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Sample records for 99mtc labeled bombesin

  1. Altered splenic uptake in the biodistribution of 99MTc-stannous fluoride colloid in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiolabelled white cells have found extensive application in nuclear medicine practice, with use in detecting sites of infection and inflammation. In 99MTc-stannous flu- oride (SnF2) colloid labelled leucocyte scans high liver and spleen activity is visualised, limiting the potential of this technique. This is thought to be due to free or unphagocytosed 99MTc-SnF2 colloid in the preparation. Labelling white cells with 99MTc-SnF2 depends upon phagocytic engulfment of this colloid. Non-phagocy-tosed colloid may be a cause of increased splenic activity. Our aims were to assess if it were possible to reduce liver/spleen uptake of 99MTc-SnF2 colloid in a rat model, by administering unlabelled SnF2 colloid before injection of radiocolloid, in a modification of the standard British Pharmacopoeial test. The biodistribution of 99MTc-SnF2 colloid alone gave 85.4% uptake in the liver and 7.6% in the spleen. A pre-injection of 26.5μg cold SnF2 and then 99MTc-SnF2 colloid resulted in decreased spleen uptake by 43%. A higher (52μg) pre-injection dose gave a greater decrease in splenic uptake by 53%. When ex vivo opsonised 99MTc-SnF2 colloid was administered, both liver and spleen uptake was not reduced. From these results, a pre-injection of unlabelled SnF2 substantially depletes the circulating opsonin concentration, thereby decreasing the opsonisation rate of unopsonised 99MTc-SnF2 colloid. The limiting factor is likely to be the amount of opsonisation in the plasma rather than phagocytic capacity of the macrophages of liver and spleen. In conclusion these results suggest that a pre-injection of cold stannous fluoride may reduce splenic uptake in 99MTc-SnF2 colloid labelled white cell scans. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Lutetium-177 Labeled Bombesin Peptides for Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tamila Stott; Bandari, Rajendra P; Jiang, Zongrun; Smith, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    in 177Lu-labeled bombesin peptides for targeted radiotherapy that includes agonist, antagonist, and multivalent cell-targeting agents. In vitro, in vivo translational, and in vivo human clinical investigations are described. PMID:25771366

  3. Click chemistry for [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] labeling of Lys{sup 3}-bombesin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro-Flores, G., E-mail: ferro_flores@yahoo.com.m [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Rivero, I.A. [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico); Santos-Cuevas, C.L. [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sarmiento, J.I. [Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico); Arteaga de Murphy, C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico); Ocampo-Garcia, B.E. [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Garcia-Becerra, R.; Ordaz-Rosado, D. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC labeled Lys{sup 3}-bombesin has shown specific binding to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRP-r) over-expressed in cancer cells. Click chemistry offers an innovative functionalization strategy for biomolecules such as bombesin. The aim of this research was to apply a click chemistry approach for [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] labeling of Lys{sup 3}-bombesin and to compare the in vitro MCF7 breast cancer cell uptake and biodistribution profile in mice with that of {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin. The results suggest a higher lipophilicity for {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-triazole-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin which explains its higher in vivo hepatobiliary elimination. Pancreas-to-blood ratio for {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-triazole-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin was 4.46 at 3 h and both bombesin radiopharmaceuticals showed specific recognition for GRP receptors in MCF7 cancer cells. Click chemistry is a reliable approach for [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] labeling of Lys{sup 3}-bombesin.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of a technetium-99m labeled cytotoxic bombesin peptide conjugate for targeting bombesin receptor-expressing tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okarvi, Subhani M. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: sokarvi@kfshrc.edu.sa; Al Jammaz, Ibrahim [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-04-15

    Conjugation of the cytotoxic drugs to receptor-binding peptides is an attractive approach for the targeted delivery of cytotoxic peptide conjugates to tumor cells. In an attempt to develop an efficient peptide-based radiopharmaceutical for targeting bombesin (BN) receptor-expressing tumors (i.e., breast and prostate), we have prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis, a novel BN analog derived from the universal sequence of BN and conjugated to a widely characterized antineoplastic agent, methotrexate (MTX). MTX-BN, after radiolabeling with {sup 99m}Tc via stannous-tartrate exchange, showed a good stability against cysteine and histidine transchelation as well as a high in vitro metabolic stability in human plasma. In vitro cell-binding and internalization on MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T47-D breast cancer and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines demonstrated high affinity and specificity of {sup 99m}Tc-MTX-BN towards both human breast and prostate cancer cells (binding affinities in nanomolar range). In addition, the radioconjugate displayed a significant internalization (values ranged between 19-35%) into the tumor cells. In vivo biodistribution and clearance kinetics in Balb/c mice are characterized by an efficient clearance from the blood and excretion mainly through the renal-urinary pathway with some elimination via the hepatobiliary system. In vivo tumor uptake in nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 cells was 2.70{+-}0.44% ID/g at 1 h, whereas in nude mice with human epidermoid KB cells the accumulation in the tumor was found to be 1.48{+-}0.31% ID/g at 1 h post injection. The tumor uptake was always higher than in the blood and muscle, with good tumor retention and good tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios. The accumulation/retention in the major organs (i.e., lungs, stomach, liver, intestines, etc.) was low to moderate (<6% ID/g) in both healthy and tumor-bearing mice. However, the uptake/retention in the kidneys was rather high (up to 11.05{+-}1.80% ID/g), which is of a

  5. Development of lutetium-labeled bombesin derivates: relationship between structure and diagnostic-therapeutic activity for prostate tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombesin (BBN) receptors - in particular, the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor peptide - have been shown to be massively over expressed in several human tumors types, including prostate cancer, and could be an alternative as target for its treatment by radionuclide therapy (RNT). A large number of BBN analogs had already been synthesized for this purpose and have shown to reduce tumor growth in mice. Nevertheless, most of the studied analogs exhibit high abdominal accumulation, especially in pancreas. This abdominal accumulation may represent a problem in clinical use of radiolabeled bombesin analogs probably due to serious side effects to patients. The goal of the present work was to radiolabel a novel series of bombesin derivatives with lutetium-177 and to evaluate the relationship between their structure and diagnostic-therapeutic activity for prostate tumor. The generic structure of studied peptides is DOTA-Phe-(Gly)n-BBN(6-14), where DOTA is the chelator, n is the number of glycine amino acids of Phe-(Gly)n spacer and BBN(6-14) is the bombesin sequence from the amino acid 6 to the amino acid 14. Preliminary studies were done to establish the ideal labeling conditions for obtaining the highest yield of labeled bombesin derivatives, determined by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The stability of the preparations was evaluated either after storing at 2-8 degree C or incubation in human serum at 37 degree C and the partition coefficient was determined in n:octanol:water. In vivo studies were performed in both healthy Balb-c and Nude mice bearing PC-3 xenografts, in order to characterize the biological properties of labeled peptides. In vitro studies involved the evaluation of cold bombesin derivatives effect in PC-3 cells proliferation. Bombesin derivatives were successfully labeled with high yield at optimized conditions and exhibited high stability at 4 degree C. The analysis of the stability

  6. Therapeutic Efficacy with Treatment-related Toxicities of {sup 177}Lu-labeled Bombesin Derivative for the Peptide Receptor Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Lee, So Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) has been shown to be overexpressed in many human tumours, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancers, endometrial cancers, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In particular, GRPR expression is high in 83 % of invasive primary prostatic carcinomas. These results suggest that {sup 177}Lu-labeled bombesin derivative has promising characteristics as a novel nuclear medicine, especially for the treatment of GRPR over-expressing prostate tumors.

  7. Evaluation of 64Cu-labeled bifunctional chelate-bombesin conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Mohand, Samia; Fournier, Patrick; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Kiefer, Garry E; Jurek, Paul; Ferreira, Cara L; Bénard, François; Guérin, Brigitte

    2011-08-17

    Several bifunctional chelates (BFCs) were investigated as carriers of (64)Cu for PET imaging. The most widely used chelator for (64)Cu labeling of BFCs is DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N'''-tretraacetic acid), even though this complex exhibits only moderate in vivo stability. In this study, we prepared a series of alternative chelator-peptide conjugates labeled with (64)Cu, measured in vitro receptor binding affinities in human breast cancer T47D cells expressing the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and compared their in vivo stability in mice. DOTA-, NOTA-(1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid), PCTA-(3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9-triacetic acid), and Oxo-DO3A-(1-oxa-4,7,10-triazacyclododecane-4,7,10-triacetic acid) peptide conjugates were prepared using H(2)N-Aoc-[d-Tyr(6),βAla(11),Thi(13),Nle(14)]bombesin(6-14) (BBN) as a peptide template. The BBN moiety was selected since it binds with high affinity to the GRPR, which is overexpressed on human breast cancer cells. A convenient synthetic approach for the attachment of aniline-BFC to peptides on solid support is also presented. To facilitate the attachment of the aniline-PCTA and aniline-Oxo-DO3A to the peptide via an amide bond, a succinyl spacer was introduced at the N-terminus of BBN. The partially protected aniline-BFC (p-H(2)N-Bn-PCTA(Ot-Bu)(3) or p-H(2)N-Bn-DO3A(Ot-Bu)(3)) was then coupled to the resulting N-terminal carboxylic acid preactivated with DEPBT/ClHOBt on resin. After cleavage and purification, the peptide-conjugates were labeled with (64)Cu using [(64)Cu]Cu(OAc)(2) in 0.1 M ammonium acetate buffer at 100 °C for 15 min. Labeling efficacy was >90% for all peptides; Oxo-DO3A-BBN was incubated an additional 150 min at 100 °C to achieve this high yield. Specific activities varied from 76 to 101 TBq/mmol. Competition assays on T47D cells showed that all BFC-BBN complexes retained high affinity for the GRPR. All BFC-BBN (64)Cu

  8. Comparative study of two different Bombesin derivates labeled with {sup 111}In and biodistribution in normal mice

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    Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Alcarde, Lais F.; Correa, Beatriz L.; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Couto, Renata M.; Mengatti, Jair; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: ricardooliveira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical speciality that uses radioactive compounds (radiopharmaceuticals), consisting of a substrate and a radioactive isotope, for diagnostic. Among the peptides of interest for Nuclear Medicine, bombesin (BBN), a 14 amino acid neuropeptide analog of human gastrin-releasing peptide, is one of the highlights. This is a comparative study aiming to establish the best condition to radiolabel two BBN derivatives, (DTPA-Phe-Gly{sub 5}-BBN{sub (6-14)}) and (DTPA-Phe-Gly{sub 2}-BBN{sub (6-14})) with 111-indium. Specific objectives of this study were evaluate a good condition of radiolabelling in search excellent specific activity the bombesin derivatives and determinate the biodistribution in health mice model. Ten micrograms (10μg) of the derivative DTPA-Phe-Gly2-BBN (6-14) was labeled with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} at 25°C for different times (5, 15 and 30 minutes). The best condition was applied to peptide mass variation (10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 μg), keeping all other parameters fixed. Finally, the influence of {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} activity in the radiolabeling process (18.5, 37, 55.5, 74, 185 MBq) was evaluated. The best conditions were repeated for the second derivate, DTPA-Phe-Gly{sub 5}-BBN{sub (6-14}). The radiochemical purity was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), using 0.2 M EDTA pH 5 as solvent, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a C18 column with linear gradient 10% A to 90% A (v/v) (A: 0,1% of TFA in CH3CN; B: 0,1% of TFA in H2O) at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute for 15 minutes. Considering the reaction time, the higher radiochemical purity was obtained when 10μg of the peptide was labeled with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of {sup 111}In for 15 minutes at 25°C (97.33 ± 0.50%, n=3). In the mass variation study, the best results of radiochemical purity were obtained when 10 μg of the peptide was employed (97.69 ± 0.4%, n = 4). Finally, the maximum specific activity of the radiolabelled

  9. Comparison of estimated human effective dose of 67Ga- and 99mTc-labeled bombesin based on distribution data in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the preparation, biodistribution and absorbed dose prediction of 67Ga and 99mTc labeled bombesin (BBN) in human organs, after injection in mice determined via medical internal radiation dose. We estimated that a 185-MBq injection of 67Ga-BBN into the humans would result in an estimated effective absorbed dose of 2.50 mSv whereas this value for 99mTc-BBN is 1.33 mSv in the whole body. These results suggest that injection of 67Ga-BBN would result 2 times higher absorbed dose compare to 99mTc-BBN. (author)

  10. Development of lutetium-labeled bombesin derivates: relationship between structure and diagnostic-therapeutic activity for prostate tumor; Desenvolvimento de derivados da bombesina radiomarcados com lutecio-177: relacao estrutura e potencial diagnostico-terapeutico para tumor de prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli

    2009-07-01

    Bombesin (BBN) receptors - in particular, the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor peptide - have been shown to be massively over expressed in several human tumors types, including prostate cancer, and could be an alternative as target for its treatment by radionuclide therapy (RNT). A large number of BBN analogs had already been synthesized for this purpose and have shown to reduce tumor growth in mice. Nevertheless, most of the studied analogs exhibit high abdominal accumulation, especially in pancreas. This abdominal accumulation may represent a problem in clinical use of radiolabeled bombesin analogs probably due to serious side effects to patients. The goal of the present work was to radiolabel a novel series of bombesin derivatives with lutetium-177 and to evaluate the relationship between their structure and diagnostic-therapeutic activity for prostate tumor. The generic structure of studied peptides is DOTA-Phe-(Gly){sub n}-BBN(6-14), where DOTA is the chelator, n is the number of glycine amino acids of Phe-(Gly){sub n} spacer and BBN(6-14) is the bombesin sequence from the amino acid 6 to the amino acid 14. Preliminary studies were done to establish the ideal labeling conditions for obtaining the highest yield of labeled bombesin derivatives, determined by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The stability of the preparations was evaluated either after storing at 2-8 degree C or incubation in human serum at 37 degree C and the partition coefficient was determined in n:octanol:water. In vivo studies were performed in both healthy Balb-c and Nude mice bearing PC-3 xenografts, in order to characterize the biological properties of labeled peptides. In vitro studies involved the evaluation of cold bombesin derivatives effect in PC-3 cells proliferation. Bombesin derivatives were successfully labeled with high yield at optimized conditions and exhibited high stability at 4 degree C. The analysis of

  11. The integrity of the disulfide bond in a cyclic somatostatin analog during 99mtc complexation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development of a variety of thiol-free chelating agents has facilitated the design of 99mTc-labeled somatostatin analogs suitable for receptor imaging of somatostatin-positive tumors. However, it remains ambiguous whether the disulfide bonds in cyclic peptides are stable during 99mTc complexation reactions, and contradictory results have been reported regarding the integrity of disulfide bonds in cyclic somatostatin analogs. To estimate the stability of the disulfide bond in a synthetic somatostatin analog at low peptide concentrations, [125I]I-RC-160, in which radioiodine was incorporated into the 3-Tyr residue, was synthesized and the integrity of the disulfide bond of the peptide was investigated in the presence of reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, dithionite, and stannous ions. The disulfide bond in [125I]I-RC-160 remained stable in the presence of ascorbic acid in boiling water. The disulfide bond was also stable when treated with stannous ions at concentrations sufficient to reduce 99mTc for complexation with a thiol-free chelating agent, bis(hydroxamamide) analog when the 99mTc complexation reaction was performed at room temperature. However, the disulfide bond of [125I]I-RC-160 was slightly cleaved in the presence of a small amount of stannous ions when the reaction was performed in boiling water. Treatment of [125I]I-RC-160 with dithionite in boiling water markedly reduced the disulfide bond of the parental peptide. These findings indicated that synthetic somatostatin analogs may be labeled with 99mTc with stannous ions as the reducing agent without impairing their structure after conjugation of thiol-free chelating agents that provide 99mTc chelates under mild reaction conditions

  12. Thyroidal radioisotope uptake in euthyroid cats : a comparison between 131I and 99MTcO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lambrechts

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thyroidal evaluation systems in euthyroid cats (n = 12 were compared. A single, confirmed hyperthyroid cat was included for interest. Firstly, thyroidal uptake of an intravenous bolus of approximately 111 MBq (3 mCi 99MTcO4- was estimated by using a scintillation camera and calculating the ratio of thyroid to salivary activities at 20 min and 4 h. Thyroid to salivary activity ratios were 1:1 at 20 min and 2:1 at 4 h. Two discrete areas of salivary uptake were identified, namely a parotid/mandibular complex and a more rostral buccal/sublingual complex. These results were compared to radioiodine uptake of an oral dose of approximately 0.925 MBq (25 mCi 131I using a standard thyroid uptake system, measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. Mean radioiodine thyroidal uptake started at 33 % at 1 h, stabilised at 21 % between 4 and 24 h, and dropped to 18 % at 48 h. There was a significant correlation between the early thyroid:salivary ratio of the parotid/mandibular complex and the radioiodine uptake at 12 h.

  13. Single vial preparation of 99mtc ciprofloxacin for the detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aim: To ascertain the usefulness of single vial formulation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin (Diagnobact) in detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Introductions: Tuberculosis is one of the major health concerns not only in developing countries but also in the developed nations. Imaging with radiolabelled broad-spectrum antibiotic, being more specific for infection, has the advantage over other nuclear medicine techniques. We are using Diagnobact to detect sites of infection. Methods: 12 patients (age-23 ±11 years, M:F-8:4) of tuberculosis, confirmed by culture/PCR underwent Diagnobact scan. Scanning was done at 1 hour, 4 hour and 24 hours after intravenous injection of 15 mCi of Diagnobact. Rising lesion to background ratio was taken as the criteria for labeling a Diagnobact scan to be positive.Results: Of the 12 patients, two had tibial tuberculous osteomyelitis (TBOM), two vertebral TBOM, one elbow TBOM, four hip joint TBOM, two shaft of femur TBOM and one patient had soft tissue tuberculosis of gluteal region. Diagnobact scan was positive in 10 patients while two patients with vertebral TBOM were negative. Conclusion: Diagnobact, like Infecton, is also useful for the detection of extra pulmonary tuberculosis but for vertebral TBOM. However, more patients need to be studied to reach at statistically significant conclusion. (author)

  14. Evaluating disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis using 99mtc-glucosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolios, Nicholas; Ali, Marina; Camden, Bradley; Aflaky, Elham; Pavic, Katrina; Markewycz, Andrew; De Costa, Robert; Angelides, Socrates

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of a novel radiotracer, 99mTc-glucosamine, in assessing disease activity of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with RA (nine males and 16 females) and 12 patients with AS (all male) at various stages of disease were recruited for the study. A clinical history and examination was performed, followed by the measurement of hematological, biochemical, and autoimmune serological parameters to assess disease activity. 99mTc-glucosamine was intravenously administered and scans were compared with other imaging modalities, including plain X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone scans. Results In patients with AS, 99mTc-glucosamine scans were more capable of identifying active disease and differentiating between inflammatory and non-inflammatory causes. In patients with RA, 99mTc-glucosamine accumulated at all known sites of disease involvement. Uptake was most pronounced in patients with active untreated disease. The relative tracer activity in the involved joints increased with time compared with that in the adjoining soft tissue, liver, and cardiac blood pool. Using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation among glucosamine scan scores, C-reactive protein (p=0.048), and clinical assessment (p=0.003), which was not noted with bone scans. Conclusion The radiotracer was well tolerated by all patients, with no adverse reactions. 99mTc-glucosamine imaging could detect spinal inflammation in AS. With respect to RA, 99mTc-glucosamine was a viable alternative to 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate nuclear bone scans for imaging inflamed joints and had the added advantage of demonstrating a significant clinical correlation between disease activity and scan findings. PMID:27708974

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a (18F-labeled high affinity NOTA conjugated bombesin antagonist as a PET ligand for GRPR-targeted tumor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Varasteh

    Full Text Available Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR in prostate cancer suggests that this receptor can be used as a potential molecular target to visualize and treat these tumors. We have previously investigated an antagonist analog of bombesin (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2, RM26 conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA via a diethylene glycol (PEG2 spacer (NOTA-P2-RM26 labeled with (68Ga and (111In. We found that this conjugate has favorable properties for in vivo imaging of GRPR-expression. The focus of this study was to develop a (18F-labelled PET agent to visualize GRPR. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with (18F using aluminum-fluoride chelation. Stability, in vitro binding specificity and cellular processing tests were performed. The inhibition efficiency (IC50 of the [(natF]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 was compared to that of the (natGa-loaded peptide using (125I-Tyr(4-BBN as the displacement radioligand. The pharmacokinetics and in vivo binding specificity of the compound were studied. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with (18F within 1 h (60-65% decay corrected radiochemical yield, 55 GBq/µmol. The radiopeptide was stable in murine serum and showed high specific binding to PC-3 cells. [(natF]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 showed a low nanomolar inhibition efficiency (IC50=4.4±0.8 nM. The internalization rate of the tracer was low. Less than 14% of the cell-bound radioactivity was internalized after 4 h. The biodistribution of [(18F]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 demonstrated rapid blood clearance, low liver uptake and low kidney retention. The tumor uptake at 3 h p.i. was 5.5±0.7 %ID/g, and the tumor-to-blood, -muscle and -bone ratios were 87±42, 159±47, 38±16, respectively. The uptake in tumors, pancreas and other GRPR-expressing organs was significantly reduced when excess amount of non-labeled peptide was co-injected. The low uptake in bone suggests a high in vivo stability of the Al-F bond. High contrast PET image was obtained 3 h p

  16. Comparative study on DOTA-derivatized bombesin analog labeled with 90Y and 177Lu: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to compare in vitro and in vivo a novel DOTA-chelated bombesin (BN) analog of the amino acid sequence, QRLGNQWAVGHLM-CONH2 (BN[2-14]NH2), labeled with 90Y and 177Lu, for its potential use in targeted radiotherapy of tumors expressing gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptors. The same amino acid sequence, but with different chelator, referred as BN1.1 (Gly-Gly-Cys-Aca-QRLGNQWAVGHLM-CONH2), has already been studied and reported; however, the DOTA-chelated one, suitable for labeling with M+3 type radiometals, was not yet described. Methods: The conditions for labeling of DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 with noncarrier added 90Y and with 177Lu [specific activity (SA), 15 Ci/mg Lu] were investigated and optimized to provide 90Y-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and 177Lu-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 of high SA. The stability of the radiolabeled compounds in human serum was evaluated over a period of 24 h. The human prostate cancer cell line PC-3, known to express GRP receptors, was used for in vitro evaluation of radiolabeled peptide affinity to GRP receptors and for assessment of cytotoxicity of both nonlabeled and radiolabeled peptide. Biodistribution accompanied by receptor blocking was studied in normal Swiss mice. Results: 90Y-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and 177Lu-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 were obtained with radiochemical yield >98% and high SA (67.3 GBq 90Y/μmol and 33.6 GBq 177Lu/μmol, respectively). They were stable when incubated in human serum for up to 24 h. The binding affinities of DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and both natY- and natLu-labeled analogs to GRP receptors were high (IC50=1.78, 1.99, and 1.34 nM, respectively), especially for the natLu-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 complex. The cytotoxicity study of DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 to PC-3 cells revealed an IC50=6300 nM after 72 h of exposition, while the labeled derivatives showed no significant cytotoxic effect. The internalization rate to PC-3 cells was more rapid for 177Lu-labeled peptide (84.87%) than for the 90Y-labeled one (80.79%), while the efflux

  17. Imaging small human prostate cancer xenografts after pretargeting with bispecific bombesin-antibody complexes and targeting with high specific radioactivity labeled polymer-drug conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vishwesh; Gada, Keyur; Panwar, Rajiv; Ferris, Craig; Khaw, Ban-An [Northeastern University, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Boston, MA (United States); Varvarigou, Alexandra [Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostics, National Centre for Scientific Research ' ' Demokritos' ' , Athens (Greece); Majewski, Stan [West Virginia University, Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Imaging Instrumentation Program, Center for Advanced Imaging, Morgantown, WV (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew [Jefferson LA, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tekabe, Yared [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Pretargeting with bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bsMAb) for tumor imaging was developed to enhance target to background activity ratios. Visualization of tumors was achieved by the delivery of mono- and divalent radiolabeled haptens. To improve the ability to image tumors with bsMAb, we have combined the pretargeting approach with targeting of high specific activity radiotracer labeled negatively charged polymers. The tumor antigen-specific antibody was replaced with bombesin (Bom), a ligand that binds specifically to the growth receptors that are overexpressed by many tumors including prostate cancer. Bom-anti-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) bispecific antibody complexes were used to demonstrate pretargeting and imaging of very small human prostate cancer xenografts targeted with high specific activity {sup 111}In- or {sup 99m}Tc-labeled negatively charged polymers. Bispecific antibody complexes consisting of intact anti-DTPA antibody or Fab' linked to Bom via thioether bonds (Bom-bsCx or Bom-bsFCx, respectively) were used to pretarget PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts in SCID mice. Negative control mice were pretargeted with Bom or anti-DTPA Ab. {sup 111}In-Labeled DTPA-succinyl polylysine (DSPL) was injected intravenously at 24 h (7.03 {+-} 1.74 or 6.88 {+-} 1.89 MBq {sup 111}In-DSPL) after Bom-bsCx or 50 {+-} 5.34 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-DSPL after Bom-bsFCx pretargeting, respectively. Planar or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT gamma images were obtained for up to 3 h and only planar images at 24 h. After imaging, all mice were killed and biodistribution of {sup 111}In or {sup 99m}Tc activities were determined by scintillation counting. Both planar and SPECT/CT imaging enabled detection of PC-3 prostate cancer lesions less than 1-2 mm in diameter in 1-3 h post {sup 111}In-DSPL injection. No lesions were visualized in Bom or anti-DTPA Ab pretargeted controls. {sup 111}In-DSPL activity in Bom-bsCx pretargeted tumors (1

  18. The Effect of Mini-PEG-Based Spacer Length on Binding and Pharmacokinetic Properties of a 68Ga-Labeled NOTA-Conjugated Antagonistic Analog of Bombesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Varasteh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR in cancer can be used for peptide-receptor mediated radionuclide imaging and therapy. We have previously shown that an antagonist analog of bombesin RM26 conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA via a diethyleneglycol (PEG2 spacer (NOTA-PEG2-RM26 and labeled with 68Ga can be used for imaging of GRPR-expressing tumors. In this study, we evaluated if a variation of mini-PEG spacer length can be used for optimization of targeting properties of the NOTA-conjugated RM26. A series of analogs with different PEG-length (n = 2, 3, 4, 6 was synthesized, radiolabeled and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The IC50 values of natGa-NOTA-PEGn-RM26 (n = 2, 3, 4, 6 were 3.1 ± 0.2, 3.9 ± 0.3, 5.4 ± 0.4 and 5.8 ± 0.3 nM, respectively. In normal mice all conjugates demonstrated similar biodistribution pattern, however 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26 showed lower liver uptake. Biodistribution of 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26 was evaluated in nude mice bearing PC-3 (prostate cancer and BT-474 (breast cancer xenografts. High uptake in tumors (4.6 ± 0.6%ID/g and 2.8 ± 0.4%ID/g for PC-3 and BT-474 xenografts, respectively and high tumor-to-background ratios (tumor/blood of 44 ± 12 and 42 ± 5 for PC-3 and BT-474 xenografts, respectively were found already at 2 h p.i. of 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26. Results of this study suggest that variation in the length of the PEG spacer can be used for optimization of targeting properties of peptide-chelator conjugates. However, the influence of the mini-PEG length on biodistribution is minor when di-, tri-, tetra- and hexaethylene glycol are compared.

  19. Characterization of bombesin receptors in peripheral contractile organs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rouissi, N.; Rhaleb, N. E.; Nantel, F; Dion, S.; Drapeau, G; Regoli, D.

    1991-01-01

    1 Guinea-pig and rat urinary bladders, rat stomach and the guinea-pig gall bladder, four isolated organs that show high sensitivity to bombesin, were used to characterize bombesin receptors in peripheral organs. 2 The order of potency of agonists was determined with several naturally occurring peptides of the bombesin series, namely bombesin (BBS), litorin (Lit), neuromedin B (NMB), the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP 18-27), neuromedin C (NMC) and with some bombesin fragments. It was found th...

  20. DOTA-PESIN, a DOTA-conjugated bombesin derivative designed for the imaging and targeted radionuclide treatment of bombesin receptor-positive tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed at designing and developing a novel bombesin analogue, DOTA-PEG4-BN(7-14) (DOTA-PESIN), with the goal of labelling it with 67/68Ga and 177Lu for diagnosis and radionuclide therapy of prostate and other human cancers overexpressing bombesin receptors. The 8-amino acid peptide bombesin (7-14) was coupled to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA via the spacer 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid (PEG4). The conjugate was complexed with Ga(III) and Lu(III) salts. The GRP receptor affinity and the bombesin receptor subtype profile were determined in human tumour specimens expressing the three bombesin receptor subtypes. Internalisation and efflux studies were performed with the human GRP receptor cell line PC-3. Xenografted nude mice were used for biodistribution. [GaIII/LuIII]-DOTA-PESIN showed good affinity to GRP and neuromedin B receptors but no affinity to BB3. [67Ga/177Lu]-DOTA-PESIN internalised rapidly into PC-3 cells whereas the efflux from PC-3 cells was relatively slow. In vivo experiments showed a high and specific tumour uptake and good retention of [67Ga/177Lu]-DOTA-PESIN. [67Ga/177Lu]-DOTA-PESIN highly accumulated in GRP receptor-expressing mouse pancreas. The uptake specificity was demonstrated by blocking tumour uptake and pancreas uptake. Fast clearance was found from blood and all non-target organs except the kidneys. High tumour-to-normal tissue ratios were achieved, which increased with time. PET imaging with [68Ga]-DOTA-PESIN was successful in visualising the tumour at 1 h post injection. Planar scintigraphic imaging showed that the 177Lu-labelled peptide remained in the tumour even 3 days post injection. The newly designed ligands have high potential with regard to PET and SPECT imaging with 68/67Ga and targeted radionuclide therapy with 177Lu. (orig.)

  1. Cloning of a receptor for amphibian [Phe13]bombesin distinct from the receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide: identification of a fourth bombesin receptor subtype (BB4).

    OpenAIRE

    Nagalla, S.R.; Barry, B J; Creswick, K C; Eden, P.; Taylor, J. T.; SPINDEL, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Bombesin is a tetradecapeptide originally isolated from frog skin and demonstrated to have a wide range of actions in mammals. Based on structural homology and similar biological activities, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has been considered the mammalian equivalent of bombesin. We previously reported that frogs have both GRP and bombesin, which therefore are distinct peptides. We now report the cloning of a bombesin receptor subtype (BB4) that has higher affinity for bombesin than GRP. PCR ...

  2. DOTA-PESIN, a DOTA-conjugated bombesin derivative designed for the imaging and targeted radionuclide treatment of bombesin receptor-positive tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hanwen; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Schuhmacher, Jochen; Eisenhut, Michael [German Cancer Research Centre, Department of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Heidelberg (Germany); Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, P.O. Box 62, Berne (Switzerland); Wild, Damian [University Hospital, Clinic and Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-08-15

    We aimed at designing and developing a novel bombesin analogue, DOTA-PEG{sub 4}-BN(7-14) (DOTA-PESIN), with the goal of labelling it with {sup 67/68}Ga and {sup 177}Lu for diagnosis and radionuclide therapy of prostate and other human cancers overexpressing bombesin receptors. The 8-amino acid peptide bombesin (7-14) was coupled to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA via the spacer 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid (PEG{sub 4}). The conjugate was complexed with Ga(III) and Lu(III) salts. The GRP receptor affinity and the bombesin receptor subtype profile were determined in human tumour specimens expressing the three bombesin receptor subtypes. Internalisation and efflux studies were performed with the human GRP receptor cell line PC-3. Xenografted nude mice were used for biodistribution. [Ga{sup III}/Lu{sup III}]-DOTA-PESIN showed good affinity to GRP and neuromedin B receptors but no affinity to BB3. [{sup 67}Ga/{sup 177}Lu]-DOTA-PESIN internalised rapidly into PC-3 cells whereas the efflux from PC-3 cells was relatively slow. In vivo experiments showed a high and specific tumour uptake and good retention of [{sup 67}Ga/{sup 177}Lu]-DOTA-PESIN. [{sup 67}Ga/{sup 177}Lu]-DOTA-PESIN highly accumulated in GRP receptor-expressing mouse pancreas. The uptake specificity was demonstrated by blocking tumour uptake and pancreas uptake. Fast clearance was found from blood and all non-target organs except the kidneys. High tumour-to-normal tissue ratios were achieved, which increased with time. PET imaging with [{sup 68}Ga]-DOTA-PESIN was successful in visualising the tumour at 1 h post injection. Planar scintigraphic imaging showed that the {sup 177}Lu-labelled peptide remained in the tumour even 3 days post injection. The newly designed ligands have high potential with regard to PET and SPECT imaging with {sup 68/67}Ga and targeted radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu. (orig.)

  3. Optimization, biological evaluation and microPET imaging of copper-64-labeled bombesin agonists, [{sup 64}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}], in a prostate tumor xenografted mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Stephanie R., E-mail: srlf36@mail.missouri.ed [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nanda, Prasanta [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Rold, Tammy L. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Sieckman, Gary L. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Figueroa, Said D. [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Hoffman, Timothy J. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); The Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Jurisson, Silvia S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Smith, Charles J., E-mail: smithcj@health.missouri.ed [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); University of Missouri Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); The Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr) are a member of the bombesin (BBN) receptor family. GRPr are expressed in high numbers on specific human cancers, including human prostate cancer. Therefore, copper-64 ({sup 64}Cu) radiolabeled BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2} conjugates could have potential for diagnosis of human prostate cancer via positron-emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to produce [{sup 64}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] conjugates for prostate cancer imaging, where X=pharmacokinetic modifier (beta-alanine, 5-aminovaleric acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 8-aminooctanoic acid, 9-aminonanoic acid or para-aminobenzoic acid) and NO2A=1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid [a derivative of NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid)]. Methods: [(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] Conjugates were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), after which NOTA was added via manual conjugation. The new peptide conjugates were radiolabeled with {sup 64}Cu radionuclide. The receptor-binding affinity was determined in human prostate PC-3 cells, and tumor-targeting efficacy was determined in PC-3 tumor-bearing severely combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Whole-body maximum intensity microPET/CT images of PC-3 tumor-bearing SCID mice were obtained 18 h postinjection (pi). Results: Competitive binding assays in PC-3 cells indicated high receptor-binding affinity for the [NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] and [{sup nat}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] conjugates. In vivo biodistribution studies of the [{sup 64}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] conjugates at 1, 4 and 24 h pi showed very high uptake of the tracer in GRPr-positive tissue with little accumulation and retention in nontarget tissues. High-quality, high-contrast microPET images were obtained, with xenografted tumors being clearly visible at 18 h pi. Conclusions: NO2A chelator sufficiently stabilizes copper(II) radiometal under in vivo conditions, producing conjugates with very high uptake and retention in

  4. Optimization, biological evaluation and microPET imaging of copper-64-labeled bombesin agonists, [64Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH2], in a prostate tumor xenografted mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr) are a member of the bombesin (BBN) receptor family. GRPr are expressed in high numbers on specific human cancers, including human prostate cancer. Therefore, copper-64 (64Cu) radiolabeled BBN(7-14)NH2 conjugates could have potential for diagnosis of human prostate cancer via positron-emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to produce [64Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH2] conjugates for prostate cancer imaging, where X=pharmacokinetic modifier (beta-alanine, 5-aminovaleric acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 8-aminooctanoic acid, 9-aminonanoic acid or para-aminobenzoic acid) and NO2A=1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid [a derivative of NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid)]. Methods: [(X)-BBN(7-14)NH2] Conjugates were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), after which NOTA was added via manual conjugation. The new peptide conjugates were radiolabeled with 64Cu radionuclide. The receptor-binding affinity was determined in human prostate PC-3 cells, and tumor-targeting efficacy was determined in PC-3 tumor-bearing severely combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Whole-body maximum intensity microPET/CT images of PC-3 tumor-bearing SCID mice were obtained 18 h postinjection (pi). Results: Competitive binding assays in PC-3 cells indicated high receptor-binding affinity for the [NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH2] and [natCu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH2] conjugates. In vivo biodistribution studies of the [64Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH2] conjugates at 1, 4 and 24 h pi showed very high uptake of the tracer in GRPr-positive tissue with little accumulation and retention in nontarget tissues. High-quality, high-contrast microPET images were obtained, with xenografted tumors being clearly visible at 18 h pi. Conclusions: NO2A chelator sufficiently stabilizes copper(II) radiometal under in vivo conditions, producing conjugates with very high uptake and retention in targeted GRPr. Preclinical evaluation of these new peptide

  5. High-affinity receptors for peptides of the bombesin family in Swiss 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) labeled with 125I at tyrosine-15 (125I-GRP) binds to intact quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells in a specific and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis indicates the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites of Kd = 0.5 X 10(-9) M and a value for the number of sites per cell of about 100,000. 125I-GRP binding was not inhibited by other mitogens for these cells, and cell lines that are mitogenically unresponsive to GRP do not exhibit specific GRP binding. Structure-activity relationships show a close parallel between the ability of a range of GRP-related peptides to both inhibit GRP binding and to stimulate mitogenesis. Further, GRP binding is selectively blocked in a competitive fashion by a novel bombesin antagonist, [D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11] substance P. In addition, this compound selectively inhibits GRP and bombesin-induced mitogenesis. These results demonstrate that the mitogenic response of Swiss 3T3 cells to peptides of the bombesin family is mediated by a class of receptors distinct from those of other mitogens for these cells

  6. Bombesin, vasopressin, and endothelin rapidly stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation in intact Swiss 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachary, I.; Gil, J.; Lehmann, W.; Sinnett-Smith, J.; Rozengurt, E. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

    1991-06-01

    The mitogenic neuropeptides bombesin and vasopressin markedly increased tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of multiple substrates in quiescent Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, including two major bands of M{sub r} 90,000 and 115,000. Tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was increased as judged by immunoprecipitation of {sup 32}P{sub i}-labeled cells and immunoblotting of unlabeled cells with monoclonal antiphosphotyrosine antibodies, elution with phenyl phosphate, and phospho amino acid analysis. Phosphotyrosyl proteins generated by bombesin and vasopressin did not correspond either by apparent molecular weight or by immunological and biochemical criteria to several known tyrosine kinase substrates, including phospholipase C{sub {gamma}}, the microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase, GTPase-activating protein, or phosphatidylinositol kinase. The effect was rapid (within seconds), concentration dependent, and inhibited by specific receptor antagonists for both bombesin and vasopressin. The endothelin-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal contractor, also elicited a rapid and concentration-dependent tyrosine/serine phosphorylation of a similar set of substrates. These results demonstrate that neuropeptides, acting through receptors linked to GTP-binding proteins, stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of a common set of substrates in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells and suggest the existence of an additional signal transduction pathway in neuropeptide-induced mitogenesis.

  7. Bombesin facilitates GABAergic transmission and depresses epileptiform activity in the entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-peng; Xiao, Zhaoyang; Cilz, Nicholas I; Hu, Binqi; Dong, Hailong; Lei, Saobo

    2014-01-01

    Bombesin and the bombesin-like peptides including neuromedin B (NMB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are important neuromodulators in the brain. We studied their effects on GABAergic transmission and epileptiform activity in the entorhinal cortex (EC). Bath application of bombesin concentration-dependently increased both the frequency and amplitude of sIPSCs recorded from the principal neurons in the EC. Application of NMB and GRP exerted the same effects as bombesin. Bombesin had no effects on mIPSCs recorded in the presence of TTX but slightly depressed the evoked IPSCs. Omission of extracellular Ca(2+) or inclusion of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blockers, Cd(2+) and Ni(2+), blocked bombesin-induced increases in sIPSCs suggesting that bombesin increases GABA release via facilitating extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Bombesin induced membrane depolarization and slightly increased the input resistance of GABAergic interneurons recorded from layer III of the EC. The action potential firing frequency of the interneurons was also increased by bombesin. Bombesin-mediated depolarization of interneurons was unlikely to be mediated by the opening of a cationic conductance but due to the inhibition of inward rectifier K(+) channels. Bath application of bombesin, NMB and GRP depressed the frequency of the epileptiform activity elicited by deprivation of Mg(2+) from the extracellular solution suggesting that bombesin and the bombesin-like peptides have antiepileptic effects in the brain. PMID:23966303

  8. Study of the optical and dosimetric properties of the nano conjugate 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-GGC-Au Np-Bombesin by effect of nano particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The receptors over-expressed on the surface of cancer cells represent promising targets for breast cancer diagnosis or therapy. The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-r) is a seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor that is over-expressed on primary prostate and breast cancer and lymph node metastases. Bombesin (Bn) is a tetradeca peptide that binds with high affinity to GRP-r. The strong, specific Bn-GRP-r binding is the basis for labelling Bn with radionuclides (i.e. 99mTc, 111In, 18F) to obtain molecular images. The aim of this work was to develop 3 multifunctional systems of 99mTc-labeled gold nanoparticles (Au Np) (5, 10 and 20 nm) conjugated to Lys3-Bombesin for GRP-receptor targeting in breast cancer. The systems were characterized by Tem and UV-Vis, IR, Raman, Fluorescence and XP spectroscopy. The 99mTc-Au Np-Lys3-Bombesin multifunctional system (20 nm) shows in vitro and in vivo specific recognition for GRP-r and suitable properties to be used as a nuclear molecular imaging agent. Results also showed a specific Lys3-Bombesin binding to the gold surface and higher fluorescence intensity for the 20 nm system. The Nir bands observed in the 20 nm radio conjugate indicate potential for bio imaging as dual systems. (Author)

  9. High-affinity receptors for bombesin-like peptides in normal guinea pig lung membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, E.; Trifilieff, A.; Landry, Y.; Gies, J.P. (Univ. Louis Pasteur, Illkirch (France))

    1991-01-01

    The binding of the radiolabeled bombesin analogue ({sup 125}I-Tyr{sup 4})bombesin to guinea-pig lung membranes was investigated. Binding of ({sup 125}I-Tyr{sup 4})bombesin was specific, saturable, reversible and linearly related to the protein concentration. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding data at 25C indicated the presence of a single class of non-interacting binding sites for bombesin (B{sub max} = 7.7 fmol/mg protein). The value of the equilibrium dissociation constant (K{sub D} = 90 pM) agrees with a high-affinity binding site. Bombesin and structurally related peptides such as ({sup 125}I-Tyr{sup 4})bombesin, neuromedin B and neuromedin C inhibited the binding of ({sup 125}I-Tyr{sup 4})bombesin in an order of potencies as follows: ({sup 125}I-Tyr{sup 4})bombesin {gt} bombesin {ge} neuromedin C {much gt} neuromedin B. These results indicate that guinea-pig lung membranes possess a single class of bombesin receptors with a high affinity for bombesin and a lower one for neuromedin B.

  10. Neuromedin B receptor in esophagus: evidence for subtypes of bombesin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Schrenck, T.; Heinz-Erian, P.; Moran, T.; Mantey, S.A.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T.

    1989-04-01

    To identify receptors for bombesin-related peptides in the rat esophagus, we measured binding of 125I-Bolton-Hunter neuromedin B (125I-BH-neuromedin B) and 125I-(Tyr4)bombesin to tissue sections from the rat esophagus and compared the results with those for rat pancreas. Esophagus bound both tracers, whereas pancreas bound only 125I-(Tyr4)bombesin. In each tissue binding was saturable, dependent on pH, on time, and on temperature, reversible, and specific. Autoradiography demonstrated binding of both tracers only to the muscularis mucosae of the esophagus and binding of 125I-(Tyr4)bombesin diffusely over pancreatic acini. In the esophagus, the relative potencies for inhibition of binding of both tracers were as follows: neuromedin B greater than bombesin greater than GRP = neuromedin C; similar relative potencies were found for causing contraction of muscle strips from whole esophagus and from the isolated muscularis mucosae. In pancreas tissue sections and dispersed acini, the relative potencies for inhibition of binding of 125I-(Tyr4)bombesin were as follows: bombesin greater than GRP = neuromedin C much greater than neuromedin B. Similar relative potencies were found for stimulation of enzyme secretion from dispersed pancreatic acini. Computer analysis in both tissues demonstrated only a single binding site. The present study demonstrates that rat esophagus muscle possesses specific receptors for bombesin-related peptides. Furthermore, this study shows that the esophageal bombesin receptors represent a previously unidentified class of bombesin receptors in that they have a higher affinity for neuromedin B than for bombesin. In contrast, the pancreatic bombesin receptors have, like all other bombesin receptors described to date, a high affinity for bombesin, but low affinity for neuromedin B.

  11. Bombesin-Like Receptor 3: Physiology of a Functional Orphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cuiying; Reitman, Marc L

    2016-09-01

    Bombesin-like receptor 3 (BRS-3) is an X-linked orphan Gq-coupled receptor that regulates food intake, metabolic rate, body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and insulin secretion. Most BRS-3 actions occur via the brain, through mechanisms including regulating sympathetic outflow. Ablation of Brs3 causes obesity, while synthetic agonists produce weight loss. PMID:27055378

  12. The study of bombesin-like neuropeptides from mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Mukai, Hidehito

    1990-01-01

    About 20 years has elapsed since the discovery of bombesin by Erspamer and his coworkers.In this period,more than 10 peptides were isolated and characterized.These included gastrinreleasing peptide(GRP),neuromedin B(NMB)and their fragment ...

  13. Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Yanaihara, N

    1981-01-01

    With immunocytochemical methods, nerve cells have been detected in Hydra attenuata containing bombesin-like immunoreactivity. These nerve cells are located in ectoderm of all body regions of the animal and are especially abundant in basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of extracts of hydra ...

  14. 177Lu-Dendrimer Conjugated to Folate and Bombesin with Gold Nanoparticles in the Dendritic Cavity: A Potential Theranostic Radiopharmaceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Mendoza-Nava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 177Lu-labeled nanoparticles conjugated to biomolecules have been proposed as a new class of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. The aim of this research was to synthesize 177Lu-dendrimer(PAMAM-G4-folate-bombesin with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs in the dendritic cavity and to evaluate the radiopharmaceutical potential for targeted radiotherapy and the simultaneous detection of folate receptors (FRs and gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs overexpressed in breast cancer cells. p-SCN-Benzyl-DOTA was conjugated in aqueous-basic medium to the dendrimer. The carboxylate groups of Lys1Lys3(DOTA-bombesin and folic acid were activated with HATU and also conjugated to the dendrimer. The conjugate was mixed with 1% HAuCl4 followed by the addition of NaBH4 and purified by ultrafiltration. Elemental analysis (EDS, particle size distribution (DLS, TEM analysis, UV-Vis, and infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies were performed. The conjugate was radiolabeled using 177LuCl3 or 68GaCl3 and analyzed by radio-HPLC. Studies confirmed the dendrimer functionalization with high radiochemical purity (>95%. Fluorescence results demonstrated that the presence of AuNPs in the dendritic cavity confers useful photophysical properties to the radiopharmaceutical for optical imaging. Preliminary binding studies in T47D breast cancer cells showed a specific cell uptake (41.15±2.72%. 177Lu-dendrimer(AuNP-folate-bombesin may be useful as an optical and nuclear imaging agent for breast tumors overexpressing GRPR and FRs, as well as for targeted radiotherapy.

  15. Selection of optimal chelator improves the contrast of GRPR imaging using bombesin analogue RM26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitran, Bogdan; Varasteh, Zohreh; Selvaraju, Ram Kumar; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Larhed, Mats; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Rosenström, Ulrika; Orlova, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Bombesin (BN) analogs bind with high affinity to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) that are up-regulated in prostate cancer and can be used for the visualization of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radionuclide-chelator complexes on the biodistribution pattern of the 111In-labeled bombesin antagonist PEG2-D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2 (PEG2-RM26) and to identify an optimal construct for SPECT imaging. A series of RM26 analogs N-terminally conjugated with NOTA, NODAGA, DOTA and DOTAGA via a PEG2 spacer were radiolabeled with 111In and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The conjugates were successfully labeled with 111In with 100% purity and retained binding specificity to GRPR and high stability. The cellular processing of all compounds was characterized by slow internalization. The IC50 values were in the low nanomolar range, with lower IC50 values for positively charged natIn-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 (2.6±0.1 nM) and higher values for negatively charged natIn-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 (4.8±0.5 nM). The kinetic binding studies showed KD values in the picomolar range that followed the same pattern as the IC50 data. The biodistribution of all compounds was studied in BALB/c nu/nu mice bearing PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts. Tumor targeting and biodistribution studies displayed rapid clearance of radioactivity from the blood and normal organs via kidney excretion. All conjugates showed similar uptake in tumors at 4 h p.i. The radioactivity accumulation in GRPR-expressing organs was significantly lower for DOTA- and DOTAGA-containing constructs compared to those containing NOTA and NODAGA. 111In-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 with a positively charged complex showed the highest initial uptake and the slowest clearance of radioactivity from the liver. At 4 h p.i., DOTA- and DOTAGA-coupled analogs showed significantly higher tumor-to-organ ratios compared to NOTA- and NODAGA-containing variants. The NODAGA conjugate demonstrated

  16. Mechanism of bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the porcine lower esophageal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Chang, Li-Ching; Lin, Kai-Jen; Tey, Shu-Leei; Su, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Tong-Rong; Huang, Shih-Che

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disorder that is related to an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Previous studies showed that bombesin could increase LES pressure in humans and opossums. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of bombesin on porcine LES contraction. We used the selective agonists, neuromedin B (NMB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and [D-Tyr(6),Apa-4Cl(11),Phe(13),Nle(14)]bombesin-(6-14) (DTACPN-BN), as well as receptor antagonists of bombesin receptor subtype 2 (BB2), and 3 (BB3) for ex vivo contraction studies. Atropine, nifedipine, tetrodotoxin, and ω-conotoxin GVIA were used to explore the agonist-induced LES contraction mechanism. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect bombesin receptor expression. Our results indicate that GRP and DTACPN-BN, but not NMB, induced tonic contractions of the porcine LES in a dose-dependent manner, and the contractions were inhibited with selective BB2 and BB3 antagonists. The GRP-induced contraction is mainly caused by L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx. However, DTACPN-BN-induced contractions are associated with neuronal conduction. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that BB2 and BB3 were expressed in the porcine LES. Bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the LES is mediated through BB2 and BB3. Bombesin, BB2, and BB3 agonists might have the potential to treat GERD. PMID:26522854

  17. Molecular cloning of the bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide receptor from Swiss 3T3 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Battey, J F; Way, J M; Corjay, M H; Shapira, H; Kusano, K; Harkins, R.; Wu, J M; Slattery, T; Mann, E.; Feldman, R I

    1991-01-01

    The mammalian bombesin-like peptides gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B regulate numerous and varied cell physiologic processes in various cell types and have also been implicated as autocrine growth factors influencing the pathogenesis and progression of human small cell lung carcinomas. We report here the molecular characterization of the bombesin/GRP receptor. Structural analysis of cDNA clones isolated from Swiss 3T3 murine embryonal fibroblasts shows that the GRP receptor i...

  18. Bombesin family receptor and ligand gene expression in human colorectal cancer and normal mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Chave, H S; Gough, A C; Palmer, K.; Preston, S. R.; Primrose, J N

    1999-01-01

    Bombesin-like peptides and their receptors are widely distributed throughout the gut and are potential mitogens for a number of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. We have analysed the expression of bombesin-like peptides and their receptor subtypes in normal and neoplastic colorectal tissue. Expression was analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using receptor and ligand subtype-specific primers and then expression localized by in situ hybridization (ISH) with ribopro...

  19. Peripheral injection of bombesin induces c-Fos in NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Kim-Marie; Kroczek, Arthur L; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas; Kobelt, Peter

    2016-10-01

    As anorexigenic hormones bombesin and nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 decrease food intake in rodents. Both hormones have been described in brain nuclei that play a role in the modulation of hunger and satiety, like the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). However, the direct interaction of the two hormones is unknown so far. The aim of study was to elucidate whether bombesin directly interacts with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN and NTS. Therefore, we injected bombesin intraperitoneally (ip) at two doses (26 and 32nmol/kg body weight) and assessed c-Fos activation in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and NTS compared to vehicle treated rats (0.15M NaCl). We also performed co-localization studies with oxytocin or tyrosine hydroxylase. Bombesin at both doses increased the number of c-Fos positive neurons in the PVN (pNTS (p0.05). In the PVN and NTS the number of c-Fos positive neurons colocalized with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 increased after bombesin injection compared to vehicle treatment (pNTS (pNTS giving rise to a possible interaction between bombesin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the modulation of food intake. PMID:27396908

  20. Peripheral injection of bombesin induces c-Fos in NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Kim-Marie; Kroczek, Arthur L; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas; Kobelt, Peter

    2016-10-01

    As anorexigenic hormones bombesin and nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 decrease food intake in rodents. Both hormones have been described in brain nuclei that play a role in the modulation of hunger and satiety, like the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). However, the direct interaction of the two hormones is unknown so far. The aim of study was to elucidate whether bombesin directly interacts with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN and NTS. Therefore, we injected bombesin intraperitoneally (ip) at two doses (26 and 32nmol/kg body weight) and assessed c-Fos activation in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and NTS compared to vehicle treated rats (0.15M NaCl). We also performed co-localization studies with oxytocin or tyrosine hydroxylase. Bombesin at both doses increased the number of c-Fos positive neurons in the PVN (pNTS (p0.05). In the PVN and NTS the number of c-Fos positive neurons colocalized with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 increased after bombesin injection compared to vehicle treatment (pNTS (pNTS giving rise to a possible interaction between bombesin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the modulation of food intake.

  1. Study of the optical and dosimetric properties of the nano conjugate {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-GGC-Au Np-Bombesin by effect of nano particle size; Estudio de las propiedades opticas y dosimetricas del nanoconjugado {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-GGC-AUNP-Bombesina por efecto del tamano de nanoparticula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza S, A. N.

    2011-07-01

    The receptors over-expressed on the surface of cancer cells represent promising targets for breast cancer diagnosis or therapy. The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-r) is a seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor that is over-expressed on primary prostate and breast cancer and lymph node metastases. Bombesin (Bn) is a tetradeca peptide that binds with high affinity to GRP-r. The strong, specific Bn-GRP-r binding is the basis for labelling Bn with radionuclides (i.e. {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 18}F) to obtain molecular images. The aim of this work was to develop 3 multifunctional systems of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled gold nanoparticles (Au Np) (5, 10 and 20 nm) conjugated to Lys{sup 3}-Bombesin for GRP-receptor targeting in breast cancer. The systems were characterized by Tem and UV-Vis, IR, Raman, Fluorescence and XP spectroscopy. The {sup 99m}Tc-Au Np-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesin multifunctional system (20 nm) shows in vitro and in vivo specific recognition for GRP-r and suitable properties to be used as a nuclear molecular imaging agent. Results also showed a specific Lys{sup 3}-Bombesin binding to the gold surface and higher fluorescence intensity for the 20 nm system. The Nir bands observed in the 20 nm radio conjugate indicate potential for bio imaging as dual systems. (Author)

  2. GLP1- and GIP-producing cells rarely overlap and differ by bombesin receptor-2 expression and responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Berit; Pais, Ramona; Engelstoft, Maja S;

    2016-01-01

    secretion of both GLP1 and GIP, whereas bombesin/neuromedin C only stimulated GLP1 secretion. Expression analysis showed high expression of the bombesin 2 receptor in GLP1 positive cells, but no expression in GIP-positive cells. These data indicate both expressional and functional differences between the...

  3. Enhancement of cytotoxicity of antimicrobial peptide magainin Ⅱ in tumor cells by bombesin-targeted delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan LIU; Hao YANG; Lin WAN; Hua-wei CAI; Sheng-fu LI; You-ping LI; Jing-qiu CHENG; Xiao-feng LU

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the conjugation of magainin II(MG2),an antimicrobial peptides(AMPs),to the tumor-homing peptide bombesin could enhance its cytotoxicity in tumor cells.Methods: A magainin Ⅱ-bombesin conjugate(MG2B)was constructed by attaching magainin Ⅱ(MG2)to bombesin at its N-terminus.The peptides were synthesized using Fmoc-chemistry.The in vitro cytotoxicity of the peptide in cancer cells was quantitatively determined using the CCK-8 celt counting kit.Moreover,the in vivo antitumor effect of the peptide was determined in tumor xenograft models.Results: The IC50 of MG2B for cancer cells(10-15 μmol/L)was at least 10 times lower than the IC50 of unconjugated MG2(125μmol/L).Moreover,the binding affinity of MG2B for cancer cells was higher than that of unconjugated MG2.In contrast,conjugation to a bombesin analog lacking the receptor-binding domain failed to increase the cytotoxicity of MG2,suggesting that bombesin conjugation enhances the cytotoxicity of MG2 in cancer cells through improved binding.Indeed,MG2B selectively induced cell death in cancer cells in vitro with the IC50 ranging from 10 to 15 μmol/L,which was about 6-10 times lower than the IC50 for normal cells.MG2B(20mg/kg per day,intratumorally injected for 5 d)also exhibited antitumor effects in mice bearing MCF-7 tumor grafts.The mean weights of tumor grafts in MG2B-and PBS-treated mice were 0.21±0.05 g and 0.59±0.12 g,respectively.Conclusion: The results suggest that conjugation of AMPs to bombesin might be an alternative approach for targeted cancer therapy.

  4. Pharmacological characterization of a selective agonist for Bombesin Receptor Subtype - 3

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Nothacker, Hans-Peter; Wang, Zhiwei; Bohn, Laura M.; Civelli, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor in the bombesin receptor family that still awaits identification of its natural ligand. BRS-3 deficient mice develop a mild late-onset obesity with metabolic defects, implicating BRS-3 plays a role in feeding and metabolism. We describe here the pharmacological characterization of a synthetic compound, 16a, which serves as a potent agonist for BRS-3. This compound is selective for BRS-3 as it does not activate neurome...

  5. Chemical and biological characterization of new Re(CO)3/[99mTc](CO)3 bombesin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Bombesin, a neuropeptide with potential for breast and prostate tumor targeting, is rapidly metabolized in vivo, and as a result, uptake in tumor xenografts in mice is poor. An improvement can be expected from the introduction of nonnatural amino acids and spacers. Leu13 was replaced by cyclohexylalanine and Met14 by norleucine. Two spacers, -βAla-βAla- and 3,6-dioxa-8-aminooctanoic acid, were inserted between the receptor-binding amino acid sequence (7-14) of bombesin (BBS) and the retroNα-carboxymethyl histidine chelator used for labeling with the [99mTc](CO)3 core and the rhenium (Re) congener. Methods: The biological characterization of the new compounds was performed both in vitro on prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells (binding affinity, internalization/externalization) and in vivo (biodistribution in nude mice with tumor xenografts). The stability was also investigated in human plasma. The Re analogues were prepared for chemical characterization. Results: The nonnatural amino acids led to markedly slower degradation in human plasma and PC-3 cell cultures. The receptor affinity of the new technetium 99m ([99mTc])-labeled BBS analogues was similar to the unmodified compound with K d<1 nM. Uptake in the pancreas and in PC-3 tumor xenografts in nude mice was blocked by unlabeled BBS. The best target-to-nontarget uptake ratio was clearly due to the presence of the more polar spacer, -βAla-βAla-. Conclusions: The different spacers did not have a significant effect on stability or receptor affinity but had a clear influence on the uptake in healthy organs and tumors. Uptake in the kidneys was lower than in the liver, which is likely to be due to the lipophilicity of the compounds. A specific, high uptake was also observed in the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-rich pancreas. Thus, with the introduction of spacers the in vivo properties of the compounds can be improved while leaving the affinity unaffected

  6. Rhodium-105 Bombesin Analogs for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvia S. Jurisson, PhD

    2005-12-31

    Over the period of this grant (11/01/2001 to 12/31/2005), the consistent and reproducible production of Rh-105, synthesis and evaluation of three new chelate systems based on hydroxymethyl phosphines, development of a new non-hydroxymethyl phosphine N{sub 2}P{sub 2} chelate system, conjugation of two of the chelates to the bombesin peptide analog BBN[7-14]NH{sub 2}, evaluation of the bombesin conjugates and their Rh-105 complexes for stability, cell binding affinity, and in vivo biodistribution in normal mice has been developed. The BBN analogs bind to GRP receptors that are overexpressed on PC-3 prostate tumor cells. A dedicated glove box is used for the separation and isolation of {sup 105}Rh from the target ({sup 104}Ru). All tubing/connections/valves from the point of the Cl{sub 2} tank are made of Teflon to minimize/eliminate the introduction of any metal into the process (e.g., iron from stainless steel corrosion). The separation of {sup 105}Rh produced from the enriched {sup 104}Ru target involves oxidation of the enriched {sup 104}Ru metal target to ruthenium tetroxide with chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide solution to generate hypochlorite in situ. The RuO4 is removed by distillation and the {sup 105}Rh remaining in the reaction vial is converted into {sup 105}Rh-chloride by acidification with hydrochloric acid and heating. The {sup 105}Rh production process has become reproducible over the past year to consistently make 10-30 mCi of {sup 105}Rh from 1-3 mg of an enriched (99.21%) {sup 104}Ru target. The process itself involves irradiation of the enriched {sup 104}Ru target in the core of the reactor (University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR)) for one week to yield 16-40 mCi of {sup 105}Rh. The irradiated target is processed to separate the Rh-105 in high specific activity from the {sup 104}Ru target. The irradiated target is dissolved in NaOH (2M, 3 mL) by bubbling Cl{sub 2} gas through the solution (generating NaOCl in situ) to generate RuO{sub 4

  7. Bombesin receptor-mediated imaging and cytotoxicity: review and current status

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho, Veronica; Di Florio, Alessia; Moody, Terry W.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    The three mammalian bombesin (Bn) receptors (gastrin-releasing peptide [GRP] receptor, neuromedin B [NMB] receptor, BRS-3) are one of the classes of G protein-coupled receptors that are most frequently over-express/ectopically expressed by common, important malignancies. Because of the clinical success of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and cytotoxicity with neuroendocrine...

  8. Validation of the production process of core-equipment HYNIC-Bombesin-Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validation process is establishing documented evidence that provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process consistently will produce a product that will meet specifications and quality attributes preset and, therefore, ensures the efficiency and effectiveness of a product. The radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-HYNlC-Bombesin is part of the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) analogues of bombesin that are radiolabelled with technetium 99 metastable for molecular images obtention. Is obtained from freeze-dry formulations kits (core- equipment)) and has reported a very high stability in human serum, specific binding to receptors and rapid internalization. Biodistribution data in mice showed rapid blood clearance with predominant renal excretion and specific binding to tissues with positive response to GRP receptors. According to biokinetics studies performed on patients with breast cancer, breast show a marked asymmetry with increased uptake in neoplastic breast in healthy women and the uptake of radiopharmaceuticals is symmetrical in both breasts. No reported adverse reactions. In this paper, the prospective validation core-equipment HYNlC-Bombesin-Sn, which was shown consistently that the product meets the specifications and quality, attributes to preset from the obtained from the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical third generation: 99mTc-HYNlC-Bombesin. The process was successfully validated and thereby ensuring the efficiency and effectiveness of this agent as a preliminary diagnostic for approval to be marketed. (Author)

  9. Molecular markers derived from bombesin for tumor diagnosis by SPECT and PET; Marcadores moleculares derivados da bombesina para diagnostico de tumores por SPECT e PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli

    2012-07-01

    /{mu}mol), but this was lower than for the DTPA derivatives. Saturation binding assays on prostate (PC-3 e LNCaP) and breast (T-47D) tumour cells showed similar affinity for the radiopeptide conjugated to DTPA and DOTA, higher binding of DOTA-peptide to PC-3 and LNCap cells was observed, but not for T-47D cells. This molecular marker was also more internalized by PC-3 cells. In vivo studies showed higher stability for {sup 111}In-DOTA-YG{sub 5}N in mice serum, and the uptake of DTPA and DOTA peptide was similar by PC-3 and LNCaP tumour, although this last tumour has shown 2-fold less BB2 receptors than PC-3. SPECT/CT imaging of PC-3 and LNCaP was possible with both radiopeptides. When compared to {sup 111}In-BZH3, the molecular markers present similar tumour uptake, but with more favorable images, because of their lower abdominal uptake. DOTA-YG{sub 5}N was radiolabeled with {sup 68}Ga with high radiochemical purity and the biodistribution profile was similar to the peptide labeled with {sup 111}In, with significative PC-3 tumour uptake. Toxicological studies showed the bombesin derivatives are safe up to concentration administered and did not present hematological, hepatic or renal toxicity. The BBN derivative YG{sub 5}N conjugated to DTPA or DOTA is a promising and safe tool for BB{sub 2} expressing tumour diagnosis by SPECT and PET. (author)

  10. Bombesin stimulation of c-fos and c-myc gene expression in cultured of Swiss 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombesin has been show to be a potent mitogen for Swiss 3T3 cells. At nanomolar concentrations it stimulates DNA synthesis in quiescent cultures of 3T3 cells and also induces the expression of c-fos and c-myc mRNA. c-fos mRNA transcripts dramatically increase 15 min after the addition of bombesin, are still abundant after 30-60 min and then decrease. c-myc mRNA induction is detectable later, 1 h after bombesin treatment. Conversely, no changes in c-Ki-ras expression are observed after stimulation with bombesin. These results demonstrate that the increased expression of c-fos and c-myc mRNAs appears to be a common response to diverse agents that induce DNA synthesis and cell proliferation

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of Lys{sup 1}(α, γ-Folate)Lys{sup 3}({sup 177}Lu-DOTA)-Bombesin(1-14) as a potential theranostic radiopharmaceutical for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda L, L.; Ferro F, G.; Azorin V, E.; Ramirez, F. M.; Ocampo G, B.; Santos C, C.; Jimenez M, N. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Lutetium-177 labeled hetero bivalent molecules that interact with different targets on tumor cells have been proposed as a new class of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. The aim of this work was to synthesize Lys{sup 1} (α,γ-Folate)-Lys{sup 3}({sup 177}Lu-DOTA)-Bombesin (1-14) ({sup 177}LuFolate-Bn), as well as to assess its in vitro and in vivo potential for molecular imaging and targeted radiotherapy of breast tumors expressing folate receptors (Fr) and gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPR). Lys{sup 1} Lys{sup 3} (DOTA)-Bombesin (1-14) was conjugated to the terminal carboxylic group of the folic acid and the product purified by size-exclusion HPLC. Chemical characterization was carried out by UV-vis, Ft-IR spectroscopies and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. {sup 177}Lu labeling was performed by reaction of {sup 177}LuCl{sub 3} with the Lys{sup 1} (α,γ-Folate)-Lys{sup 3} (DOTA)-Bombesin (Folate-Bn) conjugate. In vitro binding studies were carried out in T47D breast cancer cells (positive to Fr and GRPR). Biokinetic studies and micro-SPECT/CT images were obtained using athymic mice with T47D induced tumors. Spectroscopic studies and HPLC analyses indicated that the conjugate was obtained with high chemical and radiochemical purity (98 ± 1.3%). T47D-tumors were clearly visible with high contrast at 2 h after radiopharmaceutical administration. The {sup 177}Lu-absorbed dose delivered to tumors was 23.9 ± 2.1 Gy (74 MBq, intravenously administered) {sup 177}Lu-Folate-Bn demonstrated properties suitable as a theranostic radiopharmaceutical for breast tumors expressing Fr s and GRPR s. (Author)

  12. Development of a potent DOTA-conjugated bombesin antagonist for targeting GRPr-positive tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansi, Rosalba; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Wang, Xuejuan [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Forrer, Flavio [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Erasmus Medical Centre, Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Waser, Beatrice; Cescato, Renzo; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, Berne (Switzerland); Graham, Keith; Borkowski, Sandra [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Radiolabelled somatostatin-based antagonists show a higher uptake in tumour-bearing mouse models than agonists of similar or even distinctly higher receptor affinity. Very similar results were obtained with another family of G protein-coupled receptor ligands, the bombesin family. We describe a new conjugate, RM2, with the chelator DOTA coupled to D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH{sub 2} via the cationic spacer 4-amino-1-carboxymethyl-piperidine for labelling with radiometals such as {sup 111}In and {sup 68}Ga. RM2 was synthesized on a solid support and evaluated in vitro in PC-3 cells. IC{sub 50} and K{sub d} values were determined. The antagonist potency was evaluated by immunofluorescence-based internalization and Ca{sup 2+} mobilization assays. Biodistribution studies were performed in PC-3 and LNCaP tumour-bearing mice with {sup 111}In-RM2 and {sup 68}Ga-RM2, respectively. PET/CT studies were performed on PC-3 and LNCaP tumour-bearing nude mice with {sup 68}Ga-RM2. RM2 and {sup 111}In-RM2 are high-affinity and selective ligands for the GRP receptor (7.7{+-}3.3 nmol/l for RM2; 9.3{+-}3.3 nmol/l for {sup nat}In-RM2). The potent antagonistic properties were confirmed by an immunofluorescence-based internalization and Ca{sup 2+} mobilization assays. {sup 68}Ga- and {sup 111}In-RM2 showed high and specific uptake in both the tumour and the pancreas. Uptake in the tumour remained high (15.2{+-}4.8%IA/g at 1 h; 11.7{+-}2.4%IA/g at 4 h), whereas a relatively fast washout from the pancreas and the other abdominal organs was observed. Uptake in the pancreas decreased rapidly from 22.6{+-}4.7%IA/g at 1 h to 1.5{+-}0.5%IA/g at 4 h. RM2 was shown to be a potent GRPr antagonist. Pharmacokinetics and imaging studies indicate that {sup 111}In-RM2 and {sup 68}Ga-RM2 are ideal candidates for clinical SPECT and PET studies. (orig.)

  13. Synergistic bombesin and insulin stimulation of DNA synthesis in human fetal kidney in serum-free culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brière, N; Chailler, P

    1993-05-01

    The respective influences of growth factors during kidney development can be directly evaluated using the chemically-defined serum-free culture system perfected in our laboratory. Since, in this culture model, conditions are minimal for growth and differentiation, DNA synthesis sharply decreases during the first 48 h. The addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF, 100 ng/ml), insulin (5 micrograms/ml) and transferrin (5 micrograms/ml) significantly restores this important cellular function. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of bombesin, a potent mitogen, supplemented alone or in combination with insulin, transferrin and/or EGF. Cortical explants of human fetal kidneys (17-20 weeks) were maintained during 5 days in culture. When compared with 5 day controls (L-15 medium only), bombesin generated a maximal though weak effect on DNA synthesis at a concentration of 0.3 nM, corresponding to a stimulation index (SI) of 22%. When combined with either transferrin or EGF, or with transferrin plus EGF, bombesin did not alter the SI of individual factors. Insulin, in turn, greatly increased DNA synthesis (SI = 169%), while bombesin strongly potentiated this effect (SI = 275%). Transferrin also enhanced insulin SI from 169 to 240%. When added as a third factor, bombesin further potentiated the effectiveness (SI = 338%) of the combination insulin plus transferrin. These results indicate that bombesin controls cell proliferation in synergism with other regulators and hence may act as a competence growth factor during nephrogenesis.

  14. The effects of the phyllolitorin analogue [desTrp3,Leu8]phyllolitorin on scratching induced by bombesin and related peptides in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Mark D; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Choo, Kevin S.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.; Naughton, Norah N.; Woods, James H

    1999-01-01

    Bombesin along with several closely related neuropeptides elicit scratching behavior when administered centrally. The first part of the study was designed to determine the antagonistic effects of a novel phyllolitorin analogue wdesTrp3,Leu8]phyllolitorin (DTP) on scratching induced by three peptides (bombesin, neuromedin-C, and [Leu8]phyllolitorin). In addition, the binding affinity of each peptide for the bombesin receptor site was determined. DTP (30 μg) inhibited scratching induced by thes...

  15. Effects of bombesin and neuromedin-B on the proliferative activity of the rat adrenal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Markowska, A.; Nussdorfer, G G; Malendowicz, L.K.

    1993-01-01

    Bombesin (BM) and neuromedin-B (NMB) exert similar biological effects, acting via two functionally distinct BM-receptor subtypes. The present study aimed to investigate whether BM and NMB stimulate the proliferation of rat adrenocortical cells and to compare their mode of action. Adult female rats were treated with a single subcutaneous dose of 3 pg BM or NMB. Adrenocortical proliferative activity was assessed by the metaphase-arrest technique. BM administratio...

  16. Capsaicin treatment differentially affects feeding suppression by bombesin-like peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Ladenheim, Ellen E; Knipp, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral administration of bombesin (BN) and the related mammalian peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB), suppress food intake in rats. To examine whether all BN-like peptides utilize the same neural pathways to reduce feeding, rats were treated on postnatal day 2 with the injection vehicle or capsaicin, a neurotoxin that damages a subset of visceral afferent fibers. When rats reached adulthood, we compared the ability of a dose range of systemically administered ...

  17. Pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on intestinal mucosa: Not just trefoil peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stelios F Assimakopoulos; Chrisoula D Scopa; Vassiliki N Nikolopoulou; Constantine E Vagianos

    2008-01-01

    Bombesin and neurotensin are neuropeptides which exert a wide spectrum of biological actions on gastrointestinal tissues influencing intestinal growth and adaptation, intestinal motility, blood flow, secretion, nutrient absorption and immune response. Based mainly on their well-established potent enterotrophic effect, numerous experimental studies investigated their potential positive effect on the atrophic or injured intestinal mucosa. These peptides proved to be effective mucosa-healing factors, but the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms for this action remained unresolved. In a recently published study (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14 (8): 1222-1230), it was shown that their protective effect on the intestine in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease was related to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions. These results are in close agreement with our previous studies on jaundiced and hepatectomized rats that showed a regulatory effect of bombesin and neurotensin on critical cellular processes such as enterocyte' proliferation and death, oxidative stress and redox equilibrium, tight junctions' formation and function, and inflammatory response. The pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on diverse types of intestinal injury may justify their consideration for clinical trials.

  18. Molecular markers derived from bombesin for tumor diagnosis by SPECT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high number of molecules have already been identified to have high affinity to some receptors overexpressed on tumour cells and the radiolabelling of those molecules offers the possibility of new compounds for tumour diagnosis and therapy by nuclear medicine. Among of those molecules, bombesin (BBN) has become focus of interest, as its BB2 receptors are known to be overexpressed in prostate, breast, colon, pancreatic and lung tumour, as long as glioblastomas and neuroblastomas. BBN agonists and antagonists have already been described for this purpose and promising results were obtained in preclinical studies. However, most of them exhibited high abdominal accumulation, especially in pancreas and intestines, which can compromise diagnosis accuracy and cause serious adverse effects in therapy. In this context, the goal of the present work to radiolabel new BBN derivatives with 111In and 68Ga and to evaluate their potential for BB2 positive tumors diagnosis by single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). The structure of studied peptides was Q-YGn-BBN(6-14), where Q is the chelator, n is the number of glycine aminoacids in the spacer YGn and BBN(6-14) is the original bombesin sequence from the aminoacid 6 to 14. The derivative in which the last aminoacid (methionine, Met) was replaced by norleucine (Nle) was also evaluated. The experimental evaluation of the bombesin derivatives was divided into four steps: computational studies, molecular markers for SPECT, molecular markers for PET and toxicological studies. The theoretical partition (log P) and distribution (log D) coefficients were calculated for all bombesin derivatives conjugated to DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) chelators applying computational programmes. Bombesin derivatives for SPECT were developed by radiolabelling DTPA-conjugated bombesin derivatives with 111In to determine the best spacer

  19. (18)F-AmBF3-MJ9: a novel radiofluorinated bombesin derivative for prostate cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghiasian, Maral; Liu, Zhibo; Pan, Jinhe; Zhang, Zhengxing; Colpo, Nadine; Lin, Kuo-Shyan; Perrin, David M; Bénard, François

    2015-04-01

    A novel radiofluorinated derivative of bombesin, (18)F-AmBF3-MJ9, was synthesized and evaluated for its potential to image prostate cancer by targeting the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). AmBF3-MJ9 was prepared from an ammoniomethyl-trifluoroborate (AmBF3) conjugated alkyne 2 and azidoacetyl-MJ9 via a copper-catalyzed click reaction, and had good binding affinity for GRPR (Ki=0.5±0.1nM). The (18)F-labeling was performed via a facile one-step (18)F-(19)F isotope exchange reaction, and (18)F-AmBF3-MJ9 was obtained in 23±5% (n=3) radiochemical yield in 25min with >99% radiochemical purity and 100±32GBq/μmol specific activity. (18)F-AmBF3-MJ9 was stable in mouse plasma, and was partially (22-30%) internalized after binding to GRPR. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies in mice showed fast renal excretion and good uptake of (18)F-AmBF3-MJ9 by GRPR-expressing pancreas and PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts. Tumor uptake was 1.37±0.25%ID/g at 1h, and 2.20±0.13%ID/g at 2h post-injection (p.i.) with low background uptake and excellent tumor visualization (tumor-to-muscle ratios of 75.4±5.5). These data suggest that (18)F-AmBF3-MJ9 is a promising PET tracer for imaging GRPR-expressing prostate cancers.

  20. Optimization of the production process of hybrid and multivalent formulation Bombesin/RGD for the opportune detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiopharmaceuticals of third generation are used in nuclear medicine to obtain images of specific molecular targets, and they are unique in their capacity to detect in vivo specific biochemical sites as receptors that are over-expressed in diverse illness. In cancer cells several types of receptors are over-expressed, as the integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) that specifically recognize the sequence RGD (Arginine-Glycin-Ac. Aspartic) and gastrin-releasing peptide that recognizes specifically to the peptide Lys3-Bombesin. The integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) are involved in the tumor angio genesis processes and the gastrin-releasing peptide is over-expressed in breast and prostate cancer. The molecular recognition of the specific receptors is the basis to be utilized as targets of the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-HYNIC-Bombesin and 99mTc-HYNIC-RGD. In this work was developed a lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation effective, stable and safe for the simultaneous obtaining of the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-HYNIC-Bombesin (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys3-Bombesin) and 99mTc-HYNIC-RGD (99mTc EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2). Later on the production process of the product HYNIC-Bombesin/RGD-Sn was optimized using a factorial design and the formulation was transferred to the production plant of radiopharmaceuticals of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The optimized formulation is described in the following chart: HYNIC-[Lys3]-Bombesin - 12.5 μg; HYNIC-E-c[RGDfK]2 - 12.5 μg; Stannous chloride (SnCl2) - 20 μg; Ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA) - 10 mg; N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl glycin (Tricine) - 20 mg; Mannitol - 50 mg. The production process was validated and were carried out the stability studies under refrigeration conditions. (Author)

  1. Inhibitory effect of bombesin and SMS 201-995 on DNA synthesis in the rat thyroid lobes incubated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 4-h incubation in the presence of bombesin on the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into DNA of the rat thyroid lobes, collected from animals treated in vivo with a long-acting somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) or with 0.9% NaCl, were investigated. It was shown that not only in vivo injections of SMS 201-995, but also, unexpectedly, in vitro incubation with bombesin inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The two examined substances did not reveal any additive action in their inhibitory effects on the thyroid growth

  2. Bombesin receptor subtype-3 agonists stimulate the growth of lung cancer cells and increase EGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Terry W.; Sancho, Veronica; Florio, Alessia di; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Mantey, Samuel; Jensen, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) agonists were investigated on lung cancer cells. The BRS-3 agonist (DTyr6, βAla11, Phe13, Nle14)bombesin6-14 (BA1), but not gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) or neuromedin B (NMB) increased significantly the clonal growth of NCI-H1299 cells stably transfected with BRS-3 (NCI-H1299-BRS-3). Also, BA1 addition to NCI-H727 or NCI-H1299-BRS-3 cells caused Tyr1068 phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Similarly, (DTyr6, R-Ap...

  3. Molecular cloning of a new bombesin receptor subtype expressed in uterus during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Gorboulev, Valentin; Akhundova, Aida; Büchner, Hubert; Fahrenholz, Falk

    2011-01-01

    The homology screening approach has been used to clone a new member of the guanine-nucleotidebinding-protein-coupled receptor superfamily from guinea pig uterus. The cloned cDNA encodes a 399-amino-acid protein and shows the highest amino acid similarity to members of the bombesin receptor family; 52% and 47% similarity to the gastrin-releasing-peptide (GRP) receptor and the neuromedin-B receptor, respectively. Bindingexperiments with the stably transfected LLC-PK1 cell line expressing the ne...

  4. Molecular Basis for the Selectivity of the Mammalian Bombesin Peptide, Neuromedin B, for Its Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    González, Nieves; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Mantey, Samuel A.; Sancho, Veronica; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Jensen, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian bombesin (Bn) peptides, neuromedin B (NMB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), have widespread actions in many tissues, and their effects are mediated by two closely related G-protein-coupled receptors, the NMBR and GRPR. Little is known about the structural determinants of NMBR selectivity for NMB, in contrast to GRP selectivity for the GRPR, which has been extensively studied. To provide insight, chimeric NMBR-GRPR loss-of-affinity and gain-of-affinity mutants were made, as w...

  5. Chemical and biological characterization of new Re(CO){sub 3}/[{sup 99m}Tc](CO){sub 3} bombesin analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Garayoa, Elisa [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Science, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: elisa.garcia@psi.ch; Rueegg, Dominique [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Science, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Blaeuenstein, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Science, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Zwimpfer, Martin [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Science, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Khan, Irfan Ullah [Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Bioscience, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig, Bruederstrasse 34, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Maes, Veronique [Department of Organic Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Blanc, Alain [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Science, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Beck-Sickinger, Annette G. [Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Bioscience, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig, Bruederstrasse 34, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Tourwe, Dirk A. [Department of Organic Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Schubiger, P. August [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Science, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    Introduction: Bombesin, a neuropeptide with potential for breast and prostate tumor targeting, is rapidly metabolized in vivo, and as a result, uptake in tumor xenografts in mice is poor. An improvement can be expected from the introduction of nonnatural amino acids and spacers. Leu{sup 13} was replaced by cyclohexylalanine and Met{sup 14} by norleucine. Two spacers, -{beta}Ala-{beta}Ala- and 3,6-dioxa-8-aminooctanoic acid, were inserted between the receptor-binding amino acid sequence (7-14) of bombesin (BBS) and the retroN{sup {alpha}}-carboxymethyl histidine chelator used for labeling with the [{sup 99m}Tc](CO){sub 3} core and the rhenium (Re) congener. Methods: The biological characterization of the new compounds was performed both in vitro on prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells (binding affinity, internalization/externalization) and in vivo (biodistribution in nude mice with tumor xenografts). The stability was also investigated in human plasma. The Re analogues were prepared for chemical characterization. Results: The nonnatural amino acids led to markedly slower degradation in human plasma and PC-3 cell cultures. The receptor affinity of the new technetium 99m ([{sup 99m}Tc])-labeled BBS analogues was similar to the unmodified compound with K {sub d}<1 nM. Uptake in the pancreas and in PC-3 tumor xenografts in nude mice was blocked by unlabeled BBS. The best target-to-nontarget uptake ratio was clearly due to the presence of the more polar spacer, -{beta}Ala-{beta}Ala-. Conclusions: The different spacers did not have a significant effect on stability or receptor affinity but had a clear influence on the uptake in healthy organs and tumors. Uptake in the kidneys was lower than in the liver, which is likely to be due to the lipophilicity of the compounds. A specific, high uptake was also observed in the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-rich pancreas. Thus, with the introduction of spacers the in vivo properties of the compounds can be improved while leaving the

  6. Comparative pharmacology of bombesin receptor subtype-3, nonpeptide agonist MK-5046, a universal peptide agonist, and peptide antagonist Bantag-1 for human bombesin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Paola; Mantey, Samuel A; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Reitman, Marc L; González, Nieves; Coy, David H; Jensen, Robert T

    2013-10-01

    Bombesin-receptor-subtype-3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor of the bombesin (Bn) family whose natural ligand is unknown and which does not bind any natural Bn-peptide with high affinity. It is present in the central nervous system, peripheral tissues, and tumors; however, its role in normal physiology/pathophysiology is largely unknown because of the lack of selective ligands. Recently, MK-5046 [(2S)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-[4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-3-(4-{[1-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]methyl}-1H-imidazol-2-yl)propan-2-ol] and Bantag-1 [Boc-Phe-His-4-amino-5-cyclohexyl-2,4,5-trideoxypentonyl-Leu-(3-dimethylamino) benzylamide N-methylammonium trifluoroacetate], a nonpeptide agonist and a peptide antagonist, respectively, for BRS-3 have been described, but there have been limited studies on their pharmacology. We studied MK-5046 and Bantag-1 interactions with human Bn-receptors-human bombesin receptor subtype-3 (hBRS-3), gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R), and neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R)-and compared them with the nonselective, peptide-agonist [d-Tyr6,βAla11,Phe13,Nle14]Bn-(6-14) (peptide #1). Receptor activation was detected by activation of phospholipase C (PLC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and Akt. In hBRS-3 cells, the relative affinities were Bantag-1 (1.3 nM) > peptide #1 (2 nM) > MK-5046 (37-160 nM) > GRP, NMB (>10 μM), and the binding-dose-inhibition curves were broad (>4 logs), with Hill coefficients differing significantly from unity. Curve-fitting demonstrated high-affinity (MK-5046, Ki = 0.08 nM) and low-affinity (MK-5046, Ki = 11-29 nM) binding sites. For PLC activation in hBRS-3 cells, the relative potencies were MK-5046 (0.02 nM) > peptide #1 (6 nM) > GRP, NMB, Bantag-1 (>10 μM), and MK-5046 had a biphasic dose response, whereas peptide #1 was monophasic. Bantag-1 was a specific hBRS-3-antagonist. In hBRS-3 cells, MK-5046 was a full agonist for activation of MAPK, FAK, Akt

  7. In vitro Evaluation of a Bombesin Antagonistic Analogue Conjugated with DOTA-Ala(SO{sub 3}H)-Aminooctanoyl for Targeting of the Gastrin-releasing Peptide Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, So Young; Choi, Sang Mu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    As Bombesin (BBS) binds with high affinity to GRPR, BBS derivatives have been labeled with various radionuclides such as {sup 99}mTc, {sup 111}In, {sup 90}Y, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 68}Ga, or {sup 18}F and have proved to be successful candidates for peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT). In this study, we employed Ala(SO{sub 3}H)-Aminooctanoyl as a linker of BBS antagonistic peptide sequence, Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH{sub 2}, with DOTA to prepare radiolabeled candidates for GRPR targeting. A DOTA-conjugated BBS antagonistic analogue was synthesized and radiolabeled with {sup 177}Lu, and in vitro characteristics on GRPR-overexpressing human prostate tumor cells were evaluated. In conclusion, a novel BBS antagonistic analogue, {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-sBBNA, is a promising candidate for the targeting of GRPR-over-expressing tumors. Further investigations to evaluate its in vivo characteristics and therapeutic efficacy are needed.

  8. The role of scintimammography with 99MTC-MIBI in evaluation of the breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic value of prone lateral 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in detection of primary breast cancer in patients with breast lesions. Materials and methods: We evaluated 142 patients with breast lesions and/or suspicious mammographic findings. In all patients, the diagnosis was established by pathology. Pattern of abnormal MIBI uptake ( focal or diffuse ) and quantitative measurement of the Ratio of Lesion to normal tissue uptake( T/N Ratio) was recorded. All lesions with abnormal focal uptake with T/N Ratio of more than 1.30 were considered as malignant lesion. Cases with normal homogeneous or abnormal diffusely increased uptake in the breast tissue were interpreted as negative for malignant lesion. Results: Of 142 patients, histopathologic study of 36 cases showed Malignancy which 34 cases of them had Positive MIBI scan. Of 106 cases of negative pathology ,cases had Negative MIBI scintimammography. Analysis of the findings showed high sensitivity, Specificity, accuray and Negative predictive value for 99m-MIBI scintimammography in detection of malignant breast lesion. Conclusion: We concluded that MIBI Scan can be used as complementary or even competitory imaging to the mammography in the evaluation of the breast lesions. (authors)

  9. Bombesin receptors and transplanted stem cells in rat brain: High-resolution scan with {sup 99m}Tc BN1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scopinaro, F. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.scopinaro@uniroma1.it; Paschali, E. [NSC Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Di Santo, G. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Antonellis, T. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Massari, R. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy); Trotta, C. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy); Gourni, H. [NSC Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Bouziotis, P. [NSC Demokritos, Athens (Greece); David, V. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Soluri, A. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy); Varvarigou, A.D. [NSC Demokritos, Athens (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    The aim of this work is to detect the presence of transplanted stem cells (TSC) in rat brain with high-resolution (HR) scintigraphy and labelled bombesin (BN). BN is a morphogen for Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as for other organs: CNS-oriented TSC over-express BN Receptors (BNR). BN is also a neurotransmitter and modulates several functions of CNS. {sup 99m}Tc labelled BN-like peptide scan of CNS is the ideal method to detect growing TSC once knowing normal distribution of BNRs in CNS. HR Planar and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of rat brain were performed with new HR detectors (Li-tech, Italy). Pertechnetate, {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO and the new {sup 99m}Tc BN1.1 (patented) were i.v. administered in five rats. HR SPECT of {sup 99m}Tc BN1.1 detected olfactory tract, fronto-lateral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and amygdale. Results of SPECT were confirmed by bio-distribution study performed after autopsy of three of the five rats. The remaining two rats underwent cerebral lesions followed by transplant of TSC. Three months later, HR scintigraphy was repeated and showed images completely different from previous basal study, with hot spot of {sup 99m}Tc BN1.1 corresponding to the site of TSC transplant. Immuno-histochemistry confirmed the presence of viable TSC. Not only {sup 99m}Tc BN1.1 HR scan showed viability of transplanted TSC but also the 'background brain' was the still now unknown map of BNR in mammalian brain.

  10. Bombesin receptors and transplanted stem cells in rat brain: High-resolution scan with 99mTc BN1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopinaro, F.; Paschali, E.; Di Santo, G.; Antonellis, T.; Massari, R.; Trotta, C.; Gourni, H.; Bouziotis, P.; David, V.; Soluri, A.; Varvarigou, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work is to detect the presence of transplanted stem cells (TSC) in rat brain with high-resolution (HR) scintigraphy and labelled bombesin (BN). BN is a morphogen for Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as for other organs: CNS-oriented TSC over-express BN Receptors (BNR). BN is also a neurotransmitter and modulates several functions of CNS. 99mTc labelled BN-like peptide scan of CNS is the ideal method to detect growing TSC once knowing normal distribution of BNRs in CNS. HR Planar and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of rat brain were performed with new HR detectors (Li-tech, Italy). Pertechnetate, 99mTc HMPAO and the new 99mTc BN1.1 (patented) were i.v. administered in five rats. HR SPECT of 99mTc BN1.1 detected olfactory tract, fronto-lateral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and amygdale. Results of SPECT were confirmed by bio-distribution study performed after autopsy of three of the five rats. The remaining two rats underwent cerebral lesions followed by transplant of TSC. Three months later, HR scintigraphy was repeated and showed images completely different from previous basal study, with hot spot of 99mTc BN1.1 corresponding to the site of TSC transplant. Immuno-histochemistry confirmed the presence of viable TSC. Not only 99mTc BN1.1 HR scan showed viability of transplanted TSC but also the "background brain" was the still now unknown map of BNR in mammalian brain.

  11. Bombesin receptors and transplanted stem cells in rat brain: High-resolution scan with 99mTc BN1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to detect the presence of transplanted stem cells (TSC) in rat brain with high-resolution (HR) scintigraphy and labelled bombesin (BN). BN is a morphogen for Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as for other organs: CNS-oriented TSC over-express BN Receptors (BNR). BN is also a neurotransmitter and modulates several functions of CNS. 99mTc labelled BN-like peptide scan of CNS is the ideal method to detect growing TSC once knowing normal distribution of BNRs in CNS. HR Planar and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of rat brain were performed with new HR detectors (Li-tech, Italy). Pertechnetate, 99mTc HMPAO and the new 99mTc BN1.1 (patented) were i.v. administered in five rats. HR SPECT of 99mTc BN1.1 detected olfactory tract, fronto-lateral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and amygdale. Results of SPECT were confirmed by bio-distribution study performed after autopsy of three of the five rats. The remaining two rats underwent cerebral lesions followed by transplant of TSC. Three months later, HR scintigraphy was repeated and showed images completely different from previous basal study, with hot spot of 99mTc BN1.1 corresponding to the site of TSC transplant. Immuno-histochemistry confirmed the presence of viable TSC. Not only 99mTc BN1.1 HR scan showed viability of transplanted TSC but also the 'background brain' was the still now unknown map of BNR in mammalian brain

  12. Heterologous desensitization of bombesin-induced mitogenesis by prolonged exposure to vasopressin: a post-receptor signal transduction block.

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, J B; Rozengurt, E

    1989-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells to vasopressin prevents mitogenic stimulation on subsequent addition of bombesin. This heterologous desensitization is selective and can be mimicked by vasopressin agonists, including [Lys8]vasopressin and oxytocin but not by the V1-type-specific vasopressin receptor antagonist [Pmp1,O-Me-Tyr2,Arg8]vasopressin [where Pmp is 1-(beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopenthamethylene propionic acid)]. Furthermore, vasopressin-induced loss of responsiveness t...

  13. Ca2+-mobilizing actions of platelet-derived growth factor differ from those of bombesin and vasopressin in Swiss 3T3 mouse cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of the mitogenic peptides bombesin and vasopressin to quiescent Swiss 3T3 mouse cells increased the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration without any measurable delay. In contrast, there was a significant lag period (16 +/- 1.2 s) before platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. This lag was not diminished at high concentrations of either porcine or human PDGF. Similar results were obtained in 3T3 cells loaded with quin-2 or fura-2. The differences in the effects of bombesin, vasopressin, and PDGF on Ca2+ movements were also substantiated by measurements of 45Ca2+ efflux and of cellular 45Ca2+ content. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters inhibited Ca2+ mobilization induced by either bombesin or vasopressin. In contrast, phorbol esters had no effect on PDGF-induced cytosolic Ca2+ concentration increase or acceleration of 45Ca2+ efflux. Finally, bombesin and vasopressin caused a rapid increase in the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, whereas PDGF, even at a saturating concentration, exerted only a small effect. These results indicate that the signal transduction pathway activated by PDGF that lead to Ca2+ mobilization can be distinguished form those utilized by bombesin and vasopressin

  14. A role for bombesin in sensory processing in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, T L; Massari, V J; Pazoles, C J; Chronwall, B M; Shults, C W; Quirion, R; Chase, T N; Moody, T W

    1984-12-01

    Bombesin (BN)-containing neuronal processes were demonstrated in laminae I and II of the dorsal horn of the cat, rat, and mouse spinal cord by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Dorsal rhizotomy in the cat resulted in a marked decrease in BN immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn indicating that BN is contained in primary sensory afferents. BN-binding sites were also localized in superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. The presence of both BN and BN-binding sites in the dorsal horn suggested that BN may be involved in sensory processing in the spinal cord. Consistent with this hypothesis, it was demonstrated that an injection of BN into the spinal cord caused a biting and scratching response indicative of sensory stimulation. The effect was similar to that observed after injection of substance P into the cord with the exception that the BN effect lasted about 100 times longer than that induced by substance P. Taken together, these data indicate that BN may be a neurotransmitter of primary sensory afferents to the spinal cord. PMID:6094746

  15. Does bombesin-like peptide mediate radiation-induced anorexia and satiety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombesin (BN) and its mammalian counterpart gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) act as neuroregulatory hormones and peripheral and central satiety-inducing agents. Previously, we demonstrated that irradiation induces an increase in the expression of BN/GRP in the innervation of the salivary glands in rats. We therefore carried out a study using radioimmunoassay (RIA) analysis and immunohistochemistry to examine whether saliva contains BN and whether irradiation affects the BN release to saliva in rats. Immunoreactivity for BN was detected not only in the innervation of the parenchyma but also in the duct cells and in the lumina of the ducts, suggesting entrance of BN into saliva. The RIA analysis confirmed that rat saliva contains a BN-like peptide. The observation shows that saliva contains this peptide but that there is no significant increase following the radiation schedule used. Nevertheless, the occurrence of an enhanced expression of BN in different peripheral tissues such as the salivary and laryngeal glands should be taken into consideration when discussing the clinically important problem of reduced food intake and anorexia in cancer patients. (orig.)

  16. Effects of peripheral and central bombesin on feeding behavior of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, J; Kulkosky, P J; Smith, G P

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injections of tetradecapeptide bombesin (BBS) produced large, dose-related suppressions of liquid and solid food intake in rats, with threshold doses of 1--2 micrograms-kg-1. The feeding-associated behaviors of rats receiving BBS by this route at a test meal were normally sequenced, and several other observations suggested that the effect of BBS was specific and not due to malaise. The structurally related amphibian peptide litorin and the structurally related mammalian gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) produced similar suppressions of food intake. The satiety effect of BBS administered intraperitoneally did not require the accumulation of food in the gut, the presence of intact adrenals, the abdominal vagus, or the release of cholecystokinin. When BBS and cholecystokinin were administered simultaneous, the suppressive effects on food intake were additive. Lateral cerebroventricular injections of BBS also produced large, dose-related suppressions of food intake, with a threshold dose of 100 ng per rat. The effect by this route, however, was not behaviorally specific: BBS produced equivalent inhibitions of food and water intake at every point on the dose-response curve, and produced a marked increase in grooming which dominated the behavioral display. Thus, (1) peripheral BBS is a putative satiety signal in the rat; (2) the class (endocrine, paracrine, or neural) and mechanism of this satiety action is not established; and (3) the differences in specificity and behavior following intraperitoneal and cerebroventricular routes indicate that peripheral BBS does not act solely via the cerebrospinal fluid to elicity satiety. PMID:6283491

  17. Does bombesin-like peptide mediate radiation-induced anorexia and satiety?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, Y.; Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Forsgren, S.; Kjoerell, U. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Anatomy; Funegaard, U. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cardiology

    1999-07-01

    Bombesin (BN) and its mammalian counterpart gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) act as neuroregulatory hormones and peripheral and central satiety-inducing agents. Previously, we demonstrated that irradiation induces an increase in the expression of BN/GRP in the innervation of the salivary glands in rats. We therefore carried out a study using radioimmunoassay (RIA) analysis and immunohistochemistry to examine whether saliva contains BN and whether irradiation affects the BN release to saliva in rats. Immunoreactivity for BN was detected not only in the innervation of the parenchyma but also in the duct cells and in the lumina of the ducts, suggesting entrance of BN into saliva. The RIA analysis confirmed that rat saliva contains a BN-like peptide. The observation shows that saliva contains this peptide but that there is no significant increase following the radiation schedule used. Nevertheless, the occurrence of an enhanced expression of BN in different peripheral tissues such as the salivary and laryngeal glands should be taken into consideration when discussing the clinically important problem of reduced food intake and anorexia in cancer patients. (orig.)

  18. A Bombesin-Shepherdin Radioconjugate Designed for Combined Extra- and Intracellular Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane A. Fischer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Radiolabeled peptides which target tumor-specific membrane structures of cancer cells represent a promising class of targeted radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. A potential drawback of a number of reported radiopeptides is the rapid washout of a substantial fraction of the initially delivered radioactivity from cancer cells and tumors. This renders the initial targeting effort in part futile and results in a lower imaging quality and efficacy of the radiotracer than achievable. We are investigating the combination of internalizing radiopeptides with molecular entities specific for an intracellular target. By enabling intracellular interactions of the radioconjugate, we aim at reducing/decelerating the externalization of radioactivity from cancer cells. Using the “click-to-chelate” approach, the 99mTc-tricarbonyl core as a reporter probe for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was combined with the binding sequence of bombesin for extracellular targeting of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-r and peptidic inhibitors of the cytosolic heat shock 90 protein (Hsp90 for intracellular targeting. Receptor-specific uptake of the multifunctional radioconjugate could be confirmed, however, the cellular washout of radioactivity was not improved. We assume that either endosomal trapping or lysosomal degradation of the radioconjugate is accountable for these observations.

  19. Inhibition of serotonin release by bombesin-like peptides in rat hypothalamus in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saporito, M.S.; Warwick, R.O. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the activity of bombesin (BN), neuromedin-C (NM-C) and neuromedin-B (NM-B) on serotonin (5-HT) release and reuptake in rat hypothalamus (HYP) in vitro. BN and NM-C but not NM-B decreased K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release from superfused HYP slices by 25%. Bacitracin, a nonspecific peptidase inhibitor, reversed the inhibitory effect of BN on K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Phosphoramidon (PAN, 10 /mu/M) an endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, abolished the inhibitory effect of BN, but not NM-C, on K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release. The peptidyl dipeptidase A inhibitor enalaprilat (ENP, 10 /mu/M), enhanced both BN and NM-C inhibition of /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Bestatin (BST, 10 /mu/M) had no effect on BN or NM-C inhibitory activity on /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Neither BN, NM-C nor NM-B affected reuptake of /sup 3/H-5-HT into HYP synaptosomes alone or in combination with any of the peptidase inhibitors, nor did these peptides alter the ability of fluoxetine to inhibit /sup 3/H-5-HT uptake.

  20. Insulinotropic action of bombesin-like peptides mediated by gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Q; Yao, G; Yannaing, S; ThanThan, S; Kuwayama, H

    2016-01-01

    The present study characterizes the receptor that mediates the insulinotropic action of bombesin-like peptides (BLP) in ruminants. Eight Holstein steers were randomly and intravenously injected with synthetic bovine gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), neuromedin B (NMB; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), or neuromedin C (NMC; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), each alone or combined with the antagonist of GRP receptors N-acetyl-GRP-OCHCH (N-GRP-EE; 22.5 nmol/kg BW) or the antagonist of GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) [D-Lys]-GHRP-6 (21.5 nmol/kg BW). Blood samples were collected at -10, 0 (just before injection), 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min relative to injection time. Levels of injected peptides, insulin, and glucose in plasma were analyzed. Results showed that the peak of insulin levels was seen at 5 min after injection of NMC or GRP. Plasma glucose was observed in 2 phases; a significant rise followed a remarkable fall after NMC or GRP administration compared with injection of the vehicle ( 0.05). These results indicated that the insulinotropic action of BLP is mediated by GRP receptors but not through a ghrelin/GHS-R1a pathway and that BLP may be involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in ruminants. PMID:26812312

  1. Experimental obstructive jaundice alters claudin-4 expression in intestinal mucosa: Effect of bombesin and neurotensin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stelios F Assimakopoulos; Constantine E Vagianos; Aristides S Charonis; Ilias H Alexandris; Iris Spiliopoulou; Konstantinos C Thomopoulos; Vassiliki N Nikolopoulou; Chrisoula D Scopa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of experimental obstructive jaundice and exogenous bombesin (BBS) and neurotensin (NT) administration on the expression of the tight junction (TJ)-protein claudin-4 in intestinal epithelium of rats.METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: Ⅰ = controls, Ⅱ = sham operated, Ⅲ = bile duct ligation (BDL), Ⅳ = BDL+BBS (30 μg/kg per d), V = BDL+NT (300 μg/kg per d). At the end of the experiment on d 10, endotoxin was measured in portal and aortic blood. Tissue sections of the terminal ileum were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for evaluation of claudin-4 expression in intestinal epithelium.RESULTS: Obstructive jaundice led to intestinal barrier failure demonstrated by significant portal and aortic endotoxemia. Claudin-4 expression was significantly increased in the upper third of the villi in jaundiced rats and an upregulation of its lateral distribution was noted.Administration of BBS or NT restored claudin-4 expression to the control state and significantly reduced portal and aortic endotoxemia.CONCLUSION: Experimental obstructive jaundice increases claudin-4 expression in intestinal epithelium,which may be a key factor contributing to the disruption of the mucosal barrier. Gut regulatory peptides BBS and NT can prevent this alteration and reduce portal and sysremic endotoxemia.

  2. Preclinical Evaluation of a Novel In-111-Labeled Bombesin Homodimer for Improved Imaging of GRPR-Positive Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlucci, G.; Ananias, H. J. K.; Yu, Z.; Hoving, H. D.; Helfrich, W.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Liu, S.; de Jong, I. J.; Elsinga, P. H.

    2013-01-01

    Rational-designed multimerization of targeting ligands can be used to improve kinetic and thermodynamic properties. Multimeric targeting ligands may be produced by tethering multiple identical or two or more monomeric ligands of different binding specificities. Consequently, multimeric ligands may s

  3. Does the histaminergic system mediate bombesin/GRP-induced suppression of food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Z; Banks, K

    1994-12-01

    Bombesin (BN) and its mammalian homologue, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), are potent satiety agents and have been implicated in the physiological regulation of food intake. The mechanism(s) of action of this effect remains unclear. There is a functional and anatomic overlap between histamine and BN in relationship to feeding, which led us to hypothesize that BN may mediate its satiety effects through activation of the histaminergic system. To assess this contention, we examined the effects of R-alpha-methylhistamine (alpha-MH) and Imetit, selective H3-receptor agonists that inhibit the release and synthesis of histamine, on BN- or cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced satiety. In this report we present the first evidence for the role of histamine H3 receptors in the mediation of BN-elicited satiety. During the first hour of the 4-h daily feeding session, BN reduced food intake by > 50% relative to the control condition; this suppression was blocked by prior treatment with the H3-receptor agonist, alpha-MH. This blockade of BN-induced satiety was dose related and selective to BN as alpha-MH failed to attenuate sulfated CCK-8-induced satiety. When alpha-MH was administered alone, it failed to significantly affect food intake. The specificity of this effect was further supported by the demonstration that another H3 agonist, Imetit, was also able to block the feeding-suppressant effects of BN. Furthermore, thioperamide, an H3-receptor antagonist, blocked these effects of Imetit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Stress and eating: A dual role for bombesin-like peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zul eMerali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current obesity ‘epidemic’ in the developed world is a major health concern; over half of adult Canadians are now classified as overweight or obese. Although the reasons for high obesity rates remain unknown, an important factor appears to be the role stressors play in overconsumption of food and weight gain. In this context, increased stressor exposure and/or perceived stress may influence eating behavior and food choices. Stress-induced anorexia is often noted in rats exposed to chronic stress (e.g. repeated restraint and access to standard Chow diet; associated reduced consumption and weight loss. However, if a similar stressor exposure takes place in the presence of palatable, calorie dense food, rats often consume an increase proportion of palatable food relative to Chow, leading to weight gain and obesity. In humans, a similar desire to eat palatable or ‘comfort’ foods has been noted under stressful situations; it is thought that this response may potentially be attributable to stress-buffering properties and/or through activation of reward pathways. The complex interplay between stress-induced anorexia and stress-induced obesity is discussed in terms of the overlapping circuitry and neurochemicals that mediate feeding, stress and reward pathways. In particular, this paper draws attention to the bombesin family of peptides (BBs initially shown to regulate food intake and subsequently shown to mediate stress response as well. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that BBs may be involved in stress-induced anorexia under certain conditions, but that the same peptides could also be involved in stress-induced obesity. This hypothesis is based on the unique distribution of BBs in key cortico-limbic brain regions involved in food regulation, reward, incentive salience and motivationally driven behavior.

  5. Characterization of the bombesin receptor on mouse pancreatic acini by chemical cross-linking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.C.; Yu, D.H.; Wank, S.A.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Bombesin (BN), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and GRP(18-27) (neuromedin C) were equipotent and 30-fold more potent than neuromedin B (NMB) in inhibiting binding of {sup 125}I-GRP to and in stimulating amylase release from mouse pancreatic acini. In the present study we used {sup 125}I-GRP and chemical cross-linking techniques to characterize the mouse pancreatic BN receptor. After binding of {sup 125}I-GRP to membranes, and incubation with various chemical cross-linking agents, cross-linked radioactivity was analyzed by SDS-PAG electrophoresis and autoradiography. With each of 4 different chemical cross-linking agents, there was a single broad polypeptide band of Mr 80,000. Cross-linking did not occur in the absence of the cross-linking agent. Cross-linking was inhibited only by peptides that interact with the BN receptor such as GRP, NMB, GRP(18-27) or BN. Dose-inhibition curves for the ability of BN or NMB to inhibit binding of {sup 125}I-GRP to membranes or cross-linking to the 80,000 polypeptide demonstrated for both that BN was 15-fold more potent than NMB. The apparent molecular weight of the cross-linked polypeptide was unchanged by adding dithiothreitol. N-Glycanase treatment reduced the molecular weight of the cross-linked peptide to 40,000. The present results indicate that the BN receptor on mouse pancreatic acinar cell membranes resembles that recently described on various tumor cells in being a single glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 76,000. Because dithiothreitol had no effect, this glycoprotein is not a subunit of a larger disulfide-linked structure.

  6. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  7. GLP1- and GIP-producing cells rarely overlap and differ by bombesin receptor-2 expression and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Berit; Pais, Ramona; Engelstoft, Maja S; Milev, Nikolay B; Richards, Paul; Christiansen, Charlotte B; Egerod, Kristoffer L; Jensen, Signe M; Habib, Abdella M; Gribble, Fiona M; Schwartz, Thue W; Reimann, Frank; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted from intestinal endocrine cells, the so-called L- and K-cells. The cells are derived from a common precursor and are highly related, and co-expression of the two hormones in so-called L/K-cells has been reported. To investigate the relationship between the GLP1- and GIP-producing cells more closely, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing a fluorescent marker in GIP-positive cells. In combination with a mouse strain with fluorescent GLP1 cells, we were able to estimate the overlap between the two cell types. Furthermore, we used primary cultured intestinal cells and isolated perfused mouse intestine to measure the secretion of GIP and GLP1 in response to different stimuli. Overlapping GLP1 and GIP cells were rare (∼5%). KCl, glucose and forskolin+IBMX increased the secretion of both GLP1 and GIP, whereas bombesin/neuromedin C only stimulated GLP1 secretion. Expression analysis showed high expression of the bombesin 2 receptor in GLP1 positive cells, but no expression in GIP-positive cells. These data indicate both expressional and functional differences between the GLP1-producing 'L-cell' and the GIP-producing 'K-cell'. PMID:26483393

  8. Validation of the production process of core-equipment HYNIC-Bombesin-Sn; Validacion del proceso de produccion del nucleo-equipo HYNIC-Bombesina-Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio C, N. I. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The validation process is establishing documented evidence that provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process consistently will produce a product that will meet specifications and quality attributes preset and, therefore, ensures the efficiency and effectiveness of a product. The radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-HYNlC-Bombesin is part of the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) analogues of bombesin that are radiolabelled with technetium 99 metastable for molecular images obtention. Is obtained from freeze-dry formulations kits (core- equipment)) and has reported a very high stability in human serum, specific binding to receptors and rapid internalization. Biodistribution data in mice showed rapid blood clearance with predominant renal excretion and specific binding to tissues with positive response to GRP receptors. According to biokinetics studies performed on patients with breast cancer, breast show a marked asymmetry with increased uptake in neoplastic breast in healthy women and the uptake of radiopharmaceuticals is symmetrical in both breasts. No reported adverse reactions. In this paper, the prospective validation core-equipment HYNlC-Bombesin-Sn, which was shown consistently that the product meets the specifications and quality, attributes to preset from the obtained from the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical third generation: {sup 99m}Tc-HYNlC-Bombesin. The process was successfully validated and thereby ensuring the efficiency and effectiveness of this agent as a preliminary diagnostic for approval to be marketed. (Author)

  9. Effect of the peptide Tat(49-57) on the bio-distribution and similar radiopharmaceuticals dosimetry of the bombesin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-r) is over-expressed in prostate and breast cancer. 99mTc-Bombesin (99mTc-Bn) has been reported as a radiopharmaceutical with specific cell GRP-r binding. The HIV Tat(49-57)-derived peptide has been used to deliver a large variety of molecules to cell nuclei. New hybrid radiopharmaceuticals of type 99mTc-N2S2-Tat(49-57)-Lys3-Bn (99mTc-Tat-Bn) and 188Re-N2S2-Tat(49-57)-Lys3-Bn (188Re-Tat-Bn), would increase cell uptake and internalized in cancer cell nuclei could act as an effective system of targeted radiotherapy using Auger and internal conversion (I C) electron emissions near DNA. The aim of this research was to prepare and assess in vitro and in vivo uptake kinetics in cancer cells of 99mTc/188Re-Tat-Bn and the in vitro nucleus and cytoplasm internalization kinetics in GRP receptor-positive cancer cells as well as to evaluate the subcellular-level radiation absorbed dose associated with the observed effect on cancer cell DNA proliferation. Structures of N2S2-Tat-Bn and Tc/Re(O)N2S2-Tat-Bn were calculated by an Mm procedure. 99mTc-Tat-Bn and 188Re-Tat-Bn were synthesized and stability studies carried out by HPLC and I TLC-Sg analyses in serum and cysteine solutions. In vitro internalization was tested using human prostate cancer Pc 3 cells and breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-Mb 231 and MCF 7. Nuclei from cells were isolated using a nuclear extraction kit. Total disintegrations in each subcellular compartment were calculated by integration of experimental time activity kinetic curves. Nucleus internalization was corroborated by con focal microscopy images using immunofluorescent labelled Tat-Bn. Biodistribution was determined in Pc 3 tumor-bearing nude mice. The Penelope code was used to simulate and calculate the absorbed dose by contribution of β, Auger and I C electrons in the cytoplasm and nucleus using geometric models built from immunofluorescent cell images. A cell proliferation kit was used to evaluate DNA

  10. ML-18 is a non-peptide bombesin receptor subtype-3 antagonist which inhibits lung cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Terry W; Mantey, Samuel A; Moreno, Paola; Nakamura, Taichi; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype (BRS)-3 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for the bombesin (BB)-family of peptides. BRS-3 is an orphan GPCR and little is known of its physiological role due to the lack of specific agonists and antagonists. PD168368 is a nonpeptide antagonist for the neuromedin B (NMB) receptor (R) whereas PD176252 is a nonpeptide antagonist for the gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) R and NMBR but not BRS-3. Here nonpeptide analogs of PD176252 e.g. the S-enantiomer ML-18, and the R-enantiomer, EMY-98, were investigated as BRS-3 antagonists using lung cancer cells. ML-18 and EMY-98 inhibited specific (125)I-BA1 (DTyr-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-βAla-His-Phe-Nle-NH2)BB(6-14) binding to NCI-H1299 lung cancer cells stably transfected with BRS-3 with IC50 values of 4.8 and >100μM, respectively. In contrast, ML-18 bound with lower affinity to the GRPR and NMBR with IC50 values of 16 and >100μM, respectively. ML-18 (16μM), but not its enantiomer EMY-98, inhibited the ability of 10nM BA1 to elevate cytosolic Ca(2+) in a reversible manner using lung cancer cells loaded with FURA2-AM. ML-18 (16μM), but not EMY-98, inhibited the ability of 100nM BA1 to cause tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR and ERK in lung cancer cells. ML-18 but not EMY-98 inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer cells. The results indicate that ML-18 is a nonpeptide BRS-3 antagonist that should serve as a template to improve potency and selectivity. PMID:25554218

  11. Renal uptake and retention of radiolabeled somatostatin, bombesin, neurotensin, minigastrin and CCK analogues: species and gender differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Marleen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, 3015 CE Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.melis@erasmusmc.nl; Krenning, Eric P.; Bernard, Bert F.; Visser, Monique de; Rolleman, Edgar; Jong, Marion de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, 3015 CE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-08-15

    Introduction: During therapy with radiolabeled peptides, the kidney is most often the critical organ. Newly developed peptides are evaluated preclinically in different animal models before their application in humans. In this study, the renal retention of several radiolabeled peptides was compared in male and female rats and mice. Methods: After intravenous injection of radiolabeled peptides [somatostatin, cholecystokinin (CCK), minigastrin, bombesin and neurotensin analogues], renal uptake was determined in both male and female Lewis rats and C57Bl mice. In addition, ex vivo autoradiography of renal sections was performed to localize accumulated radioactivity. Results: An equal distribution pattern of renal radioactivity was found for all peptides: high accumulation in the cortex, lower accumulation in the outer medulla and no radioactivity in the inner medulla of the kidneys. In both male rats and mice, an increasing renal uptake was found: [{sup 111}In-DTPA]CCK8<[{sup 111}In-DTPA-Pro{sup 1},Tyr{sup 4}]bombesin{approx}[{sup 111}In-DTPA] neurotensin<[{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide<<[{sup 111}In-DTPA]MG0. Renal uptake of [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide in rats showed no gender difference, and renal radioactivity was about constant over time. In mice, however, renal uptake in females was significantly higher than that in males and decreased rapidly over time in both genders. Moreover, renal radioactivity in female mice injected with [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide showed a different localization pattern. Conclusions: Regarding the renal uptake of different radiolabeled peptides, both species showed the same ranking order. Similar to findings in patients, rats showed comparable and constant renal retention of radioactivity in both genders, in contrast to mice. Therefore, rats appear to be the more favorable species for the study of the renal retention of radioactivity.

  12. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} as an agent for pancreas tumor detection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlesso, F.N.; Fuscaldi, L.L.; Araujo, R.S.; Teixeira, C.S.; Oliveira, M.C.; Fernandes, S.O.A.; Cassali, G.D.; Reis, D.C.; Barros, A.L.B.; Cardoso, V.N., E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is important in oncology because of its high mortality rate. Deaths may be avoided if an early diagnosis could be achieved. Several types of tumors overexpress gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr), including pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, a radiolabeled peptide derivative of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) may be useful as a specific imaging probe. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC--βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} as an imaging probe for Capan-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Xenographic pancreatic tumor was developed in nude mice and characterized by histopathological analysis. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic images were carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. The two methods showed higher uptake by pancreatic tumor when compared to muscle (used as control), and the tumor-to-muscle ratio indicated that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC--βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} uptake was four-fold higher in tumor cells than in other tissues. Scintigraphic images also showed a clear signal at the tumor site. The present data indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC--βAla-Bombesin{sub (7-14)} may be useful for the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (author)

  13. Differential diagnosis of MRI detected intra cranial space occupying lesions (ICSOLS)-role of 99MTC tetrofosmin cerebral spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discriminating the correct etiology of Intra Cranial Space Occupying Lesions (ICSOLs) detected by MRI is of paramount importance in deciding the right therapeutic approach. Functional imaging like 99m Tc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT (C SPECT) can be used to differentiate malignant from other benign cerebral pathologies. Objective: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of C SPECT in differentiating various etiologies (i.e. Infective / Inflammatory, Neoplastic and Post Radiotherapy changes) of MRI detected ICSOLs. We also aimed to assess the incremental value of quantitative uptake ratios in identifying the exact nature of ICSOLs. Method: 26 Patients (M:F=20:6), age range 28-76 yrs, mean 42±7 yrs were evaluated by 99mTc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT. 14/26 patients were HIV positive cases while remaining 12 were treated patients of intracerebral malignancies. All these patients had one or more discrete MRI detected ICSOLs. 6/4 patients with HIV and 4/12 patients in the non HIV group showed more than 1 discrete ICSOLs. 20 mci of 99mTc Tetrofosmin was injected IV .15 min (early) and 2 hrs (delayed) post injection C SPECT images were acquired on a dual head variable angle Gamma camera. After reconstruction, transverse, coronal and sagittal images were co- registered with DICOM online available MRI images using aco- registration software. Focal Tetrofosmin uptake in MRI detected ICSOL was interpreted as abnormal. Tetrofosmin uptake index (Ix) was calculated in early and delayed images as ratio of counts in lesion to that of contra lateral region. A value of more than 1.3 was considered to be abnormal. Persistent Ix of more than 1.3 in initial and delayed images were considered to be malignant while Ix of more or less than 1.3 in initial but less than 1.3 in delayed images was considered to be benign in both groups. Results: In HIV group (14 pts), 4 patients showed an Ix of less than 1.3 in both early and delayed images and 7 patients showed an Ix of more than 1.3 in early but

  14. 99MTc - DMSA renal scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present thesis was to define and evaluate a strategy for identification of children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions after acute pyelonephritis. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation standards were elaborated to improve the interpretation of DMSA scintigraphy. The normal DMSA distribution pattern, the average background uptake, and scintigraphic kidney length according to age were assessed in 95 presumably healthy kidneys. Furthermore, typical DMSA distribution patterns in acute pyelonephritis were assessed on 65 kidneys in 38 children, and typical DMSA distribution patterns of 152 kidneys with VUR in 101 children with and without previous pyelonephritis. Measurement of scintigraphic kidney length, width and volume was validated in piglets and on a kidney phantom. The scintigraphic kidney length was found to be an accurate measure of renal size, whereas kidney width and volume were less reliable, at least on small kidneys. Criteria of kidney swelling in acute pyelonephritis were defined, and found to be beneficial for identifying reinfections in the absence of clinical symptoms. In 34 children with acute pyelonephritis quantitative and qualitative DMSA scintigraphic findings were correlated to clinical symptoms and laboratory data, in the acute stage and at follow up. We found that quantitative DMSA scintigraphy in the acute stage of pyelonephritis and again after one year will identify children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions. Qualitative assessment of DMSA distribution pattern is not reliable enough in this respect. 116 refs., 7 figs

  15. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  16. Pyrazolyl conjugates of bombesin: a new tridentate ligand framework for the stabilization of fac-[M(CO)3]+ moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Susana; Correia, Joao D G; Santos, Isabel; Veerendra, Bhadrasetty; Sieckman, Gary L; Hoffman, Timothy J; Rold, Tammy L; Figueroa, Said Daibes; Retzloff, Lauren; McCrate, Joseph; Prasanphanich, Adam; Smith, Charles J

    2006-07-01

    We have described the synthesis of tridentate pyrazolyl ligand frameworks for coordination to the fac-[*M(CO)(3)](+) metal fragment (*M=(186/188)Re or (99m)Tc). These ligands impart a degree of kinetic inertness on the metal center, warranting their study in biological systems. We herein report in vitro/in vivo radiolabeling investigations of a new series of pyrazolyl bombesin (BBN) conjugates radiolabeled via the Isolink kit. These new conjugates are based on the general structure [(99m)Tc-pyrazolyl-X-BBN[7-14]NH(2)], where X=beta-alanine, serylserylserine or glycylglycylglycine. The pyrazolyl ligand is a tridentate ligand framework that coordinates the metal center through nitrogen donor atoms. The results of these investigations demonstrate the ability of these new conjugates to specifically target the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor subtype 2, which is overexpressed on human prostate PC-3 cancerous tissues. Therefore, these studies suggest the tridentate pyrazolyl ligand framework to be an ideal candidate for the design and development of low-valent (99m)Tc-based diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals based on BBN or other targeting vectors. PMID:16843837

  17. Food labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per serving to the right of the nutrient. Vitamins and minerals: Only two vitamins (A and C) and two ... are required on the food label. But, when vitamins or minerals are added to the food, or when a ...

  18. Design, synthesis, and in vitro evaluation of cytotoxic analogs of bombesin-like peptides containing doxorubicin or its intensely potent derivative, 2-pyrrolinodoxorubicin

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy Attila; Armatis, Patricia; Cai, Ren-Zhi; Szepesházi Károly; Schally, Andrew V.; Halmos Gábor (1962-) (gyógyszerész, receptorfarmakológus, experimentális onkológus)

    1997-01-01

    Five peptide fragments, based on the C-terminal sequence of bombesin (BN)-(6-14) or BN-(7-14), were selected as carriers for radicals doxorubicin (DOX) and 2-pyrrolino-DOX to create hybrid cytotoxic analogs. All these compounds had a reduced peptide bond (CH2-NH or CH2-N) between positions 13 (Phe or Leu) and 14 (Phe, Leu, or Tac) (Tac = thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid). Three pseudononapeptide carriers contained N-terminal d-Phe or d-Tpi at position 6 (Tpi = 2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b...

  19. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of 99mTc-HYNIC-Lys3-Bombesin: images of GRP receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .3 +- 0.6 mSv. Conclusions: The highest absorbed dose variability was found in breast tissues because of differences in the in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression. All the absorbed doses are comparable with that known for most of the 99mTc studies. In spite of the ubiquitous GRP-r expression in non-neoplastic tissues 99mTc-HYNIC-BN is as a promising imaging radiopharmaceutical to target site-specific early breast cancer. These results warrant a further clinical study. (Author)

  20. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  1. Molecular markers derived from bombesin for tumor diagnosis by SPECT and PET; Marcadores moleculares derivados da bombesina para diagnostico de tumores por SPECT e PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli

    2012-07-01

    A high number of molecules have already been identified to have high affinity to some receptors overexpressed on tumour cells and the radiolabelling of those molecules offers the possibility of new compounds for tumour diagnosis and therapy by nuclear medicine. Among of those molecules, bombesin (BBN) has become focus of interest, as its BB{sub 2} receptors are known to be overexpressed in prostate, breast, colon, pancreatic and lung tumour, as long as glioblastomas and neuroblastomas. BBN agonists and antagonists have already been described for this purpose and promising results were obtained in preclinical studies. However, most of them exhibited high abdominal accumulation, especially in pancreas and intestines, which can compromise diagnosis accuracy and cause serious adverse effects in therapy. In this context, the goal of the present work to radiolabel new BBN derivatives with {sup 11}1In and {sup 68}Ga and to evaluate their potential for BB{sub 2} positive tumors diagnosis by single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). The structure of studied peptides was Q-YG{sub n}-BBN(6-14), where Q is the chelator, n is the number of glycine aminoacids in the spacer YG{sub n} and BBN(6-14) is the original bombesin sequence from the aminoacid 6 to 14. The derivative in which the last aminoacid (methionine, Met) was replaced by norleucine (Nle) was also evaluated. The experimental evaluation of the bombesin derivatives was divided into four steps: computational studies, molecular markers for SPECT, molecular markers for PET and toxicological studies. The theoretical partition (log P) and distribution (log D) coefficients were calculated for all bombesin derivatives conjugated to DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) chelators applying computational programmes. Bombesin derivatives for SPECT were developed by radiolabelling DTPA-conjugated bombesin derivatives with

  2. BLOCKADE OF ROSTRAL VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA (RVLM BOMBESIN RECEPTOR TYPE 1 DECREASES BLOOD PRESSURE AND SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY IN ANESTHETIZED SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Silva De Jesus Pinto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available IIntrathecal injection of bombesin (BBS promoted hypertensive and sympathoexcitatory effects in normotensive (NT rats. However, the involvement of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM in these responses is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated: (1 the effects of BBS injected bilaterally into RVLM on cardiorespiratory and sympathetic activity in NT and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; (2 the contribution of RVLM bombesin type 1 receptors (BB1 to the maintenance of hypertension in SHR. Urethane-anesthetized rats (1.2 g · kg−1, i.v. were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure (MAP, diaphragm (DIA motor and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. In NT rats and SHR, BBS (0.3 mM nanoinjected into RVLM increased MAP (33.9 ± 6.6 mmHg and 37.1 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively; p < 0.05 and RSNA (97.8 ± 12.9 % and 84.5 ± 18.1 %, respectively; p < 0.05. In SHR, BBS also increased DIA burst amplitude (115.3 ± 22.7 %; p < 0.05. BB1 receptors antagonist (BIM-23127; 3 mM reduced MAP (-19.9 ± 4.4 mmHg; p < 0.05 and RSNA (-17.7 ± 3.8 %; p < 0.05 in SHR, but not in NT rats (-2.5 ± 2.8 mmHg; -2.7 ± 5.6 %, respectively. These results show that BBS can evoke sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses by activating RVLM BB1 receptors. This pathway might be involved in the maintenance of high levels of arterial blood pressure in SHR.

  3. Application of 99mTechnetium-HYNIC(tricine/TPPTS)-Aca-Bombesin(7-14) SPECT/CT in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rationale: The peptide bombesin (BBN) and its derivatives exhibit high binding affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), which is highly expressed in prostate cancer. We used the BBN-based radiopharmaceutical 99mTechnetium-HYNIC(tricine/TPPTS)-Aca-Bombesin(7-14) (99mTc-HABBN) to perform a first-in-man clinical pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of 99mTc-HABBN SPECT/CT for detection of prostate cancer in patients. Methods: Eight patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer who were scheduled for either radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy underwent 99mTc-HABBN scintigraphy and SPECT/CT prior to treatment. Serial blood samples were taken to assess blood radioactivity and to determine in vivo metabolic stability. Clinical parameters were measured and reported side effects, if present, were recorded. Prostate cancer specimens of all patients were immunohistochemically stained for GRPR. Results: 99mTc-HABBN was synthesized with high radiochemical yield, purity and specific activity. There were no significant changes in clinical parameters, and there were no adverse or subjective side effects. Low metabolic stability was observed, as less than 20% of 99mTc-HABBN was intact after 30 min. Immunohistochemical staining for GRPR was observed in the prostate cancer specimens in all patients. 99mTc-HABBN scintigraphy and SPECT/CT did not detect prostate cancer in patients with proven disease. Conclusions: 99mTc-HABBN SPECT/CT for visualization of prostate cancer is safe but hampered by an unexpected low in vivo metabolic stability in man. The difference between the excellent in vitro stability of 99mTc-HABBN in human serum samples determined in our previous study regarding 99mTc-HABBN and the low in vivo metabolic stability determined in this study, is striking. This issue warrants further study of peptide-based radiopharmaceuticals

  4. Monitoring β-arrestin recruitment via β-lactamase enzyme fragment complementation: purification of peptide E as a low-affinity ligand for mammalian bombesin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuichi; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Motozawa, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Seitaro; Takeda, Norifumi; Toko, Haruhiro; Takimoto, Eiki; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Komuro, Issei; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cognate ligands for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provides a starting point for understanding novel regulatory mechanisms. Although GPCR ligands have typically been evaluated through the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins, recent studies have shown that GPCRs signal not only through G proteins but also through β-arrestins. As such, monitoring β-arrestin signaling instead of G protein signaling will increase the likelihood of identifying currently unknown ligands, including β-arrestin-biased agonists. Here, we developed a cell-based assay for monitoring ligand-dependent GPCR-β-arrestin interaction via β-lactamase enzyme fragment complementation. Inter alia, β-lactamase is a superior reporter enzyme because of its cell-permeable fluorescent substrate. This substrate makes the assay non-destructive and compatible with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). In a reporter cell, complementary fragments of β-lactamase (α and ω) were fused to β-arrestin 2 and GPCR, respectively. Ligand stimulation initiated the interaction of these chimeric proteins (β-arrestin-α and GPCR-ω), and this inducible interaction was measured through reconstituted β-lactamase activity. Utilizing this system, we screened various mammalian tissue extracts for agonistic activities on human bombesin receptor subtype 3 (hBRS3). We purified peptide E as a low-affinity ligand for hBRS3, which was also found to be an agonist for the other two mammalian bombesin receptors such as gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and neuromedin B receptor (NMBR). Successful purification of peptide E has validated the robustness of this assay. We conclude that our newly developed system will facilitate the discovery of GPCR ligands. PMID:26030739

  5. Monitoring β-arrestin recruitment via β-lactamase enzyme fragment complementation: purification of peptide E as a low-affinity ligand for mammalian bombesin receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Ikeda

    Full Text Available Identification of cognate ligands for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs provides a starting point for understanding novel regulatory mechanisms. Although GPCR ligands have typically been evaluated through the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins, recent studies have shown that GPCRs signal not only through G proteins but also through β-arrestins. As such, monitoring β-arrestin signaling instead of G protein signaling will increase the likelihood of identifying currently unknown ligands, including β-arrestin-biased agonists. Here, we developed a cell-based assay for monitoring ligand-dependent GPCR-β-arrestin interaction via β-lactamase enzyme fragment complementation. Inter alia, β-lactamase is a superior reporter enzyme because of its cell-permeable fluorescent substrate. This substrate makes the assay non-destructive and compatible with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. In a reporter cell, complementary fragments of β-lactamase (α and ω were fused to β-arrestin 2 and GPCR, respectively. Ligand stimulation initiated the interaction of these chimeric proteins (β-arrestin-α and GPCR-ω, and this inducible interaction was measured through reconstituted β-lactamase activity. Utilizing this system, we screened various mammalian tissue extracts for agonistic activities on human bombesin receptor subtype 3 (hBRS3. We purified peptide E as a low-affinity ligand for hBRS3, which was also found to be an agonist for the other two mammalian bombesin receptors such as gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR and neuromedin B receptor (NMBR. Successful purification of peptide E has validated the robustness of this assay. We conclude that our newly developed system will facilitate the discovery of GPCR ligands.

  6. Ameliorative effects of bombesin and neurotensin on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis, oxidative damage and apoptosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of bombesin (BBS) and neurotensin (NTS) on apoptosis and colitis in an ulcerative colitis model. METHODS: In this study, a total of 50 rats were divided equally into 5 groups. In the control group, no colitis induction or drug administration was performed. Colitis was induced in all other groups. Following the induction of colitis, BBS, NTS or both were applied to three groups of rats. The remaining group (colitis group) received no treatment. On the 11th d after induction of colitis and drug treatment, blood samples were collected for TNF-α and IL-6 level studies. Malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and caspase-3 activities, as well as histopathological findings, evaluated in colonic tissues. RESULTS: According to the macroscopic and microscopic findings, the study groups treated with BBS,NTS and BBS+NTS showed significantly lower damage and inflammation compared with the colitis group (macroscopic score,2.1±0.87,3.7±0.94 and 2.1±0.87 vs 7.3 ± 0.94; microscopic score,2.0 ±0.66,3.3±0.82 and 1.8±0.63 vs 5.2±0.78,P<0.01=.TNF-αand IL-6 levels were increased significantly in all groups compared with the control group. These increases were significantly smaller in the BBS,NTS and BBS+NTS groups compared with the colitis group (TNF-α levels,169.69±53.56,245.86±64.85 and 175.54 4±42.19vs 556.44±49.82; IL-6 levels,443.30±53.99,612.80±70.39 and 396.80±78.43 vs 1505.90±222.23,P<0.05=.The colonic MPO and MDA levels were significantly lower in control, BBS, NTS and BBS+NTS groups than in the colitis group (MPO levels,24.36±8.10,40.51±8.67 and 25.83±6.43 vs 161.47±38.24; MDA levels,4.70±1.41,6.55±1.12 and 4.51±0.54 vs15.60±1.88,P<0.05=.Carbonyl content and caspase-3 levels were higher in the colitis and NTS groups than in control, BBS and BBS+NTS groups (carbonyl levels,553.99±59.58and 336.26±35.72 vs 209.76±30.92,219.76±25.77and 220.34 36.95; caspase-3 levels,451.70±68.27and 216.20

  7. Progress of radiolabelled bombesin in diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer%放射性核素标记铃蟾肽在前列腺癌诊治中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢岩; 赵晋华

    2010-01-01

    前列腺癌等多种肿瘤细胞表面能过度表达铃蟾肽受体,因此,铃蟾肽及其受体可以作为靶点进行放射性核素受体显像及靶向治疗肿瘤,并成为近年来诊治前列腺癌的研究热点.该文综述了放射性核素标记铃蟾肽在前列腺癌显像及治疗方面的研究进展.%Studies show that high expression of bombesin exist in the face of many kind of tumors such as prostate cancer, so bombesin and its receptor can be used as target in radionuclide receptor imaging and targeted therapy of tumor, and become the focus of prostate cancer research. This article reviews the progress of radiolabelled bombesin in prostate cancer imaging and therapy.

  8. Biokinetics and dosimetry of {sup 99m} Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-bombesin in humans: imaging of GRP receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C.L.; Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy, C.A de [INCMNSZ, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cardena, E.; Pichardo R, P. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Oncologia Centro Medico Siglo XXI, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is over-expressed on various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently we reported the {sup 99-}mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-Bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN) complex as a new radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-receptor binding and rapid internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN biokinetics and dosimetry in 5-healthy and 3-breast cancer women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source' organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 8 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN time activity curves in each organ, to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with predominantly renal excretion and minimal hepatobiliary elimination. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in breast cancer lesions and well differentiated from GRP-r expression in lungs and airways with normal GRP-r density (ratio 3:1). The equivalent doses for a study using 370 MBq were 7.38{+-}1.68, 0.59{+-}0.08, 2.07{+-}0.60, 0.58{+-}0.1, 0.75{+-}0.09 and 0.43{+-}0.07 mSv for kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas and red marrow respectively. The effective dose was 1.64{+-}0.25 mSv which is comparable with the doses known for most of the {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical studies in nuclear medicine. (Author)

  9. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  10. Deafferentation causes a loss of presynaptic bombesin receptors and supersensitivity of substance P receptors in the dorsal horn of the cat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, V J; Shults, C W; Park, C H; Tizabi, Y; Moody, T W; Chronwall, B M; Culver, M; Chase, T N

    1985-09-23

    Bombesin (BN)- and substance P (SP)-containing neurons are found in the dorsal root ganglia, and project to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The present study was undertaken to determine if chronic deafferentation of the cat spinal cord would affect BN or SP receptors in the spinal cord. Ten and 30 days after a unilateral lumbosacral dorsal rhizotomy, BN and SP receptor binding was evaluated autoradiographically using iodinated ligands to bind to these receptors in vitro. The normal distribution of BN receptors detected by this method was restricted to the head of the dorsal horn. Deafferentation caused a 38% and 22% decline in BN receptor binding in laminae I-IV at 10 or 30 days postoperatively, respectively. These data suggest that 'presynaptic' BN receptors are found on the central nervous system terminals of primary sensory afferents. Normal SP receptor distribution was most dense in lamina X, not in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. Deafferentation caused an initial decline in SP receptor binding in laminae I-II, followed by a 14% increase at 30 days in comparison to the unoperated side of the spinal cord. This delayed supersensitivity of SP receptors was confirmed in a separate experiment using a homogenate binding assay. These data are discussed with respect to the potential roles of receptor supersensitivity or subsensitivity in the development of deafferentation-induced changes in reactivity of dorsal horn neurons to nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli. PMID:2413960

  11. Blockade of Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) Bombesin Receptor Type 1 Decreases Blood Pressure and Sympathetic Activity in Anesthetized Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Izabella S; Mourão, Aline A; da Silva, Elaine F; Camargo, Amanda S; Marques, Stefanne M; Gomes, Karina P; Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva Reis, Angela A; Rebelo, Ana C S; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Rosa, Daniel A; Freiria-Oliveira, André H; Castro, Carlos H; Colombari, Eduardo; Colugnati, Diego B; Pedrino, Gustavo R

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal injection of bombesin (BBS) promoted hypertensive and sympathoexcitatory effects in normotensive (NT) rats. However, the involvement of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in these responses is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated: (1) the effects of BBS injected bilaterally into RVLM on cardiorespiratory and sympathetic activity in NT and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); (2) the contribution of RVLM BBS type 1 receptors (BB1) to the maintenance of hypertension in SHR. Urethane-anesthetized rats (1.2 g · kg(-1), i.v.) were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure (MAP), diaphragm (DIA) motor, and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). In NT rats and SHR, BBS (0.3 mM) nanoinjected into RVLM increased MAP (33.9 ± 6.6 and 37.1 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively; p BIM-23127; 3 mM) reduced MAP (-19.9 ± 4.4 mmHg; p < 0.05) and RSNA (-17.7 ± 3.8%; p < 0.05) in SHR, but not in NT rats (-2.5 ± 2.8 mmHg; -2.7 ± 5.6%, respectively). These results show that BBS can evoke sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses by activating RVLM BB1 receptors. This pathway might be involved in the maintenance of high levels of arterial blood pressure in SHR. PMID:27313544

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Bombesin-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a targeted contrast agent for imaging of breast cancer using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The targeted delivery of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent may facilitate their accumulation in cancer cells and enhance the sensitivity of MR imaging. In this study, SPIONs coated with dextran (DSPIONs) were conjugated with bombesin (BBN) to produce a targeting contrast agent for detection of breast cancer using MRI. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer analyses indicated the formation of dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with an average size of 6.0 ± 0.5 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the conjugation of the BBN with the DSPIONs. A stability study proved the high optical stability of DSPION–BBN in human blood serum. DSPION–BBN biocompatibility was confirmed by cytotoxicity evaluation. A binding study showed the targeting ability of DSPION–BBN to bind to T47D breast cancer cells overexpressing gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors. T2-weighted and T2*-weighted color map MR images were acquired. The MRI study indicated that the DSPION–BBN possessed good diagnostic ability as a GRP-specific contrast agent, with appropriate signal reduction in T2*-weighted color map MR images in mice with breast tumors. (paper)

  13. Pyrazolyl conjugates of bombesin: a new tridentate ligand framework for the stabilization of fac-[M(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Susana; Correia, Joao D.G.; Santos, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Veerendra, Bhadrasetty [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Sieckman, Gary L. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Hoffman, Timothy J. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States)]|[Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)]|[Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Rold, Tammy L. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Figueroa, Said Daibes [Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Retzloff, Lauren [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); McCrate, Joseph [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Prasanphanich, Adam [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Smith, Charles J. [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)]|[University of Missouri Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)]|[Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States)]|[Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)]. E-mail: smithcj@health.missouri.edu

    2006-07-15

    We have described the synthesis of tridentate pyrazolyl ligand frameworks for coordination to the fac-[*M(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} metal fragment (*M={sup 186/188}Re or {sup 99m}Tc). These ligands impart a degree of kinetic inertness on the metal center, warranting their study in biological systems. We herein report in vitro/in vivo radiolabeling investigations of a new series of pyrazolyl bombesin (BBN) conjugates radiolabeled via the Isolink kit. These new conjugates are based on the general structure [{sup 99m}Tc-pyrazolyl-X-BBN[7-14]NH{sub 2}], where X={beta}-alanine, serylserylserine or glycylglycylglycine. The pyrazolyl ligand is a tridentate ligand framework that coordinates the metal center through nitrogen donor atoms. The results of these investigations demonstrate the ability of these new conjugates to specifically target the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor subtype 2, which is overexpressed on human prostate PC-3 cancerous tissues. Therefore, these studies suggest the tridentate pyrazolyl ligand framework to be an ideal candidate for the design and development of low-valent {sup 99m}Tc-based diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals based on BBN or other targeting vectors.

  14. 99MTc-Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime Imaging for Early Detection of Acute Lung Injury in Rats Exposed to Hyperoxia or Lipopolysaccharide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Said H; Clough, Anne V; Haworth, Steven T; Medhora, Meetha; Ranji, Mahsa; Densmore, John C; Jacobs, Elizabeth R

    2016-10-01

    Tc-Hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is a clinical single-photon emission computed tomography biomarker of tissue oxidoreductive state. Our objective was to investigate whether HMPAO lung uptake can serve as a preclinical marker of lung injury in two well-established rat models of human acute lung injury (ALI).Rats were exposed to >95% O2 (hyperoxia) or treated with intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with first endpoints obtained 24 h later. HMPAO was administered intravenously before and after treatment with the glutathione-depleting agent diethyl maleate (DEM), scintigraphy images were acquired, and HMPAO lung uptake was quantified from the images. We also measured breathing rates, heart rates, oxygen saturation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts and protein, lung homogenate glutathione (GSH) content, and pulmonary vascular endothelial filtration coefficient (Kf).For hyperoxia rats, HMPAO lung uptake increased after 24 h (134%) and 48 h (172%) of exposure. For LPS-treated rats, HMPAO lung uptake increased (188%) 24 h after injury and fell with resolution of injury. DEM reduced HMPAO uptake in hyperoxia and LPS rats by a greater fraction than in normoxia rats. Both hyperoxia exposure (18%) and LPS treatment (26%) increased lung homogenate GSH content, which correlated strongly with HMPAO uptake. Neither of the treatments had an effect on Kf at 24 h. LPS-treated rats appeared healthy but exhibited mild tachypnea, BAL, and histological evidence of inflammation, and increased wet and dry lung weights. These results suggest the potential utility of HMPAO as a tool for detecting ALI at a phase likely to exhibit minimal clinical evidence of injury.

  15. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  16. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  17. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  18. Early events elicited by bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. II. Changes in Na/sup +/ and Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes, Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump activity, and intracellular pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, S.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Lopez-Rivas, A.; Sinnett-Smith, J.W.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-06-01

    The amphibian tetradecapeptide, bombesin, and structurally related peptides caused a marked increase in ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake (a measure of Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump activity) in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This effect occurred within seconds after the addition of the peptide and appeared to be mediated by an increase in Na/sup +/ entry into the cells. The effect of bombesin on Na/sup +/ entry and Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump activity was concentration dependent with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 0.3-0.4 nM. The structurally related peptides litorin, gastrin-releasing peptide, and neuromedin B also stimulated ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake; the relative potencies of these peptides in stimulating the Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump were comparable to their potencies in increasing DNA synthesis. Bombesin increased Na/sup +/ influx, at least in part, through an Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiport. The peptide augmented intracellular pH and this effect was abolished in the absence of extracellular Na/sup +/. In addition to monovalent ion transport, bombesin and the structurally related peptides rapidly increased the efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ from quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This Ca/sup 2 +/ came from an intracellular pool and the efflux was associated with a 50% decrease in total intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. The peptides also caused a rapid increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration. Prolonged pretreatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with phorbol dibutyrate, which causes a loss of protein kinase C activity, greatly decreased the stimulation of /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake and Na/sup +/ entry by bombesin implicating this phosphotransferase system in the mediation of part of these responses to bombesin. Since some activation of monovalent ion transport by bombesin was seen in phorbol dibutyrate-pretreated cells, it is likely that the peptide also stimulates monovalent ion transport by a second mechanism.

  19. Labelling Fashion Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aspers, P.

    2008-01-01

    The present article discusses how an ethical and environmental labelling system can be implemented in fashion garment markets. Consumers act in markets that provide them with more information than their limited cognitive capacity allows them to handle. Ethical and environmental labelling in markets characterized by change, such as the fashion garment market, makes decision-making even more complicated. The ethical and environmental labelling system proposed here is designed to alleviate firms...

  20. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  1. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  2. Label Fusion Strategy Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Robitaille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Label fusion is used in medical image segmentation to combine several different labels of the same entity into a single discrete label, potentially more accurate, with respect to the exact, sought segmentation, than the best input element. Using simulated data, we compared three existing label fusion techniques—STAPLE, Voting, and Shape-Based Averaging (SBA—and observed that none could be considered superior depending on the dissimilarity between the input elements. We thus developed an empirical, hybrid technique called SVS, which selects the most appropriate technique to apply based on this dissimilarity. We evaluated the label fusion strategies on two- and three-dimensional simulated data and showed that SVS is superior to any of the three existing methods examined. On real data, we used SVS to perform fusions of 10 segmentations of the hippocampus and amygdala in 78 subjects from the ICBM dataset. SVS selected SBA in almost all cases, which was the most appropriate method overall.

  3. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  4. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  5. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use...... actors and institutions to develop practices associated with the NNC label. Third, organized dissemination allowed the excitement and engagement with the new label to spread quickly....

  6. Optimization of the production process of hybrid and multivalent formulation Bombesin/RGD for the opportune detection of breast cancer; Optimizacion del proceso de fabricacion de la formulacion hibrida y multivalente Bombesina/RGD para la deteccion oportuna de cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles M, M.

    2013-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals of third generation are used in nuclear medicine to obtain images of specific molecular targets, and they are unique in their capacity to detect in vivo specific biochemical sites as receptors that are over-expressed in diverse illness. In cancer cells several types of receptors are over-expressed, as the integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) that specifically recognize the sequence RGD (Arginine-Glycin-Ac. Aspartic) and gastrin-releasing peptide that recognizes specifically to the peptide Lys{sup 3}-Bombesin. The integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) are involved in the tumor angio genesis processes and the gastrin-releasing peptide is over-expressed in breast and prostate cancer. The molecular recognition of the specific receptors is the basis to be utilized as targets of the radiopharmaceuticals {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Bombesin and {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-RGD. In this work was developed a lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation effective, stable and safe for the simultaneous obtaining of the radiopharmaceuticals {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesin) and {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-RGD ({sup 99m}Tc EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}). Later on the production process of the product HYNIC-Bombesin/RGD-Sn was optimized using a factorial design and the formulation was transferred to the production plant of radiopharmaceuticals of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The optimized formulation is described in the following chart: HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-Bombesin - 12.5 μg; HYNIC-E-c[RGDfK]{sub 2} - 12.5 μg; Stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) - 20 μg; Ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA) - 10 mg; N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl glycin (Tricine) - 20 mg; Mannitol - 50 mg. The production process was validated and were carried out the stability studies under refrigeration conditions. (Author)

  7. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  8. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off. PMID:21539053

  9. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    labelling schemes. Mass communication such as TV commercials will have very different impact on each of the four segments. It might be possible to increase the knowledge of 'the labelling blind' from 52% to 75%, but the use of the label would only rise from 16% to 18%. The awareness percentage of 'the...... to carry out a campaign targeted at this segment. The awareness percentage is already 92 % and 67% of the respondents believe they know the meaning of the scheme. But it stands to reason to study whether the respondents actually know what the labelling scheme stands for or if they just think they do....... If there is discrepancy between their perceptions of the contents of the schemes, this might be the reason why the scheme is not observed when they shop....

  10. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  11. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and...

  12. Certified Rule Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nagele, Julian; Zankl, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The rule labeling heuristic aims to establish confluence of (left-)linear term rewrite systems via decreasing diagrams. We present a formalization of a confluence criterion based on the interplay of relative termination and the rule labeling in the theorem prover Isabelle. Moreover, we report on the integration of this result into the certifier CeTA, facilitating the checking of confluence certificates based on decreasing diagrams for the first time. The power of the method is illustrated by ...

  13. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  14. Off-Label Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Off-label Drug Use What is off-label drug use? In the United States new drugs are ... unapproved use of a drug. Is off-label drug use legal? The off-label use of FDA- ...

  15. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2002-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic constr

  16. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  17. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  18. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1-13C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose-13C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13CO2 and galactose-13C from galactosylglycerol-13C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate-13C

  19. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  20. Multi-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating multi-label rules in associative classification (AC from single label data sets is considered a challenging task making the number of existing algorithms for this task rare. Current AC algorithms produce only the largest frequency class connected with a rule in the training data set and discard all other classes even though these classes have data representation with the rule’s body. In this paper, we deal with the above problem by proposing an AC algorithm called Enhanced Multi-label Classifiers based Associative Classification (eMCAC. This algorithm discovers rules associated with a set of classes from single label data that other current AC algorithms are unable to induce. Furthermore, eMCAC minimises the number of extracted rules using a classifier building method. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real world application data set related to website phishing and the results reveal that eMCAC’s accuracy is highly competitive if contrasted with other known AC and classic classification algorithms in data mining. Lastly, the experimental results show that our algorithm is able to derive new rules from the phishing data sets that end-users can exploit in decision making.

  1. Labeling of herbicide femesafen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-[2-chroo-4-(trifluoromethyl ) phenoxy]-N-(methyl sulphonyl )-2-niorobenzamide [femesafen] was labeled by six steps. Radio-chemical yield was 19.15%. TLC analysis of the final product showed that the radiochemical purity is not less than 99%. (authors)

  2. Waisda?: video labeling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, M. van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the sa

  3. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2002-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic constraints, which pose more demands on how the labels should be placed in relation to their surroundings. For example, a label is preferably placed above and to the right of a city. These two aspects (comb...

  4. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  5. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable to...

  6. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  7. Myocardial arterial spin labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kober, Frank; Jao, Terrence; Troalen, Thomas; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique for mapping regional myocardial blood flow. It does not require any contrast agents, is compatible with stress testing, and can be performed repeatedly or even continuously. ASL-CMR has been performed with great success in small-animals, but sensitivity to date has been poor in large animals and humans and remains an active area of research. This review paper summarizes the development of ASL-CMR techniques, c...

  8. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  9. Label-Guided Graph Exploration with Adjustable Ratio of Labels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Meng; Tang, Jijun

    2012-01-01

    The graph exploration problem is to visit all the nodes of a connected graph by a mobile entity, e.g., a robot. The robot has no a priori knowledge of the topology of the graph or of its size. Cohen et al. \\cite{Ilcinkas08} introduced label guided graph exploration which allows the system designer to add short labels to the graph nodes in a preprocessing stage; these labels can guide the robot in the exploration of the graph. In this paper, we address the problem of adjustable 1-bit label guided graph exploration. We focus on the labeling schemes that not only enable a robot to explore the graph but also allow the system designer to adjust the ratio of the number of different labels. This flexibility is necessary when maintaining different labels may have different costs or when the ratio is pre-specified. We present 1-bit labeling (two colors, namely black and white) schemes for this problem along with a labeling algorithm for generating the required labels. Given an $n$-node graph and a rational number $\\rh...

  10. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  11. Waisda?: video labeling game

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Michiel; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, Van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the same tags as one of the other players. As a result each video that is played in the game is annotated with tags that are anchored to a time point in the video. Waisda? has been deployed in two projec...

  12. A Food Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... " ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎت واﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﻴﺔ " [ Nutrition Labeling and Education Act ... ﻟﻠﻌﺼﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻜﻮن ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء إﻟﻰ ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﻣﺮآﺰة : ﻳﺠﺮى اﻟﺤﺴﺎب ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪول Brix ﻓﻲ 21 CFR 101.30(h)(1) ...

  13. Towards Multi Label Text Classification through Label Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta C. Dharmadhikari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Classifying text data has been an active area of research for a long time. Text document is multifaceted object and often inherently ambiguous by nature. Multi-label learning deals with such ambiguous object. Classification of such ambiguous text objects often makes task of classifier difficult while assigning relevant classes to input document. Traditional single label and multi class text classification paradigms cannot efficiently classify such multifaceted text corpus. Through our paper we are proposing a novel label propagation approach based on semi supervised learning for Multi Label Text Classification. Our proposed approach models the relationship between class labels and also effectively represents input text documents. We are using semi supervised learning technique for effective utilization of labeled and unlabeled data for classification. Our proposed approach promises better classification accuracy and handling of complexity and elaborated on the basis of standard datasets such as Enron, Slashdot and Bibtex.

  14. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  15. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.;

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  16. A Better Carbon Footprint Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product's relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product's relative performance....

  17. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents partic...... participated in an in home test. The results indicate that catch time alone is not enough to work as an efficient predictor of actual perceived quality.......A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  18. Classification and Labelling for Biocides

    OpenAIRE

    Rubbiani, Maristella

    2015-01-01

    CLP and biocides The EU Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures, the CLP-Regulation, entered into force on 20th January, 2009. Since 1st December, 2010 the classification, labelling and packaging of substances has to comply with this Regulation. For mixtures, the rules of this Regulation are mandatory from 1st June, 2015; this means that until this date classification, labelling and packaging could either be carried out according to D...

  19. Aggregating Labels in Crowdsourcing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Priisalu, Maria; Grey, Francois; Segal, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Project Specification Crowdsourcing is gaining popularity in academia with the launch of crowdsourcing platforms such as Crowdcrafting [Lombraña, 2015] and GeoTagX [UNOSAT, 2015]. There have been a number of proposed algorithms for the aggregation of true labels and a confusion matrix from crowdsourced labels for ordinal, nominal and binary labels. The work here consists of an implementation of the Dawid Skene [Dawid 1979] adaptation of the Expectation Maximization algorithm [D...

  20. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  1. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  2. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  3. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the type of packaging material on which the label is printed; n. Brand name changes, provided that... poultry products will take effect January 1, 2012 (75 FR 82148, Dec. 29, 2010). These mandatory features..., location, and indication of final color. To obtain sketch label approval, domestic meat and...

  4. Oxygen labelled CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were carried out as to whether additional information concerning pulmonary gas exchange could be obtained from the application of oxygen labelled carbon dioxide. Single breath experiments were performed on two healthy subjects with 0.1 percent C16O18O and 2.8 percent C18O2 in the inspiratory gas. Breath-hold time was varied between 0.5-20s in different experiments. The 18O-concentration of the end-expired gas bi-exponentially decreased with increasing breath-hold time. The high and low rate constants 4s-1 and 0.12s-1 for C18O2 and 2.5s-1 and 0.87s-1 for C16O18O were derived, respectively. These results, together with model calculations, suggest: 1) the rapid disappearance of C18O2 from the alveolar space is primarily limited by diffusion, so that this isotopic species can be applied to quantify pulmonary diffusing conditions; 2) the lower disappearance rate of C16O18O is caused by a lower equilibration kinetics in blood, so that this isotopic species offers a possibility to study carbonic anhydrase activity of the red cells in vivo; 3) the slow phase of label decay is influenced by both alveolar dead space and carbonic anhydrase activity of the pulmonary tissues. Pathological dead spaces are expected to be sensitively detectable by C16O18O as well as by C18O2. (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  5. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesin: images of GRP receptors; Biocinetica y dosimetria en humanos de {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesina: imagenes de receptores GRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C. L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    marrow). The mean effective dose was 3.3 +- 0.6 mSv. Conclusions: The highest absorbed dose variability was found in breast tissues because of differences in the in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression. All the absorbed doses are comparable with that known for most of the {sup 99m}Tc studies. In spite of the ubiquitous GRP-r expression in non-neoplastic tissues {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN is as a promising imaging radiopharmaceutical to target site-specific early breast cancer. These results warrant a further clinical study. (Author)

  6. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  7. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Standards and Labels: The Facts Labeling and Marketing Information [ Top of Page ] OVEN PREPARED: Product is fully cooked and ready to eat. [ Top of Page ] YOUNG TURKEY: Turkeys of either sex that are less than 8 months of age according to present regulations. [ Top of Page ] Last ...

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of Alexa Fluor 680-bombesin[7-14]NH2 peptide conjugate, a high-affinity fluorescent probe with high selectivity for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lixin; Yu, Ping; Veerendra, Bhadrasetty; Rold, Tammy L; Retzloff, Lauren; Prasanphanich, Adam; Sieckman, Gary; Hoffman, Timothy J; Volkert, Wynn A; Smith, Charles J

    2007-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors are overexpressed on several types of human cancer cells, including breast, prostate, small cell lung, and pancreatic cancers. Bombesin (BBN), a 14-amino acid peptide that is an analogue of human GRP, binds to GRP receptors with very high affinity and specificity. The aim of this study was to develop a new fluorescent probe based on BBN having high tumor uptake and optimal pharmacokinetics for specific targeting and optical imaging of human breast cancer tissue. In this study, solid-phase peptide synthesis was used to produce H(2)N-glycylglycylglycine-BBN[7-14]NH(2) peptide with the following general sequence: H(2)N-G-G-G-Q-W-A-V-G-H-L-M-(NH(2)). This conjugate was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized by electrospray-ionization mass spectra. The fluorescent probe Alexa Fluor 680-G-G-G-BBN[7-14]NH(2) conjugate was prepared by reaction of Alexa Fluor 680 succinimidyl ester to H(2)N-G-G-G-BBN[7-14]NH(2) in dimethylformamide (DMF). In vitro competitive binding assays, using (125)I-Tyr(4)-BBN as the radiolabeling gold standard, demonstrated an inhibitory concentration 50% value of 7.7 +/- 1.4 nM in human T-47D breast cancer cells. Confocal fluorescence microscopy images of Alexa Fluor 680-G-G-G-BBN[7-14]NH(2) in human T-47D breast cancer cells indicated specific uptake, internalization, and receptor blocking of the fluorescent bioprobe in vitro. In vivo investigations in SCID mice bearing xenografted T-47D breast cancer lesions demonstrated the ability of this new conjugate to specifically target tumor tissue with high selectivity and affinity.

  9. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a...

  10. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels Contact ...

  12. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  13. Homosexual Labeling by University Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Kenneth L.; Alston, Jon P.

    1977-01-01

    Details the responses of young, urban, college-educated people on their attitudes toward homosexuals, specifically focusing on issues of public identification and negative labeling as it effects homosexual persons and their behaviors. (Author/RK)

  14. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (131I, 14C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  15. A brief history of cell labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M. [Royal Sussex Country Hospital, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling.

  16. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  17. Fibrinogen labelling with I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seminario, C.; Capillo, T.; Montanez, J. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    Of the different techniques of labelling liophylized human fibrinogen, the technique of mono-chloride with modified iodine was selected. The labelling of the molecule was performed in alkali media of buffalo glycine in which the solution of stable iodine will react as well as on a later stage will the radioactive isotope. The labelling processes which were undertaken with different activities had an efficiency of over 40%; when purification with resins amberlite was carried through, in none of the cases were the impurities over 5%. Daily controls till the seventh day showed that the average values of radiochemical purity decrease were lower than 1%. The specific activity as well as the concentration of I/sup 131/, the fibrinogen and other characteristics come up to the norms of the pharmacopoeia which are applied.

  18. Denture labeling: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep K Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for denture labeling is important for forensic and social reasons in case patients need to be identified individually. The importance of denture marking has long been acknowledged by the dental profession. Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature, but none till date fulfills all the prescribed ADA specifications. A simple, easy, inexpensive procedure for marking accurate identification marks on dentures with a lead foil is described here. The label caring the patient information is incorporated in the acrylic resin during the denture processing.

  19. Configuration spaces with summable labels

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    Let M be an n-manifold, and let A be a space with a partial sum behaving as an n-fold loop sum. We define the space C(M;A) of configurations in M with summable labels in A via operad theory. Some examples are symmetric products, labelled configuration spaces, and spaces of rational curves. We show that C(I^n,dI^n;A) is an n-fold delooping of C(I^n;A), and for n=1 it is the classifying space by Stasheff. If M is compact, parallelizable, and A is path connected, then C(M;A) is homotopic to the ...

  20. Connected Component Labeling Using Components Neighbors-Scan Labeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Rakhmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many approaches have been proposed in previous such as the classic sequential connected components labeling algorithm which is relies on two subsequent raster-scans of a binary image. This method produced good performance in terms of accuracy, but because of the implementation of the image processing systems now requires faster process of the computer, the speed of this technique’s process has become an important issue. Approach: A computational approach, called components neighbors-scan labeling algorithm for connected component labeling was presented in this study. This algorithm required scanning through an image only once to label connected components. The algorithm started by scanning from the head of the component’s group, before tracing all the components neighbors by using the main component’s information. This algorithm had desirable characteristics, it is simple while promoted accuracy and low time consuming. By using a table of components, this approach also gave other advantages as the information for the next higher process. Results: The approach had been tested with a collection of binary images. In practically all cases, the technique had successfully given the desired result. Averagely, from the results the algorithm increased the speed around 67.4% from the two times scanning method. Conclusion: Conclusion from the comparison with the previous method, the approach of components neighbors-scan for connected component labeling promoted speed, accuracy and simplicity. The results showed that the approach has a good performance in terms of accuracy, the time consumed and the simplicity of the algorithm.

  1. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

  2. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  3. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  4. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome;

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions...

  5. The labeling debate in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  6. Ivabradine: A Review of Labeled and Off-Label Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Carrie S; Owens, Ryan E; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Jha, Sunil K

    2016-10-01

    Ivabradine is a unique medication recently approved in the USA for the treatment of select heart failure patients. It was first approved for use in several countries around the world over a decade ago as an anti-anginal agent, with subsequent approval for use in heart failure patients. Since ivabradine has selective activity blocking the I f currents in the sinus node, it can reduce heart rate without appreciable effects on blood pressure. Given this heart-rate-specific effect, it has been investigated in many off-label indications as an alternative to traditional heart-rate-reducing medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. We conducted searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for ivabradine, heart failure, HFrEF, HFpEF, angina, coronary artery disease, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, postural orthostatic hypotension, coronary computed tomography angiography and atrial fibrillation. We reviewed and included studies, case reports, and case series published between 1980 and June 2016 if they provided information relevant to the practicing clinician. In many cases, larger clinical trials are needed to solidify the benefit of ivabradine, although studies indicate benefit in most therapeutic areas explored to date. The purpose of this paper is to review the current labeled and off-label uses of ivabradine, with a focus on clinical trial data. PMID:27405864

  7. 蛙皮素样肽调控胰岛素分泌机制研究进展%Progress on Regulatory Mechanisms of Bombesin-like Peptides on Insulin Secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红琼; 姚刚; 夏利宁

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian bombesin-like peptides (BLPs)include gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP),neurome-din C (NMC)and neuromedin B (NMB).Two main receptor subtypes,the GRP-receptor and the NMB-receptor,mediate the biological functions of BLPs.BLPs and their receptors histologically localize in the pancreas.BLPs have been reported to stimulate the secretion of insulin mediated by the GRP-receptor.The efficiency of BLP on insulin secretion is affected by animal species,blood glucose level and energy level. BLPs may act as a neurotransmitter to directly stimulate pancreatic isletβ-cells,or indirectly activate the parasympathetic neuron to increase the secretion of insulin.Moreover,BLPs may activate the inositol triphosphate and promote the secretion of insulin when the cytosolic Ca2 + concentration increased through promoting extracellular Ca2 + influx and mobilization of intracellular calcium stores.The inositol triphos-phate pathway may mediate the BLPs-induced insulin secretion.Studies of BLPs on insulin secretion not only complement the theoretical mechanism of regulation of insulin secretion,but also provide a novel idea for clinical treatment of diabetes.%哺乳动物蛙皮素样肽(BLP)主要包括胃泌素释放肽(GRP)、神经肽 C(NMC)和神经肽 B (NMB),主要通过 GRP-R 和 NMB-R 2种受体亚型介导生物学效应。其受体 BRS-3的内源性配体尚未发现。BLP 已经被证明具有促进胰岛素分泌的作用。从组织定位来看,BLP 及其受体在胰腺均有分布,其调控胰岛素的分泌主要通过 GRP-R 介导,其效能与动物的种属、血糖和能量水平有关。BLP 可能作为胰腺内神经递质直接促进胰岛β细胞或间接通过激活副交感神经促进胰岛素分泌。BLP 还可激活三磷酸肌醇等途径,增加胞外 Ca2+内流或者动员胞内钙库,促进胰岛素分泌。BLP 对胰岛素分泌的研究不仅补充调控胰岛素分泌机制的理论,也为临床糖尿病的治疗提供新的思路。

  8. A Multi-Label Classification Approach Based on Correlations Among Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alazaidah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi label classification is concerned with learning from a set of instances that are associated with a set of labels, that is, an instance could be associated with multiple labels at the same time. This task occurs frequently in application areas like text categorization, multimedia classification, bioinformatics, protein function classification and semantic scene classification. Current multi-label classification methods could be divided into two categories. The first is called problem transformation methods, which transform multi-label classification problem into single label classification problem, and then apply any single label classifier to solve the problem. The second category is called algorithm adaptation methods, which adapt an existing single label classification algorithm to handle multi-label data. In this paper, we propose a multi-label classification approach based on correlations among labels that use both problem transformation methods and algorithm adaptation methods. The approach begins with transforming multi-label dataset into a single label dataset using least frequent label criteria, and then applies the PART algorithm on the transformed dataset. The output of the approach is multi-labels rules. The approach also tries to get benefit from positive correlations among labels using predictive Apriori algorithm. The proposed approach has been evaluated using two multi-label datasets named (Emotions and Yeast and three evaluation measures (Accuracy, Hamming Loss, and Harmonic Mean. The experiments showed that the proposed approach has a fair accuracy in comparison to other related methods.

  9. Preparation of 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone is prepared, on a millimole scale by reacting labelled thiocyanate with hydrazine sulfate in ethanolic medium. The hydrazine thiocyanate so formed is then condensed with aldehyde to form the thiosemicarbazone

  10. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    . A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very......Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes...

  11. ANTIMAGIC LABELING OF GENERALIZED SAUSAGE GRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oudone Phanalasy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An antimagic labeling of a graph with q edges is a bijection from the set of edges to the set of positive integers {1,2,...,q} such that all vertex weights are pairwise distinct, where the vertex weight of a vertex is the sum of the labels of all the edges incident with that vertex. A graph is antimagic if it has an antimagic labeling. In this paper we construct antimagic labeling for the family of generalized sausage graphs.

  12. Do Consumers Really Use Food Labels?

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Ronald W.; Jauregui, Carlos E.

    2006-01-01

    Ordered Probit models are used to estimate the probabilities of consumers reading food labels for harmful ingredients and for using labels to assist with food purchasing decisions. Demographics, health concerns, attitudes, and eating habits are shown to influence the likelihood of using food labels. Effects from over 25 variables are ranked in terms of their relative impacts on the use of food labels. Dieting, concerns about calories, foreign foods, and many other variable effects on the use ...

  13. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    has a focus on coordination and labeling chemistry, but biological results are briefly summarized as well. The last (and shortest) section finally intends to give a (subjective) outlook for the future role of 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. Critical comments are spread over the whole article but are concentrated in this section. Despite the increasing competition of diagnostic radiopharmacy by other commonly applied methods in medicine such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound, the authors are convinced that 99mTc will play a key role also in future if novel approaches are added and the requirements from chemistry biology and the market considered in research to a stronger extent.

  14. 21 CFR 225.80 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Packaging and Labeling § 225.80 Labeling. (a... adhered to, will assure that the article is safe and effective for its intended purposes. (b)(1) Labels... medicated feed and includes adequate information for the safe and effective use of the medicated feed....

  15. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size, posit

  16. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13C, 15N, and 2H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2H, 13C, and 15N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  17. Fluorescent Labeling of Nanometer Hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan ZHANG; Yuan YUAN; Changsheng LIU

    2008-01-01

    A novel surface treatment method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMPTES), was developed to immobilize the fluorescein molecule on nano-HAP (nanometer hydroxyapatite) powders. By pretreating the nano-HAP powders surface with AMPTES, fluorescein, chosen on the basis of the chemical structure of the nano- HAP powders, could be bound to the nano-HAP powders surface. The chemical compositions of nano-HAP before and after being labeled were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology, phase composition, and the fluorescence characteristics of the nano-HAP powders with and without staining were also investigated. The FTIR and XPS results revealed that fiuorescein had been successfully immobilized on the surface of AMPTES-bound nano-HAP powders via the acylamide bond formation between the -COOH of fluorescein and the -NH2 of AMPTES. The labeled nano-HAP powders possessed strong fluorescent intensity with a little deviation from the maximum emission wavelength of fluorescein. But the morphology and phase composition had no obvious alteration. Under fluorescence microscopy, the labeled nano-HAP powders., even after 24 h cell incubation, exhibited strong fluorescence.

  18. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices. PMID:27311137

  19. Research of private label development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.

  20. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise...... cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  1. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  2. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  3. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon;

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  4. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131IDZ (131I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  5. Irradiation test of bar code label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation test of bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was done to determine the effect of radiation. Low and medium radioactive waste is that below total activity of 4,000Bq/g according to the Korean nuclear law. The irradiation amount to radiate bar code label tagged on radioactive waste container was calculated by MCNP-4b computer code. The nuclide such as Co-60 and Cs-137 was assumed to contribute 50 % of total activity. Real irradiation amount for bar code label was finally calculated by the dimensions of the container and the bar code label. The identification of post and the physical deflection of irradiated bar code label was tested by the bar code reader. The coated bar code label was suitable to use on low and medium radioactive waste container

  6. Improving Recurrent Neural Networks For Sequence Labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Dinarelli, Marco; Tellier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study different types of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) for sequence labeling tasks. We propose two new variants of RNNs integrating improvements for sequence labeling, and we compare them to the more traditional Elman and Jordan RNNs. We compare all models, either traditional or new, on four distinct tasks of sequence labeling: two on Spoken Language Understanding (ATIS and MEDIA); and two of POS tagging for the French Treebank (FTB) and the Penn Treebank (PTB) corpora. The...

  7. Alternative ways for private label manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kelemen, Zita; Némethné Tömő, Zsuzsa

    2010-01-01

    Private labels are a growing phenomenon globaly. retatlers become stronger and stronger by offering their own quality private label product for customers in all segments. Certainly they do not open factories to produce these items but rather search for dedicated private label producers or pressure branded goods manufacturers to produce it for them. The article deals with the strategic choiches manufacturers can have and suggest the necessary factors that need to be evaluated to decide on the ...

  8. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....

  9. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  10. Synthesis of tritium labelled 24-epibrassinolide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, A.; Marquardt, V.; Adam, G. (Inst. of Plant Biochemistry Halle, Halle/Saale (Germany))

    1992-10-01

    Deuterium and tritium 5,7,7-tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolide were prepared by base catalyzed exchange reaction using 24-epicastasterone tetraacetate 1 or bis-isopropylidenedioxy-24-epicastasterone 8 and labelled water. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the obtained labelled 6-ketones 2 and 3 with CF[sub 3]CO[sub 3]H gave after alkaline deacetylation of the resulting 4 and 5 the desired tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolides 6 and 7, respectively, or starting from 9 under simultaneous oxidation and deprotection in one step the same final products. (author).

  11. Novel Properties of Fuzzy Labeling Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Nagoor Gani, A.; Muhammad Akram; D. Rajalaxmi (a) Subahashini

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of fuzzy labeling and fuzzy magic labeling graph are introduced. Fuzzy magic labeling for some graphs like path, cycle, and star graph is defined. It is proved that every fuzzy magic graph is a fuzzy labeling graph, but the converse is not true. We have shown that the removal of a fuzzy bridge from a fuzzy magic cycle with odd nodes reduces the strength of a fuzzy magic cycle. Some properties related to fuzzy bridge and fuzzy cut node have also been discussed.

  12. Simultaneous segmentation and statistical label fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asman, Andrew J.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Labeling or segmentation of structures of interest in medical imaging plays an essential role in both clinical and scientific understanding. Two of the common techniques to obtain these labels are through either fully automated segmentation or through multi-atlas based segmentation and label fusion. Fully automated techniques often result in highly accurate segmentations but lack the robustness to be viable in many cases. On the other hand, label fusion techniques are often extremely robust, but lack the accuracy of automated algorithms for specific classes of problems. Herein, we propose to perform simultaneous automated segmentation and statistical label fusion through the reformulation of a generative model to include a linkage structure that explicitly estimates the complex global relationships between labels and intensities. These relationships are inferred from the atlas labels and intensities and applied to the target using a non-parametric approach. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of previously exclusive techniques and attempts to combine the accuracy benefits of automated segmentation with the robustness of a multi-atlas based approach. The accuracy benefits of this simultaneous approach are assessed using a multi-label multi-atlas whole-brain segmentation experiment and the segmentation of the highly variable thyroid on computed tomography images. The results demonstrate that this technique has major benefits for certain types of problems and has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in which the lines between statistical label fusion and automated segmentation are dramatically blurred.

  13. (d,1)-total labelling of graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Havet, Frédéric; Yu, Min-Li

    2002-01-01

    A $(d,1)$-total labelling of a graph $G$ is an assignment of integers to $V(G)\\cup E(G)$ such that: (i) any two adjacent vertices of $G$ receive distinct integers, (ii) any two adjacent edges of $G$ receive distinct integers, and (iii) a vertex and its incident edge receive integers that differ by at least $d$ in absolute value. The {\\it span} of a $(d,1)$-total labelling is the maximum difference between two labels. The minimum span of a $(d,1)$-total labelling of $G$ is denoted by $\\lambda_...

  14. Classifier Risk Estimation under Limited Labeling Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Anurag; Raj, Bhiksha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose strategies for estimating performance of a classifier when labels cannot be obtained for the whole test set. The number of test instances which can be labeled is very small compared to the whole test data size. The goal then is to obtain a precise estimate of classifier performance using as little labeling resource as possible. Specifically, we try to answer, how to select a subset of the large test set for labeling such that the performance of a classifier estimated ...

  15. Principles of food product labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Krysztofiak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the label of the food product is to provide information on ingredients and additionally on its origin, production method, storage conditions, date tagging, as well as to enable to identify the producer or distributor of this product. Legal regulations precisely give instructions on the range and the way of the presentation of these data, so they could be clear and understandable for the average consumer. Since 25th of November 2005, the information about allergens’ presence must be placed on the label, regardless of their content in the product (Directive 2003/89/WE... 2003 – Off. J. L 308: 15-18. The Regulation (WE No 1924/2006 about placing the nutritional information and medicinal claims concerning foods (Regulation (WE No 1924/2006... 2006 a is valid in all countries of European Union since 1st of July 2007 (Off. J. L 404: 9-25. It coordinates the legislative, executive and administrative regulations connected with this labelling. According to these regulations, “nutritional information” states, suggests or gives to understand that the food product has special properties concerning its ingredients. Those statements are of type: “the source of...”, “no... content”, “high content of...”, “low content of...”, “reduced content of...” with reference to calorie or selected ingredients’ content. “Medicinal claims” state, suggest or give to understand, that there is a connection between the food product or one of its ingredients and the health condition of the consumer. First type of these medicinal claims refers to the influence of the ingredient on the physiology. Such a statement is based on generally accepted scientific conclusions and could be properly understood by the average consumer, e.g. “calcium takes part in the process of building of strong bones”. “Statements about decreasing the risk of a disease” give information, that food product or one of its ingredients efficiently

  16. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylene using bis (tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I] epidepride was stable under 4 degree C, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exhibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection. All these results suggest that [131I] epidepride may be used widely as a useful dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  17. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylation using bis(tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I]epidepride was stable under 4℃, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exihibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection.All these results suggest that[131I]epidepride may be usedd widely as a useful dopamineD2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT.

  18. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label... substance. The symbol on labels shall be clear and large enough to afford easy identification of...

  19. Perceived barriers and motives to reading nutrition label among label ‘non-users’ in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ranilović, Jasmina; Colić Barić, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine barriers and motives associated with reading nutrition information among label ‘non-users’ in Croatia and relationship with demographic and health factors of recruited sample.Label ‘non-users’ are subjects reported that had never or do not know or wish to tell aboutreading nutrition label during food purchasing (n=375) and were recruited from representative sample telephone interviewed Croatian, for assessing nutrition label attitudes. It is found that ...

  20. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  1. Calculus of spatial distribution of absorbed dose to cellular level by Monte Carlo simulation for a radio-labelled peptide with {sup 188}Re and with nuclear internalization : preliminary results; Calculo de la distribucion espacial de dosis absorbida a nivel celular por simulacion Monte Carlo para un peptido radiomarcado con {sup 188}Re y con internalizacion nuclear : resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santos C, C. L. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan y Jesus Carranza, Toluca 50120, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    The {sup 188}Re is a radionuclide of radiation gamma emitter, useful in obtaining of gamma-graphic images, but it is also emitter of beta radiations and Auger electrons. A bio-molecule directed to a specific receptor of a cancer cell labeled with a emitter radionuclide of beta particles and Auger electrons, as the {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin, it has the potential to be used in radiotherapy of molecular targets for its capacity to penetrate to cellular nucleus. In this system, the radiation dose is distributed in way located at microscopic levels in sub cellular specific places, where Auger emissions contributes of significant way in absorbed dose. The cellular dosimetry is realized in most of cases, using analytic or semi analytical methods, for example the cellular MIRD methodology. However, it is required to complement these calculations simulating the electrons transport and considering experimental bio kinetics data. Therefore, in this work preliminary results are presented of dosimetric calculation to sub cellular level for {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin by Monte Carlo simulation, using the 2008 version of PENELOPE: PENEASY code. The spatial distribution of absorbed dose in membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, was calculated with geometry of a cell of 10 {mu}m of diameter, a nucleus of 2 {mu}m of ratio and membrane of 0.2 {mu}m of thickness, considering elementary constitution for each cellular compartment proposal in literature. The total number of disintegrations at sub cellular level was evaluated integrating the activity in function of time starting from experimental bio kinetics data in mamma cancer cells MDA-MB231. The preliminary results show that 46.4% of total disintegrations for unit of captured activity by cell occurs in nucleus, 38.4% in membrane and 15.2% in cytoplasm. The due absorbed dose to Auger electrons for 1 Bq of {sup 188}Re located in cellular membrane were respectively of 1.32E-1 and 1.43E-1 Gy in cytoplasm and nucleus. (Author)

  2. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  3. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Longo-Silva; Maysa Helena de Aguiar Toloni; José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quanti...

  4. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ...

  6. Synthesis of deuterium labeled plant ethylene precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, K.C. [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Rapoport, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of {beta}-deuterium labeled 2-keto-4-methylbutyric acid were investigated. Vinyl chloride was first reacted with the ethyl oxalyl chloride moiety using aluminum chloride as condensing agent and the addition of methyl mercaptan followed. Deuterium labeling was achieved by using NaBD{sub 4} reduction in pyridine. (author).

  7. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    that consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  8. 7 CFR 65.400 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 65.400 Labeling. (a) Country of... tag, or other format that allows consumers to identify the country of origin. The declaration of...

  9. On the Complexity of Labeled Oriented Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stephan Rosebrock

    2010-02-01

    We define a notion of complexity for labeled oriented trees (LOTs) related to the bridge number in knot theory and prove that LOTs of complexity 2 are aspherical. We also present a class of LOTs of higher complexity which is aspherical, give an upper bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study the complexity of torus knots.

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Growth How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON ...

  11. 78 FR 2200 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... ensure consumers can view the labels when they are shopping online. In particular, it will provide retail... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16..., clarifying testing requirements and enforcement provisions, improving online energy label disclosures,...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions...

  13. 9 CFR 112.3 - Diluent labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diluent labels. 112.3 Section 112.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.3...

  14. Synthesis of tritium-labeled fosfomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertel, H.E.; Meriwether, H.T. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1982-03-01

    Tritium gas was used as a labeling agent for the preparation of (1,2-/sup 3/H)fosfomycin. Introduction of tritium into a precursor, the synthesis including resolution of the intermediate racemic 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid, and preparation of both amine and calcium salts of the labeled antibiotic are described.

  15. The anatomy of a laser label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  16. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  17. Alternatives to radioimmunoassay: labels and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schall, R.F. Jr.; Tenoso, H.J.

    1981-07-01

    The following labels used as substitutes for radioisotopes in immunoassay systems are reviewed bacteriophages, chemiluminescence precursors, fluorochromes, fluorogens, fluorescence quenchers, enzymes, coenzymes, inhibitors, substrates, various particulates, metal atoms, and stable free radicals. New methods for performing immunoassays with these labels are described where appropriate. Methods that require no separation steps and offer special promise for easy automation are noted. 69 references cited.

  18. Labeling of creatinine with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F. [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications, Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Durkan, K. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Buca, Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Technicianship Program, Izmir Vocational School; Soylu, A. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Narlidere, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty

    2004-07-01

    Creatinine is a clinically important index of renal glomerular filtration rate. Urine creatinine levels can be used as a screening test to evaluate kidney function or can be part of the creatinine clearance test. In case of kidney dysfunction or muscle disorders the creatinine concentration in serum/plasma may rise to a higher value than in healthy body. Technetium- 99m has been used in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research to label molecular and cellular structures employed as radiotracers. {sup 99m}Tc is utilized to label molecules and cells, used as radiopharmaceuticals, and also to label biological species. It presents many desirable characteristics. SnCl{sub 2} method is frequently used as a reducing agent in the {sup 99m}Tc- labeling process. Creatinine metabolism might be investigated by using labeled {sup 99m}Tc- creatinine in healthy or uremic rats. (orig.)

  19. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  20. Tritium labelling of two new analgesic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling with tritium of two arylpropionic esters was studied. The synthesis between 3H-Ibuprofen and the two unlabelled alcoholic moieties (Cl-Alkanol and CF3-Alkanol) was performed. Assuming that we got ready the acidic moiety, 3H-Ibuprofen, in our Laboratory, we attempted to label with tritium the alcoholic moiety and then go on to its esterification. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of 2-(4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethanol (Cl-Alkanol) was studied. As result of this study we had to change the labelling method, so that the Cl-Alkanol was unstable at 700C. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activities of the two labelled compounds were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  1. Learning Hypergraph Labeling for Feature Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Parag, Toufiq; Elgammal, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This study poses the feature correspondence problem as a hypergraph node labeling problem. Candidate feature matches and their subsets (usually of size larger than two) are considered to be the nodes and hyperedges of a hypergraph. A hypergraph labeling algorithm, which models the subset-wise interaction by an undirected graphical model, is applied to label the nodes (feature correspondences) as correct or incorrect. We describe a method to learn the cost function of this labeling algorithm from labeled examples using a graphical model training algorithm. The proposed feature matching algorithm is different from the most of the existing learning point matching methods in terms of the form of the objective function, the cost function to be learned and the optimization method applied to minimize it. The results on standard datasets demonstrate how learning over a hypergraph improves the matching performance over existing algorithms, notably one that also uses higher order information without learning.

  2. Simplified labeling process for medical image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingchen; Huang, Junzhou; Huang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications by automatically locating the regions of interest. Typically supervised learning based segmentation methods require a large set of accurately labeled training data. However, thel labeling process is tedious, time consuming and sometimes not necessary. We propose a robust logistic regression algorithm to handle label outliers such that doctors do not need to waste time on precisely labeling images for training set. To validate its effectiveness and efficiency, we conduct carefully designed experiments on cervigram image segmentation while there exist label outliers. Experimental results show that the proposed robust logistic regression algorithms achieve superior performance compared to previous methods, which validates the benefits of the proposed algorithms. PMID:23286072

  3. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  4. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Halvorsen, Esben Bistrup; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2013-01-01

    We consider NCA labeling schemes: given a rooted tree $T$, label the nodes of $T$ with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the label of their nearest common ancestor. For trees with $n$ nodes we present upper and lower bou...

  5. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  6. Synthesis of carbon-13-labeled tetradecanoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, J T; Patel, K M; Morrisett, J D

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of tetradecanoic acid enriched with 13C at carbons 1, 3, or 6 is described. The label at the carbonyl carbon was introduced by treating 1-bromotridecane with K13CN (90% enriched) to form the 13C-labeled nitrile, which upon hydrolysis yielded the desired acid. The [3-13C]tetradecanoic acid was synthesized by alkylation of diethyl sodio-malonate with [1-13C]1-bromododecane; the acid was obtained upon saponification and decarboxylation. The label at the 6 position was introduced by coupling the appropriately labeled alkylcadmium chloride with the half acid chloride methyl ester of the appropriate dioic acid, giving the corresponding oxo fatty acid ester. Formation of the tosylhydrazone of the oxo-ester followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride gave the labeled methyl tetradecanoate which, upon hydrolysis, yielded the desired tetradecanoic acid. All tetradecanoic acids were identical to unlabeled analogs as evaluated by gas-liquid chromatography and infrared or NMR spectroscopy. These labeled fatty acids were used subsequently to prepare the correspondingly labeled diacyl phosphatidylcholines. PMID:6631228

  7. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T2O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  8. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.306 Labeling of...

  9. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  10. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  11. 27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the brand label or separate front label, or on a back or side label, separate and apart from all other... of alcoholic beverages impairs your ability to drive a car or operate machinery, and may cause...

  12. 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金赫; 徐海峰; 邵秋菊; 袁梦晖; 周润锁; 周亮飞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the method of 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin (AS) and investigate the stability and bioactivity of the 99Tcm-labeled AS in vitro. Methods: AS was extracted, validated, and then labeled with 99Tcm after having been reduced by 2-ME or SnCl2. The best labeling condition was screened by cross design. The labeling efficiency was measured by TLC and column chromatography. The stability of 99Tcm-AS was observed and compared when BSA, saline and different molar ratios of Cys∶AS were separately added. The bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS was observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (CEV304). Results: The labeling efficiency can reach (97±1.5)% for the 2-ME-reducing approach. Its best experimental condition was as follows: AS 100 μg,PB(0.5 mol/L, pH 7.3)1 ml, 2-ME 100 μg, MDP (dissolved in 1 ml saline) 10 μl, and 99TcmO4- 185 MBq. The labeling efficiency using SnCl2-reducing method can reach (90±3.0)%. The best experimental procedure was as follows: AS 100 μg,boric acid buffer(0.1 mol/L, pH 9.0)1 ml, 2%SnCl2 (dissolved in 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid) 20 μl, was added into MDP, which was diluted with 1 ml deoxygenized water, and then 20 μl, 99TcmO4- 185 MBq was added. The product of 99Tcm labeled AS was stable in vitro and had the same bioactivity as AS. Conclusion: 99Tcm direct labeling of AS is simple and efficient. And the bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS has no significant change compared with AS.

  13. Sublinear distance labeling for sparse graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs;

    2015-01-01

    between pairs of nodes that are at distance at least $D$ from each other. In this paper we consider distance labeling schemes for the classical case of unweighted and undirected graphs. We present the first distance labeling scheme of size $o(n)$ for sparse graphs (and hence bounded degree graphs......). This addresses an open problem by Gavoille et. al. [J. Algo. 2004], hereby separating the complexity from general graphs which require $\\Omega(n)$ size Moon [Proc. of Glasgow Math. Association 1965]. As an intermediate result we give a $O(\\frac{n}{D}\\log^2 D)$ $D$-preserving distance labeling scheme, improving...

  14. Private Labels, Price Rivalry, and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl; Sørgard, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The article examines how the existence of a retailer owned brand, private label, aspects the price setting of a national brand. We …nd that the potential for a private label introduction may lead to price concessions from the national brand producer, but that actual private label introduction as such may very well lead to higher retail prices on national brands. We argue that this may have important implications for the interpretation of empirical results and the public policy towards natio...

  15. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  16. Preparation of 11C labelled tamoxifen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The syntheses and HPLC analysis of N-desmethyltamoxifen and carbon-11labelled tamoxifen are described. In order to obtain the N-desmethyltamoxifen,tamoxifencitrate was first converted to tamoxifen free base.N-desmethyltamoxifen wasprepared by reacting tamoxifen free base with 1-chloroethyl-chloroformate(ACE.Cl).For 11C labeling, N-desmethyltamoxifen was heated with 11Cmethyl iodide for 10min at 130℃,and the 11Clabelled compound was purifiedby HPLC on a μBonapak TM C18 column.Injectable 11C-tamoxifen was obtained within 50~60min from EOB (end-of-bombardment) with a labeling yield of 60%~70%.

  17. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  18. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  19. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  20. 101 labeled brain images and a consistent human cortical labeling protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eKlein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://www.mindboggle.info/data/ website.

  1. A Study on Standards System of Chinese Environmental Labeling Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Implementing Outlines for the Chinese Environmental Labeling Program By awarding certificates and labels to related manufacturers in accordance with certain environmental labeling standards, environmental labeling,also called "Green Label"or "Eco-label", certifies via governmental departments or public and private organizations that the whole process of producing,using, recalling and disposing of manufacturers'products is in compliance with certain environmental requirements. Many countries are establishing and promoting environmental labeling plans. Environmental labeling, as an important promotion means for prevention and control of pollution in a market-oriented manner, is being extended and developed constantly across the world.

  2. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  3. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Figuring ...

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A Recipes ... Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, ...

  5. Synthesis of tritium-labelled natural prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most suitable method for the preparation of tritium-labelled prostaglandins is the biosynthetic procedure. Polyunsaturated labelled fatty acids are converted into prostaglandins by a prostaglandin synthetase enzyme system produced from sheep seminal vesicule, and the crude product is purified using thin layer chromatography. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are prepared in a reaction series. Tritium is introduced at the very last step. A very little amount (10-20 mg) of tritium-labelled prostaglandin E2 can be converted into A2, B2 and F2 respectively, conversion and separation being carried out simultaneously on the same silica plate. After the separation on thin layer silica gel the obtained tritium-labelled prostaglandin (PC) was chemically and radiochemically pure, its activity was 3700 GBq/mmol (100 Ci/mmol) and it was suitable for RIA kits. (author)

  6. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Michael Charles; Liu, Weiru; Miller, Paul; Hunter, Ruth; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs) with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI) approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels a...

  7. 9 CFR 317.4 - Labeling approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is a printer's proof or equivalent which clearly shows all labeling features, size, location, and... carcass ink brands and meat food product ink and burning brands, which comply with parts 312 and 316...

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 ...

  9. Have Food Allergies? Read the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Have Food Allergies? Read the Label Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... These foods account for 90 percent of all food allergies: milk egg fish, such as bass, flounder, or ...

  10. Labels in PURE - Til gavn eller hindring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurcher, Sacha; Sass, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Denne artikel er baseret på en usability test af anvendelse af labels i PURE, et vidensregistreringssystem. Formålet var at undersøge om hvorvidt de anvendte labels i PURE understøtter forskernes inddatering af forskellige publikationstyper. Pilot testen viste at man skal være opmærksom på, at de...... anvendte labels ikke nødvendigvis dækker over et kontrolleret fagsprog der modsvarer alle faglige domæner. PURE understøtter således ikke intuitivt alle forskeres forståelse af registrering af publikationstyper. Endvidere kan det skabe forvirring når sproget ikke er konsistent, som det er tilfælde i PURE...... resultaterne kun bruges som en indikator på, hvorvidt de brugte labels i PURE er tydelige og genkendelige for forskere....

  11. Facile labeling of lipoglycans with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are among the most potent activators of the innate immune system, yet mechanisms of their action and in particular the role of glycans remain elusive. Efficient non-invasive labeling strategies are necessary for studying interactions of LPS glycans with biological systems. Here we report a new method for labeling LPS and other lipoglycans with luminescent quantum dots. The labeling is achieved by partitioning of hydrophobic quantum dots into the core of various LPS aggregates without disturbing the native LPS structure. The biofunctionality of the LPS-Qdot conjugates is demonstrated by the labeling of mouse monocytes. This simple method should find broad applicability in studies concerned with visualization of LPS biodistribution and identification of LPS binding agents.

  12. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  13. Indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Lavinas, Tatiana; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Nilda P.S. de; Silva, Constancia P.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tavares, Leoberto C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Departamento de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica

    2000-07-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), previously described by Zalutsky. ATE was obtained in a high pure form and the iodination has been performed with 131-Iodine in 70-80% yield. Protein labeling studies performed with human IgG indicate that the ATE intermediate is an important alternative to conventional labeling methods. (author)

  14. Improved electrochemiluminescence labels for heterogeneous microbead immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linpo; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Ruthenium(II) complexes with carboxylic acid as a bioconjugatable group, i.e., [Ru(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)(2,2'-bipyridine)(4-methyl-4'-(3-carboxypropyl)-2,2'-bipyridine)](0), (C49H38N6O8S2Ru), and [Ru(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)2(4-methyl-4'-(3-carboxypropyl)-2,2'-bipyridine)](2-) · 2Na(+), (C63H44N6O14S4RuNa2) were characterized spectroscopically and electrochemically. As potential labels for electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassays, the ECL intensities of the free labels in homogenous aqueous buffer solutions were compared under a condition that is similar to the one employed by a commercial clinical immunoassay system. The two labels were found to be more emissive and, thus, can be detected at 10(- 12) pM compared with 5× 10(-12) pM of the label currently used in the commercial ECL system. Furthermore, the improved ECL emission of the free labels in homogenous solutions was proven to be translated into more intense ECL signal in heterogeneous sandwich immunoassay and, thus, leading to a lower limit of detection in immunoassay. The data obtained from these ECL labels shed light on the further development of ECL-based clinical immunoassay technology. Graphical abstract Electrochemiluminescence immunoassays were carried out with three different ruthenium(II) complex labels. It was proved that the higher signal intensities found with the novel labels in homogeneous solutions were maintained in heterogeneous sandwich format. PMID:27178555

  15. A method for labeling polyacrylamide gels

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever struggled with the identification of your polyacrylamide gels after running a few of them at once? Here is a new method for labeling gels which is easy, free and does not interfere with your protein samples. You will be intrigued once you learn how you can add a label to your laboratory-made gels and will have no problem identifying your gels any more.

  16. Labelling of electricity; Kennzeichnung von Elektrizitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Markard, J. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed.

  17. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  18. Hierarchical Label Fusion with Multiscale Feature Representation and Label-Specific Patch Partition

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Recently, patch-based label fusion methods have achieved many successes in medical imaging area. After registering atlas images to the target image, the label at each target image point can be subsequently determined by checking the patchwise similarities between the underlying target image patch and all atlas image patches. Apparently, the definition of patchwise similarity is critical in label fusion. However, current methods often simply use entire image patch with fixed patch size through...

  19. Background suppression in arterial spin labeling MRI with a separate neck labeling coil

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2011-01-01

    In arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF), pair-wise subtraction of temporally adjacent non-labeled and labeled images often can not completely cancel the background static tissue signal because of temporally fluctuating physiological noise. While background suppression (BS) by inversion nulling improves CBF temporal stability, imperfect pulses compromise CBF contrast. Conventional BS techniques may not be applicable in small animals because the arterial transit...

  20. Food Retailers’ Objectives of Developing Private Label Products and their Perspectives to Private Label Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kilic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the intensive competitive environment, retailers incline to develop their own branded products (private label products to make a differentiation over their rivals and to gain a market share. On the other side, retailers’ have some objectives in developing private label products. At this point, this study put forwards the differences between retailers’ some characteristics and objectives of developing private label products and investigates the tendencies and expectations towards private label products. The results of the research present that there are no differences in the objectives of developing private label products according to the food retailers’ ownership of private label. However, it is found that there are some differences in the objectives of developing private label products according to the food retailers’ level of activity, number of branches and scale. In the study, it is also put forward that food retailers expect an increase in the demand of private label products at nearly terms and inclining to develop private labels more than before.

  1. Multi-hop optical label switching with coherent detected spectral amplitude code labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongsheng

    Based on label stacking principles and coherent detection, we present a two-hop, coherent detected spectral amplitude code (SAC) labeled system to accomplish ultrafast packet forwarding for packet-switched metropolitan area networks. An optical switching network with two forwarding nodes, two 156 Mb/s SAC labels, and 40 Gb/s differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) payloads is demonstrated by computer simulation. The bit error rate (BER) performances of coherent detected SAC labels and high speed payload over 160 km fiber after two hops transmission are accessed, respectively.

  2. Rhenium 188 labelling of peptide conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2001-07-01

    Many human tumours express high levels, of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible a radiotherapeutic treatment of this kind for tumour a series of somatostatin analogues that can tightly chelate beta emitting isotopes have been developed in recent years. The work carried out for this thesis has been aimed towards development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. The first chapters describe work with technetium-99m to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue, [Tyr{sup 3}]-octreotide (TOC), as a precursor to undertaking labelling studies with the beta emitter rhenium-188. 6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) was conjugated to TOC and labelled with {sup 99m} using different coligands. Then the stability, receptor binding and biodistribution of each complex were assessed. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC using EDDA as coligand showed the best characteristics, and was superior for tumour imaging in humans than the commercially available {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide. The conditions for labelling the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with {sup 188}Re were then optimised using tricine as a co-ligand. A labelling yield of {approx}80% was achieved. After purification however, the stability of the complex was low. The use of other coligand systems which had proved useful for {sup 99m}Tc labelling was explored, but yields were very poor. Other chelators such as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG{sub 3}) were studied as potential co-ligand agents to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with {sup 188}Re but, again low yields of the labelled peptide complexes were achieved. A novel {sup 188}Re-HYNIC complex was prepared in high yields using N-N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates as coligands. However to date, the specific activities achieved with this system are relatively low. The use of the [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O

  3. 30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for container labels. 47.41 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41 Requirement for container labels. (a) The operator must ensure that each container of a hazardous chemical has a label. If...

  4. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  5. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  6. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  7. 49 CFR 172.419 - FLAMMABLE LIQUID label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. 172.419 Section 172.419... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.419 FLAMMABLE LIQUID label. (a) Except for size and color the FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be as follows: EC02MR91.023 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the...

  8. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    establishing that labels of size (2 ± ε)log n, ε Bille, and Rauhe (SIDMA'05) showed that ancestor and NCA labeling schemes have labels of size log n + Ω(log log n). Our lower bound increases this to log n + Ω(log n) for NCA labeling schemes. Since Fraigniaud...

  9. 27 CFR 4.32 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the bottle. (c) There shall be stated on the brand label or on a back label a statement that the..., strip label or neck label, the statement “Contains sulfites” or “Contains (a) sulfiting agent(s)” or...

  10. 21 CFR 341.72 - Labeling of antihistamine drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antihistamine drug products. 341.72... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.72 Labeling of antihistamine drug products. (a) Statement of... product as an “antihistamine.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the...

  11. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  12. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  13. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... closure design (December 13, 2012, 77 FR 74196), and the third guidance will focus on minimizing risks... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for...

  14. Selenium as an alternative peptide label - comparison to fluorophore-labelled penetratin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyrup Møller, Laura; Bahnsen, Jesper Søborg; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck;

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the impact on peptide properties of labelling peptides with the fluorophore TAMRA or the selenium (Se) containing amino acid SeMet was evaluated. Three differently labelled variants of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin (Pen) were synthesized, PenMSe, TAMRA...

  15. 76 FR 46671 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 101 RIN 0910-ZA26 Food Labeling; Gluten-Free... considers other practical factors related to the needs of individuals with celiac disease and their food... establishing labeling thresholds for gluten (as well as for the major food allergens), including the data...

  16. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  17. Ideal regularization for learning kernels from labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Binbin; Lai, Jianhuang; Shen, Lixin

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new form of regularization that is able to utilize the label information of a data set for learning kernels. The proposed regularization, referred to as ideal regularization, is a linear function of the kernel matrix to be learned. The ideal regularization allows us to develop efficient algorithms to exploit labels. Three applications of the ideal regularization are considered. Firstly, we use the ideal regularization to incorporate the labels into a standard kernel, making the resulting kernel more appropriate for learning tasks. Next, we employ the ideal regularization to learn a data-dependent kernel matrix from an initial kernel matrix (which contains prior similarity information, geometric structures, and labels of the data). Finally, we incorporate the ideal regularization to some state-of-the-art kernel learning problems. With this regularization, these learning problems can be formulated as simpler ones which permit more efficient solvers. Empirical results show that the ideal regularization exploits the labels effectively and efficiently.

  18. Improved specificity of hippocampal memory trace labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzulino, Alejandro S; Martinez, Randy; Tomm, Nicole K; Denny, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have focused on the identification and manipulation of memory traces in rodent models. The two main mouse models utilized are either a CreER(T2) /loxP tamoxifen (TAM)- or a tetracycline transactivator/tetracycline-response element doxycycline-inducible system. These systems, however, could be improved to label a more specific population of activated neurons corresponding to behavior. Here, we sought to identify an improved selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator (SERM) in which we could label an individual memory trace in ArcCreER(T2) mice. We found that 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is a selective SERM in the ArcCreER(T2) × Rosa26-CAG-stop(flox) -channelrhodospin (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) mice. The half-life of 4-OHT is shorter than TAM, allowing for more specificity of memory trace labeling. Furthermore, 4-OHT allowed for context-specific labeling in the dentate gyrus and CA3. In summary, we believe that 4-OHT improves the specificity of memory trace labeling and will allow for refined memory trace studies in the future. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26662713

  19. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  20. On label graphoidal covering number-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugaperumal Anitha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a graph with p vertices and q edges. An acyclicgraphoidal cover of G is a collection of paths in G which are internallydisjointand covering each edge of the graph exactly once. Let f : V !{1, 2, . . . , p} be a bijective labeling of the vertices of G. Let " Gf bethe directed graph obtained by orienting the edges uv of G from u tov provided f(u < f(v. If the set f of all maximal directed paths in"Gf , with directions ignored, is an acyclic graphoidal cover of G, then fis called a graphoidal labeling of G and G is called a label graphoidal graphand l = min{| f | : f is a graphoidal labeling of G} is called the labelgraphoidal covering number of G. In this paper we characterize graphsfor which (i l = q − m, where m is the number of vertices of degree 2and (ii l = q. Also, we determine the value of label graphoidal coveringnumber for unicyclic graphs.

  1. A new era in retail : Private-label production by national-brand manufacturers and premium-quality private labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Private labels have witnessed considerable growth in grocery retailing. While existing academic studies have provided valuable insights concerning the evolution of private labels, several issues remain largely unexplored. First, in the face of these large private-label volumes, private-label product

  2. LabelTranslator: A Tool to Automatically Localize an Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, M; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ; E. Mena

    2008-01-01

    This demo proposal briefly presents LabelTranslator, a system that suggests translations of ontology labels, with the purpose of localizing ontologies. LabelTranslator takes as input an ontology whose labels are described in a source natural language and obtains the most probable translation of each ontology label into a target natural language.Our main contribution is the automatization of this process, which reduces human efforts to localize manually the ontology.

  3. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  4. Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing....... An example of a nearterm application is given, and a comparison of routing technologies is made regarding their cost and reliability aspects....

  5. Housewives’ Compliance in Reading Food Labels in Gorontalo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Tumenggung

    2016-06-01

    Di Indonesia, masalah label pada kemasan makanan kurang mendapat perhatian konsumen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari determinan kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan oleh ibu rumah tangga di Kota Gorontalo. Penelitian dengan metode survei ini dilakukan dari bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2013. Data dikumpulkan secara potong lintang dengan menggunakan angket. Variabel terikat adalah kepatuhan membaca label pada kemasan makanan yang terdiri dari label informasi nilai gizi, komposisi makanan, masa kedaluwarsa, harga, dan status halal. Variabel bebas adalah usia, tingkat pendidikan, dan keterpaparan dengan media informasi. Besar sampel 262 orang ditentukan secara accidental technique. Analisis data menggunakan uji kai kuadrat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar responden patuh membaca label kedaluwarsa, label harga, dan label halal. Faktor usia berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label kedaluwarsa dan label harga. Tingkat pendidikan berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label informasi nilai gizi, label komposisi, label harga, dan lebel halal. Keterpaparan dengan media informasi berhubungan dengan kepatuhan membaca label komposisi, kedaluwarsa, harga, dan halal. Disarankan kepada institusi terkait, yaitu dinas kesehatan untuk melakukan upaya meningkatkan pemahaman pentingnya membaca label kemasan makanan, terutama yang berkaitan dengan informasi nilai gizi dan komposisi bahan makanan.

  6. Visualizing dengue virus through Alexa Fluor labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Summer; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2011-01-01

    The early events in the interaction between virus and cell can have profound influence on the outcome of infection. Determining the factors that influence this interaction could lead to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and thus influence vaccine or therapeutic design. Hence, the development of methods to probe this interaction would be useful. Recent advancements in fluorophores development and imaging technology can be exploited to improve our current knowledge on dengue pathogenesis and thus pave the way to reduce the millions of dengue infections occurring annually. The enveloped dengue virus has an external scaffold consisting of 90 envelope glycoprotein (E) dimers protecting the nucleocapsid shell, which contains a single positive strand RNA genome. The identical protein subunits on the virus surface can thus be labeled with an amine reactive dye and visualized through immunofluorescent microscopy. Here, we present a simple method of labeling of dengue virus with Alexa Fluor succinimidyl ester dye dissolved directly in a sodium bicarbonate buffer that yielded highly viable virus after labeling. There is no standardized procedure for the labeling of live virus and existing manufacturer's protocol for protein labeling usually requires the reconstitution of dye in dimethyl sulfoxide. The presence of dimethyl sulfoxide, even in minute quantities, can block productive infection of virus and also induce cell cytotoxicity. The exclusion of the use of dimethyl sulfoxide in this protocol thus reduced this possibility. Alexa Fluor dyes have superior photostability and are less pH-sensitive than the common dyes, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, making them ideal for studies on cellular uptake and endosomal transport of the virus. The conjugation of Alexa Fluor dye did not affect the recognition of labeled dengue virus by virus-specific antibody and its putative receptors in host cells. This method could have useful applications in virological studies.

  7. Pharmacogenetic information for patients on drug labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga SB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Susanne B Haga, Rachel Mills, Jivan Moaddeb Center for Applied Genomics and Precision Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Advances in pharmacogenetic research have improved our understanding of adverse drug responses and have led to the development of pharmacogenetic tests and targeted drugs. However, the extent of the communication process and provision of information to patients about pharmacogenetics is unclear. Pharmacogenetic information may be included in sections of a drug's package insert intended for patients, which is provided directly to patients or communicated via the health provider. To determine what pharmacogenetic information, if any, is included in patient-targeted sections of the drug label, we reviewed the labels listed in the US Food and Drug Administration's Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels. To date, 140 drugs include pharmacogenetic-related information in the approved label. Our analysis revealed that pharmacogenetic information is included in patient-targeted sections for a minority (n=29; 21% of drug labels, with no obvious pattern associated with the inclusion of pharmacogenetic information. Therefore, patients are unlikely to learn about pharmacogenetics through written materials dispensed with the drug. Given that there are also inconsistencies with regard to inclusion of pharmacogenetic information in the patient counseling information section, it is also unlikely that patients are receiving adequate pharmacogenetic information from their provider. The inconsistent presence of pharmacogenetic information in patient-targeted sections of drug labels suggests a need to review the criteria for inclusion of information in patient-targeted sections in order to increase consistency and patient knowledge of pharmacogenetic information. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics, US Food and Drug Administration, drug safety, patient education

  8. Labeled Graph Kernel for Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiqi; Martinez, Aleix M

    2016-08-01

    Automatic behavior analysis from video is a major topic in many areas of research, including computer vision, multimedia, robotics, biology, cognitive science, social psychology, psychiatry, and linguistics. Two major problems are of interest when analyzing behavior. First, we wish to automatically categorize observed behaviors into a discrete set of classes (i.e., classification). For example, to determine word production from video sequences in sign language. Second, we wish to understand the relevance of each behavioral feature in achieving this classification (i.e., decoding). For instance, to know which behavior variables are used to discriminate between the words apple and onion in American Sign Language (ASL). The present paper proposes to model behavior using a labeled graph, where the nodes define behavioral features and the edges are labels specifying their order (e.g., before, overlaps, start). In this approach, classification reduces to a simple labeled graph matching. Unfortunately, the complexity of labeled graph matching grows exponentially with the number of categories we wish to represent. Here, we derive a graph kernel to quickly and accurately compute this graph similarity. This approach is very general and can be plugged into any kernel-based classifier. Specifically, we derive a Labeled Graph Support Vector Machine (LGSVM) and a Labeled Graph Logistic Regressor (LGLR) that can be readily employed to discriminate between many actions (e.g., sign language concepts). The derived approach can be readily used for decoding too, yielding invaluable information for the understanding of a problem (e.g., to know how to teach a sign language). The derived algorithms allow us to achieve higher accuracy results than those of state-of-the-art algorithms in a fraction of the time. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and datasets, including multimodal data. PMID:26415154

  9. NMR studies of isotopically labeled RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardi, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    In summary, the ability to generate NMR quantities of {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C-labeled RNAs has led to the development of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques for simplifying the resonance assignment and structure determination of RNAs. These methods for synthesizing isotopically labeled RNAs are only several years old, and thus there are still relatively few applications of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques to RNA. However, given the critical role that RNAs play in cellular function, one can expect to see an increasing number of NMR structural studies of biologically active RNAs.

  10. HOW SOY LABELING INFLUENCES PREFERENCE AND TASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Wansink, Brian; Park, Sea Bum; Sonka, Steven T.; Morganosky, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    Using a “Phantom Ingredient” taste test, this article demonstrates how the use of soy labels and health claims on a package negatively biased taste perceptions and attitudes toward a food erroneously thought to contain soy. Consumers who ate products which mentioned soy on the package described the taste more grainy, less flavorful, and as having a strong aftertaste compared to those who ate the product but saw no soy label. Yet, while putting “soy” on a package negatively influenced tast...

  11. Conditional Random Fields for Image Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development and application of CRFs (Conditional Random Fields in computer vision, many researchers have made some outstanding progress in this domain because CRFs solve the classical version of the label bias problem with respect to MEMMs (maximum entropy Markov models and HMMs (hidden Markov models. This paper reviews the research development and status of object recognition with CRFs and especially introduces two main discrete optimization methods for image labeling with CRFs: graph cut and mean field approximation. This paper describes graph cut briefly while it introduces mean field approximation more detailedly which has a substantial speed of inference and is researched popularly in recent years.

  12. Electrochemical Label-Free Nucleotide Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Numerous researchers have devoted a great deal of effort over the last few decades to the development of electrochemical oligonucleotide detection techniques, owing to their advantages of simple design, inherently small dimensions, and low power requirements. Their simplicity and rapidity of detection makes label-free oligonucleotide sensors of great potential use as first-aid screening tools in the analytical field of environmental measurements and healthcare management. This review article covers label-free oligonucleotide sensors, focusing specifically on topical electrochemical techniques, including intrinsic redox reaction of bases, conductive polymers, the use of electrochemical indicators, and highly ordered probe structures.

  13. Label-Free Biosensors for Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Fang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Label-free biosensors for studying cell biology have finally come of age. Recent developments have advanced the biosensors from low throughput and high maintenance research tools to high throughput and low maintenance screening platforms. In parallel, the biosensors have evolved from an analytical tool solely for molecular interaction analysis to powerful platforms for studying cell biology at the whole cell level. This paper presents historical development, detection principles, and applications in cell biology of label-free biosensors. Future perspectives are also discussed.

  14. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  15. Fluorescent labels and their use in separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Glazer, Alexander; Ju, Jingyue

    1997-01-01

    Compositions are provided comprising sets of fluorescent labels carrying pairs of donor and acceptor dye molecules, designed for efficient excitation of the donors at a single wavelength and emission from the acceptor in each of the pairs at different wavelengths. The different molecules having different donor-acceptor pairs can be modified to have substantially the same mobility under separation conditions, by varying the distance between the donor and acceptor in a given pair. Particularly, the fluorescent compositions find use as labels in sequencing nucleic acids.

  16. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides

  17. Conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African Medical Research Council presented this conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements with application in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The conference was held in Bloemfontein from 3-6 February 1986. This work only consists of the abstracts of the seminars that were delivered on the conference. The radioisotopes that occur most of the time in the abstracts include Indium 111, Indium 114, Chromium 51, Iodine 125, Iodine 131 and Carbon 14. Especially Indium 111 seems to be the method of choice for all labelling

  18. Simpler, faster and shorter labels for distances in graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gavoille, Cyril; Halvorsen, Esben Bistrup;

    We consider how to assign \\emph{labels} to any undirected graph with $n$ nodes such that, given the labels of two nodes and no other information regarding the graph, it is possible to determine the distance between the two nodes. The challenge in such a \\emph{distance labeling scheme} is primarily...... to minimize the maximum label length and secondarily to minimize the time needed to answer distance queries (decoding). Previous schemes have offered different trade-offs between label lengths and query time. This paper presents a simple algorithm with shorter labels and shorter query time than any previous...... solution, thereby improving the state-of-the-art with respect to both label length and query time in one single algorithm. Our solution addresses several open problems concerning label length and decoding time and is the first improvement of label length for more than three decades. More specifically, we...

  19. Study of tritium labeling of complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for tritium labeling of technical mixture (commercial mark - SOVOL, USSR) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The influence of procedure of labeling by thermally activated tritium on the nativity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied. The method of labeling by thermally activated tritium has some factors, which are able to destroy organic compounds - photodegradation, thermo-degradation and degradation caused by reaction of substitution of organic compounds hydrogen atoms by activated tritium atoms. To develop a method of labeling of every organic compound by thermally activated tritium it is necessary to determine and optimize the conditions of labeling. In our case procedure of labeling is complicated because of technical mixture of PCBs consist from more than 20 isomers, chlorinated with different degree. We studied the dependence of appearance of products of degradation PCBs from duration of labeling procedure. It was found that some part of PCBs and product of its degradation were evaporated under vacuum and were collected on the glass flask cooled by liquid nitrogen. It was found that correlation between labeled of PCBs and products of degradation did not changed with increasing time of labeling, and radiochemical yield of tritium labeled of PCBs was stable - about 15-20 %. The optimum regime of labeling was selected. It was found that purification of labeled PCBs by TLC on silica gel with hexane allows obtaining tritium-labeled PCBs purified from by-products. Thus, TLC purification seems inexpensive, fast and suitable for purification of tritium-labeled PCBs

  20. A consumer perspective on food labelling: ethical or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van der Merwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers’ food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers’ perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review of the relevant literature of mostly quantitative research, but also includes qualitative and mixed method studies. The article examines such aspects as the trustworthiness of claims on food labels, intelligibility of label information, listing of food additives on labels, and labelling of genetically modified foods. As negative perspectives on food labelling are likely to affect consumers’ decision making regarding the purchasing of food products, the food industry must realise their responsibility to provide ethical food labels. The food industry and regulators should aim to provide risk communication and intelligible information through ethical food labels and consumer education programmes on food labelling. Consumers need to be aware of their right to know what they are purchasing through ethical food labels and take a stand in this regard.

  1. Fluorescent Labeling of Plasmid DNA and mRNA: Gains and Losses of Current Labeling Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, K; Braeckmans, K; Remaut, K

    2016-02-17

    Live-cell imaging has provided the life sciences with insights into the cell biology and dynamics. Fluorescent labeling of target molecules proves to be indispensable in this regard. In this Review, we focus on the current fluorescent labeling strategies for nucleic acids, and in particular mRNA (mRNA) and plasmid DNA (pDNA), which are of interest to a broad range of scientific fields. By giving a background of the available techniques and an evaluation of the pros and cons, we try to supply scientists with all the information needed to come to an informed choice of nucleic acid labeling strategy aimed at their particular needs. PMID:26670733

  2. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.28 Section 660.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... adequate mixing when reconstituting. (9) Recommended storage temperature in degrees Celsius. (10) Source...

  3. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations that will be published under this part; (c) Comparative acoustic rating information, which EPA... consisting of: (1) The Company name, and (2) The City and State of the principal office; (e) A product model number or type identification; (f) The phrase “Federal law prohibits removal of this label prior...

  4. 40 CFR 86.413-2006 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 86.449 the statement must also include the phrase “is certified to an HC+NOX emission standard... motorcycle shall, at the time of manufacture, affix a permanent, legible label, of the type and in the manner... catalyst; TWC Three-way catalyst; AIR Secondary air injection (pump); PAIR Pulsed secondary air...

  5. Ranking with uncertain labels and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuicheng; WANG Huan; LIU Jianzhuang; TANG Xiao'ou; Thomas S.Huang

    2007-01-01

    The techniques for image analysis and classification generally consider the image sample labels fixed and without uncertainties.The rank regression problem studied in this paper is based on the training samples with uncertain labels,which often is the case for the manual estimated image labels.A core ranking model is designed first as the bilinear fusing of multiple candidate kernels.Then,the parameters for feature selection and kernel selection are learned simultaneously by maximum a posteriori for given samples and uncertain labels.The provable convergency Expectation Maximization(EM)method is used for inferring these parameters in an iterative manner.The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is finally validated by the extensive experiments on age ranking task and human trackingtask.The popular FG-NET and the large scale Yamaha aging database are used for the age estimation experiments,and our algorithm outperforms those state-of-the-art algorithms ever reported by other interrelated literatures significantly.The experiment result of human tracking task also validates its advantage over conventional linear regression algorithm.

  6. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... biodiesel, biomass-based diesel, biodiesel blends, and biomass-based diesel blends. The label is 3 inches (7... biodiesel blends containing more than 5 percent and no greater than 20 percent biodiesel by volume. (i) The...” followed immediately by the numerical value representing the volume percentage of biodiesel in the fuel...

  7. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...; (d) The expiration date; (e) The preservative used and its concentration, or if no preservative...

  8. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charles Davis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.

  9. Synthesis of carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxylamine succinate, N,N-dimethyl-2-[1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)-ethoxy]ethanamine succinate is an antihistamine used primarily as a sedative. Carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate, required for toxicological studies, was synthesized in two steps starting from 2-benzoyl pyridine. (author)

  10. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  11. Distributed Representations for Unsupervised Semantic Role Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Woodsend, Kristian; Lapata, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach for unsupervised semantic role labeling that leverages distributed representations. We induce embeddings to represent a predicate, its arguments and their complex interdependence. Argument embeddings are learned from surrounding contexts involving the predicate and neighboring arguments, while predicate embeddings are learned from argument contexts. The induced representations are clustered into roles using a linear programming formulation of hierarchical clustering,...

  12. 9 CFR 101.4 - Labeling terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling terminology. 101.4 Section 101.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS §...

  13. Chemical labeling of electrochemically cleaved peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeser, Julien; Alting, Niels F. A.; Permentier, Hjalmar P.; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer P. H.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Cleavage of peptide bonds C-terminal to tyrosine and tryptophan after electrochemical oxidation may become a complementary approach to chemical and enzymatic cleavage. A chemical labeling approach specifically targeting reactive cleavage products is presented here and constitutes a promisi

  14. Academic Deficiency: Student Experiences of Institutional Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch-Gilbert, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Limited existing research examines how undergraduate students in the United States experience the process of being identified as deficient due to their academic performance. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of college students on academic probation who were labeled academically deficient. Students…

  15. Status of potassium permanganate label claim - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. Potassium Permanganate Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on cat...

  16. 16 CFR 1505.3 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... labeling shall be prominently and conspicuously displayed under customary conditions of purchase, storage... amperes and/or watts. (2) If a toy utilizes a single motor as its only electric energy consuming component... lamp replacement with the statement: “WARNING—Do not use light bulbs larger than __ watts”, the...

  17. Atomoxetine Open-Label Trial in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomoxetine (originally named tomoxetine, a new therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD marketed by Eli Lilly, was compared to methylphenidate in a prospective, randomized, open-label study for 10 weeks duration, at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Carolinas Medical Center, and Lilly Research Laboratories.

  18. Neuropeptides labelled with [sup 35]S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Nispen, J.W. van; Sperling, E.M.G.; Vader, J.F. (Organon Int BV, Oss (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    Methionine and cysteine containing peptides can be labelled with [sup 35]S by coupling of [sup 35]S-cysteine or [sup 35]S-methionine with a large excess of suitability protected peptide precursors. This is illustrated for [pGlu[sup 4], Cyt[sup 6

  19. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... donor code in the product labeling each donor of peripheral blood used for detection or identification... IDENTIFICATION OF UNEXPECTED ANTIBODIES” or “NOT FOR USE IN DETECTION OR IDENTIFICATION OF UNEXPECTED ANTIBODIES... antibodies shall identify the number of donors contributing to the pool. Products designed exclusively...

  20. 75 FR 81943 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... of the work, presumably at greater cost. Fourth, as discussed above, the long supply chain for CFLs... on manufacturers, and, thus, requires more time to implement. Second, the supply chain to U.S. retail... extended supply chains make implementation of labeling changes much more logistically challenging....

  1. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling. 701.11 Section 701.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS...) An appropriately descriptive name or, when the nature of the cosmetic is obvious, a fanciful...

  2. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other information on the label is given in percentages . Food contains fat, protein, carbohydrates, and fiber. Food also contains vitamins, ... grams contained in one serving of the food. Fat is an important nutrient that your body uses for growth and development, but you don' ...

  3. Labeling design effort for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is particularly concerned with developing a proposed energy guide label for household refrigerator-freezers through consumer research. Survey work conducted throughout Malaysia to develop a comprehensive energy guide label. A simple labeling design with different features and colors was also performed using the labeling concept of other countries (such as Australia, Thailand, and from the EU). There are many steps to implement a labeling program for a particular energy consuming appliance, such as consumer/stakeholder involvement, design, policy makers' involvement and so on. So, this is a vast area of work. This paper mainly focuses on consumer research in designing or shaping a comprehensive label

  4. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasui Liana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.  

  5. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Nasui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.

  6. Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. C.; Moon, B. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Ji, D. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test.

  7. The Tunisian standards and labelling programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunisia has recently implemented a standards and labelling programme for household appliances and other energy using equipment. This programme, which is the fruit of six years labour supported by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and executed by l'Agence Nationale pour la Maitrise de l'Energie (ANME), led to the issue of energy labelling and minimum energy efficiency standards regulations for refrigerators in 2004. This paper reports on the design and implementation of the programme that not only serves as a role model for how such programmes can be conducted in developing countries, but also matches or exceeds the design and implementation of similar programmes in developed countries. Findings are presented on the following elements: consumer research used to design the Tunisian energy label, the establishment and accreditation of national test facilities, the energy performance certification, verification and compliance process, the development of refrigerator energy efficiency and labelling criteria, public communications and outreach strategy projected programme impacts Results are also presented from a detailed and sophisticated refrigerator techno-economic energy engineering analysis that provided much of the analytical basis for the choice of labelling and efficiency standards thresholds. As a result of its careful design and implementation it is forecast that by 2030 the programme will have saved 3.4 Mt of CO2 emissions at a cost to the GEF of just 20 USc/tonne. The cost of conserved electricity for Tunisian consumers is projected to be less than 1 USc/kWh, which compares very favourably with the current tariff of 7.4 USc/kWh

  8. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, A W; Cruise, K M; Mitchell, G F; Watt, S M

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 X 10(7) eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where necessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10(8) eosinophils (purity > 95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 X 10(4) cells/minute, purity > 99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (bwtween 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation by using 125I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3 alpha, 6 alpha-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights > 50,000). No 125I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). PMID:7409032

  9. Basic evaluation of [sup 67]Ga labeled digoxin derivative as a metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Konishi, Junji (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Takemura, Yasutaka; Taniuchi, Hideyuki; Iijima, Naoko; Yokoyama, Akira

    1993-11-01

    To develop metal-labeled digoxin radiopharmaceuticals with affinity with anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase, a digoxin derivative conjugated with deferoxamine was synthesized. The derivative had a high binding affinity with [sup 67]Ga at deferoxamine introduced to the terminal sugar ring of digoxin. The [sup 67]Ga labeled digoxin derivative showed enough in vitro binding affinity and selectivity to anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase. The [sup 67]Ga labeled digoxin derivative is considered to be a potential metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical for digoxin RIA as well as myocardial Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase imaging. (author).

  10. An Algorithm for Connected-Component Labeling, Hole Labeling and Euler Number Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Feng He; Yu-Yan Chao; Kenji Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Labeling connected components and holes and computing the Euler number in a binary image are necessary for image analysis,pattern recognition,and computer (robot) vision,and are usually made independently of each other in conventional methods.This paper proposes a two-scan algorithm for labeling connected components and holes simultaneously in a binary image by use of the same data structure.With our algorithm,besides labeling,we can also easily calculate the number and the area of connected components and holes,as well as the Euler number.Our method is very simple in principle,and experimental results demonstrate that our method is much more efficient than conventional methods for various kinds of images in cases where both labeling and Euler number computing are necessary.

  11. Facial Action Unit Recognition under Incomplete Data Based on Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongqiang

    2016-07-07

    Facial action unit (AU) recognition has been applied in a wild range of fields, and has attracted great attention in the past two decades. Most existing works on AU recognition assumed that the complete label assignment for each training image is available, which is often not the case in practice. Labeling AU is expensive and time consuming process. Moreover, due to the AU ambiguity and subjective difference, some AUs are difficult to label reliably and confidently. Many AU recognition works try to train the classifier for each AU independently, which is of high computation cost and ignores the dependency among different AUs. In this work, we formulate AU recognition under incomplete data as a multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML) problem. Most existing MLML methods usually employ the same features for all classes. However, we find this setting is unreasonable in AU recognition, as the occurrence of different AUs produce changes of skin surface displacement or face appearance in different face regions. If using the shared features for all AUs, much noise will be involved due to the occurrence of other AUs. Consequently, the changes of the specific AUs cannot be clearly highlighted, leading to the performance degradation. Instead, we propose to extract the most discriminative features for each AU individually, which are learned by the supervised learning method. The learned features are further embedded into the instance-level label smoothness term of our model, which also includes the label consistency and the class-level label smoothness. Both a global solution using st-cut and an approximated solution using conjugate gradient (CG) descent are provided. Experiments on both posed and spontaneous facial expression databases demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in comparison with several state-of-the-art works.

  12. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Natalia A.; Dmitry P. Abroskin; Badun, Gennady A; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Viktor I. Korobkov; Beer, Anton S.; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A.; Senik, Svetlana V.; Klein, Olga I.; Perminova, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found...

  13. SITE-SPECIFIC LABELING OF A PROTEIN LYSINE RESIDUE BY NOVEL KINETIC LABELING COMBINATORIAL LIBRARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Krantz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The first example of a kinetic labeling library designed to enable the discovery of affinity labels is presented. Each library component (1 consists of a variable peptidyl component linked to a biotinyl moiety by a 4-mercaptobenzoyl linker in thioester format. We demonstrate that an affinity label can be uncovered by measuring reaction rates between library pools and the protein target, human serum albumin (HSA and identifying significant outliers. By choosing peptide functionality compatible with a potentially reactive thioester labeling entity, libraries can be screened in pools. It is noteworthy that a limited subset of amino acids (R, S, E, F, Y, l, M, W, and Q that compose the affinity moiety is sufficient to produce rate variances that guide the discovery process. After two rounds of deconvolution, J-FLYEE-NH2 (7-E emerges as a bona fide affinity label of HSA. Unlike known affinity labels, the affinity moiety is not retained in the protein product, but is extruded upon acylation of the protein. This feature affords a method of introducing various payloads, without extraneous elements, onto protein frameworks.

  14. Trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling for quantitative proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Weijun; Petritis, Brianne O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-07-01

    Stable isotope labeling based on relative peptide/protein abundance measurements is commonly applied for quantitative proteomics. Recently, trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling has grown in popularity due to its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and its ability to universally label peptides with high sample recovery. In (18)O labeling, both C-terminal carboxyl group atoms of tryptic peptides can be enzymatically exchanged with (18)O, thus providing the labeled peptide with a 4 Da mass shift from the (16)O-labeled sample. Peptide (18)O labeling is ideally suited for generating a labeled "universal" reference sample used for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantitative measurements across large number of samples in quantitative discovery proteomics.

  15. Trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling for quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Petritis, Brianne O; Nicora, Carrie D; Smith, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling based on relative peptide/protein abundance measurements is commonly applied for quantitative proteomics. Recently, trypsin-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling has grown in popularity due to its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and its ability to universally label peptides with high sample recovery. In (18)O labeling, both C-terminal carboxyl group atoms of tryptic peptides can be enzymatically exchanged with (18)O, thus providing the labeled peptide with a 4 Da mass shift from the (16)O-labeled sample. Peptide (18)O labeling is ideally suited for generating a labeled "universal" reference sample used for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantitative measurements across large number of samples in quantitative discovery proteomics. PMID:21604114

  16. The Effects of Parental Advisory Labels on Adolescent Music Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the effect of parental advisory labels (on album covers) on the music taste and preference of adolescent students 12 to 15 years old. Finds that labeled music was liked less than unlabeled music. (SR)

  17. Development of Radiochromic Film Used for Label Dosimeters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Min; CAI; Zhan-fan; YE; Hong-sheng; XIA; Wen; XIAO; Zhen-hong

    2012-01-01

    <正>Label dosimeters are a type of dosimeters, which indicate an abrupt visible color change after being exposed to a definite dose of ionizing irradiation. A label dosimeter usually has a multilayer structure, in

  18. Photonic Packet Switching Based on Optical Label Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoya Wada; Hiroaki Harai; Fumito Kubota

    2003-01-01

    We express a photonic packet switch prototype based on optical label processing methods which dramatically increase the label processing capability. We experimentally demonstrate 40Gbit/s/port packet switching and optical buffering capabilities of the prototype.

  19. Synthesis of a new NIR fluorescent Nd complex labeling agent.

    OpenAIRE

    Aita, Kazuki; Temma, Takashi; Shimizu, Yoichi; Kuge, Yuji; Seki, Koh-ichi; Saji, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescent analysis has been widely used in biological, chemical and analytical research. A useful fluorescent labeling agent should include NIR emission, a large Stoke's shift, and good labeling ability without interfering with the pharmacological profile of the labeled compound. Thus, we planned to develop an M-AMF-DOTA(Nd) derivative composed of an NIR fluorescent moiety and a maleimide conjugating moiety as a new NIR fluorescent labeling agent which fulfills these requirements. M-AMF-DOT...

  20. Quantitative proteomics by amino acid labeling in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredens, Julius; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Giessing, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate labeling of Caenorhabditis elegans with heavy isotope-labeled lysine by feeding them with heavy isotope-labeled Escherichia coli. Using heavy isotope-labeled worms and quantitative proteomics methods, we identified several proteins that are regulated in response to loss or RNAi......-mediated knockdown of the nuclear hormone receptor 49 in C. elegans. The combined use of quantitative proteomics and selective gene knockdown is a powerful tool for C. elegans biology....

  1. The purification of affinity-labelled active-site peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolation of the labelled peptide from the protein digest, following the affinity labelling of the active sites of enzymes or antibodies, is described. Single-step affinity chromatography utilises the affinity of the native enzymes or antibody for the ligand used to label the same protein. The labelled peptide is the only one in the digest that displays affinity for the immobilised protein and can be released with eluants that dissociate the protein-ligand complex. (Auth.)

  2. Application of product life cycle concept to private label management

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-01-01

    Private labels have recorded significant growth rates worldwide, becoming a serious threat to manufacturer brands. Development of private labels in many different product categories increased the complexity of their management. Therefore, this paper examines the possibility of using the product life cycle concept in private label management. Given that private labels are a specific brand type, it is necessary to adjust certain elements of the product life cycle concept, as it was developed on...

  3. Mad Women: Living with a Label of Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Emily Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, society has sought to label people who have exhibited behaviour perceived as abnormal. Since the enlightenment, psychiatry has endeavoured to provide explanations for such abnormal behaviours by labelling people with mental health diagnoses. Historically, women have been prime candidates for labelling, accused of witchcraft and subjected to punishment in the Middle Ages, labelled with hysteria and confined in asylums by the Victorians, and more contemporarily, assigned wit...

  4. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughou...

  5. Combination Strategies for Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Carreras, X; Marquez, L; Surdeanu, M; 10.1613/jair.2088

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyzes a battery of inference models for the problem of semantic role labeling: one based on constraint satisfaction, and several strategies that model the inference as a meta-learning problem using discriminative classifiers. These classifiers are developed with a rich set of novel features that encode proposition and sentence-level information. To our knowledge, this is the first work that: (a) performs a thorough analysis of learning-based inference models for semantic role labeling, and (b) compares several inference strategies in this context. We evaluate the proposed inference strategies in the framework of the CoNLL-2005 shared task using only automatically-generated syntactic information. The extensive experimental evaluation and analysis indicates that all the proposed inference strategies are successful -they all outperform the current best results reported in the CoNLL-2005 evaluation exercise- but each of the proposed approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. Sev...

  6. Development of labelled compound for neuroreceptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J. H.; Oh, C. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. C. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this research and development is to develop the radioisotope labeled compound for serotonin neuroreceptor imaging. This serotonir receptor plays a key role in many neurological disease, such as anxiety and depression. Radio-Labeled compounds (Radio pharmaceuticals) has the advantage of early diagnosis and non-invasiveness. New arylpiplrazine ligand for imaging serotonin receptor 5HT{sub 1A} were synthesized. These ligand has a novel N{sub 2}S{sub 2} moiety of which deprotection process is expected to be much simple and to give high yield. New radiopharmaceuticals which was obtained as a results of this research will be developed as a diagnostic reagent. 5 refs. (Author)

  7. Consumer interest in fish information and labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris;

    2007-01-01

    Consumers' cognitive mechanisms and their perception of product properties are markedly affected by information. This paper focuses on consumers' information needs and interests related to fish. The objective is to explore consumers' use of internal and external information sources and their use...... of information cues with regard to fish. Qualitative exploratory research was performed in May 2004 through focus group discussions in two European countries: Belgium and Spain. Personal sources are found as the most important information sources with regard to fish. Although a majority of consumers use...... mandatory information cues on fish labels, they express doubts whether information provided on the labels can be trusted. People who are more experienced and have higher familiarity with fish, seem to be more efficient in searching and using information. Instead of providing one message for the consumers...

  8. Supervised Sequence Labelling with Recurrent Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Supervised sequence labelling is a vital area of machine learning, encompassing tasks such as speech, handwriting and gesture recognition, protein secondary structure prediction and part-of-speech tagging. Recurrent neural networks are powerful sequence learning tools—robust to input noise and distortion, able to exploit long-range contextual information—that would seem ideally suited to such problems. However their role in large-scale sequence labelling systems has so far been auxiliary.    The goal of this book is a complete framework for classifying and transcribing sequential data with recurrent neural networks only. Three main innovations are introduced in order to realise this goal. Firstly, the connectionist temporal classification output layer allows the framework to be trained with unsegmented target sequences, such as phoneme-level speech transcriptions; this is in contrast to previous connectionist approaches, which were dependent on error-prone prior segmentation. Secondly, multidimensional...

  9. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  10. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  11. Immunogold labels: cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Grooth, de Bart G.; Hansma, Paul K.; Hulst, van Niek F.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using immunogold labels as cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy is shown in this paper. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image the surface of immunogold-labeled human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood and labeled by an indirect imm

  12. 9 CFR 317.400 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... labeling: (1) Food products produced by small businesses provided that the labels for these products bear... alter the nutritional profile, sold in any size package in commerce. (ii) For purposes of this paragraph... specified. (2) Products intended for further processing, provided that the labels for these products bear...

  13. 49 CFR 583.9 - Attachment and maintenance of label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attachment and maintenance of label. 583.9 Section 583.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC... Attachment and maintenance of label. (a) Attachment of the label. (1) Except as provided in (a)(2),...

  14. Consumer Perceptions of Health Claims in Advertisements and Food Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazis, Michael B.; Raymond, Mary Anne

    1997-01-01

    Of sample of 180 women, 60 received information from ads, 60 from product labels, and 60 from labels with nutrition information. Beliefs about products did not differ whether health claims appeared in ads or on labels. Nutrition information influenced beliefs. Health claims challenged by the Federal Trade Commission or consumer groups were less…

  15. The Impact of Standard Nutrition Labels on Alcoholic Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Julia A.; Dale, Chelsea F.; Fontana, Victoria C.; Collier, Suzanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not to mandate nutrition labels on alcoholic beverages is a topic of debate. We examined the effect of nutrition labels on (1) plans for drinking and (2) alcohol expectancies. Study 1, n = 80 underage college drinkers responded to an image of a beer with or without a nutrition label. Study 2, n = 98 community drinkers responded to…

  16. 21 CFR 211.130 - Packaging and labeling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling operations. 211.130 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling Control § 211.130 Packaging and labeling operations. There shall be written procedures designed...

  17. Empirical co-occurrence rate networks for sequence labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter; Wombacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Sequence labeling has wide applications in many areas. For example, most of named entity recog- nition tasks, which extract named entities or events from unstructured data, can be formalized as sequence labeling problems. Sequence labeling has been studied extensively in different commu- nities, suc

  18. 21 CFR 101.10 - Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of restaurant foods. 101.10 Section 101.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.10 Nutrition labeling...

  19. 9 CFR 317.309 - Nutrition label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nomenclature are established for the following vitamins and minerals which are essential in human nutrition... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition label content. 317.309... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.309...

  20. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan;

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....

  1. 27 CFR 4.50 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates of label approval. 4.50 Section 4.50 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for Approval of Labels...

  2. Labeling and Rating Systems: Greater Access or Censorship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    This article asks the question: How well versed are school librarians on issues related to labeling and rating systems? As school librarians continue to design and implement resource location schemes to assist patrons, they must recognize the difference between using labels to create interest in books or implementing labeling and rating systems…

  3. Are consumers influenced in their food choice by health labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Elshiewy, Ossama;

    Front of pack (FOP) nutrition labeling has received extensive political attention within the last years. The European Commission is proposing to make FOP nutrition labeling mandatory in order to guide consumers to make healthier food choices. Most of the studies of the effects on nutrition labeling...

  4. 21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antifungal drug products. 333.250... Antifungal Drug Products § 333.250 Labeling of antifungal drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The... “antifungal.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the heading “Indications,” the...

  5. Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, S.; Fernández Celemín, L.; Grunert, K.G.; Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling

  6. 21 CFR 349.50 - Labeling of ophthalmic drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ophthalmic drug products. 349.50... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 349.50 Labeling of ophthalmic drug products. (a) The word “physician” may be substituted for the word “doctor”...

  7. Labeling and functionalizing amphipols for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bon, Christel; Popot, Jean-Luc; Giusti, Fabrice

    2014-10-01

    Amphipols (APols) are short amphipathic polymers developed as an alternative to detergents for handling membrane proteins (MPs) in aqueous solution. MPs are, as a rule, much more stable following trapping with APols than they are in detergent solutions. The best-characterized APol to date, called A8-35, is a mixture of short-chain sodium polyacrylates randomly derivatized with octylamine and isopropylamine. Its solution properties have been studied in detail, and it has been used extensively for biochemical and biophysical studies of MPs. One of the attractive characteristics of APols is that it is relatively easy to label them, isotopically or otherwise, without affecting their physical-chemical properties. Furthermore, several variously modified APols can be mixed, achieving multiple functionalization of MP/APol complexes in the easiest possible manner. Labeled or tagged APols are being used to study the solution properties of APols, their miscibility, their biodistribution upon injection into living organisms, their association with MPs and the composition, structure and dynamics of MP/APol complexes, examining the exchange of surfactants at the surface of MPs, labeling MPs to follow their distribution in fractionation experiments or to immobilize them, increasing the contrast between APols and solvent or MPs in biophysical experiments, improving NMR spectra, etc. Labeling or functionalization of APols can take various courses, each of which has its specific constraints and advantages regarding both synthesis and purification. The present review offers an overview of the various derivatives of A8-35 and its congeners that have been developed in our laboratory and discusses the pros and cons of various synthetic routes. PMID:24696186

  8. Measuring Exocytosis in Neurons Using FM Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Jamila; Murthy, Venkatesh

    2006-01-01

    The ability to measure the kinetics of vesicle release can help provide insight into some of the basics of neurotransmission. Here we used real-time imaging of vesicles labeled with FM dye to monitor the rate of presynaptic vesicle release. FM4-64 is a red fluorescent amphiphilic styryl dye that embeds into the membranes of synaptic vesicles as endocytosis is stimulated. Lipophilic interactions cause the dye to greatly increase in fluorescence, thus emitting a bright signal when associated...

  9. Natural Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / Food Safety Education / ... and Poultry Labels Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B1090 Web Content ...

  10. Label-Free Biosensors for Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Fang

    2011-01-01

    Label-free biosensors for studying cell biology have finally come of age. Recent developments have advanced the biosensors from low throughput and high maintenance research tools to high throughput and low maintenance screening platforms. In parallel, the biosensors have evolved from an analytical tool solely for molecular interaction analysis to powerful platforms for studying cell biology at the whole cell level. This paper presents historical development, detection principles, and applicat...

  11. Labelling of rhinitis and hayfever by doctors.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbald, B; Rink, E.

    1991-01-01

    Factors influencing the labelling of rhinitis by doctors were examined in 7702 adults, aged 16-65 years, registered with a group general practice in south London. Individuals with rhinitis were identified by a postal screening questionnaire. Of the 2969 (39%) subjects who replied, 1309 (44%) reported rhinitis. A sample of 340 individuals with and 126 without rhinitis was studied, each being interviewed and having allergy skinprick tests. The information given at interview was compared with th...

  12. When using nutritional labels, less is better

    OpenAIRE

    Prevost, Marie; Hot, Pascal; Baciu, Monica; Ruffieux, Bernard; Meary, David; Crosetto, Paolo; Muller, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    New colorful nutrional labels are now used in some countries to help people better evaluate how healthy are food products. But little is known about how we understand and manipulate colored information to evaluate food products. The authors test how people evaluate anonymous food products from nutritional information displayed as numbers (% of daily amount) or as colors (red, amber, green). They anticipate that people will categorize food as bad for their health as soon as the color red is pr...

  13. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... milliliters (mL) of 0.02 percent or 10 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily, then swallow. When the water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily. (b) The labeling for products marketed to health to...

  14. Production of Alexa Fluor 488-labeled reovirus and characterization of target cell binding, competence, and immunogenicity of labeled virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecek, Ronald J; Busch, Ryan; Lin, Hong; Pal, Kasturi; Cunningham, Cynthia A; Cuff, Christopher F

    2006-07-31

    Respiratory enteric orphan virus (reovirus) has been used to study many aspects of the biology and genetics of viruses, viral infection, pathogenesis, and the immune response to virus infection. This report describes the functional activity of virus labeled with Alexa Fluor 488, a stable fluorescent dye. Matrix assisted laser desorption-time of flight analysis indicated that Alexa Fluor 488 labeled the outer capsid proteins of reovirus. Labeled virus bound to murine L929 fibroblasts as determined by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, and the specificity of binding were demonstrated by competitive inhibition with non-labeled virus. Labeled reovirus induced apoptosis and cytopathic effect in infected L929 cells. Mice infected with labeled virus mounted robust serum antibody and CD8(+) T-cell responses, indicating that labeled virus retained immunogenicity in vivo. These results indicate that Alexa Fluor 488-labeled virus provides a powerful new tool to analyze reovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Interactive Segmentation with Super-Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Andrew; Gorelick, Lena; Schmidt, Frank R; Veksler, Olga; Boykov, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    In interactive segmentation, the most common way to model object appearance is by GMM or histogram, while MRFs are used to encourage spatial coherence among the object labels. This makes the strong assumption that pixels within each object are i.i.d. when in fact most objects have multiple distinct appearances and exhibit strong spatial correlation among their pixels. At the very least, this calls for an MRF-based appearance model within each object itself and yet, to the best of our knowledge, such a "two-level MRF" has never been proposed. We propose a novel segmentation energy that can model complex appearance. We represent the appearance of each object by a set of distinct spatially coherent models. This results in a two-level MRF with "super-labels" at the top level that are partitioned into "sub-labels" at the bottom. We introduce the hierarchical Potts (hPotts) prior to govern spatial coherence within each level. Finally, we introduce a novel algorithm with EM-style alternation of proposal, α-expansion and re-estimation steps. Our experiments demonstrate the conceptual and qualitative improvement that a two-level MRF can provide. We show applications in binary segmentation, multi-class segmentation, and interactive co-segmentation. Finally, our energy and algorithm have interesting interpretations in terms of semi-supervised learning. PMID:25309973

  16. RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Xi; Peng, Jianxin [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Xu, Pingyong, E-mail: pyxu@ibp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Huan, Shuangyan, E-mail: shuangyanhuan@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Mingshu, E-mail: mingshu1984@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.

  17. Semantic Labeling of Nonspeech Audio Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human communication about entities and events is primarily linguistic in nature. While visual representations of information are shown to be highly effective as well, relatively little is known about the communicative power of auditory nonlinguistic representations. We created a collection of short nonlinguistic auditory clips encoding familiar human activities, objects, animals, natural phenomena, machinery, and social scenes. We presented these sounds to a broad spectrum of anonymous human workers using Amazon Mechanical Turk and collected verbal sound labels. We analyzed the human labels in terms of their lexical and semantic properties to ascertain that the audio clips do evoke the information suggested by their pre-defined captions. We then measured the agreement with the semantically compatible labels for each sound clip. Finally, we examined which kinds of entities and events, when captured by nonlinguistic acoustic clips, appear to be well-suited to elicit information for communication, and which ones are less discriminable. Our work is set against the broader goal of creating resources that facilitate communication for people with some types of language loss. Furthermore, our data should prove useful for future research in machine analysis/synthesis of audio, such as computational auditory scene analysis, and annotating/querying large collections of sound effects.

  18. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2016-06-06

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  19. k-Odd mean labeling of prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gayathri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ‎A $(p‎,‎q$ graph $G$ is said to have a $k$-odd mean‎ ‎labeling $(k ge 1$ if there exists an injection $f‎ : ‎V‎ ‎to {0‎, ‎1‎, ‎2‎, ‎ldots‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎2q‎ - ‎3}$ such that the‎ ‎induced map $f^*$ defined on $E$ by $f^*(uv =‎ ‎leftlceil frac{f(u+f(v}{2}rightrceil$ is a‎ ‎bijection from $E$ to ${2k - ‎‎‎1‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎1‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎3‎, ‎ldots‎, ‎2‎ ‎k‎ + ‎2q‎ - ‎3}$‎. ‎A graph that admits $k$-odd mean‎ ‎labeling is called $k$-odd mean graph‎. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we investigate $k$-odd mean labeling of prism $C_m times‎ ‎P_n$‎.

  20. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschöpe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation. PMID:27275824

  1. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schrittwieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  2. Milk and Dairy Products Labeling in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present communication contains research and experimental investigations regarding the labelling process of dairy products in tight relation with the national and European legislative requirements. Two methods have been used during the marketing research regarding the information present on the labels of alimentary products: the method based on documentation-observation and comparative analysis of data and information collected from the consume market in Sibiu. The method based on documentation and observation has been carried out using the observation sheet and contained the following analysis criteria: The name of the product, Country origin of the product (location of the producer. Synthesizing the results and the conclusions emerged as a result of the marketing research carried out with the purpose of contouring a labelling model of alimentary products, it can be stated that the dynamics of the alimentary products market in Romania is moderate and restrained by the economical and social factors and even by the still reduces promotion of a healthy alimentary education, with the complementary protection of human health and environment.

  3. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  4. 75 FR 52601 - Food Labeling; Labeling of Food Made From AquAdvantage Salmon; Public Hearing; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... unless it is necessary to ensure that the labeling is not false or misleading (See e.g., 72 FR 16291 at... ``organoleptic'' qualities (e.g., texture and aroma) could be material (see e.g., 72 FR 16291 at 16293, April 4... Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Food Labeling; Labeling of Food Made From...

  5. Quantitative metabolism using AMS: Choosing a labeled precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Links, Jennifer [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Palmblad, Magnus [Department of Parasitology, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Ognibene, Ted; Turteltaub, Ken [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bench, Graham, E-mail: bench1@llnl.go [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Biological radioisotope studies suffer from a lack of sensitive measurement techniques and therefore traditionally require large amounts of labeled material to produce a measurable signal. Such quantities of materials are often significantly higher than naturally-occurring levels preventing these studies from replicating physiological conditions. AMS affords the sensitivity necessary to perform biological radioisotope studies with low levels of labeled material that preserve physiological conditions. The choice of labeled material can substantially affect the ease of interpretation and comprehensiveness of these studies. Here, the benefits and limitations of whole-cell labeling with {sup 14}C-glucose and targeted pathway labeling with {sup 14}C-nicotinic acid are discussed and compared.

  6. Improving eco-labelling as an environmental policy instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Smed, Sinne; Andersen, Laura Mørch;

    2014-01-01

    -labels as a reassurance that these attributes are actually delivered. We argue that the label will only have the desired effect if the consumers know the production standards underpinning it and have trust in the label. We test this argument using organic food as our example. The empirical results obtained on the basis......Eco-labels have an import role in promoting green consumption since most eco-labelled products are credence goods, implying that the valued process attributes they contain are not observable to the consumer even after purchase or consumption. Therefore, the consumers rely heavily on eco...

  7. Monitoring the laser marking of a bar code label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bar code label which has been laser marked onto the end of a nuclear fuel tube is tested for unacceptable depth penetration of the heat affected zone. The average gray level value of the bar code label is compared with a predetermined standard. The label is optically sensed by a video camera and a set of discrete digital values representative of the bar code label is generated. The average digital value representative of the bar code label is calculated and compared to a predetermined standard level derived from measurements of acceptable laser marked tubes. (author)

  8. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  9. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia A; Abroskin, Dmitry P; Badun, Gennady A; Chernysheva, Maria G; Korobkov, Viktor I; Beer, Anton S; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A; Senik, Svetlana V; Klein, Olga I; Perminova, Irina V

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found in the roots as compared to the shoots, and endodermis was shown to be the major control point for radial transport of label into vascular system of plant. Tritium was also found in the stele and xylem tissues indicating that labeled products from tritiated HA could be transported to shoot tissues via the transpiration stream. Treatment with HA lead to an increase in the content of polar lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The observed accumulation of labeled HA products in root endodermis and positive impact on lipid synthesis are consistent with prior reported observations on physiological effects of HS on plants such as enhanced growth and development of lateral roots and improvement/repairs of the photosynthetic status of plants under stress conditions. PMID:27350412

  10. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia A.; Abroskin, Dmitry P.; Badun, Gennady A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Korobkov, Viktor I.; Beer, Anton S.; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A.; Senik, Svetlana V.; Klein, Olga I.; Perminova, Irina V.

    2016-06-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found in the roots as compared to the shoots, and endodermis was shown to be the major control point for radial transport of label into vascular system of plant. Tritium was also found in the stele and xylem tissues indicating that labeled products from tritiated HA could be transported to shoot tissues via the transpiration stream. Treatment with HA lead to an increase in the content of polar lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The observed accumulation of labeled HA products in root endodermis and positive impact on lipid synthesis are consistent with prior reported observations on physiological effects of HS on plants such as enhanced growth and development of lateral roots and improvement/repairs of the photosynthetic status of plants under stress conditions.

  11. FAST LABEL: Easy and efficient solution of joint multi-label and estimation problems

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2014-06-01

    We derive an easy-to-implement and efficient algorithm for solving multi-label image partitioning problems in the form of the problem addressed by Region Competition. These problems jointly determine a parameter for each of the regions in the partition. Given an estimate of the parameters, a fast approximate solution to the multi-label sub-problem is derived by a global update that uses smoothing and thresholding. The method is empirically validated to be robust to fine details of the image that plague local solutions. Further, in comparison to global methods for the multi-label problem, the method is more efficient and it is easy for a non-specialist to implement. We give sample Matlab code for the multi-label Chan-Vese problem in this paper! Experimental comparison to the state-of-the-art in multi-label solutions to Region Competition shows that our method achieves equal or better accuracy, with the main advantage being speed and ease of implementation.

  12. Probabilistic atlas based labeling of the cerebral vessel tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Giessen, Martijn; Janssen, Jasper P.; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2015-03-01

    Preoperative imaging of the cerebral vessel tree is essential for planning therapy on intracranial stenoses and aneurysms. Usually, a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) is acquired from which the cerebral vessel tree is segmented. Accurate analysis is helped by the labeling of the cerebral vessels, but labeling is non-trivial due to anatomical topological variability and missing branches due to acquisition issues. In recent literature, labeling the cerebral vasculature around the Circle of Willis has mainly been approached as a graph-based problem. The most successful method, however, requires the definition of all possible permutations of missing vessels, which limits application to subsets of the tree and ignores spatial information about the vessel locations. This research aims to perform labeling using probabilistic atlases that model spatial vessel and label likelihoods. A cerebral vessel tree is aligned to a probabilistic atlas and subsequently each vessel is labeled by computing the maximum label likelihood per segment from label-specific atlases. The proposed method was validated on 25 segmented cerebral vessel trees. Labeling accuracies were close to 100% for large vessels, but dropped to 50-60% for small vessels that were only present in less than 50% of the set. With this work we showed that using solely spatial information of the vessel labels, vessel segments from stable vessels (>50% presence) were reliably classified. This spatial information will form the basis for a future labeling strategy with a very loose topological model.

  13. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Zhiwu

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  14. Research on consumer reactions to nutrition labelling (FLABEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies......' attention-getting potential, on the way consumers draw inferences on product healthiness from them, and on how they actually affect choices. Based on the findings from this project, best practice guidelines will be developed for use of nutrition labelling in EU policy and the food industry, especially SMEs...... and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. Recent and ongoing research, including research in the European Union (EU)-funded FP7 project FLABEL (Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life), is accumulating evidence not only on consumer liking of labels and on self-reported use, but also on labels...

  15. Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation. PMID:25795524

  16. Can Image-Level Labels Replace Pixel-Level Labels for Image Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhiwu; Fu, Zhenyong; Xiang, Tao; Wang, Liwei; Wen, Ji-Rong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a weakly supervised sparse learning approach to the problem of noisily tagged image parsing, or segmenting all the objects within a noisily tagged image and identifying their categories (i.e. tags). Different from the traditional image parsing that takes pixel-level labels as strong supervisory information, our noisily tagged image parsing is provided with noisy tags of all the images (i.e. image-level labels), which is a natural setting for social image collections (e.g. ...

  17. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  18. Astatine-211-Labeled Targeted Radiotherapeutics: An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy halogen 211At was first proposed for use in α-particle targeted radiotherapy more than 30 years ago and continues to be one of the most promising radionuclides for this purpose. Although its 7.2-h half life is not ideal for intravenously administered whole antibodies, it is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of antibody fragments, peptides, aptamers and organic molecules. Its diverse chemistry allows its incorporation into a wide array of targeting vehicles, relying on its chemical similarity to iodine to provide a useful point of departure. On the other hand, the relatively low carbon-astatine bond strength is challenging. In common with the other α-emitters being discussed at this symposium, lack of reliable availability is one of the biggest hurdles in the use of 211At for targeted radiotherapy. However, in the case of 211At, it is not a question of production cost or availability of target material, because 211At can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets. Rather, the difficulty is the lack of cyclotrons equipped with the medium energy α-particle beams required for its production. If the infrastructure for producing 211At is to be improved to the stage where 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals can have a meaningful impact, several developments must occur. First, the ability to produce clinically relevant levels of 211At that can be shipped to remote locations in chemically tractable form must be demonstrated. Approaches under consideration include compensating for radiolysis-mediated effects and the consideration of alternative chemistries. Second, strategies for compensating for heterogeneities in dose deposition must be developed, hopefully in a way that is compatible with approval for human use. And third, it is essential that more clinical trials be performed with 211At-labeled therapeutics, particularly in settings of minimum residual disease where the radiobiological advantages of α-particles can be best exploited. Our

  19. 'Boat People' and the battle for labels

    OpenAIRE

    Thulin, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the relationship between the public perception of asylum seekers arriving by boat in Australia and the exclusion of certain rights. The asylum seekers arriving by boat have been central in the political debate for over a decade and are an issue that divides the public. The asylum seekers arriving by boat are generally referred to as ‘boat people’ but also labelled in more hostile terms as ‘illegal asylum seekers’, ‘queue jumpers’, and ‘illegal maritime arrivals’. F...

  20. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  1. Quality labels: economic results for the producer

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Dominique; Nefussi, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Sur les marchés alimentaires, l’innovation repose largement sur les « signes officiels de qualité ». Quels jugements porter sur les résultats économiques de ces choix stratégiques ? À cette question-clé, l’article apporte des réponses nuancées. Les chercheurs analysent et comparent les résultats obtenus en productions laitières, porcines et avicoles sous Appellations d’origine contrôlée, Labels rouges, Certifications de conformité et autres cahiers des charges professionnels. Ils montrent que...

  2. Studies to label Alfentanil with carbon-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, A.L. (Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie I)

    1992-09-01

    Methodology applicable to the synthesis of no-carrier-added (O-methyl-{sup 11}C)alfentanil was developed. The sequence consisted of ({sup 11}C)methylation and propionylation of N-aryl-4-(hydroxymethyl)-4-(N-anilino)-piperidines 1a and 1c, followed by the chemoselective hydrolysis of bulk byproducts to facilitate isolation of the NCA carbon-11-labeled product by prep-HPLC. All three steps could be performed without isolation of intermediates in a single reaction vessel. (author).

  3. Pseudocontact shifts from mobile spin labels

    CERN Document Server

    Suturina, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the pseudocontact shift (PCS) field induced by a mobile spin label that is viewed as a probability density distribution with an associated magnetic susceptibility. It is demonstrated that anisotropy in this density can lead to significant deviations from the commonly used point dipole approximation for PCS. Analytical and numerical solutions are presented for the general partial differential equation that describes the non-point case. It is also demonstrated that it is possible to reconstruct paramagnetic centre probability distributions from experimental PCS data.

  4. Modifying Orthogonal Drawings for Label Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos G. Kakoulis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate how one can modify an orthogonal graph drawing to accommodate the placement of overlap-free labels with the minimum cost (i.e., minimum increase of the area and preservation of the quality of the drawing. We investigate computational complexity issues of variations of that problem, and we present polynomial time algorithms that find the minimum increase of space in one direction, needed to resolve overlaps, while preserving the orthogonal representation of the orthogonal drawing when objects have a predefined partial order.

  5. USA: California rejects mandatory GMO labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2012-01-01

    Buying organic remains the best strategy for US consumers to avoid eating GM food. The voters of California have rejected the proposal to label GMO food. The proposition was narrowly lost, 47% to 53% (4,326,770 ‘Yes’ votes vs. 4,884,961 ‘No’ votes). Proposition 47 was supported by the organic sector but opposed by a coalition of GMO companies and US multinational food companies. Californians were invited to vote into law ‘The California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act’. Section ...

  6. [Medicalization I. 'Disease labeling: All business.'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerecedo Pérez, María Jesús; Tovar Bobo, Margarita; Rozadilla Arias, Aurora

    2013-10-01

    Western societies have displaced problems from the subjective and social fields over to medicine, and the search for the perfect health has become an obsession and a pathogenic predominant factor. Paradoxically, the number of ilnesses and sick people arises proportionally with health levels. We now tend to add «disease labels» in daily clinical practice to behaviors and events that are nothing but elements of character or even healthy reactions to laboral and familial conflicts or mourning. In this article, we analyze the factors that determine this «medicalization» process and its consequences, with a particular emphasis in the iatrogenesis of unnecessary medical interventions.

  7. Thailand: Country Report on Labelling and Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Chitanondh, Hatai; World Health Organization

    2003-01-01

    Thailand: Country Report on Labelling and Packaging Introduction From 1981 to 2001 there were dramatic changes in tobacco consumption in Thailand. The total number of smokers rose from 9.7 million in 1981 to 10.6 million two decades later. Smoking prevalence declined from 35.2% to 22.5% during the same period. The male smoking rate decreased from 63.2% to 42.9%, while female prevalence fell from 5.4% to 2.4.%. Per capita consumption rose from about 774 in 1970 to 1 087 in 1980. Since that t...

  8. Compact Ancestry Labeling Schemes for Trees of Small Depth

    CERN Document Server

    Fraigniaud, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    An {\\em ancestry labeling scheme} labels the nodes of any tree in such a way that ancestry queries between any two nodes in a tree can be answered just by looking at their corresponding labels. The common measure to evaluate the quality of an ancestry labeling scheme is by its {\\em label size}, that is the maximal number of bits stored in a label, taken over all $n$-node trees. The design of ancestry labeling schemes finds applications in XML search engines. In the context of these applications, even small improvements in the label size are important. In fact, the literature about this topic is interested in the exact label size rather than just its order of magnitude. As a result, following the proposal of an original scheme of size $2\\log n$ bits, a considerable amount of work was devoted to improve the bound on the label size. The current state of the art upper bound is $\\log n + O(\\sqrt{\\log n})$ bits which is still far from the known $\\log n + \\Omega(\\log\\log n)$ lower bound. Moreover, the hidden constan...

  9. Carboxyfluorescein Diacetate Succinimidyl Ester Fluorescent Dye for Cell Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qi WANG; Xiu-Mei DUAN; Li-Hua LIU; Yan-Qiu FANG; Yan TAN

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to study the properties of the carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE) and the methodology of cell labeling using CFDA-SE fluorescent dye. First, we analyzed the kinetics of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye intensity over time. Second, we determined the optimal concentration of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling. Third, we tested the toxicity of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye on labeled cells. Finally, we determined the optimal staining time of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling.The results show that the optimal concentration of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling varies according to different cell types. CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is non-toxic to cells as the cell death rate caused by CFDASE labeling is below 5%. The optimal cell labeling time was determined to be 8 min of incubation with CFDA-SE fluorescent dye. We concluded that the advantages of using CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling are as follows: (1) the binding of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye to cells is stable; (2) CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is not toxic and does not modify the viability of labeled cells; and (3) CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is a suitable fluorochrome for cell labeling.

  10. Reasons for and frequency of off - label drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goločorbin-Kon Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The application of drugs in accordance with the marketing authorization issued by the regulatory authority is considered on-label use, while off-label drug use frequently occurs in medical practice. It includes the application of drugs beyond approved indications, for unapproved age group, with different dosage regimens or different administration route. Medical specialists frequently prescribe an off-label drug in pediatrics, neonatology, geriatrics, psychiatry and oncology. Some countries have established registers of off-label drugs and guidelines for their prescribing and administration. The aim of the paper is to review practices in off-label drug use in order to satisfy the attitude of regulatory bodies and professional associations regarding the off-label use of drugs. Material and Methods. The sources of information used are articles published in scientific journals and information from the official websites of regulatory agencies. Results and Discussion. The most common reasons why physicians decide to prescribe off-label drugs are primarily the absence of drugs for a particular indication or those for a particular age group. In their daily work, doctors prescribe drugs for an off-label use based on their own or other colleague’s experience. There is no general agreement on off-label use of drugs at the national or international level, but more and more doctors’ associations and regulatory bodies approve off-label drug use in compliance with certain scientific and legal requirements. Conclusion. Off-label drug use has its place in practice and it has been widely accepted by the medical community and by itself it is not a violation of the standards of healthcare. Off-label use is common in our country and worldwide, and it is necessary to establish a registry for off-label drug use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41012

  11. Impact of transamination reactions and protein turnover on labeling dynamics in C-13-labeling experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Thomas; Åkesson, M.; Christensen, Bjarke;

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic model describing carbon atom transitions in the central metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used to investigate the influence of transamination reactions and protein turnover on the transient behavior of C-13-labeling chemostat experiments. The simulations performed suggest that c...

  12. 76 FR 37291 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... appeared in the Federal Register of April, 6, 2011 (76 FR 19238). To implement the vending machine labeling...., College Park, MD 20740, 240-402-2371. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-8037, appearing in the Federal Register of April 6, 2011 (76 FR 19238), the following corrections are made: 1. On page 19238,...

  13. 76 FR 19237 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... following nutrients: Total calories, calories from fat (unless the product contains less than 0.5 g of fat), total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars... regulations establishing nutrition labeling requirements were published in 1993 (58 FR 2079, January 6,...

  14. Taking private labels upmarket : Empirical generalizations on category drivers of premium private label introductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.; Geyskens, I.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Premium private labels (PLs) are considered one of the hottest trends in grocery retailing. Still, retailers do not feel the need to introduce premium PLs in every category. Generalizing across approximately 150 categories for six retailers from two countries that already carry premium PLs for sever

  15. Compressive Sequential Learning for Action Similarity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Liu, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Yunhong; Shao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Human action recognition in videos has been extensively studied in recent years due to its wide range of applications. Instead of classifying video sequences into a number of action categories, in this paper, we focus on a particular problem of action similarity labeling (ASLAN), which aims at verifying whether a pair of videos contain the same type of action or not. To address this challenge, a novel approach called compressive sequential learning (CSL) is proposed by leveraging the compressive sensing theory and sequential learning. We first project data points to a low-dimensional space by effectively exploring an important property in compressive sensing: the restricted isometry property. In particular, a very sparse measurement matrix is adopted to reduce the dimensionality efficiently. We then learn an ensemble classifier for measuring similarities between pairwise videos by iteratively minimizing its empirical risk with the AdaBoost strategy on the training set. Unlike conventional AdaBoost, the weak learner for each iteration is not explicitly defined and its parameters are learned through greedy optimization. Furthermore, an alternative of CSL named compressive sequential encoding is developed as an encoding technique and followed by a linear classifier to address the similarity-labeling problem. Our method has been systematically evaluated on four action data sets: ASLAN, KTH, HMDB51, and Hollywood2, and the results show the effectiveness and superiority of our method for ASLAN.

  16. Labeled bleomycin as a tumor localizing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antitumor antibiotics bleomycins labeled with 57Co are known to possess excellent tumor localizing properties but the rather long halflife of 57Co prevents its use in clinical routine. It is therefore desirable to label cobalt-bleomycin with a more suitable radionuclide, e.g. 123I. This thesis reports on further studies on cobalt-bleomycin. It appears from the studies on the structure of cobalt-bleomycin described in this thesis (Chapter B), that cobalt is able to form different complexes with bleomycin (the forms I and II). The difference in structure is not clear, but the biological behavior of both forms is studied (Chapter C). In Chapter D the iodination of cobalt-bleomycin is described. Iodination of free bleomycin yields a product with bad tumor localizing properties, and straight-on iodination of cobalt-bleomycin is prevented by the presence of cobalt. To retain the good tumor-localizing properties of cobalt-bleomycin, possibilities were explored to incorporate the iodine in the terminal amine (a side chain, not involved in complexation). Alkylation of cobalt-bleomycin demethyl A2 with N-bromoacetyl-3-iodoaniline yielded a product; unfortunately this product possessed bad tumor localizing properties and moreover, was not stable in vivo. The structure of a possibly successful iodinated cobalt-bleomycin is outlined but could not be realized during this research. (Auth.)

  17. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  18. SU-E-I-14: Comparison of Iodine-Labeled and Indium-Labeled Antibody Biodistributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L [Retired from City of Hope Medical Center, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is often assumed that animal biodistributions of novel proteins are not dependent upon the radiolabel used in their determination. In units of percent injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), organ uptake results (u) may be obtained using either iodine or metal as radioactive labels. Iodination is preferred as it is a one-step process whereas metal labeling requires two chemical procedures and therefore more protein material. It is important to test whether the radioactive tag leads to variation in the uptake value. Methods: Uptakes of 3antibodies to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) were evaluated in a nude mouse model bearing 150 to 300 mg LS174T human colon cancer xenografts. Antibodies included diabody (56 kDa), minibody (80kDa) and intact M5A (150 kDa) anti-CEA cognates. Both radioiodine and indium-111 labels were used with uptakes evaluated at 7 time(t) points out to 96 h. Ratios (R) of u(iodine-label)/u(indium-label) were determined for liver, spleen, kidneys, lung and tumor. Results: Hepatic loss was rapid for diabody and minibody; by 24 h their R values were only 2%; i.e., uptake of iodine was 2% of that of indium for these 2 antibodies. By contrast, R for the intact cognate was 50% at that time point. Splenic results were similar. Tumor uptake ratios did not depend upon the antibody type and were 50% at 24 h. Conclusions: Relatively rapid loss of iodine relative to indium in liver and spleen was observed in lower mass antibodies. Tumor ratios were larger and independent of antibody type. Aside from tumor, the R ratio of uptakes depended on the antibody type. R values decreased monotonically with time in all tissues and for all cognates. Using this ratio, one can possibly correct iodine-based u (t) results so that they resemble radiometal-derived biodistributions.

  19. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of

  20. Consumer response to monochrome Guideline Daily Amount nutrition labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztuğ, Yasemin; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Ossama Elshiewy, Ossama x;

    2015-01-01

    Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling has received extensive political attention in recent years. Most studies assessing the influence of nutrition labelling focus on consumer attention to labels, while few concentrate on its effects on actual purchase behaviour. In this study, we present results...... from an analysis of scanner data provided by a large UK retailer. We focus on two food categories, using store-brand products that are labelled with a front-of-pack, monochrome Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) nutrition label. The analyses are based on models at both an aggregated and disaggregated level...... to enable us to identify as many influencing factors on food choice as possible. We utilize the SSAg/1 health score for our food categories as a dependent variable to obtain an objective measure of healthiness. Our results suggest that the GDA label introduction reduces attraction of unhealthier products...

  1. MULTI-LABEL CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCT REVIEWS USING STRUCTURED SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincy B. Chrystal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the text classification problems are associated with multiple class labels and hence automatic text classification is one of the most challenging and prominent research area. Text classification is the problem of categorizing text documents into different classes. In the multi-label classification scenario, each document is associated may have more than one label. The real challenge in the multi-label classification is the labelling of large number of text documents with a subset of class categories. The feature extraction and classification of such text documents require an efficient machine learning algorithm which performs automatic text classification. This paper describes the multi-label classification of product review documents using Structured Support Vector Machine.

  2. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEpps, Eric M; Roberto, Christina A; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-03-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet. PMID:26877095

  3. Nitrogen-15 labeling of Crotalaria juncea green manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most studies dealing with the utilization of 15 N labeled plant material do not present details about the labeling technique. This is especially relevant for legume species since biological nitrogen fixation difficult plant enrichment. A technique was developed for labeling leguminous plant tissue with 15 N to obtain labeled material for nitrogen dynamics studies. Sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) was grown on a Paleudalf, under field conditions. An amount of 58.32 g of urea with 70.57± 0.04 atom % 15 N was sprayed three times on plants grown on eight 6-m2-plots. The labelled material presented 2.412 atom % 15 N in a total dry matter equivalent to 9 Mg ha-1 This degree of enrichment enables the use of the green manure in pot or field experiments requiring 15 N-labeled material. (author)

  4. LABELING OPTIONS FOR POSTAL SHIPMENTS BY PASSIVE RFID TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Maslák

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the topic of labeling postal shipments by passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags. Every delivery company needs to have all necessary information for every single postal shipment package it carries. Shipment package labeling is essential for processing and tracking the postal shipments along its delivery process. Using RFID technology for the process brings advantages in more efficient delivery and data collection along with regular information updates of shipment status across complete delivery chain.In this article, we focused on the problem of logical log of key shipment package information into EPC memory of the RFID smart label. We have taken into account the National postal administrator and its current system of shipment labeling. In the end, we presented a design for conversion of contemporary labeling using bar codes into labeling using RFID tags.

  5. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:26962391

  6. Eco-Labelling, the State and Consumer Confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Trustworthy eco-labels provide consumers with valuable information on environmentally friendly products and thus promote green consumerism. But what makes an eco-label trustworthy and what can government do to increase consumer confidence? The scant existing literature seems to argue that low governmental involvement increases confidence. According to this, government should just provide the basic legal framework for eco-labelling and leave the rest to non-governmental organizations. However,...

  7. Investigation of Bias in Continuous Medical Image Label Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Fangxu Xing; Prince, Jerry L.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-01-01

    Image labeling is essential for analyzing morphometric features in medical imaging data. Labels can be obtained by either human interaction or automated segmentation algorithms, both of which suffer from errors. The Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm for both discrete-valued and continuous-valued labels has been proposed to find the consensus fusion while simultaneously estimating rater performance. In this paper, we first show that the previously reported ...

  8. TOWARDS NUTRITION SECURITY: FOOD LABEL USE AMONG NIGERIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham Falola

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on food label use by Nigerians, using Kwara State as a case study. Specifically, the study describes the socio-economics characteristics of the respondents, determined people’s perception about food labels and examined factors influencing willingness-to-read food labels in the study area. A total of 120 respondents selected through a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques were used for the study. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, 5-point lik...

  9. A Generative Model for Image Segmentation Based on Label Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sabuncu, Mert R.; Thomas Yeo, B.T.; Van Leemput, Koen; Fischl, Bruce; Golland, Polina

    2010-01-01

    We propose a nonparametric, probabilistic model for the automatic segmentation of medical images, given a training set of images and corresponding label maps. The resulting inference algorithms rely on pairwise registrations between the test image and individual training images. The training labels are then transferred to the test image and fused to compute the final segmentation of the test subject. Such label fusion methods have been shown to yield accurate segmentation, since the use of mu...

  10. Simultaneous Segmentation and Anatomical Labeling of the Cerebral Vasculature

    OpenAIRE

    Robben, David; Türetken, Engin; Sunaert, Stefan; Thijs, Vincent; Wilms, Guy; Fua, Pascal; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the simultaneous segmentation and anatomical labeling of the cerebral vasculature. The method first constructs an over-complete graph capturing the vasculature. It then selects and labels the subset of edges that most likely represents the true vasculature. Unlike existing approaches that first attempt to obtain a good segmentation and then perform labeling, we jointly optimize for both by simultaneously taking into account the image evidence and the prior kno...

  11. Taxonomy grounded aggregation of classifiers with different label sets

    OpenAIRE

    SAHA, AMRITA; Indurthi, Sathish; Godbole, Shantanu; Rongali, Subendhu; Raykar, Vikas C.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the problem of aggregating the label predictions of diverse classifiers using a class taxonomy. Such a taxonomy may not have been available or referenced when the individual classifiers were designed and trained, yet mapping the output labels into the taxonomy is desirable to integrate the effort spent in training the constituent classifiers. A hierarchical taxonomy representing some domain knowledge may be different from, but partially mappable to, the label sets of the individua...

  12. Labels Direct Infants’ Attention to Commonalities during Novel Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja Althaus; Denis Mareschal

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that labeling can influence the outcome of infants’ visual categorization. However, what exactly happens during learning remains unclear. Using eye-tracking, we examined infants’ attention to object parts during learning. Our analysis of looking behaviors during learning provide insights going beyond merely observing the learning outcome. Both labeling and non-labeling phrases facilitated category formation in 12-month-olds but not 8-month-olds (Experimen...

  13. The various methods and benefits of denture labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Datta; Sonia Sood

    2010-01-01

    Labeled dentures can be important in identifying the owners in case of an accident, loss of memory, states of unconsciousness, being inadvertently misplaced on admission to a hospital or, in identifying the bodies of those who have died in a calamity. Positive identification through labeled dentures plays a key role in forensic scenario. Marking dentures has been considered as an important part of forensic dentistry, although no standardized method is followed. A number of labeling systems ar...

  14. Labeling in Food Industries – a Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Neacºu Nicoleta Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The objective of foodstuff labeling is to guarantee that consumers have access to complete information on the content and composition of products, in order to protect their health and their interests. Other information may provide details on a particular aspect of the product, such as its origin or production method. Marketers use food labeling as a strategy to attract customers and promote products. In this paper we present role of food labeling for consumers, but also in marketing.

  15. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  16. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized. PMID:19241976

  17. EMERGING ROLES FOR FOOD LABELS: INFORM, PROTECT, PERSUADE

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberry, Shida Rastegari; Armbruster, Walter J.

    2003-01-01

    Every day, food producers and processors provide products consumed by 250 million people in this country. Each of those consumers is affected by the content of their foods. With advances in food production, processing, and distribution technology, the role of food labels has become increasingly important. Current research and views related to food labeling issues were discussed at a conference held in Washington, D.C. on March 20-21, 2003. This article gives an overview of food-labeling issue...

  18. Strategic options of firms considering private label production

    OpenAIRE

    Kelemen, Zita

    2009-01-01

    Private labels are a growing phenomenon globaly. Retailers become stronger and stronger by offering their own quality private label product for customers in all segments. Certainly they do not open factories to produce these items but rather search for dedicated private label producers or pressure branded goods manufacturers to produce it for them. The article deals with the strategic choices manufacturers can have and suggest the necessary factors that need to be evaluated to decide on the w...

  19. Label-Embedding for Attribute-Based Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Akata, Zeynep; Perronnin, Florent; Harchaoui, Zaid; Schmid, Cordelia

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Attributes are an intermediate representation, which enables parameter sharing between classes, a must when training data is scarce. We propose to view attribute-based image classification as a label-embedding problem: each class is embedded in the space of attribute vectors. We introduce a function which measures the compatibility between an image and a label embedding. The parameters of this function are learned on a training set of labeled samples to ensure that, gi...

  20. National Brands, Private Labels, and Food Price Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Volpe III, Rickard James

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which national brand and private label (store brand) prices behave differently as food price inflation changes. Empirical tests using a range of indices support the hypotheses that rising commodity and fuel prices lead to relatively larger surges in private label prices. When food prices are rising or high, the average price dif- ference between national brands and private labels shrinks. The findings have implications for understanding the welfare effe...

  1. The tritium labelling of ibuprofen by heterogeneous catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium labelling of 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid (ibuprofen) was performed. The method employed was heterogeneous catalytic exchange between ibuprofen and tritiated water. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of ibuprofen was studied. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activity of the labelled compound were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  2. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  3. Immunogold labels: cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Grooth, de, B.G.; Hansma, Paul K.; Hulst, van der, R.W.M.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using immunogold labels as cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy is shown in this paper. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image the surface of immunogold-labeled human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood and labeled by an indirect immunolabeling method using the monoclonal antibody anti-CD3 and a secondary antibody (Goat-anti-Mouse) linked to 30 nm colloidal gold particles. Some of the samples were enhanced by silver deposition...

  4. Novel 99mTc labeled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Caiyun

    2006-01-01

    [1]Quirion,R.,Bowen,W.D.,Itzhak,Y.et al.,A proposal for the classification of sigma binding sites,Trends Pharmacol.Sci.,1992,13:85-86.[2]Su,T.P.,Sigma receptors:Putative links between nervous,endocrine and immune systems,Eur.J.Biochem.,1991,200:633-642.[3]Guitart,X.,Codony,X.,Monroy,X.,Sigma receptors:Biology and therapeutic potential,Psychopharmacology,2004,174:301-319.[4]Vilner,B.J.,John,C.S.,Bowen,W.D.,Sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors are expressed in a wide variety of human and rodent tumor cell lines,Cancer Res.,1995,55:408-413.[5]Mach,R.H.,Smith,C.R.,al-Nabulsi,I.et al.,σ2 receptors as potential biomarkers of proliferation in breast cancer,Cancer Res.,1997,57:156-161.[6]Shiue,C.Y.,Shiue,G.G.,Zhang,S.X.et al.,N-(N-benzylpi-peridin-4-yl)-2-[18F]fluorobenzamide:A potential ligand for PET imaging of σ receptors,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1997,24:671-676.[7]Dence,C.S.,John,C.S.,Bowen,W.D.et al.,Synthesis and evaluation of [18F] labeled benzamides:High affinity sigma receptor ligands for PET imaging,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1997,24:333-340.[8]Shiue,C.Y.,Shiue,G.G.,Benard,F.et al.,N-(N-benzylpi-peridin-4-yl)-2-[18F]fluorobenzamide:A potential ligand for PET imaging of breast cancer,Nucl.Med.Biol.,2000,27:763-767.[9]Rowland,D.J.,Tu,Z.,Mach,R.H.et al.,Investigation of a new sigma-2 receptor ligand for detection of breast cancer,J.Labelled Cpd.Radiopharm.,2003,46:S6.[10]Everaert,H.,Flamen,P.,Franken,P.R.et al.,Sigma receptor imaging by means of 123-IDAB scintigraphy;clinical application in melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer,Anticancer Res.,1997,17:1577-1582.[11]John,C.S.,Gulden,M.E.,Li,J.et al.,Synthesis,in vitro binding,and tissue distribution of radioiodinated 2-[125I]N-(N-benzylpip-eridin-4-yl)-2-iodobenzamide,2-[125I]BP:A potential σ receptor marker for human prostate tumors,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1998,25:189-194.[12]Staelens,L.,Oltenfreiter,R.,Dumont,F.et al.,In vivo evaluation of [123I]-4-iodo-N-(4-(4-(2-me-thoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-benzamide:A potential sigma receptor ligand

  5. Text Extraction from Pdf Image Using Enhanced Connected Component Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SASIREKHA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new technique that greatly increases the speed of the connected component labeling algorithm. We propose a system to extract the text from the PDF images. This paper describes the system design based on text extraction method concentrating on text extraction from PDF images by enhancing the traditional connected component labeling as modified connected component labeling that uses a components neighbor scan labeling approach derived from Akmal et al[9]. This method produced good performance in terms of accuracy and speed. The performance of the approach is demonstrated.

  6. Labeling of mesenchymal stem cells by bioconjugated quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhranti S; Clark, Paul A; Moioli, Eduardo K; Stroscio, Michael A; Mao, Jeremy J

    2007-10-01

    Long-term labeling of stem cells during self-replication and differentiation benefits investigations of development and tissue regeneration. We report the labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with RGD-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) during self-replication, and multilineage differentiations into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic cells. QD-labeled hMSCs remained viable as unlabeled hMSCs from the same subpopulation. These findings suggest the use of bioconjugated QDs as an effective probe for long-term labeling of stem cells.

  7. Passage of labelled elements between two palatal shelves in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3H Fucose or 14C Galactosamine have been incorporated in vitro into a palatal shelf. This shelf has been associated with the homologous non-labeled palatal shelf on a normal medium. The mesenchyme of the explants which were incubated with the isotope is densely labeled. In the epithelium the cells are scarcely labeled. The isotope is dense in enlarged intercellular spaces. On the free surface, the tracer is located in front of those intercellular spaces and does not form a continuous coat. When the shelves have fused, the isotope migrates through the intercellular spaces of the non-labeled epithelium into the mesenchyme

  8. Biosynthesis and identification of 13C-labeled starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosynthesis of 13C-labeled starch was examined by using a small-scale apparatus. Tobacco leaves were placed in the cylindric photosynthesis chamber (14φx50 cm). After preincubation for 30 h in the dark, incubation with 13C-labeled CO2 was carried out for 48 h under irradiation with fluorescent lights. Labeled starch was extracted from the leaves and was purified. About 500 mg of 13C-labeled starch can be obtained from 50 g of the leaves. The 13C-abundance of the starch formed by the incubation was determined to be 82.0-92.0 atom % by mass spectrometry. (author)

  9. Multi-label Learning via Structured Decomposition and Group Sparsity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Tianyi

    2011-01-01

    In multi-label learning, each sample is associated with several labels. Existing works indicate that exploring correlations between labels improve the prediction performance. However, embedding the label correlations into the training process significantly increases the problem size. Moreover, the mapping of the label structure in the feature space is not clear. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-label learning method "Structured Decomposition + Group Sparsity (SDGS)". In SDGS, we learn a feature subspace for each label from the structured decomposition of the training data, and predict the labels of a new sample from its group sparse representation on the multi-subspace obtained from the structured decomposition. In particular, in the training stage, we decompose the data matrix $X\\in R^{n\\times p}$ as $X=\\sum_{i=1}^kL^i+S$, wherein the rows of $L^i$ associated with samples that belong to label $i$ are nonzero and consist a low-rank matrix, while the other rows are all-zeros, the residual $S$ is a spars...

  10. Noncovalent Labeling of Biomolecules with Red and Near- Infrared Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids can be labeled with a fluorescent marker to allow for their detection. Covalent labeling is achieved by the reaction of an appropriately functionalized dye marker with a reactive group on a biomolecule. The recent trend, however, is the use of noncovalent labeling that results from strong hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions between the marker and biomolecule of interest. The main advantage of noncovalent labeling is that it affects the functional activity of the biomolecule to a lesser extent. The applications of luminescent cyanine and squarylium dyes are reviewed.

  11. The potential role of carbon labeling in a green economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years, labeling schemes that focus on a wide range of environmental and social metrics have proliferated. Although little empirical evidence has been generated yet with respect to carbon footprint labels, much can be learned from our experience with similar product labels. We first review the theory and evidence on the role of product labeling in affecting consumer and firm behavior. Next, we consider the role of governments and nongovernmental organizations, concluding that international, multistakeholder organizations have a critical part to play in setting protocols and standards. We argue that it is important to consider the entire life cycle of a product being labeled and develop an international standard for measurement and reporting. Finally, we examine the potential impact of carbon product labeling, discussing methodological and trade challenges and proposing a framework for choosing products best suited for labeling. - Highlights: ► Economic theory provides rationale for product information on carbon footprint. ► Small but growing evidence that labels will affect demand and product choice. ► International protocol using multi-stakeholder process is needed. ► Product priority should be based on life-cycle emissions and likely behavior changes. ► International trade law poses low risk for voluntary private carbon footprint labels.

  12. Interval prediction for graded multi-label classification

    CERN Document Server

    Lastra, Gerardo; Bahamonde, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Multi-label was introduced as an extension of multi-class classification. The aim is to predict a set of classes (called labels in this context) instead of a single one, namely the set of relevant labels. If membership to the set of relevant labels is defined to a certain degree, the learning task is called graded multi-label classification. These learning tasks can be seen as a set of ordinal classifications. Hence, recommender systems can be considered as multi-label classification tasks. In this paper, we present a new type of nondeterministic learner that, for each instance, tries to predict at the same time the true grade for each label. When the classification is uncertain for a label, however, the hypotheses predict a set of consecutive grades, i.e., an interval. The goal is to keep the set of predicted grades as small as possible; while still containing the true grade. We shall see that these classifiers take advantage of the interrelations of labels. The result is that, with quite narrow intervals, i...

  13. Enhancing product label effectiveness by increasing attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    Fast moving consumer goods often carry product labels intended to guide and persuade consumers in their purchase decisions. However, past research indicates that these labels are rarely attended to during the consumer's decision process. In order to enhance the effectiveness of such labels...... are larger and more visually salient. The effect on attention also carries over into increased purchase likelihood. Both marketers and policy makers can benefit from the methodology and findings which provide directions for designing product labels that enhance attention capture and purchase decisions....

  14. Kinetic controlled affinity labeling of target enzyme with thioester chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomohiro, Takenori; Nakabayashi, Masahiro; Sugita, Yuka; Morimoto, Shota

    2016-08-01

    High specificity has been an important feature in affinity labeling for target profiling. Especially, to label targets via rapidly progressing reactions with consumption of ligand (probe), high specificity of reaction with common functional groups of target protein should be achieved without reactions with similar groups of non-target proteins. Herein, we demonstrate the kinetic controlled affinity labeling of acyl CoA synthetase using a fatty acid analogue containing a phenylthioester linkage. High specificity was attained by accelerating the labeling rate in the binding pocket. This approach could be useful for profiling a series of target enzymes and transporters in signal transduction pathways. PMID:27298000

  15. Are radiogallium-labelled DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analogues superior to those labelled with other radiometals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, P.; Ginj, M.; Zhang, H.; Maecke, H. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Waser, B.; Reubi, J.C. [University of Bern, Institute of Pathology, Bern (Switzerland); Baum, R.P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Department of Nuclear Medicine/PETCT-Center, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Gallium-68 is a metallic positron emitter with a half-life of 68 min that is ideal for the in vivo use of small molecules, such as [{sup 68}Ga-DOTA,Tyr{sup 3}]octreotide, in the diagnostic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. In preclinical studies it has shown a striking superiority over its {sup 111}In-labelled congener. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether third-generation somatostatin-based, radiogallium-labelled peptides show the same superiority. Peptides were synthesised on solid phase. The receptor affinity was determined by in vitro receptor autoradiography. The internalisation rate was studied in AR4-2J and hsst-HEK-transfected cell lines. The pharmacokinetics was studied in a rat xenograft tumour model, AR4-2J. All peptides showed high affinities on hsst2, with the highest affinity for the Ga{sup III}-complexed peptides. On hsst3 the situation was reversed, with a trend towards lower affinity of the Ga{sup III} peptides. A significantly increased internalisation rate was found in sst2-expressing cells for all {sup 67}Ga-labelled peptides. Internalisation into HEK-sst3 was usually faster for the {sup 111}In-labelled peptides. No internalisation was found into sst5. Biodistribution studies employing [{sup 67}Ga-DOTA,1-Nal{sup 3}]octreotide in comparison to [{sup 111}In-DOTA,1-Nal{sup 3}]octreotide and [{sup 67}Ga-DOTA,Tyr{sup 3}]octreotide showed a significantly higher and receptor-mediated uptake of the two{sup 67}Ga-labelled peptides in the tumour and somatostatin receptor-positive tissues. A patient study illustrated the potential advantage of a broad receptor subtype profile radiopeptide over a high-affinity sst2-selective radiopeptide. This study demonstrates that {sup 67/68}Ga-DOTA-octapeptides show distinctly better preclinical, pharmacological performances than the {sup 111}In-labelled peptides, especially on sst2-expressing cells and the corresponding animal models. They may be excellent candidates for further

  16. Are radiogallium-labelled DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analogues superior to those labelled with other radiometals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium-68 is a metallic positron emitter with a half-life of 68 min that is ideal for the in vivo use of small molecules, such as [68Ga-DOTA,Tyr3]octreotide, in the diagnostic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. In preclinical studies it has shown a striking superiority over its 111In-labelled congener. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether third-generation somatostatin-based, radiogallium-labelled peptides show the same superiority. Peptides were synthesised on solid phase. The receptor affinity was determined by in vitro receptor autoradiography. The internalisation rate was studied in AR4-2J and hsst-HEK-transfected cell lines. The pharmacokinetics was studied in a rat xenograft tumour model, AR4-2J. All peptides showed high affinities on hsst2, with the highest affinity for the GaIII-complexed peptides. On hsst3 the situation was reversed, with a trend towards lower affinity of the GaIII peptides. A significantly increased internalisation rate was found in sst2-expressing cells for all 67Ga-labelled peptides. Internalisation into HEK-sst3 was usually faster for the 111In-labelled peptides. No internalisation was found into sst5. Biodistribution studies employing [67Ga-DOTA,1-Nal3]octreotide in comparison to [111In-DOTA,1-Nal3]octreotide and [67Ga-DOTA,Tyr3]octreotide showed a significantly higher and receptor-mediated uptake of the two67Ga-labelled peptides in the tumour and somatostatin receptor-positive tissues. A patient study illustrated the potential advantage of a broad receptor subtype profile radiopeptide over a high-affinity sst2-selective radiopeptide. This study demonstrates that 67/68Ga-DOTA-octapeptides show distinctly better preclinical, pharmacological performances than the 111In-labelled peptides, especially on sst2-expressing cells and the corresponding animal models. They may be excellent candidates for further development for clinical studies. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis of some useful tritium labelled auxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchman, O.; Pri-Bar, I.; Shimoni, M.; Azran, J. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev)

    1992-06-01

    The synthesis of six useful auxins labelled with tritium is described. The following compounds were prepared: 3-indoleacetic acid-5-[sup 3]H (28.9 Ci-1.07 TBq/mmol), 3-indolebutyric acid-5-[sup 3]H (7.3 Ci-270 GBq/mmol), 1-naphthylacetic acid-4-[sup 3]H (27.6 Ci-1.02 TBq/mmol), 2,4-dichloropheno-xyacetic acid-5-[sup 3]H (18.5 Ci-685 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy-5-[sup 3]H) -propionic acid (20.7 Ci-766 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid-3-[sup 3]H (0.39 Ci-14.4 GMq/mmol), and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-2-[sup 3]H (13.3 Ci-492 GBq/mmol). (author).

  18. The label switching problem in mixture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Etemad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixture models are fascinating objects in that, while based on elementary distributions, they of-fer a much wider range of modeling possibilities than their components. They also need both highlycomplex computational challenges and delicate inferential derivations . In Bayesian framework thiskind of models do not admit an analytical solution and one should content him/her self by an ap-proximative solution.In this work, we introduce denition of identiability in statistical model. We focus on denition ofidentiability of mixtures of models from Bayesian point of view. This issue is called label-switchingproblem in Bayesian literatures. We will study a method to identify the mixtures parameter by usingMCMC output.

  19. ECTS & DS Labels Keys for Academic Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Stoika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an assessment of the importance of how and what are the actualresults after the higher education institutions have had designed the credits system in direct relations withtheir own characteristics. Also is important to identify and analyze how are the effects after the ultimatedesign of students guides and if those effects are bringing with them better feedback in terms of increasingnumber of cohorts of students. With this research paper we intend to make an overview of the results afterthis changes (re-design the curriculum, ECTS credit system, new learning modules, better, flexible andcomprehensive students guides making the institutions more close to excellence in education and get readyfor the ECTS & DS Labels – awarded by the European Commission. All of those institutional changes can bemeasured in the final stage by an very actual indicator like the attainment and completion rates as well as bythe labor market prospects of graduates.

  20. Understanding how consumers categorise nutritional labels: A consumer derived typology for front-of-pack nutrition labelling.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkins, C; Barnett, J; Wasowicz-Kirylo, G; Stysko-Kunkowska, M; Gulcan, Y; Kustepeli, Y; Akgungor, S; Chryssochoidis, G; Fernández-Celemin, L; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, S; Gibbs, M.; Raats, MM

    2012-01-01

    Significant ongoing debate exists amongst stakeholders as to the best front-of-pack labelling approach and emerging evidence suggests that the plethora of schemes may cause confusion for the consumer. To gain a better understanding of the relevant psychological phenomena and consumer perspectives surrounding FoP labelling schemes and their optimal development a Multiple Sort Procedure study involving free sorting of a range of nutritional labels presented on cards was performed in four countr...

  1. [Physician versus 'off-label" ordinance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordus, Katarzyna; Spiewak, Radosław

    2015-01-01

    Polish physicians are obliged by legislation to prescribe drugs authorized for the sale in the Republic of Poland, based on registration documentation, including the Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPC). So called 'off label' treatment occurs in case of the conflict between prescription and information contained in the SPC, which may be considered as a 'medical experiment'. In case of adverse drug reactions, such classification excludes the responsibility of the marketing authorization holders, and damages are not covered by obligatory third party insurance, which can pose financial and legal consequences to the doctor. Deviations from SPC-compliant prescription may include a different way of drug administration, drug administration compliant with the indications yet in patients for whom there is no specified drug dosage, or in case of an indication not contained in the SPC. Medicinal products with equivalent active component, form and dose can have different registration indications in the SPC, and the actively promoted dispensation of less expensive substitutes by the pharmacists may, against doctor's will, result in the use that is non-compliant with registration of the substitute drug. Pharmacotherapy of 'orphan diseases', for which there are no registered medicinal products, also becomes an essential issue as it forces doctors into 'off-label' prescriptions. Moreover, the reimbursement of drugs in most cases is limited to medicinal products that are prescribed according to the registration indications. The pleas by medical professionals to make ordination and reimbursement of drugs depend on active pharmaceutical ingredient and evidence of efficacy, as well as to introduce Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) standards for the treatment of diseases, did not receive proper attention from the governing bodies. Therefore, a fundamental question remains unanswered as to what should be the principal gauge for physicians' therapeutic decision: the ethics, conscience

  2. System for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system is described for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers, comprising: a set of containers adapted for receiving aqueous solutions of biological samples containing biopolymers which are subsequently precipitated in said containers on particles of diatomite in the presence of a coprecipitator, then filtered, dissolved, and mixed with a scintillator; radioactivity measuring means including a detection chamber to which is fed the mixture produced in said set of containers; an electric drive for moving said set of containers in a stepwise manner; means for proportional feeding of said coprecipitator and a suspension of diatomite in an acid solution to said containers which contain the biological sample for forming an acid precipitation of biopolymers; means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers; precipitated biopolymer filtering means for successively filtering the precipitate, suspending the precipitate, dissolving the biopolymers mixed with said scintillator for feeding of the mixture to said detection chamber; a system of pipelines interconnecting said above-recited means; and said means for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers including, a measuring cell arranged in a detection chamber and communicating with said means for filtering precipitated biopolymers through one pipeline of said system of pipelines; a program unit electrically connected to said electric drive, said means for acid precipatation of biopolymers, said means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers, said filtering means, and said radioactivity measuring device; said program unit adapted to periodically switch on and off the above-recited means and check the sequence of the radioactivity measuring operations; and a control unit for controlling the initiation of the system and for selecting programs

  3. Comparative study of fixation of Co57 labelled bleomycin, labelled gallium citrate and Hg197 labelled mercury chloride, benign or malignant pulmonary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last ten years, numerous labelled molecules have been used in lung diseases, in order to attempt definite localisation of primary or secondary carcinoma. Three of these substances are now used: cobalt 57-labelled bleomycin, Hg197Cl2 and Ga67 citrate. A study of 34 patient with malignant or tuberculous lung disease with definite diagnosis, permitted demonstration of the fact that the highest uptake, or the best images, were obtained with labelled bleomycin. However, the long period of Co57 limits its indications in young subjects and, in these cases, HgCl2 is indicated

  4. Chinese regulation of off-label use of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Lou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    China has significant gaps and weaknesses in its regulatory oversight of the off-label use of drugs. As in the United States, the off-label prescribing of drugs is not prohibited in China if there is a sound scientific basis. Physicians are allowed to prescribe off-label drugs based on their medical judgment if they follow certain requirements. There is some constraint on the right to prescribe by the imposition of malpractice liability if patients are harmed from improper off-label prescribing. However, damages awarded to successful plaintiffs are usually insignificant compared to malpractice damage awards in the U.S. Advertisement of off-label use is prohibited in China. All drug advertisements in China are subject to pre-approval, and must be based on information included in the approved package insert. However, the term "advertisement" is poorly defined. As a result, non-advertisement promotion of drugs for on-label or off-label use exist in a unregulated gray area. To better address the problem of inappropriate off-label promotion and use, China should (i) regulate both drug advertisements and non-advertisement promotion under a standard requiring off-label use to have a sound scientific basis, (ii) introduce harsher regulatory penalties, and (iii) increase compensation available for victims of medical malpractice. Such reform would not only discourage improper off-label use by introducing penalties (or increasing existing penalties) for improper promotion, but would also provide reasonable compensation for victims harmed by off-label use. PMID:24640468

  5. Reexamining Food Labels: A Proposal for Labeling Environmental Information on Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Guagliardo, Mara

    2001-01-01

    Since at least 1938, Congress has been concerned with informing the public as consumers about the food products they purchase. During 1938, Congress passed the Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act which required that manufacturers of processed, packaged foods provide information on the labels including the name of the food, its ingredients, the net quantity, and the name and address of the manufacturer. In 1990, at the urging of the FDA, Congress added to this list of required information standard n...

  6. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its labeling regulations for conventional foods and dietary supplements to provide updated nutrition information on the label to assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices. The updated information is consistent with current data on the associations between nutrients and chronic diseases, health-related conditions, physiological endpoints, and/or maintaining a healthy dietary pattern that reflects current public health conditions in the United States, and corresponds to new information on consumer understanding and consumption patterns. The final rule updates the list of nutrients that are required or permitted to be declared; provides updated Daily Reference Values and Reference Daily Intake values that are based on current dietary recommendations from consensus reports; amends requirements for foods represented or purported to be specifically for children under the age of 4 years and pregnant and lactating women and establishes nutrient reference values specifically for these population subgroups; and revises the format and appearance of the Nutrition Facts label.

  7. 9 CFR 381.500 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Food products produced by small businesses, provided that the labels for these products bear no... nutritional profile, sold in any size package in commerce. (ii) For purposes of this paragraph, a small...) Products intended for further processing, provided that the labels for these products bear no...

  8. Detecting danger labels with RAM-based neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.M.; Christensen, S.S.; Andersen, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing system for the automatic location of danger labels on the back of containers is presented. The system uses RAM-based neural networks to locate and classify labels after a pre-processing step involving specially designed non-linear edge filters and RGB-to-HSV conversion. Results...

  9. 9 CFR 381.409 - Nutrition label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nomenclature are established for the following vitamins and minerals which are essential in human nutrition... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition label content. 381.409... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.409...

  10. 21 CFR 101.9 - Nutrition labeling of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.9 Nutrition labeling of food. (a) Nutrition information relating to food shall be provided for all products intended for human consumption and... vitamins and minerals which are essential in human nutrition: Vitamin A, 5,000 International Units...

  11. 76 FR 45453 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... consumer awareness of the technologies and their safety importance. Furthermore, it indicated that consumer... requirements.\\7\\ \\6\\ 49 U.S.C. 32908(g). \\7\\ 76 FR 39478; July 06, 2011. Finally, the Motor Vehicle Information... vehicle manufacturers to incorporate a distinct safety rating label into the Monroney label. \\9\\ 71...

  12. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  13. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1807-01 - Vehicle labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1807-01 Vehicle labeling. (a) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle subject to the applicable emission standards of this subpart, shall, at the time of... under 40 CFR 85.1505 must comply with the labeling requirements contained in 40 CFR 85.1510; (ix)...

  15. Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

  16. Consumer response to food labels in an emerging market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festila, Alexandra Florina; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates consumer response to food labels in an emerging market. More specifically, it measures the levels of awareness, objective and perceived understanding, perceived usefulness and perceived trustworthiness of the most prominent food labels found in the Romanian market. An online...

  17. Two New Standards Further Enhanced the Authenticity of Food Labels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Recently, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine and the Standardization Administration of China approved and promulgated two compulsory national standards: the General Principles for the Labeling of Prepackaged Foods and the General Principles for the Labeling of Prepackaged Foods for Special Dietary Uses. These two standards will come into force from October 1, 2005.

  18. 16 CFR 1500.130 - Self-pressurized containers: labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-pressurized containers: labeling. 1500... § 1500.130 Self-pressurized containers: labeling. (a) Self-pressurized containers that fail to bear a...: warning—contents under pressure Do not puncture or incinerate container. Do not expose to heat or store...

  19. 27 CFR 5.51 - Label approval and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Label approval and release. 5.51 Section 5.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Requirements for...

  20. 27 CFR 4.40 - Label approval and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Label approval and release. 4.40 Section 4.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for Withdrawal of Wine...