/N ratio. Even among the tumors in a single patient with multiple brain metastases, there was a significant linear correlation between tumor size and T/N ratio (r=0.96, p<0.01). In this patient, T/N ratio varied by the tumor size and these differences in T/N ratios were thought to be based on the partial volume effect. However, T/N{center_dot}d which was a parameter corrected by tumor diameter (d) showed a constant value regardless of tumor size. The present results showed that T/N ratio, which was usually believed to quantitate the malignancy grade of brain tumor, was affected by tumor size and that more accurate parameter could be obtained by the correction of T/N ratio by tumor size. (author).

  12. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  13. A new application of SPECT during the brain attack era. Examination with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO continuous infusion using a dynamic SPECT method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takashi; Yanagita, Mitsuro; Miyata, Shiro [Miyazaki Social Insurance Hospital (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine effects of therapeutical drugs on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during the acute stage of cerebrovascular disease. We used {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO continuous infusion with a dynamic SPECT method to chronologically measure regional CBF (15 successive SPECTs in 30 minutes with 2 minute intervals). We began intravenous injection of ozagrel Na, argatroban, nicardipine HCl, fasudil HCl or dopamine HCl, 10 minutes after the administration of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. From the laminagrams, we divided the regions of interest (ROI) into the lesional, perilesional and remote areas, and noritored chronological changes in the blood flow count, as well as changes caused by drug administration as time-activity-curve (TAC). As a result, we could determine the optimal drug in the acute stages of cerebrovascular disease in each case. (author)

  14. Computer-assisted diagnostic system for neurodegenerative dementia using brain SPECT and 3D-SSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Shimada, Kenichi; Ohkawa, Shingo [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Minoshima, Satoshi [University of Washington, Radiology and Bioengineering, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    To develop a computer-assisted automated diagnostic system to distinguish among Alzheimer disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild dementia. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with injection of N-Isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) were obtained from patients with mild degenerative dementia. First, datasets from 20 patients mild AD, 15 patients with dementia with DLB, and 17 healthy controls were used to develop an automated diagnosing system based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). AD- and DLB-specific regional templates were created using 3D-SSP, and critical Z scores in the templates were established. Datasets from 50 AD patients, 8 DLB patients, and 10 patients with non-AD/DLB type degenerative dementia (5 with frontotemporal dementia and 5 with progressive supranuclear palsy) were then used to test the diagnostic accuracy of the optimized automated system in comparison to the diagnostic interpretation of conventional IMP-SPECT images. These comparisons were performed to differentiate AD and DLB from non-AD/DLB and to distinguish AD from DLB. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The area under the ROC curve (Az) and the accuracy of the automated diagnosis system were 0.89 and 82%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the visual inspection were 0.84 and 77%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the combination of visual inspection and this system were 0.96 and 91%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 66%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The system developed in the present study achieved as good discrimination of AD, DLB, and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild

  15. Effects of dextromethorphan on MDMA-induced serotonergic aberration in the brains of non-human primates using [123I]-ADAM/SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Liu, Tsung-Ta; Weng, Shao-Ju; Chen, Chien-Fu F.; Huang, Yuahn-Sieh; Chueh, Sheau-Huei; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Chang, Kang-Wei; Sung, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Te-Hung; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Cheng, Cheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a common recreational drug, is known to cause serotonergic neurotoxicity in the brain. Dextromethorphan (DM) is a widely used antitussive reported to exert anti-inflammatory effect in vivo. In this study, we examined the long-term effect of MDMA on the primate serotonergic system and the protective property of DM against MDMA-induced serotonergic abnormality using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Nine monkeys (Macaca cyclopis) were divided into three groups, namely control, MDMA and co-treatment (MDMA/DM). [123I]-ADAM was used as the radioligand for serotonin transporters (SERT) in SPECT scans. SERT levels of the brain were evaluated and presented as the uptake ratios (URs) of [123I]-ADAM in several regions of interest of the brain including midbrain, thalamus and striatum. We found that the URs of [123I]-ADAM were significantly lower in the brains of MDMA than control group, indicating lower brain SERT levels in the MDMA-treated monkeys. This MDMA-induced decrease in brain SERT levels could persist for over four years. However, the loss of brain SERT levels was not observed in co-treatment group. These results suggest that DM may exert a protective effect against MDMA-induced serotonergic toxicity in the brains of the non-human primate. PMID:27941910

  16. Brain perfusion SPECT of patients with anorexia nervosa. Evaluation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM96)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajoh, Masayuki; Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tani, Atsushi; Umanodan, Tomokazu [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Naruo, Tetsuro; Nozoe, Shinichi

    2001-02-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has two subtypes; restricting type (AN-R) and binge-eating/purging type (AN-BP). It is suggested that AN-R is different from AN-BP on psychopathological aspects. We compared regional cerebral blood flows of 7 female patients with AN-R, 7 female patients with AN-BP and 7 age-matched normal volunteers (NV) using Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT processed by SPM96. There were significant decreased perfusions in the anterior cingulate gyrus in AN-R when compared with those of AN-BP and NV. These results suggest that the mechanism of outbreak of AN-R may be different from that of AN-BP. (author)

  17. 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS), 99mTc-ECDbrain SPECT imaging was performed in 5 patients with AIDS and 16 sex and agematched normal controls, and the rCBF percentages compared to the cerebellum werecalculated using a semi-quantitative processing software. Hypoperfusions in the rightand left frontal, temporal, porietal lobe, basal ganglia and left thalamus were seen in1 patient with dementia. Hypoperfusions in the right and left frontal and temporallobe were seen in 4 asymptomatic patients. The rCBF in the right and left frontal.temporal, porietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus, front and pons were decreasedsignificantly in patients with AIDS than those of the control subjects (p <0.005). Itis concluded that there exists reduced cortico-subcortical rCBF in AIDS patients.``

  18. A change in thalamic function in patients of chronic pain. A functional brain study with SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Mitsuru; Doi, Nagafumi; Isse, Kunihiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Ebara General Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1999-02-01

    The cerebral blood flow was measured by SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD as tracer in order to make chronic pain clear physiopathologically. Subjects were 7 cases of central pain (4 cases of thalamus and 3 cases of putamen) and 3 cases of postherpetic neuralgia, who were treated by ECT and had good response in the Tokyo Metropolitan Ebara General Hospital. Reduction of cerebral blood flow in the thalamus was recognized at opposite side of pain (the side with cerebrovascular diseases) in central pain; at both sides in postherpetic neuralgia. In both groups, pain and allodynia disappeared by ECT, and the thalamic cerebral blood flow at opposite side became to be normal. These results suggest that chronic pain was related to decrease thalamic activity at opposite side physiopathologically. (K.H.)

  19. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM SPECT cerebral na epilepsia de lobo temporal mesial: comparação entre análise visual e SPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. METHOD: Interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter. RESULTS: For detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter=100%; SPM(inter=45%; SPM(ictal=64% and SPM(ictal/inter=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. CONCLUSION: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE.OBJETIVO: Comparar a acurácia do SPM com a análise visual na detecção do foco epileptogênico e alterações perfusionais à distância no SPECT cerebral. MÉTODO: Foram realizados os SPECTs ictal e interictal de 22 pacientes com epilepsia de lobo temporal mesial (ELTM. A análise visual foi realizada nos estudos interictal (VISUAL(inter e ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter. Na análise com SPM foi comparado o estudo interictal (SPM(inter e ictal (SPM(ictal de cada paciente com o grupo controle e comparou-se a perfusão dos lobos temporais entre os estudos ictal e interictal (SPM(ictal/inter. RESULTADOS: Para a detecção do foco epileptogênico, as sensibilidades foram as seguintes: VISUAL(inter=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter=100%; SPM(inter=45%; SPM(ictal=64% and SPM(ictal/inter=77%. O SPM foi capaz de detectar mais áreas de hiperperfusão e hipoperfusão. CONCLUSÃO: O SPM não aumentou a sensibilidade na detecção do foco epileptog

  20. A voxel-based analysis of cerebral perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Kim, Hee Joung; Chang, Jin Woo; Kim, Chan Hyung; Lee, Hong Shick; Min, Sung Kil; Chung, Sang Sup [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Many neuroimaging studies, especially metabolic imaging with PET, showed a specific frontal-subcortical brain circuit connecting the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, elements of basal ganglia and thalamus is involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite consistent metabolic alteration on PET, blood flow studies with SPECT were inconsistent and various cortical and subcortical structures showed abnormal perfusion patterns. In this study, brain SPECT images of seven patients with OCD were evaluated with a sophisticated method of statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Seven patients with severe, primary OCD (6 males and 1 female) with mean age of 25.4 4.7 yrs (20-32 yrs) were studied. The SPECT data of the patients were compared with those of healthy subjects and patients with drug nave schizophrenia using SPM. The SPM parameters were p value of 0.001 with Z value of 3.09 (higher threshold ) or p value of 0.005 with Z value 2.58 (lower threshold). On a higher threshold (p<0.01),five of the seven patients showed hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex, however, hyperperfusion within OFC or caudate nucleus was seen in only one patient. On a lower threshold (p<0.005), hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was seen in all patients, and followed by thalamus (n=5), lentiform nucleus (n=4), caudate nucleus (n=3), and OFC (n=3). Perfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was also increased in OCD compared with drug nave schizophrenia. Anterior cingulate cortex appears to be an important anatomical structure in the pathogenesis of OCD symptoms. Brain SPECT using a sophisticated analysis method of SPM is useful for the diagnosis of OCD and differentiation from schizophrenia.

  1. Comparison of (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, brain perfusion SPECT, and voxel-based MRI morphometry for distinguishing between dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoshitaka; Toyama, Hiroshi; Manabe, Yuta; Sarai, Masayoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnostic value of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy, N-isopropyl-p[(123)I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for the differentiation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirty-five and 34 patients with probable DLB and probable AD, respectively, were enrolled. All patients underwent (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, (123)I-IMP brain perfusion SPECT, and brain MRI. For (123)I-MIBG imaging, we calculated early and delayed heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) uptake ratios. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) were used to analyze the results of (123)I-IMP SPECT. VBM with statistical parametric mapping 8 plus diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to analyze the brain MRI data. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for discriminating DLB and AD was highest (0.882) for the delayed H/M ratio on (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy. AUC for z-score measurement in the occipital lobe was 0.818 and that for the extent of gray matter (GM) atrophy in the whole brain was 0.788. AUC for the combination of 3D-SSP and VBM analysis was 0.836. The respective sensitivities and specificities for distinguishing DLB from AD were 97.1 and 100 % for the delayed H/M ratio using (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy; 88.6 and 73.5 % for the occipital lobe z-score using 3D-SSP analysis; 85.7 and 64.7 % for the extent of whole brain GM atrophy using voxel-based MRI morphometry; and 91.4 and 76.5 % for the combination of 3D-SSP analysis and VBM. (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy was superior to brain perfusion SPECT and brain MRI using an advanced statistical technique to differentiate DLB and AD.

  2. Visual and SPM Analysis of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients of Dementia with Lewy Bodies with Clinical Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is widely recognized as the second commonest form of degenerative dementia. Its core clinical features include persistent visual hallucinosis, fluctuating cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. We evaluated the brain perfusion of dementia with Lewy bodies by SPM analysis and correlated the findings with clinical symptom. Twelve DLB patients (mean age ; 68.88.3 yrs, K-MMSE ; 17.36) and 30 control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 yrs) were included. Control subjects were selected by 28 items of exclusion criteria and checked by brain CT or MRI except 3 subjects. Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT was performed and the image data were analyzed by visual interpretation and SPM99 as routine protocol. In visual analysis, 7 patients showed hypoperfusion in both frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe, 2 patients in both frontal, temporal and parietal lobe, 2 patients in both temporal, parietal and occipital lobe, 1 patients in left temporal, parietal and occipital lobe. In SPM analysis (uncorrected p<0.01), significant hypoperfusion was shown in Lt inf. frontal gyrus (B no.47), both inf. parietal lobule (Rt B no.40), Rt parietal lobe (precuneus), both sup. temporal gyrus (Rt B no.42), Rt mid temporal gyrus, Lt transverse temporal gyrus (B no.41), both para hippocampal gyrus, Rt thalamus (pulvinar), both cingulate gyrus (Lt B no.24, Lt B no.25, Rt B no.23, Rt B no.24, Rt B no.33), Rt caudate body, both occipital lobe (cuneus, Lt B no.17, Rt B no.18). All patients had fluctuating cognition and parkinsonism, and 9 patients had visual hallucination. The result of SPM analysis was well correlated with visual interpretation and may be helpful to specify location to correlate with clinical symptom. Significant perfusion deficits in occipital region including visual cortex and visual association area are characteristic findings in DLB. Abnormalities in these areas may be important in understanding symptoms of visual hallucination and

  3. Iodine-123 labeled derivatives of methylphenidate: potential SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for brain dopamine transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, D.; Gatley, S.J.; Chen, R.; Ding, Y.-S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Since dl-threo-[{sup 11}C]methylphenidate (Ritalin) and especially the more active enantiomer, d-threo-[{sup 11}C]methylphenidate, have favorable properties for PET studies, we prepared two radioiodinated analogs of methylphenidate, p-[{sup 123}I]iodomethylphenidate and m-[{sup 123}I]iodo-p-hydroxymethylphenidate with a view to evaluating them as potential SPECT tracers. To prepare p-[{sup 123}I]iodomethylphenidate, the p-tributyltin derivative was prepared from the previously reported p-bromomethylphenidate and reacted under acidic conditions with I-123 iodide plus chloramine-T at room temperature for 90 seconds. The predomimant radioactive product was obtained in 85% radiochemical yield and > 10 Ci/{mu}mol specific radioactivity after HPLC purification. It had the same HPLC retention time as a spectroscopically characterized non-radioactive p-iodomethylphenidate standard prepared via nitration of methylphenidate and diazotization, after protection of the secondary amino group by benzoylation. A second radioiodinated methylphenidate derivative, m-[{sup 123}I]iodop-hydroxymethylphenidate was prepared in 80% radiochemical yield by direct iodination of the known p-hydroxymethylphenidate. In this case the non-radioactive standard was prepared by iodination of p-hydroxyritalinic acid using I{sub 2} and iodic acid, followed by esterification. (author).

  4. Creation and evaluation of complementary composite three-dimensional image in various brain diseases. An application of three-dimensional brain SPECT image and three-dimensional CT image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Iekado; Mito, Toshiaki; Sugo, Nobuo [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop 3D composite images for use in functional and anatomical evaluation of various cerebral pathologies. Imaging studies were performed in normal volunteers, patients with hydrocephalus and patients with brain tumor (meningioma and metastatic tumor) using a three-detector SPECT system (Prism 3000) and helical CT scanner (Xvigor). {sup 123}I-IMP was used in normal volunteers and patients with hydrocephalus, and {sup 201}TLCL in patients with brain tumor. An Application Visualization System-Medical Viewer (AVS-MV) was used on a workstation (Titan 2) to generate 3D images. A new program was developed by synthesizing surface rendering and volume rendering techniques. The clinical effects of shunt operations were successfully evaluated in patients with hydrocephalus by means of translucent 3D images of the deep brain. Changes in the hypoperfusion area around the cerebral ventricle were compared with morphological changes in the cerebral ventricle on CT. In addition to the information concerning the characteristics of brain tumors and surrounding edemas, hemodynamic changes and changeable hypoperfusion areas around the tumors were visualized on 3D composite CT and SPECT images. A new method of generating 3D composite images of CT and SPECT was developed by combining graphic data from different systems on the same workstation. Complementary 3D composite images facilitated quantitative analysis of brain volume and functional analysis in various brain diseases. (author)

  5. Effect of cyclosporin A administration on the biodistribution and multipinhole {mu}SPECT imaging of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in rodent brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanckaert, P.; Burvenich, I.; Bruyne, S. de; Moerman, L.; Wyffels, L.; Vos, F. de [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Gent (Belgium); Staelens, S. [Ghent University - IBBT, MEDISIP, Faculty of Engineering, Gent (Belgium)

    2009-03-15

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an efflux protein found amongst other locations in the blood-brain barrier. It is important to investigate the effect of Pgp modulation on clinically used brain tracers, because brain uptake of the tracer can be altered by blocking of the Pgp efflux transporter. The function of Pgp can be blocked with cyclosporin A. We investigated the effect of cyclosporin A administration on the biodistribution of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in rodents, and the effect of Pgp blocking on the quality of multipinhole {mu}SPECT imaging with [{sup 123}I]R91150. The influence of increasing doses of cyclosporin A on the brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 was investigated in NMRI mice. A biodistribution study with [{sup 123}I]R91150 was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats pretreated with cyclosporin A and not pretreated. Brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 after cyclosporin A injection was compared to the brain uptake in untreated animals, and a displacement study with ketanserin was performed in both groups. A multipinhole {mu}SPECT brain imaging study was also performed using a Milabs U-SPECT-II camera in male Sprague-Dawley rats. To exclude the effect of possible metabolites, a metabolite study was also performed. At the highest cyclosporin A dose (50 mg/kg), a sevenfold increase in brain radioactivity concentration was observed in NMRI mice. Also, a dose-response relationship was established between the dose of cyclosporin A and the brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in mice. Compared to the control group, a five-fold increase in [{sup 123}I]R91150 radioactivity concentration was observed in the brain of Sprague-Dawley rats after cyclosporin A treatment (50 mg/kg). Radioactivity concentration in the frontal cortex increased from 0.24{+-}0.0092 to 1.58{+-}0.097% injected dose per gram of tissue after treatment with cyclosporin A (at the 1-h time-point). Blood radioactivity concentrations did not increase to the same extent. The cortical activity was displaced by

  6. An ultrahigh resolution SPECT system for I-125 mouse brain imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, L.J. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)], E-mail: ljmeng@umich.edu; Fu, G. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States); Roy, E.J.; Suppe, B. [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States); Chen, C.T. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents some initial experimental results obtained with a dual-head prototype single photon emission microscope system (SPEM) that is dedicated to mouse brain studies using I-125 labeled radiotracers. In particular, this system will be used for in vivo tacking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain. This system is based on the use of the intensified electron multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) camera that offers the combination of an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution, a good signal-to-noise ratio, a large active area and a reasonable detection efficiency over an energy range between 27-140 keV. In this study, the dual-head SPEM system was evaluated using both resolution phantoms and a mouse with locally injected T cells labeled with I-125. It was demonstrated that for a relatively concentrated source object, the current dual-head SPEM system is capable of visualizing the tiny amount of radioactivity ({approx}12 nCi) carried by a very small number (<1000) of T cells. The current SPEM system design allows four or six camera heads to be installed in a stationary system configuration that offers a doubled or tripled sensitivity at a spatial resolution similar to that obtained with the dual-head system. This development would provide a powerful tool for in vivo and non-invasive tracking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain and potentially for other rodent brain imaging studies.

  7. An ultrahigh resolution SPECT system for I-125 mouse brain imaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L. J.; Fu, G.; Roy, E. J.; Suppe, B.; Chen, C. T.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents some initial experimental results obtained with a dual-head prototype single photon emission microscope system (SPEM) that is dedicated to mouse brain studies using I-125 labeled radiotracers. In particular, this system will be used for in vivo tacking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain. This system is based on the use of the intensified electron multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) camera that offers the combination of an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution, a good signal-to-noise ratio, a large active area and a reasonable detection efficiency over an energy range between 27-140 keV. In this study, the dual-head SPEM system was evaluated using both resolution phantoms and a mouse with locally injected T cells labeled with I-125. It was demonstrated that for a relatively concentrated source object, the current dual-head SPEM system is capable of visualizing the tiny amount of radioactivity (˜12 nCi) carried by a very small number (<1000) of T cells. The current SPEM system design allows four or six camera heads to be installed in a stationary system configuration that offers a doubled or tripled sensitivity at a spatial resolution similar to that obtained with the dual-head system. This development would provide a powerful tool for in vivo and non-invasive tracking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain and potentially for other rodent brain imaging studies.

  8. 2 year follow-up of childhood moyamoya after encephalo-arterio-myo-synangiosis (EDAMS): evaluation with acetazolamide brain SPECT (Acz-SPECT) and MR angiography (MRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Ra, Young Shin; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Longterm F/U evaluation of cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes after EDAMS is important because childhood moyamoya disease has a progressive nature and EDAMS is an indirect revascularization method. We evaluated cerebro-vascular hemodynamic changes of moyamoya pts during 2 yr after EDAMS with Acz-SPECT and correlated with MRA finding. 23 operated cerebral hemispheres of the 21 childhood moyamoya pts (M/F: 10/11, mean age 8{+-}3 yrs) were evaluated with Acz-SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and MRA within 1 mo before, 1 yr ( 6 {+-}3 mo) and 2 yr (21 {+-}7 mo) after EDAMS. 10 pts also underwent frontal encephalo-galeo-synangiosis. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (rCVR) of 8 cortical regions in each hemisphere (2 anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 4 mid-cerebral artery (MCA), and 2 posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories) were scored as 5 grade scale (0=perfusion defect to 4=normal). Perfusion index (PI) was defined as the sum scores of rCBF and rCVR in each territory. Arterial stenosis and transdural collaterals were also evaluated. The changes of PIs in each territory and the changes of cerebral arterial stenosis with collateral formation at 1 and 2 yr F/U were correlated. Pre-operative stages of moyamoya disease were Suzuki type 1 in 1, 2 in 6, 3 in 7, and 4 in 9 cases. Mean PIs of each territory were summarized in the table. PIs of operated (MCA and ACA) territories were improved in 14, unchanged in 7, and aggravated in 2 cases at 1 yr F/U. PIs of PCA territory were improved in 4, unchanged in 16, and aggravated in 3 cases. At 2 yr F/U, PIs of operated territories were unchanged in 10 and improved in 12 cases including 2 with aggravation and 5 with no change at 1 yr F/U, but newly aggravated in 2 cases. Pis of PCA territory were improved in 5 or unchanged in 15, but further or newly aggravated in 3 cases. The arterial stenosis was progressed in 9 cases (5 MCA, 3 PCA, and/or 3 ACA). In these cases, PIs were aggravated in 3(2 operated and

  9. THETA AND ALPHA EEG FREQUENCY INTERPLAY IN SUBJECTS WITH MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: EVIDENCE FROM EEG, MRI AND SPECT BRAIN MODIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Vito Moretti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: reduction of regional cerebral perfusion in hippocampus as well as temporo-parietal and medial temporal cortex atrophy are associated to mild cognitive impairment (MCI due to Alzheimer disease (AD. Methods: 74 adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Among the patients, a subset of 27 subjects underwent also perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and hippocampal atrophy evaluation. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of alpha3/alpha2 power ratio and difference of cortical thickness among the groups estimated. Results: higher alpha3/alpha2 power ratio group had wider cortical thinning than other groups, mapped to the Supramarginal and Precuneus bilaterally. Subjects with higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio showed a constant trend to a lower perfusion than lower alpha3/alpha2 group. Moreover, this group correlates with both a bigger hippocampal atrophy and an increase of theta frequency power.Conclusion: Higher EEG alpha3/alpha2 power ratio was associated with temporo-parietal cortical thinning, hippocampal atrophy and reduction of regional cerebral perfusion in medial temporal cortex. In this group an increase of theta frequency power was detected inMCI subjects. The combination of higher EEG alpha3/alpha2 power ratio, cortical thickness measure and regional cerebral perfusion reveals a complex interplay between EEG cerebral rhythms, structural and functional brain modifications.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of Parkinson disease by support vector machine (SVM) analysis of 123I-FP-CIT brain SPECT data: implications of putaminal findings and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Buresta, Tommaso; Pompili, Filippo; Forini, Nevio; Nigro, Pasquale; Calabresi, Paolo; Tambasco, Nicola

    2014-12-01

    Brain single-photon-emission-computerized tomography (SPECT) with I-ioflupane (I-FP-CIT) is useful to diagnose Parkinson disease (PD). To investigate the diagnostic performance of I-FP-CIT brain SPECT with semiquantitative analysis by Basal Ganglia V2 software (BasGan), we evaluated semiquantitative data of patients with suspect of PD by a support vector machine classifier (SVM), a powerful supervised classification algorithm.I-FP-CIT SPECT with BasGan analysis was performed in 90 patients with suspect of PD showing mild symptoms (bradykinesia-rigidity and mild tremor). PD was confirmed in 56 patients, 34 resulted non-PD (essential tremor and drug-induced Parkinsonism). A clinical follow-up of at least 6 months confirmed diagnosis. To investigate BasGan diagnostic performance we trained SVM classification models featuring different descriptors using both a "leave-one-out" and a "five-fold" method. In the first study we used as class descriptors the semiquantitative radiopharmaceutical uptake values in the left (L) and right (R) putamen (P) and in the L and R caudate nucleus (C) for a total of 4 descriptors (CL, CR, PL, PR). In the second study each patient was described only by CL and CR, while in the third by PL and PR descriptors. Age was added as a further descriptor to evaluate its influence in the classification performance.I-FP-CIT SPECT with BasGan analysis reached a classification performance higher than 73.9% in all the models. Considering the "Leave-one-out" method, PL and PR were better predictors (accuracy of 91% for all patients) than CL and CR descriptors; using PL, PR, CL, and CR diagnostic accuracy was similar to that of PL and PR descriptors in the different groups. Adding age as a further descriptor accuracy improved in all the models. The best results were obtained by using all the 5 descriptors both in PD and non-PD subjects (CR and CL + PR and PL + age = 96.4% and 94.1%, respectively). Similar results were observed for the "five

  11. [Complex partial status epilepticus with recurrent episodes of complex visual hallucinations: study by using 123I-IMP-SPECT, brain MRI and EEG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Masahide; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    We report a 72-year-old woman with complex partial status epilepticus who showed recurrent episodes of complex visual hallucinations (CVH). Brain diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed gyriform cortical hyperintensity in the right parietal, occipital and temporal lobes, and brain magnetic resonance angiograhy revealed a hyperintensity in the right dilated middle cerebral artery during ictal period. Ictal N-isopropyl-p-(iodine-123)-iodoamphetamine single photon emission computed tomography (123I-IMP-SPECT) with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) 14 days after the onset of the first CVH revealed hyperperfusion in the right latero-inferior occipito-temporal region with relation to motion. CVH spontaneously subsided 17 days after the onset of the first CVH. CVH recurred one year after the first CVH. Ictal 123I-IMP-SPECT with 3D-SSP revealed marked hyperperfusion in the right lateral parietal region probably with relation to face and figure hallucinations. Ictal scalp EEGs revealed rhythmic polyspikes at 12 Hz with high amplitude (100-200 μV) in bilateral posterior occipital and temporal region with the right side dominance for 20 seconds and more in several occasions. Interictal 123I-IMP-SPECT with 3D-SSP 28 days after recurrence of CVH revealed marked hypoperfusion in the right lateral parietal region, and recovery of hypoperfusion in the right latero-inferior occipito-temporal region. These findings suggest that ictal CVH might be induced by the spread of epileptic discharges from the right parieto-occipito-temporal region with the old brain contusion (epileptogenic region) to the right latero-inferior occipito-temporal region and the right lateral parietal region (symptomatogenic regions).

  12. Parieto-occipital hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP in the brain SPECT associated with maternal inheritance of diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Atsumi, Yoshihito; Hosokawa, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Akira; Asahina, Takayuki; Matsuoka, Kempei [Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Hata, Takashi; Taniyama, Matsuo

    1997-07-01

    To determine the latent effect of diabetes inheritance on central nervous system, thirty diabetic patients were examined (14 male, 16 female). Seventeen patients had a mother with diabetes, and the other thirteen had non-diabetic mothers. They were previously determined to not have the 3243 mitochondrial tRNA mutation in peripheral leukocytes. Patients were tested for parieto-occipital hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP of brain SPECT, a characteristic neurofinding of mitochondrial diabetes mellitus due to the 3243 tRNA mutation. Seven (41.2%) out of 17 subjects with material inheritance had the parieto-occipital abnormality, whereas one (7.7%) out of 13 subjects with non-maternal inheritance had the abnormality. Seventeen (94.4%) out of 18 patients diabetes due to mitochondrial tRNA mutation at position 3243 showed the abnormality. Our results suggest that the material inheritance of diabetes is associated with the hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP of brain SPECT. We speculate that, because the patients with maternal inheritance might have subclinical mitochondrial dysfunction due to unknown mitochondrial DNA abnormalities, the mitochondrial DNA abnormality might cause their subclinical brain damage in the parieto-occipital area. (author)

  13. Receptor binding characterization of the benzodiazepine radioligand sup 125 I-Ro16-0154: Potential probe for SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.W.; Woods, S.W.; Zoghbi, S.; Baldwin, R.M.; Innis, R.B. (Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (USA)); McBride, B.J. (Medi-Physics, Inc., Emeryville, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The binding of an iodinated benzodiazepine (BZ) radioligand has been characterized, particularly in regard to its potential use as a neuroreceptor brain imaging agent with SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). Ro16-0154 is an iodine-containing BZ antagonist and a close analog of Ro15-1788. In tissue homogenates prepared from human and monkey brain, the binding of {sup 125}I-labeled Ro16-0154 was saturable, of high affinity, and had high ratios of specific to non-specific binding. Physiological concentrations of NaCl enhanced specific binding approximately 15% compared to buffer without this salt. Kinetic studies of association and dissociation demonstrated a temperature dependent decrease in affinity with increasing temperature. Drug displacement studies confirmed that {sup 125}I-Ro16-0154 binds to the central type BZ receptor: binding is virtually identical to that of {sup 3}H-Ro15-1788 except that {sup 125}I-Ro16-0154 shows an almost 10 fold higher affinity at 37{degree}C. These in vitro results suggest that {sup 123}I-labeled Ro16-0154 shows promise as a selective, high affinity SPECT probe of the brain's BZ receptor.

  14. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Pathologie du Mouvement, Marseille (France); CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); Ceccaldi, Mathieu [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR Inserm 1106, Institut de Neurosciences des Systemes, Marseille (France); Girard, Nadine [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neuroradiologie diagnostique et interventionnelle, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France)

    2012-11-15

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  15. Preoperative cerebrovascular reactivity to acetazolamide measured by brain perfusion SPECT predicts development of cerebral ischemic lesions caused by microemboli during carotid endarterectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Kenta; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Suga, Yasunori; Chida, Kohei; Otawara, Yasunari; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan)]|[Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether preoperative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide measured by quantitative brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) predicts development of cerebral ischemic lesions on postoperative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) that are caused by microemboli during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). One hundred and fifty patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (>70%) underwent CEA under transcranial Doppler monitoring of microembolic signals (MES) in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA). Preoperative CVR to acetazolamide was measured using [{sup 123}I]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine SPECT, and region of interest (ROI) analysis in the ipsilateral MCA territory was performed using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template. DWI was performed within 3 days before and 24 h after surgery. Twenty-six patients (17.3%) developed new postoperative ischemic lesions on DWI. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, among the variables tested, a high number of MES during carotid dissection (95% CIs, 1.179 to 1.486; P < 0.0001) and preoperative reduced CVR to acetazolamide (95% CIs, 0.902 to 0.974; P = 0.0008), which were significantly associated with the development of new postoperative ischemic lesions on DWI. In 47 patients with MES during carotid dissection, the combination of number of MES during carotid dissection and CVR to acetazolamide identified development of new postoperative ischemic lesions on DWI with a positive predictive value of 100% or zero. Preoperative CVR to acetazolamide measured by quantitative brain perfusion SPECT predicts development of cerebral ischemic lesions on postoperative DWI that are caused by microemboli during CEA. (orig.)

  16. EANM procedure guidelines for brain neurotransmission SPECT/PET using dopamine D2 receptor ligands, version 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Laere, Koen; Varrone, Andrea; Booij, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The guidelines summarize the current views of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging Committee (ENC). The aims of the guidelines are to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in making recommendations, performing, interpreting and reporting the results of clinical dopamine D2...... receptor SPECT or PET studies, and to achieve a high quality standard of dopamine D2 receptor imaging, which will increase the impact of this technique in neurological practice.The present document is an update of the first guidelines for SPECT using D2 receptor ligands labelled with (123)I [1...

  17. sup 123 I-iodoamphetamine SPECT brain imaging in alternating hemiplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupanc, M.L.; Dobkin, J.A.; Perlman, S.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin Hospitals, Madison (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is an unusual disorder characterized by early onset (occurring before 18 months of age); repeated attacks of hemiplegia involving both sides of the body; other paroxysmal phenomena, such as tonic stiffening, dystonic posturing, choreoathetoid movements, ocular motor abnormalities, and autonomic disturbances, in association with bouts of hemiplegia or occurring independently; and evidence of mental or neurologic deficits. A girl was examined because of left hemiplegia at the age of 16 months. The patient had begun exhibiting episodes of alternating hemiplegia at approximately 4 months of age. They consisted of tonic stiffening and dystonia of the right or left extremities, lasting from 30 min to several hours and followed by residual hemiparesis. They were invariably accompanied by ocular motor abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and angiography all were normal. Single proton emission computed tomography brain images during an acute episode of right hemiplegia demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left cerebral hemisphere. Following improvement of the hemiplegia, the patient was re-evaluated. The uptake of the radiotracer in the left hemisphere was increased. The scan did not demonstrate significant asymmetry in cerebral perfusion.

  18. The current status of SPECT or SPECT/CT in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chung, Yong An [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon Saint Mary' s HospitalThe Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The first step to nuclear medicine in Korea started with introduction of the gamma camera in 1969. Although planar images with the gamma camera give important functional information, they have the limitations that result from 2-dimensional images. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) due to its 3-dimensional image acquisition is superior to earlier planar gamma imaging in image resolution and diagnostic accuracy. As demand for a hybrid functional and anatomical imaging device has increased, integrated SPECT/CT systems have been used. In Korea, SPECT/CT was for the first time installed in 2003. SPECT/CT can eliminate many possible pitfalls on SPECT-alone images, making better attenuation correction and thereby improving image quality. Therefore, SPECT/CT is clinically preferred in many hospitals in various aspects. More recently, additional SPECT/CT images taken from the region with equivocal uptake on planar images have been helpful in making precise interpretation as part of their clinical workup in postoperative thyroid cancer patients. SPECT and SPECT/CT have various advantages, but its clinical application has gradually decreased in recent few years. While some researchers investigated the myocardial blood flow with cardiac PET using F-18 FDG or N-13 ammonia, myocardial perfusion SPECT is, at present, the radionuclide imaging study of choice for the risk stratification and guiding therapy in the coronary artery disease patients in Korea. New diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for AD have received increasing attention; nevertheless, brain SPECT will remain the most reliable modality evaluating cerebral perfusion.

  19. Tracer-specific PET and SPECT templates for automatic co-registration of functional rat brain images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez Garcia, David; Schwarz, Adam J; Dierckx, Rudi; Koole, Michel; Doorduin, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Template based spatial co-registration of PET and SPECT data is an important first step in its semi- automatic processing, facilitating VOI- and voxel-based analysis. Although this procedure is standard in human, using corresponding MRI images, these systems are often not accessible for

  20. 99mTc-bicisate (neurolite) SPECT brain imaging and cognitive impairment in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Walovitch, R C; Andersen, A R

    1994-01-01

    of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and to examine the interreader agreement for visual reading of images in a multicenter SPECT study. Images for a total of 86 subjects were available for the blinded read. The images for 28 subjects were rated as noninterpretable due to technical inadequacies. Images for 58 subjects (45...

  1. A standardized method for the construction of tracer specific PET and SPECT rat brain templates: validation and implementation of a toolbox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vállez Garcia

    Full Text Available High-resolution anatomical image data in preclinical brain PET and SPECT studies is often not available, and inter-modality spatial normalization to an MRI brain template is frequently performed. However, this procedure can be challenging for tracers where substantial anatomical structures present limited tracer uptake. Therefore, we constructed and validated strain- and tracer-specific rat brain templates in Paxinos space to allow intra-modal registration. PET [18F]FDG, [11C]flumazenil, [11C]MeDAS, [11C]PK11195 and [11C]raclopride, and SPECT [99mTc]HMPAO brain scans were acquired from healthy male rats. Tracer-specific templates were constructed by averaging the scans, and by spatial normalization to a widely used MRI-based template. The added value of tracer-specific templates was evaluated by quantification of the residual error between original and realigned voxels after random misalignments of the data set. Additionally, the impact of strain differences, disease uptake patterns (focal and diffuse lesion, and the effect of image and template size on the registration errors were explored. Mean registration errors were 0.70 ± 0.32 mm for [18F]FDG (n = 25, 0.23 ± 0.10mm for [11C]flumazenil (n = 13, 0.88 ± 0.20 mm for [11C]MeDAS (n = 15, 0.64 ± 0.28 mm for [11C]PK11195 (n = 19, 0.34 ± 0.15 mm for [11C]raclopride (n = 6, and 0.40 ± 0.13 mm for [99mTc]HMPAO (n = 15. These values were smallest with tracer-specific templates, when compared to the use of [18F]FDG as reference template (p<0.001. Additionally, registration errors were smallest with strain-specific templates (p<0.05, and when images and templates had the same size (p ≤ 0.001. Moreover, highest registration errors were found for the focal lesion group (p<0.005 and the diffuse lesion group (p = n.s.. In the voxel-based analysis, the reported coordinates of the focal lesion model are consistent with the stereotaxic injection procedure. The use of PET/SPECT strain- and tracer

  2. Evaluation of radioiodinated 5-iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine as a ligand for SPECT investigations of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Hideo; Ogawa, Mikako; Ueda, Masashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences] [and others

    2002-05-01

    5-Iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5IA), an A-85380 analog iodinated at the 5-position of the pyridine ring, was evaluated as a radiopharmaceutical for investigating brain nicotinic acethylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [{sup 123/125}I]5IA was synthesized by the iododestannylation reaction under no-carrier-added conditions and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with high radiochemical yield (50%), high radiochemical purity (>98%), and high specific radioactivity (>55 GBq/{mu}mol). The binding affinity of 5IA for brain nAChRs was measured in terms of displacement of [{sup 3}H]cytisine and [{sup 125}I]5IA from binding sites in rat cortical membranes. The binding data revealed that the affinity of 5IA was the same as that of A-85380 and more than seven fold higher than that of (-)-nicotine, and that 5IA bound selectively to the {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR subtype. Biodistribution studies in rats indicated that the brain uptake of [{sup 125}I]5IA was rapid and profound. Regional cerebral distribution studies in rats demonstrated that the accumulation of [{sup 125}I]5IA was consistent with the density of high affinity nAChRs with highest uptake observed in the nAChR-rich thalamus, moderate uptake in the cortex and lowest uptake in the cerebellum. Administration of the nAChR agonists and (-)-cytisine (-)-nicotine reduced the uptake of [{sup 125}I]5IA in all regions studied with most pronounced reduction in the thalamus, and resulted in similar levels of radioactivity throughout the brain. [{sup 125}I]5IA binding sites were shown to be saturable with unlabeled 5IA. Behavioral studies in mice demonstrated that 5IA did not show signs of behavioral toxicity. Furthermore, SPECT studies with [{sup 123}I]5IA in the common marmoset demonstrated appropriate brain uptake and regional localization for a high-affinity nAChR imaging radiopharmaceutical. These results suggested that [{sup 123}I]5IA is a

  3. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  4. Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamic Changes in Pediatric Patients with Moyamoya Disease Using Probabilistic Maps on Analysis of Basal/Acetazolamide Stress Brain Perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Seung Ki; Wang, Kyu Chang; Cho, Byung Kyu; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the hemodynamic changes and the predictive factors of the clinical outcome in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease, we analyzed pre/post basal/acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT with automated volume of interest (VOIs) method. Total fifty six (M:F=33:24, age 6.7{+-}3.2 years) pediatric patients with moyamoya disease, who underwent basal/acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT within 6 before and after revascularization surgery (encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) with frontal encephalo-galeo-synangiosis (EGS) and EDAS only followed on contralateral hemisphere), and followed-up more than 6 months after post-operative SPECT, were included. A mean follow-up period after post-operative SPECT was 33{+-}21 months. Each patient's SPECT image was spatially normalized to Korean template with the SPM2. For the regional count normalization, the count of pons was used as a reference region. The basal/acetazolamide-stressed cerebral blood flow (CBF), the cerebral vascular reserve index (CVRI), and the extent of area with significantly decreased basal/acetazolamide- stressed rCBF than age-matched normal control were evaluated on both medial frontal, frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and whole brain in each patient's images. The post-operative clinical outcome was assigned as good, poor according to the presence of transient ischemic attacks and/or fixed neurological deficits by pediatric neurosurgeon. In a paired t-test, basal/acetazolamide-stressed rCBF and the CVRI were significantly improved after revascularization (p<0.05). The significant difference in the pre-operative basal/acetazolamide-stressed rCBF and the CVRI between the hemispheres where EDAS with frontal EGS was performed and their contralateral counterparts where EDAS only was done disappeared after operation (p<0.05). In an independent student t-test, the pre-operative basal rCBF in the medial frontal gyrus, the post-operative CVRI in the frontal lobe and the parietal

  5. Performance of a high-sensitivity dedicated cardiac SPECT scanner for striatal uptake quantification in the brain based on analysis of projection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C.; McQuaid, Sarah J.; Kijewski, Marie Foley [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Mueller, Stefan P. [Abteilung Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, 45147 Essen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors have previously reported the advantages of high-sensitivity single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems for imaging structures located deep inside the brain. DaTscan (Isoflupane I-123) is a dopamine transporter (DaT) imaging agent that has shown potential for early detection of Parkinson disease (PD), as well as for monitoring progression of the disease. Realizing the full potential of DaTscan requires efficient estimation of striatal uptake from SPECT images. They have evaluated two SPECT systems, a conventional dual-head gamma camera with low-energy high-resolution collimators (conventional) and a dedicated high-sensitivity multidetector cardiac imaging system (dedicated) for imaging tasks related to PD. Methods: Cramer-Rao bounds (CRB) on precision of estimates of striatal and background activity concentrations were calculated from high-count, separate acquisitions of the compartments (right striata, left striata, background) of a striatal phantom. CRB on striatal and background activity concentration were calculated from essentially noise-free projection datasets, synthesized by scaling and summing the compartment projection datasets, for a range of total detected counts. They also calculated variances of estimates of specific-to-nonspecific binding ratios (BR) and asymmetry indices from these values using propagation of error analysis, as well as the precision of measuring changes in BR on the order of the average annual decline in early PD. Results: Under typical clinical conditions, the conventional camera detected 2 M counts while the dedicated camera detected 12 M counts. Assuming a normal BR of 5, the standard deviation of BR estimates was 0.042 and 0.021 for the conventional and dedicated system, respectively. For an 8% decrease to BR = 4.6, the signal-to-noise ratio were 6.8 (conventional) and 13.3 (dedicated); for a 5% decrease, they were 4.2 (conventional) and 8.3 (dedicated). Conclusions: This implies that PD can

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in children with autism spectrum disorders: a quantitative 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT study with statistical parametric mapping evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-han; JING Jin; XIU Li-juan; CHENG Mu-hua; WANG Xin; BAO Peng; WANG Qing-xiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which include autism, asperger syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood resulting in deficits in social interaction, repetitive patterns of behaviors, and restricted interests and activities. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a common technique used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Several studies have measured rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT, however, findings are discordant. In addition, the majority of subjects used in these studies were autistic. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT.Methods A Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (99mTc-ECD) brain SPECT study was performed on an ASD group consisting of 23 children (3 girls and 20 boys; mean age (7.2±3.0) years) who were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria and an age-matched control group with 8children (1 girl and 7 boys, mean age (5.5±2.4) years). Image data were evaluated with Statistical Parametric Mapping,5th version (SPM5). A Student's t test for unpaired data was used to compare rCBF and asymmetry in the autism and corresponding control group. The covariance analysis, taking age as covariance, was performed between the ASD and control group.Results There was a significant reduction in rCBF in the bilateral frontal lobe (frontal poles, arcula frontal gyrus) and the bilateral basal ganglia in the autism group, and a reduction in the bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, legumina nucleus and cerebellum in the AS group compared to the control. In addition, asymmetry of hemispheric hypoperfusion in the ASD group was observed. Inner-group comparison analysis revealed that rCBF decreased significantly in the bilateral frontal lobe (42.7%), basal nucleus (24.9%) and temporal lobe (22.8%) in the autism

  7. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0{+-}2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3{+-}4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group.

  8. Motor cortex stimulation(MCS) for intractable complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II: PSM analysis of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Son, B. C.; Yoo, I. R.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, E. N.; Park, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    We had experienced a patient with intractable CRPS in whom statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of cerebral perfusion explained the mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old man presented spontaneous severe burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. After the electrodes for neuromodulation therapy were inserted in the central sulcus, the baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD were obtained within two days. The differences between the baseline and stimulation SPECT images, estimated at every voxel using t-statistics using SPM-99 software, were considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Among several areas significantly activated following pain relief with MCS, ipsilateral pyramidal tract in the cerebral peduncle might be related to the mechanism of pain control with MCS through efferent motor pathway. The result suggested that corticospinal neurons themselves or motor cortex efferent pathway maintained by the presence of intact corticospinal neurons could play an important role in producing pain control after MCS. This study would helpful in understanding of neurophysiology.

  9. Experimental determination of the weighting factor for the energy window subtraction-based downscatter correction for I-123 in brain SPECT studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin; Holm, Søren; Thomsen, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    were investigated in this study. Energy windows with a width of 32 keV were centered at 159 keV and 200 keV. The weighting factor was measured both with an I-123 point source and in a dopamine transporter brain SPECT study in 10 human subjects (5 healthy subjects and 5 patients) by minimizing......Correction for downscatter in I-123 SPECT can be performed by the subtraction of a secondary energy window from the main window, as in the triple-energy window method. This is potentially noise sensitive. For studies with limited amount of counts (e.g. dynamic studies), a broad subtraction window...... with identical width is preferred. This secondary window needs to be weighted with a factor higher than one, due to a broad backscatter peak from high-energy photons appearing at 172 keV. Spatial dependency and the numerical value of this weighting factor and the image contrast improvement of this correction...

  10. Correction for scatter and septal penetration using convolution subtraction methods and model-based compensation in {sup 123}I brain SPECT imaging-a Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Anne [Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Ljungberg, Michael [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Mo, Susanna Jakobson [Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Riklund, Katrine [Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Johansson, Lennart [Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2006-11-21

    Scatter and septal penetration deteriorate contrast and quantitative accuracy in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this study four different correction techniques for scatter and septal penetration are evaluated for {sup 123}I brain SPECT. One of the methods is a form of model-based compensation which uses the effective source scatter estimation (ESSE) for modelling scatter, and collimator-detector response (CDR) including both geometric and penetration components. The other methods, which operate on the 2D projection images, are convolution scatter subtraction (CSS) and two versions of transmission dependent convolution subtraction (TDCS), one of them proposed by us. This method uses CSS for correction for septal penetration, with a separate kernel, and TDCS for scatter correction. The corrections are evaluated for a dopamine transporter (DAT) study and a study of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), performed with {sup 123}I. The images are produced using a recently developed Monte Carlo collimator routine added to the program SIMIND which can include interactions in the collimator. The results show that the method included in the iterative reconstruction is preferable to the other methods and that the new TDCS version gives better results compared with the other 2D methods.

  11. Correction for scatter and septal penetration using convolution subtraction methods and model-based compensation in 123I brain SPECT imaging-a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anne; Ljungberg, Michael; Mo, Susanna Jakobson; Riklund, Katrine; Johansson, Lennart

    2006-11-21

    Scatter and septal penetration deteriorate contrast and quantitative accuracy in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this study four different correction techniques for scatter and septal penetration are evaluated for 123I brain SPECT. One of the methods is a form of model-based compensation which uses the effective source scatter estimation (ESSE) for modelling scatter, and collimator-detector response (CDR) including both geometric and penetration components. The other methods, which operate on the 2D projection images, are convolution scatter subtraction (CSS) and two versions of transmission dependent convolution subtraction (TDCS), one of them proposed by us. This method uses CSS for correction for septal penetration, with a separate kernel, and TDCS for scatter correction. The corrections are evaluated for a dopamine transporter (DAT) study and a study of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), performed with 123I. The images are produced using a recently developed Monte Carlo collimator routine added to the program SIMIND which can include interactions in the collimator. The results show that the method included in the iterative reconstruction is preferable to the other methods and that the new TDCS version gives better results compared with the other 2D methods.

  12. Correction for scatter and septal penetration using convolution subtraction methods and model-based compensation in 123I brain SPECT imaging—a Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anne; Ljungberg, Michael; Jakobson Mo, Susanna; Riklund, Katrine; Johansson, Lennart

    2006-11-01

    Scatter and septal penetration deteriorate contrast and quantitative accuracy in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this study four different correction techniques for scatter and septal penetration are evaluated for 123I brain SPECT. One of the methods is a form of model-based compensation which uses the effective source scatter estimation (ESSE) for modelling scatter, and collimator-detector response (CDR) including both geometric and penetration components. The other methods, which operate on the 2D projection images, are convolution scatter subtraction (CSS) and two versions of transmission dependent convolution subtraction (TDCS), one of them proposed by us. This method uses CSS for correction for septal penetration, with a separate kernel, and TDCS for scatter correction. The corrections are evaluated for a dopamine transporter (DAT) study and a study of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), performed with 123I. The images are produced using a recently developed Monte Carlo collimator routine added to the program SIMIND which can include interactions in the collimator. The results show that the method included in the iterative reconstruction is preferable to the other methods and that the new TDCS version gives better results compared with the other 2D methods.

  13. Change of cerebral blood flow distribution and vascular reserver according to age in Koreans measured by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Cheon; Bom, Hee Seung; Sohn, Hye Kyung; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Min, Jung Jun; Kim, Ji Yeol [College of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee Jae Tae [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the normal values of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) in normal children to aged volunteers using Tc-99m HMPAO. Thirty four right-handed normal volunteers (20 males, 14 females, mean age 40.3{+-}24.9 years, range 4 to 82 years) were underwent rest/acetazolamide (ACZ) brain SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO and the sequential injection and subtraction method. rCBF was estimated on the basis of a semiquantitative approach by means of right/left ratio, region/cerebellum and region to whole brain ratios in frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, basal ganglia, thalami, and cerebellum. CVR was measured by means of % perfusion increase calculated as % mean count change compared to rest rCBF in each regions. Mean values of right to left ratios range from 1.004 to 1.018. rCBF was highest in cerebellum and lowest in basal ganglia and thalami. Frontal and temporal rCBF decreased while occipital and thalamic rCBF increased according to age. No sexual difference of rCBF was noted. Mean CVR was 29.9{+-}12.9%. Mean CVR significantly increased to late teens, and declined thereafter. After 6th decade, CVR in both frontal lobes, left parietal lobe and right basal ganglia decreased significantly with advancing age. There was no sexual difference of CVR. Quantitative assessment of CVR was possible by ACZ Tc-99m MHPAO brain SPECT. It revealed that rCBF and CVR changed according to age in normal Korean volunteers. There was no sexual difference.

  14. Detection of misery perfusion in the cerebral hemisphere with chronic unilateral major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease using crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion: comparison of brain SPECT and PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Saito, Hideo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Terasaki, Kazunori [Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Yoshida, Kenji; Beppu, Takaaki; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Shunrou [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Tsushima, Eiki [Hirosaki University, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    In patients with unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (ICA or MCA) occlusive disease, the degree of crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion that is evident within a few months after the onset of stroke may reflect cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the affected cerebral hemisphere relative to that in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the ratio of blood flow asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere to blood flow asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) correlates with oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on PET in patients with chronic unilateral ICA or MCA occlusive disease and whether this blood flow ratio on SPECT detects misery perfusion in the affected cerebral hemisphere in such patients. Brain blood flow and OEF were assessed using {sup 15}O-PET and N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) SPECT, respectively. All images were anatomically standardized using SPM2. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the bilateral MCA territories and in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template, and affected-to-contralateral asymmetry in the MCA territory or contralateral-to-affected asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere was calculated. Sixty-three patients with reduced blood flow in the affected cerebral hemisphere on {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT were enrolled in this study. A significant correlation was observed between MCA ROI asymmetry of PET OEF and the ratio of cerebellar hemisphere asymmetry of blood flow to MCA ROI asymmetry of blood flow on PET (r = 0.381, p = 0.0019) or SPECT (r = 0.459, p = 0.0001). The correlation coefficient was higher when reanalyzed in a subgroup of 43 patients undergoing a PET study within 3 months after the last ischemic event (r = 0.541, p = 0.0001 for PET; r = 0.609, p < 0

  15. Dopamine D2-receptor imaging with [sup 123]I-iodobenzamide SPECT in migraine patients abusing ergotamine: does ergotamine cross the blood brain barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeff, N.P.; Visser, W.H.; Ferrari, M.D.; Saxena, P.R.; Royen, E.A. van (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-10-01

    Two migraine patients were studied by in vivo SPECT using the dopamine D2-receptor specific radioligand [sup 123]I-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide ([sup 123]I-IBZM) during ergotamine abuse and after withdrawal. Results were compared with 15 healthy controls. Striatum/cerebellum and striatum/occipital cortex ratios of count rate density were calculated as a semiquantitative measurement for striatal dopamine D2-receptor binding potential. No differences were found in striatal uptake of [sup 123]I-IBZM between healthy controls and the patients when on or off ergotamine. Preliminary evidence suggests that ergotamine may not occupy striatal dopamine D2-receptors to a large extent and thus may not cross the blood brain barrier in large quantities. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Assessment of Hyperperfusion by Brain Perfusion SPECT in Transient Neurological Deterioration after Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Sang Mi; Eo, Jae Sun; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Won Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Transient neurological deterioration (TND) is one of the complications after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery, and it has been assumed to be caused by postoperative transient hyperperfusion. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between TND and preoperative and postoperative cerebral perfusion status on brain perfusion SPECT following superficial temporal artery.middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis surgery. A total of 60 STA-MCA anastomosis surgeries of 56 patients (mean age: 50{+-}16 yrs; M:F=29:27; atherosclerotic disease: 33, moyamoya disease: 27) which were done between September 2003 and July 2006 were enrolled. The resting cerebral perfusion and cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) after acetazolamide challenge were measured before and 10 days after surgery using 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT. Moreover, the cerebral perfusion was measured on the third postoperative day. With the use of the statistical parametric mapping and probabilistic brain atlas, the counts for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were calculated for each image, and statistical analyses were performed. In 6 of 60 cases (10%), TND occurred after surgery. In all patients, the preoperative cerebral perfusion of affected MCA territory was significantly lower than that of contralateral side (p=0.002). The cerebral perfusion on the third and tenth day after surgery was significantly higher than preoperative cerebral perfusion (p=0.001, p=0.02). In TND patients, basal cerebral perfusion and CVR on preoperative SPECT were significantly lower than those of non-TND patients (p=0.01, p=0.05). Further, the increases in cerebral perfusion on the third day after surgery were significant higher than those in other patients (p=0.008). In patients with TND, the cerebral perfusion ratio of affected side to contralateral side on third postoperative day was significantly higher than that of other patients (p=0.002). However, there was no significant difference of

  17. Therapeutic Effects of Tongxinluo Capsule(通心络胶囊) on Patients with Acute Small Cerebral Infarction and Its Influence on SPECT Brain Perfusion Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周盛年; 周国钰; 刘黎青

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of Tongxinluo capsule (TXL, 通心络胶囊) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-ECD single photon emission computed tomography ( SPECT) brain perfusion imaging, and to observe the therapeutic effects of TXL on acute small cerebral infarction (ASCI).Methods: Thirty-four patients with ASCI were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: the control group ( n = 17) was treated with the conventional treatment, i.e. 1.0g of Citicoline added into 300 mi normal saline for intravenous dripping daily for 2 weeks and 0.8 g of Piracetam taken three times a day orally for 4 weeks, and the treatment group ( n = 17)was treated additionally with 4 TXL capsules three times a day for 4 weeks besides the conventional treatment. The 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after treatment to observe the change of rCBF, and the neurological deficit was evaluated by Edinburgh-Scandinavia stroke scale (SSS) scores and Barthel index (BI) at the same time. Results: After treatment, the rCBF in the treatment group was significantly improved ( P<0.01), while that in the control group remained unchanged, with the comparison of the rCBF in the two groups after treatment showing significant difference (P<0.01). In addition, the SSS score was significantly lower and BI significantly higher in the treatment group than those in the control group respectively after treatment. Conclusion: TXL could effectively improve rCBF and lessen the neurological deficit symptoms in patients with ASCI.

  18. Progress in BazookaSPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W; Barber, H Bradford; Furenlid, Lars R; Moore, Stephen K; Barrett, Harrison H

    2009-01-01

    Recent progress on a high-resolution, photon-counting gamma-ray and x-ray imager called BazookaSPECT is presented. BazookaSPECT is an example of a new class of scintillation detectors based on integrating detectors such as CCD(charge-coupled device) or CMOS(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) sensors. BazookaSPECT is unique in that it makes use of a scintillator in close proximity to a microchannel plate-based image intensifier for up-front optical amplification of scintillation light. We discuss progress made in bringing about compact BazookaSPECT modules and in real-time processing of event data using graphics processing units (GPUs). These advances are being implemented in the design of a high-resolution rodent brain imager called FastSPECT III. A key benefit of up-front optical gain is that any CCD/CMOS sensor can now be utilized for photon counting. We discuss the benefits and feasibility of using CMOS sensors as photon-counting detectors for digital radiography, with application in mammography and computed tomography (CT). We present as an appendix a formal method for comparing various photon-counting integrating detectors using objective statistical criteria.

  19. Differences in resting state regional cerebral blood flow assessed with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and brain atlas matching between depressed patients with and without tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A; Pagani, M; Jacobsson, H; Lindberg, G; Larsson, S A; Wägner, A; Hällstrom, T

    2002-05-01

    An increased occurrence of major depressive disorder has been reported in tinnitus patients, and of tinnitus in depressive patients. Involvement of several Brodmann areas (BAs) has been reported in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to assess the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in depressed patients with and without tinnitus. The rCBF distribution at rest was compared among 45 patients with a lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder, of whom 27 had severe tinnitus, and 26 normal healthy subjects. 99mTc-hexamethylenepropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using a three-headed gamma camera, was performed and the uptake in 34 functional sub-volumes of the brain bilaterally was assessed by a computerized brain atlas. Decreased rCBF in right frontal lobe BA 45 (Ptinnitus patients compared with non-tinnitus patients. The proportion of tinnitus patients with pronounced rCBF alterations in one or more of the temporal lobe BAs 41+21+22 was increased compared to gender matched controls (Ptinnitus (Ptinnitus patients only in three limbic BAs (Ptinnitus patients only in five BAs subserving auditory perception and processing (Pdepressed patients with and without tinnitus were found in this study. The rCBF alterations were distributed in the cortex and were particularly specific in the auditory cortex. These findings suggest that taking audiological symptoms into account may yield more consistent results between rCBF studies of depression.

  20. Targeting murine heart and brain: visualisation conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 123}I-labelled probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pissarek, M. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics-Nuclear Chemistry (INB-4), Juelich (Germany); Meyer-Kirchrath, J.; Hohlfeld, T. [Heinrich Heine University, Institute of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Vollmar, S. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne (Germany); Oros-Peusquens, A.M. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics-Medicine (INB-3), Juelich (Germany); Floegel, U.; Jacoby, C. [Heinrich Heine University, Institute of Heart and Circulation Physiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kruegel, U. [University of Leipzig, Rudolf Boehm Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Leipzig (Germany); Schramm, N. [Research Centre Juelich, Central Institute for Electronics, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The study serves to optimise conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT small animal imaging of {sup 123}I- and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals with different distributions in murine heart and brain and to investigate detection and dose range thresholds for verification of differences in tracer uptake. A Triad 88/Trionix system with three 6-pinhole collimators was used for investigation of dose requirements for imaging of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor ligand [{sup 123}I]IBZM and the cerebral perfusion tracer [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO (1.2-0.4 MBq/g body weight) in healthy mice. The fatty acid [{sup 123}I]IPPA (0.94 {+-} 0.05 MBq/g body weight) and the perfusion tracer [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi (3.8 {+-} 0.45 MBq/g body weight) were applied to cardiomyopathic mice overexpressing the prostaglandin EP{sub 3} receptor. In vivo imaging and in vitro data revealed 45 kBq total cerebral uptake and 201 kBq cardiac uptake as thresholds for visualisation of striatal [{sup 123}I]IBZM and of cardiac [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi using 100 and 150 s acquisition time, respectively. Alterations of maximal cerebral uptake of [{sup 123}I]IBZM by >20% (116 kBq) were verified with the prerequisite of 50% striatal of total uptake. The labelling with [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi revealed a 30% lower uptake in cardiomyopathic hearts compared to wild types. [{sup 123}I]IPPA uptake could be visualised at activity doses of 0.8 MBq/g body weight. Multi-pinhole SPECT enables detection of alterations of the cerebral uptake of {sup 123}I- and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled tracers in an appropriate dose range in murine models targeting physiological processes in brain and heart. The thresholds of detection for differences in the tracer uptake determined under the conditions of our experiments well reflect distinctions in molar activity and uptake characteristics of the tracers. (orig.)

  1. Spect in epilepsy; SPECT bei Anfallsleiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistel, H. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Weis, M. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Michalik, K. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Schueler, P. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Platsch, G. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Stefan, H. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Wolf, F. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is assumed that about 80 000 patients suffer from a focal form of epilepsy which can not be sufficiently controlled with medication. As potential candidates for surgery, these patients undergo stepwise monitoring procedure in which the epileptic focus is located by means of increasingly invasive methods. In Erlangen the periictal SPECT is performed, whereby the perfusion tracer is injected after onset (ictal SPECT), immediately after cessation of the seizure (postictal scan) or between the seizures (interictal scan). To administer the tracer strongly in ictal or postictal state a close functional cooperation between the neurology and nuclear medicine department must be arranged. Injection inside the monitoring unit must be attuned to federal antiradiation precaution law. In temporal lobe epilepsy, different injection-times demonstrate a large area of hyperperfusion after ictal onset, which refines in the first two postictal minutes to the generating focus together with a decreased parietal blood flow pattern. Later, the entire temporal lobe epilepsy an early tracer injection within 40 seconds has to be achieved, otherwise an ictal propagation into distant brain areas, possibly contralateral, may occur. Extratemporal epilepsy is often linked to trauma or congenital malformations, and is difficult to categorize. In difficult cases with equivocal results, efforts can be undertaken by means of receptor scintigraphy with, for example, iomazenil, to localize the focus as a cold lesion caused by neuronal loss. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland leiden nach vorsichtigen Schaetzungen ca. 80 000 Patienten an einer fokalen Epilepsieform, die mit Medikamenten nur unzureichend kontrolliert werden kann. Als potentielle Kandidaten fuer einen epilepsiechirurgischen Eingriff werden sie einem intensiven Monitoringverfahren unterzogen, in dem stufenweise nach dem Grad der Invasivitaet gesteigert, verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zu

  2. Comparison of two I-123 labeled SPECT probes, for the dopamine transporter in non-human primate brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandelman, M.S.; Scanley, B.E.; Al-Tikrite, M.S. [Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    A comparative SPECT evaluation of the regional uptake of 28-carboisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (IP-CIT) and 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ({beta}-CIT) was performed to assess the improved specificity of IP-CIT over {beta}-CIT for the dopamine (DE) transporter, as shown previously by in vitro studies (n=10), ranging from 7 to 10 hours with 6.9 to 15 mCi injected dose, were completed in 3 baboons. Peripheral metabolism of the two ligands were similar The SPECT images utilized ROIs over striatum (which reflect DA transporters), midbrain (previously shown for {beta}-CIT to reflect primarily serotonin transporters), and the occipital lobe (a region of non-specific uptake). The time to peak specific striatal uptake (striatal minus occipital activity) was similar for IP-CIT and {beta}-CIT (377{plus_minus}60 and 410{plus_minus}60 min, respectively); whereas midbrain peak activity occurred at a significantly earlier time for IP-CIT (21{plus_minus}4 min) as compared to {beta}-CIT (60{plus_minus}17 min). At time of peak specific striatal activity, striatal to occipital ratios were 2.7+0.6 for IP-CIT and 7.6{plus_minus}0.7 for {beta}-CIT, and at time of peak midbrain activity, midbrain to occipital ratios were 1.1{plus_minus}0.1 for IP-CIT, and 1.7{plus_minus}0.2 for {beta}-CIT. At peak specific striatal time, normalized regional uptake values ({mu}Ci/cc per {mu}Ci injected dose per g body mass) for the striatum were 4.9{plus_minus}1.1 IP-CIT and 5.2{plus_minus}0.7 {beta}-CIT, whereas for the occipital lobe normalized regional uptake values were 1.9{plus_minus}0.4 IP-CIT and 0.7{plus_minus}0.2 for {beta}-CIT. Similar regional kinetics in the striatum were observed, as both ligands demonstrate comparable peak striatal uptake and time to peak.

  3. Comparison between a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system in the measurement of the loss of dopamine transporters with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Pellecchia, Maria T.; Salvatore, Elena; de Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Amboni, Marianna [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); IDC-Hermitage, Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    Dual-head SPECT systems are used by many clinical departments for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging, while triple-head or brain-dedicated systems with better imaging performance are more commonly used by research institutions. There are limited data comparing the capability of the two types of system to measure dopamine transporter (DAT) loss in vivo. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system to estimate the degree of DAT loss in different movement disorders with variable nigrostriatal impairment, with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Four patients with essential tremor, 24 with Parkinson's disease (PD), six with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 and six controls were studied with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. SPECT scans were performed on a dual-head (E.CAM - Siemens) and subsequently on a brain-dedicated system (Ceraspect - DSI). Striatal DAT outcome measures on the E.CAM and the Ceraspect were strongly correlated and the putamen-to-caudate ratios were almost identical. Although the measured values were lower by 52 {+-} 25% in caudate and by 51 {+-} 31% in putamen on the E.CAM (p < 0.0001), the average striatal DAT decrease in each patient group compared with controls was similar for both systems. In PD patients, similar correlations (p < 0.05) were found between motor UPDRS or Hoehn and Yahr stage and striatal DAT density. Despite underestimation of striatal DAT outcome measures, the E.CAM showed similar capability as the Ceraspect in measuring the degree of nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit and assessing the correlation between DAT outcome measures and clinical variables of PD severity and stage. (orig.)

  4. Automatic composition of MRI and SPECT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Hiromi [Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    The new method to automatically compose MRI image and SPECT image was devised to support the SPECT image which was inferior in the morphological information. This method is a kind of the coordinate transformation to obtain maximal agreement between images using cross correlation of MRI image and SPECT image as the evaluation function to show the degree of the agreement. For the calculation of the cross correlation, MRI T1 weighted image and the morphological information of SPECT image treated by the spatial quadratic differentiation (Laplacian) were used. This method does not require to fix the control point in the tomographic imaging, and can be also applied to PET other than SPECT. This is also useful to follow up the chronological change of a patient by composition among SPECT images and among PET images. Since this method is focused on the internal structure of brain, it is also useful for cases such as cerebral infarction which brain structure has little change. But this method is still under the trial and the examination of the accuracy remained. (K.H.)

  5. Development and evaluation of Monte Carlo-based SPECT reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, J.

    2009-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is one of the most applied molecular imaging techniques to diagnose human diseases, e.g., of the heart, the brain or in oncology. For example, cardiac SPECT imaging plays a central role in diagnosing coronary heart diseases by providing clinicians w

  6. Comparison of two neural network classifiers in the differential diagnosis of essential tremor and Parkinson's disease by {sup 123}I-FP-CIT brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palumbo, Barbara [University of Perugia, Nuclear Medicine Section, Department of Surgical, Radiological and Odontostomatological Sciences, Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia, Perugia (Italy); Fravolini, Mario Luca [University of Perugia, Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Perugia (Italy); Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Madeddu, Giuseppe [University of Sassari, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sassari (Italy); Paulus, Kai Stephan [University of Sassari, Department of Neurology, Sassari (Italy); Schillaci, Orazio [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Rome (Italy); IRCSS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    To contribute to the differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET), we compared two different artificial neural network classifiers using {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT data, a probabilistic neural network (PNN) and a classification tree (ClT). {sup 123}I-FP-CIT brain SPECT with semiquantitative analysis was performed in 216 patients: 89 with ET, 64 with PD with a Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) score of {<=}2 (early PD), and 63 with PD with a H and Y score of {>=}2.5 (advanced PD). For each of the 1,000 experiments carried out, 108 patients were randomly selected as the PNN training set, while the remaining 108 validated the trained PNN, and the percentage of the validation data correctly classified in the three groups of patients was computed. The expected performance of an ''average performance PNN'' was evaluated. In analogy, for ClT 1,000 classification trees with similar structures were generated. For PNN, the probability of correct classification in patients with early PD was 81.9{+-}8.1% (mean{+-}SD), in patients with advanced PD 78.9{+-}8.1%, and in ET patients 96.6{+-}2.6%. For ClT, the first decision rule gave a mean value for the putamen of 5.99, which resulted in a probability of correct classification of 93.5{+-}3.4%. This means that patients with putamen values >5.99 were classified as having ET, while patients with putamen values <5.99 were classified as having PD. Furthermore, if the caudate nucleus value was higher than 6.97 patients were classified as having early PD (probability 69.8{+-}5.3%), and if the value was <6.97 patients were classified as having advanced PD (probability 88.1%{+-}8.8%). These results confirm that PNN achieved valid classification results. Furthermore, ClT provided reliable cut-off values able to differentiate ET and PD of different severities. (orig.)

  7. NeuroGam Software Analysis in Epilepsy Diagnosis Using 99mTc-ECD Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Gao, Jianqing; Jing, Jianmin; Pan, Liping; Li, Dongxue; Wei, Lingge

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the value of NeuroGam software in diagnosis of epilepsy by 99Tcm-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain imaging. Material/Methods NeuroGam was used to analyze 52 cases of clinically proven epilepsy by 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging. The results were compared with EEG and MRI, and the positive rates and localization to epileptic foci were analyzed. Results NeuroGam analysis showed that 42 of 52 epilepsy cases were abnormal. 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging revealed ...

  8. Effect of acupuncture on regional cerebral blood flow at acupoints GV 20, GV. 26, LI, 4. ST. 36, SP. 6 evaluated by Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung; Kang, Hwa Jeong; Kim, Seong Min; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Ji Yeul [College of Medicine, Dongshin Univ., Naju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Soo Gi [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at acupoints suggested by oriental medicine to be related to the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Rest/acupuncture-stimulation Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT using a same-dose subtraction method was performed on 54 normal volunteers (34 males, 20 females, age range from 18 to 62 years) using six paradigms: acupuncture at acupoints GV. 20, GV. 26, LI. 4, ST. 36 and SP. 6. In the control study, needle location was chosen on a non-meridian focus 1 cm posterior to the right fibular head. All images were spatially normalized, and the differences between rest and acupuncture stimulation were statistically analyzed using SPM for Windows. Acupuncture applied at acupoint GV. 20 increased rCBF in both the anterior frontal lobes, the right frontotemporal lobes, and the left anterior temporal lobe and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Acupuncture at GV. 26 increased rCBF in the left prefrontal cortex. Acupuncture at LI. 4 increased rCBF in the left prefrontal and both the inferior frontal lobes, and the left anterior temporal lobe and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Acupuncture at ST. 36 increased rCBF in the left anterior temporal lobe, the right inferior frontal lobes, and the left cerebellum. Acupuncture at SP 6 increased rCBF in the left inferior frontal and anterior temporal lobes. In the control stimulation, no significant rCBF increase was observed. The results demonstrated a correlation between stimuation at each acupoint with increase in rCBF to the corresponding brain areas.

  9. Application of Quantitative Analysis in Brain SPECT Imaging of Neuropsychiatric in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus%定量分析在系统性红斑狼疮脑病SPECT脑显像中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许守林; 冯雪凤; 施鸣

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate a method for the quantitative analysis in 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging of neuropsychiatric in systemic lupus erythematosus and the correlation of visual and quantitative analysis. Methods: 99mTc-ECD SPECT imaging was performed in 33 SLE patients and 29 controls. The results were analyzed by visual and quantitative comparison. The images were analyzed with brain search (BS). Results: The change of cerebral blood flow, especially decreases in regional cerebral blood flow were associated with serious neuropsychiatric SLE presentations. Cingulate gyrus and temporal- parietal were most involved areas under unpaired t-test. The positive rate of SPECT imaging by visual and quantitative analysis was respectively 51.51%, and 57.57%. The method of quantitative and visual analysis had high correlation. Conclusions: 99mTc-ECD SPECT could easily demonstrate metabolic, functional lesions and cerebral blood flow change without structural abnormalities. The sensitivity of cerebral blood flow perfusion SPECT imaging was high, but lack of specificity. The combination of brain perfusion SPECT and brain search (BS) was a convenient and shortcut method to align the disfunctional areas of the brain. 99Tcm-ECD SPECT was a useful and objective method for detecting perfusion abnormalities in SLE patients.%目的:探讨定量分析在SPECT脑99mTc-ECD显像检测系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)脑病中的应用价值和目测分析与定量分析方法的相关性.方法:选择年龄匹配的健康人作比较,分别对33例SLE患者和29例正常对照进行SPECT脑血流灌注显像,采用肉眼读片分析及定量分析进行评价,BS软件进行分析.结果:狼疮脑病患者99mTc-ECD显像有脑血流改变,多表现为局部脑血流降低.肉眼读片分析SPECT诊断的SLE脑部受损的阳性率为51.51%,定量分析的阳性率达57.57%.成组t检验示扣带回、颞顶叶等部位最常受累.结论:SPECT脑血流灌注显像可探查到脑组织代谢

  10. Avaliação de foco epileptogênico do lobo temporal: correlação entre SPECT ictal, ressonância magnética e ressonância magnética com espectroscopia de prótons Evaluation of epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe: correlation between ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Martins Diegues

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a existência de concordância entre os métodos radioisotópico e radiológico e, em caso positivo, avaliar a utilidade do SPECT ictal na determinação do foco epileptogênico. Foram realizados SPECT ictal, ressonância magnética (RM e ressonância magnética com espectroscopia de prótons (RME em seis pacientes com epilepsia de lobo temporal refratária. O SPECT ictal foi realizado após a retirada das drogas antiepilépticas durante monitoramento por vídeo-EEG, utilizando-se o 99mTc-ECD, administrado aos pacientes no início da crise. As imagens de RM foram obtidas em T1, T2 e FLAIR, com cortes de 3 e 5 mm de espessura, e a RME foi realizada com técnica PRESS, com voxel único posicionado no hipocampo, bilateralmente. A análise estatística incluiu os valores de Kappa (k, erro-padrão (ep e o nível de significância (p para a lateralização do foco. Os achados foram analisados com base na localização por EEG da descarga ictal, no tempo de duração da crise (109-280 s; média: 152 s e no tempo de administração do traçador (30-262 s; média: 96 s. Obtivemos dados correlatos em quatro pacientes (67%, com valores de k = 0,67, ep = 0,38 e p = 0,041. Concluímos que existe concordância entre SPECT ictal, RM e RME, e a utilidade do procedimento radioisotópico está relacionada aos casos em que o EEG não é diagnóstico e quando há discordância ou indefinição diagnóstica na análise comparativa entre EEG, RM e RME.The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of concordance between radiological and radioisotopic methods and, if positive, to evaluate the usefulness of ictal SPECT in the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS were performed on six patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT was performed after withdrawal of the anti-epileptogenic drugs during video

  11. Evaluation of neuro-Behcet disease with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. Comparison with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Yoshirou; Oshima, Motoo; Sasaki, Yasushi [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brain perfusion of neuro-Behcet disease using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. In total, nine patients (7 men and 2 women) were evaluated. Seven were in the chronic phase, one was acute and the other was subacute. The results of perfusion study were compared with the MRI findings. The findings of chronic-phase neuro-Behcet disease were as follows: {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO showed hypoperfusion of the cerebellum in 3, brain stem in 5, and cerebral cortex in 4 patients. Moreover, asymmetry of the basal ganglia and thalamus was seen in 4 cases with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. MRI showed atrophy of the cerebellum in 4, brain stem in 5 and cerebral cortex in 2 patients. One acute patient showed a perfusion defect with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO that was consistent with the vasculitis shown with MRI. In the remaining subacute patient, perfusion defect was demonstrated with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO, consistent with the infarction shown with MRI. It is concluded that brain perfusion scintigraphy is useful to evaluate the brain blood flow of neuro-Behcet disease. (author)

  12. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, R.F. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder which has just begun to be studied with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). Epilepsy usually is studied with electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques that demonstrate the physiologic changes that occur during seizures, and with neuroimaging techniques that show the brain structures where seizures originate. Neither method alone has been adequate to describe the pathophysiology of the patient with epilepsy. EEG techniques lack anatomic sensitivity, and there are no structural abnormalities shown by neuroimaging which are specific for epilepsy. Functional imaging (FI) has developed as a physiologic tool with anatomic sensitivity, and SPECT has been promoted as a FI technique because of its potentially wide availability. However, SPECT is early in its development and its clinical utility for epilepsy still has to be demonstrated. To understand this role of SPECT, consideration must be given to the pathophysiology of epilepsy, brain physiology, types of seizure, epileptic syndromes, and the SPECT technique itself. 44 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. SPECT in psychiatry; Die Bedeutung der Hirn-SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, S. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Psychiatrie, Wien (Austria); Gruenwald, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Danos, P. [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Bonn (Germany); Walter, H. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Psychiatrie, Wien (Austria); Klemm, E. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bruecke, T. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria); Podreka, I. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria); Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1994-10-01

    In the last fifteen years different attempts have been undertaken to understand the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. One important tool to determine patterns of brain dysfunction is single emission computed tomography (SPECT). Whereas SPECT investigations are already a valuable diagnostic instrument for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) there have not been consistent findings that can be referred to as specific for any other particular psychiatric diagnostic entity. Nevertheless, SPECT studies have been able to demonstrate evidence of brain dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in which other methods showed no clear abnormality of brain function. Our manuscript reviews the data which are currently available in the literature and stresses the need for further studies, especially for prediction and monitoring psychiatric treatment modalities. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den vergangenen 15 Jahren wurde durch verschiedene methodologische Ansaetze versucht, die biologischen Ursachen psychiatrischer Erkrankungen naeher zu erforschen. Als eine bedeutende Methode hat sich dabei die Single-Photonen-Emissions-Computertomographie (SPECT) herausgestellt. Waehrend die SPECT-Untersuchungen bereits Eingang in die Routinediagnostik bei Demenzen vom Alzheimer-Typ gefunden haben, konnten fuer weitere psychiatrische Erkrankungen noch keine eindeutigen Befunde etabliert werden. Mit der SPECT-Methode ist es jedoch gelungen, funktionelle Veraenderungen des Gehirns von psychiatrischen Erkrankungen darzustellen, wie z.B. Schizophrenie, Depression, Angsterkrankungen bzw. Substanzmissbrauch. In Forschungsprotokollen wird durch die SPECT-Methode versucht, abzuklaeren, inwieweit es moeglich ist, innerhalb der Erkrankungsentitaeten psychiatrischer Erkrankungen oder auch diese uebergreifend eine Subklassifizierung zu finden und evtl. Gehirnsysteme ausfindig zu machen, die mit einer spezifischen

  14. Assessment of brain cell function using {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT of cerebral blood flow and visual evoked potential by photic stimulation in normal and demented elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kimikazu; Takasaki, Masaru [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan); Katsunuma, Hideyo; Ishida, Hitoshi

    1999-09-01

    Cerebral blood flow was quantitatively measured using {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT by photic stimulation and visual evoked potential (VEPs) in normal and dementia subjects: 8 with Alzheimer-type dementia, 9 with cerebrovascular dementia and 7 normal elderly subjects were divided into the three groups based on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) grade: Group I (CDR 0), Group II (CDR 0.5-1), Group III (CDR 2-3). The {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT measurement was conducted at rest with the eyes closed and also during photic stimulation. VEPs were measured simultaneously. The results reveal prolongation of the P2 latency of the VEPs prolonged in accordance with the increasing severity of the dementia, and quantitative cerebral blood flow was lower in Group II and Group III than in Group I at rest, while during photic stimulation it significantly increased in Group I and II, but showed no change in Group III. The results suggest that quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow using {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT by photic stimulation may enable more detailed assessment of brain cell function. (author)

  15. Differentiation of Parkinson's Disease and Essential Tremor on I-123 IPT(I-123-N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-cholorophenyl) tropane) Brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Moon Sun [Kwandong University College of Medicine, Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Tae Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Min [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jai Yong; Ryu, Won Gee; Lee, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Young Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The study was to assess I-123-N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2[beta]-carbomethoxy-3[beta]-(4-cholorophenyl) tropane (IPT) SPECT in differential diagnosis among early stage of Parkinson's disease(PD) and essential tremor(ET) and normal control(NL) groups quantitatively. I-123 IPT brain SPECT of 50 NL, 20 early PD, 30 advanced PD, and 20 ET were performed at 20 minutes and 2 hours. Specific/nonspecific binding of striatum was calculated by using right and left striatal specific to occipital non-specific uptake ratio (striatum-OCC/OCC). Mean value of specific/nonspecific binding ratio was significantly different between advanced PD group and NL group. However, significant overlap of striatal specific/nonspecific binding ratio was observed between PD group and ET group. Bilateral striatal specific/nonspecific binding ratios were decreased in advanced PD. Lateralized differences in the striatal uptake of I-123 IPT correlated with asymmetry in clinical findings in PD group. I-123 IPT SPECT may be a useful method for the diagnosis of PD and objective evaluation of progress of clinical stages. Care should be made in the differential diagnosis of early stage of PD and other motor disturbances mimicking PD such as ET in view of significant overlap in striatal I-123 specific/nonspecific binding ratio.

  16. SPECT in Focal Epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion changes during seizures were first observed in the 1930s. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT was developed in the 1970s, and tracers suitable for the imaging of regional cerebral perfusion (rCP became available in the 1980s. The method was first used to study rCP in the interictal phase, and this showed areas of low perfusion in a proportion of cases, mainly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. However, the trapping paradigm of tracers such as hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO provided a practicable method of studying changes in rCP during seizures, and a literature was established in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing a typical sequence of changes during and after seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin; the ictal phase was associated with large increases in perfusion throughout the temporal lobe, with first the lateral, then the mesial temporal lobe becoming hypoperfused in the postictal phase. Activation and inhibition of other structures, such as the basal ganglia and frontal cortex, were also seen. Studies of seizures originating elsewhere in the brain have shown a variety of patterns of change, according to the structures involved. These changes have been used practically to aid the process of localisation of the epileptogenic zone so that epilepsy surgery can be planned.

  17. SPECT and PET in Eating Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Audenaert, Kurt; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques like PET and SPECT have been applied for investigation of brain function in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Regional abnormalities have been detected in cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, the availability of several neurotransmitter receptors (serotonin 1A and 2A, dopa

  18. SPECT and PET in Eating Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Audenaert, Kurt; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques like PET and SPECT have been applied for investigation of brain function in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Regional abnormalities have been detected in cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, the availability of several neurotransmitter receptors (serotonin 1A and 2A,

  19. Experimental determination of the weighting factor for the energy window subtraction-based downscatter correction for I-123 in brain SPECT studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin; Holm, Søren; Thomsen, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    Correction for downscatter in I-123 SPECT can be performed by the subtraction of a secondary energy window from the main window, as in the triple-energy window method. This is potentially noise sensitive. For studies with limited amount of counts (e.g. dynamic studies), a broad subtraction window...

  20. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  1. Phase 1 clinical study of {sup 123}I-IBF, a new radioligand for evaluating dopamine D{sub 2} receptor with SPECT (II). Pharmacokinetics study and quantification in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Sadato, Norihiro; Nakamura, Satoshi [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan). High Energy Medical Research Center; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Uematsu, Hidemasa; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Ishii, Yasushi

    1999-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of (S)-5-iodo-7-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl) carboxamido-2,3-dihydro-benzofuran ({sup 123}I-IBF) in the brain were studied in 12 healthy male volunteers as a Phase 1 clinical study. The striatum-to-frontal cortex count ratio (-1)(St/Fc-1), which is a semi-quantitative index of the binding potential of {sup 123}I-IBF reached 1.81{+-}0.19 and 2.21{+-}0.39 at 90-120 min and 180-210 min after intravenous injection of {sup 123}I-IBF. St/Fc-1 obtained by SPECT at these times correlated well with the distribution volume ratio (-1)(Vd(St)/Vd(Fc)-1) based on three-compartment model analysis using an input function obtained by intermittent arterial sampling. The binding potential (BP{sub R}), calculated by the curvefitting method using the time-activity curve in the reference region, also correlated well with the Vd(St)/Vd(Fc)-1. The intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibilities of the striatum-to-cerebral cortex count ratios obtained using fixed-shape regions of interest (template ROIs) were superior to those obtained using manual ROIs. These results suggest that {sup 123}I-IBF is a promising agent for non-invasive quantification of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (D{sub 2}-R) binding potential by SPECT. (author)

  2. Tracer accumulation in radiation necrosis of the brain after thallium-201 SPECT and [{sup 11}C]methionine PET. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Oda, Junro [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ochi, Hironobu

    2001-08-01

    A 69-year-old woman was treated by local irradiation for a malignant lymphoma of the left parotid gland. Three years after the radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging revealed heterogeneously enhanced masses in the left temporal lobe and left cerebellum. Thallium-201 chloride single photon emission computed tomography (Tl-SPECT) revealed high uptake and [{sup 11}C]methionine positron emission tomography (Met-PET) revealed moderate uptake in both masses. Stereotactic biopsy was performed. The histological diagnosis was radiation necrosis. She was treated with steroids. Neurosurgeons should be aware of the difficulty in differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis even with Tl-SPECT and Met-PET, and the importance of obtaining a histological diagnosis for radiation necrosis. (author)

  3. SPECT in epilepsies; SPECT bei Epilepsien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, H. [Neurologische Klinik, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Zentrum Epilepsie Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Registration of regional cerebral blood flow provides important new data for the investigation of pathophysiological processes in epilepsies. Further to the registration of perfusions, receptor studies are employed for the differentiation of localisation in focal epilepsies. For ultimative issues interictal registrations are supplemented by ictal recordings during the epileptic seizure. The combination of SPECT and electrophysiological registration can contribute to analysis of propagation of focal epileptic activity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Messung der regionalen Hirndurchblutung liefert wichtige neue Erkenntnis zur Untersuchung pathophysiologischer Ablaeufe bei Epilepsien. Ergaenzend zur Registrierung der Perfusion koennen Rezeptor-Studien zur Differenzierung der Lokalisation fokaler Epilepsien beitragen. Interiktale Registrierungen werden fuer letztere Fragestellung durch iktuale Messungen waehrend des epileptischen Anfalls ergaenzt. Die Kombination von SPECT und elektrophysiologischen Registrierungen kann zur Analyse der Propagation fokaler epileptischer Aktivitaet beitragen. (orig.)

  4. The role of cognitive group therapy and happiness training on cerebral blood flow using 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT: a quasi-experimental study of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, M; Bahrieniain, S A; Baghdasarians, A; Emamipur, S; Azizmohammadi, Z; Qutbi, S M; Javadi, H; Assadi, M; Asli, I N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of cognitive group therapy and happiness training objectively in the local cerebral blood flow of patients with major depression (MD). The present research is semi-experimental to pre- and post-test with a control group. Three groups were formed, and this number was incorporated in each group: 12 patients were chosen randomly; the first group of depressed patients benefited from the combination of pharmacotherapy and sessions of cognitive group therapy; the second group used a combination of pharmacotherapy and sessions of happiness training; and a third group used only pharmacotherapy. We compared cognitive-behavioural therapy and happiness training efficacy with only pharmacotherapy in MD patients. We performed brain perfusion SPECT in each group, before and after each trial. The study was conducted on 36 patients with MD (32 women and 4 men; mean age: 41.22 ± 9.08; range: 27-65 years). There were significant differences regarding the two trial effects into two experimental groups (p 0.05). In addition, there was significant difference among the regional cerebral blood flow in the frontal and prefrontal regions into two experimental groups before and after trials (p 0.05). This study demonstrated decreased cerebral perfusion in the frontal regions in MD patients, which increased following cognitive group therapy and happiness training. Because of its availability, low costs, easy performance, and the objective semi-quantitative information supplied, brain perfusion SPECT scanning might be useful to assess the diagnosis and therapy efficacy. Further exploration is needed to validate its clinical role.

  5. PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field.

  6. Quantification of rat brain SPECT with 123I-ioflupane: evaluation of different reconstruction methods and image degradation compensations using Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roé-Vellvé, N.; Pino, F.; Falcon, C.; Cot, A.; Gispert, J. D.; Marin, C.; Pavía, J.; Ros, D.

    2014-08-01

    SPECT studies with 123I-ioflupane facilitate the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The effect on quantification of image degradations has been extensively evaluated in human studies but their impact on studies of experimental PD models is still unclear. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of compensating for the degrading phenomena on the quantification of small animal SPECT studies using 123I-ioflupane. This assessment enabled us to evaluate the feasibility of quantitatively detecting small pathological changes using different reconstruction methods and levels of compensation for the image degrading phenomena. Monte Carlo simulated studies of a rat phantom were reconstructed and quantified. Compensations for point spread function (PSF), scattering, attenuation and partial volume effect were progressively included in the quantification protocol. A linear relationship was found between calculated and simulated specific uptake ratio (SUR) in all cases. In order to significantly distinguish disease stages, noise-reduction during the reconstruction process was the most relevant factor, followed by PSF compensation. The smallest detectable SUR interval was determined by biological variability rather than by image degradations or coregistration errors. The quantification methods that gave the best results allowed us to distinguish PD stages with SUR values that are as close as 0.5 using groups of six rats to represent each stage.

  7. Cerebral hemodynamic difference between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease by circumferential profile analysis with [sup 123]I-IMP brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Hisayuki; Hanyu, Haruo; Abe, Shinei; Asano, Tetsuichi; Takasaki, Masaru; Suzuki, Takanari; Abe, Kimihiko (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)); Katsunuma, Hideyo

    1992-10-01

    We conducted investigation to determine whether early- and late-onset Alzheimer's diseases differ pathophysiologically. Five patients with the early-onset (65 years and under) of the disease and 11 with the late-onset (65 years and over) of the disease were studied by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). Circumferential profile analysis (CPA) was performed to examine differences in the predominant hypoperfusion in the temporoparietal lobe, which is considered to be functionally damaged the most in Alzheimer's disease. The Xm values, calculated from gradients between the motorsensory or occipital cortices and temporoparietal cortex in the circumferential profile curve, were compared in both groups. The Xm values for patients with early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease were 6.81[+-]2.10 (counts/degree) and 3.28[+-]1.58, respectively, the difference being significant. Our results suggest that functional abnormalities in the temporoparietal area severer in early- than late-onset Alzheimer's disease and that the application of CPA to IMP SPECT is useful to elucidate the pathophysiological difference between each of the disease. (author).

  8. The value of brain blood perfusion SPECT imaging in evaluation of the curative effect of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with ischemic brain injury%脑SPECT显像对高压氧治疗脑外伤后脑缺血疗效判断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玉新; 李春梅; 刘琳; 黄彩英

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨SPECT脑血流灌注显像对高压氧(HBO)治疗脑外伤继发脑缺血患者疗效判断的价值.方法 将65例脑外伤继发脑缺血患者按随机数字表法分为HBO治疗组和常规治疗组,在治疗前后分别进行脑血流灌注SPECT显像,应用计算机感兴趣区(ROI)技术,在横断面图像上采用局部镜像比值(Ra)法判断脑缺血病灶,Ra≤0.9视为异常.对治疗前后的脑血流灌注减低区Ra值进行比较.数据间的比较行t检验.结果 HBO治疗组治疗前后局部脑血流(Rcbf)减低区Ra值分别为0.58±0.11和0.82±0.12(t=7.327,P<0.01),常规治疗组治疗前后rCBF减低区R且值分别为0.61±0.13和0.73±0.12(t=2.153,P=0.038);HBO治疗组和常规治疗组缺血灶rCBF增加值分别为0.24±0.08和0.12±0.06(t=2.571,P=0.015).结论 SPECT脑血流灌注显像可灵敏地反映HBO治疗脑外伤后脑缺血前后rCBF变化,可用于HBO治疗疗效的评价.%Objective Brain blood flow SPECT perfusion can detect changes in brain blood flow. The obiective of this study was to explore the clinical value of SPECT perfusion imaging in brain ischemic injury due to tmumatic at before and after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)treatment.Methods Sixty-five cases of secondary ischemic brain injury patients were randomly divided into two groups.One was with HBO treat-ment group and the other was with conventional treatment.All had brain perfusion SPECT at before and after treatment.Computer region of interest(ROI)technology was applied in the cross-sectional images using lo-cat mirror ratio(Ra)method to determine cerebral ischemic lesions.The t-test was used to analyze the quantitative data.It would be considered as abnormal if the brain perfusion SPECT reduce Ra≤0.9 aftertreatment.Results In HBO treatment group.regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF)before and after treat-ment to reduce the district Ra values were 0.58±0.1l and 0.82±0.12(t=7.327,P<0.01).In con-ventional treatment group.Rcbf before and after treatment

  9. {sup 125}I-iomazenil binding shows stress- and/or diazepam-induced reductions in mouse brain. Supporting data for {sup 123}I-iomazenil SPECT study of anxiety disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Odano, Ikuo [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Fujita, Shozo; Ohkubo, Masaki

    1997-08-01

    Effects of repeated swim stress on the binding of {sup 125}I-iomazenil were examined in the brains of diazepam-treated and non-treated mice. The mice were orally administered diazepam or vehicle (0.5% ethylene glycol) and subjected to daily swim stress (at 20degC for 10 min) for seven consecutive days. The distribution and the amount of {sup 125}I-iomazenil binding were analyzed autoradiographically after in vivo and in vitro binding experiments. Repeated swim stress decreased the in vivo binding in the hippocampus (p<0.05) and cerebral cortex (p<0.05) of vehicle-treated mice but caused no significant changes in diazepam-treated mice. Subchronic treatment with diazepam decreased the in vivo binding approximately 50% in all brain regions examined (p<0.01). The in vitro experiment, however, revealed no significant changes except in the hippocampus, where a small but significant decrease in the binding was observed after subchronic treatment with diazepam (p<0.01). The stress- or diazepam-induced reductions seem to represent alterations in the in vivo environment related to {sup 125}I-iomazenil binding. These results suggest that we can investigate the pathophysiology of stress and anxiety with {sup 123}I-iomazenil SPECT. Care must be taken concerning the effects of benzodiazepines. (author)

  10. A review on the clinical uses of SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, Giuliano; Bruselli, Laura [University of Pisa Medical School, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Kuwert, Torsten [Friedrich-Alexander-University, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Kim, Edmund E. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Nuclear Medicine Service, Houston, TX (United States); Flotats, Albert [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Hospital de Sant Pau, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Israel, Ora [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); Watanabe, Naoyuki [International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); Gunma Prefectural College of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, Gunma (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    In the era when positron emission tomography (PET) seems to constitute the most advanced application of nuclear medicine imaging, still the conventional procedure of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is far from being obsolete, especially if combined with computed tomography (CT). In fact, this dual modality imaging technique (SPECT/CT) lends itself to a wide variety of useful diagnostic applications whose clinical impact is in most instances already well established, while the evidence is growing for newer applications. The increasing availability of new hybrid SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity to shorten acquisition time and to provide accurate attenuation correction and fusion imaging. In this review we analyse and discuss the capabilities of SPECT/CT for improving sensitivity and specificity in the imaging of both oncological and non-oncological diseases. The main advantages of SPECT/CT are represented by better attenuation correction, increased specificity, and accurate depiction of the localization of disease and of possible involvement of adjacent tissues. Endocrine and neuroendocrine tumours are accurately localized and characterized by SPECT/CT, as also are solitary pulmonary nodules and lung cancers, brain tumours, lymphoma, prostate cancer, malignant and benign bone lesions, and infection. Furthermore, hybrid SPECT/CT imaging is especially suited to support the increasing applications of minimally invasive surgery, as well as to precisely define the diagnostic and prognostic profile of cardiovascular patients. Finally, the applications of SPECT/CT to other clinical disorders or malignant tumours is currently under extensive investigation, with encouraging results in terms of diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  11. Brain perfusion SPECT for therapeutic evaluation of patients with moyamoya disease after surgery%SPECT脑血流灌注显像对烟雾病患者手术疗效的评价意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 陈雪红; 冯建中

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨SPECT脑血流灌注显像评估烟雾病(MMD)搭桥手术后rCBF改善情况的价值.方法 回顾性分析13例MMD患者[儿童5例,年龄3~8岁;成人8例,年龄45 ~ 55岁]治疗前后SPECT脑血流灌注显像的影像学资料,以同期因偶发头痛行脑灌注显像的年龄匹配者(儿童、成人各10例)为对照组.以两样本或配对t检验对2组的rCBF及病例组手术前后rCBF进行比较分析.手术后的血流恢复以DSA、MRI随访情况作参照.结果 病例组中SPECT显像目测分析示11/13的患者术后血流灌注减低区较术前有明显改善;与DSA符合率为8/11,与MRI符合率为9/11.对照组和病例组术前rCBF分别为(51.19±1.63)和(38.83±2.22) ml·100 g-1·min-1(t=-18.465,P<0.05);病例组术前、术后的rCBF分别为(38.83±2.22)和(45.03±2.63) ml·100 g-1·min-1(t=-11.707,P<0.05);病例组术后与对照组rCBF差异有统计学意义[(51.19±1.63) ml· 100 g-1·min-1;t=-8.313,P<0.05];对照组中儿童和成人的rCBF分别为(51.81±1.82)和(50.55±1.18) ml· 100 g-1·min-1,两者间差异无统计学意义(t=0.081,P>0.05).结论 SPECT脑血流灌注显像能够较好地反映MMD手术前后缺血脑组织的血流量变化,对MMD搭桥手术治疗的疗效评价具有一定价值.%Objective To investigate the value of SPECT imaging in the evaluation of rCBF improvement after bypass surgery in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD).Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted in 13 patients with MMD (5 children aged 3-8 years and 8 adults aged 45-55 years).The SPECT cerebral perfusion imaging data before and after operation were analyzed.Age matched subjects who underwent cerebral perfusion imaging for accidental headache (10 children,10 adults) were taken as control group.Two-sample t test or paired t test was used to compare rCBF of different groups.The brain DSA and MRI results during follow-up were taken as the reference of perfusion improvement.Results Based on visual judgment

  12. Memória de procedimentos e SPECT cerebral: avaliação de fluxo sanguíneo cerebelar e em córtex pré-frontal durante uma tarefa visuo-motora Procedural memory and brain SPECT: blood flow evaluation in the cerebellum and pre-frontal cortex during a visuo-motor task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Thereza Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o fluxo sanguíneo cerebral no córtex cerebelar (4 sub-regiões e no córtex pré-frontal, em repouso e durante uma tarefa motora. A amostra foi composta por 8 sujeitos saudáveis, ambos os sexos, entre 23 e 36 anos. O grupo foi submetido a tarefa visuo-motora (memória implícita que consistia na ação de desviar um submarino de supostas minas que percorriam a tela do monitor. Para avaliar a perfusão, foi utilizado o método de análise semi-quantitativa para imagens de SPECT cerebral - 99mTc-ECD. Os resultados evidenciaram aumento de atividade nas áreas de interesse durante a realização da tarefa. Em conclusão, quatro sub-regiões do córtex cerebelar e ambos os hemisférios do córtex pré-frontal apontaram uma ativação simultânea durante a tarefa. Ainda, e conforme estudos prévios, nossos resultados sugerem um modo de operação em paralelo do sistema nervoso central, no intuito de integrar uma informação sensorial e motora.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cerebral blood flow in the cerebellar (4 sub-regions and pre-frontal cortex, when subjects were in rest and during a motor task performance. The sample consisted of 8 healthy subjects, male or female, between 23 and 36 of age. The visuo-motor task _ implicit memory _ requires the subjects to navigate and swerve a graphic submarine from missiles that run on the screen. Semi-quantitative analysis with brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD was used to evaluate regional perfusion. The results revealed an increased activity in all areas of interest during motor task. In conclusion, four sub-regions of cerebellar cortex and both pre-frontal hemispheres showed a simultaneous activation during task. Moreover, our findings suggest as seen in previous experiments that the central nervous system operates in a parallel fashion, in order to integrate sensory and motor information.

  13. Evaluation of MR perfusion abnormalities in organophosphorus poisoning and its correlation with SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    K Uday Bhanu; Niranjan Khandelwal; Sameer Vyas; Paramjeet Singh; Anuj Prabhakar; B R Mittal; Ashish Bhalla

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many imaging modalities, such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain, have been used for quantitative assessment of the acute brain insult caused by acute OP poisoning. Perfusion defects on SPECT in acutely poisoned patients with OPs have been described, however, MR perfusion abnormalities have...

  14. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Experience with (S)-5-[123I]iodo-3-(2-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-[123I]IA) in the Living Human Brain of Smokers and Nonsmokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRAŠIĆ, JAMES ROBERT; ZHOU, YUN; MUSACHIO, JOHN L.; HILTON, JOHN; FAN, HONG; CRABB, ANDREW; ENDRES, CHRISTOPHER J.; REINHARDT, MELVIN J.; DOGAN, AHMET S.; ALEXANDER, MOHAB; ROUSSET, OLIVIER; MARIS, MARIKA A.; GALECKI, JEFFREY; NANDI, AYON; WONG, DEAN F.

    2009-01-01

    (S)-5-[123I]iodo-3-(2-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-[123I]IA), a novel potent radioligand for high-affinity α4β2* neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), provides a means to evaluate the density and the distribution of nAChRs in the living human brain. We sought in healthy adult smokers and nonsmokers to (1) evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of 5-[123I]IA in an open nonblind trial and (2) to estimate the density and distribution of α4β2* nAChRs in the brain. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed for five hours after the intravenous administration of approximately 0.001 μg/kg (approximately 10 mCi) 5-[123I]IA. Blood pressure, heart rate, and neurobehavioral status were monitored before, during, and after the administration of 5-[123I]IA to twelve healthy adults (8 men and 4 women) (6 smokers and 6 nonsmokers) ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (mean = 28.25, standard deviation = 8.20). High plasma nicotine level was significantly associated with low 5-[123I]IA binding in (1) the caudate head, the cerebellum, the cortex, and the putamen, utilizing both the Sign and Mann-Whitney U tests, (2) the fusiform gyrus, the hippocampus, the parahippocampus, and the pons utilizing the Mann-Whitney U test, and (3)the thalamus utilizing the Sign test. We conclude that 5-[123I]IA is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective pharmacologic agent for human subjects to estimate high-affinity α4/β2 nAChRs in the living human brain. PMID:19140167

  15. Cerebral fat embolism studied with MRI and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Namer, I.J. (Inst. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Saribas, O. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Aras, T. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine Ankara (Turkey)); Tan, E. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Bekdik, C. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine Ankara (Turkey)); Zileli, T. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey))

    1993-03-01

    In a patient with fat embolism to the brain CT showed no abnormality. MRI performed after recovery from coma, when the patient had aphasia and quadriparesis, demonstrated multiple high signal abnormalities in the white matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. HMPAO-SPECT showed left-sided hypoperfusion which resolved in parallel with clinical improvement 1 month later. (orig.)

  16. /sup 123/I-amphetamine-SPECT in the diagnosis of neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Kreiten, K.; Hartmann, A.; Friedrich, G.; Linck, H.A.; Winkler, C.

    1985-03-01

    In contrast to conventional brain scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, SPECT with /sup 123/I-IMP enables visualization of the brain tissue itself. The relevance of this imaging technique was evaluated in 54 patients with cerebral disorders. SPECT of the brain was performed with a rotating gamma camera. In 6 of 24 epileptic patients, SPECT revealed foci consistent with EEG-findings which were, however, not detected by CCT. In 4 of 25 patients with cerebrovascular disease, hypoperfused areas were detected by SPECT despite negative results obtained with CCT. In 50% (10/20) of the patients with cerebrovascular disease, SPECT showed a greater functional extent of the lesions than CCT. In 3 patients with migraine and normal CCT, regional perfusion disturbancers were found. SPECT with /sup 123/I-labeled amphetamines, therefore, enables diagnosis of functional perfusion disorders and metabolic disturbances that are not revealed by CCT. In addition, SPECT can be used to exactly demonstrate the functional extent of lesions detected by CCT.

  17. Proceedings of clinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  18. Application of SPECT to psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous, and Muscular Disorders, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) was applied to psychiatric diseases with aid of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for analysis of data. To evaluate influence of aging on brain perfusion, noninvasive measurements of cerebral blood flow using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD were performed in 53 normal volunteers, age 18 to 87 years old. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was 43.9{+-}5.0 ml/100 g/min and showed weak negative correlation with aging (r=0.451). Perisylvian cerebral cortices and medial frontal areas including anterior cingulate gyri showed greater negative correlation than other areas. These findings suggest the necessity of age-matched control regional CBF (rCBF) data to investigate rCBF abnormality in patients. Four drug-naive schizophrenic patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and superior temporal areas and a left infero-posterior temporal area. Haloperidol administration induced flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left parietal areas, while flow increase in bilateral striatal and right hippocampal areas. Ten aged depressive patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left temporo-parietal areas. Even after remission patients showed flow decrease in the left frontal area as compared with normal subjects. Remission induced flow increase in the right frontal, right parietal, and right orbitofrontal areas compared with depression. These results suggest that CBF measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD were useful for objective evaluation of regional abnormality in brain function in psychiatric diseases. (author)

  19. Corrections in clinical Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin

    to the known mean and median filtering. The data comes from non-anesthetized preterm infants, where motion during scanning is a common problem. Both the novel outlier identification and the independent component analysis (ICA) perform satisfactory and better than the common mean and median filtering. ICA...... a detrimental effect of the extra-uterine environment on brain development. Paper II describes a method to correct for downscatter in low count Iodine-123 SPECT with a broad energy window above the normal imaging window. Both spatial dependency and weight factors were measured. As expected, the implicitly...... of the striatum due to downscatter correction. This makes the difference between healthy subjects and patients more profound. Downscatter in Iodine-123 SPECT is not the only deteriorating mechanism. Normal scatter compromises the images quality as well. Since scatter correction of SPECT-images also can...

  20. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Endres, Christopher J. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Foss, Catherine A. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Nimmagadda, Sridhar [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Jung, Hyeyun [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Goddard, James S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lee, Seung Joon [JLAB; McKisson, John [JLAB; Smith, Mark F. [University of Maryland; Stolin, Alexander V. [West Virginia University; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Pomper, Martin G. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a ^99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, ^99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand ^123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of ^123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake.

  1. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S [ORNL; Endres, Christopher [Johns Hopkins University; Foss, Catherine [Johns Hopkins University; Nimmagadda, Sridhar [Johns Hopkins University; Jung, Hyeyun [Johns Hopkins University; Goddard Jr, James Samuel [ORNL; Lee, Seung Joon [Jefferson Lab; McKisson, John [Jefferson Lab; Smith, Mark F. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, The, Baltimore, MD; Stolin, Alexander [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Jefferson Lab; Pomper, Martin [Johns Hopkins University

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a 99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, 99mTcmethylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand 123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of 123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake.

  2. Parallel-hole collimator concept for stationary SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Lara R V; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Zedda, Tiziana; Van Holen, Roel

    2015-11-21

    Parallel-hole SPECT collimators have traditionally been manufactured by stacking sheets of lead foil or by casting. These techniques significantly restrict our options in terms of collimator geometry. However, recent developments in metal additive manufacturing are making novel collimator designs possible, giving rise to new opportunities in SPECT imaging. In this paper we propose an innovative type of collimator for stationary SPECT, using parallel-holes whose collimation direction depends on their axial position. Its main advantage compared to current stationary SPECT systems (which are based on pinholes) is that, using only axial bed translations, we can achieve complete angular sampling of an increased portion of the transaxial area of the collimator bore. This allows the system to be much more compact than current stationary SPECT systems that image objects of the same size. We describe three possible designs, for full-body, brain and small-animal imaging, respectively, and test their feasibility using simulations. The system modeling method is validated against realistic Monte Carlo simulations, and then used in the evaluation of the systems' performances and reconstructions. The simulations show that the system is able to reconstruct objects occupying the predicted field of view ([Formula: see text] of the transaxial area of the bore) without sampling artifacts. In particular, we perform reconstructions from noisy projection data obtained for an activity and scanning time similar to standard protocols for the three applications, and the resulting images indicate the possibility of using the proposed systems in practice.

  3. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C. W.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kwark, C. E.; Lee, D. S.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Han, D. H.; Koh, C. S. [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    We evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 21 Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm and in 3 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm. SPECT study could detect the bilaterally hypoperfused cases in 10 patients(48%), but CT/MRI showed the bilateral abnormalities in only 3 patients(14%). The number of abnormal lesions were 56 in SPECT and 25 in CT/MRI. The lesions found in SPECT were well correlated with the neurological signs of the patients such as aphasia or hemiplegia. SPECT study during Matas test was helpful in evaluating the risk for carotid artery occlusion therapy. We thought that {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT is helpful in evaluating the functional changes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  4. Development of a high-resolution detection module for the INSERT SPECT/MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busca, Paolo; Fiorini, Carlo; Butt, Arslan D; Occhipinti, Michele; Quaglia, Riccardo; Trigilio, Paolo [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Via Golgi 40, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nemeth, Gabor; Major, Peter; Bukki, Tamas; Nagy, Kalman [Mediso Medical Imaging Systems, Alsotorokvesz 14, H-1022 Budapest (Hungary); Piemonte, Claudio; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive, 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rieger, Jan [MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.UniversityF.F.), Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (Integrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes are being developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging (7 and 9.4 T), the second one dedicated to clinical imaging (3 T).

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, V. I.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Larionova, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Choynzonov, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI in the detection of breast, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. A total of 220 patients were included into the study: 120 patients with breast lesions (100 patients with breast cancer and 20 patients with benign breast tumors) and 100 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal diseases (80 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer and 20 patients with benign laryngeal/hypopharyngeal lesions). No abnormal 199Tl uptake was seen in all patients with benign breast and laryngeal lesions, indicating a 100% specificity of 199Tl SPECT. In the breast cancer patients, the increased 199Tl uptake in the breast was visualized in 94.8% patients, 99mTc-MIBI—in 93.4% patients. The increased 199Tl uptake in axillary lymph nodes was detected in 60% patients, and 99mTc-MIBI—in 93.1% patients. In patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer, the sensitivity of SPECT with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI was 95%. The 199Tl SPECT sensitivity in identification of regional lymph node metastases in the patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer was 75% and the 99mTc-MIBI SPECT sensitivity was 17%. The data obtained showed that SPECT with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI can be used as one of the additional imaging methods in detection of tumors.

  6. [Neurological diseases and SPECT--analysis using easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    We developed a method for automated diagnosis of brain perfusion SPECT and designated this method as an easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS). In this software program, voxel-by-voxel Z-score analysis after voxel normalization to global mean or cerebellar values; Z-score = ( [control mean] - [individual value] )/ (control SD) is performed. These Z-score maps are displayed by overlay on tomographic sections and by projection with averaged Z-score of 14mm thickness to surface rendering of the anatomically standardized MRI template. Anatomical standardization of SPECT images into a stereotactic space is performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 2. This program has an advantage of capability of incorporation of SPM results into automated analysis of Z-score values as a volume of interest (VOI). A specific VOI can be determined by group comparison of SPECT images for patients with a neuropsychiatric disease with those for healthy volunteers using SPM. Even if a center can construct a normal database with good quality comprising a large number of healthy volunteers, other centers have not been able to use this normal database because of differences between the used gamma cameras, collimators and physical correction algorithms. Since SPECT exhibits greater variations in image quality among different centers than PET, conversion of SPECT images may be necessary for sharing a normal database. In this eZIS software, we incorporated a newly developed program for making it possible to share a normal database in SPECT studies. A Hoffman 3-dimensional brain phantom experiment was conducted to determine systematic differences between SPECT scanners. SPECT images for the brain phantom were obtained using two different scanners. Dividing these two phantom images after anatomical standardization by SPM created a 3-dimensional conversion map. The use of a conversion map obtained from SPECT images of the same phantom provided very similar SPECT data despite extreme differences

  7. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Ballinger, James R. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  8. CT-Based Attenuation Correction in I-123-Ioflupane SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Catharina; Seese, Anita; Schwarzenböck, Sarah; Steinhoff, Karen; Umland-Seidler, Bert; Krause, Bernd J.; Brenner, Winfried; Sabri, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Attenuation correction (AC) based on low-dose computed tomography (CT) could be more accurate in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) than the widely used Chang method, and, therefore, has the potential to improve both semi-quantitative analysis and visual image interpretation. The present study evaluated CT-based AC for dopamine transporter SPECT with I-123-ioflupane. Materials and methods Sixty-two consecutive patients in whom I-123-ioflupane SPECT including low-dose CT had been performed were recruited retrospectively at 3 centres. For each patient, 3 different SPECT images were reconstructed: without AC, with Chang AC and with CT-based AC. Distribution volume ratio (DVR) images were obtained by scaling voxel intensities using the whole brain without striata as reference. For assessing the impact of AC on semi-quantitative analysis, specific-to-background ratios (SBR) in caudate and putamen were obtained by fully automated SPM8-based region of interest (ROI) analysis and tested for their diagnostic power using receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) analysis. For assessing the impact of AC on visual image reading, screenshots of stereotactically normalized DVR images presented in randomized order were interpreted independently by two raters at each centre. Results CT-based AC resulted in intermediate SBRs about half way between no AC and Chang. Maximum area under the ROC curve was achieved by the putamen SBR, with negligible impact of AC (0.924, 0.935 and 0.938 for no, CT-based and Chang AC). Diagnostic accuracy of visual interpretation also did not depend on AC. Conclusions The impact of CT-based versus Chang AC on the interpretation of I-123-ioflupane SPECT is negligible. Therefore, CT-based AC cannot be recommended for routine use in clinical patient care, not least because of the additional radiation exposure. PMID:25268228

  9. CT-based attenuation correction in I-123-ioflupane SPECT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Lange

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Attenuation correction (AC based on low-dose computed tomography (CT could be more accurate in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT than the widely used Chang method, and, therefore, has the potential to improve both semi-quantitative analysis and visual image interpretation. The present study evaluated CT-based AC for dopamine transporter SPECT with I-123-ioflupane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients in whom I-123-ioflupane SPECT including low-dose CT had been performed were recruited retrospectively at 3 centres. For each patient, 3 different SPECT images were reconstructed: without AC, with Chang AC and with CT-based AC. Distribution volume ratio (DVR images were obtained by scaling voxel intensities using the whole brain without striata as reference. For assessing the impact of AC on semi-quantitative analysis, specific-to-background ratios (SBR in caudate and putamen were obtained by fully automated SPM8-based region of interest (ROI analysis and tested for their diagnostic power using receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC analysis. For assessing the impact of AC on visual image reading, screenshots of stereotactically normalized DVR images presented in randomized order were interpreted independently by two raters at each centre. RESULTS: CT-based AC resulted in intermediate SBRs about half way between no AC and Chang. Maximum area under the ROC curve was achieved by the putamen SBR, with negligible impact of AC (0.924, 0.935 and 0.938 for no, CT-based and Chang AC. Diagnostic accuracy of visual interpretation also did not depend on AC. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of CT-based versus Chang AC on the interpretation of I-123-ioflupane SPECT is negligible. Therefore, CT-based AC cannot be recommended for routine use in clinical patient care, not least because of the additional radiation exposure.

  10. Transient Crossed Aphasia: A Case Study with SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ferro

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old right-handed man developed “crossed” anomie aphasia, neglect and inaccurate reaching of his left arm in both hemispaces due to a right parietal haemorrhage. Aphasia cleared in a few days. SPECT failed to demonstrate crossed left hemispheric diaschisis. This report emphasizes the importance of evaluating patients in the acute stage and of coupling “static” and “functional” imaging methods when studying brain-behavior relationships.

  11. Molecular imaging of angiogenesis with SPECT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, I.; Boerman, O.C.

    2010-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and position emission tomography (PET) are the two main imaging modalities in nuclear medicine. SPECT imaging is more widely available than PET imaging and the radionuclides used for SPECT are easier to prepare and usually have a longer half-life th

  12. SPECT检测精神分裂症病人的局部脑血流研究%A Study of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow of Schizophrenics By 99mTc- ECD Brain SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洪波; 何小林; 殷青云; 余金龙; 钟潇琦

    2004-01-01

    Objective This study was to investigate the characteristic of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with schizophrenia and the relationship among rCBF ratio, symptoms and efficacy. Methods The rCBF of 17 schizophrenics were measured with SPECT before and after treatment. The psychiatric symptoms of all patients were assessed with PANSS. The results were compared with 11 normal controls. Results Before treatment, the baseline rCBF of right frontal and temporal lobes were lower in schizophrenics than that of in controls. After treatment, rCBF of these two regions in schizophrenics were significantly improved. No significant correlation was found between rCBF in different brain regions and psychopathologic symptoms and efficacy as well. Conclusion The function of the right frontal and temporal lobes decreased in schizophrenia, but there was no significant correlation between rCBF and psychopathological symptoms and efficacy.%目的了解精神分裂症病人的局部脑血流特征,探讨局部脑血流与精神病临床症状和疗效的关系.方法采用PANSS量表评定患者的精神症状,应用99m TC-ECD-SPECT技术,对17例从未接受过抗精神病药物治疗的精神分裂症病人,在接受治疗前与治疗后测量局部脑血流,并与11例正常对照组比较.结果治疗前病例组右侧额叶与右侧颞叶rCBF低于对照组(各P<0.05),治疗后右侧额叶与右侧颞叶rCBF较治疗前明显增加(各P<0.05);治疗前不同脑区rCBF与精神病理症状(含单个症状评分和因子分)和疗效均无显著性相关.结论结果提示精神分裂病人存在右侧额叶与右侧颞叶局部脑功能减退,但未发现局部脑血流与精神病理症状和疗效有关.

  13. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  14. A preliminary study of SPECT-MRI fusion imaging by different machine in patients with moyamoya disease%SPECT-MRI异机融合图像在烟雾病中的应用价值初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林悦; 弓健; 郭斌; 唐勇进; 尚靖杰; 徐浩

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析烟雾病(MMD)的单光子发射计算机断层成像(SPECT)、磁共振成像(MRI)图像及SPECT-MRI异机融合图像,探讨SPECT-MRI异机融合图像在烟雾病中的应用价值.方法:回顾性分析符合烟雾病诊断标准的5例MMD患者的99m Tc-ECD脑血流灌注SPECT显像及头颅MRI检查并影像资料,总结其SPECT-MRI影像的特征性表现.结果:SPECT显示额、颞、顶、枕叶放射性稀疏缺损区,脑血流灌注减少;MRI可清晰显示MMD患者的脑实质损害表现(脑梗死、脑出血、脑软化及脑萎缩);SPECT-MRI融合图像显示3例SPECT显示脑血流灌注减低区和MRI显示脑实质损害区是同一部位,SPECT-MRI二者病灶显示匹配;2例SPECT显示脑血流灌注减低区,而相应区域的MRI显示脑实质正常,SPECT-MRI二者病灶显示不匹配.结论:SPECT-MRI融合图像能直观显示烟雾病患者脑实质解剖上的损害及脑血流灌注情况.%Aim:The images of SPECT,MRI,and the SPECT-MRI fusion imaging of Moyamoya dis-ease (MMD)were analyzed and the values of SPECT-MRI fusion imaging in MMD were investigated. Methods:Five cases of patients with MMD were reviewed,which were in accordance with the diagnostic standard.The images of SPECT and MRI and their characteristics of SPECT-MRI fusion imaging wene analyzed.Results:SPECT can show radioactive sparseness areas in frontal lobe,temporal lobe,parietal lobe,occipital lobe.These areas indicate a reduction of cerebral perfusion;MRI can show the lesions clearly in brain parenchymal,such as the cerebral infarction,hemorrhage,encephalomalacia,brain atro-phy.SPECT-MRI fusion imaging shows that the regions of cerebral blood flow perfusion defect in SPECT are the same with the regions of brain damage showed in MRI in three patients,and these lesions match. However,the regions of cerebral blood flow perfusion defect showed in SPECT are normal in MRI, SPECT-MRI shows that these lesions do not match.Conclusion:SPECT-MRI fusion imaging can show

  15. MRI and N-isopropyl(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine SPECT findings in cases of moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Yuji; Kato, Terumi; Ohta, Yoshio (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine); Caner, B.E.

    1993-07-01

    Six patients with moyamoya disease underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in 4 of 6 cases, MRI findings were compared with N-isopropyl(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scans to determine if there was a correlation between the morphology, as seen on MRI, and cerebral perfusion and/or metabolic changes detected by IMP-SPECT. MRI clearly revealed abnormalities secondary to moyamoya disease: nonvisualization of a signal void flow sign in the arteries, moyamoya vessels, and cerebral atrophy. All the perfusion abnormalities of the cortex, except a small one, observed on MR images were also detected on IMP-SPECT images, but small white matter abnormalities demonstrated on MR images could not be revealed by IMP-SPECT. Interestingly, in 2 patients, 2 additional cortical defects that were not observed on MR images were revealed by IMP-SPECT. Moreover, 3 areas with perfusion defects were larger on the IMP-SPECT scans than on the MR images. The cortical defects observed on the IMP-SPECT images but not on the MR images may reflect mild ischemia and/or certain metabolic abnormalities that lead to low tracer accumulation. Overall, IMP-SPECT and MRI may play complementary roles in the evaluation of this disease. (author).

  16. Perfusion SPECT, SISCOM and PET (18)F-FDG in the assessment of drug- refractory epilepsy patients candidates for epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Piñera, M; Mestre-Fusco, A; Ley, M; González, S; Medrano, S; Principe, A; Mojal, S; Conesa, G; Rocamora, R

    2015-01-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT (ictal-interictal), SPECT images and subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) and (18)F-FDG-PET (interictal), play an important role in the pre-surgical diagnosis of patients with medically refractory epilepsy. This study aimed to establish: the reproducibility of visual ictal-interictal SPECT and SISCOM analysis altogether with the capacity of SPECT, SISCOM and PET to determine the epileptogenic zone. (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT ictal-interictal and SISCOM (Analyze 7.0) were performed on 47 refractory epilepsy patients (24 F, 19-60 yrs). In 13 patients, SISCOM was also performed using a new program (Focus DET). Ictal-interictal SPECT and SISCOM images were analysed independently by two nuclear medicine physicians (observer 1 and 2). Kappa concordance coefficient was used to evaluate the reproducibility. In sixteen patients, SPECT, SISCOM and PET findings were compared with the resected area during the surgery, and surgical outcome using Engel scale or with the stereo EEG-(SEEG). The ictal-interictal SPECT interobserver agreement was 91%, Kappa index 0.86, SISCOM (Analyze 7.0) interobserver agreement percentage was 82%, Kappa index 0.80, Analyze 7.0 showed a higher inconclusive results than visual SPECT analysis. SISCOM FocusDET interobserver agreement was 92%, Kappa index 0.87, with lower inconclusive results than Analyze 7.0. SPECT, SISCOM and PET combined findings identified 87% seizure onset zone: 79% temporal, 26% parieto-temporal and 7% frontal. Ictal-interictal SPECT and SISCOM showed a high reproducibility in this sample of patients with drug-refractory epilepsy. SPECT,SISCOM and PET combined findings improved detection of epileptogenic zone in comparison with the individual assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebral infarction on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Haitao; Kuang, Anren

    2013-11-01

    A 70-year-old man with lung cancer underwent whole-body MDP bone scintigraphy to evaluate bone metastases that showed marked tracer uptake in the right side of the head, suggestive of skull metastasis. SPECT/CT imaging was performed for further evaluation. The SPECT images demonstrated increased MDP activity in the region of the brain perfused by the right middle cerebral artery. On CT images, there was a large hypoattenuation area corresponding to elevated MDP accumulation. At the same day, magnetic resonance angiography of the brain revealed occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery.

  18. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  19. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O.B.; Lassen, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...

  20. Targeted multi-pinhole SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branderhorst, W.; Vastenhouw, B.; Van der Have, F.; Blezer, E.L.A.; Bleeker, W.K.; Beekman, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with focused multi-pinhole collimation geometries allows scanning modes in which large amounts of photons can be collected from specific volumes of interest. Here we present new tools that improve targeted imaging of specific

  1. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...

  2. Comparison of blood flow and distribution of benzodiazepine receptors in focal epilepsy: Preliminary results of a SPECT study. Vergleich von Blutfluss und Benzodiazepin-Rezeptorverteilung bei fokaler Epilepsie: Vorlaeufige Ergebnisse einer SPECT-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartenstein, P.; Schober, O.; Lottes, G.; Boettger, I. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Ludolph, A. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie); Beer, H.F. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Wuerenlingen (Switzerland))

    1989-10-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-SPECT and SPECT with the {sup 123}I-labelled benzodiazepine (Bz) receptor ligand Ro 16-0154 were performed in 10 patients suffering from partial epilepsy, without cerebral lesion in MRT or CT.2 h p.i. of Ro 16-0154 the distribution of activity correlated with the known distribution of Bz-receptors in the human brain. Perfusion and receptor-binding were found decreased in 7 patients of each study in the suspicious brain-area. {sup 123}I-labelled Ro 16-0154 is suitable for Bz-receptor mapping by SPECT. The decrease of Bz-receptor binding in epileptic foci, as described in PET-studies, was also detected by SPECT in 7 of 10 patients. (orig.).

  3. Diagnosis of SDAT by HMPAO SPECT and vitamin B{sub 12} serum concentration; Diagnostik der SDAT mittels HMPAO-SPECT und Serumvitamin-B{sub 12}-Spiegel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Gallowitsch, H.J. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Gomez, I. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kresnik, E. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Ploeb, H. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Lind, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1995-06-01

    It is quite difficult to confirm the diagnosis of demential disorders, including senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) by clinical means only. Through the combination of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT and serum vitamin B{sub 12} determination it was hoped to speed up and improve the diagnosis of SDAT. 116 patients who had been divided into four groups according to their defect pattern in the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT 17 very probably had SDAT; of these 15 showed a defect pattern with brain SPECT which could be associated to SDAT. The majority of SDAT patients had serum vitamin B{sub 12} levels in the lower normal range or pathologically below that range. Both investigations contributed to establishing the SDAT diagnosis without replacing other investigations. The determination of serum vitamin B{sub 12} does not require any major additional effort. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die alleinige klinische Abklaerung dementieller Zustandsbilder, so auch der senilen Demenz vom Alzheimertyp (SDAT), ist schwierig. Durch die Kombination von {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-Gehirn-SPECT und Serumvitamin-B{sub 12}-Bestimmung erwarteten wir eine Beschleunigung und Verbesserung der Diagnostik der SDAT. Von 116 Patienten, die in 4 Gruppen, entsprechend ihrem {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-Verteilungsmuster eingeteilt worden waren, konnten bei 17 klinisch sehr wahrscheinlichen SDAT-Patienten bei 15 Auffaelligkeiten mit Hinweis auf SDAT im Gehirn SPECT gefunden werden. Ein Teil der Patienten wies einen niedrig-normalen bzw. pathologisch niedrigen Vitamin-B{sub 12}-Spiegel auf. Andere Untersuchungen wuerden durch die Kombination von Gehirn-SPECT und Serumvitamin-B{sub 12}-Bestimmung nicht ueberfluessig werden, obwohl beide Untersuchungen Informationen lieferten, die die Zuordnung zur Diagnose SDAT erleichterten. Die zusaetzliche Serumvitamin-B{sub 12}-Bestimmung stellt keinen wesentlichen Mehraufwand dar. (orig.)

  4. Targeted multi-pinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branderhorst, Woutjan; Blezer, Erwin L.A. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vastenhouw, Brendan; Have, Frans van der; Beekman, Freek J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands); Molecular Imaging Laboratories BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Section of Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Bleeker, Wim K. [Genmab BV, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with focused multi-pinhole collimation geometries allows scanning modes in which large amounts of photons can be collected from specific volumes of interest. Here we present new tools that improve targeted imaging of specific organs and tumours, and validate the effects of improved targeting of the pinhole focus. A SPECT system with 75 pinholes and stationary detectors was used (U-SPECT-II). An XYZ stage automatically translates the animal bed with a specific sequence in order to scan a selected volume of interest. Prior to stepping the animal through the collimator, integrated webcams acquire images of the animal. Using sliders, the user designates the desired volume to be scanned (e.g. a xenograft or specific organ) on these optical images. Optionally projections of an atlas are overlaid semiautomatically to locate specific organs. In order to assess the effects of more targeted imaging, scans of a resolution phantom and a mouse myocardial phantom, as well as in vivo mouse cardiac and tumour scans, were acquired with increased levels of targeting. Differences were evaluated in terms of count yield, hot rod visibility and contrast-to-noise ratio. By restricting focused SPECT scans to a 1.13-ml resolution phantom, count yield was increased by a factor 3.6, and visibility of small structures was significantly enhanced. At equal noise levels, the small-lesion contrast measured in the myocardial phantom was increased by 42%. Noise in in vivo images of a tumour and the mouse heart was significantly reduced. Targeted pinhole SPECT improves images and can be used to shorten scan times. Scan planning with optical cameras provides an effective tool to exploit this principle without the necessity for additional X-ray CT imaging. (orig.)

  5. SPECT Imaging of Epilepsy: An Overview and Comparison with F-18 FDG PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy surgery is highly effective in treating refractory epilepsy, but requires accurate presurgical localization of the epileptogenic focus. Briefly, localization of the region of seizure onset traditionally dependents on seizure semiology, scalp EEG recordings and correlation with anatomical imaging modalities such as MRI. The introduction of noninvasive functional neuroimaging methods, including single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET has dramatically changed the method for presurgical epilepsy evaluation. These imaging modalities have become powerful tools for the investigation of brain function and are an essential part of the evaluation of epileptic patients. Of these methods, SPECT has the practical capacity to image blood flow functional changes that occur during seizures in the routine clinical setting. In this review we present the basic principles of epilepsy SPECT and PET imaging. We discuss the properties of the SPECT tracers to be used for this purpose and imaging acquisition protocols as well as the diagnostic performance of SPECT in addition to SPECT image analysis methods. This is followed by a discussion and comparison to F-18 FDG PET acquisition and imaging analysis methods.

  6. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-SPECT in evaluation of bacterial meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kentaro; Ando, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Keiko; Matsuyuki, Makado; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Ono, Eiichiro; Katsuragi, Makoto [St. Maria Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT was performed to detect the periodical changes of blood flow distribution in 6 infants (average age 5.5 months) with bacterial meningitis and was compared with findings by CT and MRI imaging, by DQ (developmental quotient) and by neurological examinations. SPECT was done with Shimadzu HEADTOME SET 70 for 20 min at 5 min after intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (111 MBq) at the stage of 16-26 days (SPECT I) after hospitalization, of 39-105 days (II) and/or of 138-197 days (III). The region of interest was set in both cerebellar hemispheres to calculate the mean pixel count c1 and in other 16 areas for the count c2. SPECT image was evaluated together with c2/c1 ratios. Head CT was performed at hospitalization or at the period around the SPECT I, and head MRI, at 39-183 days. At 3-5 months after crisis, evaluation was done for DQ and neurological signs. Periodical brain SPECT was found useful for the precise evaluation of bacterial meningitis and for prediction of its prognosis. (K.H.)

  7. Combining SPECT and Quantitative EEG Analysis for the Automated Differential Diagnosis of Disorders with Amnestic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Höller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and Electroencephalography (EEG have become established tools in routine diagnostics of dementia. We aimed to increase the diagnostic power by combining quantitative markers from SPECT and EEG for differential diagnosis of disorders with amnestic symptoms. We hypothesize that the combination of SPECT with measures of interaction (connectivity in the EEG yields higher diagnostic accuracy than the single modalities. We examined 39 patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD, 69 patients with depressive cognitive impairment (DCI, 71 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and 41 patients with amnestic subjective cognitive complaints (aSCC. We calculated 14 measures of interaction from a standard clinical EEG-recording and derived graph-theoretic network measures. From regional brain perfusion measured by 99mTc-hexamethyl-propylene-aminoxime (HMPAO-SPECT in 46 regions, we calculated relative cerebral perfusion in these patients. Patient groups were classified pairwise with a linear support vector machine. Classification was conducted separately for each biomarker, and then again for each EEG- biomarker combined with SPECT. Combination of SPECT with EEG-biomarkers outperformed single use of SPECT or EEG when classifying aSCC vs. AD (90%, aMCI vs. AD (70%, and AD vs. DCI (100%, while a selection of EEG measures performed best when classifying aSCC vs. aMCI (82% and aMCI vs. DCI (90%. Only the contrast between aSCC and DCI did not result in above-chance classification accuracy (60%. In general, accuracies were higher when measures of interaction (i.e., connectivity measures were applied directly than when graph-theoretical measures were derived. We suggest that quantitative analysis of EEG and machine-learning techniques can support differentiating AD, aMCI, aSCC, and DCC, especially when being combined with imaging methods such as SPECT. Quantitative analysis of EEG connectivity could become

  8. Combining SPECT and Quantitative EEG Analysis for the Automated Differential Diagnosis of Disorders with Amnestic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Bathke, Arne C.; Uhl, Andreas; Strobl, Nicolas; Lang, Adelheid; Bergmann, Jürgen; Nardone, Raffaele; Rossini, Fabio; Zauner, Harald; Kirschner, Margarita; Jahanbekam, Amirhossein; Trinka, Eugen; Staffen, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Electroencephalography (EEG) have become established tools in routine diagnostics of dementia. We aimed to increase the diagnostic power by combining quantitative markers from SPECT and EEG for differential diagnosis of disorders with amnestic symptoms. We hypothesize that the combination of SPECT with measures of interaction (connectivity) in the EEG yields higher diagnostic accuracy than the single modalities. We examined 39 patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), 69 patients with depressive cognitive impairment (DCI), 71 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 41 patients with amnestic subjective cognitive complaints (aSCC). We calculated 14 measures of interaction from a standard clinical EEG-recording and derived graph-theoretic network measures. From regional brain perfusion measured by 99mTc-hexamethyl-propylene-aminoxime (HMPAO)-SPECT in 46 regions, we calculated relative cerebral perfusion in these patients. Patient groups were classified pairwise with a linear support vector machine. Classification was conducted separately for each biomarker, and then again for each EEG- biomarker combined with SPECT. Combination of SPECT with EEG-biomarkers outperformed single use of SPECT or EEG when classifying aSCC vs. AD (90%), aMCI vs. AD (70%), and AD vs. DCI (100%), while a selection of EEG measures performed best when classifying aSCC vs. aMCI (82%) and aMCI vs. DCI (90%). Only the contrast between aSCC and DCI did not result in above-chance classification accuracy (60%). In general, accuracies were higher when measures of interaction (i.e., connectivity measures) were applied directly than when graph-theoretical measures were derived. We suggest that quantitative analysis of EEG and machine-learning techniques can support differentiating AD, aMCI, aSCC, and DCC, especially when being combined with imaging methods such as SPECT. Quantitative analysis of EEG connectivity could become an

  9. Are there adaptive changes in the human brain of patients with Parkinson's disease treated with long-term deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus? A 4-year follow-up study with regional cerebral blood flow SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestini, Stelvio; Castagnoli, Antonio [Ospedale Misericordia e Dolce, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Prato (Italy); Pupi, Alberto [University of Florence, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Florence (Italy); Ammannati, Franco; Silvia, Ramat; Sorbi, Sandro [University of Florence, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, Florence (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this follow-up study was to assess persistent motor and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Ten PD patients with STN-DBS underwent three rCBF SPECT studies at rest, once preoperatively in the off-drug condition (T{sub 0}), and twice postoperatively in the off-drug/off-stimulation conditions at 5 {+-} 2 (T{sub 1}) and 42 {+-} 7 months (T{sub 2}). Patients were assessed using the UPDRS, H and Y and S and E scales. SPM was used to investigate baseline rCBF changes from the preoperative condition to the postoperative conditions and the relationship between rCBF and UPDRS scores used as covariate of interest. Parkinsonian patients showed a clinical improvement which was significant only on follow-up at 42 months. The main effect of treatment from T{sub 0} to T{sub 1} was to produce baseline rCBF increases in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), premotor cortex and somatosensory association cortex. From T{sub 1} to T{sub 2} a further baseline rCBF increase was detected in the pre-SMA (p < 0.0001). A correlation was detected between the slight improvement in motor scores and the rCBF increase in the pre-SMA (p < 0.0001), which is known to play a crucial role in clinical progression. Our study suggests the presence of adaptive functional changes in the human brain of PD patients treated with long-term STN-DBS. Such adaptive processes seem to occur in the pre-SMA and to play only a slightly beneficial role in terms of functional compensation of motor impairment. (orig.)

  10. Interictal SPECT of rCBF is of clinical utility in the preoperative evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.R.; Hansen, B.A.; Hogenhaven, H;

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy were studied preoperatively by interictal rCBF measurements using 99mTc-HMPAO and a dedicated brain SPECT camera (Tomomatic 64). Follow-up of seizure outcome, using the 'Engel score', was at least 3 years. The data were analyzed in a blind...... patients ictal SPECT of rCBF was additionally performed. In 2 cases it added further information to the patient evaluation...

  11. Interictal SPECT of rCBF is of clinical utility in the preoperative evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Hansen, B A; Høgenhaven, H;

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy were studied preoperatively by interictal rCBF measurements using 99mTc-HMPAO and a dedicated brain SPECT camera (Tomomatic 64). Follow-up of seizure outcome, using the "Engel score", was at least 3 years. The data were analyzed in a blind...... patients ictal SPECT of rCBF was additionally performed. In 2 cases it added further information to the patient evaluation....

  12. SPECT abnormalities with unilateral arm dystonia in a young mentally retarded apprentice cook: contralateral thalamo-cortical dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Fukutake, Toshio; Arai, Kimihito; Kikkawa, Yuriko; Hattori, Takamichi

    2003-06-01

    We report a young, mentally retarded apprentice cook with a 2-month history of right upper extremity dystonia, for whom diazepam therapy was efficacious. We evaluated brain perfusion by single photon emission tomography (SPECT) before and after diazepam treatment. The abnormal hyperperfusion in the left thalamus and hypoperfusion in the left frontal cortex were normalized on the second SPECT under the successful diazepam treatment. These findings were indicative of functional changes in the left thalamus and left frontal cortex.

  13. Dual Isotope SPECT Study With Epilepsy Patients Using Semiconductor SPECT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Tohru; Suzuki, Atsuro; Sakurai, Kotarou; Kurita, Tsugiko; Takeuchi, Wataru; Toyonaga, Takuya; Hirata, Kenji; Kobashi, Keiji; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kubo, Naoki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype CdTe SPECT system with 4-pixel matched collimator for brain study. This system provides high-energy-resolution (6.6%), high-sensitivity (220 cps/MBq/head), and high-spatial-resolution images. The aim of this study was to evaluate dual-isotope study of CBF and central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) images using Tc-ECD and I-IMZ with the new SPECT system in patients with epilepsy comparing with single-isotope study using the conventional scintillation gamma camera. This study included 13 patients with partial epilepsy. The BZR images were acquired at 3 hours after I-IMZ injection for 20 minutes. The images of IMZ were acquired with a conventional 3-head scintillation gamma camera. After BZR image acquisition with the conventional camera, Tc-ECD was injected, and CBF and BZR images were acquired simultaneously 5 minutes after ECD injection with the new SPECT system. The CBF images were also acquired with the conventional camera on separate days. The findings were visually analyzed, and 3D-SSP maximum Z scores of lesions were compared between the 2 studies. There were 47 abnormal lesions on BZR images and 60 abnormal lesions on CBF images in the single-isotope study with the conventional camera. Dual-isotope study with the new system showed concordant abnormal findings of 46 of 47 lesions on BZR and 54 of 60 lesions on CBF images with the single-isotope study with the conventional camera. There was high agreement between the 2 studies in both BZR and CBF findings (Cohen κ values = 0.96 for BZR and 0.78 for CBF). In semiquantitative analysis, maximum Z scores of dual-isotope study with the new system strongly correlated with those of single-isotope study with the conventional camera (BZR: r = 0.82, P < 0.05, CBF: r = 0.87, P < 0.05). Our new SPECT system permits dual-isotope study for pixel-by-pixel analysis of CBF and BZR information with the same pathophysiological condition in patients with epilepsy.

  14. Meta-analysis of the literature on diagnostic accuracy of SPECT in parkinsonian syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessels Alfons GH

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. One of the most widely used techniques to diagnose PD is a Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT scan to visualise the integrity of the dopaminergic pathways in the brain. Despite this there remains some discussion on the value of SPECT in the differential diagnosis of PD. We did a meta-analysis of all the existing literature on the diagnostic accuracy of both pre- and post-synaptic SPECT imaging in the differential diagnosis of PD. Methods Relevant studies were searched in Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases with back-searching of their reference lists. We limited our analysis to studies with a clinically relevant methodology: i.e. when they assessed the ability of the SPECT to provide 1. diagnosis of PD in an early phase vs. normalcy; 2 diagnostic differentiation between PD and essential tremor (ET; 3. distinguishing between PD and vascular parkinsonism (VP; 4. delineation of PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS. Gold standard was, dependent on the study type, clinical examination at initial visit or follow-up, and/or response to dopaminergic agents. Results The search gave 185 hits, of which we deemed 32 suitable for our analysis. From these we recalculated the diagnostic odds ratio of SPECT for the clinical questions above. The pooled odds ratio (with 95%CI for presynaptic SPECT scan's ability to distinguish between early PD and normalcy was 60 (13 – 277. For the ability to differentiate between PD and ET this ratio was 210 (79–562. The ratio for presynaptic SPECT's ability to delineate PD from VP was 105 (32 – 348. The mean odds ratio for the presynaptic SPECT scans to differentiate between PD and the two APS was 2 (1 – 4, and for the postsynaptic SPECT imaging this was 19 (9–36. Conclusion SPECT with presynaptic radiotracers is relatively accurate to differentiate patients with PD in an early phase from

  15. Evaluation of MR perfusion abnormalities in organophosphorus poisoning and its correlation with SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Uday Bhanu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Acute organophosphate (OP pesticide poisoning causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many imaging modalities, such as computerized tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT of the brain, have been used for quantitative assessment of the acute brain insult caused by acute OP poisoning. Perfusion defects on SPECT in acutely poisoned patients with OPs have been described, however, MR perfusion abnormalities have not been described in the literature. MR perfusion Imaging has the advantage of having higher spatial resolution, no radiation, and better availability. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 20 patients who ingested OP compounds were included. All the patients underwent brain SPECT on a dual head SPECT gamma camera and MRI brain on a 1.5T MR system. Neurocognitive tests were performed for all patients. Results: SPECT showed perfusion defects in 7 patients and total number of perfusion defects were 29. On MR perfusion, based on the cut-off values of normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV ratios and normalized cerebral blood flow (nCBF ratios, the total number of patients showing perfusion defects were 6 and 8; and the total number of perfusion defects were 29 and 45, respectively. There was significant difference of the nCBV ratios and nCBF ratios between the control group (n = 20 and positive patients group (n = 6 and n = 8, respectively (P > 0.05. All the defects seen on SPECT were well appreciated on nCBF maps (MRI perfusion suggestive of 100% correlation. Conclusion: MR perfusion imaging can be used as an effective modality for evaluation in acute OP poisoning.

  16. Evaluation of MR perfusion abnormalities in organophosphorus poisoning and its correlation with SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanu, K Uday; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Vyas, Sameer; Singh, Paramjeet; Prabhakar, Anuj; Mittal, B R; Bhalla, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many imaging modalities, such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain, have been used for quantitative assessment of the acute brain insult caused by acute OP poisoning. Perfusion defects on SPECT in acutely poisoned patients with OPs have been described, however, MR perfusion abnormalities have not been described in the literature. MR perfusion Imaging has the advantage of having higher spatial resolution, no radiation, and better availability. In this prospective study, 20 patients who ingested OP compounds were included. All the patients underwent brain SPECT on a dual head SPECT gamma camera and MRI brain on a 1.5T MR system. Neurocognitive tests were performed for all patients. SPECT showed perfusion defects in 7 patients and total number of perfusion defects were 29. On MR perfusion, based on the cut-off values of normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) ratios and normalized cerebral blood flow (nCBF) ratios, the total number of patients showing perfusion defects were 6 and 8; and the total number of perfusion defects were 29 and 45, respectively. There was significant difference of the nCBV ratios and nCBF ratios between the control group (n = 20) and positive patients group (n = 6 and n = 8, respectively) (P > 0.05). All the defects seen on SPECT were well appreciated on nCBF maps (MRI perfusion) suggestive of 100% correlation. MR perfusion imaging can be used as an effective modality for evaluation in acute OP poisoning.

  17. Improvement of tomographic reconstruction in bone SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuenemann, M.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Siefker, U.; Luig, H.; Meller, J. [Abteilungen fuer Nuklearmedizin, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany); Heidrich, G. [Abteilungen fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Georg-August-Univ., Goettingen (Germany); Werner, C.; Brunner, E. [Abteilungen fuer Medizinische Statistik, Georg-August-Univ., Goettingen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Aim: the comparison between iterative reconstruction and filtered backprojection in the reconstruction of bone SPECT in the diagnosis of skeletal metastases. Patients, methods: 47 consecutive patients (vertebral segments: n = 435), with suspected malignancy of the vertebral column, were examined by bone scintigraphy and MRI (maximal interval between the two procedures {+-} 5 weeks). The SPECT-data were reconstructed with an iterative algorithm (ISA) and with filtered backprojection. We defined semiquantitative criteria in order to assess the quality of the tomograms. Conventional reconstruction was performed both by a Wiener-filter and a low-pass-filter. Iterative reconstruction was performed by the ISA algorithm. The clinical evaluation of the different reconstruction algorithms was performed by MRI as the gold-standard. Results: sensitivity (%): 87.3 (ISA), 86.4 (low-pass), 79.7 (Wiener); specificity (%): 95.3 (ISA), 95 (low-pass), 85.4 (Wiener). The sensitivity of iterative reconstructed SPECT and low-pass reconstructed SPECT was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the sensitivity of SPECT reconstructed by the Wiener-filter. The specificity of iterative reconstruction ISA and low-pass-filter reconstructed SPECT were significantly higher compared with the SPECT data reconstructed by the Wiener-filter. ISA was significantly superior to the Wiener-SPECT relating to all criteria of quality. Iterative reconstruction was significantly superior to the low-pass-SPECT relating to 2 of 3 criteria. In addition the Wiener-SPECT was significantly inferior to the low-pass-SPECT regarding to 2 of 3 criteria. Conclusion: in our series the iterative algorithm ISA was the method of choice in the reconstruction of bone SPECT data. In comparison with conventional algorithms ISA offers a significantly higher quality of the tomograms and yields a high diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  18. The Feasibility of Using CT-Guided ROI for Semiquantifying Striatal Dopamine Transporter Availability in a Hybrid SPECT/CT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chin Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid SPECT/CT system provides accurate coregistration of functional and morphological images. CT-guided region of interest (ROI for semiquantifying striatal dopamine transporter (DAT availability may be a feasible method. We therefore assessed the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of manual SPECT and CT-guided ROI methods and compared their semiquantitative data with data from MRI-guided ROIs. We enrolled twenty-eight patients who underwent Tc-99m TRODAT-1 brain SPECT/CT and brain MRI. ROIs of the striatal, caudate, putamen, and occipital cortex were manually delineated on the SPECT, CT, and MRI. ROIs from CT and MRI were transferred to the coregistered SPECT for semiquantification. The striatal, caudate, and putamen nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND were calculated. Using CT-guided ROIs had higher intra- and interobserver concordance correlation coefficients, closer Bland-Altman biases to zero, and narrower limits of agreement than using manual SPECT ROIs. The correlation coefficients of striatal, caudate, and putamen BPND were good between manual SPECT and MRI-guided ROI methods and even better between CT-guided and MRI-guided ROI methods. Conclusively, CT-guided ROI delineation for semiquantifying striatal DAT availability in a hybrid SPECT/CT system is highly reproducible, and the semiquantitative data correlate well with data from MRI-guided ROIs.

  19. The feasibility of using CT-guided ROI for semiquantifying striatal dopamine transporter availability in a hybrid SPECT/CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Chin; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lin, Wei-Che; Tang, Shu-Wen; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Yung-Cheng; Chiu, Nan-Tsing

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid SPECT/CT system provides accurate coregistration of functional and morphological images. CT-guided region of interest (ROI) for semiquantifying striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability may be a feasible method. We therefore assessed the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of manual SPECT and CT-guided ROI methods and compared their semiquantitative data with data from MRI-guided ROIs. We enrolled twenty-eight patients who underwent Tc-99m TRODAT-1 brain SPECT/CT and brain MRI. ROIs of the striatal, caudate, putamen, and occipital cortex were manually delineated on the SPECT, CT, and MRI. ROIs from CT and MRI were transferred to the coregistered SPECT for semiquantification. The striatal, caudate, and putamen nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) were calculated. Using CT-guided ROIs had higher intra- and interobserver concordance correlation coefficients, closer Bland-Altman biases to zero, and narrower limits of agreement than using manual SPECT ROIs. The correlation coefficients of striatal, caudate, and putamen BPND were good between manual SPECT and MRI-guided ROI methods and even better between CT-guided and MRI-guided ROI methods. Conclusively, CT-guided ROI delineation for semiquantifying striatal DAT availability in a hybrid SPECT/CT system is highly reproducible, and the semiquantitative data correlate well with data from MRI-guided ROIs.

  20. SPECT of aged backache patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shigehiko; Nishikimi, Junzo; Mizuno, Naokado; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kondo, Masaki; Ozaki, Satoshi; Urasaki, Tetsuya; Muro, Toshiyuki [Prefectural Tajimi Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP was performed on 53 middle-aged or elderly patients (male 20, female, 33; age range, 40-80 years old) with lumbago, i.e., 25 patients with lumbar spondylosis, 15 with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, 4 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, 3 with compression fracture, 3 with pulurent spondylitis, 2 with spondylous osteoporosis, and 1 with spinal osteodesmosis. {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP (740 MBq) was intravenously injected and regular SPECT was performed at 3 hours. Gamma camera was performed for about 10 seconds with 5deg intervals, and 36 steps (180deg) of collection was completed after about 6 minutes. The radioisotope accumulation, the presence or absence of sthenia, and its site were evaluated. Forty-seven (88.7%) patients showed excessive accumulation, i.e., 40 (75.5%) in peripheral vertebral osteophyte, 31 (58.5%) in vertebral articulations, and 10 (18.9%) in whole vertebral body. Significantly increased bilateral excessive accumulation was admitted in the vertebral articulations of sliding disc in degenerative spondylolisthesis. SPECT is considered useful in understanding the pathophysiology of degenerative lumber diseases. (S.Y.).

  1. Physiological imaging with PET and SPECT in Dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagust, W.J. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Neurology Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1989-10-01

    Dementia is a medical problem of increasingly obvious importance. The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for at least 50% of all cases of dementia, with multi-infarct dementia the next most common cause of the syndrome. While the accuracy of diagnosis of AD may range from 80 to 90%, there is currently no laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. Functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer diagnostic advantages since brain function is unequivocally disturbed in all dementing illnesses. Both PET and SPECT have been utilized in the study of dementia. While both techniques rely on principles of emission tomography to produce three dimensional maps of injected radiotracers, the differences between positron and single photon emission have important consequences for the practical applications of the two procedures. This briefly reviews the technical differences between PET and SPECT, and discusses how both techniques have been used in our laboratory to elucidate the pathophysiology of dementia. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Monitoring CBF in clinical routine by dynamic single photon emission tomography (SPECT) of inhaled xenon-133

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, H; Christensen, J; Skyhøj Olsen, T

    1986-01-01

    A very simple and low-cost brain dedicated, rapidly rotating Single Photon Emission Tomograph SPECT is described. Its use in following patients with ischemic stroke is illustrated by two middle cerebral artery occlusion cases, one with persistent occlusion and low CBF in MCA territory, and one...

  3. SPECT/CT in neuroendocrine cancers; SPECT/CT bei neuroendokrinen Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miederer, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Castrop, C.; Scheidhauer, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Buck, A.K. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2011-03-15

    The accuracy of functional SPECT imaging has been significantly improved by addition of CT. This is especially relevant for functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors using highly specific radiopharmaceuticals. Parathyroid adenomas can be detected by {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT/CT with very high sensitivity and specificity, playing an important role especially when minimally invasive techniques are used for surgical resection. With SPECT/CT, extra-adrenal manifestations of pheochromocytomas and tumors of the adrenal cortex can be detected with high accuracy. Because of the availability of PET radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC, the clinical relevance of {sup 111}In-Octreotide SPECT for detection of neuroendocrine cancers has been recently reduced. Because of the better availability, SPECT and SPECT/CT still represent standard tools for imaging neuroendocrine cancers. SPECT/CT represents the superior imaging modality for monitoring radiopeptide based therapies, which are now increasingly used for treatment of neuroendocrine cancers. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostic value of SPECT in bone scintigraphy; Bedeutung der SPECT bei der Knochenszintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratz, S.; Becker, W. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2000-05-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) reflects the realization of its ability to remove unwanted activity from bone structures with greater contrast. Especially in the spine SPECT improves the diagnostic accuracy compared with planar bone scintigraphy, because smaller structures of single vertebral bodies can be diagnosed with better anatomic resolution due to SPECT with consequently higher sensitivities and specificities. With SPECT, alterations of the lateral part of the vertebral body, pars interacticularis and smaller facet joints can be correctly diagnosed as spondylarthrotic degenerative alterations. In patients with suspected spine malignancies SPECT did not demonstrate to be a reliable instrument for diagnosing malignancy. We recommend to perform SPECT in case of patients with back pain and suspected spine pathologies seen on planar bone scans, since a correct diagnosis of especially benign spondylarthrotic spine lesions is possible with SPECT. With SPECT, a reduction of radiological examinations of 23% should be possible. (orig.) [German] Die Single-Photonenemissionscomputertomographie (SPECT) erlaubt bei der Knochenszintigraphie eine ueberlagerungsfreie Darstellung von Knochenstrukturen mit hoher Kontrastgenauigkeit. Insbesondere bei Wirbelsaeulenerkrankungen ermoeglicht SPECT einen deutlichen diagnostischen Zugewinn gegenueber planaren Aufnahmen, da kleinere Strukturen einzelner Wirbelkoerper aufgrund des hohen anatomischen Aufloesungsvermoegens mit SPECT sehr sensitiv und spezifisch dargestellt werden. Veraenderungen, die sich auf den lateralen Anteil des Wirbelkoerpers, die Pars interarticularis und die kleinen Facettengelenke projizieren, koennen mit SPECT als spondylarthrotisch degenerative Laesionen eingestuft werden. Zwingende SPECT-szintigraphische Kriterien, die eine Laesion als eindeutig maligne nachweisen, gibt es dagegen nicht. Wir denken, dass SPECT bei allen Patienten mit Rueckenschmerzen und planarszintigraphisch suspekten

  5. Clinical applications of SPECT-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Biersack, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [University Hospital Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-06-01

    Covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. Includes chapters on the use of SPECT/CT for dosimetry and for therapy planning. Completely up to date. Many helpful illustrations. SPECT/CT cameras have considerably improved diagnostic accuracy in recent years. Such cameras allow direct correlation of anatomic and functional information, resulting in better localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. In addition to this anatomic referencing, CT coregistration provides superior quantification of radiotracer uptake based on the attenuation correction capabilities of CT. Useful applications of SPECT/CT have been identified not only in oncology but also in other specialties such as orthopedics and cardiology. This book covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis and therapy planning of benign and malignant diseases. Opening chapters discuss the technology and physics of SPECT/CT and its use for dosimetry. The role of SPECT/CT in the imaging of a range of pathologic conditions is then addressed in detail. Applications covered include, among others, imaging of the thyroid, bone, and lungs, imaging of neuroendocrine tumors, cardiac scintigraphy, and sentinel node scintigraphy. Individual chapters are also devoted to therapy planning in selective internal radiation therapy of liver tumors and bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Readers will find this book to be an essential and up-to-date source of information on this invaluable hybrid imaging technique.

  6. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Faroese National Hospital, Department of Medicine, Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Gutte, Henrik [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. (orig.)

  7. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte

    2014-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar...... technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had...... the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume...

  8. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis demonstrated by SPECT in hemiplegic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Nara, Takahiro; Nozaki, Hidetsugu; Fukushima, Kiyomi (Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)); Imai, Masayuki; Kumagai, Koumei; Maekawa, Kihei

    1991-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in twenty five children with hemiplegia were studied using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-I-123-iodoamphetamine. Seven of twenty-five patients had cerebral palsy, and the others were impaired by acquired brain injury between ten months and fourteen years of age. CCD was demonstrated in five patients (20%), who were impaired by acquired brain injury after seven years of age. CCD could never be detected in patients with cerebral palsy. Ipsilateral cerebellar diaschisis was also demonstrated in two patients with cerebral palsy and three with early acquired brain injury before three years of age. It is suggested that diaschisis presents itself as a different form in a contralateral and ipsilateral cerebellum before three years of age from a form which presents after seven years of age. (author).

  9. MRI and SPECT findings as a predictive factor for postencephalitic epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro; Tanaka, Chiharu; Sako, Kazuya; Murakami, Nobuto; Nihira, Atsuko [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Relationship between postencephalitic epilepsy and acute phase symptoms, CSF, EEG and MRI findings was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Thirteen of 34 patients manifestated epilepsy including four intractable cases. Women (7/11), herpes simplex virus (6/7), seizures in acute phase (12/18), abnormal findings or MRI (6/7) were statistically significant. Four of nine patients with hyperperfusion area by HMPAO-SPECT in acute phase and two of three patients with hypoperfusion area by IMP-SPECT in recovery phase had epilepsy. Hyperperfusion in acute phase reflected acute seizures and inflammations, whereas hypoperfusion in the recovery phase reflected hypometabolism caused by brain damage. These findings suggest epileptogenicity, MRI and SPECT findings may predict prognosis of postencephalitic epilepsy. (author)

  10. Drug development in Alzheimer’s disease: the contribution of PET and SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Denis Herwig Declercq

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials aiming to develop disease-altering drugs for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, a neurodegenerative disorder with devastating consequences, are failing at an alarming rate. Poorly defined inclusion- and outcome criteria, due to a limited amount of objective biomarkers, is one of the major concerns. Non-invasive molecular imaging techniques, positron emission tomography and single photon emission (computed tomography (PET and SPE(CT, allow visualization and quantification of a wide variety of (pathophysiological processes and allow early (differential diagnosis in many disorders. PET and SPECT have the ability to provide biomarkers that permit spatial assessment of pathophysiological molecular changes and therefore objectively evaluate and follow up therapeutic response, especially in the brain. A number of specific PET/SPECT biomarkers used in support of emerging clinical therapies in AD are discussed in this review.

  11. Global scaling for semi-quantitative analysis in FP-CIT SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupitz, D; Apostolova, I; Lange, C; Ulrich, G; Amthauer, H; Brenner, W; Buchert, R

    2014-01-01

    Semi-quantitative characterization of dopamine transporter availability from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123I-ioflupane (FP-CIT) is based on uptake ratios relative to a reference region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the whole brain as reference region for semi-quantitative analysis of FP-CIT SPECT. The rationale was that this might reduce statistical noise associated with the estimation of non-displaceable FP-CIT uptake. 150 FP-CIT SPECTs were categorized as neurodegenerative or non-neurodegenerative by an expert. Semi-quantitative analysis of specific binding ratios (SBR) was performed with a custom-made tool based on the Statistical Parametric Mapping software package using predefined regions of interest (ROIs) in the anatomical space of the Montreal Neurological Institute. The following reference regions were compared: predefined ROIs for frontal and occipital lobe and whole brain (without striata, thalamus and brainstem). Tracer uptake in the reference region was characterized by the mean, median or 75th percentile of its voxel intensities. The area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used as performance measure. The highest AUC of 0.973 was achieved by the SBR of the putamen with the 75th percentile in the whole brain as reference. The lowest AUC for the putamen SBR of 0.937 was obtained with the mean in the frontal lobe as reference. We recommend the 75th percentile in the whole brain as reference for semi-quantitative analysis in FP-CIT SPECT. This combination provided the best agreement of the semi-quantitative analysis with visual evaluation of the SPECT images by an expert and, therefore, is appropriate to support less experienced physicians.

  12. Molecular imaging of angiogenesis with SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and position emission tomography (PET) are the two main imaging modalities in nuclear medicine. SPECT imaging is more widely available than PET imaging and the radionuclides used for SPECT are easier to prepare and usually have a longer half-life than those used for PET. In addition, SPECT is a less expensive technique than PET. Commonly used gamma emitters are: {sup 99m}Tc (E{sub max} 141 keV, T{sub 1/2} 6.02 h), {sup 123}I (E{sub max} 529 keV, T{sub 1/2} 13.0 h) and {sup 111}In (E{sub max} 245 keV, T{sub 1/2} 67.2 h). Compared to clinical SPECT, PET has a higher spatial resolution and the possibility to more accurately estimate the in vivo concentration of a tracer. In preclinical imaging, the situation is quite different. The resolution of microSPECT cameras (<0.5 mm) is higher than that of microPET cameras (>1.5 mm). In this report, studies on new radiolabelled tracers for SPECT imaging of angiogenesis in tumours are reviewed. (orig.)

  13. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions.

  14. The group study of diagnostic efficacy of cerebro-vascular disease by I-123 IMP SPECT images obtained with ring type SPECT scanner; The ROC analysis on the diagnosis of perfusion defect and redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari (Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Saitama Medical Center); Matsumoto, Toru (and others)

    1991-11-01

    We performed two image reading experiments in order to investigate the diagnostic capability of I-123 IMP SPECT obtained by the ring type SPECT scanner in cerebro-vascular disease. Fourteen physicians diagnosed SPECT images of 55 cases with reference to clinical neurological information, first without brain XCT images and second with XCT images. Each physician detected perfusion defects and redistributions of I-123 IMP and assigned a confidence level of abnormality for these SPECT findings by means of five rating method. From results obtained by ROC analysis, we concluded as follows. (1) Generally, I-123 IMP SPECT is a stable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of cerebro-vascular disease and the image reading of XCT had no effects on the diagnosis of SPECT on the whole of physician. (2) However, there were unnegligible differences among individuals in the detectability of findings and the effect of XCT image reading. (3) Detectability of redistribution of I-123 IMP was lower than that of perfusion defect and inter-observer variation in the diagnostic performance for redistribution was larger than that of perfusion defect. The results suggest that it is necessary to standardize diagnostic criteria among physicians for redistribution of I-123 IMP. (author).

  15. Ictal SPECT in Sturge-Weber syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    O. Bilgin; Vollmar, C.; Peraud, A.; la Fougere, C.; Beleza, P; Noachtar, S.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a patient with right-sided Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), in whom earlier functional hemispherectomy failed. Subtraction of ictal and interictal single-photon-emission-computed-tomography (SPECT) superimposed on individual MRI showed a right fronto-orbital hyperperfusion, with a left-sided EEG seizure pattern. Ictal SPECT supported our assumption that right frontal originated seizure pattern propagated to left hemisphere via the remaining right frontal bridge. Right orbito-frontal ...

  16. Impact of Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in the Diagnosis of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Vicenty, Irma L; Santiago-Sánchez, Michelaldemar; Vélez-Miró, Iván; Motta-Valencia, Keryl

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as damage to the brain resulting from an external force. TBI, a global leading cause of death and disability, is associated with serious social, economic, and health problems. In cases of mild-to-moderate brain damage, conventional anatomical imaging modalities may or may not detect the cascade of metabolic changes that have occurred or are occurring at the intracellular level. Functional nuclear medicine imaging and neurophysiological parameters can be used to characterize brain damage, as the former provides direct visualization of brain function, even in the absence of overt behavioral manifestations or anatomical findings. We report the case of a 30-year-old Hispanic male veteran who, after 2 traumatic brain injury events, developed cognitive and neuropsychological problems with no clear etiology in the presence of negative computed tomography (CT) findings.

  17. SPECT/CT diagnostics for skeletal infections; SPECT/CT-Infektdiagnostik am Skelett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaeser, B.; Spanjol, M.; Krause, T. [Inselspital Bern, Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    Skeletal infections are often a diagnostic and clinical challenge. Nuclear imaging modalities used in the diagnostic workup of acute and chronic skeletal infections include three-phase bone scintigraphy and scintigraphy with labelled leucocytes. The introduction of hybrid technologies, such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has dramatically changed nuclear medical imaging of infections. In general SPECT/CT leads to a considerably more accurate diagnosis than planar or SPECT imaging. Given the integrated acquisition of metabolic, functional and morphological information, SPECT/CT has increased in particular the specificity of three-phase skeletal scanning and scintigraphy with labeled leucocytes. (orig.) [German] Knoecherne Infekte stellen nicht selten eine diagnostische und klinische Herausforderung dar. Nuklearmedizinische Standardverfahren fuer die Diagnostik akuter und chronischer Knocheninfekte sind die Mehrphasenskelettszintigraphie und die Infektszintigraphie mit markierten Leukozyten. Die Einfuehrung von Hybridtechnologien wie der SPECT/CT hat die nuklearmedizinische Infektbildgebung tiefgreifend veraendert. Die SPECT/CT erlaubt bei der Frage nach Knocheninfekten insgesamt eine wesentlich genauere Beurteilung als planare Aufnahmen und SPECT. Die integrierte Akquisition von metabolischer, funktioneller und topographisch-morphologischer Information mit SPECT/CT steigerte insbesondere die Spezifitaet der Mehrphasenskelettszintigraphie und der Infektszintigraphie mit markierten Leukozyten. (orig.)

  18. Clinical evaluation of stress thallium spect in ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Osamu; Kimura, Nazuna; Soeki; Takeshi; Takeichi, Naoki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Nobuo [Zentsuji National Hospital, Kagawa (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Thallium SPECT was performed in patients with significant coronary artery stenosis, 67 cases were after maximal exercise and 74 cases were during coronary vasodilation induced by ATP (adenosine triphosphate) infusion. In patients suspected of angina pectoris, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) were 88%, 78% and 82% for exercise SPECT, and 100%, 72% and 84% for ATP SPECT studies, respectively. In patients with old myocardial infarction, these were 73%, 100% and 88% for exercise SPECT and 71%, 100% and 81% for ATP SPECT. These were 75%, 49% and 60% for treadmill exercise test in the patient group including both angina and myocardial infarction. For detection of diseased vessels, the diagnostic accuracy for left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery lesions was almost equal for ATP and exercise SPECT study, but ATP SPECT study was more sensitive than exercise SPECT study in detection of left circumflex artery lesions. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies occasionally gave false positive results in patients with single-vessel disease. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies underestimated the severity of multi-vessel disease. In general, the results of ATP SPECT imaging were highly concordant with the results of exercise SPECT imaging. ATP stress thallium SPECT imaging provided a safe and highly accurate diagnostic tool for detection of CAD. (author)

  19. SPECT/CT - Technical aspects and optimization possibilities; SPECT/CT - Technische Aspekte und Optimierungsmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W. [Klinikum Passau, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Passau (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    In contrast to positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), the currently available single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) systems are very heterogeneous. On the side of the gamma cameras, dual-head systems are established, which are not very different from one manufacturer to the other. For the CT component, there are low dose tubes on the one side and flat detector-based cone beam CT and multislice-CT on the other. The CT image data can be used for anatomic correlation of suspicious findings as well as for attenuation correction of SPECT data. Attenuation correction enables on the one hand enhancement of SPECT image quality and on the other hand quantification of the radioactivity concentration becomes possible. Modern iterative reconstruction algorithms allow scatter correction and attenuation correction of SPECT data using the density values from CT. It still has to be shown to what extent attenuation-corrected whole body SPECT/CT studies will be able to improve the sensitivity of scintigraphy studies. As SPECT/CT primarily aims at morphologic correlation and not detection of additional lesions, an attempt should be made to balance the necessary anatomic information and the additional radiation exposure. Besides SPECT-guided CT all technical possibilities for dose reduction should be exhausted. (orig.) [German] Im Gegensatz zur Positronenemissionstomographie/Computertomographie (PET/CT) sind die auf dem Markt angebotenen Single-photon-emission-computed-tomography/CT(SPECT/CT)-Systeme sehr heterogen. Auf der Seite der Gammakameras sind Zweikopfsysteme etabliert, die sich bei den verschiedenen Wettbewerbern nur unwesentlich unterscheiden. Hingegen reicht bei der CT-Komponente die Palette von der einfachen Niedrigdosisroentgenroehre ueber die flachdetektorbasierte Cone-beam-CT-Technologie bis hin zum Mehrzeilenspiral-CT. Die CT-Bilddaten werden dabei zum einen zur anatomischen Korrelation funktionell auffaelliger

  20. 脑SPECT引导低剂量放疗治疗难治性外伤性癫(癎)初探%Preliminary study of low-dose radiation therapy guided by the brain SPECT for refractory post-traumatic epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 窦烨; 于雷

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨脑SPECT(单光子发射计算机断层扫描)对难治性外伤性癫(癎)的定位价值和经其引导低剂量放疗的疗效.方法 分析2004-07-2008-07收治的26例难治性外伤性癫(癎)患者,利用发作期及间期脑SPECT对比确定致(癎)灶后经三维适形NOVALS放射治疗,治疗后口服抗癫(癎)药物至少1 a,随访4~8 a.结果 满意(Engel Ⅰ)7例,显著改善(Engel Ⅱ)14例,良好(Engel Ⅲ)3例,无效(Engel Ⅳ)2例,无加重,总有效率88.5%,优良率76.9%.结论 利用发作期及间期脑SPECT对比引导低剂量放疗是治疗外伤性癫(癎)的有效方法.

  1. Improved Benefit of SPECT/CT Compared to SPECT Alone for the Accurate Localization of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca G. Bural

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the clinical utility of SPECT/ CT in subjects with endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors compared to SPECT alone. Material and Methods: 48 subjects (31 women;17 men; mean age 54±11 with clinical suspicion or diagnosis of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumor had 50 SPECT/CT scans (32 Tc-99m MIBI, 5 post treatment I-131, 8 In-111 Pentetreotide, and 5 I-123 MIBG. SPECT alone findings were compared to SPECT/CT and to pathology or radiological follow up. Results: From the 32 Tc-99m MIBI scans, SPECT accurately localized the lesion in 22 positive subjects while SPECT/CT did in 31 subjects. Parathyroid lesions not seen on SPECT alone were smaller than 10 mm. In five post treatment I-131 scans, SPECT alone neither characterized, nor localized any lesions accurately. SPECT/CT revealed 3 benign etiologies, a metastatic lymph node, and one equivocal lesion. In 8 In-111 Pentetreotide scans, SPECT alone could not localize primary or metastatic lesions in 6 subjects all of which were localized with SPECT/CT. In five I-123 MIBG scans, SPECT alone could not detect a 1.1 cm adrenal lesion or correctly characterize normal physiologic adrenal uptake in consecutive scans of the same patient with prior history of adrenelectomy, all of which were correctly localized and characterized with SPECT/CT. Conclusion: SPECT/CT is superior to SPECT alone in the assessment of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors. It is better in lesion localization and lesion characterization leading to a decrease in the number of equivocal findings. SPECT/CT should be included in the clinical work up of all patients with diagnosis or suspicion of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:91-96

  2. Functional and morphological findings in early and advanced stages of HIV infection: A comparison of sup 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT with CT and MRI studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsch, K.; Bauer, W.M.; Markl, A.; Kirsch, C.M. (Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik); Schielke, E.; Einhaeupl, K.M. (Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Neurologische Klinik)

    1990-12-01

    In fourty patients at early and advanced stages of HIV infection (Water-Reed stages I-VI) regional cerebral blood flow was determined by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT, comparing the results with CT and MRI findings. All patients with HIV encephalopathy (AIDS dementia complex) had pathologic SPECT results (multilocular, patchy uptake defects), but also in earlier and even earliest stages of HIV infection positive SPECT findings were observed. Compared to functional SPECT imaging, morphologically orientated method (CT, MRI) were insensitive in detecting HIV-induced foci: More than 50% of the patients with pathologic SPECT findings had negative CT or MRI scans. Most patients in advanced Walter Reed stages had neurological abnormalities accompanied by positive SPECT. Subtle alterations of HMPAO uptake were observed even in a few cases of early HIV infection without neurological CNS symptoms. The data presented suggest that HMPAO SPECT is highly sensitive in the detection of altered brain perfusion not only in advanced but also early stages of HIV infection. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow are presented before noticeable structural defects may be observed. (orig./MG).

  3. Delayed reflow of an ischemic infarct after spontaneous thrombolysis studied by CBF tomography using SPECT and Tc-99m HMPAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Companioni, J M; Lassen, N A; Tfelt-Hansen, P

    1991-01-01

    A patient with a large ischemic infarct in the left middle cerebral artery territory was studied six times in the acute/subacute phase by cerebral blood flow (CBF) tomography using Tc-99m-HMPAO. The SPECT instrument used was a brain dedicated highly sensitive four-camera system (TOMOMATIC 232) th...

  4. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  5. Applications of SPECT imaging of dopaminergic neurotransmission in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugaya, Akira; Fujita, Masahiro; Innis, R.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine

    2000-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers selective for pre- and post-synaptic targets have allowed measurements of several aspects of dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission. In this article, we will first review our DA transporter imaging in Parkinson's disease. We have developed the in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT ((1R)-2{beta}-Carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane). This method showed that patients with Parkinson's disease have markedly reduced DAT levels in striatum, which correlated with disease severity and disease progression. Second, we applied DA imaging techniques in patients with schizophrenia. Using amphetamine as a releaser of DA, we observed the enhanced DA release, which was measured by imaging D2 receptors with [{sup 123}I]IBZM (iodobenzamide), in schizophrenics. Further we developed the measurement of basal synaptic DA levels by AMPT (alpha-methyl-paratyrosine)-induced unmasking of D2 receptors. Finally, we expanded our techniques to the measurement of extrastriatal DA receptors using [{sup 123}I]epidepride. The findings suggest that SPECT is a useful technique to measure DA transmission in human brain and may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. (author)

  6. Indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy in lung cancer patients: SPECT, CT or SPECT-CT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Harmandeep; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Julka, Pramod Kumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiation Oncology, New Delhi (India); Thulkar, Sanjay [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2012-07-15

    The objective of the present study was to compare the role of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and SPECT-CT of selected volume in lung cancer patients with indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy (BS). The data of 50 lung cancer patients (53 {+-} 10.3 years; range 30-75; male/female 38/12) with 65 indeterminate lesions on planar BS (January 2010 to November 2010) were retrospectively evaluated. All of them underwent SPECT-CT of a selected volume. SPECT, CT and SPECT-CT images were independently evaluated by two experienced readers (experience in musculoskeletal imaging, including CT: 5 and 7 years) in separate sessions. A scoring scale of 1 to 5 was used, in which 1 is definitely metastatic, 2 is probably metastatic, 3 is indeterminate, 4 is probably benign and 5 is definitely benign. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each modality, taking a score {<=}2 as metastatic. With receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for each modality and compared. Clinical and imaging follow-up and/or histopathology were taken as reference standard. For both readers SPECT was inferior to CT (P = 0.004, P = 0.022) and SPECT-CT (P = 0.003, P = 0.037). However, no significant difference was found between CT and SPECT-CT for reader 1 (P = 0.847) and reader 2 (P = 0.592). The findings were similar for lytic as well as sclerotic lesions. Moderate inter-observer agreement was seen for SPECT images ({kappa} = 0.426), while almost perfect agreement was seen for CT ({kappa} = 0.834) and SPECT-CT ({kappa} = 0.971). CT alone and SPECT-CT are better than SPECT for accurate characterisation of indeterminate lesions on planar BS in lung cancer patients. CT alone is not inferior to SPECT-CT for this purpose and might be preferred because of shorter acquisition time and wider availability. (orig.)

  7. Image Restoration Using Functional and Anatomical Information Fusion with Application to SPECT-MRI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benameur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is usually viewed as an ill-posed problem in image processing, since there is no unique solution associated with it. The quality of restored image closely depends on the constraints imposed of the characteristics of the solution. In this paper, we propose an original extension of the NAS-RIF restoration technique by using information fusion as prior information with application in SPECT medical imaging. That extension allows the restoration process to be constrained by efficiently incorporating, within the NAS-RIF method, a regularization term which stabilizes the inverse solution. Our restoration method is constrained by anatomical information extracted from a high resolution anatomical procedure such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. This structural anatomy-based regularization term uses the result of an unsupervised Markovian segmentation obtained after a preliminary registration step between the MRI and SPECT data volumes from each patient. This method was successfully tested on 30 pairs of brain MRI and SPECT acquisitions from different subjects and on Hoffman and Jaszczak SPECT phantoms. The experiments demonstrated that the method performs better, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, than a classical supervised restoration approach using a Metz filter.

  8. 可乐定联合剥夺睡眠诱发癫(癎)发作的SPECT脑血流灌注显像研究%The study of ictal brain SPECT during seizures induced by clonidine and sleep-deprivation in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓慧; 陈雪红; 王正江; 柳江燕; 冯建中; 叶江; 赵莉

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨可乐定加剥夺睡眠诱发癫(癎)发作,获取发作期SPECT显像结果的可行性及临床价值.方法 选择临床确诊的癫(癎)患者52例,口服可乐定并剥夺睡眠以诱发癫(癎)(简称可乐定组),在视频脑电图(VEEG)监测下,当患者出现临床发作和(或)VEEG出现典型癫(癎)波时,30 s内静脉注射99Tcm-双半胱乙酯(ECD),30 min后行脑血流灌注断层显像.同时,选择同等条件下癫(癎)患者47例作为对照,通过单纯剥夺睡眠以诱发癫(癎)(简称剥夺睡眠组).应用SPSS 10.0统计软件对2组患者癫(癎)诱发率进行x2检验.结果 可乐定组的52例癫(癎)患者中,39例(75.0%)口服可乐定后1~2 h出现了VEEG异常,其中亚临床发作(仅出现典型癫(癎)波)92.3%(36/39),临床发作7.7%(3/39).发作期SPECT定位阳性率为94.9%(37/39),均表现为高血流灌注灶.剥夺睡眠组的47例患者中,诱发率为38.3%(18/47),其中亚临床发作77.8%(14/18),临床发作22.2%(4/18).2组诱发率差异有统计学意义(x2=13.614,P<0.01);2组临床发作率差异无统计学意义(x2=1.253,P>0.05).结论 可乐定联合剥夺睡眠对癫(癎)的诱发率明显高于单纯剥夺睡眠,前者可在有限的时间内诱发癫(癎),以亚临床发作为主,故可作为进行发作期SPECT脑显像安全、有效的诱发方法.%Objective To evaluate the feasibility and clinical value of combined clonidine and sleep-deprivation induced seizures for ictal brain SPECT imaging in patients with epilepsy. Methods Fiftytwo epilepsy patients were given oral clonidine plus sleep-deprivation to induce seizures with video-electroencephalogram (VEEG) monitoring. Forty-seven patients were selected as control group, whose seizures were induced by sleep-deprivation only. 99Tcm-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) was injected within 30 s since a clinical sign and/or a typical EEG discharge of epilepsy was recognized. Brain SPECT was performed 30 min after 99TcmECD injection. X2-test was

  9. [{sup 123}I]-IMP SPECT findings in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nakabayashi, Haruo; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Masayuki [Jikei Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kashiwa Hospital; Nakajima, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    To study the dynamics of metabolic function in the cerebellar hemispheres, vermis and brain stem of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6), we used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in six Japanese patients with SCA6 and nine normal control subjects. All patients with SCA6 were found to have expanded CAG repeats (from 22 to 24 repeats). The SPECT data were also analyzed semiquantitatively. The rCBF in the cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and brain stem was not significantly lower in patients with SCA6 than in normal controls. However, the ratio of the cerebellar hemisphere to occipital lobe (C/O ratio) was significantly lower in patients. The ratio of the vermis and brain stem to occipital lobe (V/O, P/O ratio) were not significantly lower in patients. The C/O, V/O and P/O ratio were especially sensitive indexes for regional cerebral function in patients with SCA6. Results of this study suggest that the functional decrease in SCA6 may begin in the cerebellar hemispheres. IMP SPECT was useful for evaluating rCBF in patients with SCA6. (author)

  10. Iodine-123 IMP SPECT before and after by-pass surgery in a patient with occlusion of left anterior and middle cerebral arteries with basal abnormal telangiectasis (unilateral Moyamoya disease)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo; Takishima, Teruo; Kaizu, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Eiichi

    1987-09-01

    A case of left anterior and middle cerebral arterial occlusion with angiographic features similar to Moyamoya disease was reported. IMP SPECT of the patient revealed the success of by-pass surgery clearly. The patient complained of transient right hemiparesis with aphasia 4 times. The cerebral arteriography disclosed occlusions of left anterior and middle cerebral arteries at their proximal portions. Right internal carotid and its branches were normal. I-123 IMP SPECT study showed hypoperfusion in left temporal lobe, basal ganglia with incomplete reperfusion on the delayed (4 hours after injection) SPECT images. After the superficial temporal-middle cerebral artery anastomosis, I-123 IMP SPECT showed improvement of the brain blood flow. I-123 IMP SPECT was very useful in detecting the ischemic areas and evaluating the revascularizing surgery in this case.

  11. SPECT/CT and tumour imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abikhzer, Gad [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Keidar, Zohar [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-05-15

    Scintigraphic techniques are sensitive imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of cancer patients providing the functional and metabolic activity characteristics of the tumour. Hybrid SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy of these well-established imaging techniques by precise anatomical localization and characterization of morphological findings, differentiation between foci of physiological and pathological tracer uptake, resulting in a significant impact on patient management and more definitive interpretations. The use of SPECT/CT has been studied in a variety of applications in tumour imaging which are reviewed in this article. By combining functional and anatomical information in a single imaging session, SPECT/CT has become a one-stop cancer imaging modality. (orig.)

  12. 发作间期PET显像与发作期SPECT显像在癫痫灶定位中的应用%Associated application studies of epileptic interictal PET and ictal SPECT brain imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金陵; 李家敏; 李树生; 孙爱君; 刘健; 苏富勇

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨发作间期PET显像与发作期SPECT显像在癫痫灶定位中的的特点和相关性.方法对54例癫痫患者行发作间期PET和发作期SPECT 2次检查,对结果进行对比分析.结果54例发作间期PET显像示低代谢者中33例(61.1%)表现为单叶局限性低代谢,21例(38.9%)表现为多个病灶或弥漫性改变.发作期SPECT显像50例可见高灌注灶,高灌注中37例(74%)为单叶局限性高灌注,13例(26%)为多个病灶,未见弥漫性高灌注.2项检查比较,46例(85.2%)2项检查结果相符合,其中32例(69.6%)显示为颞叶病灶.发作间期PET示多病灶及弥漫性改变者于发作期SPECT显像时有9例 (42.9%)转化为单叶局限性病灶,7例(33.3%)排除了部分低代谢病灶.结论癫痫灶灌注与代谢改变具有明显的相关性.发作间期PET显像定位癫痫灶解剖结构显示较为清晰,发作期SPECT显像替代发作期PET检查可提高定位特异性.2项检查联合应用可排除非致痫性病变和发作过程中痫性电活动的泛化,具有较好的互补性.

  13. Quantification of cerebral blood flow with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT based on a 3-compartment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Noguchi, Eikichi; Ohtaki, Hiro; Shibaki, Mitsurou; Dobashi, Sachio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohkubo, Masaki

    1998-10-01

    In the present study we developed a method for quantifying regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT based on a 3-compartment model. The dynamic SPECT scanning and sequential sampling of arterial blood were performed on 12 subjects with cerebrovascular diseases and etc. We defined brain fractionation index (BFI) as a parameter of rCBF, which was obtained from a single SPECT data and arterial input. The relationship between the values of BFI and rCBF obtained by the {sup 133}Xe inhalation method was analyzed by approximation with exponential function. In this method, rCBF was calculated from the values of BFI using the inverse function of the exponential function as a regression curve. The method was applied seven other patients with cerebrovascular diseases and the values of rCBF were compared with those obtained by the {sup 133}Xe inhalation method. We observed a good correlation (r=0.854), and the inclination was approximately 1. This method can be applied to not only large field SPECT cameras but also conventional SPECT cameras. (author)

  14. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  15. Perfusion impairments on brian SPECT in patients with developmental language disorder: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Y. H. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E. J.; Kim, J. K.; Yoon, P. H.; Jeon, T. J.; Jeon, J. D.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Development language disorder (DLD) is diagnosed when there is a failure of normal language development in a child with normal nonverbal intelligence. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of DLD, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalties in pre-school aged DLD children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with infantile autism (AD). 50 children between 4 and 9 years of age with DLD (n=24) infantile autism (n=26) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of DLD and infantile autism was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 24 DLD patients, 10 revealed decreased perfusion of the thalami, followed by hypoperfusion of cerebellar hemisphere (n=9), frontal cortex (n=5), temporal cortex (n=5), parietal cortex (n=1). Of those 26 AD patients, 18 revealed hypoperfusion of the cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of the thalami (n=16), parietal cortex (n=10), temporal cortex (n=4). Frontal hypoperfusion was significantly frequently seen in DLD, whereas, cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion was frequently seen in AD.All AD and DLD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of DLD and AD as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies although they had normal MRI. And further studies are necessary to determine the significant of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  16. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kewm, Do Hun [National Bugok Mental Hospital, Changryung (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-10-15

    Functional imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system, and DAT is the target site of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Functional imaging the DAT may be a sensitive and selective indicator of neurotoxic change by the drug. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical implications of qualitative/quantitative analyses of dopamine transporter imaging in methamphetamine abusers. Six detoxified methamphetamine abusers (abuser group) and 4 volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. Brain MRI was performed in all of abuser group. Abuser group underwent psychiatric and depression assessment using brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), respectively. All of the subjects underwent I-123 IPT SPECT (IPT SPECT). IPT SPECT image was analysed with visual qualitative method and quantitative method using basal ganglia dopamine transporter (DAT) specific/non-specific binding ratio (SBR). Comparison of DAT SBR between abuser and control groups was performed. We also performed correlation tests between psychiatric and depression assessment results and DAT SBR in abuser group. All of abuser group showed normal MRI finding, but had residual psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and psychiatric and depressive symptom scores were exactly correlated (r=1.0, {rho} =0.005) each other. Five of them showed abnormal finding on qualitative visual I-123 IPT SPECT. Abuser group had lower basal ganglia DAT SBR than that of control (2.38 {+-} 0.20 vs 3.04 {+-} 0.27, {rho} =0.000). Psychiatric and depressive symptoms were negatively well correlated with basal ganglia DAT SBR (r=-0.908, {rho} =0.012, r=-0.924, {rho} =0.009) This results suggest that dopamine transporter imaging using I-123 IPT SPECT may be used to evaluate dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia and the clinical status in methamphetamine abusers.

  17. Evaluation of the redistribution in [sup 123]I-IMP SPECT in cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Masahiro; Shibasaki, Takashi; Horikoshi, Satoru; Ohye, Chihiro; Suzuki, Hideki (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the correlation between redistribution on IMP SPECT and the regional oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) on PET. Ten lesions that had shown the redistribution phenomenon on IMP SPECT in five patients were selected. In four patient, IMP SPECT was performed within 2 months of the onset of cerebrovascular attack. In one patient, the examination was performed 3 years after the onset. The interval between IMP SPECT and PET was 45 days, except in one patient who was in the chronic phase. The ten lesions were classified into two groups according to rOEF values as follows: Group 1, rOEF[>=]50% and Group 2, rOEF<50%. In group 1, all lesions did not show low density on final X-ray CT. By contrast, in group 2, three lesions did not show low density on the X-ray CT and the other two lesions did. Redistribution rate (RD rate) was defined as follows, RD rate= [l brace](B-A) /B- (B'-A') /B'[r brace] / (B-A) /Bx100 (%) where, A, B, A' and B' are count rate in each of the regions of interest (ROIs). Region of interest (ROI) A was positioned in the lesion on the early image of SPECT that showed redistribution on the delayed image and ROI B was in the opposite side or occipital lobe (normal brain). On the delayed image, ROI A' and B' were positioned at the same place as A and B. ROIs on PET were positioned in the lesion corresponding to ROI A and B on SPECT. In group 1, all RD rates increased more than 70%. By contrast, in group 2, most RD rates were not more than 70%. In group 1, the A'/B' ratio increased more than A/B and was always greater than 90%. It is suggested that the presence of the redistribution phenomenon on IMP SPECT dose not always show the tissue viability. But quantification of the phenomenon by calculating A'/B' or RD rate is useful in evaluating tissue viability of the lesions and in predicting the final outcome of the area. (author).

  18. Performance evaluation of D-SPECT: a novel SPECT system for nuclear cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Kacperski, Krzysztof; van Gramberg, Dean; Hutton, Brian F

    2009-05-07

    D-SPECT (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is a novel SPECT system for cardiac perfusion studies. Based on CZT detectors, region-centric scanning, high-sensitivity collimators and resolution recovery, it offers potential advantages over conventional systems. A series of measurements were made on a beta-version D-SPECT system in order to evaluate its performance in terms of energy resolution, scatter fraction, sensitivity, count rate capability and resolution. Corresponding measurements were also done on a conventional SPECT system (CS) for comparison. The energy resolution of the D-SPECT system at 140 keV was 5.5% (CS: 9.25%), the scatter fraction 30% (CS: 34%), the planar sensitivity 398 s(-1) MBq(-1) per head ((99m)Tc, 10 cm) (CS: 72 s(-1) MBq(-1)), and the tomographic sensitivity in the heart region was in the range 647-1107 s(-1) MBq(-1) (CS: 141 s(-1) MBq(-1)). The count rate increased linearly with increasing activity up to 1.44 M s(-1). The intrinsic resolution was equal to the pixel size, 2.46 mm (CS: 3.8 mm). The average reconstructed resolution using the standard clinical filter was 12.5 mm (CS: 13.7 mm). The D-SPECT has superior sensitivity to that of a conventional system with similar spatial resolution. It also has excellent energy resolution and count rate characteristics, which should prove useful in dynamic and dual radionuclide studies.

  19. Performance evaluation of D-SPECT: a novel SPECT system for nuclear cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Kacperski, Krzysztof; van Gramberg, Dean; Hutton, Brian F.

    2009-05-01

    D-SPECT (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is a novel SPECT system for cardiac perfusion studies. Based on CZT detectors, region-centric scanning, high-sensitivity collimators and resolution recovery, it offers potential advantages over conventional systems. A series of measurements were made on a β-version D-SPECT system in order to evaluate its performance in terms of energy resolution, scatter fraction, sensitivity, count rate capability and resolution. Corresponding measurements were also done on a conventional SPECT system (CS) for comparison. The energy resolution of the D-SPECT system at 140 keV was 5.5% (CS: 9.25%), the scatter fraction 30% (CS: 34%), the planar sensitivity 398 s-1 MBq-1 per head (99mTc, 10 cm) (CS: 72 s-1 MBq-1), and the tomographic sensitivity in the heart region was in the range 647-1107 s-1 MBq-1 (CS: 141 s-1 MBq-1). The count rate increased linearly with increasing activity up to 1.44 M s-1. The intrinsic resolution was equal to the pixel size, 2.46 mm (CS: 3.8 mm). The average reconstructed resolution using the standard clinical filter was 12.5 mm (CS: 13.7 mm). The D-SPECT has superior sensitivity to that of a conventional system with similar spatial resolution. It also has excellent energy resolution and count rate characteristics, which should prove useful in dynamic and dual radionuclide studies.

  20. Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain with a rotating gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Knopp, R.; Winkler, C.; Wappenschmidt, J.

    1981-08-01

    In 471 patients SPECT of the brain was performed in addition to conventional serial brain scintigraphy using a rotating gamma camera (GAMMATOME T 9000). 23 patients had tumorous lesions, 26 had vascular lesions, and 422 patients revealed normal brain findings. 5 of the 23 patients with tumorous lesion and 5 of the 12 patients with vascular lesion (anamnesis shorter than 4 weeks) showed positive SPECT results but false negative conventional brain scans. Specificity could be improved up to 98% (412 out of 422 patients) using SPECT and conventional scintigraphy.

  1. Application of combined brain SPECT and MRI in localizing epilepsy foci%SPECT脑血流灌注显像与MRI对癫痫灶定位诊断的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨自更; 郭勇; 张阳; 蔡冰冰

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the application value of using a combination of rCBF brain SPECT and MRI for the localization of intractable epilepsy. Methods 52 patients with intractable epilepsy were recruited.. Ictal and interictal SPECT, together with MRI, were performed before the suregeries on these patients. Subtraction was performed between Ictal and interictal SPECT images. The areas that changed the most on the difference image were considered to be the epilepsy foci. These results were also compared with the MR images. The diagnosis based on a combination of both SPECT and MRI were then compared with the pathology results after surgery. Results Among the 52 patients there were 41(78.85﹪)positive cases based on the SPECT result (blood perfusion decreased); in these patients the number of episodes was significantly reduced after surgery, some even experienced no episodes after surgery. 38 cases of MRI(73.08﹪)patients with hippocampal sclerosis or lesions. With a combination of MRI and SPECT the total effective rate reached 88.46﹪. Conclusions An evaluation based on both of the two examination methods had a higher positive rate of localizing epileptogenic focus than that based on a single image, which is very helpful to the clinical application of pre-surgery localization and in turn resulted in a better surgery result.%目的:探讨SPECT脑血流灌注显像和MRI综合评价癲痫灶定位的临床价值。方法对52例拟手术的癫痫患者行发作期和发作间期脑血流灌注显像,并做减影处理,发作期与发作间期减影处理后变化最显著部位考虑为致痫灶。同期进行MRI检查

  2. Age-related decline in nicotinic receptor availability with [123I]5-IA-85380 SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Human postmortem studies have reported decreases with age in high affinity nicotine binding in brain. We investigated the effect of age on β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (β2-nAChR) availability in eight brain regions of living human subjects using the ligand [123I]5-IA-85380 ([123I]5-IA) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Healthy, nonsmokers (N=47) ranging in age from 18-85 were administered [123I]5-IA using a bolus plus constant infusion paradigm and imag...

  3. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas ov...

  4. Singular Value Decomposition of Pinhole SPECT Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Robin; Kupinski, Matthew A; Barrett, Harrison H; Clarkson, Eric W; Aarsvold, John N; Volokh, Lana; Grobshtein, Yariv

    2009-03-12

    A single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system can be modeled by a linear operator H that maps from object space to detector pixels in image space. The singular vectors and singular-value spectra of H provide useful tools for assessing system performance. The number of voxels used to discretize object space and the number of collection angles and pixels used to measure image space make the matrix dimensions H large. As a result, H must be stored sparsely which renders several conventional singular value decomposition (SVD) methods impractical. We used an iterative power methods SVD algorithm (Lanczos) designed to operate on very large sparsely stored matrices to calculate the singular vectors and singular-value spectra for two small animal pinhole SPECT imaging systems: FastSPECT II and M(3)R. The FastSPECT II system consisted of two rings of eight scintillation cameras each. The resulting dimensions of H were 68921 voxels by 97344 detector pixels. The M(3)R system is a four camera system that was reconfigured to measure image space using a single scintillation camera. The resulting dimensions of H were 50864 voxels by 6241 detector pixels. In this paper we present results of the SVD of each system and discuss calculation of the measurement and null space for each system.

  5. SPECT using asymmetric pinholes with truncated projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jianyu; Meikle, Steven R, E-mail: jianyu.lin@curtin.edu.au [Ramaciotti Imaging Centre, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2011-07-07

    Tomographic systems employing truncated projections have been developed for parallel and fan beam collimation and for cone beam CT but the idea has not been extensively explored in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this paper, we explore the sampling requirements and system performance of SPECT systems with asymmetric pinhole collimators and truncated projections. We demonstrate that complete 3D sampling can be achieved by using multiple detectors with truncated asymmetric pinholes, offset axially from each other, and a spiral orbit. The use of truncated projections can be exploited in the design of pinhole SPECT systems by moving the pinholes closer to the subject, resulting in increased sensitivity and improved spatial resolution. Truncated and untruncated pinhole systems were evaluated using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculated from the linearized local impulse response as a figure of merit. The CNR for the truncated pinhole system was up to 60% greater than that for the untruncated system at matched resolution for a source voxel near the centre of a uniform phantom and 30% greater at the edge. We conclude that an object can be reconstructed from asymmetric pinholes with truncated projections, which leads to potentially important design considerations and applications in single- and multi-pinhole SPECT.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in various pediatric neurological patients using /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Tohru; Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Hongou, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Miyako; Yamatani, Miwa; Okada, Toshio

    1988-03-01

    The recent development of a new radiopharmaceutical /sup 123/I-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP), which is taken up by the brain from the blood flow, has offered a possibility of constructing scintigraphy maps of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using single photon emission CT. We used this mehtod in various pediatric neurological diseases. Six patients with cerebro-vascular disorders (moya-moya disease 2, infarction 3 and HHE syndrome 1), 6 patients with infectious diseases of CNS (acute encephalitis 4, septic meningitis 1 and SSPE 1) and a miscellaneous group of six patients were studied. The rCBF abnormalities in cerebro-vascular diseases were more extensive and frequent than x-ray CT abnormalities. Repeated studies of IMP-SPECT revealed usefulness for the understanding of changeable hemodynamic pathophysiology and for the judgment of theraptic effectiveness and prognosis. The rCBF decrease in infectious diseases tended to be more diffuse and slight than that in cerebro-vascular diseases. In almost all patients, the area of rCBF decrease coincided with the area of EEG slowing evaluated by EEG topographic analysis. Brain imaging using /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT may reveal functional abnormalities as well as organic lesions. /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT has introduced a new era for the useful application of nuclear medicine to the investigation of pediatric neurological diseases.

  7. Iodine-123 iodobenzofuran (I-123 IBF) SPECT in patients with parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajo, Masayuki; Mitsuda, Mitsuru; Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tani, Atsushi; Osame, Mitsuhiro [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1999-12-01

    Iodine-123 benzofuran (I-123 IBF) is a dopaminergic antagonist which is suitable for SPECT imaging of D2 receptors. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential usefulness of semi-quantitative parameters obtained from brain SPECT data of I-123 IBF for differential diagnosis in patients with parkinsonism (PN). Subjects were 10 patients with PN: 2 patients with striato-nigral degeneration (SND), 5 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 2 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and one patient with olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA). The data were acquired with a triple-head gamma camera at 2 hours after intravenous injection of 167 MBq of I-123 IBF. Transverse images were reconstructed by means of filtered backprojection, and attenuation correction was performed by Chang's method ({mu}=0.08). The basal ganglia-to-frontal cortex ratio (GFR) and the basal ganglia-to-occipital cortex ratio (GOR) on slices of 5 different thicknesses were calculated. The GFR and GOR were lower in the SND group than in the other disease groups in all slices with different thicknesses (7.2 mm, 14.4 mm, 21.6 mm, 28.8 mm and 43.2 mm). The semiquantitative parameters (GFR and GOR) obtained from brain SPECT data at 2 hours after intravenous injection of I-123 IBF may be useful for differential diagnosis in patients with PN. (author)

  8. Cerebral perfusion SPECT in transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, D.-L. E-mail: dlyou@mail.kfcc.org.tw; Shieh, F.-Y.; Tzen, K.-Y.; Tsai, M.-F.; Kao, P.-F

    2000-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of cerebral perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods: Thirty-seven patients with TIA were collected for study. All patients had transient focal neurological symptoms or signs with complete recovery within 24 h after onset. The patients underwent cerebral perfusion SPECT between 6 h and 11 days after onset, with 10 cases performed within 24 h (group A), nine cases performed between 1 and 3 days (group B), 11 cases performed between 3 and 5 days (group C), and seven cases performed after more than 5 days (group D). A semi-quantitative method was used for analyzing the SPECT data, and the difference ratios between lesion side and contralateral normal side were calculated on each pair of regions of interest. Results: In total, 78.4% (29/37) of patients had reduced perfusion in the cerebral cortical regions or deep nuclei, and the regions with reduced perfusion corresponded with clinical presentations of the patients. The abnormal rate with reduced perfusion was 90.0% in group A, 77.8% in group B, 72.7% in group C and 71.4% in group D. Cross cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) was present in seven patients, and all of the primary cerebral perfusion defects of these patients were located at the territory of left or right middle cerebral artery. Conclusion: Cerebral perfusion SPECT is a potential tool to detect cerebral perfusion defects and CCD in patients with TIA. Although the perfusion defect may persist more than 5 days after onset, we suggest cerebral perfusion SPECT should be performed as soon as possible.

  9. Monte Carlo scatter correction for SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zemei

    The goal of this dissertation is to present a quantitatively accurate and computationally fast scatter correction method that is robust and easily accessible for routine applications in SPECT imaging. A Monte Carlo based scatter estimation method is investigated and developed further. The Monte Carlo simulation program SIMIND (Simulating Medical Imaging Nuclear Detectors), was specifically developed to simulate clinical SPECT systems. The SIMIND scatter estimation (SSE) method was developed further using a multithreading technique to distribute the scatter estimation task across multiple threads running concurrently on multi-core CPU's to accelerate the scatter estimation process. An analytical collimator that ensures less noise was used during SSE. The research includes the addition to SIMIND of charge transport modeling in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. Phenomena associated with radiation-induced charge transport including charge trapping, charge diffusion, charge sharing between neighboring detector pixels, as well as uncertainties in the detection process are addressed. Experimental measurements and simulation studies were designed for scintillation crystal based SPECT and CZT based SPECT systems to verify and evaluate the expanded SSE method. Jaszczak Deluxe and Anthropomorphic Torso Phantoms (Data Spectrum Corporation, Hillsborough, NC, USA) were used for experimental measurements and digital versions of the same phantoms employed during simulations to mimic experimental acquisitions. This study design enabled easy comparison of experimental and simulated data. The results have consistently shown that the SSE method performed similarly or better than the triple energy window (TEW) and effective scatter source estimation (ESSE) methods for experiments on all the clinical SPECT systems. The SSE method is proven to be a viable method for scatter estimation for routine clinical use.

  10. Studying Spatial Resolution of CZT Detectors Using Sub-Pixel Positioning for SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montémont, Guillaume; Lux, Silvère; Monnet, Olivier; Stanchina, Sylvain; Verger, Loïck

    2014-10-01

    CZT detectors are the basic building block of a variety of new SPECT systems. Their modularity allows adapting system architecture to specific applications such as cardiac, breast, brain or small animal imaging. In semiconductors, a high number of electron-hole pairs is produced by a single interaction. This direct conversion process allows better energy and spatial resolutions than usual scintillation detectors based on NaI(Tl). However, it remains often unclear if SPECT imaging can really benefit of that performance gain. We investigate the system performance of a detection module, which is based on 5 mm thick CZT with a segmented anode having a 2.5 mm pitch by simulation and experimentation. This pitch allows an easy assembly of the crystal on the readout board and limits the space occupied by electronics without significantly degrading energy and spatial resolution.

  11. Comparison and planar and SPECT ventilation/perfusion lung scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberl, S.; Uren, R.; Bautovich, G.; Dugal, T.; Forster, J. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia). Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scanning, using multiple planar views, is an accepted technique for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE). Under PIOPED criteria, there are a substantial number of indeterminate results due to confounding factors such as CAL, unusual anatomy or superimposed activity in the planar image. Our aim was to investigate if SPECT could improve the diagnostic accuracy of V/Q scanning in the diagnosis of PE. Both planar and SPECT images were acquired on a dual or a triple head gamma camera following inhalation of {sup 99m}Tc-Technegas and after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Total acquisition time for SPECT studies was 7.5 min for ventilation and 5 min for perfusion. SPECT studies were reconstructed with an accelerated iterative reconstruction (OSEM) and ventilation slices and perfusion slices were registered with an automated image registration package. Total processing time was 5 min. We have now performed more than 600 planar and SPECT studies. A subset of 50 sequential patients and 10 cases with pulmonary angiography were scored blinded by experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Scores ranged from 0 (no PE) to 5 (definite PE). A score of 3 indicated indeterminate for PE. In the 60 patients analysed, planar and SPECT scores were equal in 27 patients, SPECT was more definite in 16 and less definite in 7 patients. In 8 patients, SPECT indicated PE and planar imaging low probability of PE. In 1 patient planar imaging was scored as PE and SPECT as low probability. Indeterminate rate was reduced from 8 to 1 with SPECT. In the 10 patients with angiography, SPECT studies agreed with angiography findings in 8 patients, while planar studies agreed with angiography findings in 5 patients. Our preliminary data suggest that SPECT V/Q lung scanning can: i) provide a significant improvement over planar imaging for the diagnosis of PE, and ii) our short acquisition time for V/Q SPECT is clinically practicable

  12. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  13. Clinical results of neurotransmission SPECT in extra-pyramidal diseases; Resultats cliniques de la TEMP de la neurotransmission en pathologie extra-pyramidale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier, C.; Tranquart, F.; Guilloteau, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire in vitro, INSERM U316, 37 - Tours (France)

    1999-12-01

    We present some methodological aspects and clinical applications of dopamine D2 receptor and transporter SPECT using new radiotracers radiolabeled with iodine 123. The gamma camera quality control and standardisation has to be adapted to the small volume and deep location of striata, where receptors and transporters are present. Phantom containing hollow spheres of different diameters which can be filled with different amounts of {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 123}I. The semi quantitation of receptor and transporter molecular concentration is based on an equilibrium binding model. According to this model, the binding potential (Bmax. Ka) is equal to the ratio between specific binding in the striatum and circulating activity in a reference region of interest in the occipital cortex. By comparing ECD and ILIS SPECT, it has been shown that striatal ILIS binding does not depend on the local perfusion. The clinical applications mainly concern the extra-pyramidal pathology: ILIS and IBZM SPECT are able to differentiate pre- and post-synaptic lesions. In Parkinson disease the nigrostriatal pathway is damaged and D2 receptors are normal or increased, as shown by normal or elevated IBZM or ILIS uptake. In other extra pyramidal degenerative diseases as progressive supra nuclear palsy or multiple system atrophy striatal D2 receptors are damaged as shown by decreased IBZM or ILIS uptake. In our experience, 88 per cent of patients are correctly classified by ILIS SPECT and 86 per cent with IBZM SPECT. Dopamine transporter SPECT with {beta}CIT and PE2I provides an evaluation of the presynaptic neuronal density in the striatum. One can expect an help for the early diagnosis and the evaluation of Parkinson disease. Another potential application of dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT is the evaluation of neuronal loss after hypoxo-ischemia. We conclude that dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT using specific ligands should become a useful diagnosis tool to study a large number of brain

  14. Prospective study of p-[{sup 123}I]iodo-L-phenylalanine and SPECT for the evaluation of newly diagnosed cerebral lesions: specific confirmation of glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellwig, Dirk; Schaefer, Andrea; Farmakis, Georgios; Grgic, Aleksandar; Kirsch, Carl-Martin [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ketter, Ralf; Moringlane, Jean R.; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Homburg (Germany); Romeike, Bernd F.M. [Saarland University Medical Center, Institute of Neuropathology, Homburg (Germany); Friedrich-Schiller-University, Department of Neuropathology, Jena (Germany); Samnick, Samuel [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg/Saar (Germany); University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The differentiation between gliomas, metastases and gliotic or inflammatory lesions by imaging techniques remains a challenge. Gliomas frequently exhibit increased uptake of radiolabelled amino acids and are thus amenable to PET or SPECT imaging. Recently, p-[{sup 123}I]iodo-L-phenylalanine (IPA) was validated for the visualization of glioma by SPECT and received orphan drug status. Here we investigated its diagnostic performance for differentiating indeterminate brain lesions. This prospective open study included 67 patients with newly diagnosed brain lesions suspicious for glioma (34 without and 33 with contrast enhancement in the MRI scan). Patients received 250 MBq IPA intravenously after overnight fasting. SPECT images at 30 min and 3 h post-injection were iteratively reconstructed and visually interpreted after image fusion with an MRI brain scan (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence or T1-weighted contrast-enhanced image). Findings were correlated with results of stereotactic or open biopsies or serial imaging. Twenty-seven low-grade (2 WHO I, 25 WHO II) and 24 high-grade gliomas (1 WHO III, 23 WHO IV), 3 metastases originating from lung cancer as well as 13 non-neoplastic lesions were proven. All non-neoplastic lesions and all metastases were negative with IPA SPECT. Forty gliomas were true-positive (TP) and 11 false-negative (FN) findings (8 WHO II, 1 WHO III, 2 WHO IV) occurred. There were no false-positive (FP) findings. For the differentiation of primary brain tumours and non-neoplastic lesions, sensitivity and specificity were 78 and 100%. In 34 lesions without contrast enhancement in MRI, IPA SPECT resulted in 17 TP, 8 true-negative, 9 FN and no FP findings (sensitivity 65%, specificity 100%). In patients with suspected glioma, IPA SPECT shows a high specificity, but especially in low-grade gliomas FN findings may occur. Due to the high positive predictive value a positive finding allows a suspected glioma to be confirmed. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET and {sup 111}In-DTPAOC (Octreoscan) SPECT in patients with neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, I.; Henze, M.; Engelbrecht, S.; Haufe, S.; Haberkorn, U. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, M.; Runz, A.; Schaefer, M. [German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Department of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Heidelberg (Germany); Schilling, T. [University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine I, Endocrinology, Heidelberg (Germany); Herrmann, T. [University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine IV, Gastroenterology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) can be imaged with scintigraphy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. The aim of our study was to compare the value of {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET and {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT (Octreoscan) in the detection of NET manifestations. Twenty-seven NET patients were prospectively examined. {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET and {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT were performed using standard techniques. Treatment was not applied in between. Mean and maximum standardised uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for PET findings. Tumour/non-tumour ratios were calculated for SPECT findings. Findings were compared by a region-by-region analysis and verified with histopathology, CT and MRI within 21 days. SUVs of positive lesions on {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET ranged from 0.7 to 29.3 (mean SUV) and from 0.9 to 34.4 (maximum SUV). Tumour/non-tumour ratios on {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT ranged from 1.8 to 7.3. In imaging lung and skeletal manifestations, {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET was more efficient than {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT. All discrepant lung findings and 77.8% of discrepant osseous findings were verified as true positive PET interpretations. In regional comparison of liver and brain, {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET and {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT were identical. In lymph nodes, the pancreas and the gastro-intestinal system, different values of the two techniques were not indicated in regional analyses. In a single patient, surgical interventions were changed on the basis of {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET findings. {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET is superior to {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT in the detection of NET manifestations in the lung and skeleton and similar for the detection of NET manifestations in the liver and brain. {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET is advantageous in guiding the clinical management. (orig.)

  16. Geometric calibration for a SPECT system dedicated to breast imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-Wei; WEI Long; CAO Xue-Xiang; WANG Lu; HUANG Xian-Chao; CHAI Pei; YUN Ming-Kai; ZHANG Yu-Bao; ZHANG Long; SHAN Bao-Ci

    2012-01-01

    Geometric calibration is critical to the accurate SPECT reconstruction.In this paper,a geometric calibration method was developed for a dedicated breast SPECT system with a tilted parallel beam (TPB)orbit.The acquisition geometry of the breast SPECT was firstly characterized.And then its projection model was established based on the acquisition geometry.Finally,the calibration results were obtained using a nonlinear optimization method that fitted the measured projections to the model.Monte Carlo data of the breast SPECT were used to verify the calibration method.Simulation results showed that the geometric parameters with reasonable accuracy could be obtained by the proposed method.

  17. Perfusion SPECT studies with mapping of Brodmann areas in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal degeneration syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies with mapping of Brodmann areas (BAs) in the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTLD) syndromes. Thirty-nine patients with AD and 73 patients with FTLD syndromes [behavioural variant FTLD (bvFTLD); language variant FTLD (lvFTLD), including semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA); and corticobasal degeneration (CBD)/progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) syndromes] underwent brain perfusion SPECT. The NeuroGam software was used for the semiquantitative evaluation of perfusion in BAs of the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Compared with those in AD patients, BAs with statistically significant hypoperfusion were found in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of FTLD and bvFTLD patients; in the temporal and prefrontal cortices and Broca's areas of lvFTLD patients; in the left temporal gyrus of SD patients; in premotor and supplementary motor, prefrontal, orbitofrontal, temporal and anterior cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of PNFA patients; and in the prefrontal, temporal, posterior cingulated and primary and secondary visual cortices of CBD/PSP patients. BA 46R could differentiate AD patients from FTLD and bvFTLD patients; 21L and 25L were found to be independent predictors for lvFTLD in comparison with AD, and 25R, 21L and 23R could differentiate AD patients from PNFA, SD and CBD/PSP patients, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT with BA mapping in AD and FTLD patients could improve the definition of brain areas that are specifically implicated in these disorders, resulting in a more accurate differential diagnosis.

  18. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%{Delta}CBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %{Delta}CBF were up 24.1{+-}4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3{+-}3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %{Delta}CBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  19. SPECT Molecular Imaging in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common disorder, and the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is clinical and relies on the presence of characteristic motor symptoms. The accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of PD is still limited. Functional neuroimaging using SPECT technique is helpful in patients with first signs of parkinsonism. The changes detected may reflect the disease process itself and/or compensatory responses to the disease, or they may arise in association with disease- and/or treatment-related complications. This paper addresses the value of SPECT in early differential diagnosis of PD and its potential as a sensitive tool to assess the pathophysiology and progression, as well as the therapeutic efficacy of PD.

  20. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo;

    2010-01-01

    radiolabeled liquid aerosols are not restricted to the presence of obstructive lung disease. Radiolabeled macroaggregated human albumin is the imaging agent of choice for perfusion scintigraphy. An optimal combination of nuclide activities and acquisition times for ventilation and perfusion, collimators......Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas over......, and imaging matrix yields an adequate V/Q SPECT study in approximately 20 minutes of imaging time. The recommended protocol based on the patient remaining in an unchanged position during the initial ventilation study and the perfusion study allows presentation of matching ventilation and perfusion slices...

  1. Silicon Detectors for PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Eric R.

    Silicon detectors use state-of-the-art electronics to take advantage of the semiconductor properties of silicon to produce very high resolution radiation detectors. These detectors have been a fundamental part of high energy, nuclear, and astroparticle physics experiments for decades, and they hold great potential for significant gains in both PET and SPECT applications. Two separate prototype nuclear medicine imaging systems have been developed to explore this potential. Both devices take advantage of the unique properties of high resolution pixelated silicon detectors, designed and developed as part of the CIMA collaboration and built at The Ohio State University. The first prototype is a Compton SPECT imaging system. Compton SPECT, also referred to as electronic collimation, is a fundamentally different approach to single photon imaging from standard gamma cameras. It removes the inherent coupling of spatial resolution and sensitivity in mechanically collimated systems and provides improved performance at higher energies. As a result, Compton SPECT creates opportunities for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on higher energy isotopes as well as opportunities to expand the use of current isotopes such as 131I due to the increased resolution and sensitivity. The Compton SPECT prototype consists of a single high resolution silicon detector, configured in a 2D geometry, in coincidence with a standard NaI scintillator detector. Images of point sources have been taken for 99mTc (140 keV), 131I (364keV), and 22Na (511 keV), demonstrating the performance of high resolution silicon detectors in a Compton SPECT system. Filtered back projection image resolutions of 10 mm, 7.5 mm, and 6.7 mm were achieved for the three different sources respectively. The results compare well with typical SPECT resolutions of 5-15 mm and validate the claims of improved performance in Compton SPECT imaging devices at higher source energies. They also support the potential of

  2. SPECT/CT in pediatric patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, Helen R. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Pediatric Radiologist and Nuclear Medicine Physician, Division of Nuclear Medicine Department of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging is becoming the standard of care in pediatric imaging. Indications are mainly for oncologic imaging including mIBG scintigraphy for neuroblastoma and I-123 post surgical imaging of children with thyroid carcinoma, bone scintigraphy for back pain, children referred from sports medicine and neurodevelopmentally delayed children presenting with pain symptoms. The studies provide improved diagnostic accuracy, and oncologic imaging that includes optimized CT as part of the SPECT/CT study may decrease the number of studies and sedation procedures an individual child may need. The studies, however, must be tailored on an individual basis as the addition of the CT study can increase exposure to the child and should only be performed after appropriate justification and with adherence to optimized low dose pediatric protocols. (orig.)

  3. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI pinhole SPECT in primary hyperparathyroidism: comparison with conventional SPECT, planar scintigraphy and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thomas; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Kraeber-Bodere, Francoise; Ansquer, Catherine [Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); INSERM CRCNA, Nantes (France); Oudoux, Aurore [Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); Mirallie, Eric [Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Surgery Department, Nantes (France); Seret, Alain [University of Liege, Institute of Physics, Experimental Medical Imaging, Liege (Belgium); Daumy, Isabelle [Ultrasonography Center, Nantes (France); Leux, Christophe [Saint Jacques University Hospital, PIMESP, Nantes (France)

    2008-03-15

    A pinhole collimator is routinely used to increase the resolution of scintigraphy. This prospective study was conducted to determine the interest of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the preoperative localisation of parathyroid lesions in primary hyperparathyroidism. All patients underwent a neck ultrasonography (US), {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI planar images and two consecutive SPECT with a parallel (C-SPECT) and a pinhole collimator (P-SPECT). P-SPECT was performed with a tilted detector equipped with a pinhole collimator and reconstructed with a dedicated OSEM algorithm. A diagnostic confidence score (CS) was assigned to each procedure considering intensity and extra-thyroidal location of suspected lesions: 0 = negative, 1 = doubtful, 2 = moderately positive, 3 = positive. The results of these preoperative localisation studies were compared with surgical, pathological and 6-month biological findings. Fifty-one patients cured after surgery were included. Surgery revealed 55 lesions (median weight 0.5 g, 11 in ectopy). Sensitivities of US, planar imaging, C-SPECT and P-SPECT were, respectively, 51, 76, 82 and 87%. Nine glands were only detected by tomography and five glands only by P-SPECT. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI/{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} planar scans and P-SPECT were complementary and, when combined together, showed the highest sensitivity (93%). Compared with planar imaging and C-SPECT, P-SPECT increased CS for 42 and 53% of lesions, respectively, and contributed to markedly reduce the number of uncertain results. A combination of planar {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI/{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy and P-SPECT appears to be a highly accurate preoperative imaging procedure in primary hyperparathyroidism. (orig.)

  4. Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: 99m Tc, 111In and 131I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational efficiency

  5. Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-06-07

    Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: (99m) Tc, (111)In and (131)I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational

  6. Staging of moyamoya disease by perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Hospital; Matsushima, Toshio; Fukui, Masashi

    2001-04-01

    Staging of moyamoya disease, based on angiography and PET have already been established. The authors have established staging of moyamoya disease based on perfusion SPECT, that can be summarized as follows: Stage I, no abnormality is seen at rest or after acetazolamide loading; Stage II, no abnormality is seen at rest, however, a decreased response (blood flow increase rate: <15%) is seen to acetazolamide loading (a, a decreased response is seen only in the frontal lobe; b, a decreased response is seen in regions other than the frontal lobe; and c, a decreased response is seen throughout the cerebrum); Stage III, localized decrease in blood flow (blood flow decrease compared with peripheral tissue: {>=}15%) and marked decrease in response to acetazolamide (blood flow increase rate: <5%) are seen at rest. In Stage III, CT and MRI show no abnormal findings or only mild lesions of the white matter; and Stage IV, multiple decreases in blood flow are seen at rest, and CT and MRI reveal infarctions and severe atrophy at the same sites. The above staging does not require determination of cerebral blood flow, and thus it can be used in children, in whom cerebral blood flow determination is difficult. The authors performed 99m-Tc ECD perfusion SPECT in 25 patients with moyamoya disease for the staging, and compared staging based on angiography with staging based on perfusion SPECT. The results did not show a correlation between the 2 staging methods. A problem inherent in the staging of moyamoya disease based on perfusion SPECT is that the relationship between cerebral blood flow and cerebral radioactivity concentrations may differ depending on the drug used to determine cerebral blood flow. Thus, although the present staging system does not depend on any specific radioactive drug to determine cerebral blood flow, further investigation is necessary to identify a more appropriate drug than those in current use. (K.H.)

  7. ENVISION, developing SPECT imaging for particle therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. ENVISION aims at developing medical imaging tools to improve the dose delivery to the patient, to ensure a safer and more effective treatment. The animation illustrates the use of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for monitoring the dose during treatment. Produced by: CERN KT/Life Sciences and ENVISION Project Management: Manuela Cirilli 3D animation: Jeroen Huijben, Nymus3d

  8. SPECT and PET Imaging of Meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Valotassiou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid membranes. They are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms and represent about 20% of all intracranial tumors. They are usually diagnosed after the third decade of life and they are more frequent in women than in men. According to the World Health Organization (WHO criteria, meningiomas can be classified into grade I meningiomas, which are benign, grade II (atypical and grade III (anaplastic meningiomas, which have a much more aggressive clinical behaviour. Computed Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are routinely used in the diagnostic workup of patients with meningiomas. Molecular Nuclear Medicine Imaging with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT and Positron Emission Tomography (PET could provide complementary information to CT and MRI. Various SPECT and PET tracers may provide information about cellular processes and biological characteristics of meningiomas. Therefore, SPECT and PET imaging could be used for the preoperative noninvasive diagnosis and differential diagnosis of meningiomas, prediction of tumor grade and tumor recurrence, response to treatment, target volume delineation for radiation therapy planning, and distinction between residual or recurrent tumour from scar tissue.

  9. SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Todd E.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2011-09-01

    The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous sodium iodide scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic.

  10. SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Todd E; Furenlid, Lars R

    2011-09-07

    The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous sodium iodide scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic.

  11. Performance evaluation of D-SPECT: a novel SPECT system for nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Kacperski, Krzysztof; Van Gramberg, Dean; Hutton, Brian F [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London and UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: kjell.erlandsson@uclh.nhs.uk

    2009-05-07

    D-SPECT (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is a novel SPECT system for cardiac perfusion studies. Based on CZT detectors, region-centric scanning, high-sensitivity collimators and resolution recovery, it offers potential advantages over conventional systems. A series of measurements were made on a {beta}-version D-SPECT system in order to evaluate its performance in terms of energy resolution, scatter fraction, sensitivity, count rate capability and resolution. Corresponding measurements were also done on a conventional SPECT system (CS) for comparison. The energy resolution of the D-SPECT system at 140 keV was 5.5% (CS: 9.25%), the scatter fraction 30% (CS: 34%), the planar sensitivity 398 s{sup -1} MBq{sup -1} per head ({sup 99m}Tc, 10 cm) (CS: 72 s{sup -1} MBq{sup -1}), and the tomographic sensitivity in the heart region was in the range 647-1107 s{sup -1} MBq{sup -1} (CS: 141 s{sup -1} MBq{sup -1}). The count rate increased linearly with increasing activity up to 1.44 M s{sup -1}. The intrinsic resolution was equal to the pixel size, 2.46 mm (CS: 3.8 mm). The average reconstructed resolution using the standard clinical filter was 12.5 mm (CS: 13.7 mm). The D-SPECT has superior sensitivity to that of a conventional system with similar spatial resolution. It also has excellent energy resolution and count rate characteristics, which should prove useful in dynamic and dual radionuclide studies.

  12. Usefulness of rCBF SPECT in patients with encephalitis. Comparison study with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Flores, L.G. II; Kodama, Takao; Itokazu, Naoya; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-nine rCBF SPECT study was done in 17 patients with encephalitis. Five of 6 patients (83.3%) showed regional high uptake in acute phase within a week after onset and 16 of 23 studies (69.6%) showed regional low uptake in subacute and chronic phase. Six of 19 lesions (31.6%) with regional high uptake changed to low uptake and 11 lesions (57.9%) improved to normal uptake on follow up studies. Seventeen of 51 lesions with low uptake (33.3%) improved to normal uptake. On the comparative study with MRI, 8 of 18 (44.4%) high uptake area showed cortical thickness or high intensity on T{sub 2} weighted images. Thirty-six of 74 low uptake area (48.6%) showed cortical thickness, brain atrophy or high intensity on T{sub 2} weighted images. Forty-eight of 212 regions (22.6%) with normal MRI findings showed abnormal accumulation of cerebral tracer on rCBF SPECT studies. rCBF SPECT was useful tool for diagnosis and follow up management in patients with encephalitis. (author)

  13. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia; SPECT und PET in der Diagnostik von Epilepsien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landvogt, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-09-15

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, {sup 11}C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed.

  14. FlipADAM: a potential new SPECT imaging agent for the serotonin transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Julie L.; Deutsch, Eric C. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Oya, Shunichi [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F., E-mail: kunghf@gmail.co [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the brain is a useful tool for examining normal physiological functions and disease states involving the serotonergic system. The goal of this study was to develop an improved SPECT radiotracer with faster kinetics than the current leading SPECT tracer, [{sup 123}I]ADAM, for selective SERT imaging. Methods: The in vitro binding affinities of (2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-iodophenylthio)benzenamine) (FlipADAM) (1c), were determined using Hampshire pig kidney cells stably overexpressing the serotonin, norepinephrine (NET) or dopamine transporter (DAT). Localization of [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) was evaluated through biodistribution and autoradiography in male Sprague Dawley rats, and the specificity of binding was assessed by injecting selective SERT or NET inhibitors prior to [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c). Results: FlipADAM (1c) displayed a high binding affinity for SERT (K{sub i}=1.0 nM) and good selectivity over NET and DAT binding (43-fold and 257-fold, respectively). [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) successfully penetrated the blood brain barrier, as evidenced by the brain uptake at 2 min (1.75% dose/g). [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM(1c) also had a good target to non-target (hypothalamus/cerebellum) ratio of 3.35 at 60 min post-injection. In autoradiography studies, [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) showed selective localization in SERT-rich brain regions such as the thalamic nuclei, amygdala, dorsal raphe nuclei and other areas. Conclusion: [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) exhibited faster clearance from the brain and time to binding equilibrium when compared to [{sup 125}I]2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-phenylthio)-5-iodophenylamine [{sup 125}I]ADAM (1b) and a higher target to non-target ratio when compared to [{sup 125}I]5-iodo-2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-phenylthio)benzyl alcohol [{sup 125}I]IDAM (1a). Therefore, [{sup 123}I]FlipADAM (1c) may be an improved

  15. A multiresolution restoration method for cardiac SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquiz, Juan Manuel

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is affected by photon attenuation and image blurring due to Compton scatter and geometric detector response. Attenuation correction is important to increase diagnostic accuracy of cardiac SPECT. However, in attenuation-corrected scans, scattered photons from radioactivity in the liver could produce a spillover of counts into the inferior myocardial wall. In the clinical setting, blurring effects could be compensated by restoration with Wiener and Metz filters. Inconveniences of these procedures are that the Wiener filter depends upon the power spectra of the object image and noise, which are unknown, while Metz parameters have to be optimized by trial and error. This research develops an alternative restoration procedure based on a multiresolution denoising and regularization algorithm. It was hypothesized that this representation leads to a more straightforward and automatic restoration than conventional filters. The main objective of the research was the development and assessment of the multiresolution algorithm for compensating the liver spillover artifact. The multiresolution algorithm decomposes original SPECT projections into a set of sub-band frequency images. This allows a simple denoising and regularization procedure by discarding high frequency channels and performing inversion only in low and intermediate frequencies. The method was assessed in bull's eye polar maps and short- axis attenuation-corrected reconstructions of a realistic cardiac-chest phantom with a custom-made liver insert and different 99mTc liver-to-heart activity ratios. Inferior myocardial defects were simulated in some experiments. The cardiac phantom in free air was considered as the gold standard reference. Quantitative analysis was performed by calculating contrast of short- axis slices and the normalized chi-square measure, defect size and mean and standard deviation of polar map counts. The performance of the multiresolution

  16. Clinical utility and reliability of sup(81m)Kr SPECT images applied to posterior circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Takashi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Karasawa, Jun (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    The instrument used in this study has a sensitivity of 28,000 counts/mCi/cm/sup 3/ for sup(99m)Tc and a spatial resolution of approximately 20mm full width at a half-maximum. The tomographic images were obtained by the continuous infusion of sup(81m)Kr at the base of the ascending aorta. Material was subsequently studied in 49 cases that met the conditions of: 1) obstructive vertebrobasilar system lesions (8 cases), 2) no ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (10), or 3) ischemic cerebrovascular disorders in anterior circulation (31). The reproducibility, as studied in 20 cases, was satisfactory. 6 cases were compared with a stable Xe CT CBF map that had regional depressions similar to those of the sup(81m)Kr SPECT images. In the 2nd group, 8 of the 10 cases showed a mild laterality on cerebellar perfusion images obtained by SPECT, as did 29 of the 31 in the 3rd group; among them, 2 cases with a recently completed stroke revealed a marked depression in the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere to the side of the hemiplegia. Cases of the lst group showed generally depressed perfusion images of the brain stem or cerebellum, and the low-density areas of X-ray CT were comparable to the lower perfusional regions on SPECT. The authors concluded that posterior perfusion images obtained by sup(81m)Kr SPECT were affected by occlusive vertebrobasilar-system lesions as well as by carotid-system lesions and cerebellar functions, and that this method for evaluating hemodynamics will be of much more clinical use in repeated studies to demonstrate the changes in posterior ciculation in course or by some loadings with subclinical characteristics, for this paper includes the first report on cerebellar functional images, though it is restricted by the low-spatial resolution from defining the architecture of the posterior fossa in detail.

  17. Automated Analysis of {sup 123}I-beta-CIT SPECT Images with Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyung; Jeon, Bumseok; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Population-based statistical probabilistic anatomical maps have been used to generate probabilistic volumes of interest for analyzing perfusion and metabolic brain imaging. We investigated the feasibility of automated analysis for dopamine transporter images using this technique and evaluated striatal binding potentials in Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease. We analyzed 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-{sup 123}I-iodophenyl)tropane ({sup 123}I-beta-CIT) SPECT images acquired from 26 people with Parkinson's disease (M:F=11:15,mean age=49±12 years), 9 people with Wilson's disease (M: F=6:3, mean age=26±11 years) and 17 normal controls (M:F=5:12, mean age=39±16 years). A SPECT template was created using striatal statistical probabilistic map images. All images were spatially normalized onto the template, and probability-weighted regional counts in striatal structures were estimated. The binding potential was calculated using the ratio of specific and nonspecific binding activities at equilibrium. Voxel-based comparisons between groups were also performed using statistical parametric mapping. Qualitative assessment showed that spatial normalizations of the SPECT images were successful for all images. The striatal binding potentials of participants with Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease were significantly lower than those of normal controls. Statistical parametric mapping analysis found statistically significant differences only in striatal regions in both disease groups compared to controls. We successfully evaluated the regional {sup 123}I-beta-CIT distribution using the SPECT template and probabilistic map data automatically. This procedure allows an objective and quantitative comparison of the binding potential, which in this case showed a significantly decreased binding potential in the striata of patients with Parkinson's disease or Wilson's disease.

  18. Statistical parametric mapping of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turlakow, A.; Scott, A.M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Sonkila, C.; Wardill, T.D.; Crowley, K.; Abbott, D.; Egan, G.F.; McKay, W.J.; Hughes, A. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET Neurology and Clinical Neuropsychology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The clinical value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow studies in cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders has been well described. Currently, interpretation of these studies relies on qualitative or semi- quantitative techniques. The aim of our study is to generate statistical measures of regional cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly using statistical parametric mapping (Friston et al, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) in order to facilitate the objective analysis of cerebral blood flow studies in patient groups. A cohort of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, aged 68 to 81 years, was prospectively selected on the basis of normal physical examination and neuropsychological testing. Subjects with risk factors, or a history of cognitive impairment were excluded from our study group. All volunteers underwent SPECT cerebral blood flow imaging, 30 minutes following the administration of 370 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO, on a Trionix Triad XLT triple-headed scanner (Trionix Research Laboratory Twinsburg, OH) using high resolution, fan-beam collimators resulting in a system resolution of 10 mm full width at half-maximum (FWHM). The SPECT cerebral blood flow studies were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software specifically developed for the routine statistical analysis of functional neuroimaging data. The SPECT images were coregistered with each individual`s T1-weighted MR volume brain scan and spatially normalized to standardised Talairach space. Using SPM, these data were analyzed for differences in interhemispheric regional cerebral blood flow. Significant asymmetry of cerebral perfusion was detected in the pre-central gyrus at the 95th percentile. In conclusion, the interpretation of cerebral blood flow studies in the elderly should take into account the statistically significant asymmetry in interhemispheric pre-central cortical blood flow. In the future, clinical studies will be compared to statistical data sets in age

  19. Quantitative Monte Carlo-based holmium-166 SPECT reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elschot, Mattijs; Smits, Maarten L. J.; Nijsen, Johannes F. W.; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Viergever, Max A. [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging of the radionuclide distribution is of increasing interest for microsphere radioembolization (RE) of liver malignancies, to aid treatment planning and dosimetry. For this purpose, holmium-166 ({sup 166}Ho) microspheres have been developed, which can be visualized with a gamma camera. The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate a new reconstruction method for quantitative {sup 166}Ho SPECT, including Monte Carlo-based modeling of photon contributions from the full energy spectrum.Methods: A fast Monte Carlo (MC) simulator was developed for simulation of {sup 166}Ho projection images and incorporated in a statistical reconstruction algorithm (SPECT-fMC). Photon scatter and attenuation for all photons sampled from the full {sup 166}Ho energy spectrum were modeled during reconstruction by Monte Carlo simulations. The energy- and distance-dependent collimator-detector response was modeled using precalculated convolution kernels. Phantom experiments were performed to quantitatively evaluate image contrast, image noise, count errors, and activity recovery coefficients (ARCs) of SPECT-fMC in comparison with those of an energy window-based method for correction of down-scattered high-energy photons (SPECT-DSW) and a previously presented hybrid method that combines MC simulation of photopeak scatter with energy window-based estimation of down-scattered high-energy contributions (SPECT-ppMC+DSW). Additionally, the impact of SPECT-fMC on whole-body recovered activities (A{sup est}) and estimated radiation absorbed doses was evaluated using clinical SPECT data of six {sup 166}Ho RE patients.Results: At the same noise level, SPECT-fMC images showed substantially higher contrast than SPECT-DSW and SPECT-ppMC+DSW in spheres ≥17 mm in diameter. The count error was reduced from 29% (SPECT-DSW) and 25% (SPECT-ppMC+DSW) to 12% (SPECT-fMC). ARCs in five spherical volumes of 1.96–106.21 ml were improved from 32%–63% (SPECT-DSW) and 50%–80

  20. Ultra-high-resolution small-animal SPECT imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, F. van der

    2007-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the development of the first two in a series of dedicated ultra-high resolution Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems (U-SPECT-I and II) for the imaging of distributions of radio-isotope labeled tracers in small laboratory animals such as mice

  1. Simulation, construction and application of focused pinhole small animal SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vastenhouw, B.

    2008-01-01

    New developments in molecular imaging techniques like small animal SPECT systems are important tools to analyze mouse models of human diseases. The main subjects of this thesis are simulation, construction and image reconstruction algorithms needed for the development of a small-animal SPECT system

  2. Noninvasive measurements of cerebral blood flow using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT in elderly depressed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Tomo; Uno, Masatake; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Nakano, Seigo; Takano, Harunari; Morooka, Tomoyuki; Asada, Takashi [National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous, and Muscular Disorders, NCNP, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether the SPECT can clearly detect the minor abnormality that MRI could barely detect. Subjects were elderly depressed patients (73.6 years old in average, 1 male and 10 females) with a mean 18.9 score of Hamilton ranging scale for depression and normal people (72.1 years old, 5 males and 5 females) having given the informed consent. Patients` MRI hardly gave findings for cerebral atrophy and latent cerebral infarction. Rapidly after intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD (370 MBq), the flow of the tracer from the aortic arches to the brain was recorded every second with a gamma-camera to calculate the brain perfusion index (BPI) by Patlak plotting. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was calculated from BPI and cerebral blood flow measured by {sup 133}Xe inhalation SPECT. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was also computed. The apparatus was Siemens Mutti SPECT3 which had 3 detectors. mCBF of the patients (34.9 ml/100 g/min) was found significantly lower than the control (42.1 ml/100 g/min). rCBFs in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, thalamus, tegmentum, caudate nucleus and hippocampus were also lowered in the patients. Lowered blood flows in the left hemisphere were observed. These findings were considered to suggest the functional abnormality of the brain or the impaired blood flow possibly leading to infarction. (K.H.)

  3. Concordance between (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT and 18F-FDG PET interpretations in patients with cognitive disorders diagnosed according to NIA-AA criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kimiteru; Shimano, Yasumasa; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Nakata, Yasuhiro; Omachi, Yoshie; Sato, Noriko; Arima, Kunimasa; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the concordance of diagnostic abilities and interobserver agreement between 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and brain perfusion single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who were diagnosed according to the research criteria of the National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer's Association Workshop. Fifty-five patients with "AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)" (n = 40) and "non-AD" (n = 15) were evaluated with 18F-FDG PET and (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT during an 8-week period. Three radiologists independently graded the regional uptake in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes as well as the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex in both images. Kappa values were used to determine the interobserver reliability regarding regional uptake. The regions with better interobserver reliability between 18F-FDG PET and (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT were the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. The (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT agreement in the occipital lobes was not significant. The frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes showed good correlations between 18F-FDG PET and (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT in the degree of uptake, but the occipital lobe and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex did not show good correlations. The diagnostic accuracy rates of "AD and MCI" ranged from 60% to 70% in both of the techniques. The degree of uptake on 18F-FDG PET and (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT showed significant correlations in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. The diagnostic abilities of 18F-FDG PET and (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT for "AD and MCI," when diagnosed according to the National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer's Association Workshop criteria, were nearly identical. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Minireview of Stereoselective Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Donald F.; Jakobsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Stereoselectivity is a fundamental principle in living systems. Stereoselectivity reflects the dependence of molecular processes on the spatial orientation of constituent atoms. Stereoselective processes govern many aspects of brain function and direct the course of many psychotropic drugs. Today......, modern imaging techniques such as SPECT and PET provide a means for studying stereoselective processes in the living brain. Chemists have prepared numerous radiolabelled stereoisomers for use in SPECT and PET in order to explore various molecular processes in the living brain of anesthetized laboratory...... animals and awake humans. The studies have demonstrated how many aspects of neurotransmission consist of crucial stereoselective events that can affect brain function in health and disease. Here, we present a brief account of those findings in hope of stimulating further interest in the vital topic....

  5. Brain single photon emission computed tomography in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denays, R.; Van Pachterbeke, T.; Tondeur, M.; Spehl, M.; Toppet, V.; Ham, H.; Piepsz, A.; Rubinstein, M.; Nol, P.H.; Haumont, D. (Free Universities of Brussels (Belgium))

    1989-08-01

    This study was designed to rate the clinical value of ({sup 123}I)iodoamphetamine (IMP) or ({sup 99m}Tc) hexamethyl propylene amine oxyme (HM-PAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in neonates, especially in those likely to develop cerebral palsy. The results showed that SPECT abnormalities were congruent in most cases with structural lesions demonstrated by ultrasonography. However, mild bilateral ventricular dilatation and bilateral subependymal porencephalic cysts diagnosed by ultrasound were not associated with an abnormal SPECT finding. In contrast, some cortical periventricular and sylvian lesions and all the parasagittal lesions well visualized in SPECT studies were not diagnosed by ultrasound scans. In neonates with subependymal and/or intraventricular hemorrhage the existence of a parenchymal abnormality was only diagnosed by SPECT. These results indicate that ({sup 123}I)IMP or ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO brain SPECT shows a potential clinical value as the neurodevelopmental outcome is clearly related to the site, the extent, and the number of cerebral lesions. Long-term clinical follow-up is, however, mandatory in order to define which SPECT abnormality is associated with neurologic deficit.

  6. Bayesian learning for cardiac SPECT image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Jarosław P; Goodenday, Lucy S; Cios, Krzysztof J

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a system for automating the diagnosis of myocardial perfusion from single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of male and female hearts. Initially we had several thousand of SPECT images, other clinical data and physician-interpreter's descriptions of the images. The images were divided into segments based on the Yale system. Each segment was described by the physician as showing one of the following conditions: normal perfusion, reversible perfusion defect, partially reversible perfusion defect, fixed perfusion defect, defect showing reverse redistribution, equivocal defect or artifact. The physician's diagnosis of overall left ventricular (LV) perfusion, based on the above descriptions, categorizes a study as showing one or more of eight possible conditions: normal, ischemia, infarct and ischemia, infarct, reverse redistribution, equivocal, artifact or LV dysfunction. Because of the complexity of the task, we decided to use the knowledge discovery approach, consisting of these steps: problem understanding, data understanding, data preparation, data mining, evaluating the discovered knowledge and its implementation. After going through the data preparation step, in which we constructed normal gender-specific models of the LV and image registration, we ended up with 728 patients for whom we had both SPECT images and corresponding diagnoses. Another major contribution of the paper is the data mining step, in which we used several new Bayesian learning classification methods. The approach we have taken, namely the six-step knowledge discovery process has proven to be very successful in this complex data mining task and as such the process can be extended to other medical data mining projects.

  7. Fusion of 3D cardiac SPECT and 64-channel-CT angiography using personal computer in functionally relevant coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Image fusion is fast catching attention as Wagner pointed out in this 2006 version of the recent progress and development presented at the annual meeting of Society of Nuclear Medicine. Prototypical fusion of bone scan and radiograph was already attempted at in 1961 when Fleming et al. published an article on strontium-85 bone scan. They simply superimposed dot scan on radiograph enabling simultaneous assessment of altered bone metabolism and local bone anatomy. Indeed the parallel reading of images of bone scan and radiography, CT, MRI or ultrasonography has been practiced in nuclear medicine long since. It is fortunate that recent development of computer science and technology along with the availability of refined CT and SPECT machines has permitted us to open a new avenue to digitally produce precise fusion image so that they can readily be read, exchanged and disseminated using internet. Ten years ago fusion was performed using Bresstrahlung SPECT/CT and it is now achievable by PET/CT and SPECT/CT software and SPECT/CT hardware. The merit of image fusion is its feasibility of reliable assessment of morphological and metabolic change. It is now applicable not only to stationary organs such as brain and skeleton but also to moving organs such as the heart, lung and stomach. Recently, we could create useful fusion image of cardiac SPECT and 64-channel CT angiograph. The former provided myocardial metabolic profile and the latter vascular narrowing in two patients with coronary artery stenosis and myocardial ischemia.

  8. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Won Gee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin; Lee, Jong Doo; Cheon, Keun Ah [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Dae Yoon [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Tae Hyun [School of Medicine, Gachon Univ., Gachon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been known as psychiatric disorder in childhood associated with dopamine dysregulation. In present study, we investigated changes in dopamine transporter (DAT) density of the basal ganglias using I-123 N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl) -2-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorphenyl) tropane (I-123 IPT) SPECT in children with ADHD before and after methylphenidate treatment. Nine drug-naive children with ADHD and seven normal children were included in the study. We performed brain SPECT two hours after the intravenous administration of I-123 IPT and made both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPECT data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratios in the basal ganglia. All children with ADHD reperformed (123I)IPT SPECT after treatment with methylphenidate (0.7mg/kg/d) during about 8 weeks. SPECT data reconstructed for the assessment of specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia were compared between before and after treatment methyphenidate. We investigated correlation between the change of ADHD symptom severity assessed with ADHD rating scale-IV and specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of basal ganglia. Children with ADHD had a significantly greater specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia comparing to normal children (Right : z = 2.057, p = 0.041 ; Left : z = 2.096, p = 0.032). Under treatment with methylphenidate in all children with ADHD, specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both ganglia decreased significantly greater than before treatment with methylphenidate (Right : t = 3.239, p = 0.018 ; Left : t = 3.133, p 0.020). However, no significant correlation between the change of ADHD symptom severity scores and specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia were found. These findings support the complex dysregulation of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in children with ADHD.

  9. Significance of postoperative crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy: SPECT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Suga, Yasunori; Chida, Kohei; Saito, Hideo; Komoribayashi, Nobukazu; Otawara, Yasunari; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) results in cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome and cognitive impairment. The goal of the present study was to clarify the clinical significance of postoperative crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion (CCH) in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion after CEA by assessing brain perfusion with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Brain perfusion was quantitatively measured using SPECT and the [{sup 123}I]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine-autoradiography method before and immediately after CEA and on the third postoperative day in 80 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis ({>=}70%). Postoperative CCH was determined by differences between asymmetry of perfusion in bilateral cerebellar hemispheres before and after CEA. Neuropsychological testing was also performed preoperatively and at the first postoperative month. Eleven patients developed cerebral hyperperfusion (cerebral blood flow increase of {>=}100% compared with preoperative values) on SPECT imaging performed immediately after CEA. In seven of these patients, CCH was observed on the third postoperative day. All three patients with hyperperfusion syndrome exhibited cerebral hyperperfusion and CCH on the third postoperative day and developed postoperative cognitive impairment. Of the eight patients with asymptomatic hyperperfusion, four exhibited CCH despite resolution of cerebral hyperperfusion on the third postoperative day, and three of these patients experienced postoperative cognitive impairment. In contrast, four patients without postoperative CCH did not experience postoperative cognitive impairment. The presence of postoperative CCH with concomitant cerebral hyperperfusion reflects the development of hyperperfusion syndrome. Further, the presence of postoperative CCH in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion following CEA suggests development of postoperative cognitive impairment, even when asymptomatic. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  11. SPECT Imaging of patients with parkinsonian syndromes; SPECT-Untersuchungen bei Patienten mit Parkinson-Syndromen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsch, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen-Grosshardern (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Stimulated by the commercial availability of specific radioligands in vivo characterization of the dopaminergic system with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) has gained clinical importance in the diagnostic work-up of patiens with parkinsonism. Currently interest is focused on two aspects of the dopaminergic neurotransmission: Cocaine analogues bind to the presynaptically located striatal dopamine transporter and herewith allow to assess the structural integrity of the presynaptic terminals which are the striatal projections of neurons originating in the substantia nigra. For functional assessment of the postsynaptic aspect of the dopaminergic synapse binding of specific receptor antagonists to postsynaptically located D2 receptors is analyzed. Depending on the clinical question and the pathology expected both methods - either each one alone or a combination of both - provide valuable diagnostic information. Currently those SPECT methods are applied to confirm or exclude a Parkinsonian syndrome, in the early and differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndromes, to assess disease severity and measure disease progression, and to monitor the effects of therapy e.g. with potentially neuroprotective drugs. This paper offers a comprehensive summary of the SPECT results reported in the literature dealing with the mentioned clinical applications. (orig.) [German] Stimuliert durch die kommerzielle Verfuegbarkeit spezifischer Radioliganden gewinnt die In-vivo-Charakterisierung des dopaminergen Systems mit der single-photon-emissions-computertomographie (SPECT) bei der diagnostischen Abklaerung von Parkinson-Syndromen zunehmend an Bedeutung. Hierbei stehen zwei Aspekte der dopaminergen Neurotransmission im Blickpunkt des Interesses: Die Bindung von Kokainanaloga an den praesynaptischen Dopamintransporter laesst Rueckschluesse auf die Integritaet von Neuronen der Substantia nigra mit ihren zum Corpus striatum projizierenden Axonen (praesynaptische Nervenfasern) zu. Die

  12. Advances in SPECT and PET Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Piotr J; Pan, Tinsu; Berman, Daniel S; Germano, Guido

    2015-01-01

    There have been significant recent advances in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) hardware. Novel collimator designs, such as multi-pinhole and locally focusing collimators arranged in geometries that are optimized for cardiac imaging have been implemented to reduce imaging time and radiation dose. These new collimators have been coupled with solid state photon detectors to further improve image quality and reduce scanner size. The new SPECT scanners demonstrate up to a 7-fold increase in photon sensitivity and up to 2 times improvement in image resolution. Although PET scanners are used primarily for oncological imaging, cardiac imaging can benefit from the improved PET sensitivity of 3D systems without inter-plane septa and implementation of the time-of-flight reconstruction. Additionally, resolution recovery techniques are now implemented by all major PET vendors. These new methods improve image contrast, image resolution, and reduce image noise. Simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid systems have been developed. Solid state detectors with avalanche photodiodes or digital silicon photomultipliers have also been utilized in PET. These new detectors allow improved image resolution, higher count rate, as well as a reduced sensitivity to electromagnetic MR fields. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Aperture correction with an asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weight in SPECT with a fan-beam collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Ryo; Ogawa, Koichi

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study is to improve the spatial resolution of SPECT images acquired with a fan-beam collimator. The aperture angle of a hole in the fan-beam collimator depends on the position of the collimator. To correct the aperture effect in an iterative image reconstruction, an asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weight was used for a model. To confirm the validity of our method, point source phantoms and brain phantom were used in the simulation, and we applied the method to the clinical data. The results of the simulation showed that the spatial resolution of point sources improved from about 6 to 2 pixels full width at half maximum, and the corrected point sources were isotropic. The results of the simulation with the brain phantom showed that our proposed method could improve the spatial resolution of the phantom, and our method was effective for different fan-beam collimators with different focal lengths. The results of clinical data showed that the quality of the reconstructed image was improved with our proposed method. Our proposed aperture correction method with the asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weighting function was effective in improving the spatial resolution of SPECT images acquired with the fan-beam collimator.

  14. Technetium-99m HM-PAO-SPECT study of regional cerebral perfusion in early Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perani, D.; Di Piero, V.; Vallar, G.; Cappa, S.; Messa, C.; Bottini, G.; Berti, A.; Passafiume, D.; Scarlato, G.; Gerundini, P.

    1988-09-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) in sixteen patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in early clinical phase and in 16 healthy elderly controls. In all patients transmission computed tomography (TCT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show focal brain abnormalities. Relative to normal subjects, AD patients showed significant reductions in cortical/cerebellar activity ratio: cortical perfusion was globally depressed with the largest reductions in frontal and posterior temporo-parietal cortices. Asymmetries of relative perfusion between cerebral hemispheres were also demonstrated when language was affected or visuospatial functions were unevenly impaired. In patients with early AD, SPECT provides functional information to be compared with clinical and psychometric data.

  15. Functional electrical stimulation improves brain perfusion in cranial trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate brain perfusion changes due to neuronal activation after functional electrical stimulation (FES. METHOD: It was studied 14 patients with hemiplegia who were submitted to a program with FES during fourteen weeks. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed before and after FES therapy. These patients were further separated into 2 groups according to the hemiplegia cause: cranial trauma and major vascular insults. All SPECT images were analyzed using SPM. RESULTS: There was a significant statistical difference between the two groups related to patient's ages and extent of hypoperfusion in the SPECT. Patients with cranial trauma had a reduction in the hypoperfused area and patients with major vascular insult had an increase in the hypoperfused area after FES therapy. CONCLUSION: FES therapy can result in brain perfusion improvement in patients with brain lesions due to cranial trauma but probably not in patients with major vascular insults with large infarct area.

  16. Quantification of perfusion and risk stratification by myocardial perfusion SPECT; Quantifizierung der Perfusion und Risikostratifizierung durch die Myokardperfusions-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Bernd [Ueberoertliche Gemeinschaft (GbR) fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin (DIRANUK), Bielefeld (Germany); Klinikum Bielefeld-Mitte (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schaefer, W.M. [Kliniken Maria Hilf GmbH, Krankenhaus St. Franziskus, Moenchengladbach (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2010-06-15

    Myocardial perfusion SPECT detects flow-limiting coronary artery disease with high sensitivity and specificity, enables semiquantification of severity and extensiveness of myocardial ischemia, and furthermore enables reliable assessment of future cardiac events independently of other clinical and diagnostic parameters. A normal myocardial perfusion SPECT is associated with a favorable prognosis and warrants restrictive patient management. Cardiac risk increases in relation to the severity of perfusion abnormalities. Differentiated analysis of quantitative parameters derived from myocardial perfusion SPECT provides effective risk stratification of patients with a large variety of risk factors. (orig.)

  17. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bang-Hung; Tsai, Sung-Yi; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Chen, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images.Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of 123I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128×128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans.The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of 123I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78±0.27, pons was 1.21±0.53, and striatum was 0.79±0.13. The cronbach's α of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2 analysis. This finding might help us

  18. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Sung-Yi [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Imaging Medical, St.Martin De Porres Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa [Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jyh-Cheng, E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-21

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of {sup 123}I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128x128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans. The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of {sup 123}I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78{+-}0.27, pons was 1.21{+-}0.53, and striatum was 0.79{+-}0.13. The cronbach's {alpha} of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2

  19. SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Skull Base Osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Praveen; Jaganthan, Sriram; Patnecha, Manish; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Bandopadhyaya, Gurupad; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2011-09-15

    Skull base osteomyelitis is a potentially fatal disease. We demonstrate here the utility of SPECT/CT in diagnosing this entity, which was not obvious on a planar bone scan. A {sup 99mT}c MDP bone scan with SPECT/CT was carried out on a patient with clinically suspected skull base osteomyelitis. Findings were correlated with contrast enhanced CT (CECT) and MRI. Planar images were equivocal, but SPECT/CT showed intense uptake in the body of sphenoid and petrous temporal bone as well as the atlas corresponding to irregular bone destruction on CT and MRI. These findings indicate that SPECT/CT may have an additional role beyond planar imaging in the detection of skull base osteomyelitis.

  20. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency.

  1. Impact of reconstruction parameters on quantitative I-131 SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, C A J; Beijst, C; van Rooij, R; de Jong, H W A M

    2016-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy using I-131 is widely used for treatment of thyroid disease or neuroendocrine tumors. Monitoring treatment by accurate dosimetry requires quantitative imaging. The high energy photons however render quantitative SPECT reconstruction challenging, potentially requiring accurate cor

  2. Application of PET/SPECT imaging in vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, M. G.; Meerwaidt, R.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; van Dam, G. M.; Tio, R. A.; Zeebregts, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Nuclear medicine imaging differs from other imaging modalities by showing physiological processes instead of anatomical details. Objective. To describe the current applications of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as a diagnostic to

  3. Performance evaluation of advanced industrial SPECT system with diverging collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Guen; Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Jinho; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2014-12-01

    An advanced industrial SPECT system with 12-fold-array diverging collimator was developed for flow visualization in industrial reactors and was discussed in the previous study. The present paper describes performance evaluation of the SPECT system under both static- and dynamic- flow conditions. Under static conditions, the movement of radiotracer inside the test reactor was compared with that of color tracer (blue ink) captured with a high-speed camera. The comparison of the reconstructed images obtained with the radiotracer and the SPECT system showed fairly good agreement with video-frames of the color tracer obtained with the camera. Based on the results of the performance evaluation, it is concluded that the SPECT system is suitable for investigation and visualization of flows in industrial flow reactors.

  4. Impact of reconstruction parameters on quantitative I-131 SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, C A J; Beijst, C; van Rooij, R; de Jong, H W A M

    2016-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy using I-131 is widely used for treatment of thyroid disease or neuroendocrine tumors. Monitoring treatment by accurate dosimetry requires quantitative imaging. The high energy photons however render quantitative SPECT reconstruction challenging, potentially requiring accurate

  5. Contribution of the cerebral SPECT in the field of evaluation of the hemodynamic cerebral vascular accident risk in the Limb shaking syndrome; Apport de la TEMP cerebrale dans le cadre de l'evaluation du risque d'AVC hemodynamique dans le Limb Shaking Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, V.; Wolff, V.; Marescaux, C. [CHU de Strasbourg, Unite neurovasculaire, service de neurologie, 67 (France); Namer, I.J. [CHU de Strasbourg, service de biophysique et medecine nucleaire, 67 -Strasbourg (France)

    2010-07-01

    The limb shaking syndrome (L.S.S.) is characterized by uncontrollable shaking of members that are caused by a passage in the upright or by an hyper extension of the neck and occur in a patient with internal carotid stenosis. To investigate the pathophysiology of L.S.S. we used brain SPECT (SPECT-E.C.D. or H.M.P.A.O.) to measure cerebral perfusion in the supine position and standing in three patients. (N.C.)

  6. [Detection of neurotransmitter interactions with PET and SPECT by pharmacological challenge paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, R

    2000-01-01

    Functional brain imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) enables the in vivo study of specific neurochemical processes in the context of normal regulatory mechanisms and pathophysiological alterations of the brain. By combining these methods with pharmacological challenge-paradigms, the study of functional interactions of different neurotransmitter systems is possible. This review will present data from animal and healthy volunteer studies as well as first data from investigations in different patient populations with regard to this research direction. Especially, interactions of different neurotransmitter systems with the dopaminergic and the cholinergic system will be discussed. The database acquired so far confirms existing models of neuronal feedback-circuits, and the first clinical results are consistent with the hypothesis of an increased dopaminergic responsivity in schizophrenic patients. These results open up new perspectives for a further evaluation of treatment response predictors from drug-challenge studies and for the development of new drug treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. The value of SPECT/CT in carpal boss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhure, Ujwal; Huellner, Martin W.; Gruenig, Hannes; Zander, Andrea; Sol Perez Lago, Maria del; Strobel, Klaus [Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Hug, Urs [Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    To assess the value of SPECT/CT in patients with carpal boss (CB). In 24 wrists with CB (18 right-sided, 6 left-sided) in 21 patients, planar images and SPECT/CT images were obtained. Three patients had bilateral CB. The grade of uptake (0 absent, 1 low, 2 moderate, 3 high) on planar imaging and SPECT/CT was assessed and compared with CT findings, clinical symptoms and follow-up findings. CB affected carpometacarpal joint II in 4 wrists, carpometacarpal joint III in 17 wrists and both carpometacarpal joints II and III in 3 wrists. Of the 24 CB, 12 (50 %) were active (i.e. increased radionuclide uptake) on planar images and 18 (75 %) on SPECT/CT images. Of the 17 symptomatic CB, 10 (59 %) were active on planar images and 14 (82 %) were active (mean grade 1.9, range 1 - 3) on SPECT/CT images. Of the 7 asymptomatic CB, 2 were active on planar images and 4 were active (mean grade 1.25, range 1 - 2) on SPECT/CT images. CT alone showed CB in all patients and an accessory ossicle (os styloideum) in 8 wrists. MR imaging was available in 7 patients and positive for CB in 5 (sensitivity 71 %). Plain radiographs were available in 17 patients and positive in 10 (59 %). Therapeutic infiltration of the CB was performed in 9 patients, and resection of the CB in 7 patients. SPECT/CT provides important morphological and metabolic information for the clinical assessment of CB, but because SPECT/CT tends to overestimate the clinical importance of CB, we recommend that planar images should still be obtained. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-yan; TANG Zhong-quan; SUN Da; HE Xiao-jun

    2006-01-01

    Background Improvement of clinical symptoms following hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders arising from traumatic brain injury was proved by our previous study. This study was aim to obtain the evidence of other changes.Methods Three hundred and ten patients with neuropsychiatric disorders arising from traumatic brain injury were treated twice with hyperbaric oxygen. Cerebral single photon emissions computed tomography (SPECT)images and computed tomography scans (CT) before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment, were compared.Results Before treatment, the proportion of abnormal cerebral changes detected by SPECT was 81.3% but only 15.2% by CT. After HBO treatment, 70.3% of SPECT scans showed no abnormalities and these patients were clinically improved. Treatment improved regional cerebral blood flow.Conclusion SPECT was much more sensitive than CT in the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders following hyperbaric oxygen treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders arising from traumatic brain injury.

  9. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called Parathyroidectomy. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  10. ACR testing of a dedicated head SPECT unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensakovic, William F; Hough, Matthew C; Kimbley, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-08

    Physics testing necessary for program accreditation is rigorously defined by the ACR. This testing is easily applied to most conventional SPECT systems based on gamma camera technology. The inSPira HD is a dedicated head SPECT system based on a rotating dual clamshell design that acquires data in a dual-spiral geometry. The unique geometry and configuration force alterations of the standard ACR physics testing protocol. Various tests, such as intrinsic planar uniformity and/or resolution, do not apply. The Data Spectrum Deluxe Phantom used for conventional SPECT testing cannot fit in the inSPira HD scanner bore, making (currently) unapproved use of the Small Deluxe SPECT Phantom necessary. Matrix size, collimator type, scanning time, reconstruction method, and attenuation correction were all varied from the typically prescribed ACR instructions. Visible spheres, sphere contrast, visible rod groups, uniformity, and root mean square (RMS) noise were measured. The acquired SPECT images surpassed the minimum ACR requirements for both spatial resolution (9.5 mm spheres resolved) and contrast (6.4 mm rod groups resolved). Sphere contrast was generally high. Integral uniformity was 4% and RMS noise was 1.7%. Noise appeared more correlated than in images from a conventional SPECT scanner. Attenuation-corrected images produced from direct CT scanning of the phantom and a manufacturer supplied model of the phantom demonstrated negligible differences.

  11. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin SPECT of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Min Ki [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Won Sick [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Tc-99m ciprofloxacin is available for imaging infection. However, there has been no study on employing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with using Tc-99m ciprofloxacin to image active pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-one participants were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided into two groups according to the clinical and radiological assessment. Group one (Gr. 1) consisted of five normal volunteers and six patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis. Group two (Gr. 2) consisted of ten patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. SPECT was performed 3 h after injecting 555 MBq (15 mCi) of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin. The findings of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were interpreted by a nuclear medicine specialist and then the results were analyzed according to the patients' clinical and radiological classifications. The results of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were as follows: eight true-positive cases, ten true-negative cases, one false-positive case and two false-negative cases. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 88.9% and the negative predictive value was 83.3%. Conclusions Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT is feasible for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is a useful nuclear-imaging method for discriminating between the active and inactive tuberculosis states in patients with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  12. Evaluation of SPECT imaging using myocardial phantoms in Akita prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Kiyohiko [Akita Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Watarai, Jiro; Miura, Mamoru

    1998-09-01

    Evaluation of SPECT imaging using myocardial phantom in Akita Prefecture. The Society of Nuclear Medicine for Circulation disease in Akita was established in July, 1997. To improve myocardial spect imaging in Akita Prefecture, we first visually evaluated two acrlic defect (2 cm{phi} x 1 cm thickness aqcliel and 1 cm{phi} x 1 cm thickness) images of long axis and short axis of myocardial phantoms, using 14 SPECT Cameras. These defect images of myocardial phantom were evaluated by four cardiologists and twelve radiologists between August and December, 1996. Secondly, we measured the FWHM of four line sources (anterior, lateral, inferior, and septum positions in the short axis of myocardial phantom) using quantitative analysis by myocardial phantom between April and July, 1997. The results were reported at the 4th and 5th meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine for Circulation Disease in Akita. In conclusion, about 70% of myocardial spect images were of good or normal quality, whereas about 30% of the images were evaluated as of bad quality. To improve the myocardial spect images, we recognized that the basic performance of the SPECT cameras need be investigated. (author)

  13. Importance of SPECT/CT for resolving diseases of the jaw; Stellenwert der SPECT/CT zur Abklaerung von Kiefererkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, K.; Huellner, M.W.; Bolouri, C.; Veit-Haibach, P.; Sol Perez-Lago, M. del [Luzerner Kantonsspital, Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin und Roentgendiagnostik, Luzern (Switzerland); Merwald, M.; Kuttenberger, J. [Luzerner Kantonsspital, Klinik fuer Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Luzern (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    Diseases of the jaw, such as osteomyelitis, condylar hyperactivity and tumors need adequate imaging to evaluate the extension and activity for therapy planning. Conventional planar scintigraphy, orthopantomography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for the evaluation of jaw diseases. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provides metabolic and morphologic information in one imaging step and is becoming increasingly more available in larger hospitals. The SPECT/CT is superior to planar scintigraphy alone, CT and orthopantomography in the evaluation of the extension and activity of osteomyelitis and jaw tumors. In our hospital SPECT/CT has replaced the other imaging modalities in the evaluation of osteomyelitis and condylar hyperactivity. If available SPECT/CT should be performed for the evaluation of osteomyelitis of the jaw. (orig.) [German] Kiefererkrankungen wie Osteomyelitis, kondylaere Hyperaktivitaet und Kiefertumoren benoetigen eine exakte bildgebende Abklaerung, um die Therapie adaequat planen zu koennen. Die klassische planare Skelettszintigraphie, Orthopantomographie, CT und MRT koennen zur Abklaerung von Kiefererkrankungen eingesetzt werden. Die ''single photon emission computed tomography''/CT (SPECT/CT) bietet metabolische und morphologische Informationen in einem Untersuchungsgang und ist zunehmend in groesseren Kliniken verfuegbar. Die SPECT/CT ist zur Beurteilung der Ausbreitung und Aktivitaet einer Osteomyelitis und von Kiefertumoren der planaren Szintigraphie alleine, der CT und der Orthopantomographie ueberlegen. In unserer Klinik hat die SPECT/CT die bisherigen Verfahren zur Beurteilung der Kieferosteomyelitis und kondylaeren Hyperaktivitaet abgeloest. Sofern verfuegbar, sollte zur Abklaerung einer Kieferosteomyelitis die SPECT/CT eingesetzt werden. (orig.)

  14. Importance of SPECT/CT for knee and hip joint prostheses; Stellenwert der SPECT/CT bei Knie- und Hueftgelenkprothesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, K.; Steurer-Dober, I.; Huellner, M.W.; Veit-Haibach, P.; Allgayer, B. [Luzerner Kantonsspital (Switzerland). Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin und Roentgendiagnostik

    2012-07-15

    Complications, such as loosening or infections are common problems after hip or knee arthroplasty. If conventional X-rays are equivocal bone scintigraphy is the classical second-line imaging modality. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) offers metabolic and morphologic information in one imaging step and is becoming increasingly more available in larger hospitals. The SPECT/CT procedure is a promising method and is increasingly being used in daily routine to evaluate joint arthroplasty. The additional benefit compared with classical conventional bone scintigraphy has to be evaluated in further prospective studies. In our hospital SPECT/CT regularly gives important additional information regarding prosthetic joint complications. SPECT/CT is increasingly being used as the second step imaging standard modality if conventional X-rays are equivocal. (orig.) [German] Komplikationen wie Lockerung und Infekt stellen ein haeufiges Problem nach Hueft- und Kniegelenkprothesen dar. Wenn die konventionelle Roentgenaufnahme nicht zum Ziel fuehrt, ist die klassische konventionelle Skelettszintigraphie die am haeufigsten verwendete ''Second-line''-Bildgebung. Die ''single photon emission computed tomography''/CT (SPECT/CT) bietet metabolische und morphologische Informationen bzgl. Prothesenkomplikationen in einem Untersuchungsgang und ist zunehmend in groesseren Kliniken verfuegbar. Die SPECT/CT ist eine viel versprechende Methode und wird im klinischen Alltag bei der Evaluation von Gelenkprothesen zunehmend eingesetzt. Es sind noch mehr prospektive Studien noetig, um die Leistungsfaehigkeit und den Zusatznutzen gegenueber der klassischen Szintigraphie zu evaluieren. In unserer Klinik wird die Knochenszintigraphie bei der Abklaerung von Prothesenkomplikationen zumeist mit einer SPECT/CT kombiniert und liefert regelmaessig wichtige Zusatzinformationen. Die SPECT/CT entwickelt sich zunehmend zum Standard

  15. Iododerivative of pargyline: A potential tracer for the exploration of monoamine oxidase sites by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lena, Isabelle; Ombetta, Jean-Edouard; Chalon, Sylvie; Dognon, Anne-Marie; Baulieu, Jean-Louis; Frangin, Yves; Garreau, Lucette; Besnard, Jean-Claude; Guilloteau, Denis

    1995-08-01

    Monoamine oxidases are important in the regulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission. An increase in monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) has been observed in some neurodegenerative diseases, and therefore quantification of cerebral MAO B activity by SPECT would be useful for the diagnosis and therapeutic follow-up of these disorders. We have developed an iodinated derivative of pargyline, a selective inhibitor of MAO B, in order to explore this enzyme by SPECT. Stable bromo and iodo derivatives of pargyline were synthesized and chemically characterized. The radioiodinated ligand [{sup 125}I]-2-iodopargyline was obtained with high specific activity from the bromo precursor by nucleophilic exchange. Affinity and selectivity of 2-iodopargyline were tested in vitro. Biodistribution study of [{sup 125}I]-2-iodopargyline was performed in rats. Radioiodinated ligand were obtained in a no-carrier-added form. 2-iodopargyline has a higher in vitro affinity for MAO B than pargyline. However, the in vitro selectivity for MAO B was better for pargyline than for 2-iodopargyline. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies and in vivo saturation studies with selective inhibitors of MAO showed that the cerebral biodistribution of [{sup 125}I]-2-iodopargyline in the rat is consistent with high level binding to MAO B sites in the pineal gland and in the thalamus. In conclusion, 2-iodopargyline preferentially binds in vivo to MAO B sites with high affinity. However, its selectivity for MAO B in rats is not very high, whereas this ligand binds to a lesser extent to MAO A. It will be then of great value to evaluate the specificity of 2-iodopargyline in humans. This new ligand labeled with {sup 123}I should therefore be a suitable tool for SPECT exploration of MAO B in the human brain.

  16. Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT in patients with left bundle branch block suspected for coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engbers, Elsemiek M.; Mouden, Mohamed [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Timmer, Jorik R.; Ottervanger, Jan Paul [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on sequential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/ CT imaging starting with stress-first SPECT. Consecutive symptomatic low- to intermediate-risk patients without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for SPECT/CT were included from an observational registry. If stress SPECT was abnormal, additional rest SPECT and, if feasible, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) were acquired. Of the 5,018 patients, 218 (4.3 %) demonstrated LBBB. Patients with LBBB were slightly older than patients without LBBB (65±12 vs. 61±11 years, p<0.001). Stress SPECT was more frequently abnormal in patients with LBBB (82 % vs. 46 %, p<0.001). After reviewing stress and rest images, SPECT was normal in 43 % of the patients with LBBB, compared to 77 % of the patients without LBBB (p<0.001). Sixty-four of the 124 patients with LBBB and abnormal stress-rest SPECT underwent CCTA (52 %), which could exclude obstructive CAD in 46 of the patients (72 %). Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT is not the optimal imaging protocol in patients with LBBB, as the majority of these patients have potentially false-positive stress SPECT. First-line testing using CCTA may be more appropriate in low- to intermediate-risk patients with LBBB. (orig.)

  17. Decreases in blood perfusion of the anterior cingulate gyri in Anorexia Nervosa Restricters assessed by SPECT image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutsui Junko

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is possible that psychopathological differences exist between the restricting and bulimic forms of anorexia nervosa. We investigated localized differences of brain blood flow of anorexia nervosa patients using SPECT image analysis with statistic parametric mapping (SPM in an attempt to link brain blood flow patterns to neurophysiologic characteristics. Methods The subjects enrolled in this study included the following three groups: pure restrictor anorexics (AN-R, anorexic bulimics (AN-BP, and healthy volunteers (HV. All images were transformed into the standard anatomical space of the stereotactic brain atlas, then smoothed. After statistical analysis of each brain image, the relationships among images were evaluated. Results SPM analysis of the SPECT images revealed that the blood flow of frontal area mainly containing bilateral anterior cingulate gyri (ACC was significantly decreased in the AN-R group compared to the AN-BP and HV groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that some localized functions ofthe ACCare possibly relevant to the psychopathological aspects of AN-R.

  18. Diagnostic role of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for early and atypical bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Liang; Li, Qian; Cao, Lin; Jiang, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The bone metastasis appeared early before the bone imaging for most of the above patients. (99)Tc(m)-MDP ((99)Tc(m) marked methylene diphosphonate) bone imaging could diagnosis the bone metastasis with highly sensitivity, but with lower specificity. The aim of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for the early period atypical bone metastases. 15 to 30 mCi (99)Tc(m)-MDP was intravenously injected to the 34 malignant patients diagnosed as doubtful early bone metastases. SPECT, CT and SPECT/CT images were captured and analyzed consequently. For the patients diagnosed as early period atypical bone metastases by SPECT/CT, combining the SPECT/CT and MRI together as the SPECT/MRI integrated image. The obtained SPECT/MRI image was analyzed and compared with the pathogenic results of patients. The results indicated that 34 early period doubtful metastatic focus, including 34 SPECT positive focus, 17 focus without special changes by using CT method, 11 bone metastases focus by using SPECT/CT method, 23 doubtful bone metastases focus, 8 doubtful bone metastases focus, 14 doubtful bone metastases focus and 2 focus without clear image. Totally, SPECT/CT combined with SPECT/MRI method diagnosed 30 bone metastatic focus and 4 doubtfully metastatic focus. In conclusion, (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging shows a higher diagnostic value for the early period bone metastases, which also enhances the diagnostic accuracy rate.

  19. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  20. A limitation of the split-dose method for evaluating rCBF changes using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Makoto; Noguchi, Eikichi; Ohtaki, Hiro; Shibaki, Mitsurou; Kasahara, Tosifumi; Hatano, Masayoshi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohkubo, Masaki

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to validate the split-dose method corrected with dose ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD for brain perfusion scan. A dose of 600 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was divided into two with various dose ratios from 1 : 1 to 1 : 4, and injected to eleven patients with various cerebral diseases. A lesser dose of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was injected under a control state for the first SPECT scan, and 15 min SPECT scan was performed 10 min after injection with a triple-head high resolution gamma camera. After the scan, the other dose of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was injected under the same control state and the second SPECT scan was performed as same as above. A ratio of the activity of the first scan to the net activity of the second scan corrected by dose ratio, defined as K, was measured in brain regions of each subject. Expected value of K was 1, but the value was distributed with large variations in each subject. The mean % error of the K value was 10.4{+-}4.9%. Hence it is considered that activity changes by more than 20% from the control values should be required to detect a significant rCBF change in an activation SPECT study. Then, we proposed a new method in which the activity of both two SPECT scans was normalized by cerebellar or occipital activity and compared. The ratio obtained by the proposed method came closer to 1 with less variations and with less mean % error in comparison with those of K value obtained by the dose-correction method. Although the proposed method has a limitation in the use of an activation study loaded with Diamox, it may be useful to evaluate an alteration of rCBF in the study such as postural testing or finger-moving test. (author)

  1. Topography of cerebral monoamine transporter availability in families with SCA2 mutations: a voxel-wise [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Boesch, Sylvia M.; Seppi, Klaus; Wenning, Gregor K.; Poewe, Werner [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Donnemiller, Eveline; Virgolini, Irene [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Weirich-Schwaiger, Helga [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Biology and Human Genetics, Innsbruck (Austria); Goebel, Georg [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the monoamine transporter status of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine throughout the brain in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). To this end, nine patients were studied with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT. Data were compared with ten age-matched healthy control subjects and ten patients with young-onset Parkinson's disease (YOPD), matched for age. Parametric SPECT images of the specific-to-non-displaceable equilibrium partition coefficient (V{sub 3}{sup ''}), which is proportional to the receptor density (B{sub max}), were generated. In order to objectively localise focal changes in {beta}-CIT uptake throughout the brain volume without having to make an a priori hypothesis as to their location, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to SPECT images. Data clusters revealed by SPM, showing significant differences in V{sub 3}{sup ''} values between groups, were transformed onto the individual V{sub 3}{sup ''} image to obtain mean regional uptake values. Both SCA2 and YOPD patients showed significant decreases in striatal [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT uptake when compared with controls. However, in SCA2 patients, additional reductions in caudate/anterior putamen, midbrain and pons [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT uptake were localised with SPM. Voxel-wise analysis of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT revealed more widespread decline of monoamine transporter availability in SCA2 than in YOPD, reflecting differences in the underlying pathology. We suggest that the quantification of midbrain and pons [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT signal is likely to improve the diagnostic accuracy in patients presenting with clinical features of both SCA2 and YOPD at initial investigation. (orig.)

  2. Parametric Cerebrovascular Reserve Images Using Acetazolamide {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT: A Feasibility Study of Quantitative Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hongyoon; Yoo, Min Young; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, Junekey; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Basal/acetazolamide stress {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used for evaluation of hemodynamics; however, qualitative and subjective visual assessment of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) has been performed in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to generate parametric CVR images and evaluate its feasibility of quantification. Basal/acetazolamide stress {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT data from 17 patients who underwent bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were used. Spatial normalization was performed and parametric CVR images were generated using relative CVR (rCVR) of each voxel proportional to CVR of the whole brain. Binary parametric maps to show area of relatively reduced CVR were generated also using threshold of rCVR < 90 %. We calculated rCVR of internal carotid artery (ICA) using the parametric CVR images and probabilistic maps for ICA territory. Pre- and postprocedural parametric CVR images were obtained and quantitative rCVRs were compared. The rCVRs were evaluated according to visual grades for regional decreased CVR. Postprocedural rCVR obtained from parametric CVR images increased significantly from preprocedural rCVR. The rCVR was significantly correlated with visual grades of reduced CVR for each side of ICA territories. We generated parametric CVR images for basal/acetazolamide stress {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT. As a quantitative measurement, rCVR obtained from the parametric image was feasibly assessed hemodynamic abnormalities with preserved anatomical information.

  3. Radiotracers for SPECT imaging. Current scenario and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adak, S.; Vijaya Raj, K.K.; Mandal, S. [GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, John F. Welch Technology Center, Bangalore (India).; Bhalla, R.; Pickett, R.; Luthra, S.K. [GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, The Grove Centre, Amersham (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been the cornerstone of nuclear medicine and today it is widely used to detect molecular changes in cardiovascular, neurological and oncological diseases. While SPECT has been available since the 1980s, advances in instrumentation hardware, software and the availability of new radiotracers that are creating a revival in SPECT imaging are reviewed in this paper. The biggest change in the last decade has been the fusion of CT with SPECT, which has improved attenuation correction and image quality. Advances in collimator design, replacement of sodium iodide crystals in the detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors as well as advances in software and reconstruction algorithms have all helped to retain SPECT as a much needed and used technology. Today, a wide spectrum of radiotracers is available for use in cardiovascular, neurology and oncology applications. The development of several radiotracers for neurological disorders is briefly described in this review, including [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN trademark) available for Parkinson's disease. In cardiology, while technetium-99m labeled tetrofosmin and technetium-99m labeled sestamibi have been well known for myocardial perfusion imaging, we describe a recently completed multicenter clinical study on the use of [{sup 123}I]mIBG (AdreView trademark) for imaging in chronic heart failure patients. For oncology, while bone scanning has been prevalent, newer radiotracers that target cancer mechanisms are being developed. Technetium-99m labeled RGD peptides have been reported in the literature that can be used for imaging angiogenesis, while technetium-99m labeled duramycin has been used to image apoptosis. While PET/CT is considered to be the more advanced technology particularly for oncology applications, SPECT continues to be the modality of choice and the workhorse in many hospitals and nuclear medicine centers. The cost of SPECT instruments also

  4. Cerebral perfusion and automated individual analysis using SPECT among an obsessive-compulsive population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Timóteo da Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To make individual assessments using automated quantification methodology in order to screen for perfusion abnormalities in cerebral SPECT examinations among a sample of subjects with OCD. METHODS: Statistical parametric mapping (SPM was used to compare 26 brain SPECT images from patients with OCD individually with an image bank of 32 normal subjects, using the statistical threshold of p < 0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons at the level of individual voxels or clusters. The maps were analyzed, and regions presenting voxels that remained above this threshold were sought. RESULTS: Six patients from a sample of 26 OCD images showed abnormalities at cluster or voxel level, considering the criteria described above, which represented 23.07%. However, seven images from the normal group of 32 were also indicated as cases of perfusional abnormality, representing 21.8% of the sample. CONCLUSION: The automated quantification method was not considered to be a useful tool for clinical practice, for analyses complementary to visual inspection.

  5. EEG, MRI, and SPECT in epilepsy. Relative contributions to preoperative evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Gaku [Luoyang Medical Coll. Associated Hospital (China); Hoshida, Tohru; Goda, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Toshisuke

    1998-07-01

    We comparatively assessed detection of epileptogenic areas on preoperative evaluation in 33 patients with intractable partial epilepsy using scalp interictal and ictal electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and interictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). There are 22 temporal and 11 extratemporal lobe epilepsies. All or almost of their seizures have stopped after resective surgery for more than 12 months follow-up period, averaged 43 months. MRI studies demonstrated 21 organic lesions, 11 mesial temporal sclerosis and one patient showed normal brain tissue. Scalp EEG could correctly identify the focus in 14 of 33 cases (42%), interictal SPECT in 18 of 26 (69%), MRI in 29 of 33 (88%), interictal scalp EEG-video monitoring in 17 of 24 (71%), and ictal scalp EEG-video monitoring in 15 of 22 (68%). Although neuroimaging studies, especially MRI, are useful to detect not only localization of epileptic lesions but also epileptogenic focus, for example, mesial temporal sclerosis, the exact localization of epileptogenic areas could be done by comprehensive evaluation including ictal scalp EEG-video monitoring. (author)

  6. Altered SPECT 123I iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro eNagamitsu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT measurements using 123I iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26 and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil binding activity in cortical regions of interest (ROIs and psychometric profiles, and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the anterior posterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Depression-Dejection, and Confusion POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score, showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil binding activity. Decreased binding in the ACC and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered in children

  7. U-SPECT-II: An Ultra-High-Resolution Device for Molecular Small-Animal Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Have, F.; Vastenhouw, B.; Ramakers, R.M.; Branderhorst, W.; Krah, J.O.; Ji, C.; Staelens, S.G.; Beekman, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new rodent SPECT system (U-SPECT-II) that enables molecular imaging of murine organs down to resolutions of less than half a millimeter and high-resolution total-body imaging. Methods: The U-SPECT-II is based on a triangular stationary detector set-up, an XYZ stage that moves the animal

  8. SPECT imaging of cardiac reporter gene expression in living rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; LAN Xiaoli; ZHANG Liang; WU Tao; JIANG Rifeng; ZHANG Yongxue

    2009-01-01

    This work is to demonstrate feasibility of imaging the expression of herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine ki-nase (HSV1-tk) reporter gene in rabbits myocardium by using the reporter probe 131I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-β-D- arabi-nofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (131I-FIAU) and SPECT. Rabbits of the study group received intramyocardial injection of Ad5-tk and control group received aseptic saline injection. Two sets of experiments were performed on the study group. Rabbits of the 1st set were injected with 131I-FIAU 600 μCi at Day 2 after intramyocardial transfection of Ad5-tk in 1×109, 5×108, 1×108, 5×107 and 1×107 pfu, and heart SPECT imaging was done at different hours. Rabbits of the 2nd were transferred various titers of Ad5-tk (1×109, 5×108, 1×108, 5×107, 1×107 pfu) to determine the threshold and optimal viral titer needed for detection of gene expression. Two days later, 131I-FIAU was injected and heart SPECT imaging was performed at 6, 24 and 48 h, before killing them for gamma counting of the hearts. Reverse tran-scription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to verify the transferred HSV1-tk gene expression. Semi-quantitative analysis derived of region of interest (ROI) of SPECT images and RT-PCR images was performed and the relationship of SPECT images with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA level were evaluated. SPECT images conformed 131I-FIAU accumulation in rabbits injected with Ad5-tk in the anterolateral wall. The optimal images qual-ity was obtained at 24~48 h for different viral titers. The highest radioactivity in the focal myocardium was seen at 6 h, and then declined with time. The threshold was 5×107 pfu of virus titer. The result could be set better in 1~5×108 pfu by SPECT analysis and gamma counting. ROI-derived semi-quantitative study on SPECT images correlated well with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA levels from RT-PCR analysis. The HSV1-tk/131I-FIAU reporter gene/reporter probe system is feasible for cardiac SPECT reporter gene imaging

  9. MediSPECT: Single photon emission computed tomography system for small field of view small animal imaging based on a CdTe hybrid pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, R.; Autiero, M.; Celentano, L.; Chmeissani, M.; Cozzolino, R.; Curion, A. S.; Frallicciardi, P.; Laccetti, P.; Lanza, R. C.; Lauria, A.; Maiorino, M.; Marotta, M.; Mettivier, G.; Montesi, M. C.; Riccio, P.; Roberti, G.; Russo, P.

    2007-02-01

    We describe MediSPECT, a new scanner developed at University and INFN Napoli, for SPECT studies on small animals with a small field of view (FOV) and high spatial resolution. The CdTe pixel detector (a 256×256 matrix of 55 μm square pixels) operating in single photon counting for detection of gamma-rays with low and medium energy (e.g. 125I, 27-35 keV, 99mTc, 140 keV), is bump bonded to the Medipix2 readout chip. The FOV of the MediSPECT scanner with a coded aperture mask collimator ranges from 6.3 mm (system spatial resolution 110 μm at 27-35 keV) to 24.3 mm. With a 0.30 mm pinhole the FOV ranges from 2.4 to 29 mm (where the system spatial resolution is 1.0 mm at 27-35 keV and 2.0 mm at 140 keV). MediSPECT will be used for in vivo imaging of small organs or tissue structures in mouse, e.g., brain, thyroid, heart or tumor.

  10. Simulation of the expected performance of INSERT: A new multi-modality SPECT/MRI system for preclinical and clinical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, P.; Fiorini, C.; Butt, A. D.; Occhipinti, M.; Peloso, R.; Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Trigilio, P.; Nemeth, G.; Major, P.; Erlandsson, K.; Hutton, B. F.

    2014-01-01

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (INtegrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus, that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems such as 3 T MRI with 59 cm bore diameter. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes will be developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging, the second one dedicated to clinical imaging. The basic building block of the SPECT detector ring is a small 5 cm×5 cm gamma camera, based on the well-established Anger architecture with a continuous scintillator readout by an array of silicon photodetectors. Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM) are being considered as possible scintillator readout, considering that the detector choice plays a predominant role for the final performance of the system, such as energy and spatial resolution, as well as the useful field of view of the camera. Both solutions are therefore under study to evaluate their performances in terms of field of view (FOV), spatial and energy resolution. Preliminary simulations for both the preclinical and clinical systems have been carried out to evaluate resolution and sensitivity.

  11. Evaluation of surgical outcome with pre-and post-operative rest/acetazolamide Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in children with moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. S.; Wang, K. C.; Cho, B. K.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, I. Y. [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the outcome of encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis(EDAS) surgery with rest/acetazolamide Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in moyamoya disease. Rest/acetazolamide subtraction SPECT with consecutive acquisition were done before and 2 months after 21 EDAS surgeries in 18 patients. Perfusion decrease was graded visually for 14 areas of each hemisphere as 0 (normal) to 3 (defect) using 4 point scoring system. Postopertive rest perfusion or perfusion reserve was compared with preoperative ones. Among 294 areas of 21 hemispheres, rest perfusion abnormality was found in 97 areas of 15 hemispheres. Decrease of perfusion reserve was found in 146 areas of 18 hemispheres. Six hemispheres having normal rest perfusion and 12 of 15 hemispheres having rest perfusion abnormality showed reserve decrease. Three having rest perfusion defect did not change after acetazolamide in preoperative SPECT. After operation, 16 patients (89%) demonstrated clinical improvement. Fifteen among 18 hemispheres (83%) with decreased reserve improved. Rest perfusion abnormality improved in 6 among the 15 hemispheres (40%). The areas having rest perfusion and/or reserve decrease improved in 87 among 146 areas (60%). Decrease of reserve improved in 85% (68/80). However, areas without reserve decrease also improved in 29% (19/66). The better was preoperative rest perfusion in involved areas or the more decreased vascular reserve, the more improved perfusion and reserve after operation. We conclude that assessment of perfusion and perfusion reserve using rest/acetazolamide brain perfusion SPECT predict the surgical outcome in patients with moyamoya disease.

  12. Affordable CZT SPECT with dose-time minimization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugg, James W.; Harris, Brian W.; Radley, Ian

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE Pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detector arrays are used in molecular imaging applications that can enable precision medicine, including small-animal SPECT, cardiac SPECT, molecular breast imaging (MBI), and general purpose SPECT. The interplay of gamma camera, collimator, gantry motion, and image reconstruction determines image quality and dose-time-FOV tradeoffs. Both dose and exam time can be minimized without compromising diagnostic content. METHODS Integration of pixelated CZT detectors with advanced ASICs and readout electronics improves system performance. Because historically CZT was expensive, the first clinical applications were limited to small FOV. Radiation doses were initially high and exam times long. Advances have significantly improved efficiency of CZT-based molecular imaging systems and the cost has steadily declined. We have built a general purpose SPECT system using our 40 cm x 53 cm CZT gamma camera with 2 mm pixel pitch and characterized system performance. RESULTS Compared to NaI scintillator gamma cameras: intrinsic spatial resolution improved from 3.8 mm to 2.0 mm; energy resolution improved from 9.8% to molecular imaging, coupled with optimal collimator and image reconstruction, result in minimized dose and exam time. With CZT cost improving, affordable whole-body CZT general purpose SPECT is expected to enable precision medicine applications.

  13. Enhancing the utility of prostascint SPECT scans for patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noz, Marilyn E; Chung, Grace; Lee, Benjamin Y; Maguire, Gerald Q; DeWyngaert, J Keith; Doshi, Jay V; Kramer, Elissa L; Murphy-Walcott, Antoinette D; Zeleznik, Michael P; Kwak, Noeun G

    2006-04-01

    This project investigated reducing the artifact content of In-ill ProstaScint SPECT scans for use in treatment planning and management. Forty-one patients who had undergone CT or MRI scans and simultaneous Tc-99m RBC/In-111 ProstaScint SPECT scans were included. SPECT volume sets, reconstructed using Ordered Set-Expectation Maximum (OS-EM) were compared against those reconstructed with standard Filtered Back projection (FBP). Bladder activity in Tc-99m scans was suppressed within an ellipsoidal volume. Tc-99m voxel values were subtracted from the corresponding In-111 after scaling based on peak activity within the descending aorta. The SPECT volume data sets were merged with the CT or MRI scans before and after processing. Volume merging, based both on visual assessment and statistical evaluation, was not affected. Thus iterative reconstruction together with bladder suppression and blood pool subtraction may improve the interpretation and utility of ProstaScint SPECT scans for patient management.

  14. Synthesis, radiolabeling and baboon SPECT imaging of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]YP256) as a serotonin transporter radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, Frederic; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Amici, Louis; Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Kula, Nora; Baldessarini, Ross [Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School, Mailman Research Center McLean Division of Massachusetts General Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478 (United States); Innis, Robert B.; Staley, Julie K. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles D. [Yale University, School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A2), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)], E-mail: gtamagnan@indd.org

    2008-01-15

    To develop a potential SPECT probe to evaluate the integrity of the serotoninergic system (5-HTT) whose dysfunction is linked to several disease conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and depression, we report the synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo baboon imaging of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl) tropane (YP256, ). The radiolabeling was performed by iododestannylation using sodium [{sup 123}I]iodide and peracetic acid. Although the ligand displayed high selectivity for 5-HTT over dopamine transporter in vitro, SPECT imaging in baboons did not reveal selective 5-HTT accumulation in brain in vivo.

  15. Synthesis, radiolabeling, and baboon SPECT imaging of 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(3′-[123I]iodophenyl)tropane ([123I]YP256) as a serotonin transporter radiotracer.([123I]YP256) a potential serotonin transporter radiotracer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frederic; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Amici, Louis; Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S.; Kula, Nora; Baldessarini, Ross; Innis, Robert B.; Staley, Julie K.; Tamagnan., Gilles D.

    2008-01-01

    To develop a potential SPECT probe to evaluate the integrity of the serotoninergic system (5-HTT) whose dysfunction is linked to several disease conditions such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s diseases and depression, we report the synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo baboon imaging of 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(3′-[123I]iodophenyl) tropane (YP256, 6). The radiolabeling was performed by iododestannylation using sodium [123I]iodide and peracetic acid. Although the ligand displayed high selectivity for 5-HTT over dopamine transporter (DAT) in vitro, SPECT imaging in baboons did not reveal selective 5-HTT accumulation in brain in vivo. PMID:18158943

  16. A SPECT imager with synthetic collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelin, Ronan J.; Miller, Brian W.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Murphy, J. M.; Foley, Mark J.

    2013-09-01

    This work outlines the development of a multi-pinhole SPECT system designed to produce a synthetic-collimator image of a small field of view. The focused multi-pinhole collimator was constructed using rapid-prototyping and casting techniques. The collimator projects the field of view through forty-six pinholes when the detector is adjacent to the collimator. The detector is then moved further from the collimator to increase the magnification of the system. The amount of pinhole-projection overlap increases with the system magnification. There is no rotation in the system; a single tomographic angle is used in each system configuration. The maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) algorithm is implemented on graphics processing units to reconstruct the object in the field of view. Iterative reconstruction algorithms, such as MLEM, require an accurate model of the system response. For each system magnification, a sparsely-sampled system response is measured by translating a point source through a grid encompassing the field of view. The pinhole projections are individually identified and associated with their respective apertures. A 2D elliptical Gaussian model is applied to the pinhole projections on the detector. These coefficients are associated with the object-space location of the point source, and a finely-sampled system matrix is interpolated. Simulations with a hot-rod phantom demonstrate the efficacy of combining low-resolution non-multiplexed data with high-resolution multiplexed data to produce high-resolution reconstructions.

  17. Increased rCBF in gray matter heterotopias detected by SPECT using sup 99m Tc hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkes, H. (Universitaetskliniken, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Radiologische Klinik mit Poliklinik); Hosten, N.; Cordes, M.; Neumann, K. (Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Radiologische Klinik mit Poliklinik); Hansen, M.L. (Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Abt. fuer Neurophysiologie)

    1991-08-01

    Imaging findings of morphology and regional cerebral blood flow in two patients suffering from epileptic seizures are presented. CT and MRI revealed heterotopic gray matter as a probable structural correlate, causing the seizure disorder. {sup 99m}Tc hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime (HM-PAO) SPECT demonstrated focally increased regional cerebral blood flow in both patients in the areas of their heterotopic lesions. Heterotopic and orthotopic gray matter seem to have similar features in terms of regional perfusion. A focally increased brain perfusion in interictal epileptic patients may indicate an underlying migration anomaly. (orig.).

  18. SPECT-CT and PET-CT progress in the research of computer analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of multimodal imaging equipment is milestone in the development of imaging, after the PET-CT, American GE company launched a Discovery 670 NM/CT, CT and SPECT, the organic integration of the formation of SPECT-CT new molecular medical imaging equipment, with SPECT, CT and PET-CT is getting more and more widely attention and application, many of SPECT-CT and PET-CT image analysis computer method arises at the historic moment, getting increasing attention of the clinical and imaging science. The paper carried on the detailed description of the SPECT-CT and PET-CT computer analysis method.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of radiolabeled piperazine derivatives of vesamicol as SPECT agents for cholinergic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bando, Kazunori E-mail: bkazunori@drl.co.jp; Taguchi, Kazumi; Ginoza, Yasushi; Naganuma, Tomoyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshitomo; Koike, Katsuo; Takatoku, Keizo

    2001-04-01

    To diagnose and investigate neurodegenerative diseases affecting cholinergic neuron density, piperazine derivatives of vesamicol were synthesized and evaluated. Previously, we reported that trans-5-iodo-2-hydroxy-3-[4-phenylpiperazinyl] tetralin (DRC140, 1) possessed high selectivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). In present study of the effect of alkyl substituents, we observed that the introduction of a methyl group into the ortho or meta positions of the phenyl group of 1 increased affinity for VAChT. trans-5-Iodo-2-hydroxy-3-[4-[2-methylphenyl] piperazinyl]tetralin (2) displayed high affinity and specificity for VAChT. The regional distributions of radioactivity in the rat brain correlated well with known patterns of central cholinergic innervation. [{sup 123}I]2 is a potentially useful compound for SPECT imaging.

  20. Determination of left ventricular mass through SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate-Morales, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martínez-Rodríguez, F.; Arévila-Ceballos, N.

    1998-08-01

    An edge detection algorithm has been applied to estimate left ventricular (LV) mass from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) thallium-201 images. The algorithm was validated using SPECT images of a phantom. The algorithm was applied to 20 patient studies from the Hospital de Cardiologia, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Left ventricular masses derived from the stress and redistribution studies were highly correlated (r=0.96). The average LV masses obtained were 162±37 g and 169±34 g in the redistribution and stress studies, respectively.

  1. Hemimegalencephaly: A rare cause of hemihypoperfusion on 99m technetium-ethyl cysteinate dimer brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Nishikant A; Singhal, Abhinav; Mukherjee, Anirban; Sahoo, Manas Kumar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2013-04-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital neuronal migration disorder that can presents with the equally rare finding of hemihypoperfusion on brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). It is an extremely rare cause of intractable epilepsy. Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion SPECT is useful in excluding other foci of hypoperfusion in the contralateral since hemispherectomy has been suggested to be the treatment of choice. Furthermore, hemimegalencephaly may present with hyper as well as hypoperfusion on ECD SPECT. We present the case of an 11-year-old male child with intractable seizures who showed hemihypoperfusion in the hemimegalecephalic hemisphere.

  2. Brain {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 18}F-florbtaben PET/CT, {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT and cardiac {sup 123}I-MBG imaging for diagnosis of a 'cerebral type' of Lewy Body disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucht, Axel Van Der; Bélissant, Ophélie; Rabu, Corenti; Cottereau, Anne-Ségolène; Evangelista, Eva; Chalaye, Julia; Bonnot-Lours, Sophie; Fénelon, Gilles; Itti, Emmanuel [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, AP-HP, Henri-Mondor Teaching Hospital, Crteil (France); De Langavant, Laurent Cleret [Cognitive Neurology Unit, H. Mondor Hospital, Creteil (France)

    2016-09-15

    A 67-year-old man was referred for fluctuating neuropsychiatric symptoms, featuring depression, delirious episodes, recurrent visual hallucinations and catatonic syndrome associated with cognitive decline. No parkinsonism was found clinically even under neuroleptic treatment. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT showed hypometabolism in the posterior associative cortex including the occipital cortex, suggesting Lewy body dementia, but {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT was normal and cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging showed no signs of sympathetic denervation. Alzheimer's disease was excluded by a normal {sup 18}F-florbetaben PET/CT. This report suggests a rare case of α-synucleinopathy without brainstem involvement, referred to as 'cerebral type' of Lewy body disease.

  3. A comparative study of the quality of SPECT images obtained by {sup 123}I-IMP, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Makoto; Noguchi, Eikichi; Ohtaki, Hiro; Kasahara, Toshifumi; Shibaki, Mitsurou; Hatano, Masay