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Sample records for 99mtc pertechnetate standardization

  1. Altered splenic uptake in the biodistribution of 99MTc-stannous fluoride colloid in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiolabelled white cells have found extensive application in nuclear medicine practice, with use in detecting sites of infection and inflammation. In 99MTc-stannous flu- oride (SnF2) colloid labelled leucocyte scans high liver and spleen activity is visualised, limiting the potential of this technique. This is thought to be due to free or unphagocytosed 99MTc-SnF2 colloid in the preparation. Labelling white cells with 99MTc-SnF2 depends upon phagocytic engulfment of this colloid. Non-phagocy-tosed colloid may be a cause of increased splenic activity. Our aims were to assess if it were possible to reduce liver/spleen uptake of 99MTc-SnF2 colloid in a rat model, by administering unlabelled SnF2 colloid before injection of radiocolloid, in a modification of the standard British Pharmacopoeial test. The biodistribution of 99MTc-SnF2 colloid alone gave 85.4% uptake in the liver and 7.6% in the spleen. A pre-injection of 26.5μg cold SnF2 and then 99MTc-SnF2 colloid resulted in decreased spleen uptake by 43%. A higher (52μg) pre-injection dose gave a greater decrease in splenic uptake by 53%. When ex vivo opsonised 99MTc-SnF2 colloid was administered, both liver and spleen uptake was not reduced. From these results, a pre-injection of unlabelled SnF2 substantially depletes the circulating opsonin concentration, thereby decreasing the opsonisation rate of unopsonised 99MTc-SnF2 colloid. The limiting factor is likely to be the amount of opsonisation in the plasma rather than phagocytic capacity of the macrophages of liver and spleen. In conclusion these results suggest that a pre-injection of cold stannous fluoride may reduce splenic uptake in 99MTc-SnF2 colloid labelled white cell scans. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Thyroidal radioisotope uptake in euthyroid cats : a comparison between 131I and 99MTcO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lambrechts

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thyroidal evaluation systems in euthyroid cats (n = 12 were compared. A single, confirmed hyperthyroid cat was included for interest. Firstly, thyroidal uptake of an intravenous bolus of approximately 111 MBq (3 mCi 99MTcO4- was estimated by using a scintillation camera and calculating the ratio of thyroid to salivary activities at 20 min and 4 h. Thyroid to salivary activity ratios were 1:1 at 20 min and 2:1 at 4 h. Two discrete areas of salivary uptake were identified, namely a parotid/mandibular complex and a more rostral buccal/sublingual complex. These results were compared to radioiodine uptake of an oral dose of approximately 0.925 MBq (25 mCi 131I using a standard thyroid uptake system, measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. Mean radioiodine thyroidal uptake started at 33 % at 1 h, stabilised at 21 % between 4 and 24 h, and dropped to 18 % at 48 h. There was a significant correlation between the early thyroid:salivary ratio of the parotid/mandibular complex and the radioiodine uptake at 12 h.

  3. 99MTc - DMSA renal scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present thesis was to define and evaluate a strategy for identification of children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions after acute pyelonephritis. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation standards were elaborated to improve the interpretation of DMSA scintigraphy. The normal DMSA distribution pattern, the average background uptake, and scintigraphic kidney length according to age were assessed in 95 presumably healthy kidneys. Furthermore, typical DMSA distribution patterns in acute pyelonephritis were assessed on 65 kidneys in 38 children, and typical DMSA distribution patterns of 152 kidneys with VUR in 101 children with and without previous pyelonephritis. Measurement of scintigraphic kidney length, width and volume was validated in piglets and on a kidney phantom. The scintigraphic kidney length was found to be an accurate measure of renal size, whereas kidney width and volume were less reliable, at least on small kidneys. Criteria of kidney swelling in acute pyelonephritis were defined, and found to be beneficial for identifying reinfections in the absence of clinical symptoms. In 34 children with acute pyelonephritis quantitative and qualitative DMSA scintigraphic findings were correlated to clinical symptoms and laboratory data, in the acute stage and at follow up. We found that quantitative DMSA scintigraphy in the acute stage of pyelonephritis and again after one year will identify children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions. Qualitative assessment of DMSA distribution pattern is not reliable enough in this respect. 116 refs., 7 figs

  4. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of 99mTc is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium (99mTc) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 μm membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. The online filtration of 99mTc from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile 99mTc sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai (Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users. (author)

  5. The Determination of Pertechnetate and Non-Pertechnetate Species in Hanford Tanks - Phase 1

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    Duncan, James B. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, WA (United States); Catlow, Stanley A. [Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. (United States)

    2014-02-01

    An analytical method is required to distinguish between the pertechnetate and non-pertechnetate forms of technetium; currently, the methods available only report the total technetium present in a sample. The overall objective of this effort is to develop a method for routinely analyzing Hanford tank waste for technetium in the pertechnetate and the non-pertechnetate forms. A phased approach will be deployed to accomplish this objective: Phase I Comparison of existing technetium analysis methods with modification; Phase II Demonstration of modified methods using non-pertechnetate spiked simulants; and, Phase III Demonstration of chosen method on Hanford tank sample containing non-pertechnetate. This report describes the Phase I work, providing a comparison of Aliquat 336 and TEVA(R)1 in the removal of pertechnetate and discussing the subsequent analysis for technetium in both alkaline and acidic environments without oxidation. The effort was executed under LAB-PLN-13-00004, The Determination of Pertechnetate and Non-Pertechnetate Species in Hanford Tanks Phase I.

  6. Pertechnetate diffusion in GMZ bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99Tc is an important radionuclides related to repository safety assessment. The mobility pertechnetate (TcO4-) can be reduced to immobility technetium(IV) hydrous oxides (TcO2 · nH2O) by Fe(II)-bearing minerals. In China, Gaomiaozi (GMZ) bentonite is regarded as the favorable candidate backfilling material for the HLW repository, which is contained some FeO. The diffusion behavior of 99Tc was investigated in GMZ bentonite by through- and out-diffusion methods. The effective diffusion coefficient (De), the accessible porosity (εacc), apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) and distribution coefficient (Kd) were decreased with the increasing of dry density. The De values were (2.8 ± 0.2) x 10-11 m2/s and (3.5 ± 0.2) x 10-12 m2/s at dry density of 1,600 and 1,800 kg/m3, respectively. It was indicated that the dominating species was TcO4- during the diffusion processing. While, out-diffusion results showed that part of TcO4- may be reduced by Fe(II). The relationship of De and εacc could be described by Archie's law with exponent n = 2.4 for 99Tc diffusion in GMZ bentonite. Furthermore, the relationship between Da and dry density (ρ) was exponential. (author)

  7. Brain pertechnetate SPECT in perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Curless, R.; Goldberg, R.; Clarke, L.; Saw, C.; Sfakianakis, E.; Bloom, F.; Bauer, C.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain was performed in 6 patients with perinatal asphyxis aged 8-26 days. A single-head (LFOV) commercial SPECT system (Picker) was used and data were acquired 2-3 hr after an IV injection of 1-2 mCi Tc-99m-pertechnetate (360/sup 0/ rotation, 60 views, 64 x 64 matrix, 50K cts/view). Reconstruction in three planes was performed using MDS software (Hanning medium resolution filter, with or without attenuation correction using Sorenson's technique). For each clinical study, a ring type phantom source was used to identify the level of reconstruction noise in the tomographic planes. Abnormalities were found in all patients studied, 3 central (moderate intensity), 2 peripheral (1 severe, 1 moderate) and 1 diffuse (mild intensity). Despite use of oral perchlorate (50 mg) in one patient the choroid plexus was visible. Since attenuation correction tended to amplify noise, the clinical studies were interpreted both with and without this correction. All 3 patients with central lesions were found abnormal on early (1-4 mo) neurologic follow-up examination, whereas the others were normal. No correlation was found between SPECT and 24 hr blood levels of CPK, ammonia, base excess, or the Apgar scores. Ct scans were reported abnormal (3 diffuse, 1 peripheral, 1 central and 1 questionable). Planar scintigrams obtained immediately after SPECT were normal (2), questionable (2) and abnormal (2). Follow-up SPECT brain scintigrams in two of the patients showed partial resolution. SPECT of the brain appears promising in perinatal asphyxia but long-term correlation with patient development is necessary.

  8. Preliminary Tests For Development Of A Non-Pertechnetate Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-28

    The objective of this task was to develop a non-pertechnetate analysis method that 222-S lab could easily implement. The initial scope involved working with 222-S laboratory personnel to adapt the existing Tc analytical method to fractionate the non-pertechnetate and pertechnetate. SRNL then developed and tested amethod using commercial sorbents containing Aliquat® 336 to extract the pertechnetate (thereby separating it from non-pertechnetate), followed by oxidation, extraction, and stripping steps, and finally analysis by beta counting and Mass Spectroscopy. Several additional items were partially investigated, including impacts of a 137Cs removal step. The method was initially tested on SRS tank waste samples to determine its viability. Although SRS tank waste does not contain non-pertechnetate, testing with it was useful to investigate the compatibility, separation efficiency, interference removal efficacy, and method sensitivity.

  9. Non-Pertechnetate Technetium Sensor Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Heineman, William R.; Rapko, Brian M.; Branch, Shirmir D.

    2014-10-01

    There remain several significant uncertainties in the understanding and modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford waste tanks, glass, and low-temperature waste forms. A significant (2% to 25%) fraction of the 99Tc in the water-soluble portion of the tank waste may be present as a non-pertechnetate species that has not been identified and, based on experimentation to date, cannot be effectively separated from the wastes. This task will provide a sensor specifically tuned to detect the Tc(I)-carbonyl species believed to constitute the main fraction of the non-pertechnetate form of technetium. By direct measurement of the non-pertechnetate species, such a sensor will help reduce the uncertainties in the modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford tanks and waste forms. This report summarizes work done in FY 2014 exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Progress made in FY 2014 was sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management and is summarized in this report.

  10. Non-Pertechnetate Technetium Sensor Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crawford, Amanda D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heineman, William R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Branch, Shirmir D. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-09-01

    There remain several significant uncertainties in the understanding and modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford waste tanks, glass, and low-temperature waste forms. A significant (2% to 25%) fraction of the 99Tc in the water-soluble portion of the tank waste may be present as a non-pertechnetate species that has not been identified and, based on experimentation to date, cannot be effectively separated from the wastes. This task will provide a sensor specifically tuned to detect the Tc(I)-carbonyl species believed to constitute the main fraction of the non-pertechnetate form of technetium. By direct measurement of the non-pertechnetate species, such a sensor will help reduce the uncertainties in the modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford tanks and waste forms. This report summarizes work done in FY 2014 exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Progress made in FY 2014 was sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management and is summarized in this report.

  11. Technetium 99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy: Congenital hypothyroid screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium 99m pertechnetate thyroid scans were performed on 57 infants referred for evaluation of suspected congenital hypothyroidism. Thyroid anatomy may be characterized by four general types, based on the scintigraphic findings: (1) normal size and location. (2) ectopic location. (3) no detectable thyroid activity. (4) normal location with increased size or uptake. There are diverse etiologies of congential hypothyroidism. Correlation of thyroid scintigraphy with blood T4 and TSH levels allows specific etiological diagnosis in the majority of cases of congential hypothyroidism. (orig.)

  12. Technetium 99m pertechnetate scans in congenital hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiters are rarely palpable in infants with congenital hypothyroidism except in the case of maternal ingestion of iodide. The presence or absence of glandular tissue is, however, important for genetic and prognostic counseling and for acceleration of diagnosis in other affected siblings. The detection of thyroid tissue by /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scans in a significant number of our patients heretofore considered athyreotic establishes that physical findings and traditional laboratory data are not adequate to determine whether or not thyroid tissue is present

  13. Aspects of salivary gland scintigraphy with 99mTc-pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline of the normal pattern of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake and excretion by the major salivary glands is presented, followed by a description of the criteria used in qualitative and semi-quantitative classifications based on a visual interpretation of sequential scintigraphic images. Various aspects of the radioactivity appearing in the region of the oral cavity after intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate were investigated. The feasibility was shown of reducing the scintigraphic examination time from the usually recommended 60 minutes or longer to 30 minutes by administering a salivary stimulant at 10 instead of 20 minutes after pertechnetate injection, and by terminating the scintigraphic study 20 minutes after stimulation. The potentials and limitations of sialography, scintigraphy with 99mTc-pertechnetate, ultrasound, CT and MRI are discussed and a rational approach to their use is recommended. 248 refs.; 37 figs.; 8 tabs

  14. Oxidation, characterization, and separation of non-pertechnetate species in Hanford wastes

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    Schroeder, N.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Under DOE`s privatization initiative, Lockheed Martin and British Nuclear Fuels Limited are preparing to stabilize the caustic tank waste generated from plutonium production at the Hanford Site. Pretreatment of Hanford tank waste will separate it into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The scope of the technetium problem is indicated by its inventory in the waste: {approximately}2000 kg. Technetium would normally exist as the pertechnetate anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, in aqueous solution. However, evidence obtained at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) indicates that the combination of radiolysis, heat, organic complexants, and time may have reduced and complexed a significant fraction of the technetium in the tank waste. These species are in a form that is not amenable to current separation techniques based on pertechnetate removal. Thus, it is crucial that methods be developed to set technetium to pertechnetate so these technologies can meet the required technetium decontamination factor. If this is not possible, then alternative separation processes will need to be developed to remove these non-pertechnetate species from the waste. The simplest, most cost-effective approach to this problem is to convert the non-pertechnetate species to pertechnetate. Chemical, electrochemical, and photochemical oxidation methods, as well as hydrothermal treatment, are being applied to Hanford waste samples to ensure that the method works on the unknown technetium species in the waste. The degree of oxidation will be measured by determining the technetium distribution coefficient, {sup Tc}K{sub d}, between the waste and Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin, and comparing it to the true pertechnetate K{sub d} value for the waste matrix. Other species in the waste, including all the organic material, could be oxidized by these methods, thus selective oxidation is desirable to minimize the cost, time, and secondary waste generation.

  15. Pulmonary clearance rate of two chemically different forms of inhaled pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P S; Conway, J H; Fleming, J S; Bondesson, E; Borgström, L

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to image the pulmonary deposition site of radiolabeled aerosols delivered by dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been limited by the rapid pulmonary clearance of radiolabel. To determine whether aqueous solubility of the radiolabel is a significant factor, the pulmonary clearance rates of two chemically different forms of 99mTc were calculated. A dry powder formulation of terbutaline sulphate was radiolabeled for inhalation by Turbuhaler (AstraZeneca) using the water-soluble salt sodium pertechnetate and the water-insoluble salt tetraphenylarsonium pertechnetate. A pilot study was conducted during which two control subjects each inhaled the two radiolabeled aerosols on separate days. Intrasubject clearance rates for the two species were very similar. It was therefore concluded that water insolubility of the pertechnetate salt alone was not enough to extend the lung residency time of the radiolabel. PMID:11681652

  16. Synchronous thoracic and abdominal enteric duplication cysts: Accurate detection with 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enteric duplication cysts (EDCs) are uncommon congenital anomalies, which can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract and vary greatly in presentation, size, location and symptoms. Ectopic gastric mucosa is reported to be found in 20-30% of these duplications. 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is a useful modality for preoperative localization of the ectopic functioning gastric mucosa in the EDCs. We report a case where 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy was useful in detecting synchronous thoracic and abdominal duplication cysts with functioning gastric mucosa thus having an impact on the patient management

  17. Comparative scanning of thyroid nodules with technetium-99m pertechnetate and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foeldes, I.; Levay, A. (Central Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Stotz, G. (Central Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Pathology)

    1993-04-01

    Thyroid imaging was performed using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile and technetium-99m pertechnetate in 58 patients. The [sup 99m]Tc-pertechnetate scans showed a total of 77 nodules: 60 cold, 13 hot and 4 of normal acitivity. There was no [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI accumulation in 46.4% of [sup 99m]TC-pertechnetate cold nodules; 27 (45%) of these nodules showed [sup 99m]TC-MIBI uptake with the same intensity as the surrounding normal tissue, and five (8.6%) became hot with [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI. Of the [sup 99m]TC-pertechnetate hot nodules 11 (84.6%) could not be differentiated from the normal extranodular tissue on the [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI scan. The histopathology of 34 surgically removed nodules proved that increased, normal or decreased [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI accumulation is not specific for thyroid malignance and that the [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI uptake depends mainly on the viability of thyroid tissue. (orig.).

  18. Unilateral parotid concentration of radiogallium: Comparison with bilateral uptake and with pertechnetate imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unilateral parotid accumulation of radioactivity was noted in 4 elderly (80-95 years) patients after intravenous administration of 67Ga citrate. In 2 of these individuals, it was possible to carry out pertechnetate salivary gland imaging. The involved glands were functional in terms of pertechnetate accumulation, although no drainage was noted after lemon stimulation. A retrospective analysis of 72 radiogallium studies failed to show unilateral parotid uptake in any of them. However, ten cases (14%) had bilateral parotid accumulation of radiogallium. Probable causes of the bilateral parotid concentration of 67Ga were discussed. These were compared with poor oral hygiene and dehydration as possible contributing factors to unilateral parotid radiogallium concentration in the elderly. (orig.)

  19. Materials for Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) Separations of Pertechnetate Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stender, Matthias; Hubler, Timothy L.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Smyrl, William H.

    2004-03-29

    Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions (e.g. chromate, pertechnetate and nitrate). The objective of this study is to develop Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) materials. Such materials can be used to separate pertechnetate ion from radioactive wastes located at DOE sites while limiting the amount of secondary wastes generated. We have developed a synthetic strategy to prepare vinyl-bipyridyl and -terpyridyl ligands which allow incorporation of ion-selective architectures with a polymerizable handle. Fe complexes formed with these ligands provide the working core of the electroactive polymers. The polymers can be directly used as materials for EaIX or they can be incorporated into porous composite materials that are then used for EaIX.

  20. Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate after biliopancreatic bypass with a duodenal switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Filho, Irami; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Villarim-Neto, Arthur; Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: aldo@ufrnet.br

    2007-09-15

    Study with the purpose to examine the effects of duodenal switch (DS), regularly performed in morbidly obese patients, on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in several organs of rats. There was no early or late mortality in either rats groups. The values of percent radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g), showed no significant difference in liver, stomach, small bowel, duodenum, kidney, heart, bladder, bone and brain, when compared the DS rats with sham and controls rats. A postoperative significant increase (p<0.05) in mean %ATI/g levels was observed in spleen, pancreas and muscle in group DS rats, as compared to group S and C rats. In the lung there was an increase and in thyroid a decrease in mean %ATI/g of DS rats, when compared to sham rats (p<0.05). In conclusion, the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch in rats modified the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in thyroid, lung, pancreas, spleen and muscle. (author)

  1. Subcutaneous injection of sup 99m Tc pertechnetate at acupuncture points K-3 and B-60

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    Wu Chung-Chieng; Jong Shiang-Bin; Lin Chun-Ching; Chen Min-Fen; Chen Jong-Rern (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China)); Chung Chieng

    1990-06-01

    The acupuncture points are known to be morphologically related to the nerves and vessels. Yet the physiological role of blood vessels in the formation of acupuncture points remains unknown. With subcutaneous injection of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate at the acupuncture points K-3 and B-60 and with intra-acupuncture point injection of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate at K-3 and B-60, a lower-limb venography like what was obtained by intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc macroaggregated albumin was demonstrated in the present study. It seems that some acupuncture points do play a role in drainage of tissue fluid from soft tissue into the veins. (author).

  2. Simultaneous visualization of the sublingual thyroid and lactating breasts with Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ji Hyoung; Seong, Young Ok; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    The thyroglossal duct runs from the base of the tongue to the thyroid. Rarely the thyroid completely fails to migrate and results in ectopic thyroid tissue, which can be demonstrated scintigraphically. A 31-year old female patients was referred for thyroid scintigraphy due to protruding mass at the base of the tongue. She was mildly hypothyroid. Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan was performed to rule out ectopic thyroid gland. There showed a focal area of intense tracer uptake in sublingual area, suggesting the sublingual thyroid. In addition there noted diffusely increased tracer uptake in both breasts. The patients delivered a baby 6 months prior to the scan and was on breast-feeding. Free Tc-99m pertechnetate physiologically secrets into the salivary glands, the stomach, the gastrointestinal tract, the genitourinary tract and the mammary glands and sodium-iodide symporter plays a role in the accumulation of free Tc-99m pertechnetate. We report simultaneous visualization of lactating breasts and ectopic thyroid gland in the base of the tongue.

  3. Contribution to the study of pertechnetate (sup(99m)Tc) stannous citrate - citric acid complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertechnetate/citric acid/stannous citrate complexation carried out from a lyophilisate of stannous citrate in citric medium at pH5 leads to the formation of separable compounds. These compounds are tin-free technetium citrates. Similar results have been described in the case of complexation reactions with glycolic, thioglycolic and thiomalic acids and with other carboxylates such as dimercaptosuccinic acid. These processes include the reduction of Tcsup(VIII) by Snsup(II) in the presence of thiomalic acid under conditions similar to our own: stannous thiomalate in thiomalic medium to which is added the pertechnetate solution producing Tc-thiomalate complexes variable with the reaction pH. Also worth considering is the possible complexation between pertechnetate and the same acid in the absence of reducing ion, following a special procedure (heating). The complexes described here contain the oxotechnetium bond (terminal oxygen-technetium) and a strong probability exists in favour of dimerisation. Their stability, for a reaction in acid solution: pH 5.0/5.5, becomes satisfactory if: the solution is concentrated enough; bubbling by an inert gas is carried out; room temperature is not exceeded. The development takes place through a partial reoxidation characterised by colour change. An original interaction between reduced states of Tc and citric acid may be claimed with certainty under our experimental conditions. The difficulty then lies in the passage to the tracer stage when the isotope sup(99m)Tc is used

  4. Detection of ectopic gastric mucosa using 99mTc pertechnetate. Review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) pertechnetate scintigraphy in a child with acute gastrointestinal bleeding of unknown origin suggests ectopic gastric mucosa caused by Meckel's diverticulum or gastrointestinal duplication cysts. Our objective was to define the patterns of scintigraphic findings likely to be encountered in patients with ectopic gastric mucosa with illustrative cases and to review the literature. Fifty children (age 1 year to 14 years) were evaluated for ectopic gastric mucosa using 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy. Functioning ectopic gastric mucosa was detected in eight patients with Meckel's diverticula and three patients with bowel duplication. Three patients showed atypical findings on scintigraphy which were perforated appendix, calyceal stasis, and regional enteritis. Ectopic functioning gastric mucosa in Meckel's diverticulum is visualized simultaneously with the stomach, whereas in intestinal duplications tracer activity can be visualized in the dynamic sequence or before gastric tracer visualization in an irregular pattern. A variety of scintigraphic patterns can be found in patients with ectopic gastric mucosa undergoing 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy depending on the location and size of the ectopic tissue. Also, acquisition of delayed images is useful when the initial images are equivocal in children. (author)

  5. Non-invasive measurement of gastric accommodation by means pertechnetate SPECT: limiting radiation dose and increasing image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: The gastric accommodation response to a meal allows the ingestion of large volumes of food without substantially increasing gastric intraluminal pressure. This reflex is vagally mediated and impaired in conditions such as functional dyspepsia. At present, a barostat study is the gold standard to assess fundic relaxation in response to a meal. However, this method is invasive and possibly inducing artefacts due to positive intraluminal balloon pressure. Recently, a non-invasive scintigraphic test was developed to measure gastric accommodation in humans1. The aim of this study was to refine this method limiting the radiation dose applied and increasing image quality such that repetitive measurement within one subject becomes possible without increasing radiation risk. Materials and Methods: 13 healthy volunteers (9 female, 4 male, age x, range y) were recruited from a student population devoid of gastrointestinal symptoms. All volunteers previously underwent a barostat study. After an overnight fast, volunteers were scanned twice on separate days after injection of 200 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate iv. On one occasion, volunteers were pre-treated with pantoprazol 80 mg for 3 days. 30 minutes after injection SPECT scans were acquired before and up to 2 hours after meal ingestion (standardised test meal Nutridrink, 200ml, 300 kCal; acquisition 72 frames 10 sec 128x128 matrix on a GE Varicam, total acquisition time 6 min). After reconstruction fundus volume was calculated semi-automatically by means of a threshold voxel volume tool. Results: Limiting injection dose from 370-740 MBq to 200 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate results in good quality images, with high target/background ratio up to 180 min after injection. This represents a significant dose reduction. There is no significant difference between fundic volumes or accommodation response with or without proton pump inhibitor pre-treatment. Pre-treatment however results in increased mucosal retention of tracer, resulting in

  6. The role of scintimammography with 99MTC-MIBI in evaluation of the breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic value of prone lateral 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in detection of primary breast cancer in patients with breast lesions. Materials and methods: We evaluated 142 patients with breast lesions and/or suspicious mammographic findings. In all patients, the diagnosis was established by pathology. Pattern of abnormal MIBI uptake ( focal or diffuse ) and quantitative measurement of the Ratio of Lesion to normal tissue uptake( T/N Ratio) was recorded. All lesions with abnormal focal uptake with T/N Ratio of more than 1.30 were considered as malignant lesion. Cases with normal homogeneous or abnormal diffusely increased uptake in the breast tissue were interpreted as negative for malignant lesion. Results: Of 142 patients, histopathologic study of 36 cases showed Malignancy which 34 cases of them had Positive MIBI scan. Of 106 cases of negative pathology ,cases had Negative MIBI scintimammography. Analysis of the findings showed high sensitivity, Specificity, accuray and Negative predictive value for 99m-MIBI scintimammography in detection of malignant breast lesion. Conclusion: We concluded that MIBI Scan can be used as complementary or even competitory imaging to the mammography in the evaluation of the breast lesions. (authors)

  7. Single vial preparation of 99mtc ciprofloxacin for the detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aim: To ascertain the usefulness of single vial formulation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin (Diagnobact) in detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Introductions: Tuberculosis is one of the major health concerns not only in developing countries but also in the developed nations. Imaging with radiolabelled broad-spectrum antibiotic, being more specific for infection, has the advantage over other nuclear medicine techniques. We are using Diagnobact to detect sites of infection. Methods: 12 patients (age-23 ±11 years, M:F-8:4) of tuberculosis, confirmed by culture/PCR underwent Diagnobact scan. Scanning was done at 1 hour, 4 hour and 24 hours after intravenous injection of 15 mCi of Diagnobact. Rising lesion to background ratio was taken as the criteria for labeling a Diagnobact scan to be positive.Results: Of the 12 patients, two had tibial tuberculous osteomyelitis (TBOM), two vertebral TBOM, one elbow TBOM, four hip joint TBOM, two shaft of femur TBOM and one patient had soft tissue tuberculosis of gluteal region. Diagnobact scan was positive in 10 patients while two patients with vertebral TBOM were negative. Conclusion: Diagnobact, like Infecton, is also useful for the detection of extra pulmonary tuberculosis but for vertebral TBOM. However, more patients need to be studied to reach at statistically significant conclusion. (author)

  8. Evaluating disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis using 99mtc-glucosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolios, Nicholas; Ali, Marina; Camden, Bradley; Aflaky, Elham; Pavic, Katrina; Markewycz, Andrew; De Costa, Robert; Angelides, Socrates

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of a novel radiotracer, 99mTc-glucosamine, in assessing disease activity of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with RA (nine males and 16 females) and 12 patients with AS (all male) at various stages of disease were recruited for the study. A clinical history and examination was performed, followed by the measurement of hematological, biochemical, and autoimmune serological parameters to assess disease activity. 99mTc-glucosamine was intravenously administered and scans were compared with other imaging modalities, including plain X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone scans. Results In patients with AS, 99mTc-glucosamine scans were more capable of identifying active disease and differentiating between inflammatory and non-inflammatory causes. In patients with RA, 99mTc-glucosamine accumulated at all known sites of disease involvement. Uptake was most pronounced in patients with active untreated disease. The relative tracer activity in the involved joints increased with time compared with that in the adjoining soft tissue, liver, and cardiac blood pool. Using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation among glucosamine scan scores, C-reactive protein (p=0.048), and clinical assessment (p=0.003), which was not noted with bone scans. Conclusion The radiotracer was well tolerated by all patients, with no adverse reactions. 99mTc-glucosamine imaging could detect spinal inflammation in AS. With respect to RA, 99mTc-glucosamine was a viable alternative to 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate nuclear bone scans for imaging inflamed joints and had the added advantage of demonstrating a significant clinical correlation between disease activity and scan findings. PMID:27708974

  9. The integrity of the disulfide bond in a cyclic somatostatin analog during 99mtc complexation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development of a variety of thiol-free chelating agents has facilitated the design of 99mTc-labeled somatostatin analogs suitable for receptor imaging of somatostatin-positive tumors. However, it remains ambiguous whether the disulfide bonds in cyclic peptides are stable during 99mTc complexation reactions, and contradictory results have been reported regarding the integrity of disulfide bonds in cyclic somatostatin analogs. To estimate the stability of the disulfide bond in a synthetic somatostatin analog at low peptide concentrations, [125I]I-RC-160, in which radioiodine was incorporated into the 3-Tyr residue, was synthesized and the integrity of the disulfide bond of the peptide was investigated in the presence of reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, dithionite, and stannous ions. The disulfide bond in [125I]I-RC-160 remained stable in the presence of ascorbic acid in boiling water. The disulfide bond was also stable when treated with stannous ions at concentrations sufficient to reduce 99mTc for complexation with a thiol-free chelating agent, bis(hydroxamamide) analog when the 99mTc complexation reaction was performed at room temperature. However, the disulfide bond of [125I]I-RC-160 was slightly cleaved in the presence of a small amount of stannous ions when the reaction was performed in boiling water. Treatment of [125I]I-RC-160 with dithionite in boiling water markedly reduced the disulfide bond of the parental peptide. These findings indicated that synthetic somatostatin analogs may be labeled with 99mTc with stannous ions as the reducing agent without impairing their structure after conjugation of thiol-free chelating agents that provide 99mTc chelates under mild reaction conditions

  10. Biodistribution of technetium-99m pertechnetate after total colectomy in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses Rego, Amalia Cinthia; Alcantara Oliveira Ramalho, Rachel; Tabosa Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates; Araujo-Filho, Irami; Medeiros Azevedo, Italo [Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Ave. Miguel Alcides Araujo 1889, Natal-RN 59078-270 (Brazil); Palestro, Christopher J. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Medeiros, Aldo Cunha, E-mail: aldom@uol.com.b [Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Ave. Miguel Alcides Araujo 1889, Natal-RN 59078-270 (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This study evaluated the effects of total colectomy on the biodistribution of technetium-99m pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) on the 28th postoperative day in rats. Samples of several organs were harvested for counting the percent of injected radioactivity/g of tissue (%ATI/g). The %ATI/g in colectomy rats was higher in the stomach and ileum than in sham and controls (p<0.05). Increase in mucosa and muscularis size of ileum was observed. Colectomy was associated with lower biodistribution in bladder and thyroid, T3, and T4, than in controls.

  11. Comparative study of pertechnetate ionic associates extraction with 'onium' cations of arsenic(V), phosphorus(V), tin (IV) and their dissociation in water-insoluble organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvent extraction of pertechnetate anions from aqueous solutions of some mineral acids like (HCl, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4, salts (NaCl), NaNO3, NaClO4, K2CrO4, Na2CO3) and NaOH, NH4OH by different analytical reagents as tetraphenylarsonium (Ph4As+), tetraphenylphosphonium (Ph4P+), triphenyltin (Ph3Sn+), trioctyltin (Oct3Sn+) into organic solvents (chloroform, nitrobenzene, toluene, benzene) has been carried out at 22 +- 1 grad C. The dissertation contains following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) Aim of the dissertation; (3) Background; (4) Extraction characteristics of pertechnetate with tetraphenylarsonium in the presence of chloride, nitrate and perchlorate anions; (5) Extraction of pertechnetate with tetraphenylphosphonium in the presence of various acids, salts and hydroxides; (6) Extraction of pertechnetate with triphenyltin chloride and trioctyltin chloride; (7) Conductivity of tetraphenylarsonium, tetraphenylphosphonium triphenyltin and trioctyltin chloride and pertechnetate in nonaqueous solutions; (8) Conclusions

  12. Separation of [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate and molybdate using polyethylene glycol coated C18 and C30 resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, J D; Wilson, J S; Romaniuk, J A; McEwan, A J B; Abrams, D N; McQuarrie, S A; Gagnon, K

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic adsorbents such as C18 and C30 were coated with PEG and subsequently used for the separation of Mo/Tc. The most effective resin for adsorbing PEG was the C18-U resin, which demonstrated a coating capacity of 97.6±2.8mg PEG per g of resin. The ability to adsorb pertechnetate was proportional to the amount of PEG coated on the hydrophobic resin. The [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate recovery during the separation of cyclotron produced (99m)Tc from (100)Mo was 91.8±0.3% (n=2). The resultant product met relevant USP monograph specifications. PMID:26829618

  13. Reduction And Sequestration Of Pertechnetate To Technetium Dioxide And Protection From Reoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J. B. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland , WA (United States); Johnson, J. M. [Center for Laboratory Sciences, Pasco, WA (United States); Moore, R. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hagerty, K. [AREVA Federal Services LLC, Richland , WA (United States); Rhodes, R. N. [Center for Laboratory Sciences, Pasco, WA (United States); Huber, H. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland , WA (United States); Moore, W. P. [Center for Laboratory Sciences, Pasco, WA (United States)

    2012-11-07

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(lI)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-105 simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(ll)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period of time (6 weeks). Previous work indicated that the Sn(II) apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(lI)apatite exhibited a direct correlation with the pH of the technetium-spiked simulant media.

  14. Technetium-99m-sestamibi/pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy vs ultrasonography for preoperative localization in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berczi, C.; Lukacs, G.; Balazs, G. [Department of Surgery, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Mezosi, E.; Bajnok, L. [1. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Galuska, L.; Varga, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen (Hungary)

    2002-03-01

    A prospective study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of technetium-99m-sestamibi and technetium-99m-pertechnetate subtraction scanning and US for imaging parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism. Sixty-three patients were surgically treated for primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Preoperative scintigraphy and US were performed in all cases. Bilateral neck exploration was carried out on each patient. Results of radionuclide studies and US were compared with surgical and histological findings. In 57 patients with primary HPT the radionuclide scanning gave true-positive results. Four false-negative and two false-positive scintigrams were obtained. The sensitivity and the positive predictive value (PPV) of scintigraphy were 93 and 97%, respectively. Forty-one cases were correctly localized by the US. Seventeen US results were false negative and five were false positive. The sensitivity and the PPV for US were 71 and 89%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the sensitivity of the scintigraphy compared with the US (p=0.001). Sensitivities of radionuclide scans and US were higher for adenomas (100 and 83%) than for hyperplastic glands (75 and 40%). The sensitivity of technetium-99m-sestamibi and technetium-99m-pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy was significantly higher compared with US. This sensitive method could help surgeons in performing a rapid and directed parathyroidectomy. (orig.)

  15. Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for Pertechnetate Applicable to Hanford and Other DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineman, William R.

    2004-12-01

    New film materials for pertechnetate: A new film material comprised of quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) cross-linked with 1,10-diiododecane has been developed for use in the spectroelectrochemical sensor. Films were prepared in a one-pot synthesis by stirring poly(4-vinylpyridine), cross-linker and methyl iodide in 1-butanol for 1 h, after which the solution was spin-coating onto ITO-glass. Film thickness was varied either by changing the spin rate or by dilution of the original precursor solution. The thinnest film prepared was 30 nm; the thickest 930 nm. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to study the dynamics of film changes on soaking in aqueous salt solution and on preconcentrating model analyte ferrocyanide. The results document that, on hydration, films expanded by almost 90% in 0.1 M KNO3, then contracted slightly when ferrocyanide solution was introduced probably due to electrostatic cross-linking. IR spectroscopy was used to determine the extent of quaternization of the film. For a polymer solution stirred for 1 h, films were about 20% quaternized. This can be increased to {approx}30% by adding more solvent to the precursor solution and stirring for an additional hour. Solubility of the partially cross-linked material was a factor that limited the quaternization process. Use of a more appropriate solvent may enable greater quaternization. A more quaternized film should preconcentrate more pertechnetate by virtue of having a higher density of charged binding sites. Film ruggedness is critical. To investigate this, films on ITO-glass were soaked in methanol and butanol overnight, in 0.1M KNO3, and in 0.1M KNO3 adjusted to pH 12 and pH 2 for 30 days. Each film was then tested as a spectroelectrochemical sensor for model analyte ferrocyanide. The results showed only the pH 2 conditioned sensor behaved abnormally. The film soaked in pH 2 electrolyte delaminated but did not dissolve. Delamination was most likely due to the acid digestion of the ITO layer of

  16. Leakage assessment in adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding: radiography versus {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Bossche, B.; Goethals, I.; Dierckx, R.A.; Van de Wiele, C. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Villeirs, G. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Pattyn, P. [Department of Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2002-09-01

    The least invasive of all surgical weight-lowering procedures is the adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding (ALGB) technique. A rare complication (0.9%-1.8% of patients) but one that may require surgical revision is leakage of the gastric banding device. This paper reports on the usefulness of technetium-99m scintigraphy for the assessment of gastric band leaks as compared with radiography. Between March 1997 and October 2001, 23 obese patients (20 women and 3 men; mean age 35 years; range 23-60 years; mean body mass index before gastric banding procedure, 39.2 kg/m{sup 2}; range 29.3-52.1 kg/m{sup 2}) were referred for exclusion of gastric banding leakage by means of radiography and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy. Both procedures were performed on the same day in all patients. Two patients underwent both procedures, respectively two and three times. A total of 27 radiographic and scintigraphic examinations were performed. Radiographs were judged positive for leakage when escape of contrast agent through a defect in the gastric banding device was visualised or when indirect criteria, e.g. smooth passage of barium suspension through the stoma after injection of contrast agent, were present. Scintigraphic images were judged positive when tracer disappearance out of the banding device and uptake in the thyroid gland as well as enhancement of the gastric mucosa were observed 30 min and/or 3 h post injection. Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for radiography and {sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy were 81.8% vs 81.8%, 75% vs 100% and 77.7% vs 92.6%. Leakage from the reservoir or the connecting tube is a late complication of ALGB. The presented data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is more efficient than radiography in determining the presence of such leaks. (orig.)

  17. Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for Pertechnetate Applicable to Hanford and Other DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hubler, Timothy L.

    2009-09-28

    During the period of this grant several significant milestones have been passed pursuant to designing a fluorescence sensor for pertechnetate (TcO4-). They are as follows: Fluorescence spectroelectrochemistry and less than picomolar limit of detection for a model non-radioactive analyte have been demonstrated. The spectroelectrochemical sensor and associated instrumentation for fluorescence mode of operation have been made, are portable, and easily transported to and used at DOE sites. The sensor has sufficient selectivity for its application to complex samples, even including tank waste, that exist at DOE sites such as the Hanford Site. Pertechnetate has been preconcentrated in sensor films and electrochemically reduced. This is the first critical step in operation of a spectroelectrochemical sensor for TcO4-. New Tc complexes have been made that fluoresce and these complexes have been preconcentrated and electrochemically modulated in a sensor film leading to fluorescence modulation, which is the second critical step in operation of the spectroelectrochemical sensor for TcO4-. We have determined that fluorescence offers a means of dramatically improving the limit of detection. Based on measurements on our new fluorescent complexes of Tc, we estimate the limit of detection for the sensor to be 5 x 10-12M. In related work, we have shown that the sensitivity of the spectroelectrochemical sensor for some metal cations can be improved by forming a metal complex with better optical and electrochemical properties. In addition, some heavy metals can be detected with the spectroelectrochemical sensor by depositing them directly as metals on the sensor surface.

  18. Leakage assessment in adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding: radiography versus 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The least invasive of all surgical weight-lowering procedures is the adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding (ALGB) technique. A rare complication (0.9%-1.8% of patients) but one that may require surgical revision is leakage of the gastric banding device. This paper reports on the usefulness of technetium-99m scintigraphy for the assessment of gastric band leaks as compared with radiography. Between March 1997 and October 2001, 23 obese patients (20 women and 3 men; mean age 35 years; range 23-60 years; mean body mass index before gastric banding procedure, 39.2 kg/m2; range 29.3-52.1 kg/m2) were referred for exclusion of gastric banding leakage by means of radiography and 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy. Both procedures were performed on the same day in all patients. Two patients underwent both procedures, respectively two and three times. A total of 27 radiographic and scintigraphic examinations were performed. Radiographs were judged positive for leakage when escape of contrast agent through a defect in the gastric banding device was visualised or when indirect criteria, e.g. smooth passage of barium suspension through the stoma after injection of contrast agent, were present. Scintigraphic images were judged positive when tracer disappearance out of the banding device and uptake in the thyroid gland as well as enhancement of the gastric mucosa were observed 30 min and/or 3 h post injection. Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for radiography and 99mTc scintigraphy were 81.8% vs 81.8%, 75% vs 100% and 77.7% vs 92.6%. Leakage from the reservoir or the connecting tube is a late complication of ALGB. The presented data suggest that 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is more efficient than radiography in determining the presence of such leaks. (orig.)

  19. A case of thymoma misdiagnosed ad parathyroid adenoma on Tc-99m pertechnetate/Tl-201 subtraction scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong An; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Wang, Young Pil; Jung, Ji Han; Lee, Kyo Young; Kim, Byung Kee [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    A large superior mediastinal mass was found incidentally by ultrasonography in a 60-year-old man. There was an abnormal accumulation of 71-201 in the lower pole of left thyroid gland, extending into left superior mediastinum on Tc-99m pertechnetate/Tl-201 subtraction scan. Laboratory findings relating thyroid and parathyroid were all within normal range. We considered the mass as a non-functioning parathyroid adenoma tentatively. However, subsequent surgery and pathologic examination revealed the mass to be a benign mixed thymoma. We report a case of patient with thymoma showing unusual Tc-99m pertechnetate/Tl-201 subtraction imaging and laboratory findings, and suggest to consider the possibility of other mediastinal tumors rather than parathyroid adenoma.

  20. Solitary autonomous thyroid nodules: comparison of fluorescent and pertechnetate imaging. [/sup 99m/Tc tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, J.H.; Burman, K.D.; Gillin, M.T.; Corcoran, R.J.; Johnson, M.C.; Wartofsky, L.

    1977-11-01

    Twelve patients with solitary autonomous thyroid nodules were scanned with (/sup 99m/Tc) pertechnetate and by fluorescent imaging. Nodular dimensions were essentially identical on the two types of scans, but the relative scan densities in the nodular versus extranodular areas demonstrated striking differences. In 11 of the 12 patients, the ratio of nodular-to-extranodular radiotracer accumulation was significantly higher than the ratio of nodular-to-extranodular iodine content. In two patients with no demonstrable extranodular radiotracer accumulation by initial pertechnetate scan, extranodular tissue was demonstrated by fluorescent imaging. In such cases, fluorescent scanning may eliminate the need for a second radionuclide scan following TSH stimulation to visualize the extranodular tissue. Fluorescent scanning offers a unique new method for aiding the evaluation of patients with suspected autonomous nodules and can facilitate the diagnosis in some cases. The maintenance of relatively uniform iodine concentration between nodular and extranodular tissues is an intriguing finding that bears further investigation.

  1. Protocol for Identifying the Presence of and Understanding the Nature of Soluble, Non-pertechnetate Technetium in Hanford Tank Supernatants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-02-27

    The objective of this report is to propose a method to evaluate the presence and extent of soluble, non-pertechnetate Tc in Hanford tank supernatants as well as methods that might be used to gain insight as to the nature of the specie(s) that make up this fraction. This study will then provide a recommendation as to the preferred approach for identifying and quantifying the presence of Hanford tank supernatant-soluble, non-pertechnetate, technetium. The recommendation will also describe an approach to address the issue of whether inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, which is useful as a monitoring tool for Tc, may be confounded by the presence of other mass 99 species.

  2. Usefulness of per-rectal portal scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate for galactosemia in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiomi, Susumu; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Ikeoka, Naoko; Kuroki, Tetsuo; Okano, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Joji; Ochi, Hironobu [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    1998-12-01

    Galactosemia discovered by newborn screening is rarely caused by enzyme deficiency. It has recently been reported that among patients without enzyme deficiency portosystemic shunting may be a cause of galactosemia in some patients. We did per-rectal portal scintigraphy in patients with such galactosemia detected during screening of newborns to examine the usefulness of this method for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts via the inferior mesenteric vein. The subjects were eight neonates with galactosemia without enzyme deficiency detected during screening. A solution containing technetium-99m pertechnetate was instilled into the rectum, and serial scintigrams were taken while radioactivity curves for the liver and heart were recorded sequentially. The per-rectal portal shunt index was determined by calculating the ratio for counts of the liver to counts for the heart integrated for 24 seconds immediately after the appearance of the liver time-activity curve. A portosystemic shunt was detected in both of the patients with a shunt index of 30% or more, but not in the six patients with a shunt index less than 30%. The blood galactose levels of these six patients later entered the reference range. This method is noninvasive and there is little exposure to the radionuclide. It seemed to be useful for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunt in newborns with galactosemia without enzyme deficiency. (author)

  3. Electrochemistry of technetium radiopharmaceuticals coulometric reduction of pertechnetate in the presence of HEDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the authors have developed an anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the separation of the component complexes in Tc-diphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals for skeletal imaging. This methodology has enabled them to explore the complicated chemistry involved in the formulation of skeletal imaging agents, i.e. reduction of Tc(VII) to some lower oxidation state in the presence of excess diphosphonate ligand. Separation of /sup 99m/Tc(NaBH/sub 4/)-HEDP reaction mixtures prepared by NaBH/sub 4/ reduction of pertechnetate has shown the presence of at least seven Tc-containing species in carrier-added preparations and three components in no-carrier added preparations. As a part of their systematic study of variables that affect the generation of Tc-diphosphonate complexes, the authors have investigated NaBH/sub 4/, Sn/sup 2+/ and inert electrodes as reductants. Preliminary results on the production of Tc-HEDP complexes by electrochemical techniques are presented in this paper

  4. Interaction between green tea extract and 99mTc-pertechnetate on in vivo distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People drink various types of tea without knowing the side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions. In current study, it is aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea extract in different extraction solvents on the radiolabeling of the blood constituents with 99mTc and on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in male Wistar Albino rats. The extraction of green tea was performed in different solvents. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with green tea extract in different extraction solvents or saline (0.9 % NaCl) as a control group for 7 days. The radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with SnCl2 and 99mTc. According to experimental results, radiolabeling blood components with 99mTc were not modified in the usage of the different extraction solvents for green tea extraction, but a significant alteration (P 99mTcO4 was observed after treatment with green tea extract in distilled water. Although there is no considerable effect on radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially with green tea extract in distilled water. The identified change monitored in this study may cause to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or avoid the repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine. (author)

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na). The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received 99mTcO4Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of 99mTcO4Na (P99mTcO4Na and on the morphology of organs at ultrastructural level. (author)

  6. Control of pertechnetate sorption on activated carbon by surface functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen; Yeredla, Rakesh; Xu, Huifang; Abrecht, Mike

    2007-01-15

    The isotope 99Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO4-). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (Kd) varying from 9.5 x 10(5) to 3.2 x 10(3) ml/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with Kd remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10(3)-1.8 x 10(3) ml/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified as carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups, A, B, and C, in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO4- can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during materials processing.

  7. Effect of tripanossomicide benznidazole (Rochagan) on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO4) in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Vanessa Santos de Arruda; Holanda, Cecilia Maria de Carvalho Xavier; Silva, Roseane Pereira da; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: vambio@oi.com.br; Oliveira, Daniel Pereira de; Silva Junior, Mauricio Ferreira da; Oliveira, Elias Herculano de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica

    2008-12-15

    Benznidazole, a drug with specific anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity, is used in the treatment of Chagas' disease. The radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) is used to obtain diagnostic images of the stomach, thyroid, parathyroids, salivary glands, brain and in the study of esophageal reflux and blood flow. This study aimed at evaluating in vivo the influence of benznidazole treatment on the sodium pertechnetate biodistribution in Wistar rats. The percentage of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) of various organs (brain, heart, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, spleen, liver, muscle and blood) was determined. Comparing the treated rats with the controls, we observed that sodium pertechnetate biodistribution did not change when administered to rats treated for thirty days with benznidazole. (author)

  8. Reduction And Stabilization (Immobilization) Of Pertechnetate To An Immobile Reduced Technetium Species Using Tin(II) Apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J. B.

    2012-11-02

    Synthetic tin(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 to a non-mobile oxidation state and sequesters the technetium, preventing re-oxidization to mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions. Previous work indicated technetium reacted Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index of 12.8 in Cast Stone. An effect by pH is observed on the distribution coefficient, the highest distribution coefficient being l70,900 observed at pH levels of 2.5 to 10.2. The tin apatite was resistant to releasing technetium under test conditions.

  9. Efficacy of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate and {sup 131}I radioisotope therapy in sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)-expressing neuroendocrine tumors in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Meike L. [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany); Stanford University, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS) and Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Riese, Christoph G.U.; Seitz, Stephan; Weber, Alexander; Behe, Martin; Schurrat, Tino; Behr, Thomas M. [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany); Schramm, Nils [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Department of Electronics, Juelich (Germany); Keil, Boris; Alfke, Heiko [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Radiology, Marburg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    There is growing interest in the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene both as a molecular imaging reporter gene and as a therapeutic gene. Here, we show the feasibility of radioisotope therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. As a separate application of NIS gene transfer, we image NIS-expressing tumors with pinhole SPECT in living subjects. Biodistribution studies and in vivo therapy experiments were performed in nude mice carrying stably NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumor xenografts following i.v. injection of {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate. To show the usefulness of NIS as an imaging reporter gene, {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate uptake was imaged in vivo using a clinical gamma camera in combination with a custom-made single pinhole collimator, followed by SPECT/small animal MRI data coregistration. NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors strongly accumulated {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, as did thyroid, stomach, and salivary gland. The volume of NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors decreased significantly after therapeutic administration of {sup 131}I or {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, whereas control tumors continued to grow. NIS-mediated uptake of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate could be imaged in vivo at high resolution with a clinical gamma camera equipped with a custom-made single pinhole collimator. High-resolution functional and morphologic information could be combined in a single three-dimensional data set by coregistration of SPECT and small animal MRI data. Lastly, we demonstrated a therapeutic effect of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate on NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors in cell culture and, for the first time, in vivo, thought to be due to emitted Auger and conversion electrons. NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors efficiently concentrate radioisotopes, allowing for in vivo high-resolution small animal SPECT imaging as well as rendering possible successful radioisotope therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. (orig.)

  10. Technetium-99m tetrofosmin imaging in thyroid diseases: comparison with Tc-99m-pertechnetate, thallium-201 and Tc-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klain, M. [Centro di Studio per la Medicina Nucleare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) Napoli (Italy)]|[Univ. di Napoli (Italy). Medicina Nucleare; Maurea, S. [Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Napoli (Italy); Cuocolo, A. [Centro di Studio per la Medicina Nucleare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) Napoli (Italy)]|[Univ. di Napoli (Italy). Medicina Nucleare; Colao, A. [Endocrinologia, Centro di Studio per la Medicina Nucleare del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Napoli (Italy)]|[Univ. di Napoli (Italy); Marzano, L. [Endocrinologia, Centro di Studio per la Medicina Nucleare del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Napoli (Italy)]|[Univ. di Napoli (Italy); Lombardi, G. [Endocrinologia, Centro di Studio per la Medicina Nucleare del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Napoli (Italy)]|[Univ. di Napoli (Italy); Salvatore, M. [Centro di Studio per la Medicina Nucleare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) Napoli (Italy)]|[Univ. di Napoli (Italy). Medicina Nucleare

    1996-12-01

    In this study, tetrofosmin whole-body scintigraphy was performed in 35 patients with evidence of thyroid diseases. All patients underwent laboratory evaluation of thyroid function as well as {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate scan, thallium-201 {sup 99m}Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) whole-body studies. Thyroid images were semi-quantitatively analysed by a 4-point score: 0=no significant uptake; 1=uptake increased but inferior to normal thyroid tissue; 2=uptake equal to normal thyroid tissue; 3=uptake superior to normal thyroid tissue. A total of 41 thyroid nodules were detected, of which 15 were goitre nodules, 13 adenomas and 13 malignant lesions. In goitre nodules, concordant results of tetrofosmin and pertechnetate uptake (score 1 or 0) were observed in the majority of lesions (87%). In function adenomas both tetrofosmin uptake and pertechnetate uptake were score 3. In non-function adenomas tetrofosmin uptake was score 3, while pertechnetate uptake was score 0. In six malignant lesions, tetrofosmin uptake was score 3, while pertechnetate uptake was score 0; in the other seven lesions, where a prevalence of goitre abnormalities was observed, results of tetrofosmin and pertechnetate uptake were similar (score 0 or 1). In (70%) patients with malignant nodules, whole-body tetrofosmin images showed increased abnormal uptake in a total of 28 extra-thyroid tumour sites, as subsequently confirmed by other techniques. When tetrofosmin images were compared to {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scans, concordant results were observed in all cases. In conclusion, tetrofosmin imaging may be particularly useful to characterize and stage patients with malignant thyroid nodules; it shows similar results to thallium but provides better image quality. Comparable findings were observed between tetrofosmin and MIBI studies. Thus, tetrofosmin may be an alternative to thallium and MIBI in the aforementioned patients. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Investigation and development of liquid-liquid extraction systems for the removal of pertechnetate from aqueous nuclear waste stream simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansle, Kristina Marie Rohal

    1998-11-01

    The solvent extraction behavior of perrhenate (ReO 4-) and pertechnetate (TcO4- ) from aqueous nuclear waste stream simulants was examined using the anion-exchange reagent Aliquat-336 nitrate. The extraction tendencies of ReO 4- followed those of TcO4- from both acidic and basic media, demonstrating that ReO4 - was a suitable nonradioactive surrogate for TcO4 -. For ICP-AES analysis of Re in high salt solutions, a V-groove nebulizer and 1:1 dilution of the sample and standards with 0.1% Triton X-100 surfactant reduced deposition of solids within the sample introduction system, thus minimizing memory effects. A new approach to waste remediation technology, Redox-Recyclable Extraction and Recovery (R2ER), was also studied. The redox-active species 1,1',3,3'-tetrakis(2-methyl-2-hexyl)ferrocene (HEP) was oxidized to its cationic form for extraction of TcO4 - or ReO4- from aqueous waste and reduced to its neutral form for recovery of the anion. The thermodynamics of liquid-liquid interfacial electron transfer for the oxidation/activation of HEP were shown to be controlled by three factors: the reduction potentials of the redox-active species in the aqueous and organic phases and the transfer of an ion across the liquid-liquid interface. The deactivation/reduction rate of HEP+NO3- by iron was affected by organic solvent diluent and improved by treating the iron with hexanes and 1 M HCl. The volume of solid secondary-waste in the R2ER cycle was reduced by a factor of 3000. In complete extraction/recovery cycles, HEP+NO3- in 2-nonanone removed greater than 99% TcO4- from the 101-SY, 103-SY, 1 M HCl and 1 M NaOH/1.5 M NaNO3 Hanford Tank waste simulants. Another redox-active extractant, bis(hydridotris(1-pyrazolyl)borato)iron(III) nitrate (FeTp2+NO3-), was also selective for ReO4- remediation from simulated aqueous waste. Organic solutions of the alkyl substituted ferricenium extractants were not stable in the presence of nucleophilic anions and/or reducing agents. HEP+NO3

  12. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REMOVAL OF PERTECHNETATE FROM TANK 241-AN-105 SIMULANT USING PUROLITE A530E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY KJ; MOORE WP; JOHNSON JM

    2012-06-29

    This effort falls under the technetium management initiative and will provide data for those who will make decisions regarding the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort is to challenge Purolite{reg_sign} A530E against a double-shell tank simulant from tank 241-AN-105 spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is commercially available and is currently being used at the 200 West Pump and Treat Groundwater Treatment Plant to remove pertechnetate. It has been demonstrated that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is highly effective in removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} from a water matrix. Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is the commercial product of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biquat{trademark} resin. Further work has demonstrated that technetium-loaded A530E achieves a leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.5 (RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine).

  13. Biodistribution of technetium-{sup 99m} pertechnetate after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (Capella technique) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses do; Jacome, Daniel Torres; Ramalho, Rachel de Alcantara Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Araujo-Filho, Irami; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha, E-mail: aldo@ufrnet.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate, the most used radiopharmaceutical in nuclear medicine, has not been studied in details after bariatric surgery. The objective was to investigate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}Tc-) in organs and tissues of rats. Methods: Twelve rats were randomly divided into two groups of 6 animals each. The RYGB group rats were submitted to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the control group rats were not operated. After 15 days, all rats were injected with 0.1mL of Na{sup 99m}Tc- via orbital plexus with average radioactivity of 0.66 MBq. After 30 minutes, liver, stomach, thyroid, heart, lung, kidney and femur samples were harvested, weighed and percentage of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) of each organ was determined by gamma counter Wizard Perkin-Elmer. We applied the Student t test for statistical analysis, considering p<0.05 as significant. Results: Significant reduction in mean %ATI/g was observed in the liver, stomach and femur in the RYGB group animals, compared with the control group rats (p<0.05). In other organs no significant difference in %ATI/g was observed between the two groups. Conclusion: This work contributes to the knowledge that the bariatric surgery RYGB modifies the pattern of biodistribution of Na{sup 99m}Tc{sup -}. (author)

  14. Diagnosis, characterisation and evaluation of treatment response of frostbite using pertechnetate scintigraphy: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Aseem; Sawroop, Krishan; Chopra, M.K.; Sinha, Noaline; Kashyap, Ravi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India); Sarker, B.B. [Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India)

    2002-02-01

    In the present study, we performed early blood pool scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate in 20 patients (10-180 days after frostbite injury; 71 clinical lesions) referred for a topical treatment protocol for mild to moderately severe frostbite, and in 22 asymptomatic controls. The aims of the study were to define the ''normal'' microcirculation of the hands and feet, to characterise the appearances of frostbite lesions on scintigraphy and correlate these with the clinical presentation, and to evaluate the usefulness of scintigraphy for assessing the treatment response. Six patients were ''fresh'', 12 had been undergoing conservative treatment (topical homeopathic) for several weeks and two had permanent fibrotic hand phalanges. Nine patients on treatment underwent serial scintigraphy a total of 22 times. Eleven patients were imaged only once, including the two with permanent fixed defects. Three distinct physiological microcirculation patterns were evident in control hands or feet: right- or left-handedness (seven subjects), subclinical inflammatory foci correlating with callosity or pressure points (36 lesions) and distinctly increased pooling of radiotracer at the thenar or hypothenar region (eight subjects). In frostbite patients, 128 lesions (48 inflammatory, 80 ischaemic) were seen on the scan. This number included all 71 lesions identified clinically, the rest being subclinical. Subclinical frostbite lesion as an entity has not been described previously. Microvasculature of normal muscle groups (in the hands, elbow or feet) was shown on scintigraphy to improve after topical treatment. The treatment resulted in improved or normalised perfusion scan in 25 of 45 ischaemic segments with matching clinical improvement, and reduction or normalisation of uptake in inflammatory lesions (n=30). The data confirm the vasodilator and anti-inflammatory action of the topical preparation, and the sensitivity of the

  15. Diagnosis, characterisation and evaluation of treatment response of frostbite using pertechnetate scintigraphy: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we performed early blood pool scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate in 20 patients (10-180 days after frostbite injury; 71 clinical lesions) referred for a topical treatment protocol for mild to moderately severe frostbite, and in 22 asymptomatic controls. The aims of the study were to define the ''normal'' microcirculation of the hands and feet, to characterise the appearances of frostbite lesions on scintigraphy and correlate these with the clinical presentation, and to evaluate the usefulness of scintigraphy for assessing the treatment response. Six patients were ''fresh'', 12 had been undergoing conservative treatment (topical homeopathic) for several weeks and two had permanent fibrotic hand phalanges. Nine patients on treatment underwent serial scintigraphy a total of 22 times. Eleven patients were imaged only once, including the two with permanent fixed defects. Three distinct physiological microcirculation patterns were evident in control hands or feet: right- or left-handedness (seven subjects), subclinical inflammatory foci correlating with callosity or pressure points (36 lesions) and distinctly increased pooling of radiotracer at the thenar or hypothenar region (eight subjects). In frostbite patients, 128 lesions (48 inflammatory, 80 ischaemic) were seen on the scan. This number included all 71 lesions identified clinically, the rest being subclinical. Subclinical frostbite lesion as an entity has not been described previously. Microvasculature of normal muscle groups (in the hands, elbow or feet) was shown on scintigraphy to improve after topical treatment. The treatment resulted in improved or normalised perfusion scan in 25 of 45 ischaemic segments with matching clinical improvement, and reduction or normalisation of uptake in inflammatory lesions (n=30). The data confirm the vasodilator and anti-inflammatory action of the topical preparation, and the sensitivity of the radionuclide method in monitoring treatment

  16. Comparison of Tc-99m pertechnetate images with dual-phase Tc 99m MIBI and SPECT images in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Sager

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of Tc-99m pertechnetate planar, dual-phase MIBI and MIBI-SPECT images in the determination and localization of parathyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this study, 38 patients who underwent operation for primary hyperparathyroidism were included. Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole imaging of the neck and then MIBI planar and SPECT images in supine position was performed. Late SPECT images were acquired 120 minutes after the injection. Early and late MIBI images were quantitatively evaluated. Results: Of the 38 patients, 30 of them had adenoma, 2 patients had hyperplasia and 6 of them were normal on planar images. Thirty-four of 38 patients were positive on SPECT images. SPECT images of the patients with positive results were matched with pathology results. Conclusion: As a result, Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole, Tc-99m MIBI planar and SPECT images are useful for localization of parathyroid lesions especially in multinodular thyroid gland. However, US or CT images are necessary for more accurate localization and Tc-99m pertechnetate images are useful for interpreting and comparing with the early and late MIBI images.

  17. Differential diagnosis of MRI detected intra cranial space occupying lesions (ICSOLS)-role of 99MTC tetrofosmin cerebral spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discriminating the correct etiology of Intra Cranial Space Occupying Lesions (ICSOLs) detected by MRI is of paramount importance in deciding the right therapeutic approach. Functional imaging like 99m Tc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT (C SPECT) can be used to differentiate malignant from other benign cerebral pathologies. Objective: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of C SPECT in differentiating various etiologies (i.e. Infective / Inflammatory, Neoplastic and Post Radiotherapy changes) of MRI detected ICSOLs. We also aimed to assess the incremental value of quantitative uptake ratios in identifying the exact nature of ICSOLs. Method: 26 Patients (M:F=20:6), age range 28-76 yrs, mean 42±7 yrs were evaluated by 99mTc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT. 14/26 patients were HIV positive cases while remaining 12 were treated patients of intracerebral malignancies. All these patients had one or more discrete MRI detected ICSOLs. 6/4 patients with HIV and 4/12 patients in the non HIV group showed more than 1 discrete ICSOLs. 20 mci of 99mTc Tetrofosmin was injected IV .15 min (early) and 2 hrs (delayed) post injection C SPECT images were acquired on a dual head variable angle Gamma camera. After reconstruction, transverse, coronal and sagittal images were co- registered with DICOM online available MRI images using aco- registration software. Focal Tetrofosmin uptake in MRI detected ICSOL was interpreted as abnormal. Tetrofosmin uptake index (Ix) was calculated in early and delayed images as ratio of counts in lesion to that of contra lateral region. A value of more than 1.3 was considered to be abnormal. Persistent Ix of more than 1.3 in initial and delayed images were considered to be malignant while Ix of more or less than 1.3 in initial but less than 1.3 in delayed images was considered to be benign in both groups. Results: In HIV group (14 pts), 4 patients showed an Ix of less than 1.3 in both early and delayed images and 7 patients showed an Ix of more than 1.3 in early but

  18. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REMOVAL OF PERTECHNETATE FROM TANK 241-AN-105 SIMULANT USING PUROLITE A530E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY KJ, MOORE WP; JOHNSON JM

    2012-04-17

    This report documents the laboratory testing and analyses as directed under the test plan, LAB-PLN-11-00010, Evaluation of Technetium Ion Exchange Material against Hanford Double Shell Tank Supernate Simulate with Pertechnetate. Technetium (Tc-99) is a major fission product from nuclear reactors, and because it has few applications outside of scientific research, most of the technetium will ultimately be disposed of as nuclear waste. The radioactive decay of Tc-99 to ruthenium 99 (Ru-99) produces a low energy {beta}{sup -} particle (0.1 MeV max). However, due to its fairly long half-life (t{sub 1/2} = 2.13E05 years), Tc-99 is a major source of radiation in low-level waste (UCRL-JRNL-212334, Current Status of the Thermodynamic Data for Technetium and its Compounds and Aqueous Species). Technetium forms the soluble oxy anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup -} under aerobic conditions. This anion is very mobile in groundwater and poses a health risk (ANL, Radiological and Chemical Fact Sheets to Support Health Risk Analyses for Contaminated Areas). It has been demonstrated that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is highly effective in removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} from a water matrix (RPP-RPT-23199, The Removal of Technetium-99 from the Effluent Treatment Facility Basin 44 Waste Using Purolite A-530E, Reillex HPQ, and Sybron IONAC SR-7 Ion Exchange Resins). Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is the commercial product of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biquat{trademark} resin (Gu, B. et. ai, Development of Novel Bifunctional Anion-Exchange Resins with Improved Selectivity for Pertechnetate Sorption from Contaminated Groundwater). Further work has demonstrated that technetium-loaded A530E achieves a leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.5 (ANSI/ASN-16.1-2003, Measurement of the Leachability of Solidified Low-Level Radioactive Wastes by a Short-term Test Procedure) as reported in RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This effort falls

  19. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REDUCTION AND STABILIZATION (IMMOBILIZATION) OF PERTECHNETATE TO TECHNETIUM DIOXIDE USING TIN(II)APATITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY K; MOORE WP; RHODES RN; JOHNSON JM; MOORE RC

    2012-06-01

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(II)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-105 simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mo bile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period oftime (6 weeks). Previous work (RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine) indicated that the Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(II)apatite exhibits a direct correlation with the pH of the contaminated media. Table A shows Sn(II)apatite distribution coefficients as a function of pH. The asterisked numbers indicate that the lower detection limit of the analytical instrument was used to calculate the distribution coefficient as the concentration of technetium left in solution was less than the detection limit. The loaded sample (200 mg of Sn(II)apatite loaded with O.311 mg of Tc-99) was subjected to different molarities of nitric acid to determine if the Sn(II)apatite would release the sequestered technetium. The acid was allowed to contact for 1 minute with gentle shaking ('1st wash'); the aqueous solution was then filtered, and the filtrate was analyzed for Tc-99. Table B shows the results ofthe nitric acid exposure. Another portion of acid was added, shaken for a minute, and filtered ('2nd wash'). The

  20. Effects of dexamethasone on distributions of water and pertechnetate in brains of cats after middle cerebral artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large parenteral doses of dexamethasone were given to five of ten cats after transorbital occlusion of one middle cerebral artery and to two of four cats after sham operations. Two days later the water content and brain/blood ratios of pertechnetate were measured in samples of cerebral tissue that were categorized as nonischemic, ischemic, or infarcted. Values for infarcted tissue were greater than those for ischemic tissue in untreated cats, but not in cats that received dexamethasone. The drug had no apparent effect in ischemic tissue that was not necrotic. These results help explain inconsistencies in previous studies and help define the potential usefulness of dexamethasone for treatment of cerebrovascular disease. (U.S.)

  1. Breast dosimetry in complementary radiotherapy with sodium pertechnetate-{sup 99m}-Tc (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) balloon at neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Carla Flavia de; Campos, Tarcisio P. R. de, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: carla.flavia@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, BH (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2013-07-01

    A dosimetric analyzes was performed at breast tissue in which a sodium pertechnetate-{sup 99m}Tc filled balloon was placed. An additional dose booster can be used as a complementary method to the surgical treatment in patients with breast cancer. The methodology involved the development of dosimetry in a physical phantom and a computational voxel model. Radiochromic films were calibrated providing dose versus optical density (OD) response from sample films taken at the surface of the balloon up to 10 cm far with the theoretical dose provided by MCNP modeling in water-equivalent model. A voxel model of the breast, developed at the SISCODES software, with an filled balloon inside was simulated at the MCNP code in order to generate the spatial dose distribution. Spatial dose distributions and the doses at surfaces of the breast, including those received in the chest wall, skin and lung were generated. The dosimetric results allow validating the dose in the tumor bed and adjacent health tissues. The simulations show that the application of sodium pertechnetate-{sup 99m}Tc implies high dose in the breast tissue adjacent to the tumor and preserves vital adjacent structures. As conclusion, the balloon presents itself as a viable option for the adjunctive treatment of breast cancer in patients who have appropriate indication. Irradiation with sodium pertechnetate-{sup 99m}Tc generates high doses in breast tissue and consequently in the tumor bed. Adjuvant radiation therapy in situ with sodium pertechnetate-{sup 99m}Tc balloon has low cost, availability and reduced time of treatment, decreasing the side effects of conventional radiotherapy. In progress, the dose versus OD mathematical representation will be used to identify absorbed doses at planar film placed at a breast phantom in order to generate maps of breast doses. (author)

  2. Assessment of radiation dose to infants from breast milk following the administration of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate to nursing mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunleye, O.T.

    1983-07-01

    Results of measurements of /sup 99m/Tc activity in the milk samples of nursing mothers who received /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate for thyroid scans are presented. The maximum concentration is found around 2 hours after injection. The total body dose to a 3-month-old infant feeding on the assayed milk varied with time from about 685 mrad to 0.5 mrad.

  3. /sup 99m/pertechnetate uptake in the transplanted kidney. [/sup 99m/Tc, /sup 133/Xe, /sup 131/I, /sup 203/Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, H.C.; Preston, D.F.; Luke, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a common complication of kidney transplantation. The major causes are acute tubular necrosis (ATN), arterial or venous thrombosis, rejection, ureteral obstruction, and extravasation. Each situation requires a different treatment and demands prompt diagnosis to prevent loss of the graft and patient morbidity or mortality. The clinical problem is further complicated by the possible coincidence of more than one of these pathologies, in particular the development of graft rejection superimposed on ATN in the post-transplant period. The diagnostic studies used in this differential diagnosis may include retrograde ureteral catheterization, renal arteriography, open or closed renal biopsy, isotope studies with /sup 133/xenon, /sup 131/I-hippuran, /sup 203/Hg-chlormerodrin, and more recently /sup 99m/pertechnetate. Only the latter methods with hippuran, chlormerodrin, and pertechnetate avoid direct manipulation of the graft or its artery or ureter with the inherent risks of such procedures. We present results of serial studies of sodium /sup 99m/pertechnetate photoscanning(Tc scan) in 38 renal homografts. In some studies computer determined graphs of renal radioactivity versus time (Tc renogram) were obtained.

  4. Contribution of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tumours of posterior fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work concerns 38 posterior cranial fossa tumour cases subjected to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy between May 1974 and June 1976. 33 of these patients have undergone an anatomical check while for the remaining 5, the existence of a posterior fossa tumour is established from the conjunction of clinical signs and other paraclinical examinations. The procedure was the same for all these 38 patients: after a 300 μC/kg injection of tracer, an immediate angioscintigraphic period, an early set of pictures (half an hour after the tracer injection) then delayed set (4 to 5 hours later) taken from 4 angles: front, back and two profiles. The examination was performed with an OHIO NUCLEAR SIEMENS gamma camera and sometimes a conventional scanner as well (the latter giving no better a diagnosis than the former). In 75% of the cases a hyperfixation of the injected tracer was observed and its site located quite accurately in the posterior fossa tumour. The etiology of the lesion could be diagnosed in 'most probable' or 'least probable' terms. Examination of work by other authors, who obtained similar results, leads to the conclusion that this method is very helpful in the diagnosis of posterior fossa tumours when used as a means of early detection, before the undertaking of more complex neuroradiological explorations

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Olej, Beni; Timoteo, Margareth de Oliveira; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose de; Nascimento, Ana Lucia [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2008-12-15

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na). The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na (P<0.05). It is speculated that the substances present in the EGb could act directly or generate metabolites capable to promote changes on the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na and on the morphology of organs at ultrastructural level. (author)

  6. Effect of oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.F. Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4 in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g, were treated (1 mL with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5 or 0.9% NaCl solution (control, N = 5 for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05 alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i from 0.57 ± 0.008 to 0.39 ± 0.06 %ATI/organ (P < 0.05 and from 0.57 ± 0.17 to 0.39 ± 0.14 %ATI/g (P < 0.05 was observed in the heart, ii from 0.07 ± 0.02 to 0.19 ± 0.07 %ATI/g in the pancreas, and iii from 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.18 ± 0.07 %ATI/g (P < 0.05 in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient.

  7. Effect of oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, S R F; Silva, A L C; Diré, G; Honeycut, H; Carvalho, J J; Nascimento, A L; Pereira, M; Rocha, E K; Oliveira-Timóteo, M; Arnobio, A; Olej, B; Bernardo-Filho, M; Caldas, L Q A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g), were treated (1 mL) with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5) or 0.9% NaCl solution (control, N = 5) for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL) was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05) alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i) from 0.57 +/- 0.008 to 0.39 +/- 0.06 %ATI/organ (P < 0.05) and from 0.57 +/- 0.17 to 0.39 +/- 0.14 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) was observed in the heart, ii) from 0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g in the pancreas, and iii) from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient.

  8. Clinical usefulness of Tc-99M pertechnetate per-rectal portal scintigraphy in evaluation the severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Variceal hemorrhage is a potentially life-threatening complication in cirrhotic patients. Identification of patients at high risk for bleeding is particularly important. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical usefulness of per-rectal portal scintigraphy in evaluation the severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients in terms of correlation between cirrhosis and classic indicators of hepatic functional reserve and identifying the difference of the portal shunt index (PSI) of the bleeding esophageal varices group and non-bleeding esophageal varices group. Material and methods: Portal circulations in 15 healthy volunteer's and in 67 patients with cirrhosis were evaluated by Tc-99m pertechnetate per-rectal p. ortal scintigraphy. Tc-99m pertechnetate (550 MBq) was instilled into the upper rectum, and dynamic images were taken. Radioactivity curves of the liver and the heart were generated sequentially. Through the analysis of these curves, the PSI was determined by calculating the ratio of counts of the liver to counts of the heart integrated for 24 seconds immediately after the appearance of the liver time-activity curve. Results: The results, expressed as PSI were: 13.63 +/- 6.28 % in healthy subjects and 66.32+/-22.80 % in cirrhotic patients. Of these, the PSIs were 56036 +/- 27.14 % in 31 cirrhotic patients without esophageal varices, and 74.89 +/- 13.62 % in 36 cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. The PSI was significantly lower in cirrhotic patients without bleeding esophageal vances (BEV) than those with BEV (p=0.001). The PSI calculated with this method was correlated with the serum albumin, the serum bilirubin and the Child-Pugh's score. Conclusion: The Tc-99m pertechnetate per-rectal portal scintigraphy has clinical usefulness as a relatively non-invasive method of choice for quantitative evaluating the severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. (authors)

  9. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99m TcO4) and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na99m TcO4 was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na99m TcO4 bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (P99m TcO4. (author)

  10. Recovery of ammonium 99Tc-pertechnetate from its reaction waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the recovery of NH499TcO4 from its reaction waste. From the collected waste solution 99Tc was precipitated as 99Tc2S7 which on digestion with ammoniacal hydrogen peroxide produced a mixture of NH499TcO4 and (NH4)2 SO4 from which the latter was removed by treatment with Ba(OH)2. The solution furnished NH499TcO4 as a crystalline material in 54% overall yield and with 96-98% purity after chromatographic purification over Dowex 50W column. Recrystallization of this material from aqueous ammoniacal ethanol gave the analytical material which compared well with a standard sample and with literature data in terms of its Β-counts/mg and its molar extinction co-efficient (ε) at 244 and 286 nm. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs

  11. Radioiodine therapy for Plummer's disease based on the thyroid uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, J.; Wisheu, S.; Behe, M.; Gratz, S.; Becker, W. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Munzel, U. [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Georg August Univ., Goettingen (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was the evaluation of a TcTUs (global technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression)-based approach in 370 patients with thyroid autonomy (Plummer's disease) treated by radioiodine therapy (RIT) under standardised conditions. The analysis included 370 patients (309 females, 61 males; mean age 64{+-}11.6 years) treated for thyroid autonomy [unifocal (UFA), 36.8%; multifocal (MFA), 55.7%; disseminated (DISA), 7.6%]. During RIT all patients were under thyroid suppression (TSH<0.1 {mu}U/ml) and without thionamide treatment. Of the 370 patients, 73% (n=271) were manifestly hyperthyroid and 27% (n=99) subclinically hyperthyroid. A dosimetric study included uptake measurements 24, 48, and 96 h p.i. For dose estimation the Marinelli algorithm was used. For retrospective definition of the target volume we used the equation: autonomous volume = TcTUs x 5. The spectrum of doses given in our patients ranged from 81 to 1933 Gy. After 18 months of follow-up, RIT was successful (TSH>0.5 {mu}U/l and/or TcTUs<1.6%) in 310 patients (84%). Of these patients, 291 (94%) were euthyroid (with or without L-thyroxine) and 19 (6%) subclinically hypothyroid (TSH>4 {mu}U/ml). A dose of 350-450 Gy to the autonomous tissue resulted in a success rate of 97% in the UFA group and 81% in the MFA/DISA group. Decrease in total thyroid volume and TcTUs did not differ significantly between successfully treated patients and patients with persistent autonomy. Multivariate analysis of all 370 patients identified four independent factors that negatively influenced the therapeutic success: high pretherapeutic thyroid volume (P=0.0001; odds ratio: 1.017), high pretherapeutic TcTUs values (P=0.0001; odds ratio: 1.378), multifocal/disseminated autonomy (P=0.0056; odds ratio: 3.245) and low target dose (P=0.017; odds ratio: 0.997). It is concluded that the high success rate in the treatment of UFA indicates the concept of TcTUs-based RIT to be valid, but

  12. Validity of dual tracer 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugonjić Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT is an endocrine disease with the third highest incidence of all endocrine disorders after diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. pHPT is typically caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma, less frequently by multiple parathyroid gland disease (MGD and rarely by parathyroid carcinoma. Secondary hyperparatyroidism (sHPT is a common complication in patients with chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to estimate sensitivity of dual tracer 99mTctetrofosmin and 99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy in detection of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with pHPT and sHPT confirmed by histopathology. Methods. In 46 patients, (77 abnormal parathyroid glands, 30 with pHPT and 16 with sHPT parathyroid scintigraphy was done preoperatively. All the patients had histopathological confirmation of diagnosis. Abnormal parathyroid glands weighted from 0.1 to 7 g. After iv injection dynamic scintigraphy during 25 minutes (one frame-one minute using 555 MBq of 99mTc-tetrofosmin, and three hours latter using 111 MBq of 99mTc /pertechnetate was performed. 99mTc-tetrofosmin dynamic study was followed by static scintigraphy of the neck and chest 30 minutes, 1, 2 and 3 hours after iv injection. Results. An abnormal scintigraphic finding was found in 44 of 46 patients with sensitivity of 96%. In pHPT sensitivity was 93% (28 of 30 patients, and 28 of 30 glands. In sHPT scintigraphy was abnormal in all the patients (sensitivity 100%. In the patients with sHPT scintigraphy detected 30 of 47 abnormal parathyroid glands (sensitivity 64%. An overall sensitivity of scintigraphy per gland, for pHPT and sHPT in detecting 58 of 77 abnormal parathyroid glands was 75%. Conclusion. An abnormal scintigrafic result per patient was found in 44 patients (sensitivity 96% and 58 of 77 abnormal parathyroid glands were detected (sensitivity 75%. A high sensitivity of dual tracer subtraction 99mTc-tetrofosmin/99mTc-pertechnetate

  13. Effects of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa (P. flavicarpa) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, on the morphology of red blood cells, and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (sodium 99mTc). Male Wistar rats were treated with either P. flavicarpa extract or 0.9% NaCl. After that, radiolabeling of blood constituents, morphological analysis of red blood cells and biodistribution of sodium 99mTc was evaluated. Radiolabeling of blood constituents and shape of red blood cells were not modified, but a significant (p99mTc was observed after treatment with P. flavicarpa extract. Although our results were obtained with animals, they could contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine

  14. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Medicas]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Pereira, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Dire, Glaucio; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Rocha, Emely Kazan [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Celular e Genetica

    2005-10-15

    Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}) and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (P<0.05), probably caused by metabolites generated by EGb and capable of altering the bioavailability of the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}. (author)

  15. Development of a Chemistry-Based, Predictive Method for Determining the Amount of Non-Pertechnetate Technetium in the Hanford Tanks: FY 2012 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Bryant, Janet L.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Edwards, Matthew K.; Houchin, Joy Y.; Janik, Tadeusz J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Smith, Frances N.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-01-30

    This report describes investigations directed toward understanding the extent of the presence of highly alkaline soluble, non-pertechnetate technetium (n-Tc) in the Hanford Tank supernatants. The goals of this report are to: a) present a review of the available literature relevant to the speciation of technetium in the Hanford tank supernatants, b) attempt to establish a chemically logical correlation between available Hanford tank measurements and the presence of supernatant soluble n-Tc, c) use existing measurement data to estimate the amount of n-Tc in the Hanford tank supernatants, and d) report on any likely, process-friendly methods to eventually sequester soluble n-Tc from Hanford tank supernatants.

  16. Transsplenic portal scintigraphy using 99mTc-pertechnetate for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts in cats: a retrospective review of 12 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, Eva; Combes, Anaïs; de Rooster, Hilde; Polis, Ingeborgh; de Spiegeleer, Bart; Saunders, Jimmy; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-12-01

    Portosystemic shunts (PSS), congenital or acquired, occur uncommonly in the feline population. The diagnostic approach is similar to one in dogs suspected of a PSS based on the clinical signs and haematological and biochemical changes. Diagnostic imaging, however, is key for the confirmation of a PSS. Although abdominal ultrasound is the first-choice diagnostic imaging modality, the results are not always unequivocal. Transsplenic portal scintigraphy (TSPS) using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate is a well-established technique in canine medicine, providing relatively fast and easy confirmation of the presence or absence of a PSS. As the prevalence of PSS is much lower in the feline population, this technique has not been widely used in cats. This retrospective study of 12 cases gives an overview of the potential of TSPS in the diagnostic work-up of PSS in cats (2005-2012).

  17. 99MTc-Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime Imaging for Early Detection of Acute Lung Injury in Rats Exposed to Hyperoxia or Lipopolysaccharide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Said H; Clough, Anne V; Haworth, Steven T; Medhora, Meetha; Ranji, Mahsa; Densmore, John C; Jacobs, Elizabeth R

    2016-10-01

    Tc-Hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is a clinical single-photon emission computed tomography biomarker of tissue oxidoreductive state. Our objective was to investigate whether HMPAO lung uptake can serve as a preclinical marker of lung injury in two well-established rat models of human acute lung injury (ALI).Rats were exposed to >95% O2 (hyperoxia) or treated with intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with first endpoints obtained 24 h later. HMPAO was administered intravenously before and after treatment with the glutathione-depleting agent diethyl maleate (DEM), scintigraphy images were acquired, and HMPAO lung uptake was quantified from the images. We also measured breathing rates, heart rates, oxygen saturation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts and protein, lung homogenate glutathione (GSH) content, and pulmonary vascular endothelial filtration coefficient (Kf).For hyperoxia rats, HMPAO lung uptake increased after 24 h (134%) and 48 h (172%) of exposure. For LPS-treated rats, HMPAO lung uptake increased (188%) 24 h after injury and fell with resolution of injury. DEM reduced HMPAO uptake in hyperoxia and LPS rats by a greater fraction than in normoxia rats. Both hyperoxia exposure (18%) and LPS treatment (26%) increased lung homogenate GSH content, which correlated strongly with HMPAO uptake. Neither of the treatments had an effect on Kf at 24 h. LPS-treated rats appeared healthy but exhibited mild tachypnea, BAL, and histological evidence of inflammation, and increased wet and dry lung weights. These results suggest the potential utility of HMPAO as a tool for detecting ALI at a phase likely to exhibit minimal clinical evidence of injury.

  18. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the padiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na. The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received 99mTcO4Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of 99mTcO4Na (PO extrato de Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb tem sido usado para tratar dificuldades de concentração, memória, age como antagonista do fator de ativação de plaquetas e previne contra danos causados por radicais livres. EGb é um extrato padronizado com 24% de flavonóides e 6% de lactonas terpênicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de um EGb na ultraestrutura de alguns órgãos isolados de ratos e na biodistribuição do radiofármaco pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO4Na. Os animais foram tratados com EGb e após 6 dias receberam 99mTcO4Na. Os órgãos foram isolados e a radioatividade determinada. Os tecidos foram fixados para microscopia eletrônica. Os resultados mostraram que EGb alterou a ultraestrutura do rim, figado e duodeno e modificou a biodistribuição do 99mTcO4Na. Sugerimos que substâncias presentes no EGb poderiam agir diretamente ou gerar metabólitos capazes de promover alterações na biodistribuição e na morfologia de órgãos em nível ultraestrutural.

  19. Diagnostic value of 99mTc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in Sjoegren's syndrome (SS). Comparative study with symptomatic non Sjoegren patients and healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to describe SGS findings in patients with SS, and to compare them with non Sjoegren symptomatic and healthy control individual, estimating performance of SGS in SS diagnosis. Materials and Method: Fifty three control individual (average age: 53.7 yr, range: 27-83 yr) and 169 patients with subjective xerostomia underwent 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy. The symptomatic group consisted of: 112 patients with Sjoegren's syndrome (average age: 53.7 yr, range:16-81 yr) according to modifying European Classification Criteria, 42 patients with fibromyalgia (FM)(average age:48.2 yr, range:19-76 yr) who presented non-specific chronic sialadenitis or normal labial biopsy, and 15 patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KS) (average age: 40.9 yr, range:23-57 yr). SGS was performed following i.v. injection of 10 mCi 99mTc-pertechnetate, in dynamic acquisition of 60 15-sec frames, and giving lemon juice orally at 20 min. Irregular regions of interest (ROI) over salivary glands and brain for background assessment were drawn, building time-activity curves. SGS was classified according to visual intensity of gland tracer uptake and excretion before and after lemon and curve evaluation, in: normal (intensity of gland uptake fourfold background activity, ascending curve with fast and profound fall after lemon) , mild alteration (light decrease in gland uptake or excretion, with a normal curve shape), moderate alteration (evident uptake and excretion decrease with a median Mita curve) and severe alteration (very low or absent uptake, flat or slope curve). Scintigraphic findings were compared with diagnosis, calculating positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for SS. Results: The results of SGS according to diagnosis are presented. SS group had higher incidence of severe alterations (p<0.001) than each of other clinics groups and lower proportion of mild alterations (p:0.008) and normal scans (p:0.005) than both control and KS patients. The KS

  20. The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism

  1. Reduction of pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid: Formation of [TcNO(AHA)2(H2O)]+ and implications for the UREX process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Nuclear Science and Technology Division, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, 89154-4006; Gong, Cynthia-May S; Poineau, Frederic; Lukens, Wayne W; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2008-02-26

    Reductive nitrosylation and complexation of ammonium pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid has been achieved in aqueous nitric and perchloric acid solutions. The kinetics of the reaction depend on the relative concentrations of the reaction components and are accelerated at higher temperatures. The reaction does not occur unless conditions are acidic. Analysis of the x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic data is consistent with a pseudo-octahedral geometry with the linear Tc-N-O bond typical of technetium nitrosyl compounds, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy is consistent with a the d{sup 5} Tc(II) nitrosyl complex. The nitrosyl source is generally AHA, but may be augmented by products of reaction with nitric acid. The resulting low-valency trans-aquonitrosyl(diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex (1) is highly soluble in water, extremely hydrophilic, and is not extracted by tri-n-butylphosphate in a dodecane diluent. Its extraction properties are not pH-dependent; titration studies indicate a single species from pH 4.5 down to -0.6 (calculated). This molecule is resistant to oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, even at high pH, and can undergo substitution to form other technetium nitrosyl complexes. The formation of 1 may strongly impact the fate of technetium in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  2. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4 and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na99mTcO4 was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na99mTcO4 bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (PSubstâncias podem interferir na biodisponibilidade de radiobiocomplexos, como os radiofármacos. O extrato de Ginkgo Biloba (EGb apresenta efeitos. Avaliou-se a influência de um EGb na biodisponibilidade do pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO-4Na e na morfometria de órgãos de ratos que foram tratados com EGb. 99mTcO-4Na foi injetado, os animais sacrificados e a radioatividade nos órgãos contada. Os resultados mostraram que o EGb alterou a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na em rins, fígado e duodeno e alterações morfométricas significativas (p<0.05 foram encontradas. Sugere-se que o EGb poderia gerar metabólitos capazes de alterar morfometricamente os órgãos citados e alterar a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na.

  3. Natural course of portal hemodynamics in patients with chronic liver diseases, evaluated by per-rectal portal scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiomi, Susumu; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Habu, Daiki; Takeda, Tadashi; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Kuroki, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Takashi; Ochi, Hironobu [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    1998-08-01

    Portal circulation can be evaluated in a relatively noninvasive way by per-rectal portal scintigraphy. We used this method to evaluate portal hemodynamics in patients with chronic liver diseases and underlying hepatic viral infection; the patients did not need surgery or sclerotherapy, or refused it, so changes in the natural course were identified. A solution of Tc-99m pertechnetate was instilled into the rectum, and serial scintigrams were taken while radioactivity curves for the liver and heart were produced. The per-rectal portal shunt index was calculated from the curves. In a longitudinal study, 70 patients (9 with mild chronic hepatitis, 10 with moderate chronic hepatitis, 7 with severe chronic hepatitis, 22 with cirrhosis but without varices, and 22 with both cirrhosis and varices) were examined at least twice at intervals of 12-102 months (mean, 39 months). The shunt index was higher for more severe disorders, increasing in the order of mild chronic hepatitis, moderate chronic hepatitis, severe chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis without varices, and cirrhosis with varices. The mean annual changes in the mean shunt index were 1.0% in mild chronic hepatitis, 4.4% in moderate chronic hepatitis, 6.1% in severe chronic hepatitis, 10.7% in cirrhosis without varices, and 6.2% in cirrhosis and varices. Cirrhotic patients were arbitrarily divided into two groups of roughly equal size on the basis of the shunt index at the first examination. In those with a shunt index of 30% or more, the mean annual change was 4.7%. The patients with a shunt index of less than 30% had a mean annual change of 11.8%. Changes in the portal hemodynamics were not steady. The shunt index rose gradually as disease advanced from mild to moderate and to severe chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver, after which the index rose rapidly when varices developed, slowing later. (author)

  4. Portal streamlining as a cause of nonuniform hepatic distribution of sodium pertechnetate during per-rectal portal scintigraphy in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Gregory B; DeNovo, Robert C; Sharp, Dorothy S; Tobias, Karen; Berry, Clifford

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate nonuniform patterns of vascular distribution of pertechnetate in the dog during per-rectal portal scintigraphy. Ninety-two studies were reviewed retrospectively to document the patterns of radionuclide distribution. Forty-five studies were classified as normal and 47 were classified as diagnostic for a macrovascular portosystemic shunt. In these dogs, shunt fractions were calculated and compared using a t-test. In dogs with sufficient liver radioactivity for evaluation, the study was classified as having uniform, dorsal, central, or ventral radiopharmaceutical distributions. There were 51 animals (45 normal and six dogs with low-magnitude portosystemic shunts) with sufficient liver activity to assess the radionuclide distribution within the liver. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare shunt fractions between each of the distribution patterns. Two dogs were anesthetized and selective portovenograms were performed. Portovenograms were compared with the scintigraphic images to correlate the vascular distribution of the right, central, and left divisional branches of the portal vein. The shunt fraction in the 45 normal dogs was significantly lower than in the dogs with portosystemic shunts (5.7% +/- 4.8% vs. 78.6% +/- 20.0% (mean +/- SD), P < 0.001). Of the 51 dogs with sufficient liver activity to classify the pattern of distribution, there were 15/51 (31.4%) with uniform radionuclide distribution, 10/51 (19.6%) with focal dorsal distribution, 15/51 (29.4%) with focal ventral distribution, and 10/51 (19.6%) with focal central distribution. There was no significant difference in the shunt fractions between the groups. There were six dogs diagnosed with low-magnitude portosystemic shunt with sufficient liver radioactivity to categorize the vascular distribution of the radionuclide within the liver. Of these six dogs, two had focal dorsal distribution, one had focal central, one had focal ventral and two had uniform distribution

  5. Photoreduction of 99Tc Pertechnetate by Nanometer-Sized Metal Oxides: New Strategies for Formation and Sequestration of Low-Valent Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton-Pye, Benjamin P. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); Radivojevic, Ivana [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); McGregor, Donna [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Graduate Center; Mbomekalle, Israel M. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Francesconi, Lynn C. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Graduate Center

    2011-11-23

    Technetium-99 (99Tc)(β-max: 293.7 keV; t1/2: 2.1 x 105 years) is a byproduct of uranium-235 fission and comprises a large component of radioactive waste. Under aerobic conditions and in a neutral- basic environment, the pertechnetate anion (99TcO4-) is stable. 99TcO4- is very soluble, migrates easily through the environment and does not sorb well onto mineral surfaces, soils or sediments. This study moves forward a new strategy for the reduction of TcO4- and chemical incorporation of the reduced 99Tc into a metal oxide material. This strategy employs a single material, a polyoxometalate (POM), α2-[P2W17O61]10-, that can be photoactivated in the presence of 2-propanol to transfer electrons to TcO4- and incorporate the reduced 99Tc covalently into the α2- framework to form the TcVO species, TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7-. This occurs via the formation of an intermediate species that slowly converts to TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7-. EXAFS and XANES analysis and preliminary EPR analysis, suggests that the intermediate consists of a Tc(IV) α2- species where the 99Tc is likely bound to only 2 of the 4 W-O oxygen atoms in the α2-[P2W17O61]10- defect. This intermediate then oxidizes and converts to the 99TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7- product. The reduction and incorporation of 99TcO4- was accomplished in a ''one pot'' reaction using both sunlight and UV irradiation, and monitored as a function of time

  6. Effect of vincristine on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate and 99 m Tc-phytate radiopharmaceuticals in mice balb/c; Efeito da vincristina na biodistribuicao dos radiofarmacos pertecnetato de sodio e fitato marcados com Tecnecio-99m em camundongos balb/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, Deise M.M.; Souza Freitas, Rosemeire de; Paula, Emilio F. de; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Vincristine is a drug used in chemotherapy for cancer treatment. The radiopharmaceuticals biodistribution or pharmacokinetics can be modify by drugs effect, diseases, surgery and radiotherapy. The absence of knowledge of these factors may result in an unexpected behavior of the radiopharmaceuticals. In this work was studied the effect of vincristine on biodistribution of pertechnetate used for thyroid and brain scintigraphy and 99 mTc-phytate used for hepatic scintigraphy. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  8. Acupuncture at “Zusanli” (St.36) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP.6) Points on the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Study of the Bioavailability of 99mTc-Sodium Pertechnetate in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy L. M.; de Souza, Deise; Santos, Kelly C. M.; Sousa, Rafael S.; Manoel, Cristiano V.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Cortez, Célia M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the differences of acupuncture effect between the Zusanli (St.36) and Sanyinjiao (SP.6) points on the gastrointestinal-tract (GIT) segment performed by the bioavailability of 99mTc-sodium-pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 21) were allocated into three groups of seven each. Group 1 was treated by acupuncture bilaterally at St.36; Group 2 at SP.6; and Group 3 was untreated (control). After 10 min of needle insertion in anesthetized rats, 0.3 mL of Na99mTcO4 (7.4 MBq) was injected via ocular-plexus. After 20 min, the exitus of animals was induced by cervical-dislocation and GIT organs isolated. However, immediately before the exitus procedure, blood was collected by cardiac-puncture for blood radio-labeling (BRL). The radioactivity uptake of the blood constituents was calculated together with the GIT organs by a well gamma counter. The percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) of Na99mTcO4 was calculated for each GIT organs, while BRL was calculated in %ID. According to the one-way ANOVA, the stomach, jejunum, ileum from the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2) had significant differences compared to the controls (Group 3). However, between the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2), there were significant differences (P < .05) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, transverse and rectum. In BRL analysis, Group 2 showed significant increase and decrease of the insoluble and soluble fractions of the blood cells, respectively (P < .0001). The authors suggest that St.36 may have a tendency of up-regulation effect on GIT, whereas SP.6, down-regulation effect. However, further rigorous experimental studies to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture in either acupuncture points need to be carried out. PMID:19213853

  9. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica B Garcia-Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC. The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE. Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99m Tc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na 99m TcO 4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na 99m TcO 4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences.

  10. Detection for residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between Tc-99m pertechnetate scan and high dose I-131 therapy scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Fae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity of nuclear imaging in the detection of residual thyroid tissue and metastatic lesion, we have compared neck scintigrams with Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc-99m scan) and high dose I-131 iodide (I-131 scan) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. One hundred thirty-five thyroidectomized patients for differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled in this study. Twenty-three had a previous history of radioiodine therapy. Planar and pin-hole images of anterior neck with Tc-99m were acquired at 20 minutes after injection, followed by I-131 scan three days after high-dose radioiodine therapy with 7 days interval. Patients were asked to discontinue thyroid hormone replacement more than 4 weeks. All subjects were in hypothyroid state. Seventy out of 135 patients (51.9%) showed concordant findings between Tc-99m and I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan did not show any uptake in thyroid bed in 11 of 112 patients without previous history of radioiodine therapy, but 9 of them showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. Tc-99m scan showed no bed uptake in all of the 23 patients with previous history of radioiodine therapy, in contrast 14 of them (60.9%) showed bed uptake in I-131 scan. These results suggest that Tc-99m scan has poor detectability for residual thyroid tissue or metastatic lesion in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients, compared to high dose I-131 therapy scan. Tc-99m scan could not detect any remnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, especially.

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pinto, Angélica B.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Carvalho, Jorge J.; Pereira, Mário J. S.; Fonseca, Adenilson S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC). The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE). Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na99mTcO4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences. PMID:24143045

  12. An in vivo/in vitro evaluation of Ginkgo Biloba extract on the biodistribution of sodium 99mTc- Pertechnetate and on the morphology of organs isolated from the rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radionuclides for a multitude of basic research applications has continued to grow at a very rapid pace.Technetium-99m(99mTc) is the most widely used radionuclide in clinical nuclear medicine. Although serendipity played a significant role in its choice, 99mTc does possess both chemical and physical characteristics which make it the workhorse of radionuclide imaging and it has been used for labeling of various radiopharmaceuticals. Many substances have been reported to affect the biodistribution of different radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) is a phytoterapic used in the treatment of hypoxic conditions. This medicinal plant has several biological effects, specially, vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. It has antioxidant characteristics.We evaluated the influence of an EGb on the biodistribution of the sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na) and on the morphology of the organs from WISTAR rats. The animals were treated (6 days, intragastric via) with EGb (40 and 400 mg/mL). After that, 99mTcO4 Na was injected and the animals were sacrificed (after 10 minutes). The organs were isolated and counted in a well counter. The percentages of radioactivity per organ (%ATI/organ) and radioactivity per gram (%ATI/gram) of each organ were calculated. Histological preparations were carried out with the pieces of organs withdrawn from the treated animals (400mg/mL EGb). The results showed that EGb altered (not significant, n=5, p>0.05) the biodistribution of the 99mTcO4 Na in the kidneys and liver. A significant (n=5, P99mTcO4 Na in the treated animals

  13. Tc99m-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy in newborns with neonatal TSH levels > 20uUI/ml, detected in the national program of newborn screening of congenital hypothyroidism (CH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyse the thyroid scintigraphy (TS) findings in 279 newborn with neonatal TSH (TSHnn) levels above 20 uUI/ml, detected in the national program of newborn screening of CH and phenylketonuria, and to compare them with: 1) final diagnosis, estimating its positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and 2) TSHnn levels. Materials and Method: Thyroid scintigraphy of 279 newborn (57.3% girls) who presented TSHnn levels > 20 uUI/ml were revised, classifying them in eutopic gland (EuG), ectopic gland (EcG) and absence of contrast (AC). EuG was classified by visual and quantitative criteria in: normal contrast and size, goiter, and decreased contrast (DC). Tc99m-pertechnetate TS was performed average at 19th life's day (SD:11 days) with a gammacamera- computer system. The patients were separated according to hormonal confirmatory levels in: CH, hyperthyrotropinaemia (HT) and euthyroid. We compared TS results with final diagnosis and also with TSHnn levels (>= or 50 uUI/ml group (p<0.001). Moreover, the former group presented bigger proportion of CH newborns and of EcG scans than < 50uUI/ml patients (p<0.001). EcG and goiter condition had a PPV for CH of 100% and 79.6%, respectively. The NPV of normal TS was 86.7%. Conclusion: 1) Newborns with TSHnn levels larger than 20 uUI/ml show a high frequency of abnormal TS. 2) The EcG is highly predictive of CH. 3) Goiter and AC associated to TSHnn levels above 50 uUI/ml support strongly CH diagnosis. 4) Normal TS correspond very likely to euthyroid newborn, specially when TSHnn is lower than 50 uUI/ml

  14. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Stellinga

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed companie

  15. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  16. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  17. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  18. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  19. EOS standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

  20. (Terminology standardization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  1. Dosimetry standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following leaflets are contained in this folder concerning the National Physical Laboratory's measurement services available in relation to dosimetry standards: Primary standards of X-ray exposure and X-ray irradiation facilities, X-ray dosimetry at therapy levels, Protection-level X-ray calibrations, Therapy-level gamma-ray facility, Fricke dosemeter reference service, Low-dose-rate gamma-ray facility, Penetrameter and kV meter calibration, Measurement services for radiation processing, Dichromate dosemeter reference service, Electron linear accelerator. (U.K.)

  2. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  3. Standard deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these ‘facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, ‘If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec

  4. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer, Erwin; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the development time is reduced by over 50% while maintaining an appropriate quality level for achieving interoperability in practice. The Instant Standard concept for development of data standards is des...

  5. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.; Kulcsar, I.Z.; Roes, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the dev

  6. Standards help enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Standardization in modern times began from the Industrial Revolution. Various industrial sectors, for which about 300 standardization technical commissions have been established, make up the key fields of China's standardization.

  7. Standards in education

    OpenAIRE

    Darko Zupanc

    2005-01-01

    Modern educational systems are based on standards. Systems in countries all over the world differ and have different tradition, so different terms are used for similar concepts. In education, standards should have a similar role as in physics, where they are empirical and measurable. Two types of standards can be defined: content or curriculum standards and performance standards, with the latter being essential. Setting educational goals or content standards is the first step in the construct...

  8. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  9. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  10. Photometric Standards for Non-Standard Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, John E.

    2015-05-01

    The AAVSO, professional collaborators, and research consortiums are increasingly requesting that photometric observations be submitted after they have been transformed onto 'standard' photometric systems. This greatly reduces the burden on the principal investigators in managing and merging data from many disparate contributors, but discourages many potential contributors who are unaware that their present equipment can make a valuable contribution. Many potential observers, amateurs, students and instructors are confused over what filters are required and what standards are best. This paper focuses on the best standards and observation methods for observers with one shot color cameras and those possessing monochrome CCD cameras with LRGB filter sets, the two most common configurations used in amateur and educational observatories. This paper examines which current standards best match common equipment and present effective ways for amateurs and students to reduce data to standard systems with common tools and a minimum of mathematical rigor.

  11. Standardization and the European Standards Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Orviska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standardization is a relatively neglected aspect of the EU regulatory process and yet it is fundamental to that process and arguably has recently been the key vehicle in making the single market an economic reality. Yet the key standardization bodies in the EU, the ESOs, are scarcely known to the public and seldom discussed in the literature. In this article we redress this imbalance, arguing that standardization and integration are closely related concepts. We also argue that the ESOs have developed a degree of autonomy in expanding the boundaries of standardization and even in developing their own links with the rest of the world. Recent proposals put forward by the European Commission can be seen as an attempt to reduce that autonomy. These proposals emphasize the speed of, and stakeholder involvement in, standards production, which we further suggest are somewhat conflicting aims.

  12. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a...... comprehensive overview of existing research in these three areas, we argue that the dynamic aspects of standardization are under-represented in the scholarly discourse. Furthermore, we identify the main types of tension associated with standardization and the dynamics they generate in each of those three areas......, and show that, while standards and standardization are typically associated with stability and sameness, they are essentially a dynamic phenomenon. The paper highlights the contributions of this special issue to the topic of standards as a dynamic phenomenon in organization studies and makes...

  13. ACOUSTICAL STANDARDS NEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremmel, Neil; Struck, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Neil Stremmel.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:27475185

  14. Standardisation in standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following observations are offered by one who has served on national and international standards-writing committees and standards review committees. Service on working groups consists of either updating previous standards or developing new standards. The process of writing either type of document proceeds along similar lines. The first order of business is to recognise the need for developing or updating a standard and to identify the potential user community. It is also necessary to ensure that there is a required number of members willing to do the writing. A justification is required as to why a new standard should be developed, and this is written as a new work item proposal or a project initiation notification system form. This document must be filed officially and approved, and a search is then undertaken to ensure that the proposed new standard will not duplicate a standard that has already been published or is underway in another standards organisation. (author)

  15. Standards in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Zupanc

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational systems are based on standards. Systems in countries all over the world differ and have different tradition, so different terms are used for similar concepts. In education, standards should have a similar role as in physics, where they are empirical and measurable. Two types of standards can be defined: content or curriculum standards and performance standards, with the latter being essential. Setting educational goals or content standards is the first step in the construction of knowledge measurement procedures. In Slovenia, the traditional term 'performance objective' or 'instructional objective' can be used instead of the term 'content standards'. For each school subject on different levels in Slovenian educational system, performance standards have to be set in the future, if educational system is to be based on standards.

  16. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  17. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  18. Standards and standpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that critique is a necessary component in any study of standards, just as it is implied in the concept of standard itself. From this follows the relevance of reflexively situating our research in relation to the cultural-historical development of standards and standardization....... The argument takes off from two different conceptualizations of standards in the literature. On the one hand, standards as immanent to practices (the “Neo-Aristotelian” approach), and on the other hand, standards as imposed to regulate practices (the “neo-pragmatist” and “governmentality” approaches......). It is suggested that this opposition can be superseded by articulating the former alternative, not as an essentialism of “practice,” but as the reflexive assumption of standpoint. Some intricacies of the articulation of standpoint are then discussed, concluding in a proposed dialectics of standard and standpoint....

  19. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the diffusi

  20. The proposed Sticks Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Trimberger, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the Sticks Standard. Software has been written to interface this standard to plotters, a graphic Sticks editor, a Stick compactor and several simulators. The Standard appears adequate to describe cells for chip assemblers as well as Stick diagram editing and compaction systems. However, this version of the Sticks Standard cannot efficiently describe large chips because it lacks an array facility. This deficiency will be corrected in the next release of the Sticks ...

  1. A case of standardization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Morten Hulvej; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines are increasingly used in an effort to standardize and systematize health practices at the local level and to promote evidence-based practice. The implementation of guidelines frequently faces problems, however, and standardization processes may in general have other outcomes than the o...... describe this process as a case of epistemic standardization....

  2. Questioning the Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dairy quality standards trigger further controversy China’s dairy industry is once again being scrutinized as suspicions abound that major dairy enterprises played a hand in manipulating and lowering quality standards to save costs.The new standards released in March 2010 set the maximum safety limit for bacteria in raw milk at 2 million cells per milliliter, four times

  3. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  4. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  5. Information Security Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security standards demonstrate in a methodical and certifiable manner that an organization conforms to industry best practices and procedures. This article offers a review of the world’s most used information security standards.

  6. Business Standardization & Market Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the market economy in China requires a renewed understanding of the theory and practice of business standardization. Built on the basic principles of standardization and the market economics, this paper seeks to define the role and status of standardization in the market economy, its aims and priorities. It then describes the deployment of standardization in market competition. Lastly, it explores into the possible transformations of concepts, functions and associated personnel of enterprise standardization in order to keep abreast of the evolving market economy.

  7. Standardization in Beijing Opera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Opera is the treasure of Chinese traditional dramatic arts.More than 200 years of artistic practice is the process that makes it mature and standardized.Although it is not described by standardized academic terminologies,all the performances of 'Chang (Singing)','Nian(Speaking)','Zuo (Acting)' and 'Da (Fighting)' have been following standardization requirement which is called "Chengshi (pattem)" in professional language or "Fan'er" in jargou,literally meaning a standard pattern.The pattern is the an technology format which is refined and summarized in accordance with the beautify principles from natural forms of things in life and then standardized to be the commonly adhered.

  8. 117 Standards Admitted in Civil Administration Standardization Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Civil Administration has finalized its Standardization Plan 2007. According to this plan, the Ministry will see that 117 standards, including 8 compulsory national standards, 83 recommended national standards, and 26 professional standards, are prepared by June 2008.

  9. Scoring and Standard Setting with Standardized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, John J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The continuous method of scoring a performance test composed of standardized patients was compared with a derivative method that assigned each of the 131 examinees (medical residents) a dichotomous score, and use of Angoff's method with these scoring methods was studied. Both methods produce reasonable means and distributions of scores. (SLD)

  10. Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) after massive small bowel resection in rats; Biodistribuicao do radiofarmaco pertecnetato de sodio (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) em ratos submetidos a resseccao extensa de intestino delgado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, Damaso de Araujo; Araujo-Filho, Irami; Villarim-Neto, Arthur; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: damasochacon@uol.com.br; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Iniciacao Cientifica; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) in organs and tissues, the morphometry of remnant intestinal mucosa and ponderal evolution in rats subjected to massive resection of the small intestine. Methods:Twenty-one Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 7 animals each. The short bowel (SB) group was subjected to massive resection of the small intestine; the control group (C) rats were not operated on, and soft intestinal handling was performed in sham rats. The animals were weighed weekly. On the 30th postoperative day, 0.1 mL of Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}, with mean activity of 0.66 MBq was injected intravenously into the orbital plexus. After 30 minutes, the rats were killed with an overdose of anesthetic, and fragments of the liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, thyroid, lung, heart, kidney, bladder, muscle, femur and brain were harvested. The biopsies were washed with 0.9% NaCl.,The radioactivity was counted using Gamma Counter Wizard{sup TM} 1470, Perkin-Elmer. The percentage of radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g) was calculated. Biopsies of the remaining jejunum were analysed by HE staining to obtain mucosal thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used, considering p<0.05 as significant. Results: There were no significant differences in %ATI/g of the Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} in the organs of the groups studied (p>0.05). An increase in the weight of the SB rats was observed after the second postoperative week. The jejunal mucosal thickness of the SB rats was significantly greater than that of C and sham rats (p<0.05). Conclusion: In rats with experimentally-produced short bowel syndrome, an adaptive response by the intestinal mucosa reduced weight loss. The biodistribution of Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} was not affected by massive intestinal resection, suggesting that short bowel syndrome is not the cause of misleading interpretation

  11. Standards der Globalisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Botzem, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Accounting standards are frequently understood to be little more than formalized rules for the preparation of financial statements. However, despite the apparent a-political nature standards are contested and show relevant distributional effects. In times of economic globalization, setting accounting standards is increasingly organized beyond the nation state. A private not-for-profit organization has emerged over 35 years which dominates accounting regulation today. This dissertation analyze...

  12. Flight Standards Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  13. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  14. Standardization: colorfull or dull?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2003-01-01

    After mentioning the necessity of standardization in general, this paper explains how human factors, or ergonomics standardization by ISO and the deployment of information technology were linked. Visual display standardization is the main topic; the present as well as the future situation in this field are treated, mainly from an ISO viewpoint. Some observations are made about the necessary and interesting co-operation between physicists and psychologists, of different nationality, who both may be employed by either private enterprise or governmental institutions, in determining visual display requirements. The display standard that is to succeed the present ISO standards in this area: ISO 9241-3, -7, -8 and ISO 13406-1, -2, will have a scope that is not restricted to office tasks. This means a large extension of the contexts for which display requirements have to be investigated and specified especially if mobile use of displays, under outdoor lighting conditions, is included. The new standard will be structured in such a way that it is better accessible than the present ones for different categories of standards users. The subject color in the new standard is elaborated here. A number of questions are asked as to which requirements on color rendering should be made, taking new research results into account, and how far the new standard should go in making recommendations to the display user.

  15. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  16. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  17. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance in...

  18. Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

    2013-03-21

    Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

  19. How many standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of standardisation and standard languages has a long history in linguistics. Tore Kristiansen has contributed to these discussions in various ways, and in this chapter I will focus on his claim that young Danes operate with two standards, one for the media and one for the school. This...

  20. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  1. Soviet Standardization of Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Morton

    1961-01-01

    After a brief history of influences on the standardization of Russian since the Revolution, the descriptive and normalizing role of specific reference works of grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and morphology is discussed. Concluding remarks point out a problem caused by a lack of coordination of standardization efforts and the mounting demands for…

  2. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  3. Standards Supporters Firing Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Supporters of the Common Core State Standards are moving to confront increasingly high-profile opposition to the standards at the state and national levels by rallying the private sector and initiating coordinated public relations and advertising campaigns as schools continue implementation. In states such as Michigan and Tennessee, where…

  4. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  5. The Genomic Standards Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy;

    2011-01-01

    Standards Consortium (GSC), an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality...

  6. Academic Standards in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  7. [CAS General Standards 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  8. State Skill Standards: Metalworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for metalworking programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any…

  9. Standardization of engineering documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many interrelated activities involving a number of organizational units comprise the process for the design and construction of a nuclear steam supply steam (NSSS). In the application of a standard NSSS design, many activities are duplicated from project to project and form a standard process for the engineering. This standard process in turn lends itself to a system for standardizing the engineering documentation associated with a particular design application. For these varied activities to be carried out successfully, a strong network of communication is required not only within each design organization but also externally among the various participants: the owner, the NSSS supplier, the architect-engineer, the construction agency, equipment suppliers, and others. This paper discusses, from the viewpoint of a NSSS supplier's engineering organization, the role of standard engineering documents in the design process and communication network

  10. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  11. Flow cytometry data standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollmann Tobias R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow cytometry is a widely used analytical technique for examining microscopic particles, such as cells. The Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS was developed in 1984 for storing flow data and it is supported by all instrument and third party software vendors. However, FCS does not capture the full scope of flow cytometry (FCM-related data and metadata, and data standards have recently been developed to address this shortcoming. Findings The Data Standards Task Force (DSTF of the International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC has developed several data standards to complement the raw data encoded in FCS files. Efforts started with the Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment, a minimal data reporting standard of details necessary to include when publishing FCM experiments to facilitate third party understanding. MIFlowCyt is now being recommended to authors by publishers as part of manuscript submission, and manuscripts are being checked by reviewers and editors for compliance. Gating-ML was then introduced to capture gating descriptions - an essential part of FCM data analysis describing the selection of cell populations of interest. The Classification Results File Format was developed to accommodate results of the gating process, mostly within the context of automated clustering. Additionally, the Archival Cytometry Standard bundles data with all the other components describing experiments. Here, we introduce these recent standards and provide the very first example of how they can be used to report FCM data including analysis and results in a standardized, computationally exchangeable form. Conclusions Reporting standards and open file formats are essential for scientific collaboration and independent validation. The recently developed FCM data standards are now being incorporated into third party software tools and data repositories, which will ultimately facilitate understanding and data reuse.

  12. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... organizations (``SDO standards'') (69 FR 68283). A SDO standard referenced in OSHA's Acetylene Standard (29 CFR... of the Compressed Gas Association standard, CGA G-1-2003, in the Acetylene Standard. See 74 FR 40442... appropriate, revoke references to outdated national SDO standards in OSHA rules (see, e.g., 69 FR 68283, 70......

  13. 76 FR 75840 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... language from outdated standards published by standards developing organizations (``SDO standards'') (69 FR... Association standard, CGA G-1-2003, in the Acetylene Standard. See 74 FR 40442 and 74 FR 40450, respectively... outdated standard; and impose no significant new compliance costs on employers (69 FR 68283, 68285).......

  14. Wireless installation standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is divided six parts which are radio regulation law on securing of radio resource, use of radio resource, protection of radio resource, radio regulation enforcement ordinance with securing, distribution and assignment of radio regulation, radio regulation enforcement regulation on utility of radio resource and technical qualification examination, a wireless installation regulation of technique standard and safety facility standard, radio regulation such as certification regulation of information communicative machines and regulation of radio station on compliance of signal security, radio equipment in radio station, standard frequency station and emergency communication.

  15. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  16. Technical standards in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author)

  17. Striving for "Standard Economy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huailin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Promotion of the "standard economy" itself is an integral part of upgrading the quality of China's economic development, transforming economic growth mode and responding to foreign trade barriers as well as a key strategy for improving foreign trade level.

  18. Speech processing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1990-05-01

    Speech processing standards are given for 64, 32, 16 kb/s and lower rate speech and more generally, speech-band signals which are or will be promulgated by CCITT and NATO. The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) of the International body which deals, among other things, with speech processing within the context of ISDN. Within NATO there are also bodies promulgating standards which make interoperability, possible without complex and expensive interfaces. Some of the applications for low-bit rate voice and the related work undertaken by CCITT Study Groups which are responsible for developing standards in terms of encoding algorithms, codec design objectives as well as standards on the assessment of speech quality, are highlighted.

  19. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  20. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  1. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  2. International standards in metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fomina; O.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The existence of incompatible standards in many technical fields represents a technical barrier to international cooperation between enterprises in different countries in the manufacture of high technology products.……

  3. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  4. AKRO: Standard Prices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  5. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products: in these n......Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......" that frames everyday halal consumption, Fischer provides a multisited ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production, trade, and standards that together warrant a product as "halal," and thereby help to format the market. Exploring global halal in networks, training, laboratories......, activism, companies, shops and restaurants, this book will be an essential resource to scholars and students of social science interested in the global interface zones between religion, standards, and technoscience....

  6. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  7. Standards Implementation of MSW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ With the development of society and economy, the living standard of people is raised, the issue on disposal of refuse is becoming more and more serious, and urban garbage has caused wide public concerns.

  8. Sodium sulfate as an eluant for concentrated solution of pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: mushtaqa@pinstech.org.pk; Haider, I. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-08-15

    Fission molybdenum-99 based technetium-99m chromatography generators are the most widely employed generator systems in the field of diagnostic nuclear medicine. In the first week these generators provide high specific volume activity Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}, but in the second week the radioactive concentration of the eluate ({sup 99m}Tc) becomes {<=}17% of that at the beginning of the first week. Low specific volume activity limits the clinical procedures (e.g. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA for lung ventilation scanning, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi for myocardial perfusion studies, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD for brain imaging and {sup 99m}Tc-red cells for testicles) that can be performed at the beginning of the second week. To overcome such limitations sodium sulfate was used as an eluant, which provides >80% of {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity in 2 ml solution, while 0.9% NaCl provides only 40-45% {sup 99m}Tc in first 2 ml solution.

  9. [Diagnosis of achalasia using 99m-Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikosch, P; Gallowitsch, H J; Kresnik, E; Lind, P

    1997-06-01

    A 73-year-old patient presented a 99mTc scintiscan with a focal tracer accumulation left and caudal of the thyroid gland. Further investigations with sonography, CT, esophagoscopy and barium swallow provided the diagnosis of achalasia as the reason for focal 99mTc retention caudal of the thyroid gland. Explanation for 99mTc accumulation within the esophagus may be the nonspecific accumulation of 99mTc not only in the thyroid gland but also in the salivary glands. Excretion of the tracer follows with the saliva. Structural and motor disorders of the esophagus can thus lead to focal tracer retention within the esophagus simulating thyroid tissue. PMID:9395425

  10. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  11. Standard software for CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NIM Committee (National Instrumentation Methods Committee) of the U.S. Department of Energy and the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories have jointly specified standard software for use with CAMAC. Three general approaches were followed: the definition of a language called IML for use in CAMAC systems, the definition of a standard set of subroutine calls, and real-time extensions to the BASIC language. This paper summarizes the results of these efforts. 1 table

  12. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  13. Evidence Standards and Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    In litigation models, the parties’ probability to succeed in a lawsuit hinge upon two main factors: the merits of the parties’ claims and their litigation efforts (Katz, 1988; Hirshleifer, 1989; Farmer and Pecorino, 1999). In this paper we extend this framework to consider an important procedural...... for low-merit cases when standards are set high. This provides a valuable key for understanding the sorting effect of evidence standards and their role as a policy instrument in civil litigation....

  14. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  15. Standard Model Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hollik, W.

    2015-01-01

    In this conference report a summary is given on the theoretical work that has contributed to provide accurate theoretical predictions for testing the standard model in present and future experiments. Precision calculations for the vector boson masses, for the Z resonance, W pair production, and for the g-2 of the muon are reviewed and the theoretical situation for the Higgs sector is summarized. The status of the standard model is discussed in the light of the recent high and low energy data....

  16. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  17. Standardization Practices of Gree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1.The great importance attached by the company's executives is a strong guarantee for leap-forward development of standardization.To give play to the strategic role of standards in supporting the long-term and sustainable development of the enterprise,the company's management has attached great importance to the standardization work and provided strong capital support and guarantee of resources in standardization.Continuously improve the requirements of corporate technical standards and reliability quality control means,develop core technologies with independent intellectual property rights,continuously achieve major breakthroughs in key technologies and successfully apply to the company's products to help the enterprises maintain rapid and steady development in the market of household electrical appliances with extremely intense competition,achieve remarkable economic and social benefits for the company,and provide strong support for leap-forward development of standardization work.The company has successively and independently developed a series of highend products and technologies which are intemationally advanced.So far,the company has 10 innovations included in the national science and technology programs.

  18. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  19. Consequences of Accounting Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Mingyue

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this article consists in attempting to highlight the importance of concerning about the economic consequences and introducing the foundation of economic consequence theory, proposing that the accounting standard is not only a kind of technical standard, it also has the economic consequences, so it becomes the object which all quarters special interest group gambles to get latent profit. After general characterization of the economic consequences in the second part, the article gives a description of the influences the change of accounting standards bring to the government, the ordinary investors and creditors, the auditors, and the enterprise, establishing a framework that how those groups react as the economic consequences in the third part. The fourth section compare technical theory and accounting standards theory, links the basic norms of accounting such as conservatism, relevance and reliability to the methods of escaping the harm of economic consequences, then proposes some specific methods in the formuhtion of accounting standard. Finally, the article utilizes the methods to settle the problems appearing in Chinese market.

  20. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who's Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed

  1. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  2. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  3. Ethics, standards, and TQM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, M G

    1995-04-01

    The most important ethical issue for our profession is the responsibility to assure the care delivered by our colleagues and ourselves meets a self-imposed standard of excellence. There is anecdotal and experimental evidence that we have not fulfilled this obligation. Peer review has proven, for a number of reasons, to be ineffective; however, improvements in the epidemiologic sciences should provide better standards and total quality management (TQM) might prove to be of value in monitoring, comparing and improving the decisions made by physicians. Its promise lies in its emphasis on statistical analysis, its focus on systematic rather than human error, and its use of outcomes as standards. These methods, however, should not diminish our other professional responsibilities: Altruism, peer review, and in Hippocrates' words "to prescribe regimens for the good of our patients-and never do harm to anyone."

  4. Standards and quality

    CERN Document Server

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  5. Fasteners 5 basic standards

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This 3rd edition of DIN Handbook 193 contains 38 fundamental standards on fasteners, covering such areas as countersinks and counterbores, widths across flats, thread run-outs and thread undercuts, bolt and screw ends, stud ends and tapped holes for compression couplings, driving features, tolerances for screw threads and nomenclature. New to this compilation are DIN 34824 dealing with 12 point sockets for bolts and screws and DIN EN ISO 15065 which reflects current practice in Europe with regard to countersinks for countersunk head screws. Also included for the first time is DIN EN ISO 225 "Fasteners - Bolts, screws, studs and nuts - Symbols and descriptions of dimensions" which, together with DIN ISO 1891, now also incorporates terminology in Chinese, Japanese and Swedish. Four standards have been revised for this edition, among them DIN 918 Supplement 3 which provides information on the current status of European standardization relating to fasteners. DIN Handbook 193 is one of a series of six handbooks on...

  6. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  7. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard model of particle interactions is a complete and relatively simple theoretical framework which describes all the observed fundamental forces. It consists of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and of the electro-weak theory of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg. The former is the theory of colored quarks and gluons, which underlies the observed phenomena of strong interactions, the latter leads to a unified description of electromagnetism and of weak interactions. The inclusion of the classical Einstein theory of gravity completes the set of established basic knowledge. The standard model is in agreement with essentially all of the experimental information which is very rich by now. The recent discovery of the charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons of weak interactions at the expected masses has closed a really important chapter of particle physics. Never before the prediction of new particles was so neat and quantitatively precise. Yet the experimental proof of the standard model is not completed. For example, the hints of experimental evidence for the top quark at a mass ∼ 40 GeV have not yet been firmly established. The Higgs sector of the theory has not been tested at all. Beyond the realm of pure QED, even remaining within the electro-weak sector, the level of quantitative precision in testing the standard model does not exceed 5% or so. Furthermore, the standard model does not look as the ultimate theory. To a closer inspection a large class of fundamental questions emerges and one finds that a host of crucial problems are left open by the standard model

  8. Standardization Historical Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1. Indroduction Standardization germinated in ancient times, and began to develop from the beginning of the in-dustrial revolution, and took off in the later years of the 19th Century. It has been closely connected with the development of science and technology, as well as industry and trade throughout human histo-ry. Standardization now plays an important role in nearly every aspect of human life, in different sec-tors of industry and society. It has had a great im-pact on our lives.

  9. Coordinate Standard Measurement Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

  10. Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories:     * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs)     * Vector Boson production     * Higgs searches     * Top Quark Physics     * Flavour physics

  11. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  12. Department of Energy Standards Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This TSL, intended for use in selecting and using DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards, provides listing of current and inactive DOE technical standards, non-Government standards adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards.

  13. Standardized Curriculum for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: cosmetology I and II. The 18 units in cosmetology I are as follows: introduction to cosmetology; Vocational Industrial Clubs of America; the look you like; bacteriology; sterilization and sanitation; hair and disorders; draping,…

  14. Setting the Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The country’s self-developed document format standard faces a difficult decision and possible extinction as it goes up against mighty Microsoft Since Microsoft’s Office Open Extensible Markup Language (OOXML)document format was accepted as an international stan- dard by the International Organization for

  15. Standards and Interoperability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen McGibbon

    2006-01-01

    @@ I am sure that there will be much discussion at the upcoming Baltic IT&T 2005 conference about standards and interoperability, and so I thought I would try to contribute to the debate with this, the first of four articles that I will write for this journal over the coming months.

  16. On Standard Ideals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi De YU

    2003-01-01

    In the paper, we study a class of standard ideals which are more general than the m-primarystandard ideals discussed in [2]. We will prove an important equality concerning I-weak sequences; thusa generalization of the equality of [2] is established.

  17. Setting Environmental Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Gershon

    1975-01-01

    Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…

  18. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs

  19. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  20. Globalization of HVDC Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Chen

    2011-01-01

    China has made outstanding achievements in the fields of Ultra-High Voltage Direct Current (UHV DC) power transmission and security of large-scale power grid till now,and the smart grid construction has been under way,all of which put forward much higher strategic requirements of standards globalization.

  1. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  2. Standard hakkab tootma Mercedesele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    AS Standard sõlmis ühe maailma suurema autotootjaga DaimlerChrysler AG koostöölepingu, mille kohaselt hakkab ettevõte tootma ning müüma kontori- ja teenindussaalide mööblit kontserni kuuluva Mercedes-Benzi Euroopa diileritele

  3. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  4. DOE standard: Radiological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  5. DOE standard: Radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ''Occupational Radiation Protection''. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835

  6. ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-12

    This powerful standard from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides an internationally recognized framework for organizations to voluntarily implement an energy management system.

  7. Beyond standard quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Despite the many empirical successes of QCD, there are a number of intriguing experimental anomalies that have been observed in heavy flavor hadroproduction, in measurements of azimuthal correlations in deep inelastic processes, and in measurements of spin correlations in hadronic reactions. Such phenomena point to color coherence and multiparton correlations in the hadron wavefunctions and physics beyond standard leading twist factorization. Two new high precision tests of QCD and the Standard Model are discussed: classical polarized photoabsorption sum rules, which are sensitive to anomalous couplings and composite structure, and commensurate scale relations, which relate physical observables to each other without scale or scheme ambiguity. The relationship of anomalous couplings to composite structure is also discussed.

  8. Standardized molecular typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F M; Lischewski, A; Harmsen, D; Hacker, J

    1999-01-01

    Molecular typing methods are useful tools in molecular mycology. The results of these biotyping procedures may help to identify pathogenic strains in order to detect sources of nosocomial infection and for the investigation of epidemiological relationships. With respect to the facultative pathogen, Candida albicans, various methods such as pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), DNA fingerprinting methods and hybridization with repetitive DNA elements have been described as useful tools in molecular epidemiology. The previously described hybridization method with the Candida albicans specific CARE-2 probe and subsequent rehybridization with a molecular size marker is a standardized reproducible typing method for comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. In a larger epidemiological study conducted at the University Hospital of Würzburg analysing clinical C. albicans isolates, we were able to describe relationships between sequential patient isolates. These findings demonstrate that standardized molecular typing methods are a powerful tool in molecular mycology studies. PMID:10865907

  9. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  10. Standarder for god undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Christiansen, Frederik V; Troelsen, Rie;

    foretages på baggrund af forskningsresultater, og ansattes engagement i undervisning vil ofte være på bekostning af forskningsindsatsen – og dermed på bekostning af vedkommendes akademiske karriere. Dette roundtable vil diskutere hvorvidt indførelsen af standarder for god undervisning kan være en del af en...... indsats, som både kan øge kvaliteten i de videregående uddannelser og øge undervisningens status. En sådan standard kan formuleres på mange måder, som har indflydelse på såvel anvendelighed som på selve forståelsen af hvad god undervisning er. Den udviklede model kan opfattes som et dialogredskab for...

  11. WAPI Standard Left Hanging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABELDING

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of June, advertise-ments for Intel's notebook computer Centrino were in full view at several Dig computer markets in Belling. Meanwhile ,in-store sales for the company's products were strong as usual. Onthe day scheduled as the launch date for the Chinese Wireless LAN Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure {WAPI) security standard, international companies such as Intel were in a decidedly celebratory mood, while domestic manufacturers kepta quiet counsel.

  12. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  13. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  14. Standard interface file handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  15. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements

  16. Forestry Standardization & Forestry Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Forestry insurance of our country has developed slowly,of which the main difficulty lies in predicting and determining forestry risk,confirming the sum insured,raising the premiums, indemnity for property loss,coordinating forestry insurance and forestry protection,and lack of insurance legal system etc.With the implementation of forestry's standardized project,and overcoming effectively the technological obstacle existing in forestry's insurance,the development speed of forestry's insurance will be accelerated too.

  17. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  18. Standard integrated head package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated head package for a standard-type nuclear reactor is described which consolidates many components and subassemblies of the upper reactor structure into a single unit which may be removed from the reactor vessel in a single lift. Included among the consolidated elements are a pressure vessel head, a cooling shroud, control rod drive mechanisms, a missile shield, a lifting rig, a hoist assembly, and a cable tray assembly. (author)

  19. Standard interface file handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided

  20. ESDIS Standards Office (ESO): Requirements, Standards and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Mcinerney, Mark Allen; Enloe, Yonsok K.; Conover, Helen T.; Doyle, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The ESDIS Standards Office assists the ESDIS Project in formulating standards policy for NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS), coordinates standards activities within ESDIS, and provides technical expertise and assistance with standards related tasks within the NASA Earth Science Data System Working Groups (ESDSWG). This poster summarizes information found on the earthdata.nasa.gov site that describes the ESO.

  1. The Conformal Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Latosinski, Adam; Meissner, Krzysztof A; Nicolai, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    We present an extended version of the Conformal Standard Model (characterized by the absence of any new intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale) with an enlarged scalar sector coupling to right-chiral neutrinos in such a way that the scalar potential and the Yukawa couplings involving only right-chiral neutrinos are invariant under a new global symmetry SU(3)$_N$ which is broken explicitly only by the Yukawa interaction coupling right-chiral neutrinos and the electroweak lepton doublets. We point out four main advantages of such an enlargement, namely: (1) the economy of the (non-supersymmetric) Standard Model, and thus its observational success, is preserved; (2) thanks to the enlarged scalar sector the RG improved one-loop effective potential is everywhere positive with a stable global minimum, thereby avoiding the notorious instability of the Standard Model vacuum; (3) the pseudo-Goldstone bosons resulting from spontaneous breaking of the SU(3)$_N$ symmetry are natural Dark M...

  2. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  3. Implementing PAT with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  4. Why the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Connes, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The Standard Model is based on the gauge invariance principle with gauge group U(1)×SU(2)×SU(3) and suitable representations for fermions and bosons, which are begging for a conceptual understanding. We propose a purely gravitational explanation: space-time has a fine structure given as a product of a four-dimensional continuum by a finite noncommutative geometry F. The raison d'être for F is to correct the K-theoretic dimension from four to ten (modulo eight). We classify the irreducible finite noncommutative geometries of K-theoretic dimension six and show that the dimension (per generation) is a square of an integer k. Under an additional hypothesis of quaternion linearity, the geometry which reproduces the Standard Model is singled out (and one gets k=4) with the correct quantum numbers for all fields. The spectral action applied to the product M×F delivers the full Standard Model, with neutrino mixing, coupled to gravity, and makes predictions (the number of generations is still an input).

  5. Why the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chamseddine, Ali H

    2007-01-01

    The Standard Model is based on the gauge invariance principle with gauge group U(1)xSU(2)xSU(3) and suitable representations for fermions and bosons, which are begging for a conceptual understanding. We propose a purely gravitational explanation: space-time has a fine structure given as a product of a four dimensional continuum by a finite noncommutative geometry F. The raison d'etre for F is to correct the K-theoretic dimension from four to ten (modulo eight). We classify the irreducible finite noncommutative geometries of K-theoretic dimension six and show that the dimension (per generation) is a square of an integer k. Under an additional hypothesis of quaternion linearity, the geometry which reproduces the Standard Model is singled out (and one gets k=4)with the correct quantum numbers for all fields. The spectral action applied to the product MxF delivers the full Standard Model,with neutrino mixing, coupled to gravity, and makes predictions(the number of generations is still an input).

  6. US Topo Product Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Michael J.; Davis, Larry R.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Lestinsky, Helmut; Moore, Laurence R.

    2011-01-01

    This document defines a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital topographic map. This map series, named “US Topo,” is modeled on what is referred to as the standard USGS 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) topographic map series that was created during the period from 1947 to approximately 1992. The US Topo map product has the same extent, scale, and general layout as the older standard topographic maps. However, unlike the previous maps, US Topo maps are published using Adobe Systems Inc. Portable Document Format (PDF) with a geospatial extension that is called Georeferenced PDF (GeoPDF), patented by TerraGo Technologies. In addition, the US Topo map products incorporate an orthorectified image along with data that was included in the standard 7.5-minute topographic maps. US Topo maps are intended to serve conventional map users by providing Geographic Information System (GIS) information in symbolized form in the customary topographic map layout. The maps are not intended for GIS analysis applications.

  7. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  8. Emergency Management Standards and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). Schools are encouraged to review these standards carefully and to adopt, where applicable, those that meet their needs. The lists of standards, resources, and references contained herein…

  9. The illusory nature of standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2011-01-01

    creation is innate in the practice of standardisation and therefore the risk of creating untrustworthy standards is prevalent for standard setters. Originality/value – The paper provides a new understanding of standards and demonstrates the need to research standardization processes in depth and bring...

  10. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest

  11. Viewpoints on Grid Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew A. Chien; Xian-He Sun; Zhi-Wei Xu

    2005-01-01

    @@ At GCC 2003 in Shanghai in December 2003, a panel discussion was held on the future of grid computing and on the role of the Globus Toolkit in future grid standards. Panelists include Andrew Chien (UCSD, USA), Wolfgang Gentzsch (Sun),Francis Lau (HKU, China), Carl Kesselman (USC, USA), Satoshi Matsuoka (TIT, Japan), Xian-He Sun (IIT, USA), Richard Wirt (Intel), Liang-Jie Zhang (IBM Research), Song-Nian Zhou (Platform Computing), and Zhi-Wei Xu (ICT, China), with Hai Jin (HUST, China) served as the coordinator. The panel talks were stimulating and well received. Three of the panel talk notes are selected and included in this viewpoint.

  12. Non-standard antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  13. Shaking hands on standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The buzz on the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act grows louder as Phase 2, a 500-ppm valve-emissions limit, looms to within a few years. One question surrounding the legislation centers not so much on compliance as on the agreement between valve users and manufacturers on such topics as leak testing methods, measurement and documentation during valve manufacture. For chemical or oil companies, CAAA compliance can be facilitated with the assurance that equipment has been tested with industry-wide, uniform procedures. Under this premise, end users and manufacturers, as well as several industry organizations, are starting to devote effort to the problem of establishing a single standard

  14. Standard Model Fits

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The status of the electroweak precision measurements as of winter 2004 and the global test of the Standard Model are discussed. Important input data are the precision variables measured on the Z resonance at LEP and SLC and the measurements of the W mass at LEP~2 and Tevatron. A new combination of Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 on the top mass allows to set constraints on the radiative corrections and therefore to put improved limits on the mass of the Higgs boson. Additionally the impact of...

  15. 3G Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    are the most decisive factors in the battle between the different standards – which roles do respectively technology path-dependence, network effects and strategic concerns play? Design/methodology/approach – The approach taken in the paper is to examine the different kinds of stakeholders – in this field......, first and foremost, equipment manufacturers, network operators, policy makers/administrators and end users; to analyze how such stakeholders are intervening in the different relevant steps – technology development, technology deployment and technology take-up – and to analyze these issues from different...

  16. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, van, R.

    2010-01-01

    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of semantic standards is designed to contribute to the knowledge domain, standards developers and might ultimo lead to improved interoperability. This instrument is iteratively designed with multiple...

  17. Standardization Promotes Midea Industrial Upgrading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1.Midea Achievenents in standardization For a long time,Midea attaches high importance to the implementation of standardization.After four decades development,Midea has accumulated advantages in manufacturing,technology,market and personnel to some extent,which form Midea's strategic foundation of enterprise standardization.In 2006,the Group set up the Science & Technology Management Department,enhanced the standardization management function to the Group and made standardization management the more specialized and systemized.

  18. Standards for bullets and casings

    OpenAIRE

    J.F Song; T.V Vorburger; Clary, R.; E Whitenton; Ma, L.; S Ballou

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology is developing reference standards through its Office of Law Enforcement Standards with funding provided by the National Institute of Justice. The standard reference materials are used by crime laboratories to verify that results obtained when using their protocols and methodologies meet legal requirements and that equipment is operating properly. The NIST Reference Materials 8240/8250 standard bullets and casings is an example of materials th...

  19. Handset Television Standard(CDMB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ While different parties have been rivaling for a national handset television standard, the China Association for Standardization (CAS) recently became a powerful rival in the national competition by issuing its official handset television standard (CDMB), for which it owns intellectual property rights. Last October, the broadcast and TV system had issued its own professional standard. Now, there is some concern about the launch of a national handset television standard, since the CAS has such a special status.

  20. The Supersymmetric Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The Standard Model may be included within a supersymmetric theory, postulating new sparticles that differ by half-a-unit of spin from their standard model partners, and by a new quantum number called R-parity. The lightest one, usually a neutralino, is expected to be stable and a possible candidate for dark matter. The electroweak breaking requires two doublets, leading to several charged and neutral Brout-Englert-Higgs bosons. This also leads to gauge/Higgs unification by providing extra spin-0 partners for the spin-1 W± and Z. It offers the possibility to view, up to a mixing angle, the new 125 GeV boson as the spin-0 partner of the Z under two supersymmetry transformations, i.e. as a Z that would be deprived of its spin. Supersymmetry then relates two existing particles of different spins, in spite of their different gauge symmetry properties, through supersymmetry transformations acting on physical fields in a non-polynomial way. We also discuss how the compactification of extra dimensions, relying on R-parity and other discrete symmetries, may determine both the supersymmetrybreaking and grand-unification scales.

  1. The standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures, my aim is to provide a survey of the standard model with emphasis on its renormalizability and electroweak radiative corrections. Since this is a school, I will try to be somewhat pedagogical by providing examples of loop calculations. In that way, I hope to illustrate some of the commonly employed tools of particle physics. With those goals in mind, I have organized my presentations as follows: In Section 2, renormalization is discussed from an applied perspective. The technique of dimensional regularization is described and used to define running couplings and masses. The utility of the renormalization group for computing leading logs is illustrated for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. In Section 3 electroweak radiative corrections are discussed. Standard model predictions are surveyed and used to constrain the top quark mass. The S, T, and U parameters are introduced and employed to probe for ''new physics''. The effect of Z' bosons on low energy phenomenology is described. In Section 4, a detailed illustration of electroweak radiative corrections is given for atomic parity violation. Finally, in Section 5, I conclude with an outlook for the future

  2. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  3. Second order Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Espin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known, though not commonly, that one can describe fermions using a second order in derivatives Lagrangian instead of the first order Dirac one. In this description the propagator is scalar, and the complexity is shifted to the vertex, which contains a derivative operator. In this paper we rewrite the Lagrangian of the fermionic sector of the Standard Model in such second order form. The new Lagrangian is extremely compact, and is obtained from the usual first order Lagrangian by integrating out all primed (or dotted 2-component spinors. It thus contains just half of the 2-component spinors that appear in the usual Lagrangian, which suggests a new perspective on unification. We sketch a natural in this framework SU(2×SU(4⊂SO(9 unified theory.

  4. Government by standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    be contributing to accountability overload. This article seeks to provide an explanation for why hospital staff seems to accept, albeit grudgingly and partially, the imposition of a new, comprehensive accountability system with questionable clinical merits. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s analytics of government......Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff....

  5. Spatial Standard Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to devices and methods for the measurement and/or for the specification of the perceptual intensity of a visual image, or the perceptual distance between a pair of images. Grayscale test and reference images are processed to produce test and reference luminance images. A luminance filter function is convolved with the reference luminance image to produce a local mean luminance reference image. Test and reference contrast images are produced from the local mean luminance reference image and the test and reference luminance images respectively, followed by application of a contrast sensitivity filter. The resulting images are combined according to mathematical prescriptions to produce a Just Noticeable Difference, JND value, indicative of a Spatial Standard Observer, SSO. Some embodiments include masking functions, window functions, special treatment for images lying on or near borders and pre-processing of test images.

  6. Standard environmental test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  7. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  8. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  9. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming... their comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rules published June 1, 2012, at 77 FR...

  10. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents Click ... the World from Spinning / Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Fall 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 3 Page ...

  11. Issues Forum: National Curriculum Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "On the Common Core of Learning" (Kennedy); "Constitutional Implications of National Curriculum Standards" (Arons); "Arguments against National Performance Standards" (Fulk, Mantzicopoulos, Hirth); and "The Painful Lessons of Introducing the National Curriculum in England" (Foster). (SK)

  12. Labour Standards and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina Kis-Katos; Günther G. Schulze

    2002-01-01

    Can a case be made for the imposition of international minimum labour standards? And if so, on what grounds? The authors systematically present the existing theoretical and empirical arguments for and against introducing minimum labour standards on the international level, and discuss whether trade sanctions are the instrument of choice to improve labour standards around the world.

  13. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2010-01-01

    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of

  14. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  15. State Standards: Authenticity vs. Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Marcia R.; Howell, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews problems with the current movement to use national standards and performance assessment to reform education and the impact of the standards on students with disabilities. The characteristics of standards, as they are currently being employed, are discussed, along with issues related to measurement, reliability, and validity. (Author/CR)

  16. Negotiation Mechanism of AVS Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Junbin

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction The mission of the Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS) Working Group of China is to develop AVS standards drafts and deliver them to the national standardization administration authorities. Since its establishment in 2002, the AVS Working Group has developed rapidly, growing from 33 members in 2003 to 153 in 2006. By the end of 2006, it had put forward for approval nine standards drafts (Table 1) with Part 2 of the AVS 1.0 draft approved as a national standard in February 2006.

  17. Standardization Bossts SGGCC Fast Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    OverviewDuring the development of State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC),standardization work is always highlighted,adhering to standardization planning as a focus in standardization work,centered on technology R&D,grid construction,production & operation,industrial development,etc.,SGCC set up a technology standards system with production process as a main line and featured by "Vertical in the end,lateral to the edge",and launched STATE GRID Corporation of China of Technical Standards System.

  18. Comparison of CRBRP standards to DOE prescribed standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tables list standards committed to by CRBRP in its design documents, its Environmental Report, and its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. The compilation of these standards has been placed in column form beside the column of prescribed standards listed under the various headings of Chapter 1 of DOE's Order 5480.1A, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for DOE Operations. (The DOE standards listed, however, include all those in the other applicable chapters of 5480.1A as mandated in Chapter 1.) There are some CRBRP systems which are impacted very little, if any, by the safety requirements of 5480.1A's prescribed standards. The standards committed to in those systems are, consequently, not included in this comparison. The comparison is made in detail, however, for standards committed to in those systems of CRBRP having areas of safety corresponding to DOE's jurisdiction/requirements as opposed to areas covered only by the USNRC's jurisdiction/regulations. Included in this document are: (1) a table listing titles of the standards not already listed in the comparison table, and (2) a list of acronyms. It seems apparent by the comparison that CRBRP meets the DOE requirement that the Project standards be equal or better (more conservative) than DOE's own prescribed standards

  19. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  20. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    Wuppertal, Germany (Chaotic and Complex Systems); F W Nijhoff, University of Leeds, UK (Mathematical Physics); G Ghirardi, Universita di Trieste, Italy (Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information Theory); G Dunne, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA (Classical and Quantum Field Theory); and L Turner, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA (Fluid and Plasma Theory). It will be an honour and a pleasure to work together with all these talented people towards the high-minded goal of running a world-class scientific journal. As Editor-in-Chief of J. Phys. A, my principal objective will be to raise the standards of this first-rate journal to even higher levels by raising the quality of accepted papers. I believe that this goal will be possible to accomplish. Despite an already high rejection rate, paper submissions are rising rapidly and I anticipate that we will need to be even more stringent in our assessment of quality next year. A letter has already been sent to referees urging them to raise their standards for acceptance. I believe we will make rapid progress in this direction. (I have heard a few people criticize the journal for being a `write-only' journal. My goal is for the worldwide community of mathematical physicists to view J. Phys. A as essential reading.) I am extremely optimistic about the future of J. Phys. A. I believe that we will raise the standards of acceptance while maintaining the short time from submission to decision. I am confident that we will continue to improve the quality of the papers published in this already first-class journal. I look forward to working with the journal's excellent staff, the Board of Editors, and the Advisory Panel.

  1. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Harmonization Rule. The final rule was published at 76 FR 81296 on December 27, 2011. Generally, the technical... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost...

  2. Library Standards : why, how and who?

    OpenAIRE

    Filatov, Nataša

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues in standardization in libraries answering basic set of questions raised in Bosnia & Herzegovina library community such as: Why we need standards?, What kind of standards we want? What have to be included in standards? What are the preconditions for standardization? What types of standards we need? Levels of standards? and Who will define standards?

  3. Standards and Standard Setting and the Post School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of standards and standard setting in shaping the expansion of post school education in highly unequal society. It draws on an account of the debates and policies on standards in the UK from the 1980's to today and the wider lessons that can be learned from them. It argues that relying on any type of…

  4. Open Standards for Emergency Mangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E.

    2012-04-01

    The mission of the OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) Emergency Management Technical Committee (EM-TC) is to create incident and emergency-related standards for data interoperability. The TC welcomes participation from members of the emergency management community, developers and implementers, and members of the public concerned with disaster management and response. Since the foundation of the EM-TC in 2003, there have been several Standards developed to support this mission. The first and most widely accepted has been the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP). CAP has been adopted worldwide and is also ITU Recommendation 1303. The EM-TC has continued in the development of content data standards to support the emergency management mission. This suite of standards is referred to as the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) family of standards. The EDXL suite of standards are developed starting with a defined requirement from the response community. The requirements are vetted through a working group process, reviewed by the development community to determine whether the concepts once "standardized" will result in software that will be developed then provided with comments to the OASIS EM-TC for defining the standard. The OASIS process includes an open public review period where all comments are accepted and publically adjudicated. The EDXL-Distribution Element (DE), EDXL-Resource Management (RM), EDXL-Hospital Availability eXchange (HAVE) are all now ratified Standards. The EDXL-Situation Reporting (SitRep) Standard is in final review and the EXDL-Tracking of Emergency Patients (TEP) is in development. This presentation will briefly present each of the OASIS EM-TC Standards as well as the process for their development and review. Information will be provided about how to participate in the process as well as where open source code can be found to get started developing systems of systems using the EDXL Standards.

  5. Standards for bullets and casings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F Song

    2002-11-01

    The Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST manages research in many different disciplines of forensic science. One of these projects supports the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN. NIST digitized six bullet signatures from samples provided by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI. Using these signatures as a virtual standard, NIST’s Instrument Shop manufactured 20 reference materials (RM 8240 standard bullets using a numerically-controlled diamond turning machine. Test results show high reproducibility of the bullet signatures on standard bullets. NIST has also developed a new parameter for bullet signature comparisons, using autocorrelation functions, and proposed a diagram for tracing local ballistics measurements to the National Laboratory Center of the ATF and to the FBI. Using an electro-forming process, NIST has manufactured prototype standard casings and test results show high reproducibility for the casing signatures.

  6. OPINIONSCONCERNINGTHE ORGANIZATIONOF STANDARD COSTS ACCOUNTANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to present a way for organizing the accountancy under the conditions of applying the method of standard costs, such that to allow both the registration of standard and effective costs and the separate registration of the deviations from standard costs. Making some pertinent and performance decisions is mainly influenced by the quality of the information provided to managers and by the promptitude they are sent. This desiderate is not possible if using classical methods for calculating costs, reason for which it is mandatory to organize and implement a managerial accountancy, based on using a modern method, namely the method of standard costs. The main implications of this method consist of establishing a pertinent cost, orientated towards the entity management, regardless the activity domain where it is implemented. The carried out study concerns only one of the phases performed for applying the method of standard cost, respectively the organization of the standard costs accountancy.

  7. Patent Disclosure in Standard Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Ganglmair; Emanuele Tarantino

    2012-01-01

    In a model of industry standard setting with private information about firms' intellectual property, we analyze (a) firms' incentives to contribute to the development and improvement of a standard, and (b) firms' decision to disclose the existence of relevant intellectual property to other participants of the standard-setting process. If participants can disclose after the end of the process and fully exploit their bargaining leverage, then patent holders aspire to disclose always after the e...

  8. Should standardized tests be cancelled?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石青

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing is a common way of determining the intelligence of test-takers and has been existed for centuries. Due to its unique characteristics, people feel stressful to take these tests. Therefore, whether the standardized testing should be cancelled has become a heated issue in recent years. This paper will first give a brief introduction about the definition of standardized tests and then analyzes their pros and cons, to discuss the necessity of its existence.

  9. Towards Standardization: A Participatory Framework for Scientific Standard-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Yarmey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary scientific research, standard-making and standardization are key processes for the sharing and reuse of data. The goals of this paper are twofold: 1 to stress that collaboration is crucial to standard-making, and 2 to urge recognition of metadata standardization as part of the scientific process. To achieve these goals, a participatory framework for developing and implementing scientific metadata standards is presented. We highlight the need for ongoing, open dialogue within and among research communities at multiple levels. Using the Long Term Ecological Research network adoption of the Ecological Metadata Language as a case example in the natural sciences, we illustrate how a participatory framework addresses the need for active coordination of the evolution of scientific metadata standards. The participatory framework is contrasted with a hierarchical framework to underscore how the development of scientific standards is a dynamic and continuing process. The roles played by ‘best practices’ and ‘working standards’ are identified in relation to the process of standardization.

  10. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff. PMID:16530349

  11. IMPLEMENTING A RISK MANAGEMENT STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After risk management “conquered” more and more project managers’ minds and showed its benefits for business and programs, the need to have a global risk management standard has become a crucial issue in the world of risk management. But having a global risk management standard has been a big challenge, starting from the decision of developing the standard (March-June 2005, to the moment of publishing it, November 2009. So, developing the ISO 31000:2009 standard has been more or less like a bumpy ride. Apparently, the people involved in developing the global risk management standard understood from the very beginning that no challenges are too big, nor any tasks too small and that the task of having a new, comprehensive global risk management standard should be completed with excellence: defining the principles and the framework guiding the risk management process applicable for all type of organizations and for a wide range of activities. Coming up with a global standard should always be based on the real organizations’ needs and should fulfill real risk management requirements. The article is trying to present the pros and cons of risk management standard implementation, challenging the implementation process itself and the added value of implementing the standard due to the lack of implementation enablers, like risk culture, a real problem especially in an international environment.

  12. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff.

  13. Data converters for wireless standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication is witnessing tremendous growth with proliferation of different standards covering wide, local and personal area networks (WAN, LAN and PAN). The trends call for designs that allow 1) smooth migration to future generations of wireless standards with higher data rates for multimedia applications, 2) convergence of wireless services allowing access to different standards from the same wireless device, 3) inter-continental roaming. This requires designs that work across multiple wireless standards, can easily be reused, achieve maximum hardware share at a minimum power consumption levels particularly for mobile battery-operated devices.

  14. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  15. Mapping standards for home networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaa, G. van de; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Vries, H.J. de

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we apply a step-by-step approach for the identification of standards for home networking. We develop a classification and we use this classification to categorize sixty-four (sets of) standards. By developing this categorization, we have brought order to the chaos of home networking s

  16. Standards development status. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

  17. Standards and (self)implosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja; Staunæs, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    of standards often tends to conceptualize the travelling of standards as contagious processes resulting in epidemic spreads. In this article, the abstract metaphor of epidemic spread is replaced by an analytical configuration of a new mode of educational governance in which orchestrating webs of incentives...

  18. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  19. [Quality standards of processed nutmegs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, T; Xia, F; Wang, Z

    1998-04-01

    The quality standards of nutmeg and its processed products were studied in such aspects as volatile oil content, extract determination, moisture content, microscopic characteristics, thin-layer chromatography, and so on. This provided a basis for drawing up the quality standards. PMID:11596246

  20. When a Standard Candle Flickers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Case, Gary L;

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well known,...

  1. Electrical Safety Standards in focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A forum, the IEC/ACOS Workshop Ⅷ-IEC safety standards in support of regulatory requirements, was held on May 22nd-23rd 2006 in Beijing to cerate an environment for technical exchange between the regulators and the standard developers with its theme on the following regards :

  2. National Standards or Economic Imperialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cecilia A.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that, although most K-12 social standards are deficient in their coverage of economic concepts, the National Council on Economic Education standards are equally deficient in addressing history and social studies subjects. Maintains that both disciplines must cooperate and coordinate their efforts for any meaningful educational reform to…

  3. Standard satellite data bus initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Timothy; Yousef, Hassan

    The USAF Space Technology Center manages programs to reduce satellite costs through the appropriate use of microelectronics standardization. Ongoing programs such as the Standard Spacecraft Memory Module and Generic VHSIC Spaceborne Computer have provided an insight into the value of standardization and led to an initiative to coordinate microelectronics development around a standard satellite data bus, which should reduce costs by eliminating program- and contractor-unique interfaces, increasing production runs, and developing generic test equipment. Current efforts focus on the satellite housekeeping functions, and it is expected that the mission payload would also use this data bus. Based on existing housekeeping data-traffic requirements, several candidates have been identified for the standard data bus. The two candidates selected for further work are the ANSI X3T9.5 data bus and the linear token-passing data bus being proposed as part of the Advanced Tactical Fighter effort.

  4. The Emerging JBIG2 Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, P.; Kossentini, F.; Martins, Bo;

    1998-01-01

    The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG), an international study group affiliated with ISO/IEC and ITU-T, is in the process of drafting a new standard for lossy and lossless compression of bi-level images. The new standard, informally referred to as JBIG2, will support model-based coding...... for text and halftones to permit compression ratios up to three times those of existing standards for lossless compression. JBIG2 will also permit lossy preprocessing without specifying how it is to be done. In this case compression ratios up to eight times those of existing standards may be obtained...... with imperceptible loss of quality. It is expected that JBIG2 will become an International Standard by 2000....

  5. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  6. "There's Nothing Standard about Standards": Exploring Tensions between Two Standards Documents in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Terri; Carter, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Quality in education at the tertiary level is constantly questioned, and increasingly "professional standards" are offered as the solution to the perceived decline in quality. Foucauldian archaeological analysis of teacher graduate and geography graduate standards in Australia is conducted, revealing tensions between the different…

  7. State Standard-Setting Processes in Brief. State Academic Standards: Standard-Setting Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about academic standards, whether created by states from scratch or adopted by states under the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) banner, have drawn widespread media attention and are at the top of many state policymakers' priority lists. Recently, a number of legislatures have required additional steps, such as waiting periods for…

  8. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  9. Darkness beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the discovery of the Higgs Boson all particles of the Standard Model of Particle Physics are experimentally identified. However, we know that the Standard Model can not explain all measurements. In particular several astrophysical measurements can not be explained within the Standard Model. A famous shortcoming is the existence of the so-called Dark Matter. A very well motivated candidate for the Dark Matter are WIMPs, weakly interactive massive particles. The current status of WIMP searches and the plans of the new experimental group at the Institute of High Energy Physics are presented. (author)

  10. New Gasoline Standard in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese government will reduce sulfur levels of lead-free gasoline to 150 parts per million (ppm) in the revised gas standard for the purpose to help improve air quality. The revised lead-free gas standard, to be announced by the end of this year, will drive gas with sulfur levels of 500 ppm out of market on Dec. 31,2009, said Li Xinmin, deputy director of the pollution control department of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), at a recent symposium on automobile pollution control. The new standard would meet the Euro-Ⅲ emission norm, which constrained sulfur levels to 150 ppm maximum.

  11. Can Environmental Law be standardized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes basic considerations on standardizability both in Constitutional Law and in simple Legislative Law. He discusses in detail a key issue of Environmental Law, namely the standardization of the right of third parties affected to file suit. In painstaking detail work one has to differentiate between standards having and not having an effect which protects third parties, and how far the protection of third parties goes. The limits to standardizability are reached with the use of undetermined legal terms. The shortcomings of standardizability for the legislator could and should be made up for by the statutory power which has to reify standards in a way which could guarantee efficient execution. (HSCH)

  12. Performance standard for dose Calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Darmawati, S

    2002-01-01

    Dose calibrator is an instrument used in hospitals to determine the activity of radionuclide for nuclear medicine purposes. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published IEC 1303:1994 standard that can be used as guidance to test the performance of the instrument. This paper briefly describes content of the document,as well as explains the assessment that had been carried out to test the instrument accuracy in Indonesia through intercomparison measurement.Its is suggested that hospitals acquire a medical physicist to perform the test for its dose calibrator. The need for performance standard in the form of Indonesia Standard is also touched.

  13. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  14. Organizations Contributing to Development of Library Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Henriette D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a variety of institutions and groups that affect promulgation of library standards, including standards organizations (American National Standards Institute, International Organization for Standardization); library associations (American Library Association); national and international committees, government agencies (National Bureau of…

  15. National Library of Standards of CNIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Wei; Lu Lili; Li Jing

    2012-01-01

    The National Library of Standards (NLS) of CNIS is a nationallevel standards information research and service institution.The main responsibility of NLS is not only to store standards,but also to provide standards information service for the public.

  16. Argentine nuclear energy standardization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has more than 200 Technical Committees that develop technical standards. During April 2004 took place in Buenos Aires the 14th Plenary of the ISO/TC 85 Nuclear Energy Committee. During this Plenary issues as Nuclear Terminology, Radiation Protection, Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Reactors and Irradiation Dosimetry was dealt with. 105 International delegates and 45 National delegates (belonging to CNEA, ARN, NASA, INVAP, CONUAR, IONICS and other organizations) attended the meetings. During this meeting ISO/TC 85 changed its scope; the new scope of the Committee is 'Standardization in the fields of peaceful applications of nuclear energy and of the protection of individuals against all sources of ionizing radiations'. This work summarizes the most important advances and resolutions about the development of standards taken during this meeting as well as the main conclusions. (author)

  17. On Internationalization of Accounting Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuyun; Yuncheng

    2007-01-01

    @@ World economy globalization highlighted with deregulation of trade, capital movement and financing has been the dominant trend under the push of rapid growing of modern information technology,creating a urgent demand for internationalized accounting standards.

  18. Tests on standard concrete samples

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Compression and tensile tests on standard concrete samples. The use of centrifugal force in tensile testing has been developed by the SB Division and the instruments were built in the Central workshops.

  19. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    state system has evolved such standards have also developed, incorporating the capacity for social cooperation and self-government to which states must conform in order to fully participate as legitimate members in international society. This study analyzes their justification, and their political...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary......Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...

  20. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.;

    2016-01-01

    organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions...... the number of inconsistent results could be reduced to 20, which correspond to about 5% of the total and can statistically be expected. In addition to the material standards, two softgauges were circulated, which allow to test the software of the instruments used in the comparison. The comparison results...... help to support the calibraton and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of the laboratories involved in the CIPM MRA. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final...

  1. Physics beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, José W F

    1991-01-01

    We discuss some of the signatures associated with extensions of the Standard Model related to the neutrino and electroweak symmetry breaking sectors, with and without supersymmetry. The topics include a basic discussion of the theory of neutrino mass and the corresponding extensions of the Standard Model that incorporate massive neutrinos; an overview of the present observational status of neutrino mass searches, with emphasis on solar neutrinos, as well the as cosmological data on the amplitude of primordial density fluctuations; the implications of neutrino mass in cosmological nucleosynthesis, non-accelerator, as well as in high energy particle collider experiments. Turning to the electroweak breaking sector, we discuss the physics potential for Higgs boson searches at LEP200, including Majoron extensions of the Standard Model, and the physics of invisibly decaying Higgs bosons. We discuss the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model phenomenology, as well as some of the laboratory signatures that would be as...

  2. GAIA Service and Standard Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dormann, Claire; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    A delivery from the ACTS-project GAIA. The report validates the gAIA architecture and standard. It provides results concerning the deployment of distributed brokerage systems over broadband networks....

  3. Radiation control standards and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-14

    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  4. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  5. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its...

  6. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; DUNCAN, J; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its ...

  7. Development of Managers’ Leadership Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Nurat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this article is manager of leadership and development of conceptual frameworks defining standards for leadership standards. He qualitative research methods applied in this study are in line with these objectives. Determination of sampling methods for sampling and exception the handling chain, respectively, of participants and sampling techniques was used accordingly. The research data were collected through semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Data ...

  8. Development of Managers’ Leadership Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Nurat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this article is manager of leadership and development of conceptual frameworks defiing standards for leadership standards. He qualitative research methods applied in this study are in line with these objectives. Determination of sampling methods for sampling and exception the handling chain, respectively, of participants and sampling techniques was used accordingly. The research data were collected through semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Data obtained i...

  9. CTD writing and editing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, C. M.

    1991-03-01

    The Computer and Telecommunication Division (CTD) recognizes that the communication of clear, accurate, reasonably complete information is essential to the success of its Laboratory mission. CTD therefore encourages all Division personnel to adhere to the principles of good writing and to the standards for grammar, usage, style, formats, and publication procedures that are described in CTD Writing and Editing Standards. We encourage CTD personnel to read CTD Writing and Editing Standards and to use it continually as a desktop reference. It will help CTD writers to produce better documents consistent with CTD standards in less time. Applying the principles specified in this document on how to write and organize technical information will speed up the editing, review, and revision processes. CTD Writing and Editing Standards complements the Argonne National Laboratory Technical Publications Guide, which serves as the basic Argonne documentation reference on issues concerning DOE orders and guidelines, NRC directives, and other sponsor requirements. However, this Laboratory-wide document does not address matters of grammar or style. Documents recommended in CTD Writing and Editing Standards are usually available for purchase at the Document Distribution Counter (Building 221, Room A-134) or through the mail (by calling extension 2-5405 and ordering copies).

  10. Standardization in optical coating characterisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Ristau

    2005-01-01

    In the rapid development course of laser technology and modern optics, optical metrology continuously gains importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical coatings. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered as common quality factors for coated optical components and often define the optimization targets for new products and applications. Also, these quality parameters are the basis for the comparison of commercial optics and can be found in the product catalogues of most manufacturers of optical components. As a consequence, standardization of characterisation procedures for these fundamental properties evolved to a crucial point for the optics industry. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed by representatives from many industrial companies and research institutes within working groups of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). In this contribution, the current state of standardized characterisation techniques for optical coatings is summarised. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of their applicability and reproducibility. The report will be concluded by an outlook on the current projects and future tasks of standardization in optics characterisation.

  11. Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Jacobs

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of ALT is to promote good practice in the use of learning technology within higher education. Few would not subscribe to this aim, but proclaiming it without a full awareness of the problems it entails is of the same order as proclaiming one's commitment to Peace without further comment. Except for the absolute pacifist, being against war does not mean being against it at any price, but rather being committed to ensuring circumstances in which war will not occur. So it is with good practice in educational technology, which can be achieved only if circumstances are propitious. Such circumstances include sufficient funds, and a willingness in both teacher and learner to accept in whole or in part a technological route – good practice is unlikely to be achieved if technology has been incorporated into the curriculum merely in order to ensure that funds already spent do not appear to have been wasted. Above all, in my view, good practice assumes that users of learning technology are able to concentrate on learning without (necessarily thinking about the technology, since if the technology cannot be made to work transparently, actual practice will at best lag behind ideal practice, and at worst be abandoned altogether. Impatience is a barrier to learning, and particularly if it is the result of struggling with the learning tools themselves. If the teacher or learner is constantly having to tweak the technology, or ending up with a half-baked implementation because the setting-up process has proven too difficult, the learning tool may well be left to gather dust.

  12. National safety standards: KTA - safety standards as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question, which is often asked, namely how many standards and how much time is needed to prepare a complete system of nuclear safety standards, has no answer in terms of numbers or years. The number of standards necessarily depends not only on the contents of an individual average standard. It also depends on the need to go increasingly into details and, to a large extent, on the problems which are identified and resolved during the continuous development of a technology. This is also means, that there is not time limit for the development of such standards, except the time when a technology becomes obsolete. In the same way, as safety in a technology never becomes an issue which is resolved once and for all, but is and must be a continuous and coordinated effort, the codification of safety requirements will always be a continuing task, lasting as long as experiences are made and can be used to improve the safety of the technology. (orig.)

  13. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple

  14. Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  15. Age, colors and ISO standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2010-01-01

    Age influences all bodily functions, also vision. Therefore, the effects of age on vision should be mirrored in ergonomic requirements laid down in display standards such as ISO 9241-300/307, 'Electronic visual display requirements'. However, this is only true to a limited extent - just as is the case with other standards dealing with ergonomic requirements, because developers of such standards do not possess the necessary specific knowledge. It therefore was an important step by ISO and IEC to publish in 2001 ISO/IEC Guide 71: 'Guidelines for standard developers to address the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities'. This guide was followed by a more specific and detailed Technical Report from ISO, ISO/TR 22411, as well as by 'Guidelines on Accessibility' from CIE. These three guidelines are reviewed. The paper concludes with developments around ISO 9241-300/307 in general, especially future additions on autostereoscopic displays and electronic paper. As to the former, the visual fatigue often accompanying viewing 3D displays needs methods for characterizing and validating such displays, to reduce visual fatigue as much as possible. Standardizing certain properties of electronic paper is an example of the present pro-active way of working of ISO/TC159/SC4/WG2, 'Visual Display Requirements', that developed ISO 9241-300/307.

  16. Projected Standard on neutron skyshine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current interest in neutron skyshine arises from the application of dry fuel handling and storage techniques at reactor sites, at the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility and at other facilities being considered as part of the civilian radioactive waste management programs. The chairman of Standards Subcommittee ANS-6, Radiation Protection and Shielding, has requested that a work group be formed to characterize the neutron skyshine problem and, if necessary, prepare a draft Standard. The work group is comprised of representatives of storage cask vendors, architect engineering firms, nuclear utilities, the academic community and staff members of national laboratories and government agencies. The purpose of this presentation summary is to describe the activities of the work group and the scope and contents of the projected Standard, ANS-6.6.2, ''Calculation and Measurement of Direct and Scattered Neutron Radiation from Nuclear Power Operations.'' The specific source under consideration by the work group is an array of dry fuel casks located at a reactor site. However, it is recognized that the scope of the standard should be broad enough to encompass other neutron sources. The Standard will define appropriate methodology for properly characterizing the neutron dose due to skyshine. This dose characterization is necessary, for example, in demonstrating compliance with pertinent regulatory criteria

  17. 40 CFR 403.6 - National pretreatment standards: Categorical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The Control Authority may convert the mass limits of the categorical Pretreatment Standards at 40 CFR... limits, the Control Authority must use the concentrations listed in the applicable subparts of 40 CFR... limit. EC15NO91.012 where CT=the alternative concentration limit for the combined wastestream....

  18. 77 FR 13969 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Association (GGA) acetylene standard (see 76 FR 75782). In the DFR, OSHA deleted reference to CGA G-1-2003 and... final rule published on December 5, 2011 (76 FR 75782), is effective on March 5, 2012. For the purposes....C. 553, Secretary of Labor's Order 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), and 29 CFR part 1911. Signed at...

  19. Standard of care in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokul Sridharan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as applicable to medicine. Dental practitioners constitute a group of health professionals who deal with human health care on a regular basis. Various ethical principles govern their conduct and their approach toward the patients. Ethical code of conduct prescribes a minimum standard of care which is applicable to all dental professionals. Substandard dental care is unacceptable and mounts to negligence on the part of the professional. Knowledge on what constitutes standard of care is a pre-requisite for dental professionals in providing quality health care. This paper presents a brief overview on standard of care as applicable to dentist and its practical implications with a note on the legal issues pertaining to medical negligence as applicable in India.

  20. Neutrino and The Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bilenky, S M

    2014-01-01

    After discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN the Standard Model acquired a status of the full, correct theory of the elementary particles in the electroweak range. What general conclusions can be inferred from the SM? I am suggesting here that in the framework of such general principles as local gauge symmetry, unification of the weak and electromagnetic interactions and Brout-Englert-Higgs spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry nature chooses the simplest possibilities. It is very plausible that massless left-handed neutrinos (simplest, most economical possibility) play crucial role in the determination of the charged current structure of the Standard Model and that neutrino properties (masses and nature) are determined by a beyond the Standard Model physics. The discovery of the neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay and proof that neutrinos with definite masses are Majorana particles would be an important evidence in favor of the considered scenario.

  1. Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tèmítọ́pẹ́ Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

  2. Institutional model for supporting standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restoring the nuclear option for utilities requires standardized designs. This premise is widely accepted by all parties involved in ALWR development activities. Achieving and maintaining standardization, however, demands new perspectives on the roles and responsibilities for the various commercial organizations involved in nuclear power. Some efforts are needed to define a workable model for a long-term support structure that will allow the benefits of standardization to be realized. The Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC) has developed a strategic plan that lays out the steps necessary to enable the nuclear industry to be in a position to order a new nuclear power plant by the mid 1990's. One of the key elements of the plan is the, ''industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants.'' This commitment is a result of the recognition by utilities of the substantial advantages to standardization. Among these are economic benefits, licensing benefits from being treated as one of a family, sharing risks across a broader ownership group, sharing operating experiences, enhancing public safety, and a more coherent market force. Utilities controlled the construction of the past generation of nuclear units in a largely autonomous fashion procuring equipment and designs from a vendor, engineering services from an architect/engineer, and construction from a construction management firm. This, in addition to forcing the utility to assume virtually all of the risks associated with the project, typically resulted in highly customized designs based on preferences of the individual utility. However, the benefits of standardization can be realized only through cooperative choices and decision making by the utilities and through working as partners with reactor vendors, architect/engineers, and construction firms

  3. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Lopez, Hugo [UL LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Cairns, Julie [CSA Group, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wichert, Richard [Professional Engineering, Inc.. Citrus Heights, CA (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  4. 29 CFR 1911.12 - Emergency standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency standards. 1911.12 Section 1911.12 Labor... STANDARDS Commencement of Rulemaking § 1911.12 Emergency standards. (a)(1) Whenever an emergency standard is... section 6(b) of the Act, and the standard as published must serve as a proposed rule. Any notice...

  5. 48 CFR 53.301 - Standard forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard forms. 53.301... AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301 Standard forms. This section illustrates the standard... order. The subsection numbers correspond with the standard form numbers (e.g., Standard Form 18...

  6. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  7. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Hoenkamp; G.B. Huitema

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental co

  8. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    enterprises in Vietnam. Certified firms pay higher wages on average. They are also more likely to offer formal contracts and to pay social and health insurance to workers. The estimation accounts for endogenous matching of workers with firms and unobserved heterogeneity using an instrumental variable approach....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  9. Future of Software Engineering Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1997-01-01

    In the new millennium, software engineering standards are expected to continue to influence the process of producing software-intensive systems which are cost-effetive and of high quality. These sytems may range from ground and flight systems used for planetary exploration to educational support systems used in schools as well as consumer-oriented systems.

  10. Language Varieties and Standard Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Randolph

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Kingsman Report (Department of Education and Science, London) on teaching English in Britain, and considers its relevance for teaching English in other countries. The many kinds of English, the labels given to them, and the centrality of the standard language are briefly reviewed. (JL)

  11. EASIER ACCESS TO STANDARDS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Many organizations issuing standards offer reduced prices for publications to their members. Paying a membership fee, even a site membership fee, can therefore be worthwhile - even if relatively few standards are needed. The Library is now exploring the possibility, in collaboration with the rest of the CERN community, of joining standards-issuing organizations. So why not share your costs with the rest of the organization wherever this can be done without violating copyright or access regulations? The Library now provides documentation and other member services from IPC, the Association Connecting Electronics Industries (http://www.ipc.org/html/fsabout.htm) at favourable prices for the entire CERN population. For more information, or if you are a member of any other organization which provides services which could be shared CERN-wide, please contact library.desk@cern.ch . We remind all users of international standards, that CERN has special agreements with ISO and IEC (see Bulletin 50/2000). You can order st...

  12. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Duncan, J.; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activi

  13. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activ

  14. Challenges to 5G standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Interoperable, ubiquitous and dynamic are key objectives for fifth-generation (5G) communication systems and applications. These characteristics are also at the core of the main challenges that researchers, manufacturers, regulators and standardization bodies face when designing targeted strategies...... for the successful deployment of 5G enabling technologies....

  15. Standard guide for radiographic examination

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers satisfactory X-ray and gamma-ray radiographic examination as applied to industrial radiographic film recording. It includes statements about preferred practice without discussing the technical background which justifies the preference. A bibliography of several textbooks and standard documents of other societies is included for additional information on the subject.

  16. Characterising agrammatism in Standard Indonesian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjarningsih, Harwintha Yuhria; Haryadi-Soebadi, Ratna D.; Gofir, Abdul; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    Background: The spontaneous speech of speakers of Standard Indonesian (SI) with agrammatic Broca's aphasia has not yet been characterised, although there are features of SI that are relevant for the discussion of agrammatic speech. Aims: The purpose of this study was to find the characteristic featu

  17. Phenomenology beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.

  18. Quality and standards in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    1997-01-01

    A manufacturer or supplier of electronic equipment or components needs to know the precise requirements for component certification and quality conformance to meet the demands of the customer. This book ensures that the professional is aware of all the UK, European and International necessities, knows the current status of these regulations and standards, and where to obtain them.

  19. Standardized Testing and School Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of standardized tests to hold schools accountable. The history of testing for accountability is reviewed, and it is shown that currently between-school differences account for less than 10% of the variance in student scores, in part because the progress of individuals is small compared to the spread of achievement…

  20. Guidelines for human settlements standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejledningen er en kortfattet gennemgang af alle de sociale, politiske, økonomiske, administrative og tekniske spørgsmål, der må afklares i de indledende faser af arbejdet med at opstille standards for boliger og for infrastruktur i byudviklingsområder i udviklingslande. Vejledningen er på engelsk...

  1. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  2. A Standard Fit for Neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Peter; Henriksen, Lasse Folke

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists and historians writing on techniques of contemporary rule, particularly those influenced by post-Marxist paradigms such as governmentality, have become increasingly preoccupied by the expanding role of standardization and the subjection of an ever-expanding array of spheres of a...

  3. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  4. A synthetic zero air standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    A Synthetic Zero Air Standard R. E. Hill-Pearce, K. V. Resner, D. R. Worton, P. J. Brewer The National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW UK We present work towards providing traceability for measurements of high impact greenhouse gases identified by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) as critical for global monitoring. Standards for these components are required with challengingly low uncertainties to improve the quality assurance and control processes used for the global networks to better assess climate trends. Currently the WMO compatibility goals require reference standards with uncertainties of < 100 nmolmol-1 for CO2 (northern hemisphere) and < 2 nmolmol-1 for CH4 and CO. High purity zero gas is required for both the balance gas in the preparation of reference standards and for baseline calibrations of instrumentation. Quantification of the amount fraction of the target components in the zero gas is a significant contributor to the uncertainty and is challenging due to limited availability of reference standard at the amount fraction of the measurand and limited analytical techniques with sufficient detection limits. A novel dilutor was used to blend NPL Primary Reference Gas Mixtures containing CO2, CH4 and CO at atmospheric amount fractions with a zero gas under test. Several mixtures were generated with nominal dilution ratios ranging from 2000:1 to 350:1. The baseline of two cavity ring down spectrometers was calibrated using the zero gas under test after purification by oxidative removal of CO and hydrocarbons to < 1 nmolmol-1 (SAES PS15-GC50) followed by the removal of CO2 and water vapour to < 100 pmolmol-1 (SAES MC190). Using the standard addition method.[1] we have quantified the amount fraction of CO, CO2, and CH4 in scrubbed whole air (Scott Marrin) and NPL synthetic zero air. This is the first synthetic zero air standard with a matrix of N2, O2 and Ar closely matching ambient composition with gravimetrically assigned

  5. The Economics of Standards and Standardization in Information and Communication Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn Pedersen, Mogens; Fomin, Vladislav V.

    2006-01-01

    Standards have proven themselves indispensable to the industrial revolution. How are standards developed today? What does the economics of standards tell about the impact of standards upon economic growth and productivity? Do standards influence industry innovation? How are the standardization processes in the field of ICT taking place? How and why do open standards differ from other types of standards? How may open standards influence ICT government policy and the reverse: How will governmen...

  6. DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BELARUS: STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND QUALITY STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Kovalev; I. Kovalev

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a brief analysis of the procedures and requirements for the quality and the production of milk in Belarus from the Soviet Union, and to this day, consider some areas of the dairy industry in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015, to look at issues and characteristics of milk production in the country. The article raised some important task of unification of Russian and Belarusian industry regulations and standards.

  7. Application of Fields for Adopted Standards in Catalogues of Chinese Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Catalogues of Chinese Standards in electronic format are available from many national websites in the area of standardization, such as Standardization Administration of China (www.sac.gov.cn),China Standard Service Network (www.cssn.net.cn)and so on. It brings convenience to the worldwide users in retrieving Chinese standards. The retrievable Fields of Catalogues of Chinese Standards in electronic format applied in the above websites are roughly same, usually including Standard Number,Chinese Title, English Title, China Classification for Standard, International Classification for Standard,Adopted Standard, Replaced Standard, etc. Users can find the standards by known information.

  8. Comparison of Wireless Standards-Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Romanchuk, Sergiy; Vasyuk, Volodymyr

    2010-01-01

    In this paper wireless communication standards are described. Problems of standardization of wireless telecommunication networks of Europe have been considered. Also comparison of wireless networks and the table of comparison of telecommunication networks of different standards are resulted.

  9. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards...

  10. Introduction to China Association for Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Association for Standardization (CAS), consisting of organizations and individuals engaged in standardization in China based on the voluntary participation, is a public society of standardization erjoying a 1egal status approved by the Ministry of Civil Affairs.

  11. WCDMA and CDMA2000 Communication Industry Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the Ministry of Information Industry promulgated the Third Generation (3G) mobile communication "China Standard" TD-SCDMA as the standard for China's communication industry, the ministry has also promulgated WCDMA and CDMA2000 as industrial standards.

  12. M&S Standards Activities in NATO

    OpenAIRE

    Huiskamp, W.

    2013-01-01

    The general standardization policy of NA TO is to use civil standards whenever possible and cooperate with Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) in developing standards that meet its needs. The NMSG closely cooperates with SISO under a formal Technical Cooperation Agreement to develop standards that promote and improve simulation interoperability between the partner nations. This presentation will discuss the NMSGs activities related to M&S Standardization.

  13. Integrated Standardization and Systems Engineering Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Integrated standardization is one of the fundamenta l forms of modern standardization. It is the combination of system science and the content of standardization. The development of system science has provided theo retic foundation and precondition for integrated standardization. The relevant r esearch on integrated standardization and system engineering illustrate that int egrated standardization is a advanced method which presented with the developmen t of modern science and technology . Integrated st...

  14. STANDARDIZING SOURCE CODE SECURITY AUDITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Schmeelk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A source code security audit is a powerful methodology for locating and removing security vulnerabilities.An audit can be used to (1 pass potentially prioritized list of vulnerabilities to developers (2 exploitvulnerabilities or (3 provide proof-of-concepts for potential vulnerabilities. The security audit researchcurrently remains disjoint with minor discussion of methodologies utilized in the field. This paperassembles a broad array of literature to promote standardizing source code security audits techniques. It,then, explores a case study using the aforementioned techniques.The case study analyzes the security for a stable version of the Apache Traffic Server (ATS. The studytakes a white to gray hat point of view as it reports vulnerabilities located by two popular proprietary tools,examines and connects potential vulnerabilities with a standard community-driven taxonomy, anddescribes consequences for exploiting the vulnerabilities. A review of other security-driven case studiesconcludes this research.

  15. Composite-technicolor standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar Chivukula, B.; Georgi, Howard

    1987-04-01

    We characterize a class of composite models in which the quarks and leptons and technifermions are built from fermions (preons) bound by strong gauge interactions. We argue that if the preon dynamics has as [SU(3) × U(1)] 5 flavor symmetry that is explicitly broken only by preon mass terms proportional to the quark and lepton mass matrices, then the composite-tech-nicolor theory has a GIM mechanism that suppresses dangerous flavor changing neutral current effects. We show that the compositeness scale must be between ≈1 TeV and ≈2.5 TeV, giving rise to observable deviations from the standard electroweak interactions, and that B overlineB mixing and CP violation in K mesons can differ significantly from the standard model predictions. The lepton flavor symmetries may be observable in the near future in the comparison of the compositeness effects in e +e - → μ +μ - with those in e +e - → e +e -.

  16. The New Minimal Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li, Tianjun; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-01-13

    We construct the New Minimal Standard Model that incorporates the new discoveries of physics beyond the Minimal Standard Model (MSM): Dark Energy, non-baryonic Dark Matter, neutrino masses, as well as baryon asymmetry and cosmic inflation, adopting the principle of minimal particle content and the most general renormalizable Lagrangian. We base the model purely on empirical facts rather than aesthetics. We need only six new degrees of freedom beyond the MSM. It is free from excessive flavor-changing effects, CP violation, too-rapid proton decay, problems with electroweak precision data, and unwanted cosmological relics. Any model of physics beyond the MSM should be measured against the phenomenological success of this model.

  17. Neutrinophilic Non-Standard Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Farzan, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    We construct UV-complete models for non-standard neutrino interactions mediated by a sub-GeV gauge boson Z' coupled to baryon number $B$ or $B-L$. A flavor-dependent Z' coupling to neutrinos is induced by mixing a U(1)'-charged Dirac fermion with the active neutrinos, naturally suppressing flavor violation or non-universality of the charged leptons to the loop level. We show that these models can give rise to large flavor-conserving as well as flavor-violating non-standard neutral-current neutrino interactions potentially observable in current or future oscillation experiments such as DUNE without being in conflict with other constraints such as neutrino scattering or lepton-flavor-violating decays. In particular, the LMA-Dark solution to the solar-neutrino anomaly can be obtained for $U(1)_B$, but not for $U(1)_{B-L}$.

  18. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  19. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  20. Beyond the Standard Model II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Kimball A.; Kantowski, Ronald; Samuel, Mark A.

    1991-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Electroweak Symmetry-Breaking Effects at Colliders * Precision Tests of the Electroweak Theory * Hadron Colliders: B Factories for Now and the Future * The MSW Effect as the Solution to the Solar Neutrino Problem * New Physics Effects from String Models * Strings and Large N QCD * Searching for Millicharged Particles * Recent Results from CLEO * Standard Model Investigations at ALEPH * Z0 Couplings to Hadrons and Charged Leptons * Is Chiral Symmetry Restored at High Temperatures? * Fermion Masses out of Radiative Corrections * Extra Z and Atomic Parity Violation * Lepton Number and Supersymmetry * The Mass Generation in the Standard Electroweak Theory * GRANDE: A Neutrino Telescope for Arkansas * Neutrino and Gravitational Radiation Observations from Supernovae * Supersymmetric Contributions to the Neutrino Magnetic Moment * Observables from p overline {p} rightarrow {W^+X} rightarrow {e^+vX} Beyond Leading Order * Random Walks on p-adic Numbers * Solar Neutrino Puzzle and Physics Beyond the Standard Model * The SFT: A Super Fixed Target Beauty Facility at the SSC * Non-Standard Stellar Evolution * Analogous Behavior in the Quantum Hall Effect, Anyon Superconductivity, and the Standard Model * Gauge Boson Dynamics * Rare Decays and CP Asymmetries in Charged B Decays * Total Hadronic Cross-section in e+e- Annihilation at the Four-loop Level of Perturbative QCD * Neutrino Oscillations and Solar Neutrinos * Canonical Quantization of Axial Gauges: Perturbative and Non-perturbative Implications * Large Technicolor Effect at Z0 * Finite Size Scaling for Heavy Mesons in the Continuum * Are There Electroweak Skyrmions? * Testing the Flipped String * Virasoro Constructions from Twisted Kac-Moody Algebras * Electroweak Symmetry Breaking by Fourth Generation Quark and Lepton Condensates * Novel Extension of the Standard Model * O * Interpreting Precision Measurements * Rare K Decays: Present Status and

  1. School-based Standard Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Bolon

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available School-based standard testing continues to evolve, yet in some ways it remains surprisingly close to its roots in the first two decades of the twentieth century. After use for many years as a diagnostic and as a filter for access to education, in the closing years of the century it has been pressed into service for state-run political accountability programs. In this role, it is generating vehement controversy that recalls protests over intelligence testing in the early 1920s. This background article explores primary characteristics and issues in the development of school-based standard testing, reviews its typical lack of qualification for political accountability programs, and suggests remedies to address major problems. In general, the attitude toward new techniques of assessment is skeptical, in light of the side-effects and unexpected problems that developed during the evolution of current techniques.

  2. The Road of Haier Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Brand Strategy Stage (1984 -1991)High Standard and High Quality Build up the brand by improving quality and highlighting the distinctive features of the enterprise.There are about 300 refrigerator manufacturers in China when Haier was just established.By the superior quality of its products,Haier has been maintaining a leading positionin the competition.Haier always sticks to the concept that "quality is everything",rising its competitive strength and building up a famous brand by high quality.

  3. Standard of care in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Gokul Sridharan; Prithviraj Kallahalla Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as applicable to medicine. Dental practitioners constitute a group of health professionals who deal with human health care on a regular basis. Various ethical principles govern their conduct and their approach toward the patients. Ethical code of conduct prescribes a minimum standard of care which is applicable to all dental professionals. Substandard dental care is unacceptable and mounts to neglig...

  4. Accounting Management by International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthor’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose subsidiaries had to report for s...

  5. STANDARDIZING SOURCE CODE SECURITY AUDITS

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanna Schmeelk; Bill Mills; Leif Hedstrom

    2012-01-01

    A source code security audit is a powerful methodology for locating and removing security vulnerabilities.An audit can be used to (1) pass potentially prioritized list of vulnerabilities to developers (2) exploitvulnerabilities or (3) provide proof-of-concepts for potential vulnerabilities. The security audit researchcurrently remains disjoint with minor discussion of methodologies utilized in the field. This paperassembles a broad array of literature to promote standardizing source code secu...

  6. Physics Beyond the Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Baer, Howard

    2009-01-01

    I present a brief overview of some exciting possibilities for physics Beyond the Standard Model. I include short discussions of neutrino physics, the strong CP problem and axions, GUTs, large and warped extra dimensions, Little Higgs models and supersymmetry. The chances appear excellent that in the next few years-- as the LHC era gets underway-- data from a bevy of experiments will point the way to a new paradigm for the laws of physics as we know them.

  7. Physics Beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I present a brief overview of some exciting possibilities for physics Beyond the Standard Model. I include short discussions of neutrino physics, the strong CP problem and axions, GUTs, large and warped extra dimensions, Little Higgs models and supersymmetry. The chances appear excellent that in the next few years - as the LHC era gets underway - data from a bevy of experiments will point the way to a new paradigm for the laws of physics as we know them.

  8. Latest Developments in LED Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Yurtseven, M. Berker; Onaygil, Sermin

    2015-01-01

    The LED light sources can be stated as the most promising technology for the last decade from the lighting technology point of view. In order to compare LED chips and LED products from different manufacturers and achieve reproducible results, all of the manufacturers shall measure their LEDs or LED based products using same methodology. In this study, it is aimed to explain measurement and performance standards for LED chips and LED based Solid State Lighting products.

  9. Law and technology security standard

    OpenAIRE

    Kitahara, Munenori

    2012-01-01

    The author will deal with the relationship between law and technology from the viewpoint of technology security standard. One of the relationships can be found in that law has been providing a security level of technology. They have been saying that law would often follow technology. Law is too slow to adapt the changing technology through the advancement of technology. Above all, information technology has an electronic rapidity and a legislation technology has a paper one. There might be a ...

  10. Standards for hospital libraries 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Gluck, Jeannine Cyr; Hassig, Robin Ackley; Balogh, Leeni; Bandy, Margaret; Doyle, Jacqueline Donaldson; Kronenfeld, Michael R.; Lindner, Katherine Lois; Murray, Kathleen; Petersen, JoAn; Rand, Debra C.

    2002-01-01

    The Medical Library Association's “Standards for Hospital Libraries 2002” have been developed as a guide for hospital administrators, librarians, and accrediting bodies to ensure that hospitals have the resources and services to effectively meet their needs for knowledge-based information. Specific requirements for knowledge-based information include that the library be a separate department with its own budget. Knowledge-based information in the library should be directed by a qualified libr...

  11. The Importance of Standard Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Jose Morera-Ocon

    2009-01-01

    Dear Sir: Sanjay et al. [1] assessed compliance with the revised guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis published by the work group of the British Society of Gastroenterology in 2005 [2]. This article is valuable in reminding us of the standards of care in this disease but there are some points which may require comments and questions. First, a distinction between severe acute pancreatitis, defined by the presence of complications, and predicted severe acute pancreatitis as...

  12. Explanatory Notes to Standard Compilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Basis for Standard Compilation The economic globalization and China's rapid expansion of foreign exchanges have drastically boosted the demand for translation services. As a result, enterprises offering translation services mushroomed and formed a new industry unlike any other service industry. Though the output value of translation services is not high at the moment, their level and quality have a great impact on the clients because they cover the foreign intercourses in various fields and the construction of major foreign-invested projects.

  13. Extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures we focus on several issues that arise in theoretical extensions of the standard model. First we describe the kinds of fermions that can be added to the standard model without affecting known phenomenology. We focus in particular on three types: the vector-like completion of the existing fermions as would be predicted by a Kaluza-Klein type theory, which we find cannot be realistically achieved without some chiral symmetry; fermions which are vector-like by themselves, such as do appear in supersymmetric extensions, and finally anomaly-free chiral sets of fermions. We note that a chiral symmetry, such as the PecceiQuinn symmetry can be used to produce a vector-like theory which, at scales less than M/sub W/, appears to be chiral. Next, we turn to the analysis of the ''second hierarchy problem'' which arises in Grand Unified extensions of the standard model, and plays a crucial role in proton decay of supersymmetric extensions. We review the known mechanisms for avoiding this problem and present a new one which seems to lead to the (family) triplication of the gauge group. Finally, this being a summer school, we present a list of homework problems

  14. Extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures we focus on several issues that arise in theoretical extensions of the standard model. First we describe the kinds of fermions that can be added to the standard model without affecting known phenomenology. We focus in particular on three types: the vector-like completion of the existing fermions as would be predicted by a Kaluza-Klein type theory, which we find cannot be realistically achieved without some chiral symmetry; fermions which are vector-like by themselves, such as do appear in supersymmetric extensions, and finally anomaly-free chiral sets of fermions. We note that a chiral symmetry, such as the Peccei-Quinn symmetry can be used to produce a vector-like theory which, at scales less than M/sub W/, appears to be chiral. Next, we turn to the analysis of the second hierarchy problem which arises in Grand Unified extensions of the standard model, and plays a crucial role in proton decay of supersymmetric extensions. We review the known mechanisms for avoiding this problem and present a new one which seems to lead to the (family) triplication of the gauge group. Finally, this being a summer school, we present a list of homework problems. 44 references

  15. Study of federal microwave standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.

    1980-08-01

    Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

  16. Radiation protection standards in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Warren K.

    Radiation protection standards for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation in his/her daily work have evolved over more than 50 years since the first recommendations on limits by the NCRP and the ICRP. Initial standards were based on the absence of observable harm, notably skin erythema, but have since been modified as other concerns, such as leukemia and genetic effects, became more important. More recently, the general carcinogenic effect of radiation has become the principal concern at low doses. Genetic effects are also of concern in the younger individual. Modern radiation protection practices take both of these risks into account. Quantification of these risks improves as new information emerges. The study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs continues to yield new information and the recent revisions in the dosimetry are about to be completed. The special circumstances of space travel suggest approaches to limits not unlike those for radiation workers on the ground. One approach is to derive a career limit based on the risks of accident faced by many nonradiation workers in a lifetime. The career limit can be apportioned according to the type of mission. The NCRP is considering this and other approaches to the specification of radiation standards in space.

  17. High purity conductivity cell standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity conductivity is the first line of defense in detecting contamination entering the steam cycle. Long-term accuracy of this measurement is essential in maintaining operation within established water quality guidelines. More accurate temperature measurement and specialized temperature compensation for the properties of high purity water with various trace treatment materials, along with high performance measuring circuit design have greatly improved measurement capabilities. However, the integrity of the conductivity cell itself, especially over the long term, still comes into question. The conductivity cell is now probably the greatest source of uncertainty in the measurement. The traditional certified glass and platinum cell may not retain its precise constant after rough handling or even shipping. Newer cell designs with concentric titanium electrodes are now being certified and provide much better durability of their cell constant. Many plants have standardized on these as the basis for checking other cells. The plant standard cell is kept clean, is carefully handled, and may be returned to the manufacturer periodically for re-certification to maintain its integrity. However, some plants require that cells be verified in-house periodically using standard solutions

  18. WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region (WHO Standard was released in 2008. Initially, there were 92/361 controversial acupuncture points (acupoints. Through seven informal consultations and four task force team meetings, 86 points were agreed upon among the 92 controversial acupoints, leaving 6 remaining controversial acupoints, demanding active research in the future. This will enhance the reproducibility and validity of acupuncture studies. It will also lead to a better understanding of acupuncture mechanisms in order to optimize its clinical efficacy for a range of diseases and syndromes. This book has two parts: General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations and WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations. First of all, familiarity with the General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations in this book can help the reader to understand and use the contents of this book in depth. I would like to thank all of the participating experts and scholars for this great work, who have overcome the limits of previous acupuncture references. I also appreciate the dedicated effort and harmonious leadership of Dr Choi Seung-hoon, former Regional Adviser in Traditional Medicine of Western Pacific Office, WHO.

  19. Washington State environmental radiation standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Health is in the process of establishing new environmental radioactivity cleanup regulations. The scope of these regulations will encompass all radionuclides and will apply to soils, sediments, and groundwater. The requirements of these regulations will be part of license terminations for those nuclear facilities licensed by the state. Non-licensees which leave residual radioactivity in the environment will also be impacted because the requirements of these regulations will be incorporated as applicable, relevant, and appropriate regulations in the Model Toxics Control Act administered by the State Department of Ecology. The motivation for establishing these new regulations is the need for cleanup guidance for a number of sites across the state and, except for uranium mills, the absence of soil, sediment, and groundwater radioactivity cleanup standards. Establishment of these standards will close the only major gaps in environmental radioactivity cleanup regulations and fulfill the Department of Health's statutory requirements to protect public health from environmental radiation exposure. Development of the standard is following the state rule-making process. An Issues Paper was distributed for public comment in November 1994. Current activities include an environmental impact statement, a small business impact statement, and preparation of the draft rule

  20. Active Faraday optical frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We propose the mechanism of active Faraday optical clock, and experimentally demonstrate active Faraday optical frequency standards based on 852 nm narrow bandwidth Faraday atomic filter by the method of velocity-selective optical pumping of cesium vapor. The center frequency of the active Faraday optical frequency standards is determined by the cesium 6 $^{2}S_{1/2}$ $F$ = 4 to 6 $^{2}P_{3/2}$ $F'$ = 4 and 5 crossover transition line. The optical heterodyne beat between two similar independent setups shows that the frequency linewidth reaches 996(26) Hz, which is 5.3 $\\times$ 10$^{3}$ times smaller than the natural linewidth of the cesium 852 nm transition line. The maximum emitted light power reaches 75 $\\upmu$W. The active Faraday optical frequency standards reported here have advantages of narrow linewidth and reduced cavity pulling, which can readily be extended to other atomic transition lines of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms trapped in optical lattices at magic wavelengths, making it useful for...

  1. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  2. Analyzing standards for RSA integers

    CERN Document Server

    Loebenberger, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The key-generation algorithm for the RSA cryptosystem is specified in several standards, such as PKCS#1, IEEE 1363-2000, FIPS 186-3, ANSI X9.44, or ISO/IEC 18033-2. All of them substantially differ in their requirements. This indicates that for computing a "secure" RSA modulus it does not matter how exactly one generates RSA integers. In this work we show that this is indeed the case to a large extend: First, we give a theoretical framework that will enable us to easily compute the entropy of the output distribution of the considered standards and show that it is comparatively high. To do so, we compute for each standard the number of integers they define (up to an error of very small order) and discuss different methods of generating integers of a specific form. Second, we show that factoring such integers is hard, provided factoring a product of two primes of similar size is hard.

  3. Developing standardized facility contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating units

  4. Physics beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author briefly summarizes the prospects for extending the understanding of physics beyond the standard model within the next five years. He interprets ''beyond the standard model'' to mean the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking, including the standard model Higgs boson. The nature of this TeV-scale new physics is perhaps the most crucial question facing high-energy physics, but one should recall (neutrino oscillations) that there is ample evidence for interesting physics in the flavour section too. In the next five years, before the LHC starts operations, the facilities available will be LEP2, HERA and the Fermilab Tevatron. He devotes a bit more time to the Tevatron as it is a new initiative for United Kingdom institutions. The Tevatron schedule now calls for data taking in Run II, using two upgraded detectors, to begin on March 1, 2001, with 2 fb-1 accumulated in the first two years. A nine-month shutdown will follow, to allow new silicon detector layers to be installed, and then running will resume with a goal of accumulating 15 fb-1 (or more) by 2006

  5. 75 FR 65052 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane... Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems (Standard Practice) as an acceptable means... FAA finds the standards to be acceptable methods and procedures for maintenance of electrical...

  6. The Publication and Distribution of Chinese Standards and Other Standards-related Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Demei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Standards Press of China (SPC), founded in October 1963, is the only publication center in China licensed to publish national standards, trade standards, and books concerned with standardization, quality, and other science and technology. The main publications are as following:

  7. Authentication: A Standard Problem or a Problem of Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Capes-Davis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility and transparency in biomedical sciences have been called into question, and scientists have been found wanting as a result. Putting aside deliberate fraud, there is evidence that a major contributor to lack of reproducibility is insufficient quality assurance of reagents used in preclinical research. Cell lines are widely used in biomedical research to understand fundamental biological processes and disease states, yet most researchers do not perform a simple, affordable test to authenticate these key resources. Here, we provide a synopsis of the problems we face and how standards can contribute to an achievable solution.

  8. Authentication: A Standard Problem or a Problem of Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Reproducibility and transparency in biomedical sciences have been called into question, and scientists have been found wanting as a result. Putting aside deliberate fraud, there is evidence that a major contributor to lack of reproducibility is insufficient quality assurance of reagents used in preclinical research. Cell lines are widely used in biomedical research to understand fundamental biological processes and disease states, yet most researchers do not perform a simple, affordable test to authenticate these key resources. Here, we provide a synopsis of the problems we face and how standards can contribute to an achievable solution. PMID:27300550

  9. Standard and Non-Standard Physics in Neutrino Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Maltoni, M

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the impact of recent solar and atmospheric data in the determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters, taking into account that both the solar nu_e and the atmospheric nu_mu may convert to a mixture of active and sterile neutrinos. Furthermore, in the context of the atmospheric neutrino problem we discuss an extended mechanism of neutrino propagation which combines both oscillations and non-standard neutrino-matter interactions. We use the most recent neutrino data, including the 1496-day Super-K solar and atmospheric data samples, the latest SNO spectral and day/night solar data, and the final MACRO atmospheric results. We confirm the clear preference of all the data for pure-active oscillation solutions, bounding the fraction of sterile neutrino involved in oscillations to be less than 52% in the solar sector and less than 40% in the atmospheric sector, at 3 sigma. For the atmospheric case we also derive a bound on the total amount of non-standard neutrino-matter interactions, bounding the ...

  10. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to be considered valid, the SPF of the standard sunscreen must fall within the standard deviation range of the... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard sunscreen. 352.70 Section 352.70 Food...

  11. 40 CFR 61.32 - Emission standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard. 61.32 Section 61.32... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.32 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from stationary sources subject to the provisions of this...

  12. 40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard. 63.112 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards... Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard. 61.42 Section 61.42... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  14. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard. 61.52 Section 61.52... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.52 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell...

  15. 40 CFR 264.18 - Location standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location standards. 264.18 Section 264...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES General Facility Standards § 264.18 Location standards. (a) Seismic considerations. (1) Portions of new...

  16. 44 CFR 75.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards. 75.11 Section 75... PROPERTIES UNDER SELF-INSURANCE PLAN Standards for Exemption § 75.11 Standards. (a) In order to be exempt... hazards which are covered under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy. (3) Provide coverage to...

  17. 40 CFR 92.8 - Emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards. 92.8 Section 92.8... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.8 Emission standards. (a) Exhaust standards. Exhaust emissions from..., shall comply with both the applicable line-haul duty-cycle standards, and the applicable switch...

  18. 40 CFR 63.322 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 63.322 Section 63.322... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities § 63.322 Standards. (a) The owner or operator of...

  19. 40 CFR 265.18 - Location standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location standards. 265.18 Section 265...) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES General Facility Standards § 265.18 Location standards. The placement of any hazardous waste in...

  20. Leveraging Standards to Promote Program Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michelle D.; Mawhinney, Hanna; Reed, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Standards provide a foundation for thinking about leadership development and practice. This article explores three sets of standards that impact educational leadership preparation: (a) the recently revised Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards, which are now known as the Practice Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL);…

  1. 40 CFR 61.112 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 61.112 Section 61.112... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Equipment Leaks (Fugitive Emission Sources) of Benzene § 61.112 Standards. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions...

  2. 40 CFR 191.03 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 191.03 Section 191.03... ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Management and Storage § 191.03 Standards....

  3. 40 CFR 63.362 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 63.362 Section 63.362... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Ethylene Oxide Emissions Standards for Sterilization Facilities § 63.362 Standards. (a) Each owner or operator of a source subject to...

  4. 29 CFR 1911.10 - Construction standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction standards. 1911.10 Section 1911.10 Labor... STANDARDS Commencement of Rulemaking § 1911.10 Construction standards. The Assistant Secretary may promulgate, modify, or revoke a standard applicable to employments in construction work, as defined in §...

  5. 49 CFR 397.71 - Federal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal standards. 397.71 Section 397.71... standards. (a) A State or Indian tribe shall comply with the Federal standards under paragraph (b) of this... or may not be transported. (b) The Federal standards are as follows: (1) Enhancement of public...

  6. 40 CFR 63.562 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 63.562 Section 63.562... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations § 63.562 Standards. (a) The emissions limitations in paragraphs...

  7. 36 CFR 905.735-401 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 905.735-401 Section 905.735-401 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Special Standards Applicable to Certain Board Members § 905.735-401 Standards....

  8. 40 CFR 192.12 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 192.12 Section 192.12... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for Cleanup of... Sites § 192.12 Standards. Remedial actions shall be conducted so as to provide reasonable assurance...

  9. 40 CFR 63.342 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 63.342 Section 63.342... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for... Standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an affected source subject to the provisions of this subpart...

  10. 42 CFR 431.707 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards. 431.707 Section 431.707 Public Health... Administrators § 431.707 Standards. (a) The agency or board must develop, impose, and enforce standards that must be met by individuals in order to be licensed as a nursing home administrator. (b) The standards...

  11. 40 CFR 192.02 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 192.02 Section 192.02... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.02 Standards....

  12. 40 CFR 59.102 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 59.102 Section 59.102... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.102 Standards. (a) Except as provided...

  13. 36 CFR 292.13 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 292.13 Section 292... AREAS Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 292.13 Standards. (a) The standards set...) This standard provides for privately owned and operated businesses whose purposes and...

  14. 14 CFR 77.3 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards. 77.3 Section 77.3 Aeronautics... AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE General § 77.3 Standards. (a) The standards established in this part for... section 16 of the Federal Airport Act; (3) Developing technical standards and guidance in the design...

  15. 40 CFR 63.962 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....693 in 40 CFR part 63, subpart DD—National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Standards... in accordance with the standards specified in 40 CFR 63.693. ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 63.962 Section...

  16. 40 CFR 61.222 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.222 Section 61.222... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From the Disposal of Uranium Mill Tailings § 61.222 Standard. (a) Radon-222 emissions to the ambient air...

  17. 40 CFR 63.402 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 63.402 Section 63.402... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial Process Cooling Towers § 63.402 Standard. No owner or operator of...

  18. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  19. 49 CFR 192.149 - Standard fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard fittings. 192.149 Section 192.149... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.149 Standard... pressures and temperatures in the applicable standards referenced in this part, or their equivalent....

  20. 41 CFR 101-29.202 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standard. 101-29.202...-Definitions § 101-29.202 Standard. A standard is a document that establishes engineering and technical.... Standards may also establish requirements for selection, application, and design criteria so as to...

  1. 40 CFR 61.22 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.22 Section 61.22... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Underground Uranium Mines § 61.22 Standard. Emissions of radon-222 to the ambient air from an...

  2. 40 CFR 61.102 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.102 Section 61.102... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From....102 Standard. (a) Emissions of radionuclides, including iodine, to the ambient air from a...

  3. 40 CFR 61.192 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.192 Section 61.192... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.192 Standard. No source at a Department of Energy facility shall...

  4. 40 CFR 61.202 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.202 Section 61.202... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.202 Standard. Each person who generates phosphogypsum shall place all phosphogypsum...

  5. 14 CFR 1214.115 - Standard services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard services. 1214.115 Section 1214....115 Standard services. Standard services for the Space Shuttle are generically defined in NASA document NSTS 07700, Volume XIV. The standard services to be provided for a specific payload will be...

  6. Standardizing the microsystems technology description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liateni, Karim; Thomas, Gabriel; Hui Bon Hoa, Christophe; Bensaude, David

    2002-04-01

    The microsystems industry is promising a rapid and widespread growth for the coming years. The automotive, network, telecom and electronics industries take advantage of this technology by including it in their products; thus, getting better integration and high energetic performances. Microsystems related software and data exchange have inherited from the IC technology experience or standards, which appear not to fit the advanced level of conception currently needed by microsystems designers. A typical design flow to validate a microsystem device involves several software from disconnected areas like layout editors, FEM simulators, HDL modeling and simulation tools. However, and fabricated microsystem is obtained through execution of a layered process. Process characteristics will be used at each level of the design and analysis. Basically, the designer will have to customize each of his tools after the process. The project introduced here intends to unify the process description language and speed up the critical and tedious CAD customization task. We gather all the information related to the technology of a microsystem process in a single file. It is based on the XML standard format to receive worldwide attention. This format is called XML-MTD, standing for XML Microsystems Technology Description. Built around XML, it is an ASCII format which gives the ability to handle a comprehensive database for technology data. This format is open, given under general public license, but the aim is to manage the format withing a XML-MTD consortium of leader and well-established EDA companies and Foundries. In this way, it will take profit of their experience. For automated configuration of design and analysis tools regarding process-dependant information, we ship the Technology Manger software. Technology Manager links foundries with a large panel of standard EDA and FEA packages used by design teams relying on the Microsystems Technology Description in XML-MTD format.

  7. Standards for Online-Counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FESAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Between Dec 2002 and May 2003, transnational meetings between ChEck iT!, Austria, Partypark, Drogenhilfe from Köln and kids-hotline, Berlin, Germany were held to discuss Standards for Online Counselling. Participants were experts from the field of drug prevention and rehab as well as from youth work with a focus on online counselling. Partypack and ChEck iT! both offer online information and consultation on psychoactive substances, especially on 'recreational drugs’. Kids-hotline, an institution of Jugendhilfe, targets children and youth and places emphasis on topics such as friendship, relationships, sexuality, puberty, school and violence.

  8. Strings, paths, and standard tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Dasmahapatra, S

    1996-01-01

    For the vacuum sectors of regime-III ABF models, we observe that two sets of combinatorial objects: the strings which parametrize the row-to-row transfer matrix eigenvectors, and the paths which parametrize the corner transfer matrix eigenvectors, can both be expressed in terms of the same set of standard tableaux. Furthermore, the momenta of the strings, the energies of the paths, and the charges of the tableaux are such that there is a weight-preserving bijection between the two sets of eigenvectors, wherein the tableaux play an interpolating role. This bijection is so natural, that we conjecture that it exists in general.

  9. Standardization in the Cultural Heritage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Mo; Wang mingling; Zhang Lei

    2007-01-01

    China has begun its standardization process in the cultural heritage since 1960.The standards contributed a lot to the development of the heritage conservation practices. In this paper, the author summaries the existing condition of standardization in the cultural heritages and museums field in China, and presents Standards for the Classification of Collected Cultural Heritages. Also this paper points out the problems which exist in the standardization in the cultural heritage, and gives the advice to solve these problems.

  10. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H

    2016-08-27

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synthetic biology, focusing on standardization of data on biosynthetic pathways and gene clusters, as well as the role of standardization in the process of biosynthetic gene cluster engineering. PMID:27313083

  11. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H.

    2016-01-01

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synthetic biology, focusing on standardization of data on biosynthetic pathways and gene clusters, as well as the role of standardization in the process of biosynthetic gene cluster engineering.

  12. Preparation of ferritin national standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The raw material of ferritin is analyzed for preparation of ferritin national standard (NS) for immunoassay. No impure zone is found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein amount is 1.06 g/L and the immunoactivity is 1.015 g/L by RIA, with its dose-response curve being parallel to that of Human Ferritin 2nd International Standard coded 80/578(IS). This shows that the material used is suitable for preparation of ferritin NS. 1.25 mg of raw material diluted in 0.01 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH7.4) containing 1% human serum albumin is distributed into aliquot of 0.8 mL (2 μg per ampoule), lyophilized and assayed by RIA. The mean value of this NS is 1.962 μg per ampoule in terms of IS. Similar values are obtained for the ferritin contents of quality control serum samples at different content levels when either IS or NS is used as the assay calibrator. This indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between the serum sample values at the same levels

  13. Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publicly available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

  14. When A Standard Candle Flickers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Baumgartner, Wayne H; Beklen, Elif; Bhat, P Narayana; Briggs, Michael S; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Case, Gary L; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Jahoda, Keith; Jenke, Peter; Kippen, R Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A; Kuulkers, Erik; Meegan, Charles A; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; Rodi, James C; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Skinner, Gerald K; Swartz, Doug; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well-known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in August 2008, a ~ 7% (70 mcrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on Board INTEGRAL (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the ~3 - 15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and INTEGRAL Joint European Monitor (JEM-X) and in the 50 - 100 keV band with GBM and INTEGRAL/IBIS. Observations from 100 to 500...

  15. Area Optimized Advanced Encryption Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sandip R. Aher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of the Advanced Encryption Standard candidates has become led to intensive study of both hardware and software implementations. However, number of papers presents various implementation results, it shows that efficiency could still be greatly improved by applying effective design rules adapted to devices and algorithms. This paper shows various approaches for efficient FPGA implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm. For different applications of the AES algorithm may require different s peed/area tradeoffs, we propose a vital study of the possible implementation schemes, but also the discussion of design methodology and algorithmic optimization in order to improve previous reported results. We propose system to evaluate hardware efficiency at different steps of the design process. We also use an optimal pipeline that takes the place and route constraints into account. Resulting circuits significantly improve the previous reported results: throughput has been up to 18.5 Gbits/sec and the area requirements can be limited to 542 slices and 10 RAM blocks with a ratio throughput/area improved by minimum 25% of the best-known designs in the Xilinx Virtex- E technology.

  16. Medical standards for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Council of the European Communities in its Directive of June 1, 1976 has laid down revised basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the danger of ionising radiation. The Directive requires each Member State of the Community 'for the guidance of medical practitioners.....to draw up a list, which need not be exhaustive, of the criteria which should be taken into account when judging a worker's fitness to be exposed to ionising radiation'. Medical officers with current responsibility for radiation workers in the U.K. therefore met recently for informal exploratory discussion at the National Radiological Protection Board's headquarters, and an account is given of the views expressed there about the composition of the required 'list', and the possibility of standardizing the procedure adopted. Consideration was given to the objectives of medical examinations, the form of examination, and specific conditions which may give rise to difficulty in making a fitness assessment. These conditions are skin abnormalities, blood abnormalities, cataract, pregnancy, and psychological and psychiatric conditions. It was concluded that the medical examination of radiation workers, including blood examinations, are of value to the extent that they form part of any good general occupational health practice. The promulgation of the Euratom Directive has provided an opportunity for reviewing and standardising procedures for medical surveillance in the light of current knowledge concerning average occupational radiation doses and dose-response relationships. (U.K.)

  17. Diversification and Challenges of Software Engineering Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1994-01-01

    The author poses certain questions in this paper: 'In the future, should there be just one software engineering standards set? If so, how can we work towards that goal? What are the challenges of internationalizing standards?' Based on the author's personal view, the statement of his position is as follows: 'There should NOT be just one set of software engineering standards in the future. At the same time, there should NOT be the proliferation of standards, and the number of sets of standards should be kept to a minimum.It is important to understand the diversification of the areas which are spanned by the software engineering standards.' The author goes on to describe the diversification of processes, the diversification in the national and international character of standards organizations, the diversification of the professional organizations producing standards, the diversification of the types of businesses and industries, and the challenges of internationalizing standards.

  18. 1998 federal technical standards workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The theme for the 1998 workshop was Standards Management -- A World of Change and Opportunities. The workshop`s goal was to further the implementation of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-113) through the sharing of standards management success stories, lessons learned, and emerging initiatives within the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. The target audience for this workshop included agency/department and contractor personnel and representatives of standards developing organizations that either used technical standards in their work for the Federal Government of participated in standards writing/management activities in support of the missions and programs of Federal agencies/departments. As with previous standards workshops sponsored by the DOE, views on the technical subject areas under the workshop theme were solicited from and provided by agency Standards Executives and standards program managers, voluntary standards organizations, and the private sector. This report includes vugraphs of the presentations.

  19. Standard for Bamboo and its International Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhaohui; JIANGZehui; SUNQixiang

    2004-01-01

    The discussion on the present status of standards for bamboo is made. The main group has 15 standards related to bamboo-based panel, bamboo-based panel for form and container with bamboo-based panel. The main technological parameters and making of main types of bamboo-based panels in standards have been analyzed for readers to understand the related standards more easily. Analysis of influence of new national standards of indoor decorating and refurbishing materials on standards for bamboo-based panels in China has been done. The paper compares Chinese standard on methods of tests for bamboo with the respective Indian standard. It is tested that speed' s influence on result of bamboo properties by the experimental data. It is possible to reunite some standards on bamboo in China and India into the uniform international standards on the basis of absorption of the reasonable parts. All the standards for bamboo will be changed with the development of bamboo products and technological process. The paper analyzes the insufficient aspects of the standards and proposes the trend toward international standards. A good standard not only promotes bamboo to well recycling utilization but also mitigates the press of protection of natural forest to realize sustainable development forest.

  20. Standardization of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Reis, Ribamar R R; Siffert, Beatriz B

    2014-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively investigated due to its great homogeneity and high luminosity, which make it possible to use them as standardizable candles for the determination of cosmological parameters. In 2011, the physics Nobel prize was awarded for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae. This is a pedagogical article, aimed at those starting their study of that subject, in which we dwell on some topics related to the analysis of SNe Ia and their use in luminosity distance estimators. Here we investigate their spectral properties and light curve standardization, paying careful attention to the fundamental quantities directly related to the SNe Ia observables. Finally, we describe our own step-by-step implementation of a classical light curve fi?tter, the stretch, applying it to real data from the Carnegie Supernova Project.

  1. Einstein: The Standard of Greatness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigdon, John (Washington University)

    2005-03-16

    Einstein's seven-month performance in 1905 has no equal in the history of physics. Beginning with his revolutionary paper, completed on March 17, and continuing to September 26, Einstein wrote a total of five papers that changed the infrastructure of physics and today, a century later, these papers remain part of the tectonic bedrock of the discipline. How Einstein approached his physics and what he accomplished certainly provided the basis for his world fame. But while the What? and the How? were, and remain, of primary importance, can they explain Einstein's celebrity standing after 1922 and his iconic status today, fifty years after his death? The question remains: Why is Einstein the standard of greatness?

  2. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  3. Beyond the Cosmological Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark

    2014-01-01

    After a decade and a half of research motivated by the accelerating universe, theory and experiment have a reached a certain level of maturity. The development of theoretical models beyond \\Lambda, or smooth dark energy, often called modified gravity, has led to broader insights into a path forward, and a host of observational and experimental tests have been developed. In this review we present the current state of the field and describe a framework for anticipating developments in the next decade. We identify the guiding principles for rigorous and consistent modifications of the standard model, and discuss the prospects for empirical tests. We begin by reviewing attempts to consistently modify Einstein gravity in the infrared, focusing on the notion that additional degrees of freedom introduced by the modification must screen themselves from local tests of gravity. We categorize screening mechanisms into three broad classes: mechanisms which become active in regions of high Newtonian potential, those in wh...

  4. Standardization of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rodrigo C. V.; Calvão, Maurício O.; Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Siffert, Beatriz B.

    2015-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively investigated due to their great homogeneity and high luminosity, which make it possible to use them as standardizable candles for the determination of cosmological parameters. In 2011, the physics Nobel prize was awarded ‘for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.’ This is a pedagogical article, aimed at those starting their study of that subject, in which we dwell on some topics related to the analysis of SNe Ia and their use in luminosity distance estimators. Here, we investigate their spectral properties and light curve standardization, paying careful attention to the fundamental quantities directly related to the SNe Ia observables. Finally, we describe our own step-by-step implementation of a classical light curve fitter, the stretch, applying it to real data from the Carnegie Supernova Project.

  5. Outlook on China's Food Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The output of many kinds of foods in China have stood first on the world list, such as fruits, vegetables,meats, rape oil, aquiculture, etc. But China's export volume is minor. For example, the rate of apples exported is less than 1% of the total production, accounting for 6% of the world export volume. This results from quality and safety concerns, particularly the latter one. In order to improve this situation, central government has issued Project of Farming Region for Superior Agricultural Products (2003-2007) recently. The project says that 1118 standardized demonstration regions (base) of producing superior agricultural products will be established within the next 5 years. The superior agricultural products include wheat, special-purpose corn, high oil soy been, cotton, "double-low" rape, "double-high″ sugar cane, citrus fruit, apples,beef cattle, mutton sheep, milk, aquiculture etc.

  6. Watermarking as a traceability standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatrieux, Gouenou; Quantin, Catherine; Allaert, François-André

    2012-01-01

    The exponential increase in the number of electronic document exchanges in healthcare has considerably increased the risk of document drop-out or address errors. It may therefore be important to know to whom the information belongs and who produced it. This becomes a major concern when the document has been involved in processes leading to the choice of therapy and eventually in cases where patients seek damages for medical malpractice. Watermarking, which is the embedding of security elements, such as a digital signature, within a document, can help to ensure that a digital document is reliable. However, at the same time, questions arise about the validity of watermarking-based evidence. In this paper, beyond the technical aspects, we discuss the worldwide legal acceptability of watermarking and the need for its recognition as a standard according to technical characteristics that the CEN and ISO need to agree on.

  7. The SYVAC standards (ed. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of the Environment has embarked on a programme to develop computer models to help with assessment of sites suitable for the disposal of nuclear wastes. The first priority is to produce a system, based on the System Variability Analysis Code (SYVAC) obtained from Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., suitable for assessing radioactive waste disposal in land repositories containing non heat producing wastes from typical UK sources. The requirements of the SYVAC system development were so diverse that each portion of the development was contracted to a different company. Scicon are responsible for software coordination, system integration and user interface. Their present report deals with SYVAC standards: FORTRAN coding; program documentation; testing guidelines; change control. (U.K.)

  8. Innovation and de facto standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Nylund, Petra; Schuster, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    investigate how the existence of a dominant design affects subsequent innovation in an industry. In particular, we study the influence on innovative performance, radical innovation, and process innovation. Analyzing longitudinal, cross-sectional patent data for more than 2.6 million patents filed from 1978...... to 2013, we find support for our hypotheses that an industry's innovative performance and degree of radical innovation are negatively influenced by dominant design in that industry, and that process innovation is fostered by the occurrence of a dominant design. We discuss the findings in the light...... of the increasing speed of technological development and standardization. Additionally, results from a sensitivity analysis for different threshold values of dominant design call for adjusting a binary definition of dominant design with different threshold values depending on the effects under study....

  9. Standard for Models and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    This NASA Technical Standard establishes uniform practices in modeling and simulation to ensure essential requirements are applied to the design, development, and use of models and simulations (MS), while ensuring acceptance criteria are defined by the program project and approved by the responsible Technical Authority. It also provides an approved set of requirements, recommendations, and criteria with which MS may be developed, accepted, and used in support of NASA activities. As the MS disciplines employed and application areas involved are broad, the common aspects of MS across all NASA activities are addressed. The discipline-specific details of a given MS should be obtained from relevant recommended practices. The primary purpose is to reduce the risks associated with MS-influenced decisions by ensuring the complete communication of the credibility of MS results.

  10. The Importance of Standard Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Morera-Ocon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dear Sir: Sanjay et al. [1] assessed compliance with the revised guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis published by the work group of the British Society of Gastroenterology in 2005 [2]. This article is valuable in reminding us of the standards of care in this disease but there are some points which may require comments and questions. First, a distinction between severe acute pancreatitis, defined by the presence of complications, and predicted severe acute pancreatitis as determined by multiple score systems should be encouraged. The recommendation of the guidelines for the definition of severity is that the Atlanta criteria should be used. Nevertheless, the authors use C-reactive protein level, Glasgow score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score to determine the severity and, based on these, 46% of their patients had severe pancreatitis and 54% had mild pancreatitis. Those results are far from those published regarding severity distribution in acute pancreatitis [2].

  11. CST-01-Central Standard Timing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    薄如蝉翼名为CentralStandardTiming的工作室推出了E—ink材质代号为CST-01的手表,其厚度仅为0.8mm,号称全球最薄。一次充电10分钟便可连续使用15年。该手表屏幕由多层柔性材料构成。整体十分轻巧并且可弯曲,腕带则采用了柔性不锈钢材质。CST-01的预售价格为129美元。约合人民币800元,目前已经在著名的集资网站Kickstarter上创建项目。

  12. Non-Standard Numeration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ambrož

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We study some properties of non-standard numeration systems with an irrational base ß >1, based on the so-called beta-expansions of real numbers [1]. We discuss two important properties of these systems, namely the Finiteness property, stating whether the set of finite expansions in a given system forms a ring, and then the problem of fractional digits arising under arithmetic operations with integers in a given system. Then we introduce another way of irrational representation of numbers, slightly different from classical beta-expansions. Here we restrict ourselves to one irrational base – the golden mean ? – and we study the Finiteness property again. 

  13. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  14. Developing the Framed Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Michael J; Chan, H M; Tsou, S T

    2011-01-01

    The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and 3 fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global $su(3)$ symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal", rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale $\\mu$, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general non-flat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the QCD action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the CKM matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

  15. Testing biodegradability with standardized methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagga, U

    1997-12-01

    Laboratory test methods are used by industry laboratories to determine biodegradability, an important parameter for the evaluation of the ecological behaviour of substances. Biodegradability has a key role due to the simple fact that a degradable substance will cause no long term risk in the environment. The great variety of biodegradation processes in the natural environment and in technical plants for treating waste water and solid wastes gave rise to a rather large number of test methods based on different test principles. To guarantee the acceptance of the test results by authorities and customers internationally standardized methods (ISO, OECD) and established quality criteria (GLP, EN 45,000, ISO 9000) are used. PMID:9415981

  16. When A Standard Candle Flickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Beklen Elif; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H.; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Jahoda, Keith; Jenke, Peter; Kippen, R. Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A.; Kuulkers, Erik; Lund, Niels; Meegan, Charles A.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert; Rodi, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well-known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in August 2008 a 7% (70 mcrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15-50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed in the 15-50 keV band with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on Board INTEGRAL (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the 3 - 15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and in the 50 - 100 keV band with GBM, Swift/BAT, and INTEGRAL/IBIS. The change in the pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a 3 year timescale are also seen independently with the PCA, BAT, and IBIS from 2005 to 2008, with a flux minimum in April 2007. As of August 2010, the current flux has declined below the 2007 minimum.

  17. A New Standard Pulsar Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  18. Literary Censorship: The Changing Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Al-Sharqi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Censorship is a double-edged sword that has bred legal, political, and moral wrangling across the globe. The basic controversy, which harkens back to ancient times, stems from the motivation and intention of the censoring authority. The censoring authority controls literary and informational contents, based on the promulgated political, moral, religious, and cultural values of the land. Historically, the politicians, judiciary, clergymen, powerful groups, and the public at large were involved in guarding public morals and rooting out obscenity. The obscenity laws outlawed the selling, purchasing, printing, importing, and mailing of obscene items. However, in today's day and age, the Internet has made it difficult to control the circulation of what was once considered obscene. Censorship has evolved to monitor and control online content to keep abreast with the changing times; nevertheless, it does not always effectively control the questionable content. Moreover, in the past, cultural values and demography played a vital role in deciding what needed to be censored. Internet, as an electronic global village, has redefined demography; therefore, the global as well as indigenous standards upon which literature were once analyzed for censorship is now blurred. The promise of free speech has given power to the people that live in mature democracies. However, there should be a self-imposed code of conduct so that the right of free speech does not infringe on others' right of existence. This paper reviews censorship, tracing its historical path and evolution over the years, its changing standards, and its pros and cons. Lastly, the paper discusses the need to conjoin freedom of speech with the responsibility to protect the diverse cultures, religions, races, sects, genders, and especially the young generation.Keywords: art, censorship, freedom of speech, literature, morality, obscenity 

  19. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THERMAL DISTRIBUTION STANDARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-10-31

    This report details development paths for advanced versions of ASHRAE Standard 152, Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Efficiency. During the course of conversations within the ASHRAE committee responsible for developing the standard (SPC152P), three areas of development for Standard 152 were proposed: (1) extend the scope of the standard to include thermal comfort variables; (2) extend the scope of the standard to include small commercial buildings; and (3) improve the existing standard with respect to accuracy and economy of effort. Research needs associated with each of the three options are identified.

  20. The ANS mathematics and computation software standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, A. O. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Mathematics and Computations Div. of the American Nuclear Society sponsors the ANS-10 Standards Subcommittee. This subcommittee, which is part of the ANS Standards Committee, currently maintains three ANSI/ANS software standards. These standards are: Portability of Scientific and Engineering Software, ANS-10.2; Guidelines for the Verification and Validation of Scientific and Engineering Computer Programs for the Nuclear Industry, ANS-10.4; and Accommodating User Needs in Scientific and Engineering Computer Software Development, ANS-10.5. A fourth Standard, Documentation of Computer Software, ANS-10.3, is available as a historical Standard. (authors)

  1. Survey of standards for electronic image displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Electronic visual displays have been evolving from the 1960s basis of cathode ray tube (CRT) technology. Now, many other technologies are also available, including both flat panels and projection displays. Standards for these displays are being developed at both the national level and the international levels. Standards activity within the United States is in its infancy and is fragmented according to the inclination of each of the standards developing organizations. The latest round of flat panel display technology was primarily developed in Japan. Initially standards arose from component vendor-to-OEM customer relationships. As a result, Japanese standards for components are the best developed. The Electronics Industries Association of Japan (EIAJ) is providing their standards to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for adoption. On the international level, professional societies such as the human factors society (hfs) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have completed major standards. Human factors society developed the first ergonomic standard hfs-100 and the ISO has developed some sections of a broader ergonomic standard ISO 9241. This paper addresses the organization of standards activity. Active organizations and their areas of focus are identified. The major standards that have been completed or are in development are described. Finally, suggestions for improving this standards activity are proposed.

  2. 40 CFR 63.823 - Standards: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for the Printing and Publishing Industry § 63.823 Standards: General. Table 1 to this subpart provides cross references to the 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, general provisions, indicating...

  3. The Changing Work Environment and Skills Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, June S.

    1997-01-01

    Compares the National Business Education Association's National Standards for Business Education and the Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States' Administrative Support Occupations Skills Standards. Discusses their use in preparing secondary and postsecondary students for the changing workplace. (SK)

  4. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This...

  5. International Standardization Activities for Optical Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haruo Okamura

    2003-01-01

    International standardization activities for Optical Amplifiers at IECTC86 and ITU-T SG15 are reviewed. Current discussions include Optical Amplifier safety guideline, Reliability standard, Rest methods of Noise and PMD, Definitions of Raman amplifier parameters and OA classification.

  6. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  7. ISO INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR PARTICLE SIZING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renliang Xu

    2004-01-01

    This introductory article describes how typically an ISO International Standard is made and the activity of the technical committee (TC 24/SC 4) responsible to establish International Standards related to particle sizing methods.

  8. 48 CFR 209.104 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards. 209.104 Section 209.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Standards....

  9. Chinese Bedding Technology Standard under Drafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    National Home Textile Standardization Technology Committee(NHTSTC)set up its Bedding Branch Committee. This will promote the work of Chinese bedding technology standardization and a symbol that China step up to meet the

  10. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ISO 26000

    OpenAIRE

    Антошко, Тарас Р.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the peculiarities of corporate social vivdpovidlnosti. Determining the main directions of its implementation. Identified the need to develop standards for corporate social responsibility.  The main components of the standard of corporate social responsibility.

  11. Series of China Standardization History, Part 5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    The reform and opening up started in the 1980s drove the standardization undertaking in China began to seek conformity with the international community.Especially after China became a member of WTO in December 2001,the government and enterprises implemented Code of Good Practice for Standardization according to the rules of WTO TBT and WTO SPS.The standardization undertaking has gained new progress.Governments at all levels have attached great importance to the standardization work,not only providing support in policies,but also offering financial and human resources support.Only in China's 10th “Five-Year Plan” started in 2001 and 11th “Five-year Plan” started in 2006 for its economic and social development,the governments at all levels in China had input billions in the standardization work to support the development of various standards,the implementation of standardization pilot projects and the organization of various standardization demonstration areas.

  12. Atomic frequency-time-length standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of operative of atomic frequency-time-length standards and their principle characteristics are described. The role of quartz crystal oscillators which are sloved to active or passive standards is presented. (authors)

  13. On the Nature of Standards and Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing WANG; Xu LI; Lanxi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction 'Standard' and 'patent' are the buzz words in China's information and communication technology (ICT) industry. While the government has expressed its intention to promote standardization and patent protec-tion, what direction should enterprises especially domestic ICT companies take?

  14. Standardization of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards for concentrated latex used in the preparation of irradiated latex, standard irradiation conditions, further treatment of irradiated latex, level of prevulcanization and its estimation, film preparation and testing procedures are discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  16. Status of conversion of DOE standards to non-Government standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, H.L.

    1992-07-01

    One major goal of the DOE Technical Standards Program is to convert existing DOE standards into non-Government standards (NGS's) where possible. This means that a DOE standard may form the basis for a standards-writing committee to produce a standard in the same subject area using the non-Government standards consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of DOE standards to NGSs, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in a DOE standard will not be incorporated into the published non-Government standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by private industry. If requirements in a DOE standard are not incorporated in a non-Government standard and the requirements are considered necessary for DOE program applications, the DOE standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the non-Government standard. The DOE standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the non-Government standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of DOE standards may not always be realized, the Department's technical standards policy as stated in Order 1300.2A has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the non-Government standard.

  17. Status of conversion of DOE standards to non-Government standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, H.L.

    1992-07-01

    One major goal of the DOE Technical Standards Program is to convert existing DOE standards into non-Government standards (NGS`s) where possible. This means that a DOE standard may form the basis for a standards-writing committee to produce a standard in the same subject area using the non-Government standards consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of DOE standards to NGSs, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in a DOE standard will not be incorporated into the published non-Government standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by private industry. If requirements in a DOE standard are not incorporated in a non-Government standard and the requirements are considered necessary for DOE program applications, the DOE standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the non-Government standard. The DOE standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the non-Government standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of DOE standards may not always be realized, the Department`s technical standards policy as stated in Order 1300.2A has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the non-Government standard.

  18. Reading the New Standard ISA700

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Botez

    2010-01-01

    Review of permanent professional standards is a requirement for professional bodies of professional accountants, resulting in broader processes of globalization and harmonization. A set of revised standards on financial audit engagement was published by IFAC in April 2009. International Standard on Auditing (ISA) 700 "Forming an opinion and reporting on financial statements” is one of them. This standard deals with the auditor's responsibility to form an opinion on the financial statements an...

  19. Non standard interpretations of LOTOS specification

    OpenAIRE

    Bolognesi, Tommaso; Latella, Diego; Zuppa, Elisabetta

    1990-01-01

    Non-standard interpretations of LOTOS specifications are proposed as a most convenient and conservative way to extend the expressivity of the language without affecting its standard syntax and transition-system-based semantics. Some simple non?standard interpretations, alse called view functions, are introduced. Two different styles of formal definition are adopted (denotational and operational) for providing, respectively, a refinement of the standard LOTOS process functionality parameter, a...

  20. Standards : challenges for collection development and organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Jange, Suresh; Kademani, B. S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the role of standards affecting all walks of modern life as a basic foundation to ensure uniformity, reliability and excellence of a product, quality or service in order to achieve overall efficiency and economy of the nation. Collection development policy of standards has been discussed at length providing comprehensive list of secondary sources of standards and points out the role of Information Handling Service (IHS) -A solution for meting all types of standards both governmental...

  1. 1996 DOE technical standards program workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The workshop theme is `The Strategic Standardization Initiative - A Technology Exchange and Global Competitiveness Challenge for DOE.` The workshop goal is to inform the DOE technical standards community of strategic standardization activities taking place in the Department, other Government agencies, standards developing organizations, and industry. Individuals working on technical standards will be challenged to improve cooperation and communications with the involved organizations in response to the initiative. Workshop sessions include presentations by representatives from various Government agencies that focus on coordination among and participation of Government personnel in the voluntary standards process; reports by standards organizations, industry, and DOE representatives on current technology exchange programs; and how the road ahead appears for `information superhighway` standardization. Another session highlights successful standardization case studies selected from several sites across the DOE complex. The workshop concludes with a panel discussion on the goals and objectives of the DOE Technical Standards Program as envisioned by senior DOE management. The annual workshop on technical standards has proven to be an effective medium for communicating information related to standards throughout the DOE community. Technical standards are used to transfer technology and standardize work processes to produce consistent, acceptable results. They provide a practical solution to the Department`s challenge to protect the environment and the health and safety of the public and workers during all facility operations. Through standards, the technologies of industries and governments worldwide are available to DOE. The DOE Technical Standards Program, a Department-wide effort that crosscuts all organizations and disciplines, links the Department to those technologies.

  2. Japanese National Safety Standards for Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junkichi Sumiya

    2006-01-01

    @@ I am working in Japan electrical safety & environment technology laboratory, which is called JET for short. In JET, we are carrying out the safety test of electrical equipment according to Japanese domestic standards or IEC standards. And in my section, our stuff is drafting some national safety standards harmonized with IEC in cooperation with the government. The standards are applied for the mandatory regulation and other schemes.

  3. Standardization Is Not Everything.Without Standardization, Nothing Can Be Done

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Standardization is not everything, but without standardization nothing can be done. Siemens makes this conclusion from its 150 years experience in global business. Global standardization strategy is one of our basic strategies for business success.

  4. China Technical Standardization Development Strategy and National Technical Standardization System Construction Senior Forum Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of International Standard Day, China Technical Standardization Development Strategy and National Technical Standardization System Construction Senior Forum was held in Beijing from September 26th to September 28th.

  5. Education on standardization as an input to research on standardization : a success story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, G.

    2012-01-01

    At the faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, education about standardization focuses on market based standardization and particularly onfactors for standards battles. We have developed a general (award winning) course on technology and strateg

  6. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H.

    2016-01-01

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synt

  7. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... NIGC published a final rule in the Federal Register called Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian...

  8. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... (NIGC) proposes to amend its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1012 - Compressor standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measured during each compliance test. (g) Reciprocating compressor exemption. Any existing reciprocating... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor standards. 63.1012 Section... Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1012 Compressor standards. (a)...

  10. Do We Need National Standards with Teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2007-01-01

    The author, director of the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project, tackles the following question: Should the United States have national standards with teeth, that is, a single set of standards tied to assessments and agreed to by the states? Proponents advance five main arguments for implementing such a standard. In his rebuttal, the…

  11. Fundamentals of National Standardization Work in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The overall requirements for standardization work in 2007 are to continuously push forward the implementation of the national standardization strategy, to comprehensively improve the effectiveness of standardization in upgrading product quality, to promote industrial development, to save resources and build a harmonious society, and to further enhance the strategic position of China in international trade.

  12. 40 CFR 63.642 - General standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the source. The level is not fixed and can change as the emissions from each emission point change or...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.642 General standards....

  13. Consumer and professional standards: working towards consensus

    OpenAIRE

    C. Williamson

    2000-01-01

    Standards of treatment and care should be acceptable to healthcare consumers as well as to healthcare professionals. A simple categorisation of standards according to their acceptability to consumers is outlined. Professional/consumer groups which review and set standards are discussed, with emphasis on the principles of partnership. Working together towards consensus can be difficult but is now an important way forward.

  14. 48 CFR 570.701 - Standard forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Forms 570.701 Standard forms. Use Standard Form 2, U.S. Government Lease for Real Property, to award leases unless you use GSA Form 3626 (see 570.702). Delete the reference to the Standard Form 2-A in paragraph 7....

  15. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  16. 18 CFR 801.1 - Standard definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard definitions... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.1 Standard definitions. (a) Many terms that will be used in official Commission... clarity of the meaning the Commission applies to frequently used terms standard definitions will...

  17. The IEEE Software Engineering Standards Process

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Fletcher J.

    1984-01-01

    Software Engineering has emerged as a field in recent years, and those involved increasingly recognize the need for standards. As a result, members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a subcommittee to develop these standards. This paper discusses the ongoing standards development, and associated efforts.

  18. STANDARDIZATION AND ITS ROLE IN PRESCRIBING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Catalin Criveanu; Natalita Maria Sperdea

    2014-01-01

    Standardization activity which by its applications, has an important impact on the economy and society, is the main tool for regulating the quality of products. Products' standardization must pursue simultaneously the requirements of producers, traders and consumers. The paper presents some aspects of standardization issues lead us to understand its importance in prescribing quality.

  19. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... device requirements of 40 CFR 60.18. (3) The specifications and requirements listed in paragraphs (c)(1... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard. 61.271 Section 61...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene...

  20. 50 CFR 270.15 - Quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality standards. 270.15 Section 270.15... Quality standards. (a) Each Council may develop and submit to NMFS for approval or, upon the request of a Council, NMFS will develop quality standards for the species of fish or fish products described in...