IR Spectrometer Using 90-degree Off-axis Parabolic Mirrors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert M. Malone, Richard, G. Hacking, Ian J. McKenna, and Daniel H. Dolan
2008-09-02
A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light ource at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output IR recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 1500–4500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera array’s sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement singlepoint pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
H.W. Herrmann, R.M. Malone, W. Stoeffl, J.M. Mack, C.S. Young
2008-06-01
Gas Cherenkov detectors (GCD) have been used to convert fusion gamma into photons to achieve gamma bang time (GBT) and reaction history measurements. The GCD designed for Omega used Cassegrain reflector optics in order to fit inside a ten-inch manipulator. A novel design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using 90º Off-Axis Parabolic (OAP) mirrors will increase light collection efficiency from fusion gammas and achieve minimum time dispersion. The broadband Cherenkov light (from 200 to 800 nm) is relayed into a high-speed detector using three parabolic mirrors. Because light is collected from many source planes throughout the CO2 gas volume, the detector is positioned at the stop position rather than an image position. The stop diameter and its position are independent of the light-generation location along the gas cell. The current design collects light from a 100-mm diameter by 500-mm-long gas volume. Optical ray tracings demonstrate how light can be collected from different angled trajectories of the Compton electrons as they fly through the CO2 gas volume. A cluster of four channels will allow for increased dynamic range as well as different gamma energy threshold sensitivities. 52.70.La, 29.40.Ka, 42.15.Eq, 07.60.-j, 07.85.-m
High-resolution, flat-field, plane-grating, f/10 spectrograph with off-axis parabolic mirrors.
Schieffer, Stephanie L; Rimington, Nathan W; Nayyar, Ved P; Schroeder, W Andreas; Longworth, James W
2007-06-01
A high-resolution, flat-field, plane-grating, f/10 spectrometer based on the novel design proposed by Gil and Simon [Appl. Opt. 22, 152 (1983)] is demonstrated. The spectrometer design employs off-axis parabolic collimation and camera mirrors in a configuration that eliminates spherical aberrations and minimizes astigmatism, coma, and field curvature in the image plane. In accordance with theoretical analysis, the performance of this spectrometer achieves a high spatial resolution over the large detection area, which is shown to be limited only by the quality of its optics and their proper alignment within the spatial resolution of a 13 microm x 13 microm pixelated CCD detector. With a 1500 lines/mm grating in first order, the measured spectral resolving power of lambda/Dlambda = 2.5(+/-0.5) x 10(4) allows the clear resolution of the violet Ar(I) doublet at 419.07 and 419.10 nm.
Burke, Jan
2009-03-01
This paper complements our previous study on testing a 25.4 mm diameter diamond-turned 90 masculine off-axis commercial-quality parabolic mirror with a spherical test wave in a phase-shifting Fizeau interferometer (Opt. Express 17, 3196-3210 (2009). In this study I reverse the optical system and use the Fizeau interferometer with a planar reference surface, auxiliary components, and the surface of the transmission sphere as a reflecting spherical return surface. As in the previous paper, I present a description of the necessary steps for alignment and measurement validation. The reversal of the optical system, and associated co-ordinate systems, necessitates some changes of hardware and analysis that provide insight into the underlying symmetries, and may prove useful in a wider context.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘作业; 李露; 胡碧涛
2012-01-01
In order to study the dependence of the focus on the quality of the femtosecond laser beam, the tighten focusing of the femtosecond laser beam reflected by a 90° off-axis parabolic mirror was studied experimentally and theoretically trough the classical geometrical optical model. The obtained theoretical and experimental results indicate that the peak power density of the laser spot will reduce by half when the declination reaches 3mrad. Simultaneously the optical path difference resulted from incident angle causes time broadening of the spot on the target surface and impairs the focal spot intensity to some degrees. A 3TW Ti: sapphire laser system was adopted in the present work. The best focal spot obtained in the present work with aaf/\\ off-axis parabolic mirror is 5. 6μm ×5. 4μm and the peak power density is 3. 83×1017W/cm2 and 1. 23 ×1019W/cm2 for 3mJ and 96mJ ultra-short pulse laser separately. The study of the tighten focusing for ultra-short laser pulse reflected by 90° off-axis parabolic mirror. This research provides important information for the study on the interactions between the femtosecond laser pulses and solid, gas, clusters and so on.%为了研究超短激光脉冲光束质量对焦斑的影响,采用经典的几何模型进行了理论模拟分析,并实验研究了离轴90°抛物面镜的飞秒激光光束的紧聚焦特性.由理论分析和实验结果可知,当入射失准角为3 mrad时,将从空间上使焦斑峰值功率密度减半,失准角的存在将引起到达靶面的激光脉冲的时间展宽从而降低焦斑峰值功率密度;利用3TW钛宝石飞秒激光系统,通过f/1离轴90°抛物面镜对激光束进行紧聚焦,得到最佳焦斑尺寸为5.6μm×5.4μm,对应于3mJ和96mJ的飞秒脉冲激光光束的焦斑峰值功率密度分别为3.83×1017W/cm2和1.23×1019W/cm2.结果表明,该研究为开展激光与固体、气体、团簇等物质相互作用的相关实验提供了重要的参考.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈程; 刘伟; 梁彪
2012-01-01
Off - axis Parabolic Reflector is one of the important optical elements for space optical remote sensor, its surface shape error directly determines the performance of the remote sensor. Because the temperature difference is very huge, and the requirement of first - order natural frequency is very high, a new flexible support structure was designed. The reflector was optimized using topological optimization. In order to verify the rationality of the structure, the reflector subassembly's modal, stiffness strength, harmonic response and thermal deformation were analysed. The results show that under the gravity load, the maximum RMS is 1. 16nm, with ± l0℃ thermal load, and the maximum RMS is 11.46nm. The first - order natural frequency is 574. 19Hz. The flexible structure has a fine static and dynamic characteristic and thermal stability. This flexible support structure can satisfy the requirements.%关于反射镜支撑稳定性优化设计问题,离轴抛物面反射镜作为空间光学遥感器的重要光学元件,面形精度直接影响遥感器性能.针对反射镜所处环境,组件一阶频率要求高,设计了一种反射镜背部中心单点挠性支撑结构,并利用拓扑优化技术对反射镜进行了轻量化设计.为了结构设计的合理性,采用有限元技术对反射镜组件进行了模态分析、结构强度分析、谐响应分析及热环境分析.分析结果表明:反射镜在重力作用下最大面形误差RMS=1.16nm；在±10℃温度载荷作用下最大面形误差RMS=11.46nm；反射镜组件一阶频率为574.19Hz.使挠性支撑结构具有良好的静、动态特性和热尺寸稳定性,满足反射镜面形要求.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Estrada, Claudio A; Arancibia, Camilo [Centro de Investigacion en Energia UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez, Nestor [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2000-07-01
The optimal geometry and dimensions for the receiver of a parabolic solar concentrator based on microwave communication antenna are obtained. First, the experiments for the determination of the angular error of the concentrator and the dimensions of its focal region are described. Results are also presented for the ray tracing study, from which the optimal characteristics of the receiver are obtained according to the experimental results. As the aluminum antenna has a rim angle of 90 Celsius degrees, it is necessary to use a cavity receiver to allow external as well as internal absorption of radiative flux. Cylindrical, conical and spherical geometric were considered, as well as combinations of them. The best results are achieved using a conical cavity. Its dimensions are calculated to maximize the radiative transfer efficiency from the aperture of the concentrator to the receiver. [Spanish] Se determinan la geometria y dimensiones optimas del receptor de un concentrador solar parabolico obtenido a partir de una antena de telecomunicaciones para microondas. Primeramente se describen los experimentos realizados para obtener el valor del error angular asociado al concentrador y de las dimensiones de su region focal. Tambien se presentan los resultados del estudio optico de trazado de rayos, que permitio determinar teoricamente las caracteristicas del receptor, de acuerdo a los resultados de los experimentos. Debido a que la antena de aluminio tiene un angulo de borde de 90 grados Celcius, es necesario usar un receptor tipo cavidad que permita la captacion de energia tanto interna como externa. Se consideraron geometrias cilindrica, conica, esferica y combinaciones entre ellas, resultando ser la conica la que da los mejores resultados. Las dimensiones del receptor fueron determinadas maximizando la eficiencia del transporte de radiacion de la apertura del concentrador al receptor.
Off-Axis Aspheric Surfacing Using Sub-Aperture Tools
Feng, Yunpeng; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Haobo; Tam, Hon-Yuen
2013-10-01
The off-axis aspheric surface used in modern optical systems widely can obtain nearly perfect quality, realize both small packet-size and low-mass, and avoid the central obscuration. But it is difficult to fabricate because of asymmetry. There are some key technologies during the testing and fabrication of off-axis asphere. In this article, we proposed a method of the best fit sphere based on non-negative minimized removal criterion. And a measured data fitting algorithm was presented to estimate the geometry parameters of off-axis aspheric surface. Then an off-axis mirror was fabricated, and the interferometrically measured data was corrected to eliminate the distortion introduced by null compensator in every run. Finally, the surface error of off-axis mirror reduced to pv = 0.372λ, rms = 0.046λ, the surface roughness reached 0.72 nm. These methods mentioned in the article are suitable for off-axis aspheric optics.
Distortion definition and correction in off-axis systems
Da Deppo, Vania; Simioni, Emanuele; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele
2015-09-01
Off-axis optical configurations are becoming more and more used in a variety of applications, in particular they are the most preferred solution for cameras devoted to Solar System planets and small bodies (i.e. asteroids and comets) study. Off-axis designs, being devoid of central obstruction, are able to guarantee better PSF and MTF performance, and thus higher contrast imaging capabilities with respect to classical on-axis designs. In particular they are suitable for observing extended targets with intrinsic low contrast features, or scenes where a high dynamical signal range is present. Classical distortion theory is able to well describe the performance of the on-axis systems, but it has to be adapted for the off-axis case. A proper way to deal with off-axis distortion definition is thus needed together with dedicated techniques to accurately measure and hence remove the distortion effects present in the acquired images. In this paper, a review of the distortion definition for off-axis systems will be given. In particular the method adopted by the authors to deal with the distortion related issues (definition, measure, removal) in some off-axis instruments will be described in detail.
Off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Clarence E.; Price, Jeffery R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Hanson, Gregory R.
2004-06-08
Systems and methods are described for off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method of recording an off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: reflecting a reference beam from a reference mirror at a non-normal angle; reflecting an object beam from an object at an angle with respect to an optical axis defined by a focusing lens; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form the off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording the off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes by transforming axes of the recorded off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined as an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; applying a digital filter to cut off signals around an original origin; and then performing an inverse Fourier transform.
Off-axis angular spectrum method with variable sampling interval
Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Oh, Himchan; Pi, Jae-Eun; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Gi Heon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ryu, Hojun; Hwang, Chi-Sun
2015-08-01
We proposed a novel off-axis angular spectrum method (ASM) for simulating free space wave propagation with a large shifted destination plane. The off-axis numerical simulation took wave propagation between a parallel source and a destination plane, but a destination plane was shifted from a source plane. The shifted angular spectrum method was proposed for diffraction simulation with a shifted destination plane and satisfied the Nyquist condition for sampling by limiting a bandwidth of a propagation field to avoid an aliasing error due to under sampling. However, the effective sampling number of the shifted ASM decreased when the shifted distance of the destination plane was large which caused a numerical error in the diffraction simulation. To compensate for the decrease of an effective sampling number for the large shifted destination plane, we used a variable sampling interval in a Fourier space to maintain the same effective sampling number independent of the shifted distance of the destination plane. As a result, our proposed off-axis ASM with a variable sampling interval can produce simulation results with high accuracy for nearly every shifted distance of a destination plane when an off-axis angle is less than 75°. We compared the performances of the off-axis ASM using the Chirp Z transform and non-uniform FFT for implementing a variable spatial frequency in a Fourier space.
Labate, Luca; Ferrara, Paolo; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Gizzi, Leonida A
2016-08-10
A general procedure is described to calculate the intensity and Strehl ratio, at a generic plane in the focal region, of a beam focused by an off-axis parabolic mirror in the presence of small misalignments. The general theoretical framework is first developed, which allows a full vector diffraction treatment in the case of general misalignments. Then, a parametric numerical study is reported, aimed at highlighting the tolerances of both the intensity and Strehl ratio for small misalignments, for different focusing and off-axis parabola parameters. A set of experimental measurements aimed at validating the theoretical model is also discussed. PMID:27534503
Off-axis Fresnel numbers in laser systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yudong; Yao; Junyong; Zhang; Yanli; Zhang; Qunyu; Bi; Jianqiang; Zhu
2014-01-01
The physical meaning and essence of Fresnel numbers are discussed,and two definitions of these numbers for offaxis optical systems are proposed.The universal Fresnel number is found to be N =(a2/λz) * C1+ C2.The Rayleigh–Sommerfeld nonparaxial diffraction formula states that a simple analytical formula for the nonparaxial intensity distribution after a circular aperture can be obtained.Theoretical derivations and numerical calculations reveal that the first correction factor C1 is equal to cos θ and the second factor C2 is a function of the incident wavefront and the shape of the diffractive aperture.Finally,some diffraction phenomena in off-axis optical systems are explained by the off-axis Fresnel number.
Noise estimation for off-axis electron holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Röder, Falk, E-mail: Falk.Roeder@Triebenberg.de [Triebenberg Labor, Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Lubk, Axel; Wolf, Daniel [Triebenberg Labor, Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Niermann, Tore [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)
2014-09-15
Off-axis electron holography provides access to the phase of the elastically scattered wave in a transmission electron microscope at scales ranging from several hundreds of nanometres down to 0.1 nm. In many cases the reconstructed phase shift is directly proportional to projected electric and magnetic potentials rendering electron holography a useful and established characterisation method for materials science. However, quantitative interpretation of experimental phase shifts requires quantitative knowledge about the noise, which has been previously established for some limiting cases only. Here, we present a general noise transfer formalism for off-axis electron holography allowing to compute the covariance (noise) of reconstructed amplitude and phase from characteristic detector functions and general properties of the reconstruction process. Experimentally, we verify the presented noise transfer formulas for two different cameras with and without objects within the errors given by the experimental noise determination. - Highlights: • We derive a general noise transfer for the off-axis holographic reconstruction. • Noise transfer formulas given by F. Lenz are included as a special case. • We estimate the covariance of a hologram using the noise spread function. • We experimentally verify the derived noise transfer formulas.
Ultrathin 90-degree sharp bends for spoof surface plasmon polaritons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yihao; Chen, Hongsheng; Xiao, Sanshui;
2015-01-01
surface plasmons around 90-degree sharp bends on ultrathin metallic films in the microwave regime. We demonstrate that by judiciously engineering the structure, the dispersion relation can be designed to reduce the scattering. Furthermore, the reflection can be suppressed by proper structural decoration...
Impedances and power losses for an off-axis beam
Kurennoy, S S
1996-01-01
A method for calculating coupling impedances and power losses for off-axis beams is developed. It is applied to calculate impedances of small localized discontinuities like holes and slots, as well as the impedance due to a finite resistivity of chamber walls, in homogeneous chambers with an arbitrary shape of the chamber cross section. The approach requires to solve a two-dimensional electrostatic problem, which can be easily done numerically in the general case, while for some particular cases analytical solutions are obtained.
On the off-axis tensile test for unidirectional composites
Nemeth, M. P.; Herakovich, C. T.; Post, D.
1982-01-01
The off axis tensile test was examined experimentally to obtain actual displacement fields over the surface of graphite polyimide coupon specimens. The experimental results were compared with approximate analytical solutions and generated finite element results. An optical method of high sensitivity moire interferometry was used to determine the actual displacements to high precision. The approximate analytical solution and the finite element results compare very favorably with the measured centerline displacements in the test section, and the finite element displacement fields provide excellent agreement with the moire displacements throughout the specimen. A 15 degree fiber orientation and coupon aspect ratios of 5 and 15 are presented.
Charged current disappearance measurements in the NuMI off-axis beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R. H. Bernstein
2003-09-25
This article studies the potential of combining charged-current disappearance measurements of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} from MINOS and an off-axis beam. The author finds that the error on {Delta}m{sup 2} from a 100 kt-yr off-axis measurement is a few percent of itself. Further, the author found little improvement to an off-axis measurement by combining it with MINOS.
GAMMA-RAY BURSTS ARE OBSERVED OFF-AXIS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryan, Geoffrey; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Zhang, Bin-Bin, E-mail: gsr257@nyu.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)
2015-01-20
We constrain the jet opening angle and, for the first time, the off-axis observer angle for gamma-ray bursts in the Swift-XRT catalog by using the ScaleFit package to fit afterglow light curves directly to hydrodynamic simulations. The ScaleFit model uses scaling relations in the hydrodynamic and radiation equations to compute synthetic light curves directly from a set of high-resolution two-dimensional relativistic blast wave simulations. The data sample consists of all Swift-XRT afterglows from 2005 to 2012 with sufficient coverage and a known redshift, 226 bursts in total. We find that the jet half-opening angle varies widely but is commonly less than 0.1 rad. The distribution of the electron spectral index is also broad, with a median at 2.30. We find the observer angle to have a median value of 0.57 of the jet opening angle over our sample, which has profound consequences for the predicted rate of observed jet breaks and affects the beaming-corrected total energies of gamma-ray bursts.
Off-Axis Undulator Radiation for CLIC Drive Beam Diagnostics
Jeff, A; Welsch, CP
2013-01-01
The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) will use a novel acceleration scheme in which energy extracted from a very intense beam of relatively low-energy electrons (the Drive Beam) is used to accelerate a lower intensity Main Beam to very high energy. The high intensity of the Drive Beam, with pulses of more than 1015 electrons, poses a challenge for conventional profile measurements such as wire scanners. Thus, new non-invasive profile measurements are being investigated. In this paper we propose the use of relatively inexpensive permanent-magnet undulators to generate off-axis visible Synchrotron Radiation from the CLIC Drive Beam. The field strength and period length of the undulator should be designed such that the on-axis undulator wavelength is in the ultra-violet. A smaller but still useable amount of visible light is then generated in a hollow cone. This light can be reflected out of the beam pipe by a ring-shaped mirror placed downstream and imaged on a camera. In this contribution, results of SRW and ZEMA...
Grebenyuk, Anton A.; Tarakanchikova, Yana V.; Ryabukho, Vladimir P.
2014-10-01
We propose an off-axis imaging approach for digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with quasimonochromatic partially spatially coherent illumination in transmission, which is intended to provide the advantages of off-axis partially coherent DHM imaging with a comparatively simple optical scheme. This approach does not require a diffraction grating for creating the off-axis modality and also allows for convenient control of the spatial frequency of carrier interference fringes for hologram sampling optimization. Theoretical analysis of the off-axis imaging process in this microscope is performed. An off-axis DHM based on the proposed approach is built and quantitative phase imaging of test objects is performed with suppressed coherent noise.
Concentration of off-axis radiation by solar concentrators for space power
Jefferies, Kent S.
1989-01-01
Four types of off-axis radiation are discussed. These are: (1) small off-axis angles during walk-off, (2) large off-axis angles, (3) an extended off-axis source such as Earth albedo, and (4) miscellaneous off-axis sources including radio frequency sources and local point sources. A code named OFFSET has been developed to represent the solar concentrator being developed for Space Station Freedom. It is a detailed, ray-tracing model which represents 50 ray originating points on the Sun and reflections from 10 points on each of the 456 concentrator facets. Results of this code are generally similar to the PIXEL results although there are small differences due to the more detailed representations of the Sun and concentrator that were used in the OFFSET code.
Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design.
Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao
2016-08-20
Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design. PMID:27557003
Liu, Hui; Yan, Shi-qiang; Pei, Yun-tian; Hu, Lei; Xu, Song
2012-09-01
The reflection optical system gets more and more attention nowadays owing to without chromatic aberration and small volume. The manufacturing and assembly/calibration technology for the coaxial reflection optical system is more mature relative to the other reflection optical systems. But the coaxial reflection optical system will obstruct the incidence ray especially when the field is large, which will reduce the energy entering the optical system and reduce the resolution. The off-axis Three-Mirror Optical Systems can conquer those disadvantages of the coaxial reflection optical system, however the manufacturing and assembly/calibration for the off-axis Optical Systems is very difficult which must use computer-aided technology. The manufacturing and assembly/calibration technology is the main bottleneck for the off-axis Optical Systems to the engineering application. The Author of this thesis researched the design theory of the Three-Mirror Optical System, and then schemed out off-axis Three-Mirror and Multi-Mirror Optical System smartly using coaxial two-mirror optical structure which conquers the disadvantage of small field and possesses of the all advantages of the coaxial reflection optical system. This new optical system has two mirrors, one of which is a parabolic mirror with high-order aspheric term and the other is a hyperboloid mirror with high-order aspheric term. The characteristics of this new optical system are as follows: the F Number is 1.25, the field of view is 2°×2° and the total length is only 115mm with coaxial assembly of the two mirrors.
Proto-Model of an Infrared Wide-Field Off-Axis Telescope
Kim, Sanghyuk; Chang, Seunghyuk; Kim, Geon Hee; Yang, Sun Choel; Kim, Myung Sang; Lee, Sungho; Lee, Hanshin; 10.5303/JKAS.2010.43.5.169
2010-01-01
We develop a proto-model of an off-axis reflective telescope for infrared wide-field observations based on the design of Schwarzschild-Chang type telescope. With only two mirrors, this design achieves an entrance pupil diameter of 50 mm and an effective focal length of 100 mm. We can apply this design to a mid-infrared telescope with a field of view of 8 deg X 8 deg. In spite of the substantial advantages of off-axis telescopes in the infrared compared to refractive or on-axis reflective telescopes, it is known to be difficult to align the mirrors in off-axis systems because of their asymmetric structures. Off-axis mirrors of our telescope are manufactured at the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI). We analyze the fabricated mirror surfaces by fitting polynomial functions to the measured data. We accomplish alignment of this two-mirror off-axis system using a ray tracing method. A simple imaging test is performed to compare a pinhole image with a simulated prediction.
Nonparaxial propagation of a vectorial apertured off-axis Lorentz beam
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Guo-Quan
2009-01-01
Based on the vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral formula and the complex Gaussian expansion of the hard-edge aperture function, an analytical propagation expression for a nonparaxial vectorial off-axis Lorentz beam passing through a rectangular aperture is derived. The unapertured case, the far field expression and the scalar paraxial result are also presented as special cases of the general formulae, respectively. Some numerical examples are also given to show the propagation characteristics of a nonparaxial vectorial off-axis Lorentz beam through a rectangular aperture. It is indicated that the f parameter, the off-axis displacement and the truncation parameter all play an important role in determining nonparaxial propagation behaviour.
Full off-axis red-green-blue digital holographic microscope with LED illumination.
Dubois, F; Yourassowsky, C
2012-06-15
We developed a new full off-axis red-green-blue (RGB) digital holographic microscope with an LED illumination. A decisive advantage of the use of LED illumination is a large image quality improvement due to its partially coherent nature. The off-axis configuration enables the fast recording of the holographic data in each spectral channel. The digital holographic refocusing and the optical phase map computation are successfully demonstrated. The multiwavelength operation provides a significant improvement of the collected information for colored samples.
Optical Design for the Off-axis Reflective Optics with Wide Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Reflective optics with wide field of view has been applied more and more widely in EUVL or space optics, and also plays an important role in promoting scientific and technological research. Among the reflective optics, the off-axis reflective optics is the most hopeful solution to the ever-highest demands of these applications. This paper gives the requirements of both the above mentioned applications and the similarities and differences between these two kinds of optical systems. Finally, a design example of off-axis reflective optics with wide field of view is presented and described.
Off-Axis Astigmatic Gaussian Beam Combination Beyond the Paraxial Approximation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Zeng-Hui; L(U) Bai-Da
2007-01-01
Taking the off-axis astigmatic Gaussian beam combination as an example, the beam-combination concept is extended to the nonparaxial regime. The closed-form propagation expressions for coherent and incoherent combinations of nonparaxial off-axis astigmatic Gaussian beams with rectangular geometry are derived and illustrated with numerical examples. It is shown that the intensity distributions of the resulting beam depend on the combination scheme and beam parameters in general, and in the paraxial approximation (i.e., for the small f-parameter)our results reduce to the paraxial ones.
Atomic resolution electrostatic potential mapping of graphene sheets by off-axis electron holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooper, David, E-mail: david.cooper@cea.fr [University Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054, Grenoble (France); Pan, Cheng-Ta; Haigh, Sarah [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
2014-06-21
Off-axis electron holography has been performed at atomic resolution with the microscope operated at 80 kV to provide electrostatic potential maps from single, double, and triple layer graphene. These electron holograms have been reconstructed in order to obtain information about atomically resolved and mean inner potentials. We propose that off-axis electron holography can now be used to measure the electrical properties in a range of two-dimensional semiconductor materials and three dimensional devices comprising stacked layers of films to provide important information about their electrical properties.
Extremely Soft X-ray Flash as the indicator of off-axis orphan GRB afterglow
Urata, Yuji; Yamazaki, Ryo; Sakamoto, Takanori
2015-01-01
We verified the off-axis jet model of X-ray flashes (XRFs) and examined a discovery of off-axis orphan gamma-ray burst (GRBs) afterglows. The XRF sample was selected on the basis of the following three factors: (1) a constraint on the lower peak energy of the prompt spectrum $E^{src}_{obs}$, (2) redshift measurements, and (3) multi-color observations of an earlier (or brightening) phase. XRF020903 was the only sample selected basis of these criteria. A complete optical multi-color afterglow light curve of XRF020903 obtained from archived data and photometric results in literature showed an achromatic brightening around 0.7 days. An off-axis jet model with a large observing angle (0.21 rad, which is twice the jet opening half-angle, $\\theta_{jet}$) can naturally describe the achromatic brightening and the prompt X-ray spectral properties. This result indicates the existence of off-axis orphan GRB afterglow light curves. Events with a larger viewing angle ($>\\sim2\\theta_{jet}$) could be discovered using an 8-m ...
Hydrothermal synthesis, off-axis electron holography and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Almeida, Trevor P.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn;
2014-01-01
The hydrothermal synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) (<50 nm) from mixed FeCl3 / FeCl2 precursor solution at pH ~ 12 has been confirmed using complementary characterisation techniques of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Off-axis electron holography allowed for visuali......The hydrothermal synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) (
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, H.W.; Li, H.Y.; Gui, L.L.;
2013-01-01
Experimental and computational studies of the microscale mechanisms of damage formation and evolution in unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer composites (GFRP) under axial and off-axis compressive loading are carried out. A series of compressive testing of the composites with different a...
Off-Axis Gaussian Beams with Random Displacement in Atmospheric Turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yahya Baykal
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Our recent work in which we study the propagation of the general Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams in wireless broadband access telecommunication systems is elaborated in this paper to cover the special case of an off-axis Gaussian beam. We mainly investigate the propagation characteristics in atmospheric turbulence of an off-axis Gaussian beam possessing Gaussian distributed random displacement parameters. Our interest is to search for different types of laser beams that will improve the performance of a wireless broadband access system when atmospheric turbulence is considered. Our formulation is based on the basic solution of the second order mutual coherence function evaluated at the receiver plane. For fixed turbulence strength, the coherence length calculated at the receiver plane is found to decrease as the variance of the random displacement is increased. It is shown that as the turbulence becomes stronger, coherence lengths due to off-axis Gaussian beams tend to approach the same value, irrespective of the variance of the random displacement. As expected, the beam spreading is found to be pronounced for larger variance of displacement parameter. Average intensity profiles when atmospheric turbulence is present are plotted for different values of the variance of the random displacement parameter of the off-axis Gaussian beam.
Extremely Soft X-Ray Flash as the Indicator of Off-axis Orphan GRB Afterglow
Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kuiyun; Yamazaki, Ryo; Sakamoto, Takanori
2015-06-01
We verified the off-axis jet model of X-ray flashes (XRFs) and examined a discovery of off-axis orphan gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. The XRF sample was selected on the basis of the following three factors: (1) a constraint on the lower peak energy of the prompt spectrum {E}{obs}{src}, (2) redshift measurements, and (3) multicolor observations of an earlier (or brightening) phase. XRF 020903 was the only sample selected on the basis of these criteria. A complete optical multicolor afterglow light curve of XRF 020903 obtained from archived data and photometric results in the literature showed an achromatic brightening around 0.7 days. An off-axis jet model with a large observing angle (0.21 rad, which is twice the jet opening half-angle, {θ }{jet}) can naturally describe the achromatic brightening and the prompt X-ray spectral properties. This result indicates the existence of off-axis orphan GRB afterglow light curves. Events with a larger viewing angle (\\gt ∼ 2{θ }{jet}) could be discovered using an 8 m class telescope with wide-field imagers such as the Subaru Hyper-Suprime-Cam and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.
GRB off-axis afterglows and the emission from the accompanying supernovae
Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Giannios, Dimitrios
2016-01-01
Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows are likely produced in the shock that is driven as the GRB jet interacts with the external medium. Long duration GRBs are also associated with powerful supernovae (SN). We consider the optical and radio afterglows of long GRBs for both blasts viewed along the jet axis ("on-axis" afterglows) and misaligned observes ("off-axis" afterglows). Comparing the optical emission from the afterglow with that of the accompanying SN, using SN 1998bw as an archetype, we find that only a few percent of afterglows viewed off-axis are brighter than the SN. For observable optical off-axis afterglows the viewing angle is at most twice the half-opening angle of the GRB jet. Radio off-axis afterglows should be detected with upcoming radio surveys within a few hundred Mpc. We propose that these surveys will act as "radio triggers," and that dedicated radio facilities should follow-up these sources. Follow-ups can unveil the presence of the radio supernova remnant, if present. In addition, they can ...
Vortex Breakdown Generated by off-axis Bifurcation in a cylinder with rotating covers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bisgaard, Anders; Brøns, Morten; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2006-01-01
Vortex breakdown of bubble type is studied for the flow in a cylinder with rotating top and bottom covers. For large ratios of the angular velocities of the covers, we observe numerically that the vortex breakdown bubble in the steady regime may occur through the creation of an off-axis vortex ring...
Fast phase processing in off-axis holography by CUDA including parallel phase unwrapping.
Backoach, Ohad; Kariv, Saar; Girshovitz, Pinhas; Shaked, Natan T
2016-02-22
We present parallel processing implementation for rapid extraction of the quantitative phase maps from off-axis holograms on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) of the computer using computer unified device architecture (CUDA) programming. To obtain efficient implementation, we parallelized both the wrapped phase map extraction algorithm and the two-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithm. In contrast to previous implementations, we utilized unweighted least squares phase unwrapping algorithm that better suits parallelism. We compared the proposed algorithm run times on the CPU and the GPU of the computer for various sizes of off-axis holograms. Using the GPU implementation, we extracted the unwrapped phase maps from the recorded off-axis holograms at 35 frames per second (fps) for 4 mega pixel holograms, and at 129 fps for 1 mega pixel holograms, which presents the fastest processing framerates obtained so far, to the best of our knowledge. We then used common-path off-axis interferometric imaging to quantitatively capture the phase maps of a micro-organism with rapid flagellum movements. PMID:26906982
Light curves and spectra from off-axis gamma-ray bursts
Salafia, O. S.; Ghisellini, G.; Pescalli, A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Nappo, F.
2016-10-01
If gamma-ray burst prompt emission originates at a typical radius, and if material producing the emission moves at relativistic speed, then the variability of the resulting light curve depends on the viewing angle. This is due to the fact that the pulse evolution time-scale is Doppler contracted, while the pulse separation is not. For off-axis viewing angles θview ≳ θjet + Γ-1, the pulse broadening significantly smears out the light-curve variability. This is largely independent of geometry and emission processes. To explore a specific case, we set up a simple model of a single pulse under the assumption that the pulse rise and decay are dominated by the shell curvature effect. We show that such a pulse observed off-axis is (i) broader, (ii) softer and (iii) displays a different hardness-intensity correlation with respect to the same pulse seen on-axis. For each of these effects, we provide an intuitive physical explanation. We then show how a synthetic light curve made by a superposition of pulses changes with increasing viewing angle. We find that a highly variable light curve (as seen on-axis) becomes smooth and apparently single-pulsed (when seen off-axis) because of pulse overlap. To test the relevance of this fact, we estimate the fraction of off-axis gamma-ray bursts detectable by Swift as a function of redshift, finding that a sizeable fraction (between 10 per cent and 80 per cent) of nearby (z < 0.1) bursts are observed with θview ≳ θjet + Γ-1. Based on these results, we argue that low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts are consistent with being ordinary bursts seen off-axis.
Ten deg off-axis tensile test for intralaminar shear characterization of fiber composites
Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.
1976-01-01
A combined theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen for the intralaminar shear characterization of unidirectional composites. Composite mechanics, a combined-stress failure criterion, and a finite element analysis were used to determine theoretically the stress-strain variation across the specimen width and the relative stress and strain magnitudes at the 10 deg plane. Strain gages were used to measure the strain variation across the specimen width at specimen midlength and near the end tabs. Specimens from Mod-I/epoxy, T-300/epoxy, and S-glass/epoxy were used in the experimental program. It was found that the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen is suitable for intralaminar shear characterization and it is recommended that it should be considered as a possible standard test specimen for such a characterization.
Seo, Byoung-Joon; Nissly, Carl; Troy, Mitchell; Angeli, George
2010-01-01
The Normalized Point Source Sensitivity (PSSN) has previously been defined and analyzed as an On-Axis seeing-limited telescope performance metric. In this paper, we expand the scope of the PSSN definition to include Off-Axis field of view (FoV) points and apply this generalized metric for performance evaluation of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We first propose various possible choices for the PSSN definition and select one as our baseline. We show that our baseline metric has useful properties including the multiplicative feature even when considering Off-Axis FoV points, which has proven to be useful for optimizing the telescope error budget. Various TMT optical errors are considered for the performance evaluation including segment alignment and phasing, segment surface figures, temperature, and gravity, whose On-Axis PSSN values have previously been published by our group.
Nanostructured Diamond-Like Carbon Films Grown by Off-Axis Pulsed Laser Deposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seong Shan Yap
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC films instead of the ultrasmooth film were obtained by pulsed laser ablation of pyrolytic graphite. Deposition was performed at room temperature in vacuum with substrates placed at off-axis position. The configuration utilized high density plasma plume arriving at low effective angle for the formation of nanostructured DLC. Nanostructures with maximum size of 50 nm were deposited as compared to the ultrasmooth DLC films obtained in a conventional deposition. The Raman spectra of the films confirmed that the films were diamond-like/amorphous in nature. Although grown at an angle, ion energy of >35 eV was obtained at the off-axis position. This was proposed to be responsible for subplantation growth of sp3 hybridized carbon. The condensation of energetic clusters and oblique angle deposition correspondingly gave rise to the formation of nanostructured DLC in this study.
A comparison of on-axis and off-axis heliostat alignment strategies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, S.A.
1996-03-01
Heliostat installation and alignment costs will be an important element in future solar power tower projects. The predicted annual performances of on- and-off axis strategies are compared for 95 m{sup 2} flat-glass heliostats and an external, molten-salt receiver. Actual approaches to heliostat alignment that have been used in the past are briefly discussed, and relative strengths and limitations are noted. The optimal approach can vary with the application.
Binocular Coordination of the Human Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex during Off-axis Pitch Rotation
Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Kaufman, G. D.; Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.
2006-01-01
Head movements in the sagittal pitch plane typically involve off-axis rotation requiring both vertical and horizontal vergence ocular reflexes to compensate for angular and translational motion relative to visual targets of interest. The purpose of this study was to compare passive pitch VOR responses during rotation about an Earth-vertical axis (canal only cues) with off-axis rotation (canal and otolith cues). Methods. Eleven human subjects were oscillated sinusoidally at 0.13, 0.3 and 0.56 Hz while lying left-side down with the interaural axis either aligned with the axis of rotation or offset by 50 cm. In a second set of measurements, twelve subjects were also tested during sinusoidally varying centrifugation over the same frequency range. The modulation of vertical and horizontal vergence ocular responses was measured with a binocular videography system. Results. Off-axis pitch rotation enhanced the vertical VOR at lower frequencies and enhanced the vergence VOR at higher frequencies. During sinusoidally varying centrifugation, the opposite trend was observed for vergence, with both vertical and vergence vestibulo-ocular reflexes being suppressed at the highest frequency. Discussion. These differential effects of off-axis rotation over the 0.13 to 0.56 Hz range are consistent with the hypothesis that otolith-ocular reflexes are segregated in part on the basis of stimulus frequency. At the lower frequencies, tilt otolith-ocular responses compensate for declining canal input. At higher frequencies, translational otolith-ocular reflexes compensate for declining visual contributions to the kinematic demands required for fixating near targets.
Orbital Angular Momentum in Noncollinear Second Harmonic Generation by off-axis vortex beams
Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Braccini, Matteo; Giardina, Maurizio; Sibilia, Concita
2011-01-01
We experimentally study the behavior of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light in a noncollinear second harmonic generation (SHG) process. The experiment is performed by using a type I BBO crystal under phase matching conditions with femtosecond pumping fields at 830 nm. Two specular off-axis vortex beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum at the fundamental frequency (FF) are used. We analyze the behavior of the OAM of the SH signal when the optical vortex of each input field at t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasama, T. [Frontier Research System, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Posfai, M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Veszprem (Hungary); Chong, R.K.K. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Finlayson, A.P. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Frontier Research System, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Japan); Frankel, R.B. [Department of Physics, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)]. E-mail: rfrankel@calpoly.edu
2006-10-01
Transmission electron microscopy, off-axis electron holography and energy-selected imaging were used to study the crystallography, morphology, and magnetic microstructure of nanoscale greigite (Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}) magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria from a sulfidic habitat. The greigite magnetosomes were organized in chains, but were less ordered than magnetite magnetosomes in other bacteria. Nevertheless, the magnetosomes comprise a permanent magnetic dipole, sufficient for magnetotaxis.
Propagation evolution of an off-axis high-order cylindrical vector beam.
Li, Yang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Wang, Xiaolei; Gong, Liping; Wang, Ming; Nie, Shouping
2014-11-01
The propagation characteristics of an off-axis high-order cylindrical vector beam (OHCVB) are studied in this paper. The analytic expressions for the electric field and intensity distribution of the OHCVB propagating in free space are presented, to our knowledge for the first time. The transverse intensity of the OHCVB, different from that of the input Gaussian beam, does not have an axially symmetric distribution, owing to a slight dislocation between the polarization singularity located in the vector field generator and the center point of the Gaussian beam. Numerical results show that the intensity distribution during propagation strongly depends on the propagation distance, dislocation displacement, and topological charge. Accompanied by beam expansion, the intensity distribution of the OHCVB tends to eventually become steady, and the dark core of the vector beam will disappear gradually during the process of propagation. Moreover, with the increase of the topological charge, more energy will be transferred from the x axis to the y axis, and the annular intensity is split into two parts along the y-axis direction. The results help us to investigate the dynamic propagation behaviors of the HCVB under the off-axis condition and also guide the calibration of the off-axis high-order cylindrical vector field in practice. PMID:25401345
Yuan, Qiong-kun; Wu, Zhen-sen; Li, Zheng-jun
2010-06-01
An analytical solution to the scattering of an off-axis Gaussian beam obliquely incident on a uniaxial anisotropic sphere is obtained in the particle-centered system. Based on the local approximation to the off-axis beam shape coefficients and the coordinate rotation theory, the off-axis obliquely incident Gaussian beam is expanded with the spherical vector wave functions in the primary coordinate of the uniaxial anisotropic sphere. The internal fields of the uniaxial anisotropic sphere are proposed in the integrating form of the spherical vector wave functions by introducing the Fourier transform. By matching the fields on the boundary and solving matrix equations, the expansion coefficients are analytically derived. The influences of the beam waist center positioning and the obliquely incident angles, as well as the permittivity tensors on the far scattered field distributions, are numerically presented. The correctness of the theory is verified by comparing our numerical results in special cases with results from the references and with calculations by other algorithms. PMID:20508716
Thin Film Flat Panel Off-Axis Solar Concentrator with Flux Distribution Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Relatively small concentric thin film FRESNEL lenses and fresnel-like Multiple Parabolic Reflecting Surface (MPRS) reflectors have been successfully produced from...
Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization
Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis
2013-01-01
The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.
Electron gun with off-axis beam injection for a race-track microtron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A miniature 12 MeV race-track microtron for medical applications is under construction at the Technical University of Catalonia in collaboration with several Spanish centers and companies and the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Moscow State University. As a source of electrons a compact 3D on-axis electron gun with an off-axis cathode has been designed to allow a direct and efficient injection into the accelerating structure. Its prototype has been built and successfully tested. Results of the electron gun design simulations and of the prototype performance are herein described.
Plasmonic off-axis unidirectional beaming of quantum-well luminescence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DiMaria, Jeff; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Paiella, Roberto, E-mail: rpaiella@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)
2013-12-16
Plasmonic off-axis unidirectional beaming of luminescence is demonstrated using nitride semiconductor quantum wells. The underlying mechanism involves the near-field excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on an ultrathin metal film, which are then diffractively scattered by an adjacent periodic array of asymmetric metallic nanoparticles. By tailoring the nanoparticles shape, we show that forward scattering can be suppressed in favor of backward diffraction (or vice versa), thereby enabling unidirectional beaming at geometrically tunable oblique angles. These nanostructures can be used to control the output light directionality of arbitrary planar luminescent devices, with a spatial resolution that would be unattainable with bulk optics.
Transparent conducting zinc oxide thin film prepared by off-axis rf magnetron sputtering
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M K Jayaraj; Aldrin Antony; Manoj Ramachandran
2002-06-01
Highly conducting and transparent ZnO : Al thin films were grown by off-axis rf magnetron sputtering on amorphous silica substrates without any post-deposition annealing. The electrical and optical properties of the films deposited at various substrate temperatures and target to substrate distances were investigated in detail. Optimized ZnO : Al films have conductivity of 2200 S cm–1 and average transmission in the visible range is higher than 85%. The conductivity and mobility show very little temperature dependence.
Orbital Angular Momentum in Noncollinear Second Harmonic Generation by off-axis vortex beams
Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Giardina, Maurizio; Sibilia, Concita
2011-01-01
We experimentally study the behavior of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light in a noncollinear second harmonic generation (SHG) process. The experiment is performed by using a type I BBO crystal under phase matching conditions with femtosecond pumping fields at 830 nm. Two specular off-axis vortex beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum at the fundamental frequency (FF) are used. We analyze the behavior of the OAM of the SH signal when the optical vortex of each input field at the FF is displaced from the beam's axis. We obtain different spatial configurations of the SH field, always carrying the same zero angular momentum.
Manifestation of the rotational Doppler effect by use of an off-axis optical vortex beam.
Basistiy, I V; Slyusar, V V; Soskin, M S; Vasnetsov, M V; Bekshaev, A Ya
2003-07-15
We report what is to our knowledge the first all-optical detection of the frequency beats between Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian LG0(1) modes in their axial superposition, caused by the rotational Doppler effect. The relation between the observable off-axis optical vortex rotation and the rotational frequency shift of the Laguerre-Gaussian component is ascertained. The results can be used as a physical basis for recognition of Laguerre-Gaussian mode spectra along their orbital angular momenta.
Measurement of orbital angular momentum with an off-axis superposition of vector modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose an off-axis superposition of vector modes with orthogonal polarizations, constructed from a general scalar helical vortex mode with unknown topological charge m, as a method to measure its orbital angular momentum. We derived analytic expressions for sets of solutions to find lines of linear polarization (L lines) within the composite polarization field. We found that the solutions corresponding to the angular component of the composite field depend only on the displacement of the beams and the topological charge m, and they are invariant under propagation and changes in the relative amplitude and phase between the beams. (paper)
Gas Cherenkov Detectors Using Off-Axis Optical System%使用离轴光学系统的气体切伦科夫探测器
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐涛; 苏明; 彭晓世; 王峰; 刘慎业
2011-01-01
基于探测器的测量原理,并针对卡塞格林光学系统的不足,分析了一种新型气体切伦科夫探测器的光学结构.该探测器采用3片90°离轴抛物镜和1片平面反射镜组成的离轴光学系统以减少对光线的阻挡,并将探测窗口置于光学系统的出瞳以提高光收集效率.分析了光学系统的光束限制和光线追迹结果.设计了探测器的集成结构,从提高探测器效率和减少信号干扰等角度分析了探测器的关键设计和制造要求.%A novel design of the gas Cherenkov detector (GCD) using three pieces of 90° off-axis parabolic mirror and a turning flat mirror will take place the conventional GCD using Cassegrain reflector optics. Light collection is more effective by the using of the off-axis optical system and positioning the optical detector at the exit pupil of the optical system. Optical ray tracing demonstrates that how light can be collected by the optical detector from different object surface. An integration design of the whole GCD is given and the details are analyzed to enhance light collection efficiency and offer better radiation shield.
Simulation Study on the Emittance Compensation of Off-axis Emitted Beam in RF Photoinjector
Huang, Rui-Xuan; Jia, Qi-Ka; Papadopoulos, Christos; Sannibale, Fernando
2016-01-01
To make full use of photocathode material and improve its quantum efficiency lifetime, it can be necessary to operate laser away from the cathode center in photoinjectors. In RF guns, the off-axis emitted beam will see a time-dependent RF effect, which would generate a significant growth in transverse emittance. It has been demonstrated that such an emittance growth can be almost completely compensated by orienting the beam on a proper orbit in the downstream RF cavities along the injector. In this paper we analyze in detail the simulation techniques used in reference[1] and the issues associated with them. The optimization of photoinjector systems involving off-axis beams is a challenging problem. To solve this problem, one needs advanced simulation tools including both genetic algorithms and an efficient algorithm for 3D space charge. In this paper, we report on simulation studies where the two codes ASTRA and IMPACT-T are used jointly to overcome these challenges, in order to optimize a system designed to ...
Post-correlation filtering techniques for off-axis source and RFI removal
Offringa, A R; Zaroubi, S
2012-01-01
Techniques to improve the data quality of interferometric radio observations are considered. Fundaments of fringe frequencies in the uv-plane are discussed and filters are used to attenuate radio-frequency interference (RFI) and off-axis sources. Several new applications of filters are introduced and tested. A low-pass filter in time and frequency direction on single baseline data is successfully used to lower the noise in the area of interest and to remove sidelobes coming from unmodelled off-axis sources and RFI. Related side effects of data integration, averaging and gridding are analysed, and shown to be able to cause ghosts and an increase in noise, especially when using long baselines or interferometric elements that have a large field of view. A novel projected fringe low-pass filter is shown to be potentially useful for first order source separation. Initial tests show that the filters can be several factors faster compared to common source separation techniques such as peeling and a variant of peelin...
Phase reconstruction of living human embryonic kidney 293 cells based on two off-axis holograms
Zhou, Wenjing; Yu, Yingjie; Duan, Yanhong; Asundi, Anand
2008-11-01
In this paper, we validate experimentally the potential of off-axis digital micro-holography for 3D image reconstruction of a live Human Embryonic Kidney 293(HEK293) cell that is widely used as transfection and expression. A subtraction method of two off-axis holograms to reconstruct the phase of the live microscopic object is discussed. The presented subtraction method can remove some main noise, for example, the quadratic phase aberration introduced by microscope objective (MO), other phase aberration introduced by the liquid in tank and other interference noise introduced by the optical parts. Thus an improvement in the measurement precision of live cells in aqueous solution is observed. The potential of this method is demonstrated by providing the phase reconstruction results of a phase grating and a single HEK293 cell. The results showed good correspondence to the actual character of HEK293 cell prove the capability of digital micro-holography as a tool to monitor the dynamic transfection process of the living HEK 293 cells.
Propagation of the off-axis superposition of partially coherent beams through atmospheric turbulence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang En-Tao; Ji Xiao-Ling; Lü Bai-Da
2009-01-01
The propagation properties of the off-axis superposition of partially coherent beams through atmospheric tur-bulence and their beam quality in terms of the mean-squared beam width w(z) and the power in the bucket (PIB)are studied in detail, where the effects of partial coherence, off-axis beam superposition and atmospheric turbulence are considered. The analytical expressions for the intensity, the beam width and the PIB are derived, and illustrative examples are given numerically. It is shown that the maximum intensity/max and the PIB decrease and ω(z) increases as the refraction index structure constant C2n increases. Therefore, the turbulence results in a degradation of the beam quality. However, the resulting partially coherent beam with a smaller value of spatial correlation parameter γ and larger values of separate distance Xd and beam number M is less affected by the turbulence than that with a larger value of γ and smaller values of xd and M. The main results obtained in this paper are explained physically.
Determination of fiber-matrix interface failure parameters from off-axis tests
Naik, Rajiv A.; Crews, John H., Jr.
1993-01-01
Critical fiber-matrix (FM) interface strength parameters were determined using a micromechanics-based approach together with failure data from off-axis tension (OAT) tests. The ply stresses at failure for a range of off-axis angles were used as input to a micromechanics analysis that was performed using the personal computer-based MICSTRAN code. FM interface stresses at the failure loads were calculated for both the square and the diamond array models. A simple procedure was developed to determine which array had the more severe FM interface stresses and the location of these critical stresses on the interface. For the cases analyzed, critical FM interface stresses were found to occur with the square array model and were located at a point where adjacent fibers were closest together. The critical FM interface stresses were used together with the Tsai-Wu failure theory to determine a failure criterion for the FM interface. This criterion was then used to predict the onset of ply cracking in angle-ply laminates for a range of laminate angles. Predictions for the onset of ply cracking in angle-ply laminates agreed with the test data trends.
First-order design of off-axis reflective ophthalmic adaptive optics systems using afocal telescopes
Gómez-Vieyra, Armando; Dubra, Alfredo; Williams, David R.; Malacara-Hernández, Daniel
2009-09-01
Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLOs) and optical coherence tomographs are the state-of-the-art retinal imaging instruments, and are essential for early and reliable diagnosis of eye disease. Recently, with the incorporation of adaptive optics (AO), these instruments have started to deliver near diffraction-limited performance in both humans and animal models, enabling the resolution of the retinal ganglion cell bodies, their processes, the cone photoreceptor and the retinal pigment epithelial cells mosaics. Unfortunately, these novel instruments have not delivered consistent performance across human subjects and animal models. One of the limitations of current instruments is the astigmatism in the pupil and imaging planes, which degrades image quality, by preventing the wavefront sensor from measuring aberrations with high spatial content. This astigmatism is introduced by the sequence of off-axis reflective elements, typically spherical mirrors, used for relaying pupil and imaging planes. Expressions for minimal astigmatism on the image and pupil planes in off-axis reflective afocal telescopes formed by pairs of spherical mirrors are presented. The formulas, derived from the marginal ray fans equation, are valid for small angles of incidence (systems. An example related to this last application is discussed.
LED-based digital holographic microscopy with slightly off-axis interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An LED illuminated Linnik-type digital holographic microscope (DHM) for high-quality phase imaging is presented by the adoption of slightly off-axis two-step blind-phase-shifting interferometry (TB-PSI). Slightly off-axis interferometry lowers the requirement on the angle between the object and the reference waves as well as the requirement on the resolving power of the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. In addition, the apparatus is cost-effective and offers ease of alignment. The phase-shifting DHM is simply implemented by mechanically moving the reference mirror while disposing of a precise phase modulator such as a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). The phase shift between the two interferograms is extracted by Fourier transformation analysis, and then the phase image is reconstructed. The performance of the TB-PSI used in the scheme is analyzed. The phase imaging for nanostructured specimens is conducted, and the results demonstrate the feasibility of the scheme. The phase noise is reduced by 73% when compared to the result obtained with coherent illumination. (paper)
Öhman, Johan; Sjödahl, Mikael
2016-09-20
Poor axial resolution in holographic particle imaging applications makes particle positioning in 3D space more complex since the positions are not directly obtained. In this paper we estimate the axial position of micrometer particles by finding the location where the wavefront curvature from the scattered light becomes zero. By recording scattered light at 90° using off-axis holography, the complex amplitude of the light is obtained. By reconstruction of the imaged scene, a complex valued volume is produced. From this volume, phase gradients are calculated for each particle and used to estimate the wavefront curvature. From simulations it is found that the wavefront curvature became zero at the true axial position of the particle. We applied this metric to track an axial translation experimentally using a telecentric off-axis holographic imaging system with a lateral magnification of M=1.33. A silicon cube with molded particles inside was used as sample. Holographic recordings are performed both before and after a 100 μm axial translation. From the estimated positions, it was found that the mean displacement of particles between recordings was 105.0 μm with a standard deviation of 25.3 μm. PMID:27661575
Soule, S.; Lizarralde, D.; Seewald, J.; Proskurowski, G.
2010-12-01
A thick layer of sediment commonly blankets spreading centers within young rifted margins such as the Guaymas Basin within the Gulf of California. The shallow oceanic crust in these environments differs significantly from deep-water, unsedimented ridges in that there is little to no extrusive volcanism, and crust is accreted by the intrusion of magmatic sills into sediments. From initial observations at the seafloor and through drill holes in the S. Guaymas Basin, a model of magmatic accretion similar to that of deep-water mid-ocean ridges was proposed wherein sills are intruded at the rift axis and subsequently buried by sediments as they are rafted off axis. Seismic reflection data collected throughout the N. Guaymas basin in 2002, however, found that sills do not deepen with off-axis distance suggesting that sill intrusion to shallow levels within the sediment pile occurs throughout the basin out to 50 km from the plate boundary (spreading age of 2 Ma). This suggests that magmatic accretion within the shallow crust is active over a very wide area (10-20 times larger than at deep-water mid-ocean ridges) independent of spreading age. During a cruise to the Guaymas Basin in 2009, we collected deep-towed sidescan sonar, sub-bottom imaging, multibeam bathymetry, near-bottom photographs, and bottom water samples across the N. Guaymas Basin to test this hypothesis. Acoustic backscatter imagery revealed nearly 100 localized, acoustically bright seafloor reflectors scattered throughout the survey area. Some of these backscatter anomalies were investigated with a deep-towed camera system and found to contain authigenic carbonate, tubeworms, clams, bacterial mats, and indurated sediment outcrops. Some sites showed small thermal anomalies in near-bottom waters, methane concentrations well in excess of background, and high 3He anomalies. Where coverage overlaps, these sites correlate with the position of seismically imaged subsurface sills. In this presentation, we present
Wave propagation in birefringent materials with off axis absorption or gain
Sabooni, Mahmood; Kristensson, Gerhard; Rippe, Lars
2016-01-01
The polarization direction of an electromagnetic field changes and eventually reaches a steady state when propagating through a birefringent material with off axis absorption or gain. The steady state orientation direction depends on the magnitude of the absorption (gain) and the phase retardation rate. The change in the polarization direction is experimentally demonstrated in weakly doped ($0.05\\%$) Pr$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystals, where the light polarization, if initially aligned along the most strongly absorbing principal axis, gradually switch to a much less absorbing polarization state during the propagation. This means that the absorption coefficient, $\\alpha$, in birefringent materials generally varies with length. This is important for, e.g., laser crystal gain media, highly absorbing and narrow band spectral filters and quantum memories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yazdi, Sadegh, E-mail: sadegh.yazdi@cen.dtu.dk [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco; Samaie Yekta, Maryam [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); McComb, David W. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Twitchett-Harrison, Alison C. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)
2015-05-15
Pronounced improvements in the understanding of semiconductor device performance are expected if electrostatic potential distributions can be measured quantitatively and reliably under working conditions with sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution. Here, we employ off-axis electron holography to characterize an electrically-biased Si p–n junction by measuring its electrostatic potential, electric field and charge density distributions under working conditions. A comparison between experimental electron holographic phase images and images obtained using three-dimensional electrostatic potential simulations highlights several remaining challenges to quantitative analysis. Our results illustrate how the determination of reliable potential distributions from phase images of electrically biased devices requires electrostatic fringing fields, surface charges, specimen preparation damage and the effects of limited spatial resolution to be taken into account.
Host galaxies of luminous quasars: population synthesis of optical off-axis spectra
Wold, I; Wolf, M J; Hooper, E J
2010-01-01
There is increasing evidence of a connection between AGN activity and galaxy evolution. To obtain further insight into this potentially important evolutionary phase, we analyse the properties of quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we present a population synthesis modeling technique for off-axis spectra, the results of which constrain host colour and the stellar ages of luminous quasars (M_V(nuc) 10^40 erg s^-1) quasars to be located in redder host galaxies in comparison to th eir less luminous radio counterparts. While the host colour and age of our radio luminous sample is in close proximity to the green valley, our radio faint sample is consistent with quiescent star-forming galaxies. However, further observations are needed to confirm these results. Finally, we discuss future applications for our technique on a larger sample of objects being obtained via SALT and WIYN telescope observing campaigns.
Off-axis retrieval of orbital angular momentum of light stored in cold atoms
de Oliveira, R A; Barbosa, P S; Martins, W S; Barreiro, S; Felinto, D; Bloch, D; Tabosa, J W R
2014-01-01
We report on the storage of orbital angu- lar momentum (OAM) of light of a Laguerre-Gaussian mode in an ensemble of cold cesium atoms and its re- trieval along an axis different from the incident light beam. We employed a time-delayed four-wave mixing configuration to demonstrate that at small angle (2o), after storage, the retrieved beam carries the same OAM as the one encoded in the input beam. A calculation based on mode decomposition of the retrieved beam over the Laguerre-Gaussian basis is in agreement with the experimental observations done at small angle values. However, the calculation shows that the OAM retrieving would get lost at larger angles, reducing the fidelity of such storing-retrieving process. In addition, we have also observed that by applying an external magnetic field to the atomic ensemble the retrieved OAM presents Larmor oscillations, demonstrating the possibility of its manipulation and off-axis retrieval.
Automated Fourier space region-recognition filtering for off-axis digital holographic microscopy
He, Xuefei; Pratap, Mrinalini; Zheng, Yujie; Wang, Yi; Nisbet, David R; Williams, Richard J; Rug, Melanie; Maier, Alexander G; Lee, Woei Ming
2016-01-01
Automated label-free quantitative imaging of biological samples can greatly benefit high throughput diseases diagnosis. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a powerful quantitative label-free imaging tool that retrieves structural details of cellular samples non-invasively. In off-axis DHM, a proper spatial filtering window in Fourier space is crucial to the quality of reconstructed phase image. Here we describe a region-recognition approach that combines shape recognition with an iterative thresholding to extracts the optimal shape of frequency components. The region recognition technique offers fully automated adaptive filtering that can operate with a variety of samples and imaging conditions. When imaging through optically scattering biological hydrogel matrix, the technique surpasses previous histogram thresholding techniques without requiring any manual intervention. Finally, we automate the extraction of the statistical difference of optical height between malaria parasite infected and uninfected re...
Hydrothermal Cooling Within the Lau Integrated Study Site: No Evidence for Off-axis Discharge
Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Martinez, F.; Walker, S. L.; Buck, N.; Edwards, M. H.; Nakamura, K.
2008-12-01
Decades of intensive hydrothermal surveying, overwhelmingly concentrated within hundreds of meters of the axes of ridge crests, has supported the view that discrete fluid discharge is predominantly concentrated in this same region. This simple view, however, conflicts with emerging evidence for a crustal high-temperature, low-velocity volume (LVV) that extends 2-3 km beyond the ridge crest and generates strongly focused hydrothermal cooling along its off-axis vertical boundaries. In March/April 2008, we used high-resolution sampling of near-bottom waters along 175 km of the hydrothermally active Valu Fa Ridge (VFR) and Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) to comprehensively test the hypothesis that hydrothermal discharge is predominantly near-axis. Our sampling array included a suite of Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorders (temperature, light scattering, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP)) attached above (to a nominal altitude of 400 m) and below the deep-towed IMI120 sonar, plus CTDs and sensors at the bottom of the string (50 m) and on the clump weight (120 m). The ELSC between 19.9° and 21°S (spreading ~80 mm/yr) grades from a broad, flat valley in the north to a shallow high in the south. Ten survey lines at 1 km spacing were centered on the axis, plus five interleaved lines around the axial high of the ABE vent field (1300 km of track). The VFR from 21.9° to 22.4°S (~50 mm/yr) is a sharp ridge that deepens ~200 m within 1 km of the axis. Seven survey lines were run at 0.7 km spacing, plus two shorter lines adjacent to a broad overlapping spreading center (390 km). CTD tows and casts supplemented the IMI120 surveys. The surveys detected emissions from the several known on-axis vent fields, and also identified a substantial unexplored field near 20.65°S, ~10 km north of the ABE field. In neither survey area, however, did we detect evidence of high-temperature discharge beyond the near-axis (±1 km) zone. Because off-axis discharge may be largely low
Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in NoVA with a second off-axis detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mena, Olga; /Fermilab; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; /Vanderbilt U.; Pascoli, Silvia; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP
2005-10-01
We consider a Super-NOVA-like experimental configuration based on the use of two detectors in a long-baseline experiment as NOVA. We take the far detector as in the present NOVA proposal and add a second detector at a shorter baseline. The location of the second off-axis detector is chosen such that the ratio L/E is the same for both detectors, being L the baseline and E the neutrino energy. We consider liquid argon and water- Cerenkov techniques for the second off-axis detector and study, for different experimental setups, the detector mass required for the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy, for different values of {theta}{sub 13}. We also study the capabilities of such an experimental setup for determining CP-violation in the neutrino sector. Our results show that by adding a second off-axis detector a remarkable enhancement on the capabilities of the current NOVA experiment could be achieved.
Doping GaP Core-Shell Nanowire pn-Junctions: A Study by Off-Axis Electron Holography.
Yazdi, Sadegh; Berg, Alexander; Borgström, Magnus T; Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco; Samuelson, Lars; Wagner, Jakob B
2015-06-10
The doping process in GaP core-shell nanowire pn-junctions using different precursors is evaluated by mapping the nanowires' electrostatic potential distribution by means of off-axis electron holography. Three precursors, triethyltin (TESn), ditertiarybutylselenide, and silane are investigated for n-type doping of nanowire shells; among them, TESn is shown to be the most efficient precursor. Off-axis electron holography reveals higher electrostatic potentials in the regions of nanowire cores grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism (axial growth) than the regions grown parasitically by the vapor-solid (VS) mechanism (radial growth), attributed to different incorporation efficiency between VLS and VS of unintentional p-type carbon doping originating from the trimethylgallium precursor. This study shows that off-axis electron holography of doped nanowires is unique in terms of the ability to map the electrostatic potential and thereby the active dopant distribution with high spatial resolution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linck, Martin, E-mail: linck@ceos-gmbh.de [CEOS GmbH, Englerstr. 28, D-69126 Heidelberg (Germany)
2013-01-15
Amongst the impressive improvements in high-resolution electron microscopy, the Cs-corrector also has significantly enhanced the capabilities of off-axis electron holography. Recently, it has been shown that the signal above noise in the reconstructable phase can be significantly improved by combining holography and hardware aberration correction. Additionally, with a spherical aberration close to zero, the traditional optimum focus for recording high-resolution holograms ('Lichte's defocus') has become less stringent and both, defocus and spherical aberration, can be selected freely within a certain range. This new degree of freedom can be used to improve the signal resolution in the holographically reconstructed object wave locally, e.g. at the atomic positions. A brute force simulation study for an aberration corrected 200 kV TEM is performed to determine optimum values for defocus and spherical aberration for best possible signal to noise in the reconstructed atomic phase signals. Compared to the optimum aberrations for conventional phase contrast imaging (NCSI), which produce 'bright atoms' in the image intensity, the resulting optimum values of defocus and spherical aberration for off-axis holography enable 'black atom contrast' in the hologram. However, they can significantly enhance the local signal resolution at the atomic positions. At the same time, the benefits of hardware aberration correction for high-resolution off-axis holography are preserved. It turns out that the optimum is depending on the object and its thickness and therefore not universal. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimized aberration parameters for high-resolution off-axis holography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulation and analysis of noise in high-resolution off-axis holograms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improving signal resolution in the holographically reconstructed phase shift. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of &apos
Field experiment of 800× off-axis XR-Köhler concentrator module on a carousel tracker
Yamada, Noboru; Okamoto, Kazuya; Ijiro, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Takao; Maemura, Toshihiko; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Sato, Takashi; Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Chaves, Julio; Cvetkovic, Aleksandra; Vilaplana, J.; Mohedano, Rubén; Mendes Lopes, Joao
2013-01-01
This paper presents the design and preliminary experimental results of a concentrator-type photovoltaic module based on a free-form off-axis 800×XR-Köhler concentrator. The off-axis XR-Köhler concentrator is one of the advanced concentrators that perform high concentration with a large acceptance angle and excellent irradiance uniformity on a solar cell. As a result of on-sun characterization of the unglazed single-cell unit test rig, the temperature-corrected DC module efficiency was 32.2% a...
Morscher, Gregory N.; Yun, Hee Mann; DiCarlo, James A.
2007-01-01
The tensile mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in directions off the primary axes of the reinforcing fibers are important for architectural design of CMC components that are subjected to multi-axial stress states. In this study, 2D-woven melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC/SiC composite panels with balanced fiber content in the 0 degree and 90 degree directions were tensile loaded in-plane in the 0 degree direction and at 45 degree to this direction. In addition, a 2D triaxially-braided MI composite panel with balanced fiber content in the plus or minus 67 degree bias directions and reduced fiber content in the axial direction was tensile loaded perpendicular to the axial direction tows (i.e., 23 degrees from the bias fibers). Stress-strain behavior, acoustic emission, and optical microscopy were used to quantify stress-dependent matrix cracking and ultimate strength in the panels. It was observed that both off-axis loaded panels displayed higher composite onset stresses for through-thickness matrix cracking than the 2D-woven 0/90 panels loaded in the primary 0 degree direction. These improvements for off-axis cracking strength can in part be attributed to higher effective fiber fractions in the loading direction, which in turn reduces internal stresses on critical matrix flaws for a given composite stress. Also for the 0/90 panel loaded in the 45 degree direction, an improved distribution of matrix flaws existed due to the absence of fiber tows perpendicular to the loading direction. In addition, for the +67/0/-67 braided panel, the axial tows perpendicular to the loading direction were not only low in volume fraction, but were also were well separated from one another. Both off-axis oriented panels also showed relatively good ultimate tensile strength when compared to other off-axis oriented composites in the literature, both on an absolute strength basis as well as when normalized by the average fiber strength within the composites. Initial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2012-04-15
Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi; Ciechonski, R;
2013-01-01
Core-shell GaN nanowires are expected to be building blocks of future light emitting devices. Here we apply off-axis electron holography to map the electrostatic potential distributions in such nanowires. To access the cross-section of selected individual nanowires, focused ion beam (FIB) milling...
Step-flow growth of fluorescent 4H-SiC layers on 4 degree off-axis substrates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schimmel, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hens, P.;
2013-01-01
Homoepitaxial layers of fluorescent 4H-SiC were grown on 4 degree off-axis substrates by sublimation epitaxy. Luminescence in the green spectral range was obtained by co-doping with nitrogen and boron utilizing donor-acceptor pair luminescence. This concept opens possibilities to explore green li...... light emitting diodes using a new materials platform....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cooper, David; Rivallin, Pierrette; Hartmann, Jean-Michel;
2009-01-01
Silicon specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared for examination by off-axis electron holography using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. FIB milling modifies the surfaces of the specimens due to gallium implantation and the creation of defects which has the effect of reducing the activ......) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3195088]...
Pelc, Radek; Hostounský, Zdenek; Otaki, Tatsuro
2008-01-01
Microscopic images of biological phase specimens of various optical thickness, acquired under off-axis illumination and apodized/conventional phase-contrast are compared. The luminance profiles in appropriately filtered apodized phase-contrast images compare well with those in the original off-axis illumination images. The two unfiltered image types also yield similar results in terms of quasi-three-dimensional surface (pseudo-relief) rendering, and thus are comparable in terms of the information contents (optical thickness map). However, the overall visual impression is very different as the visual cues to depth structure are present in the off-axis illumination images only. The comparison demonstrated in the present paper was made possible owing to apodization, which substantially reduces the "halo"/shade-off artifacts in the phase-contrast images. The results imply the possibility of combining the off-axis illumination and apodized phase-contrast imaging to examine specimens of medium optical thickness, in which the phase visualization capability of the two imaging modes substantially overlaps (e.g., larger cells or cell clusters). PMID:19021445
First Muon-Neutrino Disappearance Study with an Off-Axis Beam
Abe, K; Ajima, Y; Aihara, H; Albert, J B; Andreopoulos, C; Andrieu, B; Anerella, M D; Aoki, S; Araoka, O; Argyriades, J; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Badertscher, A; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Bertram, I; Besnier, M; Beucher, J; Beznosko, D; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S B; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Brook-Roberge, D G; Buchanan, N; Budd, H; Calland, R; Calvet, D; Rodriguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Carver, A; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cazes, A; Cervera, A; Chavez, C; Choi, S; Christodoulou, G; Coleman, J; Collazuol, G; Coleman, W; Connolly, K; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davies, G S; Davis, S; Day, M; De Rosa, G; de André, J P A M; de Perio, P; Dealtry, T; Delbart, A; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Tran, P Dinh; Dobson, J; Dore, U; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Dziomba, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escallier, J E; Escudero, L; Esposito, L S; Fechner, M; Ferrero, A; Finch, A J; Frank, E; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Galymov, V; Ganetis, G L; Gannaway, F C; Gaudin, A; Gendotti, A; George, M A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Ghosh, A K; Golan, T; Goldhaber, M; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gomi, S; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Grant, A; Gumplinger, P; Guzowski, P; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamano, K; Hansen, C; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Harrison, P F; Hartfiel, B; Hartz, M; Haruyama, T; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hayashi, K; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Henderson, R; Higashi, N; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Hiraki, T; Hirose, E; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Hyndman, A; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Iida, M; Ikeda, M; Ilic, J; Imber, J; Ishida, T; Ishihara, C; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iwasaki, M; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Joo, K K; Jover-Manas, G V; Jung, C K; Kaji, H; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Karlen, D; Kasami, K; Kato, I; Kawamuko, H; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khanam, F; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kim, J; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kimura, N; Kirby, B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Koike, S; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kouzuma, Y; Kowalik, K; Kravtsov, V; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kubota, J; Kudenko, Y; Kulkarni, N; Kurimoto, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Laing, A; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lee, K P; Le, P T; Levy, J M; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Litos, M; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Lux, T; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Makida, Y; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marone, A J; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Maryon, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matsumura, C; Matsuoka, K; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; McLachlan, T; Messina, M; Metcalf, W; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A D; Mituka, G; Miura, M; Mizouchi, K; Monfregola, L; Moreau, F; Morgan, B; Moriyama, S; Muir, A; Murakami, A; Muratore, J F; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagai, N; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakajima, K; Nakamoto, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Navin, M L; Nicholls, T C; Nielsen, B; Nielsen, C; Nishikawa, K; Nishino, H; Nitta, K; Nobuhara, T; Nowak, J A; Obayashi, Y; Ogitsu, T; Ohhata, H; Okamura, T; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Ozaki, T; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Paul, P; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perkin, J D; Pettinacci, V; Pierre, F; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Qian, W; Raaf, J L; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Raufer, T M; Ravonel, M; Raymond, M; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roney, J M; Rossi, B; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sabouri, S; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sarrat, A; Sasaki, K; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Scully, D I; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Shibata, M; Shimizu, Y; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Sinclair, P D; Siyad, M; Smith, B M; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Stahl, A; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Stone, J; Stodulski, M; Strabel, C; Sulej, R; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, Y; Swierblewski, J; Szeglowski, T; Szeptycka, M; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Taguchi, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takenaga, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, M M; Tanimoto, N; Tashiro, K; Taylor, I; Terashima, A; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Toki, W; Tobayama, S; Tomaru, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Veledar, O; Wachala, T; Walding, J J; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wanderer, P J; Wang, J; Ward, M A; Ward, G P; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; West, N; Whitehead, L H; Wikström, G; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, S; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamanoi, Y; Yamaoka, H; Yamauchi, T; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J
2012-01-01
We report a measurement of muon-neutrino disappearance in the T2K experiment. The 295-km muon-neutrino beam from Tokai to Kamioka is the first implementation of the off-axis technique in a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. With data corresponding to 1.43 10**20 protons on target, we observe 31 fully-contained single muon-like ring events in Super-Kamiokande, compared with an expectation of 104 +- 14 (syst) events without neutrino oscillations. The best-fit point for two-flavor nu_mu -> nu_tau oscillations is sin**2(2 theta_23) = 0.98 and |\\Delta m**2_32| = 2.65 10**-3 eV**2. The boundary of the 90 % confidence region includes the points (sin**2(2 theta_23),|\\Delta m**2_32|) = (1.0, 3.1 10**-3 eV**2), (0.84, 2.65 10**-3 eV**2) and (1.0, 2.2 10**-3 eV**2).
Wang, Guangjun; Wang, Huaying; Wang, Dayong; Xie, Jianjun; Zhao, Jie
2007-12-01
A simple holographic high-resolution imaging system without pre-magnification, which is based on off-axis lensless Fourier transform configuration, has been developed. Experimental investigations are performed on USAF resolution test target. The method based on angular spectrum theory for reconstructing lensless Fourier hologram is given. The reconstructed results of the same hologram at different reconstructing distances are presented for what is to our knowledge the first time. Approximate diffraction limited lateral resolution is achieved. The results show that the angular spectrum method has several advantages over more commonly used Fresnel transform method. Lossless reconstruction can be achieved for any numerical aperture holograms as long as the wave field is calculated at a special reconstructing distance, which is determined by the light wavelength and the chip size and the pixel size of the CCD sensor. This is very important for reconstructing an extremely large numerical aperture hologram. Frequency-domain spectrum filtering can be applied conveniently to remove the disturbance of zero-order. The reconstructed image wave field is accurate so long as the sampling theorem is not violated. The experimental results also demonstrate that for a high quality hologram, special image processing is unnecessary to obtain a high quality image.
Abe, K; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Rodriguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Frank, E; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Golan, T; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kim, S B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Guerra, E S Pinzon; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sanchez, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Taylor, I J; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J
2013-01-01
The T2K collaboration reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector measurements are used to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters. The Super-Kamiokande far detector, which is 295 km downstream of the neutrino production target, collected data corresponding to $3.01 \\times 10^{20}$ protons on target. In the absence of neutrino oscillations, $205 \\pm 17$ (syst.) events are expected to be detected and only 58 muon neutrino event candidates are observed. A fit to the neutrino rate and energy spectrum assuming three neutrino flavors, normal mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{23}\\leq \\pi/4$ yields a best-fit mixing angle $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{23})=1.000$ and mass splitting $|\\Delta m^2_{32}| =2.44 \\times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$/c$^4$. If $\\theta_{23}\\geq \\pi/4$ is assumed, the best-fit mixing angle changes to $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{23})=0.999$ and the mass splitting remains unchanged.
Abe, K; Adam, J; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F D M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Frank, E; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Golan, T; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kim, S B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Taylor, I J; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J
2013-11-22
The T2K Collaboration reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector measurements are used to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters. The Super-Kamiokande far detector, which is 295 km downstream of the neutrino production target, collected data corresponding to 3.01×10(20) protons on target. In the absence of neutrino oscillations, 205±17 (syst) events are expected to be detected while only 58 muon neutrino event candidates are observed. A fit to the neutrino rate and energy spectrum, assuming three neutrino flavors and normal mass hierarchy yields a best-fit mixing angle sin2(θ23)=0.514±0.082 and mass splitting |Δm(32)(2)|=2.44(-0.15)(+0.17)×10(-3) eV2/c4. Our result corresponds to the maximal oscillation disappearance probability.
Rise and fall of the X-ray flash 080330: an off-axis jet?
Guidorzi, C; Kobayashi, S; Granot, J; Melandri, A; D'Avanzo, P; Kuin, N P M; Klotz, A; Fynbo, J P U; Covino, S; Greiner, J; Malesani, D; Mao, J; Mundell, C G; Steele, I A; Jakobsson, P; Margutti, R; Bersier, D; Campana, S; Chincarini, G; D'Elia, V; Fugazza, D; Genet, F; Gomboc, A; Kruehler, T; Yoldacs, A Kupcu; Moretti, A; Mottram, C J; O'Brien, P T; Smith, R J; Szokoly, G; Tagliaferri, G; Tanvir, N R; Gehrels, N
2009-01-01
X-ray flashes (XRFs) are a class of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the peak energy of the time-integrated spectrum, Ep, below 30 keV, whereas classical GRBs have Ep of a few hundreds keV. Apart from Ep and the lower luminosity, the properties of XRFs are typical of the classical GRBs. Yet, the nature of XRFs and the differences from that of GRBs are not understood. In addition, there is no consensus on the interpretation of the shallow decay phase observed in most X-ray afterglows of both XRFs and GRBs. We examine in detail the case of XRF 080330 discovered by Swift at the redshift of 1.51. This burst is representative of the XRF class and exhibits an X-ray shallow decay. The rich and broadband (from NIR to UV) photometric data set we collected across this phase makes it an ideal candidate to test the off-axis jet interpretation proposed to explain both the softness of XRFs and the shallow decay phase. We present prompt gamma-ray, early and late IR/visible/UV and X-ray observations of the XRF 080330. We derive ...
Super-Dispersive Off-Axis Meta-Lenses for Compact High Resolution Spectroscopy.
Khorasaninejad, M; Chen, W T; Oh, J; Capasso, F
2016-06-01
Metasurfaces have opened a new frontier in the miniaturization of optical technology by allowing exceptional control over the wavefront. Here, we demonstrate off-axis meta-lenses that simultaneously focus and disperse light of different wavelengths with unprecedented spectral resolution. They are designed based on the geometric phase via rotated silicon nanofins and can focus light at angles as large as 80°. Due to the large angle focusing, these meta-lenses have superdispersive characteristics (0.27 nm/mrad) that make them capable of resolving wavelength differences as small as 200 pm in the telecom region. In addition, by stitching several meta-lenses together, we maintain a high spectral resolution for a wider wavelength range. The meta-lenses have measured efficiencies as high as 90% in the wavelength range of 1.1 to 1.6 μm. The planar and compact configuration together with high spectral resolution of these meta-lenses has significant potential for emerging portable/wearable optics technology. PMID:27119987
Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Oscillations with an Accelerator-Produced Off-Axis Beam.
Abe, K; Andreopoulos, C; Antonova, M; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bartet-Friburg, P; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buizza Avanzini, M; Calland, R G; Cao, S; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Chikuma, N; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Collazuol, G; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Denner, P F; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Dolan, S; Drapier, O; Duffy, K E; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Feusels, T; Finch, A J; Fiorentini, G A; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, D; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Garcia, A; Giffin, S G; Giganti, C; Gizzarelli, F; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayashino, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Hogan, M; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Hosomi, F; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Intonti, R A; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Jiang, M; Johnson, S; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kim, H; Kim, J; King, S; Kisiel, J; Knight, A; Knox, A; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Koga, T; Konaka, A; Kondo, K; Kopylov, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Liptak, Z J; Litchfield, R P; Li, X; Longhin, A; Lopez, J P; Ludovici, L; Lu, X; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martins, P; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Ma, W Y; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mefodiev, A; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K G; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, K D; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nantais, C; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; Nowak, J; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Ovsyannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Patel, N D; Pavin, M; Payne, D; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pickering, L; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Popov, B; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Riccio, C; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Rychter, A; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shah, R; Shaikhiev, A; Shaker, F; Shaw, D; Shiozawa, M; Shirahige, T; Short, S; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Stewart, T; Suda, Y; Suvorov, S; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thakore, T; Thompson, L F; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vallari, Z; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Wakamatsu, K; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Warzycha, W; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, M; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Yoshida, K; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J
2016-05-01
T2K reports its first measurements of the parameters governing the disappearance of ν[over ¯]_{μ} in an off-axis beam due to flavor change induced by neutrino oscillations. The quasimonochromatic ν[over ¯]_{μ} beam, produced with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV at J-PARC, is observed at the far detector Super-Kamiokande, 295 km away, where the ν[over ¯]_{μ} survival probability is expected to be minimal. Using a data set corresponding to 4.01×10^{20} protons on target, 34 fully contained μ-like events were observed. The best-fit oscillation parameters are sin^{2}(θ[over ¯]_{23})=0.45 and |Δm[over ¯]_{32}^{2}|=2.51×10^{-3} eV^{2} with 68% confidence intervals of 0.38-0.64 and 2.26-2.80×10^{-3} eV^{2}, respectively. These results are in agreement with existing antineutrino parameter measurements and also with the ν_{μ} disappearance parameters measured by T2K. PMID:27203315
Performance of a direct detection camera for off-axis electron holography.
Chang, Shery L Y; Dwyer, Christian; Barthel, Juri; Boothroyd, Chris B; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E
2016-02-01
The performance of a direct detection camera (DDC) is evaluated in the context of off-axis electron holographic experiments in a transmission electron microscope. Its performance is also compared directly with that of a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The DDC evaluated here can be operated either by the detection of individual electron events (counting mode) or by the effective integration of many such events during a given exposure time (linear mode). It is demonstrated that the improved modulation transfer functions and detective quantum efficiencies of both modes of the DDC give rise to significant benefits over the conventional CCD cameras, specifically, a significant improvement in the visibility of the holographic fringes and a reduction of the statistical error in the phase of the reconstructed electron wave function. The DDC's linear mode, which can handle higher dose rates, allows optimisation of the dose rate to achieve the best phase resolution for a wide variety of experimental conditions. For suitable conditions, the counting mode can potentially utilise a significantly lower dose to achieve a phase resolution that is comparable to that achieved using the linear mode. The use of multiple holograms and correlation techniques to increase the total dose in counting mode is also demonstrated. PMID:26630072
Gan, Zhaofeng; Gu, Meng; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; He, Yang; Wang, Kang L; Wang, Chongmin; Smith, David J; McCartney, Martha R
2016-06-01
The successful operation of rechargeable batteries relies on reliable insertion/extraction of ions into/from the electrodes. The battery performance and the response of the electrodes to such ion insertion and extraction are directly related to the spatial distribution of the charge and its dynamic evolution. However, it remains unclear how charge is distributed in the electrodes during normal battery operation. In this work, we have used off-axis electron holography to measure charge distribution during lithium ion insertion into a Ge nanowire (NW) under dynamic operating conditions. We discovered that the surface region of the Ge core is negatively charged during the core-shell lithiation of the Ge NW, which is counterbalanced by positive charge on the inner surface of the lithiated LixGe shell. The remainder of the lithiated LixGe shell is free from net charge, consistent with its metallic characteristics. The present work provides a vivid picture of charge distribution and dynamic evolution during Ge NW lithiation and should form the basis for tackling the response of these and related materials under real electrochemical conditions. PMID:27192608
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lisanne J Balk
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography (OCT allows quantification of the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness, a potential biomarker for neurodegeneration. The estimated annual RNFL loss in multiple sclerosis amounts to 2 μm using time domain OCT. The recognition of measurement artifacts exceeding this limit is relevant for the successful use of OCT as a secondary outcome measure in clinical trials. METHODS: Prospective study design. An exploratory pilot study (ring and volume scans followed by a cohort study (1,980 OCT ring scans. The OCT measurement beam was placed off-axis to the left, right, top and bottom of the subjects pupil and RNFL thickness of these scans were compared to the centrally placed reference scans. RESULTS: Off-axis placement of the OCT measurement beam resulted in significant artifacts in RNFL thickness measurements (95%CI 9μm, maximal size of error 42μm. Off-axis placement gave characteristic patterns of the OCT live images which are not necessarily saved for review. Off-axis placement also causes regional inhomogeneity of reflectivity in the outer nuclear (ONL and outer plexiform layers (OPL which remains visible on scans saved for review. CONCLUSION: Off-axis beam placement introduces measurement artifacts at a magnitude which may mask recognition of RNFL loss due to neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. The resulting pattern in the OCT live image can only be recognised by the technician capturing the scans. Once the averaged scans have been aligned this pattern is lost. Retrospective identification of this artifact is however possible by presence of regional inhomogeneity of ONL/OPL reflectivity. This simple and robust sign may be considered for quality control criteria in the setting of multicentre OCT studies. The practical advice of this study is to keep the OCT image in the acquisition window horizontally aligned whenever possible.
Geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows on global two-phase flow parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows on global two-phase flow parameters, in particular pressure drop and flow regime transition are investigated. Pressure measurements are obtained along the test section over a wide range of flow conditions in both single-phase and two-phase flow conditions. A two-phase pressure drop correlation analogous to Lockhart-Martinelli correlation is proposed to predict the minor loss across the elbows. Flow visualization is performed to study the effect of elbows on the two-phase flow regime transition. Modified flow regime maps for horizontal and vertical-downward two-phase flow are obtained which demonstrate that downstream of the elbows flow regime transition boundaries deviate significantly from the conventional flow regime transition boundaries. (author)
Laser based sub-picosecond electron bunch characterization using 90 degree Thomson scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
X-rays produced by 90 degree Thomson scattering of a femtosecond, near infrared, terawatt laser pulse off a 50 MeV electron beam are shown to be an effective diagnostic to measure transverse and longitudinal density distributions of an electron beam (e-beam) with subpicosecond time resolution. The laser beam was focused onto the e-beam waist, generating 30 keV x-rays in the forward direction. The transverse and longitudinal e-beam structure have been obtained by measuring the intensity of the x-ray beam, while scanning the laser beam across the e-beam in space and time. The e-beam divergence has been obtained through measurement of spatial and spectral characteristics of the scattered x-ray beam
Radio follow-up observations of stellar tidal disruption flares: Constraints on off-axis jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Körding E.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN and X-ray binaries have shown that relativistic jets are ubiquitous when compact objects accrete. One could therefore anticipate the launch of a jet after a star is disrupted and accreted by a massive black hole. This birth of a relativistic jet may have been observed recently in two stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs, which were discovered in gamma-rays by Swift. Yet no transient radio emission has been detected from the tens of TDF candidates that were discovered at optical to soft X-ray frequencies. Because the sample that was followed-up at radio frequencies is small, the non-detections can be explained by Doppler boosting, which reduces the jet flux for off-axis observers. Plus, the existing followup observation are mostly within ∼ 10 months of the discovery, so the non-detections can also be due to a delay of the radio emission with respect to the time of disruption. To test the conjecture that all TDFs launch jets, we obtained 5 GHz follow-up observations with the Jansky VLA of six known TDFs. To avoid missing delayed jet emission, our observations probe 1–8 years since the estimated time of disruption. None of the sources are detected, with very deep upper limits at the 10 micro Jansky level. These observations rule out the hypothesis that these TDFs launched jets similar to radio-loud quasars. We also constrain the possibility that the flares hosted a jet identical to Sw 1644+57.
Khodadad, Davood
2016-03-01
This paper describes a method to obtain an estimated digital reference wave from a single off-axis digital hologram that matches the actual experimental reference wave as closely as possible. The proposed method is independent of a reference flat plate and speckles. The digital reference wave parameters are estimated directly from the recorded phase information. The parameters include both the off-axis tilt angle and the curvature of the reference wave. Phase derivatives are used to extract the digital reference wave parameters without the need for a phase unwrapping process. Thus, problems associated with phase wrapping are avoided. Experimental results for the proposed method are provided. The simulated effect of the digital reference wave parameters on the reconstructed image phase distribution is shown. The pseudo phase gradient originating from incorrect estimation of the digital reference wave parameters and its effect on object reconstruction are discussed.
Spectral properties of a broad-area diode laser with off-axis external-cavity feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael
2013-01-01
intensity noise spectrum of the diode laser shows that the intensity noise is increased strongly by the external-cavity feedback. External-cavity modes are excited in the external cavity even in the off-axis configuration. The peak spacing of the intensity noise spectrum shows that single roundtrip external......Spectral properties, both the optical spectrum and the intensity noise spectrum, of a broad-area diode laser with off-axis external-cavity feedback are presented. We show that the optical spectrum of the diode laser system is shifted to longer wavelengths due to the external-cavity feedback. The......-cavity modes are excited. We believe that the four-wave mixing process in the broad-area diode laser is responsible for the establishment of the external-cavity mode....
van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew
2010-01-01
Starting as highly relativistic collimated jets, gamma-ray burst outflows gradually decelerate and become non-relativistic spherical blast waves. Although detailed analytical solutions describing the afterglow emission received by an on-axis observer during both the early and late phases of the outflow evolution exist, a calculation of the received flux during the intermediate phase and for an off-axis observer requires either a more simplified analytical model or direct numerical simulations of the outflow dynamics. In this paper we present light curves for off-axis observers covering the long-term evolution of the blast wave calculated from a high resolution two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics simulation using a synchrotron radiation model. We compare our results to earlier analytical work and calculate the consequence of the observer angle with respect to the jet axis both for the detection of orphan afterglows and for jet break fits to the observational data. We find that observable jet breaks can ...
Numerical Investigation on Fluid Flow in a 90-Degree Curved Pipe with Large Curvature Ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism of fluid flows in curved pipes, a large number of theoretical and experimental researches have been performed. As a critical parameter of curved pipe, the curvature ratio δ has received much attention, but most of the values of δ are very small (δ<0.1 or relatively small (δ≤0.5. As a preliminary study and simulation this research studied the fluid flow in a 90-degree curved pipe of large curvature ratio. The Detached Eddy Simulation (DES turbulence model was employed to investigate the fluid flows at the Reynolds number range from 5000 to 20000. After validation of the numerical strategy, the pressure and velocity distribution, pressure drop, fluid flow, and secondary flow along the curved pipe were illustrated. The results show that the fluid flow in a curved pipe with large curvature ratio seems to be unlike that in a curved pipe with small curvature ratio. Large curvature ratio makes the internal flow more complicated; thus, the flow patterns, the separation region, and the oscillatory flow are different.
Geometrical control of 3C and 6H-SiC nucleation on low off-axis substrates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jokubavicius, Valdas; Liljedahl, Rickard; Ou, Yiyu;
2011-01-01
Growth of 3C or 6H-SiC epilayers on low off-axis 6H-SiC substrates can be mastered by changing the size of the on axis plane formed by long terraces in the epilayer using geometrical control. The desired polytype can be selected in thick (~200 μm) layers of both 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC polytypes...
Discovery of off-axis jet structure of TeV blazar Mrk 501 with mm-VLBI
Koyama, S; Giroletti, M; Doi, A; Giovannini, G; Orienti, M; Hada, K; Ros, E; Niinuma, K; Nagai, H; Savolainen, T; Krichbaum, T P; Pérez-Torres, M Á
2016-01-01
High-resolution millimeter wave very-long-baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) is an ideal tool for probing the structure at the base of extragalactic jets in detail. The TeV blazar Mrk 501 is one of the best targets among BL Lac objects for studying the nature of off-axis jet structures because it shows different jet position angles at different scales. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of the off-axis jet structure through high-resolution mm-VLBI images at the jet base and physical parameters such as kinematics, flux densities, and spectral indices. We performed Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations over six epochs from 2012 February to 2013 February at 43 GHz. Quasi-simultaneous Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) observations at 86 GHz were performed in May 2012. We discover a new jet component at the northeast direction from the core in all the images at 43 and 86 GHz. The new component shows the off-axis location from the persistent jet extending to the southeast. The 43 GHz ima...
Solving the neutrino parameter degeneracy by measuring the T2K off-axis beam in Korea
Hagiwara, K; Senda, K; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Okamura, Naotoshi; Senda, Ken-ichi
2006-01-01
The T2K neutrino oscillation experiment will start in 2009. In this experiment the center of the neutrino beam from J-PARC at Tokai village will go through underground beneath Super-Kamiokande, reach the sea level east of Korean shore, and an off-axis beam at $0.5^{\\circ}$ to $1.0^{\\circ}$ can be observed in Korea. We study physics impacts of putting a 100 kt-level Water \\cerenkov detector in Korea during the T2K experimental period. For a combination of the $3^{\\circ}$ off-axis beam at SK with baseline length L = 295 km and the $0.5^{\\circ}$ off-axis beam in the east coast of Korea at L = 1000 km, we find that the neutrino mass hierarchy (the sign of $m^2_{3} - m^2_1$) can be resolved and the CP phase of the MNS unitary matrix can be constrained uniquely at 3-$\\sigma$ level when \\sin^2 2\\theta_{\\rm rct} $ \\ge 0.06 $.
State of the art in atomic resolution off-axis electron holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linck, Martin, E-mail: mlinck@lbl.gov [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zum Triebenberg 50, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Freitag, Bert; Kujawa, Stephan [FEI Company, Eindhoven, Building AAE, Achtseweg Noord 5, P.O. Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lehmann, Michael; Niermann, Tore [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)
2012-05-15
As proposed by Hannes Lichte, to resolve structure-property relations not only the question 'Which atom is where?' but also the question 'Which fields are around?' has to be answered. High-resolution off-axis electron holography opens up an access to these key questions in that it allows accessing the complete exit-wave of the object provided within the information limit of the microscope, i.e. amplitude and phase including atomic details such as position and species, and moreover, information about large area electric potentials and magnetic fields, which a conventional transmission electron microscope is blind for-also when using a Cs-corrector. For an excellent object exit-wave reconstruction, special care has to be taken on the hologram quality, i.e. interference fringe contrast and electron dose. Severe restrictions are given to signal resolution by the limited brightness of the electron source. Utilizing a new high-brightness Schottky field electron emitter in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope operated at 300 kV, the phase signal resolution at atomic resolution can significantly be enhanced. An improvement by at least a factor of 2.88 compared to the most recently reported single hologram at atomic resolution is found. To proof the applicability of this setup to real materials science problems, a grain boundary of gold has been investigated holographically. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of the brightness on the reconstructed signal in electron holography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factor 2.8 gain in signal quality by setup with a high brightness electron gun. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of a grain boundary in gold with a state-of-the-art holography setup. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-posteriori aberration fine-tuning for true one Angstrom resolution in the object wave. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mistilt analysis on the atomic scale by numerical wave optics.
Triple Isotope Water Measurements of Lake Untersee Ice using Off-Axis ICOS
Berman, E. S.; Huang, Y. W.; Andersen, D. T.; Gupta, M.; McKay, C. P.
2015-12-01
Lake Untersee (71.348°S, 13.458°E) is the largest surface freshwater lake in the interior of the Gruber Mountains of central Queen Maud Land in East Antarctica. The lake is permanently covered with ice, is partly bounded by glacier ice and has a mean annual air temperature of -10°C. In contrast to other Antarctic lakes the dominating physical process controlling ice-cover dynamics is low summer temperatures and high wind speeds resulting in sublimation rather than melting as the main mass-loss process. The ice-cover of the lake is composed of lake-water ice formed during freeze-up and rafted glacial ice derived from the Anuchin Glacier. The mix of these two fractions impacts the energy balance of the lake, which directly affects ice-cover thickness. Ice-cover is important if one is to understand the physical, chemical, and biological linkages within these unique, physically driven ecosystems. We have analyzed δ2H, δ18O, and δ17O from samples of lake and glacier ice collected at Lake Untersee in Dec 2014. Using these data we seek to answer two specific questions: Are we able to determine the origin and history of the lake ice, discriminating between rafted glacial ice and lake water? Can isotopic gradients in the surface ice indicate the ablation (sublimation) rate of the surface ice? The triple isotope water analyzer developed by Los Gatos Research (LGR 912-0032) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology and incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for high sensitivity and optimal instrument stability. This analyzer measures δ2H, δ18O, and δ17O from water, as well as the calculated d-excess and 17O-excess. The laboratory precision in high performance mode for both δ17O and δ18O is 0.03 ‰, and for δ2H is 0.2 ‰. Methodology and isotope data from Lake Untersee samples are presented. Figure: Ice samples were collected across Lake Untersee from both glacial and lake ice regions for this study.
Design considerations for an unconventional infrared prism with a 90-degree ray deviation
Akarca, Beyza; Artan, Göktuǧ G.
2015-09-01
In this study, the optical performance of a 90 degree prism working in the mid-wave infrared region with the purpose of carrying a beam of light from one optical system to another in an unconventional way is discussed. First, a group of mirrors is considered as a design alternative to lower the overall cost of the system. However, using mirrors greatly increases the diameter of the beam due to the rays coming from wide field of view angles. Another drawback of mirrors is that having separate mirrors requires precise alignment for the system to work at full performance which is difficult for the given application. However, these alignment issues are not valid for a single piece prism. Therefore, a single piece prism is the preferred option and has been taken into account in this study. Material selection is important, especially in the mid-wave infrared region where the index of refraction differs greatly from material to material. Silicon and Germanium are the materials preferred because of their high index of refraction and transmission characteristics. Aside from optical properties, these materials are also considered in terms of manufacturability. Also, options for the coatings to be applied to reflecting surfaces of the prism are discussed with regard to the transmission loss within the system. In order to have total internal reflection within a prism, coatings must be chosen carefully to handle transmission loss at the reflecting surfaces. All of the system parameters are examined using sequential and non-sequential modes of ZEMAX OpticStudio software.
Study of quark flow in exclusive reactions at 90 degrees in the center of mass (AGS E838)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report a study of quark flow in 20 exclusive reactions measured at Brookhaven National Laboratory's AGS with a beam momentum of 5.9 GeV/c at 90 degree in the center of mass. This experiment confirms the strong quark flow reaction mechanism dependence of two-body hadron scattering at large angles seen at 9.9 GeV/c. Large differences in cross sections for different reactions are consistent with the dominance of quark interchange in these 90 degree reactions, and indicate that pure gluon exchange and quark/antiquark annihilation diagrams are less important. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
White, S. M.; Lee, A. J.; Rubin, K. H.
2015-12-01
Two Alvin dives (AL 4771 and 4774) transected the seafloor directly above the two largest Off-Axis Melt Lenses (O-AML) east of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) axis at 9 39'N and 9 54'N. In 2008, a 3D high-resolution seismic reflection survey (MGL-0812) discovered O-AMLs 3-7 km from the EPR at 2-3 km below the seafloor. Several other O-AML in the crust have been subsequently detected in several locations up to 20 km from the spreading axis at fast and intermediate spreading ridges; understanding their impacts is increasingly important. During the dives, no currently active hydrothermal venting or fresh lava was seen, suggesting that these features do not constantly power off-axis geological activity. However, the seafloor appears much younger at small volcanic seamounts in the 9 39'N than at the 9 54'N site. At 9 39'N, we used Alvin to explore the off-axis volcanic mound complex, reaching the summit of the three largest mounds. Although no evidence for on-going hydrothermal or volcanic activity was detected, the seafloor wore a thin sediment layer of ~10cm and thin Mn-coatings on 9 rock samples, suggesting volcanism more recently than would be expected based on the spreading-rate age of the crust. At 9 54'N, the Alvin trackline started south of a prominent abyssal hill, which has an unusual D-shape over 1 km wide in the center, crossed the abyssal hill, visited two local hummocks on top, and then attempted to find volcanic activity on the near slope of EPR axis by going as far west was possible during the dive. Heavy sediment everywhere on the abyssal hill, to the depth of push cores (~30 cm) and probably much deeper in many areas and 4 rock samples from the abyssal hill were quite weathered with little glass intact, suggest that this site is unaffected by the underlying O-AML. Upslope toward the EPR west of the abyssal hill, 4 rocks collected appear somewhat younger, and sediment became thinner. In addition, 3 CTD tow-yos over each O-AML found no evidence of active
Comparison of designs of off-axis Gregorian telescopes for millimeter-wave large focal-plane arrays.
Hanany, Shaul; Marrone, Daniel P
2002-08-01
We compare the diffraction-limited field of view (FOV) provided by four types of off-axis Gregorian telescopes: the classical Gregorian, the aplanatic Gregorian, and the designs that cancel astigmatism and both astigmatism and coma. The analysis is carried out with telescope parameters that are appropriate for satellite and balloonborne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave astrophysics. We find that the design that cancels both coma and astigmatism provides the largest flat FOV, approximately 21 square deg. We also find that the FOV can be increased by approximately 15% by means of optimizing the shape and location of the focal surface.
A comparison of designs of off-axis Gregorian telescopes for mm-wave large focal plane arrays
Hanany, S; Hanany, Shaul; Marrone, Daniel P.
2002-01-01
We compare the diffraction-limited field of view (FOV) provided by four types of off-axis Gregorian telescopes: the classical Gregorian, the aplanatic Gregorian, and designs that cancel astigmatism and both astigmatism and coma. The analysis is carried out using telescope parameters that are appropriate for satellite and balloon-borne millimeter and sub-millimeter wave astrophysics. We find that the design that cancels both coma and astigmatism provides the largest flat FOV, about 21 square degrees. We also find that the FOV can be increased by about 15% by optimizing the shape and location of the focal surface.
MacPhee, A. G.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.; Hares, J. D.; Hassett, J.; Hatch, B. W.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Datte, P. S.; Landen, O. L.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K. W.; Rekow, V. V.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.
2016-11-01
We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.
Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm
Leontowich, Adam F. G.; Aquila, Andrew; Stellato, Francesco; Bean, Richard; Fleckenstein, Holger; Prasciolu, Mauro; Liang, Mengning; DePonte, Daniel P.; Barty, Anton; Wang, Fenglin; Andreasson, Jakob; Hajdu, Janos; Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Saša.
2013-05-01
A super-polished substrate with an off-axis parabola figure was coated with a Sc/B4C/Cr multilayer. This optic was used to focus pulses of 4.3 nm photons from the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) at normal incidence. Beam imprints were made in poly(methyl methacrylate) to align the optic and to measure the beam profile at the focal plane. The intense interaction resulted in imprints with raised perimeters, surrounded by ablated material extending out several micrometres. These features interfere with the beam profile measurement. The effect of a post-exposure development step on the beam imprints was investigated.
Comparison of designs of off-axis Gregorian telescopes for millimeter-wave large focal-plane arrays.
Hanany, Shaul; Marrone, Daniel P
2002-08-01
We compare the diffraction-limited field of view (FOV) provided by four types of off-axis Gregorian telescopes: the classical Gregorian, the aplanatic Gregorian, and the designs that cancel astigmatism and both astigmatism and coma. The analysis is carried out with telescope parameters that are appropriate for satellite and balloonborne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave astrophysics. We find that the design that cancels both coma and astigmatism provides the largest flat FOV, approximately 21 square deg. We also find that the FOV can be increased by approximately 15% by means of optimizing the shape and location of the focal surface. PMID:12153101
The Abundance of X-Shaped Radio Sources I. VLA Survey of 52 Sources With Off-Axis Distortions
Roberts, David H; Lu, Jing; Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi
2015-01-01
Cheung (2007) identified a sample of 100 candidate X-shaped radio galaxies using the NRAO FIRST survey; these are small-axial-ratio extended radio sources with off-axis emission. Here we present radio images of 52 of these sources that have been made from archival Very Large Array data with resolution of about 1 arcsec. Fifty-one of the 52 were observed at 1.4 GHz, seven were observed at 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz, and one was observed only at 5 GHz. We also present overlays of the SDSS red images for 41 of the sources, and DSS II overlays for the remainder. Optical counterparts have been identified for most sources, but there remain a few empty fields. Our higher resolution VLA images along with FIRST survey images of the sources in the sample reveal that extended extragalactic radio sources with small axial ratios are largely (60%) cases of double radio sources with twin lobes that have off-axis extensions, usually with inversion-symmetric structure. The available radio images indicate that at most 20% sources might...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sin-Liang Ou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The off-axis sputtering technique was used to deposit Al-doped ZnO (AZO films on glass substrates at room temperature. For the illustration of the sample position in the sputtering chamber, the value of R/r is introduced. Here, r is the radius of AZO target and R is the distance between the sample and the center of substrate holder. A systematic study for the effect of deposition parameters on structural, optical, and electrical properties of AZO films has been investigated in detail. As the sample position of R/r is fixed at 1.8, it is found that the as-deposited AZO film has relatively low resistivity of 2.67 × 10−3 Ω-cm and high transmittance above 80% in the visible region. Additionally, after rapid thermal annealing (RTA at 600°C with N2 atmosphere, the resistivity of this AZO film can be further reduced to 1.19 × 10−3 Ω-cm. This indicates the AZO films prepared by off-axis magnetron sputtering and treated via the appropriate RTA process have great potential in optoelectronic applications.
DESIGN NOTE: A low interaction two-axis wind tunnel force balance designed for large off-axis loads
Ostafichuk, Peter M.; Green, Sheldon I.
2002-10-01
A novel two-axis wind tunnel force balance using air bushings for off-axis load compensation has been developed. The design offers a compact, robust, and versatile option for precisely measuring horizontal force components irrespective of vertical and moment loads. Two independent stages of cylindrical bushings support large moments and vertical force; there is low interaction due to the minimal friction along the horizontal measurement axes. The current design measures drag and side forces up to 70 N and can safely operate in the presence of vertical loads as large as 2200 N and moment loads up to 425, 750, and 425 N m in roll, pitch, and yaw, respectively. Eleven drag axis calibration trials were conducted with a variety of applied vertical forces and pitching moments. The individual linear calibration slopes for the trials agreed to within 0.18% and the largest residual from all calibrations was 0.38% of full scale. As the residuals were found to obey a normal distribution, with 99% certainty the expected drag resolution of the device is better than 0.30% of full scale, independent of off-axis loads.
THE ABUNDANCE OF X-SHAPED RADIO SOURCES. I. VLA SURVEY OF 52 SOURCES WITH OFF-AXIS DISTORTIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, David H.; Cohen, Jake P.; Lu, Jing [Department of Physics MS-057, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454-0911 (United States); Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi, E-mail: roberts@brandeis.edu [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)
2015-09-15
Cheung identified a sample of 100 candidate X-shaped radio galaxies using the NRAO FIRST survey; these are small-axial-ratio extended radio sources with off-axis emission. Here, we present radio images of 52 of these sources that have been made from archival Very Large Array data with resolution of about 1″. Fifty-one of the 52 were observed at 1.4 GHz, 7 were observed at 1.4 and 5 GHz, and 1 was observed only at 5 GHz. We also present overlays of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey red images for 48 of the sources, and DSS II overlays for the remainder. Optical counterparts have been identified for most sources, but there remain a few empty fields. Our higher resolution VLA images along with FIRST survey images of the sources in the sample reveal that extended extragalactic radio sources with small axial ratios are largely (60%) cases of double radio sources with twin lobes that have off-axis extensions, usually with inversion-symmetric structure. The available radio images indicate that at most 20% of sources might be genuine X-shaped radio sources that could have formed by a restarting of beams in a new direction following an interruption and axis flip. The remaining 20% are in neither of these categories. The implications of this result for the gravitational wave background are discussed in Roberts et al.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud Allahverdi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An in vivo dosimetry system, using p-type diode dosimeters, was characterized for clinical applications of treatment machines ranging in megavoltage energies. This paper investigates two different models of diodes for externally wedged beams and explains a new algorithm for the calculation of the target dose at various tissue depths in external radiotherapy. The values of off-axis wedge correction factors were determined at two different positions in the wedged (toward the thick and thin edges and in the non-wedged directions on entrance and exit surfaces of a polystyrene phantom in 60 Co and 6 MV photon beams. Depth transmission was defined on the entrance and exit surfaces to obtain the off-axis wedge correction factor at any depth. As the sensitivity of the diodes depends on physical characteristics [field size, source-skin distance (SSD, thickness, backscatter], correction factors were applied to the diode reading when measuring conditions different from calibration situations . The results indicate that needful correction factors for 60 Co wedged photons are usually larger than those for 6 MV wedged photon beams. In vivo dosimetry performed with the proposed algorithms at externally wedged beams has negligible probable errors (less than 0.5% and is a reliable method for patient dose control.
A Study on the Instantaneous Turbulent Flow Field in a 90-Degree Elbow Pipe with Circular Section
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shiming Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the special application of 90-degree elbow pipe in the HTR-PM, the large eddy simulation was selected to calculate the instantaneous flow field in the 90-degree elbow pipe combining with the experimental results. The characteristics of the instantaneous turbulent flow field under the influence of flow separation and secondary flow were studied by analyzing the instantaneous pressure information at specific monitoring points and the instantaneous velocity field on the cross section of the elbow. The pattern and the intensity of the Dean vortex and the small scale eddies change over time and induce the asymmetry of the flow field. The turbulent disturbance upstream and the flow separation near the intrados couple with the vortexes of various scales. Energy is transferred from large scale eddies to small scale eddies and dissipated by the viscous stress in the end.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.
2013-04-30
Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.
Huang, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Wang, H. Z.
1998-01-01
To study the mechanisms of dorsal axis specification, the alteration in dorsal cell fate of cleavage stage blastomeres in axis-respecified Xenopus laevis embryos was investigated. Fertilized eggs were rotated 90 degrees with the sperm entry point up or down with respect to the gravitational field. At the 8-cell stage, blastomeres were injected with the lineage tracers, Texas Red- or FITC-Dextran Amines. The distribution of the labeled progeny was mapped at the tail-bud stages (stages 35-38) and compared with the fate map of an 8-cell embryo raised in a normal orientation. As in the normal embryos, each blastomere in the rotated embryos has a characteristic and predictable cell fate. After 90 degrees rotation the blastomeres in the 8-cell stage embryo roughly switched their position by 90 degrees, but the fate of the blastomeres did not simply show a 90 degrees switch appropriate for their new location. Four types of fate change were observed: (i) the normal fate of the blastomere is conserved with little change; (ii) the normal fate is completely changed and a new fate is adopted according to the blastomere's new position: (iii) the normal fate is completely changed, but the new fate is not appropriate for its new position; and (4) the blastomere partially changed its fate and the new fate is a combination of its original fate and a fate appropriate to its new location. According to the changed fates, the blastomeres that adopt dorsal fates were identified in rotated embryos. This identification of dorsal blastomeres provides basic important information for further study of dorsal signaling in Xenopus embryos.
Nicolle, Marie; Jousselin, David; Reisberg, Laurie; Bosch, Delphine; Stephant, Aurore
2016-03-01
The Oman ophiolite includes both a fossil fast spreading axis, defined by five mantle diapirs, and an off-axis mantle diapir emplaced 30 km from the axis, providing a natural laboratory for the study of off-axis magmatic processes. We compare field and petrological observations coupled with geochemical and isotopic analyses of samples from the off-axis diapir with those of the nearest on-axis diapir, with a particular focus on the Moho Transition Zone (MTZ). Both diapirs are defined by the presence of steeply plunging lineations, but in the on-axis case, these lineations rotate gradually into parallelism with the horizontal magmatic lineations of the overlying crust, while in the off-axis case, a shear zone separates the steeply plunging lineations from the horizontal lineations of the surrounding mantle. In the on-axis diapir, the MTZ is 50 to 500 m thick and composed of dunite with layered gabbro lenses whereas in the off-axis diapir, the MTZ is thicker and composed of dunite with massive (∼20% of MTZ) clinopyroxenite lenses and a notable absence of plagioclase. Moreover, the off-axis diapir is associated with amphibole-bearing intrusions, consisting of Mg-rich gabbroic sills in the mantle peripheral to the diapir, and microgabbroic lenses of broadly basaltic composition in the overlying crust. The εNd values of the pyroxenites in the MTZ of the off-axis diapir fully overlap with those of the intrusions in the surrounding mantle and crust, suggesting that they are genetically related. Calculated rare earth element (REE) abundances of liquids in equilibrium with clinopyroxene imply that the magmas that traversed the MTZ of the off-axis diapir were more depleted in highly incompatible elements than their counterparts in the MTZ of the on-axis diapir. On the other hand, Nd isotopic compositions of the off-axis samples (ε Nd = 6.2- 7.9 in 18 of 19 samples) indicate derivation of their parental magmas from a less depleted source than that which produced the magma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tang Qian-Jin; Chen Da-Ming; Yu Yong-Ai; Hu Qi-Quan
2006-01-01
Based on the Collins integral formula, the analytic expressions of propagation of the coherent and the incoherent off-axis Hermite-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beam combinations with rectangular symmetry passing through a paraxial first-order optical system are derived, and corresponding numerical examples are given and analysed. The resulting beam quality is discussed in terms of power in the bucket (PIB). The study suggests that the resulting beam cannot keep the initial intensity shape during the propagation and the beam quality for coherent mode is not always better than that for incoherent mode. Reviewing the numerical simulations of Gaussian, Hermite-Gaussian (HG) and cosh-Gaussian (ChG) beam combinations indicates that the Hermite polynomial exerts a chief influence on the irradiance profile of composite beam and far field power concentration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaojun Zhu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the comprehensive influence of three microstructure parameters (fiber cross-section shape, fiber volume fraction, and fiber off-axis orientation and strain rate on the macroscopic property of a polymer matrix composite. During the analysis, AS4 fibers are considered as elastic solids, while the surrounding PEEK resin matrix exhibiting rate sensitivities are described using the modified Ramaswamy-Stouffer viscoplastic state variable model. The micromechanical method based on generalized model of cells has been used to analyze the representative volume element of composites. An acceptable agreement is observed between the model predictions and experimental results found in the literature. The research results show that the stress-strain curves are sensitive to the strain rate and the microstructure parameters play an important role in the behavior of polymer matrix.
Lassen, Mikael; Lamard, Laurent; Feng, Yuyang; Peremans, Andre; Petersen, Jan C
2016-09-01
A trace-gas sensor, based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), consisting of two acoustically coupled micro-resonators (mR) with an off-axis 20 kHz quartz tuning fork (QTF) is demonstrated. The complete acoustically coupled mR system is optimized based on finite-element simulations and is experimentally verified. The QEPAS sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator. The sensor is used for spectroscopic measurements on methane in the 3.1-3.5 μm wavelength region with a resolution bandwidth of 1 cm-1 and a detection limit of 0.8 ppm. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at the optimum integration time for the QEPAS sensor is 32 ppbv at 190 s, and that the background noise is due solely to the thermal noise of the QTF. PMID:27607987
Lassen, Mikael; Lamard, Laurent; Feng, Yuyang; Peremans, Andre; Petersen, Jan C
2016-09-01
A trace-gas sensor, based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), consisting of two acoustically coupled micro-resonators (mR) with an off-axis 20 kHz quartz tuning fork (QTF) is demonstrated. The complete acoustically coupled mR system is optimized based on finite-element simulations and is experimentally verified. The QEPAS sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator. The sensor is used for spectroscopic measurements on methane in the 3.1-3.5 μm wavelength region with a resolution bandwidth of 1 cm-1 and a detection limit of 0.8 ppm. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at the optimum integration time for the QEPAS sensor is 32 ppbv at 190 s, and that the background noise is due solely to the thermal noise of the QTF.
Hamling, Ian J; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrun; Bannister, Stephen; Palmer, Neville
2016-06-01
Continental rifting and seafloor spreading play a fundamental role in the generation of new crust. However, the distribution of magma and its relationship with tectonics and volcanism remain poorly understood, particularly in back-arc settings. We show evidence for a large, long-lived, off-axis magmatic intrusion located on the margin of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geodetic data acquired since the 1950s show evidence for uplift outside of the region of active extension, consistent with the inflation of a magmatic body at a depth of ~9.5 km. Satellite radar interferometry and Global Positioning System data suggest that there was an increase in the inflation rate from 2003 to 2011, which correlates with intense earthquake activity in the region. Our results suggest that the continued growth of a large magmatic body may represent the birth of a new magma chamber on the margins of a back-arc rift system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mid-wave and long-wave infrared nBn photodetectors with absorbers consisting of InAs/InAsSb superlattices and barriers consisting of InAs/AlGaSb(As) superlattices were grown using molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution X-ray diffraction showing significant differences in Ga composition in the barrier layer, and different dark current behavior at 77 K, suggested the possibility of different types of band alignments between the barrier layer and the absorber for the mid- and long-wave infrared samples. Examination of the barrier layers using off-axis electron holography showed the presence of positive charge with an estimated density of 1.8 × 1017/cm3 in the mid-wave sample as a result of a type-II band alignment, whereas negligible charge was detected in the long-wave sample, consistent with a type-I band alignment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hertog, M I den; Rouviere, J L; Gentile, P; Oehler, F [INAC/SP2M, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38052 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Schmid, H; Bjoerk, M T; Riel, H; Karg, S; Riess, W [IBM Research GmbH, Saeumerstrasse 4, 8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland); Cooper, D; Dhalluin, F; Ferret, P; Rivallin, P [LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38052 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Baron, T, E-mail: martien.den-hertog@cea.f [LTM, CNRS UMR-5129, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38052 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2010-02-01
Intrinsic and axially modulated doped silicon nanowires (NWs) were studied by off-axis electron holography. Phase gradients in the vacuum were observed and compared to simulations of NWs with a varying charge density at the wire-oxide interface. It seems that intrinsic NWs are positively charged with a charge density around 2x10{sup 10} e.c. (electron charges) cm{sup -2} and axially modulated doped NWs (with n-doped regions) are negatively charged with a charge density around -1x10{sup 12} e.c. cm{sup -2}. Expected fringing fields around the doped regions are incidentally observed but smaller than predicted by simulations. The effect of the surface charge on the reference wave is evaluated, and should not modify the obtained phase image.
Hamling, Ian J.; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrun; Bannister, Stephen; Palmer, Neville
2016-01-01
Continental rifting and seafloor spreading play a fundamental role in the generation of new crust. However, the distribution of magma and its relationship with tectonics and volcanism remain poorly understood, particularly in back-arc settings. We show evidence for a large, long-lived, off-axis magmatic intrusion located on the margin of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geodetic data acquired since the 1950s show evidence for uplift outside of the region of active extension, consistent with the inflation of a magmatic body at a depth of ~9.5 km. Satellite radar interferometry and Global Positioning System data suggest that there was an increase in the inflation rate from 2003 to 2011, which correlates with intense earthquake activity in the region. Our results suggest that the continued growth of a large magmatic body may represent the birth of a new magma chamber on the margins of a back-arc rift system. PMID:27386580
Near-diffraction-limited segmented broad area diode laser based on off-axis spectral beam combining
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, O.B.; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Andersen, Peter E.;
2006-01-01
The beam quality of a 500-mu m-wide broad area diode laser with five active segments has been improved beyond the beam quality of the individual segments. The principle of this new laser system is based on off-axis feedback in combination with spectral beam combining. By using a double......-feedback scheme we are able to improve the beam quality of the laser by a factor of 23 from M-2 = 55 for the free-running diode laser to M-2 = 2.4 for the laser with feedback at a drive current of 2.2 A. The improved M-2 value is a factor of 3.4 below M-2 = 8.2 for a single free-running segment. This is the first...... time that the beam quality of a segmented broad area diode laser has been improved beyond the beam quality of the individual segments....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ganguli, Tapas [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452 013 (India)], E-mail: tapas@cat.ernet.in; Porwal, Sanjay; Sharma, Tarun; Ingale, Alka; Kumar, Shailendra; Tiwari, Pragya [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452 013 (India); Balamurugan, A.K.; Rajagopalan, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Division, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Chandrasekaran, K.S.; Arora, B.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, TIFR, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Rustagi, K.C. [Department of Physics, IIT, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)
2007-07-31
We have deposited thin layers of ZnSe on (001) oriented GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition at different incident laser fluence (referred to as normal geometry) and in an off-axis geometry where the plasma plume direction is at an angle of {approx} 25{sup o} away from the direction of the substrate. The crystalline quality of these layers has been studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and Raman scattering. We find that we are in a position to deposit pseudomorphic strained layers of ZnSe on GaAs in the off-axis deposition geometry when the ZnSe layer thickness is less than the critical thickness of ZnSe on GaAs i.e. 150 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence and electrical transport measurements have also been carried out in all the ZnSe layers and the results of all the above characterizations have been compared for the normal geometry and the off-axis geometry of deposition. All the results indicate that the ZnSe layers deposited in the off-axis geometry have better crystalline quality and an improved interface as compared to the ones deposited in the normal geometry. We attribute this improvement in the overall quality of the ZnSe layers in the off-axis geometry to the reduction in the average energy of the plume particles that reach the GaAs substrate in the off-axis geometry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have deposited thin layers of ZnSe on (001) oriented GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition at different incident laser fluence (referred to as normal geometry) and in an off-axis geometry where the plasma plume direction is at an angle of ∼ 25o away from the direction of the substrate. The crystalline quality of these layers has been studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and Raman scattering. We find that we are in a position to deposit pseudomorphic strained layers of ZnSe on GaAs in the off-axis deposition geometry when the ZnSe layer thickness is less than the critical thickness of ZnSe on GaAs i.e. 150 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence and electrical transport measurements have also been carried out in all the ZnSe layers and the results of all the above characterizations have been compared for the normal geometry and the off-axis geometry of deposition. All the results indicate that the ZnSe layers deposited in the off-axis geometry have better crystalline quality and an improved interface as compared to the ones deposited in the normal geometry. We attribute this improvement in the overall quality of the ZnSe layers in the off-axis geometry to the reduction in the average energy of the plume particles that reach the GaAs substrate in the off-axis geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Optical reconstruction of digital holograms using SLM is used for imaging of 3D scenes, interferometry, microscopy, and etc. In this article reconstruction of digital off-axis Fresnel holograms using phase-only LCOS SLM 'HoloEye PLUTO VIS' is described. Experimental and numerically simulated results of reconstruction are presented.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
F O Ogundare; E O Oniya; F A Balogun
2008-05-01
In this work the dependence of intrinsic effciency of a NaI(Tl) detector of radius 3.82 cm and height 7.62 cm on source{detector distance (), source-off-axis distance (0) and -photon energy have been investigated using analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The results showed that, for a given off-axis distance, there exists a value of the ratio of source-detector distance () to detector radius () where intrinsic efficiency is minimum. This / value at which minimum e±ciency occurs approaches zero as off-axis distance increases and it is almost constant with increase in energy. In the region where / < 0:01, a criteria given by Jehouani et al [1] for good photon detection, intrinsic efficiency decreases with increasing off-axis distance. The implications of the results for radioactivity measurement and radiation protection are discussed. Chacteristics of intrinsic e±ciency in the regions / < 0:01 and / > 10 are also compared.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cooper, David; Ailliot, Cyril; Barnes, Jean-Paul;
2010-01-01
Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is one of the few specimen preparation techniques that can be used to prepare parallel-sided specimens with nm-scale site specificity for examination using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, FIB milling results...... thickness is dependent on both the operating voltage and type of ion used during FIB milling....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Larson, D. J.;
2014-01-01
We apply off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy in the transmission electron microscope to map the electric field generated by a sharp biased metallic tip. A combination of experimental data and modelling provides quantitative information about the potential and the field around...
Abe, K; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de, P; De, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di, F; Di, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Floetotto, L; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iwai, E; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Lamont, I; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pinzon, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J
2014-01-01
New data from the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment produce the most precise measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter theta_{23}. Using an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV and a data set corresponding to 6.57 x 10^{20} protons on target, T2K has fit the energy-dependent nu_mu oscillation probability to determine oscillation parameters. Marginalizing over the values of other oscillation parameters yields sin^2 (theta_{23}) = 0.514 +0.055/-0.056 (0.511 +- 0.055), assuming normal (inverted) mass hierarchy. The best-fit mass-squared splitting for normal hierarchy is Delta m^2_{32} = 2.51 +- 0.10 x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4 (inverted hierarchy: Delta m^2_{13} = 2.48 +- 0.10 x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4). Adding a model of multinucleon interactions that affect neutrino energy reconstruction is found to produce only small biases in neutrino oscillation parameter extraction at current levels of statistical uncertainty.
Abe, K; Adam, J; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Floetotto, L; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iwai, E; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Lamont, I; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J
2014-05-01
New data from the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment produce the most precise measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter θ23. Using an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV and a data set corresponding to 6.57×10(20) protons on target, T2K has fit the energy-dependent νμ oscillation probability to determine oscillation parameters. The 68% confidence limit on sin(2)(θ23) is 0.514(-0.056)(+0.055) (0.511±0.055), assuming normal (inverted) mass hierarchy. The best-fit mass-squared splitting for normal hierarchy is Δm32(2)=(2.51±0.10)×10(-3) eV(2)/c(4) (inverted hierarchy: Δm13(2)=(2.48±0.10)×10(-3) eV(2)/c(4)). Adding a model of multinucleon interactions that affect neutrino energy reconstruction is found to produce only small biases in neutrino oscillation parameter extraction at current levels of statistical uncertainty. PMID:24856687
Steinbring, E; MacIntosh, B A; Gavel, D; Gates, E L
2005-01-01
Most current astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems rely on the availability of a bright star to measure the distortion of the incoming wavefront. Replacing the guide star with an artificial laser beacon alleviates this dependency on bright stars and therefore increases sky coverage, but it does not eliminate another serious problem for AO observations. This is the issue of PSF variation with time and field position near the guide star. In fact, because a natural guide star is still necessary for correction of the low-order phase error, characterization of laser guide star (LGS) AO PSF spatial variation is more complicated than for a natural guide star alone. We discuss six methods for characterizing LGS AO PSF variation that can potentially improve the determination of the PSF away from the laser spot, that is, off-axis. Calibration images of dense star fields are used to determine the change in PSF variation with field position. This is augmented by AO system telemetry and simple computer simulations to ...
Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond
2016-09-20
This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vigouroux, M. P.; Delaye, V.; Bernier, N.; Lafond, D.; Audoit, G.; Bertin, F. [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 GRENOBLE Cedex 9 (France); Cipro, R.; Baron, T.; Martin, M. [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LTM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Rouvière, J. L. [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 GRENOBLE Cedex 9 (France); Chenevier, B. [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); LMGP, CNRS, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 GRENOBLE Cedex 1 (France)
2014-11-10
Precession electron diffraction is an efficient technique to measure strain in nanostructures by precessing the electron beam, while maintaining a few nanometre probe size. Here, we show that an advanced diffraction pattern treatment allows reproducible and precise strain measurements to be obtained using a default 512 × 512 DigiSTAR off-axis camera both in advanced or non-corrected transmission electron microscopes. This treatment consists in both projective geometry correction of diffraction pattern distortions and strain Delaunay triangulation based analysis. Precision in the strain measurement is improved and reached 2.7 × 10{sup −4} with a probe size approaching 4.2 nm in diameter. This method is applied to the study of the strain state in InGaAs quantum-well (QW) devices elaborated on Si substrate. Results show that the GaAs/Si mismatch does not induce in-plane strain fluctuations in the InGaAs QW region.
Active Optics for high contrast imaging:Super smooth off-axis parabolas for ELTs XAO instruments
Hugot, Emmanuel; Laslandes, Marie; Ferrari, Marc; Dohlen, Kjetil; El hadi, Kacem
2011-09-01
In the context of direct imaging of exoplanets using XAO, the main limitations in images are due to residual quasi-static speckles induced by atmospheric phase residuals and instrumental static and quasi-static aberrations not corrected by AO: the post-coronagraphic image quality is directly linked to the power spectral density (PSD) of the optical train before the coronagraph. In this context, the potential of Stress Polishing has been demonstrated at LAM after the delivery of the three toric mirrors (TMs) for the VLT-SPHERE instrument. The extreme optical quality of such aspherical optics is obtained thanks to the spherical polishing of warped mirrors using full sized tools, avoiding the generation of high spatial frequency ripples due to classical sub-aperture tool marks. Furthermore, sub-nanometric roughnesses have been obtained thanks to a super smoothing method. Work is ongoing at LAM in order to improve this manufacturing method to cover a wide range of off-axis aspherics, with a reduction of the manufacturing time and cost. Smart warping structures are designed in order to bend the mirrors with a combination of focus, astigmatism and coma. This development will allow the stress polishing of supersmooth OAP for XAO optical relays improving the wavefront quality and in this way the high contrast level of future exoplanet imagers.
Fast In Situ Airborne Measurement of Ammonia Using a Mid-Infrared Off-Axis ICOS Spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leen, J. Brian; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas S.; Hubbe, John M.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbell, Mike R.
2013-08-23
A new ammonia (NH_{3}) analyzer was developed based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy. Its feasibility was demonstrated by making tropospheric measurements in flights aboard the Department of Energy Gulfstream-1 aircraft. The ammonia analyzer consists of an optical cell, quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data acquisition electronics, and analysis software. The NH_{3} mixing ratio is determined from high-resolution absorption spectra obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the NH_{3} fundamental vibration band near 9.67 μm. Excellent linearity is obtained over a wide dynamic range (0–101 ppb_{v}) with a response rate (1/e) of 2 Hz and a precision of ±90 ppt_{v} (1σ in 1 s). Two research flights were conducted over the Yakima Valley in Washington State. In the first flight, the ammonia analyzer was used to identify signatures of livestock from local dairy farms with high vertical and spatial resolution under low wind and calm atmospheric conditions. In the second flight, the analyzer captured livestock emission signals under windy conditions. Finally, our results demonstrate that this new ammonia spectrometer is capable of providing fast, precise, and accurate in situ observations of ammonia aboard airborne platforms to advance our understanding of atmospheric compositions and aerosol formation.
Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond
2016-09-20
This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm. PMID:27661578
Water vapor δ2H and δ18O measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Knohl
2009-08-01
Full Text Available We present a detailed assessment of a commercially available water vapor isotope analyzer (WVIA, Los Gatos Research, Inc. for simultaneous in-situ measurements of δ2H and δ18O in water vapor. This method, based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy, is an alternative to the conventional water trap/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS techniques. We evaluate the analyzer in terms of precision, memory effects, concentration dependence, temperature sensitivity and long-term stability. A calibration system based on ink jet technology is used to characterize the performance and to calibrate the analyzer. Our results show that the precision at an averaging time of 15 s is 0.16‰ for δ2H and 0.08‰ for δ18O. The isotope ratios are strongly dependent on the water mixing ratio of the air. Taking into account this concentration dependence as well as the temperature sensitivity of the instrument we obtained a long-term stability of the water isotope measurements of 0.38‰ for δ2H and 0.25‰ for δ18O. The accuracy of the WVIA was further assessed by comparative measurements using IRMS and a dew point generator indicating a linear response in isotopic composition and H2O concentrations. The WVIA combined with a calibration system provides accurate high resolution water vapor isotope measurements and opens new possibilities for hydrological and ecological applications.
Bakhirkin, Yury A.; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Roller, Chad; Curl, Robert F.; Tittel, Frank K.
2004-04-01
Tunable-laser absorption spectroscopy in the mid-IR spectral region is a sensitive analytical technique for trace-gas quantification. The detection of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled breath is of particular interest in the diagnosis of lower-airway inflammation associated with a number of lung diseases and illnesses. A gas analyzer based on a continuous-wave mid-IR quantum cascade laser operating at ~5.2 µm and on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) has been developed to measure NO concentrations in human breath. A compact sample cell, 5.3 cm in length and with a volume of less than 80 cm3, that is suitable for on-line and off-line measurements during a single breath cycle, has been designed and tested. A noise-equivalent (signal-to-noise ratio of 1) sensitivity of 10 parts in 10 9 by volume (ppbv) of NO was achieved. The combination of ICOS with wavelength modulation resulted in a 2-ppbv noise-equivalent sensitivity. The total data acquisition and averaging time was 15 s in both cases. The feasibility of detecting NO in expired human breath as a potential noninvasive medical diagnostic tool is discussed.
Effect of Bend Curvature Ratio on Flow Pattern at a Mixing Tee after a 90 Degree Bend
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hidetoshi Hashizumeh
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Many nuclear power plants report high cycle thermal fatigue in their cooling system, caused by temperature fluctuation in a non-isothermal mixing area. One of these areas is the T-junction, in which fluids of various temperatures and velocities blend. The objective of this research is to classify turbulent jet mechanics in order to examine the flow-field structure under various operating conditions. Furthermore, this research discovers the optimum operating conditions of the mixing tee in this piping system. An experimental model, including the T-junction with a 90 degree bend upstream, is operated to analyze this mixing phenomenon based on the real operation design of the Phenix Reactor. The temperature and velocity data show that a 90 degree bend has a strong effect on the fluid mixing mechanism and the momentum ratio between the main velocity and the branch velocity of the T-junction, which could be an important parameter for the classification of the fluid mixing mechanism. By comparing their mean velocity distributions, velocity fluctuations and time-series data, the behavior of the branch jet is categorized into four types of turbulent jets; sorted from the highest to the lowest momentum ratios, the jets are categorized as follows: the wall jet, the re-attached jet, the turn jet, and the impinging jet. Ultimately, the momentum ration of the turn jet was selected as the optimum operating condition as it has the lowest velocity and the lowest temperature fluctuations near the wall of the mixing tee. By changing the bending ratio from 1.41 to 1.0 the results show that most of data are in the turn jet region. Therefore, with the sharpened bend, the re-attached region is compressed.
Kim, Y. T.; Lee, J. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Piao, J.; Woo, N. C.
2015-12-01
CO2 is one of the major causes for global climate change. Because stable carbon isotope ratio is used to trace carbon source, several analytical techniques likes IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) and LAS (Laser Absorption Spectrometry) were extensively used. Off-axis ICOS, a kind of LAS, has merits on long-term stability and field application, therefore it is widely being used in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) field. The aim of this study is to extend the application scope of OA-ICOS to determine dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Because OA-ICOS showed dependence of δ13C on CO2 concentration, data processing is required. We tested CO2 Carbon Isotope Analyzer (CCIA-36-EP, Los Gatos Research) with both reference gas (δ13C= -28.28‰) and aqueous solutions prepared by dissolving sodium bicarbonate standards (δ13C= -12.26‰ and +3.96‰). The differences of δ13C between reference and measurement values are plotted by CO2 concentrations, then compared. At first, we checked the similarity between our curve pattern for reference gas and Guillon's research (δ13C= -43.99‰) by other Analyzer. To analyze aqueous samples, more errors can be caused than gas analysis. The carbon isotope fractionation occurs during dissolving standard reagents and extracting DIC as CO2 gas form. This effect is mixed with CO2 concentration dependence effect, therefore the curve patterns are different with that for reference gas. Our experiments are done for various δ13C values. It could be an important point to use OA-ICOS to analyze DIC, too.
Nanoscale structural characterization of epitaxial graphene grown on off-axis 4H-SiC (0001
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yakimova Rositza
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we present a nanometer resolution structural characterization of epitaxial graphene (EG layers grown on 4H-SiC (0001 8° off-axis, by annealing in inert gas ambient (Ar in a wide temperature range (Tgr from 1600 to 2000°C. For all the considered growth temperatures, few layers of graphene (FLG conformally covering the 100 to 200-nm wide terraces of the SiC surface have been observed by high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR-XTEM. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (t-AFM showed the formation of wrinkles with approx. 1 to 2 nm height and 10 to 20 nm width in the FLG film, as a result of the release of the compressive strain, which builds up in FLG during the sample cooling due to the thermal expansion coefficients mismatch between graphene and SiC. While for EG grown on on-axis 4H-SiC an isotropic mesh-like network of wrinkles interconnected into nodes is commonly reported, in the present case of a vicinal SiC surface, wrinkles are preferentially oriented in the direction perpendicular to the step edges of the SiC terraces. For each Tgr, the number of graphene layers was determined on very small sample areas by HR-XTEM and, with high statistics and on several sample positions, by measuring the depth of selectively etched trenches in FLG by t-AFM. Both the density of wrinkles and the number of graphene layers are found to increase almost linearly as a function of the growth temperature in the considered temperature range.
Beier, C.; Turner, S.; Niu, Y.
2004-12-01
Lavas erupted along Mid-Ocean Ridges provide important information on melt formation and movement beneath the oceanic lithosphere. Despite the fact that the majority of lavas are erupted along the spreading axis itself, it has been proposed that a small quantity of lavas are erupted off-axis at distances >5 km [1]. The East Pacific Rise has a fast (5.5 cm/yr) half spreading rate and so the age of lavas sampled off-axis are well constrained assuming an on-axis origin. Zou et al. [2] tested this assumption by comparing U-series disequilibria in lavas sampled away from the ridge with that observed at the present day axis. They found larger U-Th disequilibria than predicted by decay of the ridge signal in a number of lavas and interpreted this to indicate that these lavas were erupted off-axis. These are important results and so we have analysed U-Th disequilibria in lavas from three traverses along the East Pacific Rise (9°3 N, 10°4N and 11°5N) extending to a maximum distance of 31 km East and West from the ridge axis (corresponding to an age ≤550 ka), including reanalysing the critical samples analysed by Zou et al. [2]. Our analyses of four samples analysed by Zou et al. [2] confirm greater U-Th disequilibria than predicted by decay of the axis signal. However, we could not reproduce the U-excesses in two lavas. Relative to a calculated decay curve assuming an initial (230Th/238U) of 1.23 at the ridge, all of our analyses from 9°3N have greater Th excesses (2-6%) than predicted. Similarly, the lavas from the traverse at 10°4N have (230Th/238U) ratios up to 1.067 (6% Th excess) some 13 km from the ridge axis which is comparable to ratios of 1.042 (4% Th excess) 23 km distant from the ridge at 9°3N. Thus, lavas in a zone 13-30 km off- axis to both sides of the axis have greater Th excess than predicted by decay from the ridge. In contrast, we have found U excesses in lavas from the traverse at 11°5N. 226Ra data will be presented for those samples with
Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing
2014-06-15
We generalize the concept of diffraction free beams to parabolic scaling beams (PSBs), whose normalized intensity scales parabolically during propagation. These beams are nondiffracting in the circular parabolic coordinate systems, and all the diffraction free beams of Durnin's type have counterparts as PSBs. Parabolic scaling Bessel beams with Gaussian apodization are investigated in detail, their nonparaxial extrapolations are derived, and experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions.
Simoncini, E; Gallori, E; .,
2010-01-01
In this paper we demonstrate how chemical free energy can be produced by a geological process. We provide a thermodynamic framework in which to assess how life emerged at the off-axis hydrothermal vent system; the RNA - clays system has been investigated from the entropic point of view, showing that the stabilization of the system in a state further away from equilibrium state, by an inorganic heterogeneous compartmetalization phenomena, is able to produce chemical free energy useful for RNA self - replication.
Off-axis aspheric surface measurement by coordinate contour measuring machine%离轴非球面三坐标检测技术
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈曦; 郭培基; 王建明; 仇谷烽
2014-01-01
A method is proposed to measure off-axis aspherical mirrors with a circular flat base,a rectangular flat base and a family of parallel lines that cut the circular flat base by a coordinate measurement machine (CMM).In re-sponse to the base features above,workpiece coordinate system is designed,and the positioning points used to establish the workpiece coordinate system are defined.The 3D-coordinates point-cloud data on the off-axis mirrors are obtained with automatic measurement of single points schema by CMM,and then,the off-axis aspheric surface data processing model for these error corrections is built.Compared with the data by the theoretical model,the surface error of an actual off-axis aspheric surface is obtained.All the pre-polishing processes are guided according to the measurement results.%提出了一种使用三坐标测量机（CMM）测量底面为圆形、矩形、跑道形离轴非球面面形误差的方法。针对离轴非球面的外形特征设计工件坐标系，规划工件坐标系定位点；利用CMM对离轴非球面进行点触发式自动测量，得到被测面点云坐标数据；建立离轴非球面数据处理模型，得出了面形误差。模拟分析表明，该测试方法和误差处理模型是正确的，并用该检测技术完成了离轴非球面粗抛光阶段的加工。
Spiga, D
2015-01-01
One of the most important parameters determining the sensitivity of X-ray telescopes is their effective area as a function of the X-ray energy. The computation of the effective area of a Wolter-I mirror, with either a single layer or multilayer coating, is a very simple task for a source on-axis at astronomical distance. Indeed, when the source moves off-axis the calculation is more complicated, in particular for new hard X-ray imaging telescopes (NuSTAR, ASTRO-H, NHXM, IXO) beyond 10 keV, that will make use of multilayer coatings to extend the reflectivity band in grazing incidence. Unlike traditional single-layer coatings (in Ir or Au), graded multilayer coatings exhibit an oscillating reflectivity as a function of the incidence angle, which makes the effective area not immediately predictable for a source placed off-axis within the field of view. For this reason, the computation of the off-axis effective area has been so far demanded to ray- tracing codes, able to sample the incidence of photons onto the m...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. M. D. Hendriks
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A Fast Methane Analyzer (FMA is assessed for its applicability in a closed path eddy covariance field set-up in a peat meadow. The FMA uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy combined with a highly specific narrow band laser for the detection of CH_{4} and strongly reflective mirrors to obtain a laser path length of 2–20×10^{3} m. Statistical testing and a calibration experiment showed high precision (7.8×10^{−3} ppb and accuracy (<0.30% of the instrument, while no drift was observed. The instrument response time was determined to be 0.10 s. In the field set-up, the FMA is attached to a scroll pump and combined with a 3-axis ultrasonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer for measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour. The power-spectra and co-spectra of the instruments were satisfactory for 10 Hz sampling rates.
Due to erroneous measurements, spikes and periods of low turbulence the data series consisted for 26% of gaps. Observed CH_{4} fluxes consisted mainly of emission, showed a diurnal cycle, but were rather variable over. The average CH_{4} emission was 29.7 nmol m^{−2} s^{−1}, while the typical maximum CH_{4} emission was approximately 80.0 nmol m^{−2} s^{−1} and the typical minimum flux was approximately 0.0 nmol m^{−2} s^{−1}. The correspondence of the measurements with flux chamber measurements in the footprint was good and the observed CH_{4} emission rates were comparable with eddy covariance CH_{4} measurements in other peat areas.
Additionally, three measurement techniques with lower sampling frequencies were simulated, which might give the possibility to measure CH_{4} fluxes without an external pump and save energy. Disjunct eddy covariance appeared to be the most reliable substitute for 10 Hz eddy covariance, while relaxed eddy accumulation gave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. M. D. Hendriks
2007-08-01
Full Text Available A DLT-100 Fast Methane Analyser (FMA from Los Gatos Research (LGR Ltd. is assessed for its applicability in a closed path eddy covariance field set-up. The FMA uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS combined with a highly specific narrow band laser for the detection of CH_{4} and strongly reflective mirrors to obtain a laser path length of 2×10³ to 20×10³ m. Statistical testing, a calibration experiment and comparison with high tower data showed high precision and very good stability of the instrument. The measurement cell response time was tested to be 0.10 s. In the field set-up, the FMA is attached to a scroll pump and combined with a Gill Windmaster Pro 3 axis Ultrasonic Anemometer and a Licor 7500 open path infrared gas analyzer. The power-spectra and co-spectra of the instrument are satisfactory for 10 Hz sampling rates. The correspondence with CH_{4} flux chamber measurements is good and the observed CH_{4} emissions are comparable with (eddy covariance CH_{4} measurements in other peat areas.
CH_{4} emissions are rather variable over time and show a diurnal pattern. The average CH_{4} emission is 50±12.5 nmol m^{−2} s^{−1}, while the typical maximum CH_{4} emission is 120±30 nmol m^{−2} s^{−1} (during daytime and the typical minimum flux is –20±2.5 nmol m^{−2} s^{−1} (uptake, during night time.
Additionally, the set-up was tested for three measurement techniques with slower measurement rates, which could be used in the future to make the scroll pump superfluous and save energy. Both disjunct eddy covariance as well as slow 1 Hz eddy covariance showed results very similar to normal 10 Hz eddy covariance. Relaxed eddy accumulation (REA only matched with normal 10 Hz eddy covariance over an averaging period of at least several weeks.
Tuning of a high magnification compact parabolic telescope for centimeter-scale laser beams.
Tacca, Matteo; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Buy, Christelle; Laporte, Matthieu; Pillant, Gabriel; Genin, Eric; La Penna, Paolo; Barsuglia, Matteo
2016-02-20
Off-axis parabolic telescopes, widely used in astronomy and laser optics, if perfectly tuned, are virtually free from aberrations along the parabola's axis direction, but their alignment is very critical. We present a detailed method to align a high magnification off-axis afocal parabolic telescope. The method is composed of two steps: an initial pre-alignment using autocollimators, followed by a fine tuning with a collimated laser beam. Due to the large telescope magnification, the outcoming beam cannot be measured without being refocused. The beam is therefore reflected on a flat mirror and sent back through the telescope. This double-pass configuration allows the measurement of the beam quality without the need for large additional optics. In the fine-tuning step, a numerical simulation is also used to identify the degrees of freedom to be adjusted. The experimental results presented are obtained with one of the mode-matching parabolic telescopes of the gravitational wave interferometric detector Advanced Virgo.
Briais, Anne; Barrère, Fabienne; Boulart, Cédric; Ceuleneer, Georges; Ferreira, Nicolas; Hanan, Barry; Hémond, Christophe; Macleod, Sarah; Maia, Marcia; Maillard, Agnès; Merkuryev, Sergey; Park, Sung-Hyun; Révillon, Sidonie; Ruellan, Etienne; Schohn, Alexandre; Watson, Sally; Yang, Yun-Seok
2016-04-01
We present observations of the South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR) collected during the STORM cruise (South Tasmania Ocean Ridge and Mantle) on the N/O L'Atalante early 2015. The SEIR between Australia and Antarctica displays large variations of axial morphology despite an almost constant intermediate spreading rate. The Australia-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) between 120°E and 128°E is a section of the mid-ocean ridge where the magma budget is abnormally low, and which marks the boundary between Indian and Pacific mantle domains with distinct geochemical isotopic compositions. The STORM project focuses on the area east of the discordance from 128 to 140°E, where gravity highs observed on satellite-derived maps of the flanks of the SEIR reveal numerous volcanic seamounts. A major objective of the STORM cruise was to test the hypothesis of a mantle flow from the Pacific to the Indian domains. We collected multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data between 136 and 138°E to map off-axis volcanic ridges up to 10 Ma-old crust. We mapped the SEIR axis between 129 and 140°E, and the northern part of the George V transform fault. We collected rock samples on seamounts and in the transform fault, basaltic glass samples along the ridge axis, and near-bottom samples and in-situ measurements in the water column. Our observations reveal that the off-axis seamounts form near the SEIR axis, are not associated to off-axis deformation of the ocean floor, and are often located near the traces of ridge axis discontinuities. We also observe a general shallowing of the ridge axis from the AAD to the George V TF and the presence of robust axial segments near the transform fault. Our new data allow us to describe the complex evolution of the transform fault system. They also permit to locate new hydrothermal systems along the ridge axis.
Brice, S J; DeJongh, F; Empl, A; Garrison, L M; Hime, A; Hungerford, E; Kobilarcik, T; Loer, B; Mariani, C; Mocko, M; Muhrer, G; Pattie, R; Pavlovic, Z; Ramberg, E; Scholberg, K; Tayloe, R; Thornton, R T; Yoo, J; Young, A
2013-01-01
We present a new experimental method for measuring the process of Coherent Elastic Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CENNS). This method uses a detector situated transverse to a high energy neutrino beam production target. This detector would be sensitive to the low energy neutrinos arising from pion decays-at-rest in the target. We discuss the physics motivation for making this measurement and outline the predicted backgrounds and sensitivities using this approach. We report a measurement of neutron backgrounds as found in an off-axis surface location of the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) target. The results indicate that the Fermilab BNB target is a favorable location for a CENNS experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooper, David [CEA LETI-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: david.cooper@cea.fr; Truche, Robert [CEA LETI-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Rouviere, Jean-Luc [CEA DRFMC-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)
2008-04-15
GaAs specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) milling for examination using off-axis electron holography. By lowering the FIB operating voltage from 30 to 8 kV, we have shown a systematic reduction of the electrically 'inactive' thickness from 220 to 100 nm, resulting in a significant increase in the step in phase measured across the junctions as well as an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that the step in phase measured across the junctions can be influenced by the intensity of the electron beam.
Cooper, David; Truche, Robert; Rouviere, Jean-Luc
2008-04-01
GaAs specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) milling for examination using off-axis electron holography. By lowering the FIB operating voltage from 30 to 8 kV, we have shown a systematic reduction of the electrically 'inactive' thickness from 220 to 100 nm, resulting in a significant increase in the step in phase measured across the junctions as well as an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that the step in phase measured across the junctions can be influenced by the intensity of the electron beam.
Kim, Byung-Mok; Kim, Eun-Soo
2016-05-16
A single-arm off-axis holographic interferometer (SA-OHI) system for visual inspection of the three-dimensional (3-D) surfaces and refractive-index profiles of micrometer-scale optical lenses is proposed. In this system, a couple of pellicle beam splitters and optical mirrors are employed to generate two sheared off-axis beams from the single object beam by controlling the tilted angle of the optical mirror. Each sheared beam is divided into two areas with and without object data, which are called half-object and half-reference beams, respectively. These sub-divided object and reference beams then make interference patterns, just like the conventional two-arm holographic interferometer. This holographic interferometer system, called SA-OHI, can solve the DC bias, virtual and duplicated image problems occurred in most lateral shearing interferometers, which allow extraction of the hologram data only related to the target object. The operational principle of the proposed system is analyzed based on ray-optics. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed system in the practical application fields, experiments with test lenses are also carried out and the results are comparatively discussed with those of the conventional system. PMID:27409857
Electron Traps in GaAs Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on On-axis (100 and Off-axis Substrates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sarmiento
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS was used to characterize the electron traps present in the bulkGaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE on on-axis (100 and off-axis (4° towards the (111 Adirection substrates. Two electron traps were obtained for each sample having identical correspondingpeak locations in the DLTS spectra. The layer grown on the on-axis substrate has electron traps withactivation energies of EC–0.454 eV and EC–0.643 eV and capture cross-sections of 1.205 x 10-14 cm2 and3.88 x 10-15 cm2, respectively. The layer grown on the off-axis substrate has traps with activation energiesof EC–0.454 eV and EC–0.723 eV and capture cross-sections of 2.060 x 10-14 cm2 and 4.40 x 10-14 cm2.The electron traps are possibly the M4 (or EL3 and EL2 (or EB4 traps commonly found in GaAs layers.Due to the high trap concentrations obtained and to the non-uniform trap concentration profile, Asdesorption may be considerable during growth.
Watson, Pat G.; Garofalo, Joseph G.; Hansen, M.; Grodnensky, Ilya M.; Zych, Ludwik J.; Takahashi, R.; Yarbrough, Willie J.; Ehrlacher, Edward; Reim, A.; Vella, R. M.; Dunbar, A.; Colina, Albert; Herrero, B.; Castro, D.
1997-07-01
The feasibility of manufacturing 280 nm gates for ASIC technology using i-line lithography is examined. Off-axis illumination, sub-resolution assist features and proximity effect bias corrections were considered. The experiments were performed with a reticle designed to evaluate the effects of line pitch, bias and field uniformity on the feature dimensions. Results show that dense and isolated features were found to print at about the same linewidth under all three illumination conditions. However, deviations as large as 40 nm were found at intermediate pitches, implying that some form of optical proximity correction is needed to maintain critical dimension (CD) control for a mask pattern with varying feature densities. Sub-resolution assist lines adjacent to isolated 280 nm lines significantly improved the apparent wall angle of the features compared to true isolated features. The use of these features comes at a cost; the sub-resolution features can be printed under certain conditions and could possibly lead to device failure. Multi-dimensional matrices of CD measurements with varying dose, focus, bias and pitch, when displayed in an appropriate manner, are being used to identify the relative advantages of different illumination conditions. Off-axis illumination offers a large depth of focus for all pitches if proximity effect biasing is applied. Conventional illumination with biasing can improve exposure latitude.
Calculation of focal length for off-axis TMA aerospace mapping camera%离轴三反航天测绘相机焦距的计算
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭疆; 孙继明; 邵明东; 胡海飞
2012-01-01
To calculate the focal length of an off-axis Three Mirror Anastigmat(TMA) camera precisely and to guarantee its mapping precision,this paper researches and amends the classic mapping model and related formulas. First, the intersection angle of the off-axis TMA camera is re-defined, and the classic calculating formula for the focal length is modified. Then, the effect of earth curvature on the calculating focal length is analyzed, and the formula is further corrected. Examples indicate that when GSD is set to be 2 m,and the size of CCD, orbital altitude and the off-axis angle are 8 jj.m,700 km and 7? respectively, the relative error of the focal length of a tilt-looking camera calculated by the classic formula and that calculated by the modified formula can reach to 2. 6%, which will effect significantly on the mapping precision. Therefore, it suggests that the calculating formula for focal length of tilt-looking camera should take the off-axis angle into account when a off-axis TMA camera is used in photography. Furthermore, the classic calculating formula is still applicable for the ortho-looking camera.%为了精确计算离轴三反相机的焦距以保证其测绘精度,对经典测绘模型和相关公式进行了必要的修正.首先,重新定义了离轴三反测绘相机的交会角,并对经典焦距计算公式做了修正；其次,分析了地球曲率对离轴三反测绘相机焦距计算的影响,进一步修正了焦距计算公式.实例计算表明:当要求地面像元分辨率为2 m,在CCD像元尺寸为8μm,轨道高度为700 km,离轴角为7°条件下,应用经典计算公式得出的斜视相机焦距与应用修正后的计算公式所得出的斜视相机焦距相对偏差达到2.6％,说明对测绘精度影响很大.因此,在采用离轴三反相机进行摄影测量时,斜视相机焦距的计算应考虑离轴角后对经典公式进行必要的修正,而正视相机的焦距计算可以沿用经典计算公式.
Manufacturing parabolic mirrors
1975-01-01
The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)
Zhang, X.; Liu, J.; Wang, J.
2016-05-01
The diesel spray characteristics are strongly influenced by the flow dynamics inside the injector nozzle. Moreover, the off-axis oscillation of needle could lead to variation of orifice flow in the nozzle. In this paper, the needle oscillation was investigated using high-speed X-ray phase contrast imaging and quantitative image processing. The effects of fuel, injection pressure and nozzle geometry on the needle oscillation were analyzed. The results showed that the vertical and horizontal oscillation of needle was independent on the injection pressure. The maximum oscillation range of 14μ m was found. Biodiesel application slightly decreased the needle oscillation due to high viscosity. The needle oscillation range increased generally with increasing hole number. The larger needle oscillation in multi-hole injectors was dominated by the geometry problem or production issue at lower needle lift. In addition, the influence of needle oscillation on the spray morphology was also discussed.
The Role of Anti-Phase Domains in InSb-Based Structures Grown on On-Axis and Off-Axis Ge Substrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Debnath, M. C.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Hossain, K.; Holland, O. W. [Amethyst Research, Inc., 1405 4th Ave NW, Ardmore, OK 73401 (United States)
2011-12-26
Anti-phase domains form in InSb epilayers and InSb/Al{sub 0.20}In{sub 0.80}Sb single quantum wells when grown upon on-axis (001) Ge substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Domain formation is partially suppressed through growth on Ge substrates with surfaces that are several degrees off the (001) or (211) axis. By using off-axis Ge substrates, room-temperature electron mobilities increased to {approx}60,000 cm{sup 2}/V-s and {approx}14,000 cm{sup 2}/V-s for a 4.0-{mu}m-thick InSb epilayer and a 25-nm InSb quantum well, respectively.
Muniz, Sérgio R; Bagnato, Vanderlei S
2010-01-01
In a region free of currents, magnetostatics can be described by the Laplace equation of a scalar magnetic potential, and one can apply the same methods commonly used in electrostatics. Here we show how to calculate the general vector field inside a real (finite) solenoid, using only the magnitude of the field along the symmetry axis. Our method does not require integration or knowledge of the current distribution, and is presented through practical examples, including a non-uniform finite solenoid used to produce cold atomic beams via laser cooling. These examples allow educators to discuss the non-trivial calculation of fields off-axis using concepts familiar to most students, while offering the opportunity to introduce important advancements of current modern research.
Muniz, Sérgio R.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Bhattacharya, M.
2015-06-01
In a region free of currents, magnetostatics can be described by the Laplace equation of a scalar magnetic potential, and one can apply the same methods commonly used in electrostatics. Here, we show how to calculate the general vector field inside a real (finite) solenoid, using only the magnitude of the field along the symmetry axis. Our method does not require integration or knowledge of the current distribution and is presented through practical examples, including a nonuniform finite solenoid used to produce cold atomic beams via laser cooling. These examples allow educators to discuss the nontrivial calculation of fields off-axis using concepts familiar to most students, while offering the opportunity to introduce themes of current modern research.
Joseph, Jobin; Külls, Christoph
2014-05-01
The δ13C and δ18O of CO2 has enormous potential as tracers to study and quantify the interaction between the water and carbon cycles. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) being the conventional method for stable isotopic measurements, has many limitations making it impossible for deploying them in remote areas for online or in-situ sampling. New laser based absorption spectroscopy approaches like Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (ICOS) have been developed for online measurements of stable isotopes at an expense of considerably less power requirement but with precision comparable to IRMS. In this research project, we introduce a new calibration system for an Off- Axis ICOS (Los Gatos Research CCIA-36d) for a wide range of varying concentrations of CO2 (800ppm - 25,000ppm), a typical CO2 flux range at the plant-soil continuum. The calibration compensates for the concentration dependency of δ13C and δ18O measurements, and was performed using various CO2 standards with known CO2 concentration and δC13 and δO18 values. A mathematical model was developed after the calibration procedure as a correction factor for the concentration dependency of δ13C and δ18O measurements. Temperature dependency of δ13C and δ18O measurements were investigated and no significant influence was found. Simultaneous calibration of δ13C and δ18O is achieved using this calibration system with an overall accuracy of (~ 0.75±0.24 ‰ for δ13C, ~ 0.81 ±0.26‰ for δ18O). This calibration procedure is found to be appropriate for making Off-Axis ICOS suitable for measuring CO2 concentration and δ13C and δ18O measurements at atmosphere-plant-soil continuum.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈世东; 余俊; 潘俊鹤; 胡明勇
2011-01-01
It's very difficult for manufacture and test of an off-axis convex hyperboloidal surface in the area of manufacture and test of aspherical optical surfaces. With the diameter of an off-axis convex hyperboloidal mirror is 230mm and off-axis magnitude is 226mm,a new method in which the off-axis convex hyperboloidal mirror is manufactured singly and tested with a deflection angle using an off-axis Hindle ball is proposed. Besides,unit manufacture technology is given and problems in building test configuration are solved. RMS of the off-axis convex hyperboloidal surface manufactured is better than λ/50(λ = 632. 8nm) . The result shows that the new method is feasible and has an important significance.%离轴凸双曲面的加工和检测是非球面加工检测中的一个比较困难的问题.结合一块口径φ230mm、离轴量226mm的凸双曲面镜,提出了离轴凸双曲面镜单修加工以及采用离轴Hindle球检测偏转角度的离轴凸双曲面镜这一方案.给出了单修加工工艺,并解决了检测光路的搭建难点.加工完成的离轴凸双曲面的面形精度RMS优于λ/50(λ=632.8nm).结果表明此方案是可行的,具有重要的现实意义.
基于光学自由曲面的离轴三反光学系统%Off-axis three-mirror system based on freeform mirror
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
薛栋林; 郑立功; 张峰
2011-01-01
为了研制长焦距大视场离轴三反空间光学系统,描述了自由曲面光学数理模型,设计了基于自由曲面的离轴三反光学系统.针对焦距为4500 mm,成像视场角为11°,系统总长与焦距的比值为1/3的光学系统,对比分析了传统离轴三反光学系统和次镜为自由曲面的离轴三反光学系统的关键性能.在提出的光学系统中次镜采用自由曲面设计,提升了光学系统的像差平衡能力；最终选用相对孔径为1/9.5的设计方案,使光学系统全视场平均波像差优于0.030λ(λ=632.8 nm),平均传递函数优于0.434(71.4 lp/mm),接近衍射极限；在同等条件下系统设计传递函数比传统离轴三反系统提高5％以上.优化设计后光学系统自由曲面次镜与理论球面偏差为1.1λ,采用定制的标准球面镜结合基于数字样板的非零位检测方法可完成面形实时高精度检测,解决了大口径凸自由曲面检测的难题.结果表明,采用基于自由曲面次镜的空间光学系统,具有体积小、技术可实现性强、波像差和传递函数等关键性能优越等优点.%A freeform off-axis three-mirror system based on a freeform mirror was designed for the long focal length and wide-field off-axis three-mirror system in a space telescope. To obtain a system with a focal length of 4 500 mm, field of view of 11° and the ratio of the total length of system and the focal length in 1/3, the design and performance between traditional off-axis three-mirror system and freeform off-axis three-mirror system were compared. In the designed optical system, the freeform mirror was introduced to the secondary mirror to enhance system optimization and improve the balance capacity for optical aberration. After the comparison and optimization, the relative aperture of 1/9. 5 was chosen. In the system, the average of wavefront error of all field of view is better than 0. 030λ(λ= 632. 8 nm), and the average of the Modulation Transform
Ex Vivo Assessment of a Parabolic-Tip Inflow Cannula for Pediatric Continuous-Flow VADs.
Griffin, Michael T; Grzywinski, Matthew F; Voorhees, Hannah J; Kameneva, Marina V; Olia, Salim E
2016-01-01
To address the challenge of unloading the left ventricle during pediatric mechanical circulatory support using next-generation rotary blood pumps, a novel inflow cannula was developed. This unique inflow cannula for pediatric, continuous-flow, left ventricular assist devices (VADs) with a parabolic-shaped inlet entrance was evaluated alongside a bevel-tip and fenestrated-tip cannula via an ex vivo, isolated-heart experimental setup. Performance was characterized using two clinical scenarios of over-pumping and hypovolemia, created by varying pump speed and filling preload pressure, respectively, at ideal and off-axis cannula placement to assess ventricular unloading and positional sensitivity. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed on the resultant hemodynamics and intra-ventricular boroscopic images to classify conditions of nonsuction, partial, gradual or severe entrainment, and ventricular collapse. The parabolic-tip cannula was found to be significantly less sensitive to placement position (p parabolic-tip cannula showed complete resistance to entrainment, whereas the fenestrated-tip had partial entrainment in 90% and 87% of the over-pumping and hypovolemic studies, respectively. We conclude that future pediatric VAD designs may benefit from incorporating the parabolic-tip inflow cannula design to maximize unloading of the left ventricle in ideal and nonoptimal conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Migunov, V., E-mail: v.migunov@fz-juelich.de; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); London, A. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik and Center of Nanointegration (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2015-04-07
The one-dimensional charge density distribution along an electrically biased Fe atom probe needle is measured using a model-independent approach based on off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. Both the mean inner potential and the magnetic contribution to the phase shift are subtracted by taking differences between electron-optical phase images recorded with different voltages applied to the needle. The measured one-dimensional charge density distribution along the needle is compared with a similar result obtained using model-based fitting of the phase shift surrounding the needle. On the assumption of cylindrical symmetry, it is then used to infer the three-dimensional electric field and electrostatic potential around the needle with ∼10 nm spatial resolution, without needing to consider either the influence of the perturbed reference wave or the extension of the projected potential outside the field of view of the electron hologram. The present study illustrates how a model-independent approach can be used to measure local variations in charge density in a material using electron holography in the presence of additional contributions to the phase, such as those arising from changes in mean inner potential and specimen thickness.
De Postigo, A U; Johannesson, G; Gorosabel, J; Sokolov, V V; Castro-Tirado, A J; Balega, Y Y; Spiridonova, O I; Jelinek, M; Guziy, S; Pérez-Ramírez, D; Hjorth, J; Laursen, P; Bersier, D; Pandey, S B; Bremer, M; Monfardini, A; Huang, K Y; Urata, Y; Ip, W H; Tamagawa, T; Kinoshita, D; Mizuno, T; Arai, Y; Yamagishi, H; Soyano, T; Usui, F; Tashiro, M; Abe, K; Onda, K; Aslan, Z; Khamitov, I; Ozisik, T; Kiziloglu, U; Bikmaev, I; Sakhibullin, N A; Burenin, R; Pavlinsky, M; Sunyaev, R; Bhattacharya, D; Kamble, A P; Chandra, C H I; Trushkin, S A; Balega, Yu.Yu.
2006-01-01
Aims. Understand the shape and implications of the multiband light curve of GRB 050408, an X-ray rich (XRR) burst. Methods. We present a multiband optical light curve, covering the time from the onset of the gamma-ray event to several months after, when we only detect the host galaxy. Together with X-ray, millimetre and radio observations we compile what, to our knowledge, is the most complete multiband coverage of an XRR burst afterglow to date. Results. The optical and X-ray light curve is characterised by an early flattening and an intense bump peaking around 6 days after the burst onset. We explain the former by an off-axis viewed jet, in agreement with the predictions made for XRR by some models, and the latter with an energy injection equivalent in intensity to the initial shock. The analysis of the spectral flux distribution reveals an extinction compatible with a low chemical enrichment surrounding the burst. Together with the detection of an underlying starburst host galaxy we can strengthen the link...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao Chen
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In situ potential mapping of space charge (SC layer in a single GaN nanowire (NW contacted to the Au metal electrode has been conducted using off-axis electron holography in order to study the space distribution of SC layer under electric biases. Based on the phase image reconstructed from the complex hologram the electrostatic potential at the SC layer was clearly revealed; the SC width was estimated to be about 76 nm under zero bias condition. In order to study dynamic interrelation between the SC layer and bias conditions, the variation of the electrostatic potential due to change of the SC widths respond to the different bias conditions have also been examined. The measured SC layers are found to vary between 68 nm and 91 nm, which correspond to the saturated SC layers at the GaN-Au contact under the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively. By plotting the square widths of the SC layer against the applied voltages, donor density of GaN NWs was derived to be about 4.3*106 cm−3. Our experiments demonstrate that in-situ electron holography under electric field can be a useful method to investigate SC layers and donor density in single NW and other heterostructures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Chen; Yanguo Wang; Jie Guo; Jikang Jian; Lin Gu; Zhihua Zhang
2016-01-01
In situ potential mapping of space charge (SC) layer in a single GaN nanowire (NW) contacted to the Au metal electrode has been conducted using off-axis electron holography in order to study the space distribution of SC layer under electric biases. Based on the phase image reconstructed from the complex hologram the electrostatic potential at the SC layer was clearly revealed;the SC width was estimated to be about 76 nm under zero bias condition. In order to study dynamic interrelation between the SC layer and bias conditions, the variation of the electrostatic potential due to change of the SC widths respond to the different bias conditions have also been examined. The measured SC layers are found to vary between 68 nm and 91 nm, which correspond to the saturated SC layers at the GaN-Au contact under the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively. By plotting the square widths of the SC layer against the applied voltages, donor density of GaN NWs was derived to be about 4.3*106 cm ? 3. Our experiments demon-strate that in-situ electron holography under electric field can be a useful method to investigate SC layers and donor density in single NW and other heterostructures.
Biswas, Indranil
2011-01-01
We construct projectivization of a parabolic vector bundle and a tautological line bundle over it. It is shown that a parabolic vector bundle is ample if and only if the tautological line bundle is ample. This allows us to generalize the notion of a k-ample bundle, introduced by Sommese, to the context of parabolic bundles. A parabolic vector bundle $E_*$ is defined to be k-ample if the tautological line bundle ${\\mathcal O}_{{\\mathbb P}(E_*)}(1)$ is $k$--ample. We establish some properties of parabolic k-ample bundles.
Niu, Yaoling; Batiza, Rodey
1991-12-01
We present a new method for calculating the major element compositions of primary melts parental to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). This model is based on the experimental data of Jaques and Green (1980), Falloon et al. (1988), and Falloon and Green (1987, 1988) which are ideal for this purpose. Our method is empirical and employs solid-liquid partition coefficients (Di) from the experiments. We empirically determine Di = ƒ(P,F) and use this to calculate melt compositions produced by decompression-induced melting along an adiabat (column melting). Results indicate that most MORBs can be generated by 10-20% partial melting at initial pressures (P0) of 12-21 kbar. Our primary MORB melts have MgO = 10-12 wt %. We fractionate these at low pressure to an MgO content of 8.0 wt % in order to interpret natural MORB liquids. This model allows us to calculate Po, Pƒ, To, Tƒ, and F for natural MORB melts. We apply the model to interpret MORB compositions and mantle upwelling patterns beneath a fast ridge (East Pacific Rise (EPR)8°N to 14°N), a slow ridge (mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) at 26°S), and seamounts near the EPR (Lament seamount chain). We find mantle temperature differences of up to 50°-60°C over distances of 30-50 km both across axis and along axis at the EPR. We propose that these are due to upward mantle flow in a weakly conductive (versus adiabatic) temperature gradient. We suggest that the EPR is fed by a wide (-100 km) zone of upwelling due to plate separation but has a central core of faster buoyant flow. An along-axis thermal dome between the Siqueiros transform and the 11°45' Overlapping Spreading center (OSC) may represent such an upwelling; however, in general there is a poor correlation between mantle temperature, topography, and the segmentation pattern at the EPR. For the Lament seamounts we find regular across-axis changes in Po and F suggesting that the melt zone pinches out off axis. This observation supports the idea that the EPR is fed by a
Batiza, Rodey
1991-12-01
We present a new method for calculating the major element compositions of primary melts parental to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). This model is based on the experimental data of Jaques and Green (1980), Falloon et al. (1988), and Falloon and Green (1987, 1988) which are ideal for this purpose. Our method is empirical and employs solid-liquid partition coefficients (Di) from the experiments. We empirically determine Di=f(P,F) and use this to calculate melt compositions produced by decompression-induced melting along an adiabat (column melting). Results indicate that most MORBs can be generated by 10-20% partial melting at initial pressures (P0) of 12-21 kbar. Our primary MORB melts have MgO=10-12 wt %. We fractionate these at low pressure to an MgO content of 8.0 wt% in order to interpret natural MORB liquids. This model allows us to calculate Po, Pf, To, Tf, and F for natural MORB melts. We apply the model to interpret MORB compositions and mantle upwelling patterns beneath a fast ridge (East Pacific Rise (EPR) 8°N to 14°N), a slow ridge (mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) at 26°S), and seamounts near the EPR (Lamont seamount chain). We find mantle temperature differences of up to 50°-60°C over distances of 30-50 km both across axis and along axis at the EPR. We propose that these are due to upward mantle flow in a weakly conductive (versus adiabatic) temperature gradient. We suggest that the EPR is fed by a wide (~100 km) zone of upwelling due to plate separation but has a central core of faster buoyant flow. An along-axis thermal dome between the Siqueiros transform and the 11°45' Overlapping Spreading Center (OSC) may represent such an upwelling; however, in general there is a poor correlation between mantle temperature, topography, and the segmentation pattern at the EPR. For the Lamont seamounts we find regular across-axis changes in Po and F suggesting that the melt zone pinches out off axis. This observation supports the idea that the EPR is fed by a broad
Session: Parabolic Troughs (Presentation)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kutscher, C.
2008-04-01
The project description is R and D activities at NREL and Sandia aimed at lowering the delivered energy cost of parabolic trough collector systems and FOA awards to support industry in trought development. The primary objectives are: (1) support development of near-term parabolic trought technology for central station power generation; (2) support development of next-generation trought fields; and (3) support expansion of US trough industry. The major FY08 activities were: (1) improving reflector optics; (2) reducing receiver heat loss (including improved receiver coating and mitigating hydrogen accumulation); (3) measuring collector optical efficiency; (4) optimizing plant performance and reducing cost; (5) reducing plant water consumption; and (6) directly supporting industry needs, including FOA support.
Mahonians and parabolic quotients
Caselli, Fabrizio
2011-01-01
We study the distribution of the major index with sign on some parabolic quotients of the symmetric group, extending and generalizing simultaneously results of Panova [G. Panova, Bijective enumeration of permutations starting with a longest increasing subsequence, Discrete Math. Theor. Comput. Sci. Proc. AN (2010), 841--850], Gessel-Simion [M. Wachs, An involution for signed Eulerian numbers, Discrete Math. 99 (1992), 59--62] and Adin-Gessel-Roichman [R. Adin, I. Gessel and Y. Roichman, Signed Mahonians, J. Combin. Theory Ser. A 109 (2005), 25--43]. We further consider and compute the distribution of the flag-major index on some parabolic quotients of wreath products and other related groups. All these distributions turn out to have very simple factorization formulas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, Enrique Arrieta [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
2014-01-01
The NOνA is a long base-line neutrino oscillation experiment. It will study the oscillations between muon and electron neutrinos through the Earth. NOνA consists of two detectors separated by 810 km. Each detector will measure the electron neutrino content of the neutrino (NuMI) beam. Differences between the measurements will reveal details about the oscillation channel. The NOνA collaboration built a prototype detector on the surface at Fermilab in order to develop calibration, simulation, and reconstruction tools, using real data. This 220 ton detector is 110 mrad off the NuMI beam axis. This off-axis location allows the observation of neutrino interactions with energies around 2 GeV, where neutrinos come predominantly from charged kaon decays. During the period between October 2011 and April 2012, the prototype detector collected neutrino data from 1.67 × 10^{20} protons on target delivered by the NuMI beam. This analysis selected a number of candidate charged current muon neutrino events from the prototype data, which is 30% lower than predicted by the NOνA Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis suggests that the discrepancy comes from an over estimation of the neutrino flux in the Monte Carlo simulation, and in particular, from neutrinos generated in charged kaon decays. The ratio of measured divided by the simulated flux of muon neutrinos coming from charged kaon decays is: 0.70^{+0.108} _{-0.094}. The NOνA collaboration may use the findings of this analysis to introduce a more accurate prediction of the neutrino flux produced by the NuMI beam in future Monte Carlo simulations.
Wang, Lixin; Caylor, Kelly K; Dragoni, Danilo
2009-02-01
The (18)O and (2)H of water vapor serve as powerful tracers of hydrological processes. The typical method for determining water vapor delta(18)O and delta(2)H involves cryogenic trapping and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Even with recent technical advances, these methods cannot resolve vapor composition at high temporal resolutions. In recent years, a few groups have developed continuous laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) approaches for measuring delta(18)O and delta(2)H which achieve accuracy levels similar to those of lab-based mass spectrometry methods. Unfortunately, most LAS systems need cryogenic cooling and constant calibration to a reference gas, and have substantial power requirements, making them unsuitable for long-term field deployment at remote field sites. A new method called Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) has been developed which requires extremely low-energy consumption and neither reference gas nor cryogenic cooling. In this report, we develop a relatively simple pumping system coupled to a dew point generator to calibrate an ICOS-based instrument (Los Gatos Research Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer (WVIA) DLT-100) under various pressures using liquid water with known isotopic signatures. Results show that the WVIA can be successfully calibrated using this customized system for different pressure settings, which ensure that this instrument can be combined with other gas-sampling systems. The precisions of this instrument and the associated calibration method can reach approximately 0.08 per thousand for delta(18)O and approximately 0.4 per thousand for delta(2)H. Compared with conventional mass spectrometry and other LAS-based methods, the OA-ICOS technique provides a promising alternative tool for continuous water vapor isotopic measurements in field deployments. PMID:19142848
Leen, J. B.; Spillane, S.; Gardner, A.; Hansen, P. C.; Gupta, M.; Baer, D. S.
2015-12-01
Natural gas leaks pose a risk to public safety both because of potential explosions as well as from the greenhouse gas potential of fugitive methane. The rapid and cost effective detection of leaks in natural gas distribution is critical to providing a system that is safe for the public and the environment. Detection of methane from a mobile platform (vehicles, aircraft, etc.) is an accepted method of identifying leaks. A robust approach to differentiating pipeline gas (thermogenic) from other biogenic sources is the detection of ethane along with methane. Ethane is present in nearly all thermogenic gas but not in biogenic sources and its presence can be used to positively identify a gas sample. We present a mobile system for the simultaneous measurement of methane and ethane that is capable of detecting pipeline leaks and differentiating pipeline gas from other biogenic sources such as landfills, swamps, sewers, and enteric fermentation. The mobile system consists of a high precision GPS, sonic anemometer, and methane/ethane analyzer based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). In order to minimize the system cost and facilitate the wide use of mobile leak detection, the analyzer operates in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum where lasers and optics are significantly less costly than in the mid-infrared. The analyzer is capable of detecting methane with a precision of gas with 6% ethane). Finally, analysis of wind data provides an estimate of leak direction and distance. The system presented provides a robust, cost effective solution to natural gas leak detection and attribution to maximize safety and minimize greenhouse gas impacts of distribution systems.
虚拟3D摄影移轴技术研究%Off-Axis Technology of Virtual 3D Cinematography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙略
2010-01-01
虚拟3D摄影技术指计算机动画制作系统中用于拍摄三维场景以获取立体数字影像的技术.一般情况下,3D摄影系统中双机的主轴需要形成汇聚才能产生立体视觉效果,在真实3D摄影系统中,通常以旋转(Toe In)摄影机的方式形成汇聚.在虚拟3D摄影系统中,由于虚拟摄影机的特殊性质,可以通过移轴(Off Axis)技术形成汇聚.移轴技术可以消除普通3D摄影技术不可避免的梯形变形以及清晰度差异,提高3D影像的质量.本文在分析梯形变形与清晰度差异产生原理的基础上,对虚拟3D摄影系统的移轴控制技术进行讨论,进一步分析如何通过移轴技术消除垂直视差与清晰度差异,从而在理论上证明移轴技术是更为理想的3D摄影控制技术,并最终提出在真实3D摄影系统中引入移轴技术的设想.
Ex Vivo Assessment of a Parabolic-Tip Inflow Cannula for Pediatric Continuous-Flow VADs.
Griffin, Michael T; Grzywinski, Matthew F; Voorhees, Hannah J; Kameneva, Marina V; Olia, Salim E
2016-01-01
To address the challenge of unloading the left ventricle during pediatric mechanical circulatory support using next-generation rotary blood pumps, a novel inflow cannula was developed. This unique inflow cannula for pediatric, continuous-flow, left ventricular assist devices (VADs) with a parabolic-shaped inlet entrance was evaluated alongside a bevel-tip and fenestrated-tip cannula via an ex vivo, isolated-heart experimental setup. Performance was characterized using two clinical scenarios of over-pumping and hypovolemia, created by varying pump speed and filling preload pressure, respectively, at ideal and off-axis cannula placement to assess ventricular unloading and positional sensitivity. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed on the resultant hemodynamics and intra-ventricular boroscopic images to classify conditions of nonsuction, partial, gradual or severe entrainment, and ventricular collapse. The parabolic-tip cannula was found to be significantly less sensitive to placement position (p pumping and hypovolemic studies, respectively. We conclude that future pediatric VAD designs may benefit from incorporating the parabolic-tip inflow cannula design to maximize unloading of the left ventricle in ideal and nonoptimal conditions. PMID:27442862
Courant Algebroids in Parabolic Geometry
Armstrong, Stuart
2011-01-01
To a smooth manifold $M$, a parabolic geometry associates a principal bundle, which has a parabolic subgroup of a semisimple Lie group as its structure group, and a Cartan connection. We show that the adjoint tractor bundle of a regular normal parabolic geometry can be endowed with the structure of a Courant algebroid. This gives a class of examples of transitive Courant algebroids that are not exact.
Leen, J. B.; Owano, T. G.; Du, X.; Gardner, A.; Gupta, M.
2014-12-01
Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere and has been implicated in controlling the sulfur budget and aerosol loading of the stratosphere. In the troposphere, OCS is irreversibly consumed during photosynthesis and may serve as a tracer for gross primary production (GPP). Its primary sources are ocean outgassing, industrial processes, and biomass burning. Its primary sinks are vegetation and soils. Despite the importance of OCS in atmospheric processes, the OCS atmospheric budget is poorly determined and has high uncertainty. OCS is typically monitored using either canisters analyzed by gas chromatography or integrated atmospheric column measurements. Improved in-situ terrestrial flux and airborne measurements are required to constrain the OCS budget and further elucidate its role in stratospheric aerosol formation and as a tracer for biogenic volatile organics and photosynthesis. Los Gatos Research has developed a flight capable mid-infrared Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) analyzer to simultaneously quantify OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O in ambient air at up to 2 Hz. The prototype was tested on diluted, certified samples and found to be precise (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O to better than ±4 ppt, ±0.2 ppm, ±0.31 ppb, and ±3.7 ppm respectively, 1s in 1 sec) and linear (R2 > 0.9997 for all gases) over a wide dynamic range (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O ranging from 0.2 - 70 ppb, 500 - 3000 ppm, 150 - 480 ppb, and 7000 - 21000 ppm respectively). Cross-interference measurements showed no appreciable change in measured OCS concentration with variations in CO2 (500 - 3500 ppm) or CO. We report on high altitude measurements made aboard NASA's WB-57 research aircraft. Two research flights were conducted from Houston, TX. The concentration of OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O were continuously recorded from sea level to approximately 60,000 feet. The concentration of OCS was observed to increase with altitude through the troposphere due to the
The planar parabolic optical antenna.
Schoen, David T; Coenen, Toon; García de Abajo, F Javier; Brongersma, Mark L; Polman, Albert
2013-01-01
One of the simplest and most common structures used for directing light in macroscale applications is the parabolic reflector. Parabolic reflectors are ubiquitous in many technologies, from satellite dishes to hand-held flashlights. Today, there is a growing interest in the use of ultracompact metallic structures for manipulating light on the wavelength scale. Significant progress has been made in scaling radiowave antennas to the nanoscale for operation in the visible range, but similar scaling of parabolic reflectors employing ray-optics concepts has not yet been accomplished because of the difficulty in fabricating nanoscale three-dimensional surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that plasmon physics can be employed to realize a resonant elliptical cavity functioning as an essentially planar nanometallic structure that serves as a broadband unidirectional parabolic antenna at optical frequencies.
Invariant foliations for parabolic equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
It is proved for parabolic equations that under certain conditions the weak (un-)stable manifolds possess invariant foliations, called strongly (un-)stable foliations. The relevant results on center manifolds are generalized to weak hyperbolic manifolds.
Parabolic metamaterials and Dirac bridges
Colquitt, D. J.; Movchan, N. V.; Movchan, A. B.
2016-10-01
A new class of multi-scale structures, referred to as `parabolic metamaterials' is introduced and studied in this paper. For an elastic two-dimensional triangular lattice, we identify dynamic regimes, which corresponds to so-called `Dirac Bridges' on the dispersion surfaces. Such regimes lead to a highly localised and focussed unidirectional beam when the lattice is excited. We also show that the flexural rigidities of elastic ligaments are essential in establishing the `parabolic metamaterial' regimes.
Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments
Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan
1996-01-01
A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.
Engineering parabolic beams with dynamic intensity profiles.
Ruelas, Adrian; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C
2013-08-01
We present optical fields formed by superposing nondiffracting parabolic beams with distinct longitudinal wave-vector components, generating light profiles that display intensity fluxes following parabolic paths in the transverse plane. Their propagation dynamics vary depending on the physical mechanism originating interference, where the possibilities include constructive and destructive interference between traveling parabolic beams, interference between stationary parabolic modes, and combinations of these. The dark parabolic region exhibited by parabolic beams permits a straightforward superposition of intensity fluxes, allowing formation of a variety of profiles, which can exhibit circular, elliptic, and other symmetries.
Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kinoshita, G.S.
1985-01-01
The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.
OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM FOR PARABOLIC VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪更生
2001-01-01
This paper deals with the optimal control problems of systems governed by a parabolic variational inequality coupled with a semilinear parabolic differential equations.The maximum principle and some kind of approximate controllability are studied.
Self-similar parabolic plasmonic beams.
Davoyan, Arthur R; Turitsyn, Sergei K; Kivshar, Yuri S
2013-02-15
We demonstrate that an interplay between diffraction and defocusing nonlinearity can support stable self-similar plasmonic waves with a parabolic profile. Simplicity of a parabolic shape combined with the corresponding parabolic spatial phase distribution creates opportunities for controllable manipulation of plasmons through a combined action of diffraction and nonlinearity.
Kovács, A.; Pradeep, K. G.; Herzer, G.; Raabe, D.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.
2016-05-01
Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu alloys are attractive for high frequency applications due to their low coercivity and high saturation magnetization. Here, we study the effect of stress annealing on magnetic microstructure in Fe73.5Si15.5B7Nb3Cu1 using off-axis electron holography and the Fresnel mode of Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. A stress of 50 MPa was applied to selected samples during rapid annealing for 4 s, resulting in uniaxial anisotropy perpendicular to the stress direction. The examination of focused ion beam milled lamellae prepared from each sample revealed a random magnetic domain pattern in the sample that had been rapidly annealed in the absence of stress, whereas a highly regular domain pattern was observed in the stress-annealed sample. We also measured a decrease in domain wall width from ˜ 94 nm in the sample annealed without stress to ˜ 80 nm in the stress-annealed sample.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Hernandez, Diana [Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M. [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Mexico City (Mexico). Unidad de Radioneurocirugia. Lab. de Fisica Medica
2011-07-01
Off-axis ratios of conical beams generated with a stereotactic radiosurgery-dedicated Linac were measured with EBT2 film and stereotactic diode. The sensitivity of both full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbras (80-20% and 90-10%, respectively), with respect to the characteristics of the film calibration curve fit, was investigated. In all cases, penumbras resulted to be more sensitive than FWHM. However, these differences were, in general, smaller than the ones found between EBT2 reference values and the stereotactic diode measurements. The larger variation in OAR parameters was found to depend on whether the fit intersected or not the origin. A 1D gamma-index analysis showed this difference can be important in all measured conical beams. (author)
Plane and parabolic solar panels
Sales, J H O
2009-01-01
We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.
Numerical Solution of Parabolic Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østerby, Ole
These lecture notes are designed for a one-semester course on finite-difference methods for parabolic equations. These equations which traditionally are used for describing diffusion and heat-conduction problems in Geology, Physics, and Chemistry have recently found applications in Finance Theory...
Parabolic tapers for overmoded waveguides
Doane, J.L.
1983-11-25
A waveguide taper with a parabolic profile, in which the distance along the taper axis varies as the square of the tapered dimension, provides less mode conversion than equal length linear tapers and is easier to fabricate than other non-linear tapers.
Fixed point of the parabolic renormalization operator
Lanford III, Oscar E
2014-01-01
This monograph grew out of the authors' efforts to provide a natural geometric description for the class of maps invariant under parabolic renormalization and for the Inou-Shishikura fixed point itself as well as to carry out a computer-assisted study of the parabolic renormalization operator. It introduces a renormalization-invariant class of analytic maps with a maximal domain of analyticity and rigid covering properties and presents a numerical scheme for computing parabolic renormalization of a germ, which is used to compute the Inou-Shishikura renormalization fixed point. Inside, readers will find a detailed introduction into the theory of parabolic bifurcation, Fatou coordinates, Écalle-Voronin conjugacy invariants of parabolic germs, and the definition and basic properties of parabolic renormalization. The systematic view of parabolic renormalization developed in the book and the numerical approach to its study will be interesting to both experts in the field as well as graduate students wishi...
Fernández, P S; Peck, M W
1999-08-01
Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability such as cook-chill and sous-vide foods rely on a minimal heat treatment at 70 to 95 degrees C and then storage at a refrigeration temperature for safety and preservation. These foods are not sterile and are intended to have an extended shelf life, often up to 42 days. The principal microbiological hazard in foods of this type is growth of and toxin production by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum. Lysozyme has been shown to increase the measured heat resistance of nonproteolytic C. botulinum spores. However, the heat treatment guidelines for prevention of risk of botulism in these products have not taken into consideration the effect of lysozyme, which can be present in many foods. In order to assess the botulism hazard, the effect of heat treatments at 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C combined with refrigerated storage for up to 90 days on growth from 10(6) spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum (types B, E, and F) in an anaerobic meat medium containing 2,400 U of lysozyme per ml (50 microg per ml) was studied. Provided that the storage temperature was no higher than 8 degrees C, the following heat treatments each prevented growth and toxin production during 90 days; 70 degrees C for >/=2,545 min, 75 degrees C for >/=463 min, 80 degrees C for >/=230 min, 85 degrees C for >/=84 min, and 90 degrees C for >/=33.5 min. A factorial experimental design allowed development of a predictive model that described the incubation time required before the first sample showed growth, as a function of heating temperature (70 to 90 degrees C), period of heat treatment (up to 2,545 min), and incubation temperature (5 to 25 degrees C). Predictions from the model provided a valid description of the data used to generate the model and agreed with observations made previously. PMID:10427033
Parabolic Trough Development in Mexico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, C.; Ramirez, R.; Huacuz, J.
2006-07-01
The current tendencies of the concentrating solar technologies present an excellent potential to contribute in next decades with a significant way to the electric power production and process heat for industrial uses. Concentrating solar technologies are appropriate for a wide range of applications in the process heat generation and of great utility for the industry that requires thermal energy for their processes. Among solar thermal concentrating technologies, parabolic trough technology is one of the most promising in such sense. In an industrial installation the solar system could give heat for the preheating of water and even steam generation. For testing purposes and for demonstration of the parabolic trough technology two prototypes have been developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Each prototype includes a parabolic trough concentrator 2.3 m wide and 6.9 m long, mounted on a one-axis tracking structure. Anodized aluminum sheet with a solar reflectivity of 90% was used as reflective material. These prototypes were installed in different places and provided a lot information concerning to the operation and maintenance activities, elaboration of methodological guides for the development of similar applications and the identification and establishment of mechanisms of collaboration with national industry to involve them in the technological development of parabolic trough components. Recently the IIE erected a small installation in an automobile industry of Mexico for sanitary applications. In this paper, we present the design features as well as the construction development of the prototypes. Likewise, the operational experience and the maintenance strategies on the reflective surface, the tracking system and lessons learned over the time are described. Also, the first experiences in the operation and maintenance and particular findings in the automobile industry application are presented and discussed. (Author)
Motion sickness susceptibility during rotation at 30 rpm in free-fall parabolic flight
Graybiel, A.
1979-01-01
To make comparisons with experimental motion sickness susceptibility in Skylab missions, subjects were tested during free fall in parabolic flight and in ground-based simulation tests. They were rotated at 30 rpm in a rotating litter chair (RLC) with head fixed, head swiveling left-to-right, or with 90 degree forward and return head and body movements. Stressful accelerations similar to those in the Skylab RLC were generated only in the tests aloft, where subjects who made 'forward and return' movements (generating cross-coupled angular accelerations) were substantially more prone to motion sickness than those with either head fixed or head swiveling left-to-right. However, with head swiveling, susceptibility was slightly higher in the laboratory than aloft.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
薛庆生
2012-01-01
Wide angle and high resolution spaceborne hyperspectral imager are urgently required in space remote sensing system, of which the telescope system requires high spatial resolution in wide field of view. Based on the theory about geometry optics of common-axis three-mirror systems, the design problem of wide-field of view, off-axis three-mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope systems of hyperspectral imager were studied. By means of field of view off-axis, an off-axis three-mirror telescope system was designed. The spectral range was 0.4-2.5 μm, and the focal length was 360 mm, the relative aperture wais 1:4, and the field of view was 11.42°. The primary mirror was six order aspheric surface, and the second mirror and third mirror were quadratic surface. Considering the restriction of detectors, a method of split field of view was developed. Split field of view was achieved by means of putting a edge mirror near the focal plane of the telescope. The MTF is more than 0.75 at Nyquist spatial frequency 281p/mm, and the image quality approaches to the diffraction limit.%大视场、高分辨力星载高光谱成像仪已成为空间遥感的迫切需求,要求其望远系统在宽视场内具有高空间分辨力.在共轴三反系统的几何光学成像理论基础上,研究了用于高光谱成像仪的大视场离轴三反消像散(TMA)望远系统的设计问题,编制了初始结构计算程序,采用视场离轴方式,设计了一个波段范围0.4～2.5μm、焦距360 mm、相对孔径1∶4、线视场11.42°的离轴三反望远系统,其主镜为6次非球面,次镜和三镜为二次曲面,考虑到市售探测器的限制,提出了视场分离的分光方法,在离轴三反系统的焦平面附近加一个刀口反射镜实现视场分离.在奈奎斯特空间频率28 lp/mm处,调制传递函数大于0.75,成像质量接近衍射极限.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
侯佳; 何志平; 舒嵘
2016-01-01
离轴三反光纤阵列激光三维成像发射系统中,大功率激光器发出的激光经阵列光纤分束,由光纤的芯径和单元发散角计算离轴三反光学系统的焦距,由光纤的数值孔径确定系统的入瞳直径范围,光纤阵列的长度决定了光学系统的发射总视场.离轴三反光学系统采用正向设计、反向使用的思路,将光纤阵列置于离轴三反光学系统焦面位置,反向追迹光线,可以得到光纤阵列上各元激光经光学系统后的高斯光束发散角大小和相邻元之间的角度关系.文中的设计实例实现了51元激光,每一元以20μrad的较小发散角出射,实例表明,该发射系统能实现多元激光微弧度量级的发散角出射,在目标面上形成间隔均匀、圆对称性良好的足印光斑.该发射系统在设计的发射总视场内,理论上不存在波束数的限制,这是区别于其他发射系统的另一优势.%A novel emitting system of fiber-array 3D laser imaging using off-axis three-mirror system was proposed. High-power laser was split to certain number of beams by fiber splitting and output with fiber-array. The off-axis three-mirror was designed as normal telescope system, and its focus length was the divergence angle divided by the core diameter of the fiber, while the F number in image space was determined by the Numerical Aperture (NA) of the fiber. The total field of view was the focus length divided by the length of the fiber-array. The fiber-array was set on the focus plane of the off-axis three-mirror system, and rays were traced in the opposite way of design. The example system realized divergence angle as 20μrad of 51 fiber beams, and it showed that the divergence angle of every fiber beam satisfied the target value well and the footprint between the neighbouring beams has good uniformity on the target surface. Besides, this emitting system was suitable for any number of laser beams within the total design field of view.
Young, Trudie
2004-07-01
Manual repositioning of patients by nursing staff is a recognised technique for preventing pressure ulcer formation. The 30 degree tilt is a method of positioning patients that, in the laboratory setting, reduced the contact pressure between the patient and the support surface. A randomised controlled trial was used to examine the effects of the 30 degree tilt position in reducing the incidence of non-blanching erythema (i.e. established pressure damage) in a hospital inpatient population (n=23) when compared to the use of the 90 degree lateral and supine position (n=23). The primary outcome of the trial was the incidence of pressure damage, defined as non-blanching erythema. In this study no subject developed pressure damage that presented with visible breaks in the epidermis, but all damage was restricted to areas of non-blanching erythema (five of the 39 subjects who completed the study exhibited such injury). The main findings of this study were that patient positioning using the 30 degree tilt method did not reduce the incidence of pressure damage compared with either the 90 degree lateral or supine positions. This study also investigated the feasibility of using the 30 degree tilt position with medical inpatients; it found that 78% of subjects experienced difficulty in adopting and maintaining the position. This finding seriously questions the practicality of using the 30 degree tilt method with a predominantly ill population.
Parabolic Deligne-Lusztig varieties
Digne, François
2011-01-01
Motivated by the Brou\\'e conjecture on blocks with abelian defect groups for finite reductive groups, we study "parabolic" Deligne-Lusztig varieties and construct on those which occur in the Brou\\'e conjecture an action of a braid monoid, whose action on their $\\ell$-adic cohomology will conjecturally factor trough a cyclotomic Hecke algebra. In order to construct this action, we need to enlarge the set of varieties we consider to varieties attached to a "ribbon category"; this category is a {\\em Garside category}, which plays an important role in our proof, so we devote the first part of our paper to the necessary background on Garside categories.
Parabolic dish photovoltaic concentrator development
Beninga, K.; Davenport, R.; Featherby, M.; Sandubrae, J.; Walcott, K.
1991-05-01
Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Tactical Fabs, Inc. (TFI) have fabricated a prototype parabolic dish photovoltaic (PV) concentrator system to demonstrate the functionality of this approach. A 1.5 m diameter parabolic dish was fabricated of a polyester/fiberglass composite, with a silvered polymer reflective surface. An innovative receiver cooling system used outward radial flow of cooling water in a narrow passage. This configuration matches the heat transfer capability of the cooling system to the flux profile on the PV receiver, minimizing temperature variations across the receiver. The photovoltaic cells used in the system were a new, TFI-proprietary design. Interleaved contacts form a bi-polar, rear-contact cell configuration. Because the electrical contacts are made on the rear of the cells, cells can be close-packed to form receiver arrays of arbitrary shape and size. Optical testing of the dish concentrator was performed by SAIC, SERI, and Sandia National Labs. The dish concentrator, designed for solar thermal applications, had a tight focal spot but exhibited flux non-uniformities away from the focal plane. Thermal testing of the receiver cooling system was performed with excellent success. Single PV cells, 4-cell blocks, and 144-cell receiver modules were built and tested. The cells successfully demonstrated the TFI design concept, but due to cell processing problems their efficiency was very low. Sources of the processing problems were identified and solutions were proposed, but funding limitations precluded further cell production. Operation of the complete PV dish system was conducted, and the functionality of the system was demonstrated. However, low cell efficiencies and receiver plane flux non-uniformities caused the system performance to be very low. These problems are not generic to the concept, and solutions to them proposed.
International Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations
Schrohe, Elmar; Seiler, Jörg; Walker, Christoph
2015-01-01
This volume covers the latest research on elliptic and parabolic equations and originates from the international Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations, held September 10-12, 2013 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover. It represents a collection of refereed research papers and survey articles written by eminent scientist on advances in different fields of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations, including singular Riemannian manifolds, spectral analysis on manifolds, nonlinear dispersive equations, Brownian motion and kernel estimates, Euler equations, porous medium type equations, pseudodifferential calculus, free boundary problems, and bifurcation analysis.
Homogenization of a nonlinear degenerate parabolic equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
The homogenization of one kind of nonlinear parabolic equation is studied. The weak convergence and corrector results are obtained by combining carefully the compactness method and two-scale convergence method in the homogenization theory.
Reflective Properties of a Parabolic Mirror.
Ramsey, Gordon P.
1991-01-01
An incident light ray parallel to the optical axis of a parabolic mirror will be reflected at the focal point and vice versa. Presents a mathematical proof that uses calculus, algebra, and geometry to prove this reflective property. (MDH)
POSITIVE EQUILIBRIUM SOLUTIONS OF SEMILINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The author studies semilinear parabolic equations with initial and periodic boundary value conditions. In the presence of non-well-ordered sub- and super-solutions:"subsolution (≤) supersolution", the existence and stability/instability of equilibrium solutions are obtained.
Nuclear Spin Dynamics in Parabolic Quantum Wells
Tifrea, I.; Flatte, Michael E.
2003-01-01
We present a detailed analytical and numerical analysis of the nuclear spin dynamics in parabolic quantum wells. The shallow potential of parabolic quantum wells permits substantial modification of the electronic wave function in small electric fields. The nuclear spin relaxation via the hyperfine interaction depends on the electronic local density of states, therefore the local nuclear relaxation time depends sensitively on the electric field. For an inhomogeneous nuclear magnetization, such...
Partial differential equations of parabolic type
Friedman, Avner
2008-01-01
This accessible and self-contained treatment provides even readers previously unacquainted with parabolic and elliptic equations with sufficient background to understand research literature. Author Avner Friedman - Director of the Mathematical Biosciences Institute at The Ohio State University - offers a systematic and thorough approach that begins with the main facts of the general theory of second order linear parabolic equations. Subsequent chapters explore asymptotic behavior of solutions, semi-linear equations and free boundary problems, and the extension of results concerning fundamenta
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
季楚凌
2015-01-01
The flow field and stress of heavy oil flowing throughout the 90-degree bend were analyzed. The viscosity of heavy oil at different temperature was measured by using Anton Paar MCR 302 rotary viscometer, and the viscosity-temperature curve was also analyzed with the regression analysis method. In addition, the fluid-solid-heat coupling of the bend was simulated by using Fluent software and Ansys software. The flow field and stress of heavy oil flowing throughout the bend at different temperature and velocity were analyzed. The research result can provide a theoretical foundation for further study on erosion mechanisms of heavy oil flowing throughout the bend.%以输送稠油的90°弯管为研究对象，对稠油流经弯管进行流场和应力的分析。利用 Anton Paar MCR 302可视化流变仪测得了稠油的粘温曲线，并借助 Fluent 与 Ansys 软件对弯管进行热流固耦合模拟计算。对稠油样品在不同温度及流速下流经管道弯头进行了流场和应力的研究和分析。研究结论可为进一步研究稠油流经弯管的冲蚀机理提供理论依据。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙文军; 赵立萍; 孙京南; 李娟; 李孟洋; 支洪武
2012-01-01
采用调制传递函数和波前像差分析方法,设计了基于偶次非球面反射镜和Zernike自由曲面反射镜构成的放火倍数为80,相对孔径为2.8的三个离轴投影成像系统,其中第一片反射镜M1表面为凹面用于减小第二片反射镜的尺寸及获得高的对比度,而第二片反射镜M2和第三片反射镜M3表面为凸面用于校正系统像差及获得更短的投影距离.经软件设计与分析,三系统中基于三片Zernike自由曲面反射镜的成像系统光学性能最好,调制传递函数实现60 lp/mm时60％以上,畸变小于2.0％,与其它文献相比,基于三片Zernike自由曲面反射镜系统可以更好地消除像差,缩短系统厚度,增大系统的可视角与相对孔径.%Three off-axis projection systems based on even aspheric surface reflectors and Zcrnikc polynomial surface reflectors are designed using wave front aberrations analysis and modulation transfer function. The projection system consists of three reflectors, in which the number of Zernike polynomial surface reflectors is different. The first mirror M1is concave to reduce the size of the second mirror and obtain high contrast ratio. The second mirror M2 and the third mirror M3 are convex to achieve a shorter projection distance and little system aberration. Optical performance analysis show that the system based on three Zernike polynomial surface reflector is the best, the MTF is more than 60% at 60 lp/mm and system distortion is less than 2. 0% under the condition of F-number = 2. 8, the magnification of 80. Compared results with references show that the designed system based on three Zernike polynomial surface reflectors can more easily eliminate system aberrations, shorten system thickness and increase the visual angle and relative aperture.
Leen, J. B.; Gupta, M.
2014-12-01
Nitrate contamination in water is a worldwide environmental problem and source apportionment is critical to managing nitrate pollution. Fractionation caused by physical, chemical and biological processes alters the isotope ratios of nitrates (15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O) and biochemical nitrification and denitrification impart different intramolecular site preference (15N14NO vs. 14N15NO). Additionally, atmospheric nitrate is anomalously enriched in 17O compared to other nitrate sources. The anomaly (Δ17O) is conserved during fractionation processes, providing a tracer of atmospheric nitrate. All of these effects can be used to apportion nitrate in soil. Current technology for measuring nitrate isotopes is complicated and costly - it involves conversion of nitrate to nitrous oxide (N2O), purification, preconcentration and measurement by isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Site specific measurements require a custom IRMS. There is a pressing need to make this measurement simpler and more accessible. Los Gatos Research has developed a next generation mid-infrared Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) analyzer to quantify all stable isotope ratios of N2O (δ15N, δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ18O, δ17O). We present the latest performance data demonstrating the precision and accuracy of the OA-ICOS based measurement. At an N2O concentration of 322 ppb, the analyzer quantifies [N2O], δ15N, δ15Na, δ15Nb, and δ18O with a precision of ±0.05 ppb, ±0.4 ‰, ±0.45 ‰, and ±0.6 ‰, and ±0.8 ‰ respectively (1σ, 100s; 1σ, 1000s for δ18O). Measurements of gas standards demonstrate accuracy better than ±1 ‰ for isotope ratios over a wide dynamic range (200 - 100,000 ppb). The measurement of δ17O requires a higher concentration (1 - 50 ppm), easily obtainable through conversion of nitrates in water. For 10 ppm of N2O, the instrument achieves a δ17O precision of ±0.05 ‰ (1σ, 1000s). This performance is sufficient to quantify atmospheric
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar, J. O.; Calam, J. S.; Acosta, R.; Cuevas, J. D.; Hernandez, J.; Jaramillo, O. A.; Perez-Rabago, C.; Flores, J. J.
2008-07-01
Design and construction of 1.06 m width and 2.44 m large parabolic trough collector with 0.26 m focal length and 90 degree centigrade rim angle are presented. The design of collector components was made using CAD/CAM commercial software and they were machined with computerized numerical control (CNC). The ray tracing analysis showed that the optimal absorber diameter is 5 mm, neglecting errors or imperfections however, for mechanical and standardization reasons, it was decided to use and absorbent tube diameter of 19,05. Structural stress by finite element analysis it showed that the minimum safety factor was 4,21 and 34,22 MPa the maximum value of stress. Considering that the aluminum allowable stress is 145 MPa, then the proposed prototype resist the design loads without deformed permanently. (Author)
Steadily translating parabolic dissolution fingers
Kondratiuk, Paweł
2015-01-01
Dissolution fingers (or wormholes) are formed during the dissolution of a porous rock as a result of nonlinear feedbacks between the flow, transport and chemical reactions at pore surfaces. We analyze the shapes and growth velocities of such fingers within the thin-front approximation, in which the reaction is assumed to take place instantaneously with the reactants fully consumed at the dissolution front. We concentrate on the case when the main flow is driven by the constant pressure gradient far from the finger, and the permeability contrast between the inside and the outside of the finger is finite. Using Ivantsov ansatz and conformal transformations we find the family of steadily translating fingers characterized by a parabolic shape. We derive the reactant concentration field and the pressure field inside and outside of the fingers and show that the flow within them is uniform. The advancement velocity of the finger is shown to be inversely proportional to its radius of curvature in the small P\\'{e}clet...
Large mass self-similar solutions of the parabolic-parabolic Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis.
Biler, Piotr; Corrias, Lucilla; Dolbeault, Jean
2011-07-01
In two space dimensions, the parabolic-parabolic Keller-Segel system shares many properties with the parabolic-elliptic Keller-Segel system. In particular, solutions globally exist in both cases as long as their mass is less than a critical threshold M(c). However, this threshold is not as clear in the parabolic-parabolic case as it is in the parabolic-elliptic case, in which solutions with mass above M(c) always blow up. Here we study forward self-similar solutions of the parabolic-parabolic Keller-Segel system and prove that, in some cases, such solutions globally exist even if their total mass is above M(c), which is forbidden in the parabolic-elliptic case.
Mineral resource analysis by parabolic fractals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE Shu-yun; YANG Yong-guo; BAO Zheng-yu; KE Xian-zhong; LIU Xiao-long
2009-01-01
Elemental concentration distributions in space have been analyzed using different approaches. These analyses are of great significance for the quantitative characterization of various kinds of distribution patterns. Fractal and multi-fiactal methods have been extensively applied to this topic. Traditionally, approximately linear-fractal laws have been regarded as useful tools for characterizing the self-similarities of element concentrations. But, in nature, it is not always easy to fred perfect linear fractal laws. In this paper the parabolic fractal model is used. First a two dimensional multiplicative multi-fractal cascade model is used to study the concentration patterns. The results show the parabolic fractal (PF) properties of the concentrations and the validity of non-linear fractal analysis. By dividing the studied area into four sub-areas it was possible to show that each part follows a non-linear para-bolic fractal law and that the dispersion within each part varies. The ratio of the polynomial coefficients of the fitted parabolic curves can reflect, to some degree, the relative concentration and dispersal distribution patterns. This can provide new insight into the ore-forming potential in space. The parabolic fractal evaluations of ore-forming potential for the four subareas are in good agreement with field investigation work and geochemical mapping results based on analysis of the original data.
Piecewise-Planar Parabolic Reflectarray Antenna
Hodges, Richard; Zawadzki, Mark
2009-01-01
The figure shows a dual-beam, dualpolarization Ku-band antenna, the reflector of which comprises an assembly of small reflectarrays arranged in a piecewise- planar approximation of a parabolic reflector surface. The specific antenna design is intended to satisfy requirements for a wide-swath spaceborne radar altimeter, but the general principle of piecewise-planar reflectarray approximation of a parabolic reflector also offers advantages for other applications in which there are requirements for wideswath antennas that can be stowed compactly and that perform equally in both horizontal and vertical polarizations. The main advantages of using flat (e.g., reflectarray) antenna surfaces instead of paraboloidal or parabolic surfaces is that the flat ones can be fabricated at lower cost and can be stowed and deployed more easily. Heretofore, reflectarray antennas have typically been designed to reside on single planar surfaces and to emulate the focusing properties of, variously, paraboloidal (dish) or parabolic antennas. In the present case, one approximates the nominal parabolic shape by concatenating several flat pieces, while still exploiting the principles of the planar reflectarray for each piece. Prior to the conception of the present design, the use of a single large reflectarray was considered, but then abandoned when it was found that the directional and gain properties of the antenna would be noticeably different for the horizontal and vertical polarizations.
Parabolic flight as a spaceflight analog.
Shelhamer, Mark
2016-06-15
Ground-based analog facilities have had wide use in mimicking some of the features of spaceflight in a more-controlled and less-expensive manner. One such analog is parabolic flight, in which an aircraft flies repeated parabolic trajectories that provide short-duration periods of free fall (0 g) alternating with high-g pullout or recovery phases. Parabolic flight is unique in being able to provide true 0 g in a ground-based facility. Accordingly, it lends itself well to the investigation of specific areas of human spaceflight that can benefit from this capability, which predominantly includes neurovestibular effects, but also others such as human factors, locomotion, and medical procedures. Applications to research in artificial gravity and to effects likely to occur in upcoming commercial suborbital flights are also possible.
Controllable parabolic-cylinder optical rogue wave.
Zhong, Wei-Ping; Chen, Lang; Belić, Milivoj; Petrović, Nikola
2014-10-01
We demonstrate controllable parabolic-cylinder optical rogue waves in certain inhomogeneous media. An analytical rogue wave solution of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated coefficients and an external potential in the form of modulated quadratic potential is obtained by the similarity transformation. Numerical simulations are performed for comparison with the analytical solutions and to confirm the stability of the rogue wave solution obtained. These optical rogue waves are built by the products of parabolic-cylinder functions and the basic rogue wave solution of the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Such rogue waves may appear in different forms, as the hump and paw profiles.
Asymptotical Properties for Parabolic Systems of Neutral Type
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CUI Bao-tong; HAN Mao-an
2005-01-01
Asymptotical properties for the solutions of neutral parabolic systems with Robin boundary conditions were analyzed by using the inequality analysis. The oscillations problems for the neutral parabolic systems were considered and some oscillation criteria for the systems were established.
Performance Simulation Comparison for Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors in China
Jinping Wang; Jun Wang; Xiaolong Bi; Xiang Wang
2016-01-01
Parabolic trough systems are the most used concentrated solar power technology. The operating performance and optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collectors (PTCs) are different in different regions and different seasons. To determine the optimum design and operation of the parabolic trough solar collector throughout the year, an accurate estimation of the daily performance is needed. In this study, a mathematical model for the optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar col...
Surface plasmon polariton beam focusing with parabolic nanoparticle chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Radko, Ilya P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Evlyukhin, Andrey B.;
2007-01-01
We report on the focusing of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) beams with parabolic chains of gold nanoparticles fabricated on thin gold films. SPP focusing with different parabolic chains is investigated in the wavelength range of 700–860 nm, both experimentally and theoretically. Mapping of SPP...... for parabolic structures to improve their focusing of slightly divergent SPP beams....
A NEWTON MULTIGRID METHOD FOR QUASILINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Xijun
2005-01-01
A combination of the classical Newton Method and the multigrid method, i.e.,a Newton multigrid method is given for solving quasilinear parabolic equations discretized by finite elements. The convergence of the algorithm is obtained for only one step Newton iteration per level. The asymptotically computational cost for quasilinear parabolic problems is O(NNk) similar to multigrid method for linear parabolic problems.
Stokes' theorem, volume growth and parabolicity
Valtorta, Daniele
2010-01-01
We present some new Stokes'type theorems on complete non-compact manifolds that extend, in different directions, previous work by Gaffney and Karp and also the so called Kelvin-Nevanlinna-Royden criterion for (p-)parabolicity. Applications to comparison and uniqueness results involving the p-Laplacian are deduced.
Viscosity Solutions of Monotonic Functional Parabolic PDE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei An LIU; Gang LU
2004-01-01
In this paper, by the technique of coupled solutions, the notion of viscosity solution is extended to quasi-monotonic fully nonlinear parabolic equations with delay, which involves many models arising from optimal control theory, economy and finance, biology etc. The comparison, existence and uniqueness are proved. And the results are applied to the retarded Bellman equations.
Discontinuous mixed covolume methods for parabolic problems.
Zhu, Ailing; Jiang, Ziwen
2014-01-01
We present the semidiscrete and the backward Euler fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for parabolic problems on triangular meshes. We give the error analysis of the discontinuous mixed covolume schemes and obtain optimal order error estimates in discontinuous H(div) and first-order error estimate in L(2).
An Approximation of Ultra-Parabolic Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allaberen Ashyralyev
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The first and second order of accuracy difference schemes for the approximate solution of the initial boundary value problem for ultra-parabolic equations are presented. Stability of these difference schemes is established. Theoretical results are supported by the result of numerical examples.
ANISOTROPIC PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH MEASURE DATA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Fengquan; Zhao Huixiu
2001-01-01
In this paper, we prove the existence of solutions to anisotropic parabolic equations with right hand side term in the bounded Radon measure M(Q) and the initial condition in M(Ω) or in Lm space (with m "small").
Chernoff's distribution and parabolic partial differential equations
Groeneboom, P.; Lalley, S.P.; Temme, N.M.
2013-01-01
We give an alternative route to the derivation of the distribution of the maximum and the location of the maximum of one-sided and two-sided Brownian motion with a negative parabolic drift, using the Feynman-Kac formula with stopping times. The derivation also uses an interesting relations between i
CONTINUOUS DEPENDENCE FOR A BACKWARD PARABOLIC PROBLEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘继军
2003-01-01
We consider a backward parabolic problem arising in the description of the behavior of the toroidal part of the magenetic field in a dynamo problem. In our backward time problem, the media parameters are spatial distributed and the boundary conditions are of the Robin type. For this ill-posed problem, we prove that the solution depends continuously on the initial-time geometry.
Distributed neural signals on parabolic cylindrical shells
Hu, S. D.; Li, H.; Tzou, H. S.
2013-06-01
Parabolic cylindrical shells are commonly used as key components in communication antennas, space telescopes, solar collectors, etc. This study focuses on distributed modal neural sensing signals on a flexible simply-supported parabolic cylindrical shell panel. The parabolic cylindrical shell is fully laminated with a piezoelectric layer on its outer surface and the piezoelectric layer is segmented into infinitesimal elements (neurons) to investigate the microscopic distributed neural sensing signals. Since the dominant vibration component of the shell is usually the transverse oscillation, a new transverse mode shape function is defined. Two shell cases, i.e., the ratio of the meridian height to the half span distance of a parabola at 1:4 (shallow) and 1:1 (deep), are studied to reveal the curvature effect to the neural sensing signals. Studies suggest that the membrane signal component dominates for lower natural modes and the bending signal component dominates for higher natural modes. The meridional membrane and bending signal components are mostly concentrated on the high-curvature areas, while the longitudinal bending component is mostly concentrated on the relatively flat areas. The concentration behavior becomes more prominent as the parabolic cylindrical shell deepens, primarily resulting from the enhanced membrane effect due to the increased curvature.
Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.
Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz
2016-01-01
In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359
Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.
Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz
2016-06-15
In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.
Parabolic dish collectors - A solar option
Truscello, V. C.
1981-01-01
A description is given of several parabolic-dish high temperature solar thermal systems currently undergoing performance trials. A single parabolic dish has the potential for generating 20 to 30 kW of electricity with fluid temperatures from 300 to 1650 C. Each dish is a complete power-producing unit, and may function either independently or as part of a group of linked modules. The two dish designs under consideration are of 11 and 12 meter diameters, yielding receiver operating temperatures of 925 and 815 C, respectively. The receiver designs described include (1) an organic working fluid (toluene) Rankine cycle engine; (2) a Brayton open cycle unit incorporating a hybrid combustion chamber and nozzle and a shaft-coupled permanent magnet alternator; and (3) a modified Stirling cycle device originally designed for automotive use. Also considered are thermal buffer energy storage and thermochemical transport and storage.
Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Morón
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.
Essential Parabolic Structures and Their Infinitesimal Automorphisms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesse Alt
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Using the theory of Weyl structures, we give a natural generalization of the notion of essential conformal structures and conformal Killing fields to arbitrary parabolic geometries. We show that a parabolic structure is inessential whenever the automorphism group acts properly on the base space. As a corollary of the generalized Ferrand-Obata theorem proved by C. Frances, this proves a generalization of the ''Lichnérowicz conjecture'' for conformal Riemannian, strictly pseudo-convex CR, and quaternionic/octonionic contact manifolds in positive-definite signature. For an infinitesimal automorphism with a singularity, we give a generalization of the dictionary introduced by Frances for conformal Killing fields, which characterizes (local essentiality via the so-called holonomy associated to a singularity of an infinitesimal automorphism.
Moving interfaces and quasilinear parabolic evolution equations
Prüss, Jan
2016-01-01
In this monograph, the authors develop a comprehensive approach for the mathematical analysis of a wide array of problems involving moving interfaces. It includes an in-depth study of abstract quasilinear parabolic evolution equations, elliptic and parabolic boundary value problems, transmission problems, one- and two-phase Stokes problems, and the equations of incompressible viscous one- and two-phase fluid flows. The theory of maximal regularity, an essential element, is also fully developed. The authors present a modern approach based on powerful tools in classical analysis, functional analysis, and vector-valued harmonic analysis. The theory is applied to problems in two-phase fluid dynamics and phase transitions, one-phase generalized Newtonian fluids, nematic liquid crystal flows, Maxwell-Stefan diffusion, and a variety of geometric evolution equations. The book also includes a discussion of the underlying physical and thermodynamic principles governing the equations of fluid flows and phase transitions...
Antiperiodic Problems for Nonautonomous Parabolic Evolution Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. N. Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This work focuses on the antiperiodic problem of nonautonomous semilinear parabolic evolution equation in the form u′(t=A(tu(t+f(t,u(t, t∈R, u(t+T=-u(t, t∈R, where (Att∈R (possibly unbounded, depending on time, is a family of closed and densely defined linear operators on a Banach space X. Upon making some suitable assumptions such as the Acquistapace and Terreni conditions and exponential dichotomy on (Att∈R, we obtain the existence results of antiperiodic mild solutions to such problem. The antiperiodic problem of nonautonomous semilinear parabolic evolution equation of neutral type is also considered. As sample of application, these results are applied to, at the end of the paper, an antiperiodic problem for partial differential equation, whose operators in the linear part generate an evolution family of exponential stability.
INVERSE COEFFICIENT PROBLEMS FOR PARABOLIC HEMIVARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Zhenhai; I.Szántó
2011-01-01
This paper is devoted to the class of inverse problems for a nonlinear parabolic hemivariational inequality.The unknown coefficient of the operator depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients.It is proved that the convergence of solutions for the corresponding direct problems continuously depends on the coefficient convergence.Based on this result the existence of a quasisolution of the inverse problem is obtained.
Infinitesimal Automorphisms and Deformations of Parabolic Geometries
Cap, Andreas
2005-01-01
We show that infinitesimal automorphisms and infinitesimal deformations of parabolic geometries can be nicely described in terms of the twisted de-Rham sequence associated to a certain linear connection on the adjoint tractor bundle. For regular normal geometries, this description can be related to the underlying geometric structure using the machinery of BGG sequences. In the locally flat case, this leads to a deformation complex, which generalizes the is well know complex for locally confor...
Study on a Cross Diffusion Parabolic System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Chen; Ling Hsiao; Gerald Warnecke
2007-01-01
This paper considers a kind of strongly coupled cross diffusion parabolic system, which can be used as the multi-dimensional Lyumkis energy transport model in semiconductor science. The global existence and large time behavior are obtained for smooth solution to the initial boundary value problem. When the initial data are a small perturbation of an isothermal stationary solution, the smooth solution of the problem under the insulating boundary condition, converges to that stationary solution exponentially fast as time goes to infinity.
Controllability of nonlinear degenerate parabolic cascade systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mamadou Birba
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This article studies of null controllability property of nonlinear coupled one dimensional degenerate parabolic equations. These equations form a cascade system, that is, the solution of the first equation acts as a control in the second equation and the control function acts only directly on the first equation. We prove positive null controllability results when the control and a coupling set have nonempty intersection.
Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Spring Failure
Kainulainen, Perttu
2011-01-01
The purpose of this final project was to make an the fracture analysis for a parabolic leaf spring. The leaf spring type is used in a mining machine. The machine is designed for personnel and equipment transportation in a mine environment. The objectives were to gather information about effects of the improvement in the spring’ structure and study phenomena which eventually lead to the fracture of the spring. The project was divided into theoretical and experimental sections. The theoreti...
A short proof of increased parabolic regularity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Pankavich
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.
Building a parabolic solar concentrator prototype
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escobar-Romero, J F M; Montiel, S Vazquez y; Granados-AgustIn, F; Rodriguez-Rivera, E; Martinez-Yanez, L [INAOE, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Pue., 72840 (Mexico); Cruz-Martinez, V M, E-mail: jfmescobar@yahoo.com [Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca, Camino a Acatilma Km 2.5, Huajuapan de Leon, Oax., 69000 (Mexico)
2011-01-01
In order to not further degrade the environment, people have been seeking to replace non-renewable natural resources such as fossil fuels by developing technologies that are based on renewable resources. An example of these technologies is solar energy. In this paper, we show the building and test of a solar parabolic concentrator as a prototype for the production of steam that can be coupled to a turbine to generate electricity or a steam engine in any particular industrial process.
Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.
2005-01-01
Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.
Parabolic resection for mitral valve repair.
Drake, Daniel H; Drake, Charles G; Recchia, Dino
2010-02-01
Parabolic resection, named for the shape of the cut edges of the excised tissue, expands on a common 'trick' used by experienced mitral surgeons to preserve tissue and increase the probability of successful repair. Our objective was to describe and clinically analyze this simple modification of conventional resection. Thirty-six patients with mitral regurgitation underwent valve repair using parabolic resection in combination with other techniques. Institution specific mitral data, Society of Thoracic Surgeons data and preoperative, post-cardiopulmonary bypass (PCPB) and postoperative echocardiography data were collected and analyzed. Preoperative echocardiography demonstrated mitral regurgitation ranging from moderate to severe. PCPB transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated no regurgitation or mild regurgitation in all patients. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 2.8%. Serial echocardiograms demonstrated excellent repair stability. One patient (2.9%) with rheumatic disease progressed to moderate regurgitation 33 months following surgery. Echocardiography on all others demonstrated no or mild regurgitation at a mean follow-up of 22.8+/-12.8 months. No patient required mitral reintervention. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated 80% freedom from cardiac death, reintervention and greater than moderate regurgitation at four years following repair. Parabolic resection is a simple technique that can be very useful during complex mitral reconstruction. Early and intermediate echocardiographic studies demonstrate excellent results.
Simulation of parabolic reflectors for ultraviolet phototherapy.
Robert Grimes, David
2016-08-21
Ultraviolet (UVR) phototherapy is widely used to treat an array of skin conditions, including psoriasis, eczema and vitiligo. For such interventions, a quantified dose is vital if the treatment is to be both biologically effective and to avoid the detrimental effects of over-dosing. As dose is absorbed at surface level, the orientation of patient site with respect to the UVR lamps modulates effective dose. Previous investigations have modelled this behaviour, and examined the impact of shaped anodized aluminium reflectors typically placed around lamps in phototherapy cabins. These mirrors are effective but tend to yield complex patterns of reflection around the cabin which can result in substantial dose inhomogeneity. There has been some speculation over whether using the reflective property of parabolic mirrors might improve dose delivery or homogeneity through the treatment cabin. In this work, the effects of parabolic mirrors are simulated and compared with standard shaped mirrors. Simulation results strongly suggest that parabolic reflectors reduce total irradiance relative to standard shaped reflectors, and have a negligible impact on dose homogeneity.
Simulation of parabolic reflectors for ultraviolet phototherapy
Grimes, David Robert
2016-08-01
Ultraviolet (UVR) phototherapy is widely used to treat an array of skin conditions, including psoriasis, eczema and vitiligo. For such interventions, a quantified dose is vital if the treatment is to be both biologically effective and to avoid the detrimental effects of over-dosing. As dose is absorbed at surface level, the orientation of patient site with respect to the UVR lamps modulates effective dose. Previous investigations have modelled this behaviour, and examined the impact of shaped anodized aluminium reflectors typically placed around lamps in phototherapy cabins. These mirrors are effective but tend to yield complex patterns of reflection around the cabin which can result in substantial dose inhomogeneity. There has been some speculation over whether using the reflective property of parabolic mirrors might improve dose delivery or homogeneity through the treatment cabin. In this work, the effects of parabolic mirrors are simulated and compared with standard shaped mirrors. Simulation results strongly suggest that parabolic reflectors reduce total irradiance relative to standard shaped reflectors, and have a negligible impact on dose homogeneity.
Femtosecond parabolic pulse shaping in normally dispersive optical fibers.
Sukhoivanov, Igor A; Iakushev, Sergii O; Shulika, Oleksiy V; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel
2013-07-29
Formation of parabolic pulses at femtosecond time scale by means of passive nonlinear reshaping in normally dispersive optical fibers is analyzed. Two approaches are examined and compared: the parabolic waveform formation in transient propagation regime and parabolic waveform formation in the steady-state propagation regime. It is found that both approaches could produce parabolic pulses as short as few hundred femtoseconds applying commercially available fibers, specially designed all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber and modern femtosecond lasers for pumping. The ranges of parameters providing parabolic pulse formation at the femtosecond time scale are found depending on the initial pulse duration, chirp and energy. Applicability of different fibers for femtosecond pulse shaping is analyzed. Recommendation for shortest parabolic pulse formation is made based on the analysis presented.
Cauchy problem for some fractional nonlinear ultra-parabolic equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatma Al-Musalhi
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Blowing-up solutions to nonlocal nonlinear ultra-parabolic equations is presented. The obtained results will contribute in the development of ultra-parabolic equations and enrich the existing non-extensive literature on fractional nonlinear ultra-parabolic problems. Our method of proof relies on a suitable choice of a test function and the weak formulation approach of the sought for solutions.
Microphotonic parabolic light directors fabricated by two-photon lithography
Atwater, J.H.; Spinelli, Paolo; Kosten, E.; Parsons, J.; C. van Lare; Van de Groep, J.; García de Abajo, Francisco Javier; Polman, A.; Atwater, H. A.
2011-01-01
We have fabricated microphotonic parabolic light directors using two-photon lithography, thin-film processing, and aperture formation by focused ion beam lithography. Optical transmission measurements through upright parabolic directors 22 m high and 10 m in diameter exhibit strong beam directivity with a beam divergence of 5.6, in reasonable agreement with ray-tracing and full-field electromagnetic simulations. The results indicate the suitability of microphotonic parabolic light directors f...
Optimal Heat Collection Element Shapes for Parabolic Trough Concentrators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennett, C
2007-11-15
For nearly 150 years, the cross section of the heat collection tubes used at the focus of parabolic trough solar concentrators has been circular. This type of tube is obviously simple and easily fabricated, but it is not optimal. It is shown in this article that the optimal shape, assuming a perfect parabolic figure for the concentrating mirror, is instead oblong, and is approximately given by a pair of facing parabolic segments.
Measurement of Liquid Viscosities in Tapered or Parabolic Capillaries.
Ershov; Zorin; Starov
1999-08-01
The possibility of using tapered or parabolic capillaries for measurement of liquid viscosities is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. It is demonstrated that even small deviations in capillary radius from a constant value may substantially affect measurement results. Equations are derived which allow correct analysis of the measurement results in tapered or parabolic capillaries. The following cases are analyzed: a water imbibition into a tapered or parabolic capillary and displacement of one liquid by another immiscible liquid in tapered or parabolic capillaries. Two possibilities are considered: (a) the narrow end of the capillary as capillary inlet and (b) the wide end of the capillary as capillary inlet. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil
Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P
2007-01-01
In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.
Linear Parabolic Maps on the Torus
Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Nishikawa, Takashi
1999-01-01
We investigate linear parabolic maps on the torus. In a generic case these maps are non-invertible and discontinuous. Although the metric entropy of these systems is equal to zero, their dynamics is non-trivial due to folding of the image of the unit square into the torus. We study the structure of the maximal invariant set, and in a generic case we prove the sensitive dependence on the initial conditions. We study the decay of correlations and the diffusion in the corresponding system on the plane. We also demonstrate how the rationality of the real numbers defining the map influences the dynamical properties of the system.
Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators
Diver, Richard B.
2010-02-23
A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.
SURFACE FINITE ELEMENTS FOR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
G. Dziuk; C.M. Elliott
2007-01-01
In this article we define a surface finite element method (SFEM) for the numerical solution of parabolic partial differential equations on hypersurfaces Γ in (R)n+1. The key idea is based on the approximation of Γ by a polyhedral surface Γh consisting of a union of simplices (triangles for n = 2, intervals for n = 1) with vertices on Γ. A finite element space of functions is then defined by taking the continuous functions on Γh which are linear affine on each simplex of the polygonal surface. We use surface gradients to define weak forms of elliptic operators and naturally generate weak formulations of elliptic and parabolic equations on Γ. Our finite element method is applied to weak forms of the equations. The computation of the mass and element stiffness matrices are simple and straightforward.We give an example of error bounds in the case of semi-discretization in space for a fourth order linear problem. Numerical experiments are described for several linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. In particular the power of the method is demonstrated by employing it to solve highly nonlinear second and fourth order problems such as surface Allen-Cahn and Cahn-Hilliard equations and surface level set equations for geodesic mean curvature flow.
Almost Periodic Viscosity Solutions of Nonlinear Parabolic Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Shilin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We generalize the comparison result 2007 on Hamilton-Jacobi equations to nonlinear parabolic equations, then by using Perron's method to study the existence and uniqueness of time almost periodic viscosity solutions of nonlinear parabolic equations under usual hypotheses.
A numerical study of mixed parabolic-gradient systems
Verwer, J.G.; Sommeijer, B.P.
2000-01-01
This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of parabolic equations coupled to gradient equations. The gradient equations are ordinary differential equations whose solutions define positions of particles in the spatial domain of the parabolic equations. The vector field of the gradient equati
Flux form Semi-Lagrangian methods for parabolic problems
Bonaventura, Luca
2015-01-01
A semi-Lagrangian method for parabolic problems is proposed, that extends previous work by the authors to achieve a fully conservative, flux-form discretization of linear and nonlinear diffusion equations. A basic consistency and convergence analysis are proposed. Numerical examples validate the proposed method and display its potential for consistent semi-Lagrangian discretization of advection--diffusion and nonlinear parabolic problems.
The parabolic equation method for outdoor sound propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arranz, Marta Galindo
The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations...
STABILITY OF A PARABOLIC FIXED POINT OF REVERSIBLE MAPPINGS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIUBIN; YOUJIANGONG
1994-01-01
KAM theorem of reversible system is used to provide a sufficient condition which guarantees the stability of a parabolic fixed point of reversible mappings, The main idea is to discuss when the parabolic fixed point is surrounded by closed invariant carves and thus exhibits stable behaviour.
Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan
2010-01-01
In this paper we study the geometry of the moduli space of (non-strongly) parabolic Higgs bundles over a Riemann surface with marked points. We show that this space possesses a Poisson structure, extending the one on the dual of an Atiyah algebroid over the moduli space of parabolic vector bundles...
Manipulation of dielectric particles with nondiffracting parabolic beams.
Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C; Petrov, Dmitri
2014-12-01
The trapping and manipulation of microscopic particles embedded in the structure of nondiffracting parabolic beams is reported. The particles acquire orbital angular momentum and exhibit an open trajectory following the parabolic fringes of the beam. We observe an asymmetry in the terminal velocity of the particles caused by the counteracting gradient and scattering forces.
On the dynamics of a mixed parabolic-gradient system
Krottje, J.K.
2002-01-01
In the current paper the dynamics of a mixed parabolic-gradient system is examined. Thesystem, which is a coupled system of parabolic equations and gradient equations, acts as a first model for the outgrowth of axons in a developing nervous system. For modeling considerations it is relevant to know
Optical, Energetic and Exergetic Analyses of Parabolic Trough Collectors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
(O)ZT(U)RK Murat; (C)(I)(C)EK BEZ(I)R Nalan; (O)ZEK Nuri
2007-01-01
Parabolic trough collectors generate thermal energy from solar energy. Especially, they are very convenient for applications in high temperature solar power systems. To determine the design parameters, parabolic trough collectors must be analysed with optical analysis. In addition, thermodynamics (energy and exergy) analysis in the development of an energy efficient system must be achieved. Solar radiation passes through Earth's atmosphere until it reaches on Earth's surface and is focused from the parabolic trough collector to the tube receiver with a transparent insulated envelope. All of them constitute a complex mechanism. We investigate the geometry of parabolic trough reflector and characteristics of solar radiation to the reflecting surface through Earth's atmosphere, and calculate the collecting total energy in the receiver. The parabolic trough collector,of which design parameters are given, is analysed in regard to the energy and exergy analysis considering the meteorological specification in May, June, July and August in Isparta/Turkey, and the results are presented.
Polaron Energy and Effective Mass in Parabolic Quantum Wells
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhi-Ping; LIANG Xi-Xia
2005-01-01
@@ The energy and effective mass of a polaron in a parabolic quantum well are studied theoretically by using LLP-like transformations and a variational approach. Numerical results are presented for the polaron energy and effective mass in the GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As parabolic quantum well. The results show that the energy and the effective mass of the polaron both have their maxima in the finite parabolic quantum well but decrease monotonously in the infinite parabolic quantum well with the increasing well width. It is verified that the bulk longitudinal optical phonon mode approximation is an adequate formulation for the electron-phonon coupling in parabolic quantum well structures.
Concentration phenomena in the semilinear parabolic equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAN; Zhong
2001-01-01
［1］Fujita, H., On the blowing up of solutions of the Chauch problem for u=Δu+u1+α, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo Sect. I, 966, 3: 09.［2］Ni, W. -M., Sacks, P. E., Tavantzis, J., On the asymptotic behavior of solutions of certain quasilinear equations of parabolic type, J. Differential Equations, 984, 54: 97.［3］Cazenave, T., Lions, P. L., Solutions globales d'equations de la chaleur semilineaires, Comm. in Partial Differential Equations, 984, 9(0): 955.［4］Giga, Y., A bound for global solutions of semilinear heat equations, Commun. Math. Phys., 986, 03: 45.［5］Galaktionov, V., Vazquez, J. L., Continuation of blow-up solutions of nonlinear heat equations in several space dimensions, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 997, 50: .［6］Rey, O., The role of the Green's function in a nonlinear elliptic equation involving the critical Sobolev exponent, J. Func. Anal., 990, 89: .［7］Wei Juncheng, Asymptotic behavior of least energy solution to a semilinear Dirichlet problem near the critical exponent, J. Math. Soc. Japan, 998, 50(): 39.［8］Lions, P. L., The concentration-compactness principle in the calculus of variations, The limit case ,2, Rev. Mat. Iberoamerioana, 985, : 45, 45.［9］Brezis, H., Elliptic equations with limiting Sobolev exponents——the impact of topology, Commun. Pure and Appl. Math., 986, XXXXIX: S7.［10］Sacks, J., Uhlenbeck, K., The existence of minimal immersions of 2-spheres, Ann. Math., 98, 3: .［11］Zhu Xiping, Nontrivial solutions of quasilinear elliptic equation involving critical growth, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. A, 988, (3): 225.［12］Pohozaev, S. I., Eigenfunctions of the equation -Δu+λf(u)=0, Soviet. Math. Dold., 965, 6: 408.［13］Gidas, B., Ni, W. -M., Nirenberg, L., Symmetry and related properties via the maximum principle, Comm. Math. Phys., 979, 68: 209.［14］Ni, W. -M., Sacks, P. E., Singular behaviour in nonlinear parabolic equations, Tran. of the AMS, 985, 287(2): 657.［15］Ni, W. -M., Sacks, P. E
Analysis of the Quality of Parabolic Flight
Lambot, Thomas; Ord, Stephan F.
2016-01-01
Parabolic flight allows researchers to conduct several micro-gravity experiments, each with up to 20 seconds of micro-gravity, in the course of a single day. However, the quality of the flight environment can vary greatly over the course of a single parabola, thus affecting the experimental results. Researchers therefore require knowledge of the actual flight environment as a function of time. The NASA Flight Opportunities program (FO) has reviewed the acceleration data for over 400 parabolas and investigated the level of micro-gravity quality. It was discovered that a typical parabola can be segmented into multiple phases with different qualities and durations. The knowledge of the microgravity characteristics within the parabola will prove useful when planning an experiment.
Parabolic flight - Loss of sense of orientation
Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.
1979-01-01
On the earth, or in level flight, a blindfolded subject being rotated at constant velocity about his recumbent long body axis experiences illusory orbital motion of his body in the opposite direction. By contrast, during comparable rotation in the free-fall phase of parabolic flight, no body motion is perceived and all sense of external orientation may be lost; when touch and pressure stimulation is applied to the body surface, a sense of orientation is reestablished immediately. The increased gravitoinertial force period of a parabola produces an exaggeration of the orbital motion experienced in level flight. These observations reveal an important influence of touch, pressure, and kinesthetic information on spatial orientation and provide a basis for understanding many of the postural illusions reported by astronauts in space flight.
Antireflection Pyrex envelopes for parabolic solar collectors
McCollister, H. L.; Pettit, R. B.
1983-11-01
Antireflective (AR) coatings, applied to the glass envelopes used in parabolic trough solar collectors around the receiver tube in order to reduce thermal losses, can increase solar transmittance by 7 percent. An AR surface has been formed on Pyrex by first heat treating the glass to cause a compositional phase separation, removing a surface layer after heat treatment through the use of a preetching solution, and finally etching in a solution that contains hydrofluorosilic and ammonium bifluoride acids. AR-coated samples with solar transmittance values of more than 0.97, by comparison to an untreated sample value of 0.91, have been obtained for the 560-630 C range of heat treatment temperatures. Optimum values have also been determined for the other processing parameters.
Photon-Atom Coupling with Parabolic Mirrors
Sondermann, Markus
2014-01-01
Efficient coupling of light to single atomic systems has gained considerable attention over the past decades. This development is driven by the continuous growth of quantum technologies. The efficient coupling of light and matter is an enabling technology for quantum information processing and quantum communication. And indeed, in recent years much progress has been made in this direction. But applications aside, the interaction of photons and atoms is a fundamental physics problem. There are various possibilities for making this interaction more efficient, among them the apparently 'natural' attempt of mode-matching the light field to the free-space emission pattern of the atomic system of interest. Here we will describe the necessary steps of implementing this mode-matching with the ultimate aim of reaching unit coupling efficiency. We describe the use of deep parabolic mirrors as the central optical element of a free-space coupling scheme, covering the preparation of suitable modes of the field incident on...
Two new designs of parabolic solar collectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karimi Sadaghiyani Omid
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, two new compound parabolic trough and dish solar collectors are presented with their working principles. First, the curves of mirrors are defined and the mathematical formulation as one analytical method is used to trace the sun rays and recognize the focus point. As a result of the ray tracing, the distribution of heat flux around the inner wall can be reached. Next, the heat fluxes are calculated versus several absorption coefficients. These heat flux distributions around absorber tube are functions of angle in polar coordinate system. Considering, the achieved heat flux distribution are used as a thermal boundary condition. After that, Finite Volume Methods (FVM are applied for simulation of absorber tube. The validation of solving method is done by comparing with Dudley's results at Sandia National Research Laboratory. Also, in order to have a good comparison between LS-2 and two new designed collectors, some of their parameters are considered equal with together. These parameters are consist of: the aperture area, the measures of tube geometry, the thermal properties of absorber tube, the working fluid, the solar radiation intensity and the mass flow rate of LS-2 collector are applied for simulation of the new presented collectors. After the validation of the used numerical models, this method is applied to simulation of the new designed models. Finally, the outlet results of new designed collector are compared with LS-2 classic collector. Obviously, the obtained results from the comparison show the improving of the new designed parabolic collectors efficiency. In the best case-study, the improving of efficiency are about 10% and 20% for linear and convoluted models respectively.
Parabolic features and the erosion rate on Venus
Strom, Robert G.
1993-01-01
The impact cratering record on Venus consists of 919 craters covering 98 percent of the surface. These craters are remarkably well preserved, and most show pristine structures including fresh ejecta blankets. Only 35 craters (3.8 percent) have had their ejecta blankets embayed by lava and most of these occur in the Atla-Beta Regio region; an area thought to be recently active. parabolic features are associated with 66 of the 919 craters. These craters range in size from 6 to 105 km diameter. The parabolic features are thought to be the result of the deposition of fine-grained ejecta by winds in the dense venusian atmosphere. The deposits cover about 9 percent of the surface and none appear to be embayed by younger volcanic materials. However, there appears to be a paucity of these deposits in the Atla-Beta Regio region, and this may be due to the more recent volcanism in this area of Venus. Since parabolic features are probably fine-grain, wind-deposited ejecta, then all impact craters on Venus probably had these deposits at some time in the past. The older deposits have probably been either eroded or buried by eolian processes. Therefore, the present population of these features is probably associated with the most recent impact craters on the planet. Furthermore, the size/frequency distribution of craters with parabolic features is virtually identical to that of the total crater population. This suggests that there has been little loss of small parabolic features compared to large ones, otherwise there should be a significant and systematic paucity of craters with parabolic features with decreasing size compared to the total crater population. Whatever is erasing the parabolic features apparently does so uniformly regardless of the areal extent of the deposit. The lifetime of parabolic features and the eolian erosion rate on Venus can be estimated from the average age of the surface and the present population of parabolic features.
A study on optical aberrations in parabolic neutron guides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yu; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Yuntao [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Zu, Yong [China International Engineering Consulting Corporation, Beijing 100048 (China); He, Linfeng; Wei, Guohai; Sun, Kai [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Han, Songbai, E-mail: hansb@ciae.ac.cn [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Chen, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciae.ac.cn [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)
2015-06-21
It is widely believed that a neutron beam can be focused to a small spot using a parabolic guide, which will significantly improve the flux. However, researchers have also noted challenges for the neutron inhomogeneous phase space distribution in parabolic focusing guide systems. In this paper, the sources of most prominent optical aberrations, such as an inhomogeneous phase space distribution and irregular divergence distribution, are discussed, and an optimization solution is also proposed. We indicate that optimizing the parabolic guide geometrical configuration removes almost all of the aberrations and yields a considerable intensity gain factor.
Describing Quadratic Cremer Point Polynomials by Parabolic Perturbations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Dan Erik Krarup
1996-01-01
We describe two infinite order parabolic perturbation proceduresyielding quadratic polynomials having a Cremer fixed point. The main ideais to obtain the polynomial as the limit of repeated parabolic perturbations.The basic tool at each step is to control the behaviour of certain externalrays.......Polynomials of the Cremer type correspond to parameters at the boundary of ahyperbolic component of the Mandelbrot set. In this paper we concentrate onthe main cardioid component. We investigate the differences between two-sided(i.e. alternating) and one-sided parabolic perturbations.In the two-sided case, we prove...
Parabolic Bundles on Algebraic Surfaces I -- The Donaldson-Uhlenbeck Compactification
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V Balaji; A Dey; R Parthasarathi
2008-02-01
The aim of this paper is to construct the parabolic version of the Donaldson-Uhlenbeck compactification for the moduli space of parabolic stable bundles on an algebraic surface with parabolic structures along a divisor with normal crossing singularities. We prove the non-emptiness of the moduli space of parabolic stable bundles of rank 2.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chuan Qiang CHEN; Bo Wen HU
2013-01-01
We study microscopic spacetime convexity properties of fully nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations.Under certain general structure condition,we establish a constant rank theorem for the spacetime convex solutions of fully nonlinear parabolic equations.At last,we consider the parabolic convexity of solutions to parabolic equations and the convexity of the spacetime second fundamental form of geometric flows.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘晓梅; 向阳
2011-01-01
为了满足宽视场成像光谱仪发展的需求,研究了远心、宽视场和大相对孔径的离轴三反系统的光学设计问题,推导出平像场远心三反系统初始结构尺寸参数和三级像差表达式.针对光谱范围0.4～2.5μm、F数为4、有效焦距720 mm和视场10°的设计要求,采用视场角离轴的方法,设计出次镜为凸球面镜、主镜和三镜共面且都为凹二次曲面镜以及三个反射镜共轴的平像场远心离轴三反成像系统.设计结果表明,该系统在整个波段和全视场内像质接近衍射极限.%In order to meet the needs of the wide field-of-view (FOV) imaging spectrometer development, the problem about optical design of telecentric, wide FOV, large relative aperture, off-axis three-mirror system is studied, and the expressions of initial configuration parameters and the third-order aberrations for flat field,telecentric, three-mirror system are educed. With the specific requirements of 0.4 ～ 2.5 μm spectral range, F number is 4, 720 mm focal length, 10° FOV, a flat field, telecentric, off-axis three-mirror imaging system is designed, in which the secondary mirror is convex spheric mirror, the primary mirror and the third mirror are concave conicoid and coplanar, and all the three mirrors are coaxial. The design result indicates that the imaging quality of the designed system approaches the diffraction limit at full FOV in the required wave band.
Hattori, Haroldo T
2014-10-10
In a parabolic mirror, light coming parallel to the antenna passes through its focal point. In this work, a waveguide feeds a semi-parabolic photonic crystal mirror and the emerging beam feeds a bow-tie antenna placed at the mirror's focal point-it is shown that the antenna system can not only feed a bow-tie antenna (producing a localized moderately high electric field) but also produces a directional radiation beam. The semi-parabolic mirror is also modified to reduce reflection back to the feeding waveguide. PMID:25322381
Hattori, Haroldo T
2014-10-10
In a parabolic mirror, light coming parallel to the antenna passes through its focal point. In this work, a waveguide feeds a semi-parabolic photonic crystal mirror and the emerging beam feeds a bow-tie antenna placed at the mirror's focal point-it is shown that the antenna system can not only feed a bow-tie antenna (producing a localized moderately high electric field) but also produces a directional radiation beam. The semi-parabolic mirror is also modified to reduce reflection back to the feeding waveguide.
Pseudo almost periodic solutions to parabolic boundary value inverse problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
We first define the pseudo almost periodic functions in a more general setting.Then we show the existence,uniqueness and stability of pseudo almost periodic solutions of parabolic inverse problems for a type of boundary value problems.
A Sixth-Order Parabolic System in Semiconductors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiuqing CHEN; Li CHEN; Caiyun SUN
2011-01-01
The authors investigate the global existence and semiclassical limit of weak solutions to a sixth-order parabolic system,which is a quantum-corrected macroscopic model derived recently to simulate the quantum effects in miniaturized semiconductor devices.
FASTRACK (TM): Parabolic and Suborbital Experiment Support Facility
Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Romero, V.
2016-01-01
FASTRACK was developed by NASA Kennedy Space Center and Space Florida to provide capabilities to conduct frequent, affordable, and responsive flight opportunities for reduced gravity experiments, technology development, and hardware testing on suborbital vehicles and parabolic flights.
On Doubly Degenerate Quasilinear Parabolic Equations of Higher Order
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhen Hai LIU
2005-01-01
We deal with the existence of periodic solutions for doubly degenerate quasilinear parabolic equations of higher order, which can degenerate, on a part of the boundary, on a segment in the interior of the domain and in time.
OSCILLATION OF NONLINEAR IMPULSIVE PARABOLIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH SEVERAL DELAYS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CuiChenpei; ZouMin; LiuAnping; XiaoLi
2005-01-01
In this paper, oscillatory properties for solutions of certain nonlinear impulsive parabolic equations with several delays are investigated and a series of new sufficient conditions for oscillations of the equation are established.
A Note about Parabolic Systems and Analytic Semigroups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
STR?HMER Gerhard
2011-01-01
We investigate the question whether certain parabolic systems in the sense of Petrovskii fulfill the resolvent estimate required for the generation of an analytic semigroup and apply the result to a problem concerning the diffusion of gases.
HYPERBOLIC-PARABOLIC CHEMOTAXIS SYSTEM WITH NONLINEAR PRODUCT TERMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Hua; Wu Shaohua
2008-01-01
We prove the local existence and uniqueness of week solution of the hyperbolic-parabolic Chemotaxis system with some nonlinear product terms. For one dimensional case, we prove also the global existence and uniqueness of the solution for the problem.
A SINGLE STEP SCHEME WITH HIGH ACCURACY FOR PARABOLIC PROBLEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈传淼; 胡志刚
2001-01-01
A single step scheme with high accuracy for solving parabolic problem is proposed. It is shown that this scheme possesses good stability and fourth order accuracy with respect to both time and space variables, which are superconvergent.
Homogenization of attractors for a class of nonlinear parabolic equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Guo-lian; ZHANG Xing-you
2004-01-01
The relation between the global attractors Aε for a calss of quasilinear parabolic equations and the global attractor A0for the homogenized equation is discussed, and an explicit error estimate between Aε and A0 is given.
The homogenization of a class of degenerate quasilinear parabolic equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xingyou; HUANG Yong
2003-01-01
The homogenization of a class of degenerate quasilinear parabolic equations is studied. The Ap weight theory and the classical compensated compactness method are incorporated to obtain the homogenized equation.
IDENTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS IN PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH NONLINEARITY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, we consider the identification of parameters in parabolic equations with nonlinearity. Some approximation processes for the identification problem are given. Our results improve and generalize the previous results.
On Behavior of Solutions of Degenerated Nonlinear Parabolic Equations
Gadjiev, T S; Aliev, S Ya
2009-01-01
The aim of this work is studding the behavior of solutions of initial boundary problem for degenerated nonlinear parabolic equation of the second order, conditions of existence and non-existence in whole by time solutions, is establish.
An X-band parabolic antenna based on gradient metasurface
Yao, Wang; Yang, Helin; Huang, Xiaojun; Tian, Ying; Guo, Linyan
2016-07-01
We present a novel parabolic antenna by employing reflection gradient metasurface which is composed of a series of circle patches on a grounded dielectric substrate. Similar to the traditional parabolic antenna, the proposed antenna take the metasurface as a "parabolic reflector" and a patch antenna was placed at the focal point of the metasurface as a feed source, then the quasi-spherical wave emitted by the source is reflected and transformed to plane wave with high efficiency. Due to the focus effect of reflection, the beam width of the antenna has been decreased from 85.9° to 13° and the gain has been increased from 6.5 dB to 20.8 dB. Simulation and measurement results of both near and far-field plots demonstrate good focusing properties of the proposed parabolic antenna.
Parabolic Equations in Musielak-Orlicz-Sobolev Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.L. Ahmed Oubeid
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We prove in this paper the existence of solutions of nonlinear parabolic problems in Musielak-Orlicz-Sobolev spaces. An approximation and a trace results in inhomogeneous Musielak-Orlicz-Sobolev spaces have also been provided.
Quasiconformal mappings and degenerate elliptic and parabolic equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filippo Chiarenza
1987-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper two Harnak inequalities are proved concerning a degenerate elliptic and a degenerate parabolic equation. In both cases the weight giving the degeneracy is a power of the jacobian of a quasiconformal mapping.
Inversion of the Linear and Parabolic Radon Transform
Sarajærvi, Martin
2010-01-01
Different mathematical techniques are applied to the linear and parabolic Radon transforms. Including a review of classical work, recent developments, and testing of two proposed methods. Studies span from sampling and numerical stability to kinematic considerations, and computational efficiency.
Efficient implementation of 90 degrees phase shifter in FPGA
Duraiswamy, Punithavathi; Bauwelinck, Johan; Vandewege, Jan
2011-01-01
In this article, we present an efficient way of implementing 90 phase shifter using Hilbert transformer with canonic signed digit (CSD) coefficients in FPGA. It is implemented using 27-tap symmetric finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Representing the filter coefficients by CSD eliminates the need for multipliers and the filter is implemented using shifters and adders/subtractors. The simulated results for the frequency response of the Hilbert transformer with infinite precision coefficient...
Thermal distortion testing of a 90-degree deployment hinge
Lininger, Lance
2003-09-01
Virtually all modern spacecraft have at least one (if not many) deployable items, some of which require a high degree of positional accuracy and repeatability. There are many variables that affect the deployment performance, and often the most critical and difficult variable to quantify is the affect of the thermal environment on the deployment mechanisms. Temperature changes before and after deployment can greatly affect the final deployment position and the subsequent thermal distortion of the mechanism, and it is critical to properly quantify these factors. Historically the affects of temperature change on deployment mechanisms have been evaluated via analysis due to the relative cost and difficulty in performing a test. However, during the design process of a recent Lockheed Martin deployment hinge, the engineers wanted to provide their customer with a more reliable empirical assessment. Thus, it was decided to conduct a thermal distortion and repeatability test on the hinge during the qualification phase. Testing of this nature is very rare for relatively inexpensive deployment hinges and is usually reserved for high precision, actively-latched optical hinges. Results of this testing are presented, along with lessons learned when performing the test.
MAXIMUM PRINCIPLES FOR SECOND-ORDER PARABOLIC EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Antonio Vitolo
2004-01-01
This paper is the parabolic counterpart of previous ones about elliptic operators in unbounded domains. Maximum principles for second-order linear parabolic equations are established showing a variant of the ABP-Krylov-Tso estimate, based lower bound for super-solutions due to Krylov and Safonov. The results imply the uniqueness for the Cauchy-Dirichlet problem in a large class of infinite cylindrical and non-cylindrical domains.
Flux form Semi-Lagrangian methods for parabolic problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bonaventura Luca
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A semi-Lagrangian method for parabolic problems is proposed, that extends previous work by the authors to achieve a fully conservative, flux-form discretization of linear and nonlinear diffusion equations. A basic consistency and stability analysis is proposed. Numerical examples validate the proposed method and display its potential for consistent semi-Lagrangian discretization of advection diffusion and nonlinear parabolic problems.
Three-dimensional nonparaxial beams in parabolic rotational coordinates.
Deng, Dongmei; Gao, Yuanmei; Zhao, Juanying; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Zhigang
2013-10-01
We introduce a class of three-dimensional nonparaxial optical beams found in a parabolic rotational coordinate system. These beams, representing exact solutions of the nonparaxial Helmholtz equation, have inherent parabolic symmetries. Assisted with a computer-generated holography, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of different modes of these beams. The observed transverse beam patterns along the propagation direction agree well with those from our theoretical predication.
Dispersion in closed, off-axis orbit bumps
Apsimon, R.; Esberg, J.; Owen, H.
2016-09-01
In this paper we present a proof to show that there exists no system of linear or nonlinear optics which can simultaneously close multiple local orbit bumps and dispersion through a single beam transport region. The second combiner ring in the CLIC drive beam recombination system, CR2, is used as an example of where such conditions are necessary. We determine the properties of a lattice which is capable of closing the local orbit bumps and dispersion and show that all resulting solutions are either unphysical or trivial.
Undulating fins produce off-axis thrust and flow structures.
Neveln, Izaak D; Bale, Rahul; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Curet, Oscar M; Patankar, Neelesh A; MacIver, Malcolm A
2014-01-15
While wake structures of many forms of swimming and flying are well characterized, the wake generated by a freely swimming undulating fin has not yet been analyzed. These elongated fins allow fish to achieve enhanced agility exemplified by the forward, backward and vertical swimming capabilities of knifefish, and also have potential applications in the design of more maneuverable underwater vehicles. We present the flow structure of an undulating robotic fin model using particle image velocimetry to measure fluid velocity fields in the wake. We supplement the experimental robotic work with high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics, simulating the hydrodynamics of both a virtual fish, whose fin kinematics and fin plus body morphology are measured from a freely swimming knifefish, and a virtual rendering of our robot. Our results indicate that a series of linked vortex tubes is shed off the long edge of the fin as the undulatory wave travels lengthwise along the fin. A jet at an oblique angle to the fin is associated with the successive vortex tubes, propelling the fish forward. The vortex structure bears similarity to the linked vortex ring structure trailing the oscillating caudal fin of a carangiform swimmer, though the vortex rings are distorted because of the undulatory kinematics of the elongated fin. PMID:24072799
Off-axis electron holography of ferromagnetic multilayer nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhtari-Zavareh, Azadeh; Kavanagh, K. L. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A1S6 (Canada); Carignan, L. P. [Apollo Microwaves, 1650 Trans-Canada Highway, Dorval, Quebec H9P 1H7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, H3C 3A7 Canada (Canada); Department of Electrical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, H3C 3A7 Canada (Canada); Yelon, A.; Ménard, D. [Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, H3C 3A7 Canada (Canada); Kasama, T. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Herring, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Institute for Microstructure Research, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); McCartney, M. R. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)
2014-07-14
We have used electron holography to investigate the local magnetic behavior of isolated ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) in their remanent states. The NWs consisted of periodic magnetic layers of soft, high-saturation magnetization CoFeB alloys, and non-magnetic layers of Cu. All NWs were fabricated by pulsed-potential electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina membranes. The NW composition and layer thicknesses were measured using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The magnetization of individual NWs depended upon the thicknesses of the layers and the direction of an external magnetic field, which had been applied in situ. When the CoFeB was thicker than the diameter (50 nm), magnetization was axial for all external field directions, while thinner layers could be randomized via a perpendicular field. In some cases, magnetization inside the wire was detected at an angle with respect to the axis of the wires. In thinner Cu/CoFeB (<10 nm each) multilayer, magnetic field vortices were detected, associated with opposing magnetization in neighbouring layers. The measured crystallinity, compositions, and layer thicknesses of individual NWs were found to be significantly different from those predicted from calibration growths based on uniform composition NWs. In particular, a significant fraction of Cu (up to 50 at. %) was present in the CoFeB layers such that the measured magnetic induction was lower than expected. These results will be used to better understand previously measured effective anisotropy fields of similar NW arrays.
Influence of aerosols on off-axis laser detection capabilities
Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.T.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.
2009-01-01
The radiation coming from a laser which operates in the coastal zone can be detected not only when a detector is placed in front of the laser beam but also when it is located outside the main beam direction. The reason is that in a real detection scheme the power collected by a detector not only com
X-ray Flashes from Off-axis Nonuniform Jets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhi-Ping Jin; Da-Ming Wei
2004-01-01
It has been widely believed that the outflows in gamma-ray bursts are jetted and some jets may have structures like ∈(θ) ∝θ-κ. We check the possibility that X-ray flashes come from such jets. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses have shown that this model can reproduce most of the observational features of both X-ray flashes and gamma-ray bursts. Using the usual parameters of gamma-ray bursts, we have carried out numerical calculations for both uniform and nonuniform jets, of their fluxes, spectra and peak energies. It seems that nonuniform jets are more appropriate to these observational properties than uniform jets. We have also shown that in our model the observational ratio of gamma-ray bursts to X-ray flashes is about a few units.
Off-axis electron holography of ferromagnetic multilayer nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Akhtari-Zavareh, Azadeh; Carignan, L. P.; Yelon, A.;
2014-01-01
We have used electron holography to investigate the local magnetic behavior of isolated ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) in their remanent states. The NWs consisted of periodic magnetic layers of soft, high-saturation magnetization CoFeB alloys, and non-magnetic layers of Cu. All NWs were fabricated...... by pulsed-potential electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina membranes. The NW composition and layer thicknesses were measured using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The magnetization of individual NWs depended upon the thicknesses of the layers and the...... direction of an external magnetic field, which had been applied in situ. When the CoFeB was thicker than the diameter (50 nm), magnetization was axial for all external field directions, while thinner layers could be randomized via a perpendicular field. In some cases, magnetization inside the wire was...
Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Initial Trials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghalya Pikra
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses initial trials of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC in Bandung. PTSC model consists of concentrator, absorber and tracking system. Concentrator designs are made with 2m aperture width, 6m length and 0.75m focal distance. The design is equipped with an automatic tracking system which is driven using 12V and 24Watt DC motor with 0.0125rpm rotational speed. Absorber/receiver is designed with evacuated tube type, with 1 inch core diameter and tube made of AISI304 and coated with black oxide, the outer tube is borosilicate glass with a 70 mm diameter and 1.5 m length. Working fluid stored in single type of thermal storage tank, a single phase with 37.7 liter volume. PTSC model testing carried out for 2 hours and 10 minutes produces heat output and input of 11.5 kW and 0.64 kW respectively.
A Contribution for the Construction of Parabolic Mirrors
de Paula, L A N; Assis, A K T
2008-01-01
We present a new procedure for the construction of parabolic mirrors using low cost materials. We build a spinning system composed of nylon threads, fish hooks and a plastic bucket. We pour liquid plaster into the bucket and set it in constant rotational motion relative to the earth. A liquid substance assumes a parabolic profile when spinning at constant angular velocity relative to an inertial frame under the influence of an uniform vertical gravitational field. By keeping the bucket under rotation for a long time, the plaster solidifies into a parabolic format. We utilize this solidified plaster paraboloid as a model to construct a counter-mould of glass fibre and resin. Over this counter-mould it is placed stretched laminated foil and then it is poured thick plaster over it. In this way it is obtained a parabolic mirror made of laminated foil and plaster. Our only objective here is to present a new method for the construction of parabolic mirror using low cost materials. This allows further exploration of...
Fabrication, Designing & Performance Analysis of Solar Parabolic Trough
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mayur G. Tayade,
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A parabolic trough solar collector uses a parabolic cylinder to reflect and concentrate sun radiations towards a receiver tube located at the focus line of the parabolic cylinder. The receiver absorbs the incoming radiations and transforms them into thermal energy, the latter being transported and collected by a fluid medium circulating within the receiver tube.This method of concentrated solar collection has the advantage of high efficiency and low cost, and can be used either for thermal energy collection, for generating electricity or for both, This paper focused on the fabrication and designing of solar parabolic trough, The designing of trough is depend upon the following parameters : Aperture of the concentrator , Inner diameter of absorber tube, Outer diameter of absorber tube, Inner diameter of glass tube, Outer diameter of glass tube, Length of parabolic trough, Concentration ratio, Collector aperture area, Specular reflectivity of concentrator, Glass cover transitivity for solar radiation, Absorber tube emissivity/emissivity, Intercept factor, Emissivity of absorber tube surface and Emissivity of glass. The performance analysis will be based on the Experimental data collection and calculations with reference to: Thermal performance calculations, Overall loss coefficient and heat correlations. Heat transfer coefficient on the inside surface of the absorber tube and Heat transfer coefficient between the absorber tube and the Cover.
Performance Simulation Comparison for Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors in China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinping Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Parabolic trough systems are the most used concentrated solar power technology. The operating performance and optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collectors (PTCs are different in different regions and different seasons. To determine the optimum design and operation of the parabolic trough solar collector throughout the year, an accurate estimation of the daily performance is needed. In this study, a mathematical model for the optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collector was established and three typical regions of solar thermal utilization in China were selected. The performance characteristics of cosine effect, shadowing effect, end loss effect, and optical efficiency were calculated and simulated during a whole year in these three areas by using the mathematical model. The simulation results show that the optical efficiency of PTCs changes from 0.4 to 0.8 in a whole year. The highest optical efficiency of PTCs is in June and the lowest is in December. The optical efficiency of PTCs is mainly influenced by the solar incidence angle. The model is validated by comparing the test results in parabolic trough power plant, with relative error range of 1% to about 5%.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马媛; 季小玲
2013-01-01
本文研究了大气湍流和探测光空间相干性对倾斜离轴激光束通过猫眼光学镜头反射光光强特性的影响。研究表明：由于光阑效应以及光束倾斜或离轴，反射光光强出现振荡和非对称分布现象。大气湍流不会改变其非对称性，但湍流中其光强不再振荡。当猫眼光学镜头存在微弱正离焦δmax情况下，轴上光强可达到最大值。猫眼光学镜头焦距越大，所需δmax越大。但是，大气湍流和探测光相干性好坏都不会改变所需δmax值。在大气湍流中传输距离足够远时，反射光强会成为离轴类高斯分布。随着传输距离的增大，相干性越差的探测光的反射光束扩展可以更小，这与部分相干光自由空间传输规律完全不同。探测光相干性越好，其反射光强受湍流的影响越大，但差异不大。本文所得结果对激光主动探测的应用具有意义。%The influences of atmospheric turbulence and the beam coherence on the average intensity of tilted and off-axis laser beams propagating through a cat-eye optical lens in the turbulence are studied. It is shown that the oscillatory behavior and the skewness of average intensity may appear because there exist apertures and active detection laser beams are tilted or off-axis. The skewness is independent of turbulence, but the oscillatory behavior disappears due to turbulence. For a small positive defocus of a cat-eye optical lens, the on-axis average intensity reaches its maximum. The a positive defocus value becomes small as the focal length of the cat-eye optical lens decreases, but it is independent of atmospheric turbulence and the coherence of active detection laser beams. And the average intensity becomes an off-Gaussian-like profile when the propagation distance is large enough in turbulence. However, less beam spreading may occur with increasing propagation distance for active detection laser beams with less coherence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
尹杰茜; 黄水平
2015-01-01
It got the detour phase hologram and Boqi hologram using the Matlab language, and got reconstructed image by Fourier transformation. The characteristics of two computing holograms were elaborated, and the quality, quantity, size, program running speed of the reconstructed image were made a comparison. Computing hologram with Detour phase is easy to record and convenient delivery. Boqi coding are used to get the modified off-axis reference beam as computing hologram has a high quality reconstructed image,and com-puting speed is faster. The complex two-dimensional images which can consider using this encoding method to calculate the holographic.%使用Matlab语言得到了迂回位相全息图和博奇型全息图，由傅里叶逆变换得到再现像。阐述了两种计算全息图各自的特点，对再现像的质量、数量、大小、程序运行速度作出对比讨论。迂回位相计算全息图有便于记录、方便传递的特点。利用博奇编码得到的修正离轴参考光计算全息图有高质量的再现像，而且计算速度也比较快，对于复杂的二维图像，可以考虑利用这种编码方法进行计算全息。
Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshua FOLARANMI
2009-07-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with a slotted lever for tilting the parabolic dish reflector to different angles so that the sun is always directed to the collector at different period of the day. On the average sunny and cloud free days, the test results gave high temperature above 200°C.
Real Parabolic Vector Bundles over a Real Curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sanjay Amrutiya
2014-02-01
We define real parabolic structures on real vector bundles over a real curve. Let $(X, _X)$ be a real curve, and let $S\\subset X$ be a non-empty finite subset of such that $_X(S) = S$. Let ≥ 2 be an integer. We construct an -fold cyclic cover : $Y→ X$ in the category of real curves, ramified precisely over each point of , and with the property that for any element of the Galois group , and any $y\\in Y$, one has $_Y(gy) = g^{-1}_Y(y)$. We established an equivalence between the category of real parabolic vector bundles on $(X,_X)$ with real parabolic structure over , all of whose weights are integral multiples of 1/, and the category of real -equivariant vector bundles on $(Y, _Y)$.
Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.
2005-11-01
Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.
In-plane elastic stability of fixed parabolic shallow arches
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAI JianGuo; FENG Jian; CHEN Yao; HUANG LiFeng
2009-01-01
The nonlinear behavior of fixed parabolic shallow arches subjected to a vertical uniform load is inves-tigated to evaluate the in-plane buckling load. The virtual work principle method is used to establish the non-linear equilibrium and buckling equations. Analytical solutions for the non-linear in-plane sym-metric snap-through and antisymmetric bifurcation buckling loads are obtained. Based on the least square method, an approximation for the symmetric buckling load of fixed parabolic arch is proposedto simplify the solution process. And the relation between modified slenderness and buckling modes are discussed. Comparisons with the results of finite element analysis demonstrate that the solutions are accurate. A cable-arch structure is presented to improve the in-plane stability of parabolic arches. The comparison of buckling loads between cable-arch systems and arches only show that the effect of cables becomes more evident with the increase of arch's modified slenderness.
In-plane elastic stability of fixed parabolic shallow arches
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The nonlinear behavior of fixed parabolic shallow arches subjected to a vertical uniform load is inves- tigated to evaluate the in-plane buckling load. The virtual work principle method is used to establish the non-linear equilibrium and buckling equations. Analytical solutions for the non-linear in-plane sym- metric snap-through and antisymmetric bifurcation buckling loads are obtained. Based on the least square method, an approximation for the symmetric buckling load of fixed parabolic arch is proposed to simplify the solution process. And the relation between modified slenderness and buckling modes are discussed. Comparisons with the results of finite element analysis demonstrate that the solutions are accurate. A cable-arch structure is presented to improve the in-plane stability of parabolic arches. The comparison of buckling loads between cable-arch systems and arches only show that the effect of cables becomes more evident with the increase of arch’s modified slenderness.
Analysis and conceptual design of a lunar radiator parabolic shade
Ewert, Michael K.; Clark, Craig S.
1991-01-01
On the moon, the available heat sink temperature for a vertical unshaded radiator at the equator is 322 K. A method of reducing this heat sink temperature using a parabolic trough shading device was investigated. A steady state heat balance was performed to predict the available heat sink temperature. The effect of optical surface properties on system performance was investigated. Various geometric configurations were also evaluated. A flexible shade conceptual design is presented which greatly reduces the weight and stowed volume of the system. The concept makes use of the natural catenary shape assumed by a flexible material when supported at two points. The catenary shape is very near parabolic. The lunar radiator parabolic shade design presented integrates the energy collection and rejection of a solar dynamic power cycle with the moderate temperature waste heat rejection of a lunar habitat.
Mean wind forces on parabolic-trough solar collectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterka, J.A.; Sinau, J.M.; Cermak, J.E.
1980-05-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of mean wind loads produced by airflow in and around several configurations of parabolic trough solar collectors with and without a wind fence. Four basic parabolic shapes were investigated as single units and one shape was studied as part of several array fields. One 1:25 scale model of each parabolic shape was constructed for mounting on a force balance to measure two forces and three moments. The effects of several dominant variables were investigated in this study: wind-azimuth (or yaw), trough elevation (or pitch) angle, array field configuration, and protective wind fence characteristics. All measurements were made in a boundary-layer flow developed by the meteorological wind tunnel at the Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Laboratory of Colorado State University. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)
Decomposition method for solving parabolic equations in finite domains
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
This paper presents a comparison among Adomian decomposition method (ADM), Wavelet-Galerkin method (WGM),the fully explicit (1,7) finite difference technique (FTCS), the fully implicit (7,1) finite difference method (BTCS), (7,7)Crank-Nicholson type finite difference formula (C-N), the fully explicit method (1,13) and 9-point finite difference method, for solving parabolic differential equations with arbitrary boundary conditions and based on weak form functionals in finite domains.The problem is solved rapidly, easily and elegantly by ADM. The numerical results on a 2D transient heat conducting problem and 3D diffusion problem are used to validate the proposed ADM as an effective numerical method for solving finite domain parabolic equations. The numerical results showed that our present method is less time consuming and is easier to use than other methods. In addition, we prove the convergence of this method when it is applied to the nonlinear parabolic equation.
Interaction Potential between Parabolic Rotator and an Outside Particle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available At micro/nanoscale, the interaction potential between parabolic rotator and a particle located outside the rotator is studied on the basis of the negative exponential pair potential 1/Rn between particles. Similar to two-dimensional curved surfaces, we confirm that the potential of the three-dimensional parabolic rotator and outside particle can also be expressed as a unified form of curvatures; that is, it can be written as the function of curvatures. Furthermore, we verify that the driving forces acting on the particle may be induced by the highly curved micro/nano-parabolic rotator. Curvatures and the gradient of curvatures are the essential elements forming the driving forces. Through the idealized numerical experiments, the accuracy of the curvature-based potential is preliminarily proved.
Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-04-01
Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.
Design, Construction and Testing of a Parabolic Solar Steam Generator
Folaranmi, Joshua
2009-01-01
This paper reports the design, construction and testing of a parabolic dish solar steam generator. Using concentrating collector, heat from the sun is concentrated on a black absorber located at the focus point of the reflector in which water is heated to a very high temperature to form steam. It also describes the sun tracking system unit by manual tilting of the lever at the base of the parabolic dish to capture solar energy. The whole arrangement is mounted on a hinged frame supported with...
Nonlinear Parabolic Equations with Singularities in Colombeau Vector Spaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mirjana STOJANOVI(C)
2006-01-01
We consider nonlinear parabolic equations with nonlinear non-Lipschitz's term and singular initial data like Dirac measure, its derivatives and powers. We prove existence-uniqueness theorems in Colombeau vector space gC1,w2,2([O,T),Rn),n ≤ 3. Due to high singularity in a case of parabolic equation with nonlinear conservative term we employ the regularized derivative for the conservative term, in order to obtain the global existence-uniqueness result in Colombeau vector space gC1,L2([O,T),Rn),n ≤ 3.
General difference schemes with intrinsic parallelism for nonlinear parabolic systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周毓麟; 袁光伟
1997-01-01
The boundary value problem for nonlinear parabolic system is solved by the finite difference method with intrinsic parallelism. The existence of the discrete vector solution for the general finite difference schemes with intrinsic parallelism is proved by the fixed-point technique in finite-dimensional Euclidean space. The convergence and stability theorems of the discrete vector solutions of the nonlinear difference system with intrinsic parallelism are proved. The limitation vector function is just the unique generalized solution of the original problem for the parabolic system.
Focusing of Intense Laser via Parabolic Plasma Concave Surface
Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Wu, Fengjuan; Zhang, Zhimeng; Shan, Lianqiang; Cao, Leifeng; Zhang, Baohan
2015-12-01
Since laser intensity plays an important role in laser plasma interactions, a method of increasing laser intensity - focusing of an intense laser via a parabolic plasma concave surface - is proposed and investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The geometric focusing via a parabolic concave surface and the temporal compression of high harmonics increased the peak intensity of the laser pulse by about two orders of magnitude. Compared with the improvement via laser optics approaches, this scheme is much more economic and appropriate for most femtosecond laser facilities. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11174259, 11175165), and the Dual Hundred Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics
Photogrammetric Measurements of a 12-metre Preloaded Parabolic Dish Antenna
Shankar, N Udaya; Ateequlla, C M; Nayak, Arvind; Krishnan, A; Yogi, M K S; Rao, C Koteshwar; Vidyasagar, K; Jain, Rohit; Mathur, Pravesh; Govinda, K V; Rajeev, R B; Danabalan, T L
2009-01-01
A 12-metre Preloaded Parabolic Dish antenna, in which the backup structure is formed by preloading its radial and circumferential members, has been designed, built and commissioned by the Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. This paper reports the first-ever photogrammetric measurements of gravity-induced deformation in the primary reflector of an antenna built using this novel concept of preloading the backup structure. Our experience will be of relevance to radio astronomy and deep space network applications that require building lightweight and economical steerable parabolic antennas.
Well-posedness of nonlocal parabolic differential problems with dependent operators.
Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Hanalyev, Asker
2014-01-01
The nonlocal boundary value problem for the parabolic differential equation v'(t) + A(t)v(t) = f(t) (0 ≤ t ≤ T), v(0) = v(λ) + φ, 0 parabolic equations with dependent coefficients are established.
On the regularity of optimal control for a parabolic system of order 2m
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ornella Fiodo
1992-05-01
Full Text Available An optimal control problem for a parabolic operator of order 2m with the boundary conditions containing the control is considered. A regularity theorem for the parabolic problem and the regularity of the optimal control is proved.
Integral representations for computing real parabolic cylinder functions
Gil, A.; Segura, J.; Temme, N.M.
2004-01-01
Integral representations are derived for the parabolic cylinder functions U(a,x), V(a,x) and W(a,x) and their derivatives. The new integrals will be used in numerical algorithms based on quadrature. They follow from contour integrals in the complex plane, by using methods from asymptotic analysis (s
The maximum of Brownian motion with parabolic drift
Janson, Svante; Louchard, Guy; Martin-Löf, Anders
2010-01-01
We study the maximum of a Brownian motion with a parabolic drift; this is a random variable that often occurs as a limit of the maximum of discrete processes whose expectations have a maximum at an interior point. We give new series expansions and integral formulas for the distribution and the first two moments, together with numerical values to high precision.
MULTIGRID FOR THE MORTAR FINITE ELEMENT FOR PARABOLIC PROBLEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xue-jun Xu; Jin-ru Chen
2003-01-01
In this paper, a mortar finite element method for parabolic problem is presented. Multigrid method is used for solving the resulting discrete system. It is shown that the multigrid method is optimal, I.e, the convergence rate is independent of the mesh size L and the time step parameter т.
Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market
On some perturbation techniques for quasi-linear parabolic equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Malyshev
1990-01-01
Full Text Available We study a nonhomogeneous quasi-linear parabolic equation and introduce a method that allows us to find the solution of a nonlinear boundary value problem in explicit form. This task is accomplished by perturbing the original equation with a source function, which is then found as a solution of some nonlinear operator equation.
The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts.
Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark
2008-09-01
Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.
The fundamental solutions for fractional evolution equations of parabolic type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud M. El-Borai
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The fundamental solutions for linear fractional evolution equations are obtained. The coefficients of these equations are a family of linear closed operators in the Banach space. Also, the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions is studied. A mixed problem of general parabolic partial differential equations with fractional order is given as an application.
Numerical and asymptotic aspects of parabolic cylinder functions
Temme, N.M.
2000-01-01
Several uniform asymptotics expansions of the Weber parabolic cylinder functions are considered, one group in terms of elementary functions, another group in terms of Airy functions. Starting point for the discussion are asymptotic expansions given earlier by F.W.J. Olver. Some of his results are
A parabolic singular perturbation problem with an internal layer
Grasman, J.; Shih, S.D.
2004-01-01
A method is presented to approximate with singular perturbation methods a parabolic differential equation for the quarter plane with a discontinuity at the corner. This discontinuity gives rise to an internal layer. It is necessary to match the local solution in this layer with the one in a corner l
Integral representations for computing real parabolic cylinder functions
Gil, A.; Segura, J.; Temme, N.M.
2005-01-01
Integral representations are derived for the parabolic cylinder functions U(a,x), V(a,x) and W(a,x) and their derivatives. The new integrals will be used in numerical algorithms based on quadrature. They follow from contour integrals in the complex plane, by using methods from asymptotic analysis (s
Lateral migration of a capsule in a parabolic flow.
Nix, S; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T
2016-07-26
Red blood cells migrate to the center of the blood vessel in a process called axial migration, while other blood cells, such as white blood cells and platelets, are disproportionately found near the blood vessel wall. However, much is still unknown concerning the lateral migration of cells in the blood; the specific effect of hydrodynamic factors such as a wall or a shear gradient is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the lateral migration of a capsule using the boundary integral method, in order to compute exactly an infinite computational domain for an unbounded parabolic flow and a semi-infinite computational domain for a near-wall parabolic flow in the limit of Stokes flow. We show that the capsule lift velocity in an unbounded parabolic flow is linear with respect to the shear gradient, while the lift velocity in a near-wall parabolic flow is dependent on the distance to the wall. Then, using these relations, we give an estimation of the relative effect of the shear gradient as a function of channel width and distance between the capsule and the wall. This estimation can be used to determine cases in which the effect of the shear gradient or wall can be neglected; for example, the formation of the cell-free layer in blood vessels is determined to be unaffected by the magnitude of the shear gradient.
Compactness of the commutators of parabolic singular integrals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,the authors prove that the commutator [b,T] of the parabolic singular integrals is a compact operator on Lp(Rn)(1 < p < ∞) if and only if b ∈ VMO(Rn,ρ).The result is substantial improvement and extension of some known results.
Compound parabolic concentrator with cavity for tubular absorbers
Winston, Roland
1983-01-01
A compond parabolic concentrator with a V-shaped cavity is provided in which an optical receiver is emplaced. The cavity redirects all energy entering between the receiver and the cavity structure onto the receiver, if the optical receiver is emplaced a distance from the cavity not greater than 0.27 r (where r is the radius of the receiver).
SOLVING ∂¯b ON PARABOLIC LAMINATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王刚
2014-01-01
Let X be a compact set which is laminated by parabolic Riemiann surfaces. For the CR positive line bundle L, there exists an integer N ∈ N such that for any s > N and any continuous v∈V(0,1) X N LN s, there exists a continuous u∈LN s solving ∂¯bu=v.
Parabolic stable Higgs bundles over complete noncompact Riemann surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李嘉禹; 王友德
1999-01-01
Let M be an open Riemann surface with a finite set of punctures, a complete Poincar(?)-like metric is introduced near the punctures and the equivalence between the stability of an indecomposable parabolic Higgs bundle, and the existence of a Hermitian-Einstein metric on the bundle is established.
Negative Trions Trapped by a Spherical Parabolic Quantum Dot
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this paper, a negatively charged exciton trapped by a spherical parabolic quantum dot has been investigated. The energy spectra of low-lying states are calculated by means of matrix diagonalization. The important feature of the low-lying states of the negatively charged excitons in a spherical quantum dot is obtained via an analysis of the energy spectra.
Low-crosstalk Si arrayed waveguide grating with parabolic tapers.
Ye, Tong; Fu, Yunfei; Qiao, Lei; Chu, Tao
2014-12-29
A silicon arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with low channel crosstalk was demonstrated by using ultra-short parabolic tapers to connect the AWG's free propagation regions and single-mode waveguides. The tapers satisfied the requirements of low-loss mode conversion and lower channel crosstalk from the coupling of neighboring waveguides in the AWGs. In this work, three different tapers, including parabolic tapers, linear tapers, and exponential tapers, were theoretically analyzed and experimentally investigated for a comparison of their effects when implemented in AWGs. The experimental results showed that the AWG with parabolic tapers had a crosstalk improvement up to 7.1 dB compared with the others. Based on the advantages of parabolic tapers, a 400-GHz 8 × 8 cyclic AWG with 2.4 dB on-chip loss and -17.6~-25.1 dB crosstalk was fabricated using a simple one-step etching process. Its performance was comparable with that of existing AWGs with bi-level tapers, which require complicated two-step etching fabrication processes.
Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams
Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu
2016-10-01
The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge.
Viscosity solutions of fully nonlinear functional parabolic PDE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Wei-an
2005-01-01
Full Text Available By the technique of coupled solutions, the notion of viscosity solutions is extended to fully nonlinear retarded parabolic equations. Such equations involve many models arising from optimal control theory, economy and finance, biology, and so forth. The comparison principle is shown. Then the existence and uniqueness are established by the fixed point theory.
An Application of Calculus: Optimum Parabolic Path Problem
Atasever, Merve; Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Yurtsever, Hasan Ali
2009-01-01
A practical and technological application of calculus problem is posed to motivate freshman students or junior high school students. A variable coefficient of friction is used in modelling air friction. The case in which the coefficient of friction is a decreasing function of altitude is considered. The optimum parabolic path for a flying object…
Discontinuous Galerkin Immersed Finite Element Methods for Parabolic Interface Problems
Yang, Qing; Zhang, Xu
2015-01-01
In this article, interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin methods using immersed finite element functions are employed to solve parabolic interface problems. Typical semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes are presented and analyzed. Optimal convergence for both semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes are proved. Some numerical experiments are provided to validate our theoretical results.
Partially Penalized Immersed Finite Element Methods for Parabolic Interface Problems
Lin, Tao; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Xu
2015-01-01
We present partially penalized immersed finite element methods for solving parabolic interface problems on Cartesian meshes. Typical semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes are discussed. Error estimates in an energy norm are derived. Numerical examples are provided to support theoretical analysis.
Brownian motion and the parabolicity of minimal graphs
Neel, Robert W.
2008-01-01
We prove that minimal graphs (other than planes) are parabolic in the sense that any bounded harmonic function is determined by its boundary values. The proof relies on using the coupling introduced in the author's earlier paper "A martingale approach to minimal surfaces" to show that Brownian motion on such a minimal graph almost surely strikes the boundary in finite time.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任建锋; 郭培基
2012-01-01
A special illuminating system is proposed and designed in order to accurately test convex off-axis aspherical mirrors with computer-generated holograms (CGH). Illuminating system is used as reference system and used to project testing beam on under-testing aspherical mirrors vertically and also makes testing beam and reference beam near common-path. The geometrical system of this illuminating system is introduced and analysed. Then the relation of characters of work distance, focal length and the curvature radius of reference surface of illuminating system is obtained after simplify this multipurpose system to simple model system. The initial system can be realized by controlling these characteristic parameters as merit function during optical design process. Design results show that this method can satisfy requirement of system use.%设计一种特殊的应用于计算全息法(CGH)高精度检测离轴凸非球面系统的照明系统.该照明系统一方面用作参考系统,另一方面将检测光近似垂直投射到待检测镜面上,使得检测系统为近似共光路系统,降低照明系统的制造精度.分析了照明系统的几何光路模型,将复杂的两用途系统简化,得到照明系统工作距离、照明系统焦距以及参考面曲率半径三个特征参量之间的关系.设计时,通过控制这几个特征参量,得到满足检测要求的系统初始结构.设计结果表明,该方法可以满足系统使用要求.
Electromagnetic Casimir Forces of Parabolic Cylinder and Knife-Edge Geometries
Graham, Noah; Emig, Thorsten; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Jaffe, Robert L; Kardar, Mehran
2011-01-01
An exact calculation of electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly conducting parabolic cylinder is employed to compute Casimir forces in several configurations. These include interactions between a parabolic cylinder and a plane, two parabolic cylinders, and a parabolic cylinder and an ordinary cylinder. To elucidate the effect of boundaries, special attention is focused on the "knife-edge" limit in which the parabolic cylinder becomes a half-plane. Geometrical effects are illustrated by considering arbitrary rotations of a parabolic cylinder around its focal axis, and arbitrary translations perpendicular to this axis. A quite different geometrical arrangement is explored for the case of an ordinary cylinder placed in the interior of a parabolic cylinder. All of these results extend simply to nonzero temperatures.
Theory of Parabolic Arcs in Interstellar Scintillation Spectra
Cordes, J M; Stinebring, D R; Coles, W A; Cordes, James M.; Rickett, Barney J.; Stinebring, Daniel R.; Coles, William A.
2004-01-01
Our theory relates the secondary spectrum, the 2D power spectrum of the radio dynamic spectrum, to the scattered pulsar image in a thin scattering screen geometry. Recently discovered parabolic arcs in secondary spectra are generic features for media that scatter radiation at angles much larger than the rms scattering angle. Each point in the secondary spectrum maps particular values of differential arrival-time delay and fringe rate (or differential Doppler frequency) between pairs of components in the scattered image. Arcs correspond to a parabolic relation between these quantities through their common dependence on the angle of arrival of scattered components. Arcs appear even without consideration of the dispersive nature of the plasma. Arcs are more prominent in media with negligible inner scale and with shallow wavenumber spectra, such as the Kolmogorov spectrum, and when the scattered image is elongated along the velocity direction. The arc phenomenon can be used, therefore, to constrain the inner scal...
Laser propagation and compton scattering in parabolic plasma channel
Dongguo, L; Yokoya, K; Hirose, T
2003-01-01
A Gaussian laser beam propagating in a parabolic plasma channel is discussed in this paper. For a weak laser, plasma density perturbation induced by interaction between the laser field and plasma is very small, the refractive index can be assumed to be constant with respect to time variable. For a parabolic plasma channel, through the static propagation equation, we obtain an analytical solution of the profile function of the Gaussian laser beam for an unmatched case and give the general condition for the matched case. As the laser intensity increases, an effect due to strong laser fields is included. We discuss how to design and select the distribution of plasma density for a certain experiment in which a plasma channel is utilized to guide a laser beam. The number of scattered photons (X-rays) generated through Compton backscattering in a plasma channel is discussed. (author)
Laser propagation and compton scattering in parabolic plasma channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Gaussian laser beam propagating in a parabolic plasma channel is discussed in this paper. For a weak laser, plasma density perturbation induced by interaction between the laser field and plasma is very small, the refractive index can be assumed to be constant with respect to time variable. For a parabolic plasma channel, through the static propagation equation, we obtain an analytical solution of the profile function of the Gaussian laser beam for an unmatched case and give the general condition for the matched case. As the laser intensity increases, an effect due to strong laser fields is included. We discuss how to design and select the distribution of plasma density for a certain experiment in which a plasma channel is utilized to guide a laser beam. The number of scattered photons (X-rays) generated through Compton backscattering in a plasma channel is discussed. (author)
Propagation equation for tight-focusing by a parabolic mirror.
Couairon, A; Kosareva, O G; Panov, N A; Shipilo, D E; Andreeva, V A; Jukna, V; Nesa, F
2015-11-30
Part of the chain in petawatt laser systems may involve extreme focusing conditions for which nonparaxial and vectorial effects have high impact on the propagation of radiation. We investigate the possibility of using propagation equations to simulate numerically the focal spot under these conditions. We derive a unidirectional propagation equation for the Hertz vector, describing linear and nonlinear propagation under situations where nonparaxial diffraction and vectorial effects become significant. By comparing our simulations to the results of vector diffraction integrals in the case of linear tight-focusing by a parabolic mirror, we establish a practical criterion for the critical f -number below which initializing a propagation equation with a parabolic input phase becomes inaccurate. We propose a method to find suitable input conditions for propagation equations beyond this limit. Extreme focusing conditions are shown to be modeled accurately by means of numerical simulations of the unidirectional Hertz-vector propagation equation initialized with suitable input conditions.
Parabolic discounting of monetary rewards by physical effort.
Hartmann, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Tobler, Philippe N; Kaiser, Stefan
2013-11-01
When humans and other animals make decisions in their natural environments prospective rewards have to be weighed against costs. It is well established that increasing costs lead to devaluation or discounting of reward. While our knowledge about discount functions for time and probability costs is quite advanced, little is known about how physical effort discounts reward. In the present study we compared three different models in a binary choice task in which human participants had to squeeze a handgrip to earn monetary rewards: a linear, a hyperbolic, and a parabolic model. On the group as well as the individual level, the concave parabolic model explained most variance of the choice data, thus contrasting with the typical hyperbolic discounting of reward value by delay. Research on effort discounting is not only important to basic science but also holds the potential to quantify aberrant motivational states in neuropsychiatric disorders.
Parabolic-Dish Solar Concentrators of Film on Foam
Barton, Sean A
2009-01-01
Parabolic and spherical mirrors are constructed of aluminized PET polyester film on urethane foam. During construction, the chosen shape of the mirror is created by manipulating the elastic/plastic behavior of the film with air pressure. Foam is then applied to the film and, once hardened, air pressure is removed. At an f-number of 0.68, preliminary models have an optical angular spread of less than 0.25 degrees, a factor of 3.3 smaller than that for a perfectly spherical mirror. The possibility exists for creating large-lightweight mirrors with excellent shape and stiffness. These "film-on-foam" construction techniques may also be applicable to parabolic-trough solar concentrators but do not appear to be suitable for optical imaging applications because of irregularities in the film.
Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems
Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.
1981-01-01
The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.
Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.
2012-04-01
As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.
Galerkin/Runge-Kutta discretizations for parabolic partial differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efficient, high-order Galerkin/Runge-Kutta methods are constructed and analyzed for certain classes of parabolic initial boundary-value problems. In particular, the partial differential equations considered are (1) semilinear, (2) linear with time dependent coefficients, and (3) quasilinear. Optimal-order error estimates are established for each case. Also, for the problems in which the time-stepping equations involve coefficient matrices changing at each time step, a preconditioned iterative technique is used to solve the linear systems only approximately. Nevertheless, the resulting algorithm is shown to preserve the optimal-order convergence rate while using only the order of work required by the base scheme applied to a linear parabolic problem with time-independent coefficients. Furthermore, it is noted that special Runge-Kutta methods allow computations to be performed in parallel so that the final execution time can be reduced to that of a low-order method
Synergies between optical and physical variables in intercepting parabolic targets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José eGómez
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Interception requires precise estimation of time-to-contact (TTC information. A long-standing view posits that all relevant information for extracting TTC is available in the angular variables, which result from the projection of distal objects onto the retina. The different timing models rooted in this tradition have consequently relied on combining visual angle and its rate of expansion in different ways with tau being the most well-known solution for TTC. The generalization of these models to timing parabolic trajectories is not straightforward. For example, these different combinations rely on isotropic expansion and usually assume first-order information only, neglecting acceleration. As a consequence no optical formulations have been put forward so far to specify TTC of parabolic targets with enough accuracy. It is only recently that context-dependent physical variables have been shown to play an important role in TTC estimation. Known physical size and gravity can adequately explain observed data of linear and free-falling trajectories respectively. Yet, a full timing model for specifying parabolic TTC has remained elusive. We here derive two formulations that specify TTC for parabolic ball trajectories. The first specification extends previous models in which known size is combined with thresholding visual angle or its rate of expansion to the case of fly balls. To efficiently use this model, observers need to recover the 3D radial velocity component of the trajectory which conveys the isotropic expansion. The second one uses knowledge of size and gravity combined with ball visual angle and elevation angle. Taking into account the noise due to sensory measurements, we simulate the expected performance of these models in terms of accuracy and precision. While the model that combines expansion information and size knowledge is more efficient during the late trajectory, the second one is shown to be efficient along all the flight.
The maximum of Brownian motion with parabolic drift (Extended abstract)
Janson, Svante; Louchard, Guy; Martin-Löf, Anders
2010-01-01
We study the maximum of a Brownian motion with a parabolic drift; this is a random variable that often occurs as a limit of the maximum of discrete processes whose expectations have a maximum at an interior point. This has some applications in algorithmic and data structures analysis. We give series expansions and integral formulas for the distribution and the first two moments, together with numerical values to high precision.
Inverse Coefficient Problems for Nonlinear Parabolic Differential Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yun Hua OU; Alemdar HASANOV; Zhen Hai LIU
2008-01-01
This paper is devoted to a class of inverse problems for a nonlinear parabolic differential equation.The unknown coefficient of the equation depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients.It is proved that the convergence of solutions for the corresponding direct problems continuously depends on the coefficient convergence.Based on this result the existence of a quasisolution of the inverse problem is obtained in the appropriate class of admissible coefficients.
Real-time optical laboratory solution of parabolic differential equations
Casasent, David; Jackson, James
1988-01-01
An optical laboratory matrix-vector processor is used to solve parabolic differential equations (the transient diffusion equation with two space variables and time) by an explicit algorithm. This includes optical matrix-vector nonbase-2 encoded laboratory data, the combination of nonbase-2 and frequency-multiplexed data on such processors, a high-accuracy optical laboratory solution of a partial differential equation, new data partitioning techniques, and a discussion of a multiprocessor optical matrix-vector architecture.
Abacus models for parabolic quotients of affine Weyl groups
Hanusa, Christopher R H
2011-01-01
We introduce abacus diagrams that describe minimal length coset representatives in affine Weyl groups of types B, C, and D. These abacus diagrams use a realization of the affine Weyl group of type C due to Eriksson to generalize a construction of James for the symmetric group. We also describe several combinatorial models for these parabolic quotients that generalize classical results in affine type A related to core partitions.
Tropospheric Refraction Modeling Using Ray-Tracing and Parabolic Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Pechac
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Refraction phenomena that occur in the lower atmospheresignificantly influence the performance of wireless communicationsystems. This paper provides an overview of corresponding computationalmethods. Basic properties of the lower atmosphere are mentioned.Practical guidelines for radiowave propagation modeling in the loweratmosphere using ray-tracing and parabolic equation methods are given.In addition, a calculation of angle-of-arrival spectra is introducedfor multipath propagation simulations.
Blowup for degenerate and singular parabolic system with nonlocal source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Jun
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We deal with the blowup properties of the solution to the degenerate and singular parabolic system with nonlocal source and homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. The existence of a unique classical nonnegative solution is established and the sufficient conditions for the solution that exists globally or blows up in finite time are obtained. Furthermore, under certain conditions it is proved that the blowup set of the solution is the whole domain.
Clear-Air Propagation Modeling using Parabolic Equation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Kvicera
2003-12-01
Full Text Available Propagation of radio waves under clear-air conditions is affected bythe distribution of atmospheric refractivity between the transmitterand the receiver. The measurement of refractivity was carried out onthe TV Tower Prague to access evolution of a refractivity profile. Inthis paper, the parabolic equation method is used in modelingpropagation of microwaves when using the measured data. This paperbriefly describes the method and shows some practical results ofsimulation of microwave propagation using real vertical profiles ofatmospheric refractivity.
Long term behaviour of singularly perturbed parabolic degenerated equation
Faye, Ibrahima; Seck, Diaraf
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider models for short-term, mean-term and long-term morphodynamics of dunes and megariples. We give an existence and uniqueness result for long term dynamics of dunes. This result is based on a time-space periodic solution existence result for degenerated parabolic equation that we set out. Finally the mean-term and long-term models are homogenized.
A qualitative theory for parabolic problems under dynamical boundary conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
von Bellow Joachim
2000-01-01
Full Text Available For nonlinear parabolic problems in a bounded domain under dynamical boundary conditions, general comparison techniques are established similar to the ones under Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions. In particular, maximum principles and basic a priori estimates are derived, as well as lower and upper solution techniques that lead to functional band type estimates for classical solutions. Finally, attractivity properties of equilibria are discussed that also illustrate the damping effect of the dissipative dynamical boundary condition.
Thermal distortion analysis of a deployable parabolic reflector
Bruck, L. R.; Honeycutt, G. H.
1973-01-01
A thermal distortion analysis of the ATS-6 Satellite parabolic reflector was performed using NASTRAN level 15.1. The same NASTRAN finite element method was used to conduct a one g static load analysis and a dynamic analysis of the reflector. In addition, a parametric study was made to determine which parameters had the greatest effect on the thermal distortions. The method used to model the construction of the reflector is described and the results of the analyses are presented.
A stability analysis for a semilinear parabolic partial differential equation
Chafee, N.
1973-01-01
The parabolic partial differential equation considered is u sub t = u sub xx + f(u), where minus infinity x plus infinity and o t plus infinity. Under suitable hypotheses pertaining to f, a class of initial data is exhibited: phi(x), minus infinity x plus infinity, for which the corresponding solutions u(x,t) appraoch zero as t approaches the limit of plus infinity. This convergence is uniform with respect to x on any compact subinterval of the real axis.
Theoretical analysis of a parabolic torus reflector antenna with multibeam
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杜彪; 杨可忠; 钟顺时
1995-01-01
The parametric equations and the formulas of unit normal vector and surface element for aparabolic torus reflector antenna are derived and the mechanism of producing multibeam is proposed, Based on physical optics, the radiation pattern formulas for the antenna are given, with which the effects of geometric parameters on the antenna are studied. The good agreement between the calculated patterns and the measured ones shows that the theory is helpful for designing parabolic torus antennas.
Synergies between optical and physical variables in intercepting parabolic targets.
Gómez, José; López-Moliner, Joan
2013-01-01
Interception requires precise estimation of time-to-contact (TTC) information. A long-standing view posits that all relevant information for extracting TTC is available in the angular variables, which result from the projection of distal objects onto the retina. The different timing models rooted in this tradition have consequently relied on combining visual angle and its rate of expansion in different ways with tau being the most well-known solution for TTC. The generalization of these models to timing parabolic trajectories is not straightforward. For example, these different combinations rely on isotropic expansion and usually assume first-order information only, neglecting acceleration. As a consequence no optical formulations have been put forward so far to specify TTC of parabolic targets with enough accuracy. It is only recently that context-dependent physical variables have been shown to play an important role in TTC estimation. Known physical size and gravity can adequately explain observed data of linear and free-falling trajectories, respectively. Yet, a full timing model for specifying parabolic TTC has remained elusive. We here derive two formulations that specify TTC for parabolic ball trajectories. The first specification extends previous models in which known size is combined with thresholding visual angle or its rate of expansion to the case of fly balls. To efficiently use this model, observers need to recover the 3D radial velocity component of the trajectory which conveys the isotropic expansion. The second one uses knowledge of size and gravity combined with ball visual angle and elevation angle. Taking into account the noise due to sensory measurements, we simulate the expected performance of these models in terms of accuracy and precision. While the model that combines expansion information and size knowledge is more efficient during the late trajectory, the second one is shown to be efficient along all the flight.
Discontinuous Mixed Covolume Methods for Linear Parabolic Integrodifferential Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ailing Zhu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The semidiscrete and fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for the linear parabolic integrodifferential problems on triangular meshes are proposed. The error analysis of the semidiscrete and fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume scheme is presented and the optimal order error estimate in discontinuous H(div and first-order error estimate in L2 are obtained with the lowest order Raviart-Thomas mixed element space.
Monte Carlo method for solving a parabolic problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Yi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a numerical method based on random sampling for a parabolic problem. This method combines use of the Crank-Nicolson method and Monte Carlo method. In the numerical algorithm, we first discretize governing equations by Crank-Nicolson method, and obtain a large sparse system of linear algebraic equations, then use Monte Carlo method to solve the linear algebraic equations. To illustrate the usefulness of this technique, we apply it to some test problems.
Performance of a blood chemistry analyzer during parabolic flight
Spooner, Brian S.; Claassen, Dale E.; Guikema, James A.
1990-01-01
The performance of the Vision System Blood Analyzer during parabolic flight on a KC-135 aircraft (NASA 930) has been tested. This fully automated instrument performed flawlessly in these trials, demonstrating its potential for efficient, reliable use in a microgravity environment. In addition to instrument capability, it is demonstrated that investigators could readily fill specially modified test packs with fluid during zero gravity, and that filled test packs could be easily loaded into VISION during an episode of microgravity.
Performance of a blood chemistry analyzer during parabolic flight.
Spooner, B S; Claassen, D E; Guikema, J A
1990-01-01
We have tested the performance of the VISION System Blood Analyzer, produced by Abbott Laboratories, during parabolic flight on a KC-135 aircraft (NASA 930). This fully automated instrument performed flawlessly in these trials, demonstrating its potential for efficient, reliable use in a microgravity environment. In addition to instrument capability, we demonstrated that investigators could readily fill specially modified test packs with fluid during zero gravity, and that filled test packs could be easily loaded into VISION during an episode of microgravity.
Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Parabolic Problems
Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we develop a time and its corresponding spatial discretization scheme, based upon the assumption of a certain weak singularity of parallel ut(t) parallel Lz(omega) = parallel ut parallel2, for the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for one-dimensional parabolic problems. Optimal convergence rates in both time and spatial variables are obtained. A discussion of automatic time-step control method is also included.
Analysis of Once-Through Boiler Concepts in Parabolic Troughs
Feldhoff, Jan Fabian
2015-01-01
Solar thermal power plants use collectors to concentrate the sunlight and heat up a fluid to high temperatures. This heat can be used to run a steam turbine and generate electricity. Such plants work similar to conventional steam power plants, with the only difference in replacing the fossil steam Generator by a solar one. The steam can directly be generated within the solar field. This direct steam generation (DSG) process is analyzed in detail for parabolic trough collectors. As in conve...
Photogrammetric Measurements of a 12-metre Preloaded Parabolic Dish Antenna
Shankar, N. Udaya; Duraichelvan, R.; Ateequlla, C. M.; Nayak, Arvind; A.Krishnan; Yogi, M. K. S.; Rao, C. Koteshwar; Vidyasagar, K.; Jain, Rohit; Mathur, Pravesh; Govinda, K. V.; Rajeev, R. B.; Danabalan, T. L.
2009-01-01
A 12-metre Preloaded Parabolic Dish antenna, in which the backup structure is formed by preloading its radial and circumferential members, has been designed, built and commissioned by the Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. This paper reports the first-ever photogrammetric measurements of gravity-induced deformation in the primary reflector of an antenna built using this novel concept of preloading the backup structure. Our experience will be of relevance to radio astronomy and deep space ne...
Local H\\"older continuity for doubly nonlinear parabolic equations
Kuusi, Tuomo; Urbano, José Miguel
2010-01-01
We give a proof of the H\\"older continuity of weak solutions of certain degenerate doubly nonlinear parabolic equations in measure spaces. We only assume the measure to be a doubling non-trivial Borel measure which supports a Poincar\\'e inequality. The proof discriminates between large scales, for which a Harnack inequality is used, and small scales, that require intrinsic scaling methods.
Galerkin/Runge-Kutta discretizations for semilinear parabolic equations
Keeling, Stephen L.
1987-01-01
A new class of fully discrete Galerkin/Runge-Kutta methods is constructed and analyzed for semilinear parabolic initial boundary value problems. Unlike any classical counterpart, this class offers arbitrarily high, optimal order convergence. In support of this claim, error estimates are proved, and computational results are presented. Furthermore, it is noted that special Runge-Kutta methods allow computations to be performed in parallel so that the final execution time can be reduced to that of a low order method.
Parabolic similariton Yb-fiber laser with triangular pulse evolution
Wang, Sijia; Wang, Lei
2016-04-01
We propose a novel mode-locked fiber laser design which features a passive nonlinear triangular pulse formation and self-similar parabolic pulse amplification intra cavity. Attribute to the nonlinear reshaping progress in the passive fiber, a triangular-profiled pulse with negative-chirp is generated and paved the way for rapid and efficient self-similar parabolic evolution in a following short-length high-gain fiber. In the meanwhile, the accompanied significantly compressed narrow spectrum from this passive nonlinear reshaping also gives the promise of pulse stabilization and gain-shaping robustness without strong filtering. The resulting short average intra-cavity pulse duration, low amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and low intra-cavity power loss are essential for the low-noise operation. Simulations predict this modelocked fiber laser allows for high-energy ultra-short transform-limited pulse generation exceeding the gain bandwidth. The output pulse has a de-chirped duration (full-width at half maximum, FWHM) of 27 fs. In addition to the ultrafast laser applications, the proposed fiber laser scheme can support low-noise parabolic and triangular pulse trains at the same time, which are also attractive in optical pulse shaping, all-optical signal processing and high-speed communication applications.
Application of parabolic reflector on Raman analysis of gas samples
Yu, Anlan; Zuo, Duluo; Gao, Jun; Li, Bin; Wang, Xingbing
2016-05-01
Studies on the application of a parabolic reflector in spontaneous Raman scattering for low background Raman analysis of gas samples are reported. As an effective signal enhancing sample cell, photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) or metallined capillary normally result in a strong continuous background in spectra caused by the strong Raman/fluorescence signal from the silica wall and the polymer protective film. In order to obtain enhanced signal with low background, a specially designed sample cell with double-pass and large collecting solid angle constructed by a parabolic reflector and a planar reflector was applied, of which the optical surfaces had been processed by diamond turning and coated by silver film and protective film of high-purity alumina. The influences of optical structure, polarization characteristic, collecting solid-angle and collecting efficiency of the sample cell on light propagation and signal enhancement were studied. A Raman spectrum of ambient air with signal to background ratio of 94 was acquired with an exposure time of 1 sec by an imaging spectrograph. Besides, the 3σ limits of detection (LOD) of 7 ppm for H2, 8 ppm for CO2 and 12 ppm for CO were also obtained. The sample cell mainly based on parabolic reflector will be helpful for compact and high-sensitive Raman system.
Asymptotic analysis of a coupled nonlinear parabolic system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lan QIAO; Sining ZHENG
2008-01-01
This paper deals with asymptotic analysis of a parabolic system with inner absorptions and coupled nonlinear boundary fluxes. Three simultaneous blow-up rates are established under different dominations of nonlinearities, and simply represented in a characteristic algebraic system introduced for the problem. In particular, it is observed that two of the multiple blow-up rates are absorption-related. This is substantially different from those for nonlinear parabolic problems with absorptions in all the previous literature, where the blow-up rates were known as absorption-independent. The results of the paper rely on the scaling method with a complete classification for the nonlinear parameters of the model. The first example of absorption-related blow-up rates was recently proposed by the authors for a coupled parabolic system with mixed type nonlinearities. The present paper shows that the newly observed phenomena of absorption-related blow-up rates should be due to the coupling mechanism, rather than the mixed type nonlinearities.
Humidification dehumidification desalination system using parabolic trough solar air collector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper deals with a detailed thermodynamic analysis to assess the performance of an HDH system with an integrated parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). The HDH system considered is an open air, open water, air heated system that uses a PTSC as an air heater. Two different configurations were considered of the HDH system. In the first configuration, the solar air heater was placed before the humidifier whereas in the second configuration the solar air heater was placed between the humidifier and the dehumidifier. The current study revealed that PTSCs are well suited for air heated HDH systems for high radiation location, such as Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The comparison between the two HDH configurations demonstrates that the gained output ratio (GOR) of the first configuration is, on average, about 1.5 whereas for the second configuration the GOR increases up to an average value of 4.7. The study demonstrates that the HDH configuration with the air heater placed between the humidifier and the dehumidifier has a better performance and a higher productivity. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of an HDH system driven by a parabolic trough solar collector was conducted. • The first configuration reveals a GOR of 1.5 while the second configuration reveals a GOR of 4.7. • Effective heating of the HDH system was obtained through parabolic trough solar collector
Convergence of shock waves between conical and parabolic boundaries
Yanuka, D.; Zinowits, H. E.; Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.
2016-07-01
Convergence of shock waves, generated by underwater electrical explosions of cylindrical wire arrays, between either parabolic or conical bounding walls is investigated. A high-current pulse with a peak of ˜550 kA and rise time of ˜300 ns was applied for the wire array explosion. Strong self-emission from an optical fiber placed at the origin of the implosion was used for estimating the time of flight of the shock wave. 2D hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper showed that the pressure obtained in the vicinity of the implosion is ˜7 times higher in the case of parabolic walls. However, comparison with a spherical wire array explosion showed that the pressure in the implosion vicinity in that case is higher than the pressure in the current experiment with parabolic bounding walls because of strong shock wave reflections from the walls. It is shown that this drawback of the bounding walls can be significantly minimized by optimization of the wire array geometry.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Li; XIE Hong-Jing
2004-01-01
Within the framework of compact density matrix approach and iterative procedure, a detailed procedure for the calculation of the second-harmonic generation (SHG)susceptibility tensor is given in the electric-field-biased parabolic and semi-parabolic quantum wells (QWs). The simple analytical formula for the SHG susceptibility in the systems is also deduced. Numerical results on typical AlGaAs/GaAs materials show that, for the same effective width,the SHG susceptibility in semi-parabolic QW is larger than that in parabolic QW due to the self-asymmetry of the semiparabolic QW, and the applied electric field can make the SHG susceptibilities in both systems enhance remarkably.Moreover, the SHG susceptibility is also related to the parabolic confinement frequency and the relaxation rate of the systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop
Numerical simulations for parabolic pulse shaping in non-linear media
Nora, R. C.; Durfee, C. G.; Carr, L. D.
2007-03-01
Pulses with parabolic temporal profiles have the property that they can propagate through non-linear media in a self similar manner. Parabolic pulses have been generated experimentally in fiber amplifiers. Input pulses develop into parabolic pulses by the combined action of group velocity dispersion, non-linear refractive index, and gain. In this work, we are exploring the feasibility of generating ultrafast parabolic pulses in laser resonators. We have successfully numerically simulated the generation of parabolic pulses in fiber amplifiers using two different algorithms, the Cayley method, and fourth order Runge-Kutta, to solve the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation with gain and periodic boundary conditions. In contrast to fiber amplifiers, pulses in laser resonators must maintain a stable pulse shape on each round trip through the optical cavity. We are exploring the prediction that a time dependent saturable gain will stabilize the pulse in the oscillator and yield parabolic pulses.
Periodic-parabolic eigenvalue problems with a large parameter and degeneration
Daners, Daniel; Thornett, Christopher
2016-07-01
We consider a periodic-parabolic eigenvalue problem with a non-negative potential λm vanishing on a non-cylindrical domain Dm satisfying conditions similar to those for the parabolic maximum principle. We show that the limit as λ → ∞ leads to a periodic-parabolic problem on Dm having a periodic-parabolic principal eigenvalue and eigenfunction which are unique in some sense. We substantially improve a result from [Du and Peng, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 364 (2012), p. 6039-6070]. At the same time we offer a different approach based on a periodic-parabolic initial boundary value problem. The results are motivated by an analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of positive solutions to semilinear logistic periodic-parabolic problems with temporal and spacial degeneracies.
Identification of Plasmonic Modes in Parabolic Cylinder Geometry by Quasi-Separation of Variables
KURIHARA, Kazuyoshi; Otomo, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; TAKAHARA, Junichi; Tani, Masahiko; Kuwashima, Fumiyoshi
2014-01-01
This paper describes the plasmonic modes in the parabolic cylinder geometry as a theoretical complement to the previous paper (J Phys A 42:185401) that considered the modes in the circular paraboloidal geometry. In order to identify the plasmonic modes in the parabolic cylinder geometry, analytic solutions for surface plasmon polaritons are examined by solving the wave equation for the magnetic field in parabolic cylindrical coordinates using quasi-separation of variables in combination with ...
Asymptotic Properties of Solutions of Parabolic Equations Arising from Transient Diffusions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A.M. Il'in; R.Z. Khasminskii; G. Yin
2002-01-01
This work is concerned with asymptotic properties of a class of parabolic systems arising from singularly perturbed diffusions. The underlying system has a fast varying component and a slowly changing component. One of the distinct features is that the fast varying diffusion is transient. Under such a setup, this paper presents an asymptotic analysis of the solutions of such parabolic equations. Asymptotic expansions of functional satisfying the parabolic system are obtained. Error bounds are derived.
A cell complex structure for the space of heteroclines for a semilinear parabolic equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Robinson
2009-01-01
Full Text Available It is well known that for many semilinear parabolic equations there is a global attractor which has a cell complex structure with finite dimensional cells. Additionally, many semilinear parabolic equations have equilibria with finite dimensional unstable manifolds. In this article, these results are unified to show that for a specific parabolic equation on an unbounded domain, the space of heteroclinic orbits has a cell complex structure with finite dimensional cells. The result depends crucially on the choice of spatial dimension and the degree of the nonlinearity in the parabolic equation, and thereby requires some delicate treatment.
Computer aided FEA simulation of EN45A parabolic leaf spring
Krishan Kumar; Aggarwal, M.L.
2013-01-01
This paper describes computer aided finite element analysis of parabolic leaf spring. The present work is an improvement in design of EN45A parabolic leaf spring used by a light commercial automotive vehicle. Development of a leaf spring is a long process which requires lots of test to validate the design and manufacturing variables. A three-layer parabolic leaf spring of EN45A has been taken for this work. The thickness of leaves varies from center to the outer side following a parabolic pat...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kola Jegede; Yongjung J Kim; Zaomin Zheng; Gene Cheh; Samuel Cho; Sally Pak
2014-01-01
Study design A retrospective comparative study. Objective To assess the efifcacy and safety of posterior only pedicle screw construct ( POPS ) for the treatment of scoliotic curves>90 degrees using radiographic outcomes and various clinical outcomes. Summary of Background Data A paucity of data exists regarding standardized surgical options for severe scoliotic curvatures > 90°. Perioperative traction or staged anterior and posterior operations were the traditional surgical options. Methods A total of 40 consecutive scoliosis patients with curves>90° ( average 111.4°;range 91°-175° ) with an ( average follow-up of 31 months;range 6-60 months ) who underwent spinal instrumented fusion with posterior only pedicle screw constructs performed by a single surgeon were analyzed. Diagnoses included idiopathic scoliosis ( n=27 ), congenital ( n=9 ), neuromuscular ( n=3 ), and syndromic ( n=1 ). In total, 25 patients were treated with posterior only pedicle screw constructs with multiple Ponte ostotomies while the other 15 patients with posterior vertebral column resection. Radiographic examinations and complications were analyzed. Results Radiographic outcomes demonstrated an average major curve correction of 49%and 47%at eight weeks post operation and final follow-up respectively ( P90 degree can be managed successfully by posterior only pedicle screw construct ( POPS ). POPS avoids the need for anterior surgical procedures or perioperative traction while achieving acceptable correction safely without signiifcant complication.%研究设计回顾性比较研究。目的评估单纯后路椎弓根螺钉内固定治疗侧凸角度＞90°的重度脊柱畸形的疗效和安全性。研究背景对于侧凸角度＞90°的重度脊柱畸形的标准手术方式仍存争议，传统术式包括围手术期牵引辅助和分期前后路联合手术。方法回顾性分析由同一术者采取单纯后路椎弓根螺钉内固定治疗的40例侧凸角度＞90°的重度脊
Processing of data from innovative parabolic strip telescope.
Kosejk, Vladislav; Novy, J.; Chadzitaskos, Goce
2015-12-01
This paper presents an innovative telescope design based on the usage of a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Isaac Newton was the first to solve the problem of chromatic aberration, which is caused by a difference in the refractive index of lenses. This problem was solved by a new kind of telescope with a mirror used as an objective. There are many different kinds of telescopes. The most basic one is the lens telescope. This type of a telescope uses a set of lenses. Another type is the mirror telescope, which employs the concave mirror, spherical parabolic mirror or hyperbolically shaped mirror as its objective. The lens speed depends directly on the surface of a mirror. Both types can be combined to form a telescope composed of at least two mirrors and a set of lenses. The light is reflected from the primary mirror to the secondary one and then to the lens system. This type is smaller-sized, with a respectively reduced lens speed. The telescope design presented in this paper uses a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Observed objects are projected as lines in a picture plane. Each of the lines of a size equal to the size of the strip corresponds to the sum of intensities of the light coming perpendicular to the objective from an observed object. A series of pictures taken with a different rotation and processed by a special reconstruction algorithm is needed to get 2D pictures. The telescope can also be used for fast detection of objects. In this mode, the rotation and multiple pictures are not needed, just one picture in the focus of a mirror is required to be taken.
Error Analysis for Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Parabolic Problems
Kaneko, Hideaki
2004-01-01
In the proposal, the following three objectives are stated: (1) A p-version of the discontinuous Galerkin method for a one dimensional parabolic problem will be established. It should be recalled that the h-version in space was used for the discontinuous Galerkin method. An a priori error estimate as well as a posteriori estimate of this p-finite element discontinuous Galerkin method will be given. (2) The parameter alpha that describes the behavior double vertical line u(sub t)(t) double vertical line 2 was computed exactly. This was made feasible because of the explicitly specified initial condition. For practical heat transfer problems, the initial condition may have to be approximated. Also, if the parabolic problem is proposed on a multi-dimensional region, the parameter alpha, for most cases, would be difficult to compute exactly even in the case that the initial condition is known exactly. The second objective of this proposed research is to establish a method to estimate this parameter. This will be done by computing two discontinuous Galerkin approximate solutions at two different time steps starting from the initial time and use them to derive alpha. (3) The third objective is to consider the heat transfer problem over a two dimensional thin plate. The technique developed by Vogelius and Babuska will be used to establish a discontinuous Galerkin method in which the p-element will be used for through thickness approximation. This h-p finite element approach, that results in a dimensional reduction method, was used for elliptic problems, but the application appears new for the parabolic problem. The dimension reduction method will be discussed together with the time discretization method.
HOMOGENIZATION OF SEMILINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS IN PERFORATED DOMAINS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
P.DONATO; A. NABIL
2004-01-01
This paper is devoted to the homogenization of a semilinear parabolic equation with rapidly oscillating coefficients in a domain periodically perforated by e-periodic holes of size ε. A Neumann condition is prescribed on the boundary of the holes.The presence of the holes does not allow to prove a compactness of the solutions in L2. To overcome this difficulty, the authors introduce a suitable auxiliary linear problem to which a corrector result is applied. Then, the asymptotic behaviour of the semilinear problem as e → 0 is described, and the limit equation is given.
Properties of positive solutions to a nonlinear parabolic problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hui-ling LI; Ming-xin WANG
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the properties of positive solutions to a quasilinear parabolic equation with the nonlinear absorption and the boundary flux. The necessary and sufficient conditions on the global existence of solutions are described in terms of different parameters appearing in this problem. Moreover, by a result of Chasseign and Vázquez and the comparison principle, we deduce that the blow-up occurs only on the boundary (б)Ω. In addition, for a bounded Lipschitz domain Ω, we establish the blow-up rate estimates for the positive solution to this problem with a = 0.
The parabolic Anderson model and long-range percolation
Erhard, Dirk
2014-01-01
This thesis has two parts. The first part deals with the parabolic Anderson model, which is a stochastic differential equation. It models the evolution of a field of particles performing independent simple random walks with binary branching. The focus of this work is on the exponential growth rate of the solution, where several basic properties are derived. The second part deals with two long-range percolation models. The occupied set of the first model is obtained by taking the union of a co...
ON A PARABOLIC FREE BOUNDARY EQUATION MODELING PRICE FORMATION
MARKOWICH, P. A.
2009-10-01
We discuss existence and uniqueness of solutions for a one-dimensional parabolic evolution equation with a free boundary. This problem was introduced by Lasry and Lions as description of the dynamical formation of the price of a trading good. Short time existence and uniqueness is established by a contraction argument. Then we discuss the issue of global-in-time-extension of the local solution which is closely related to the regularity of the free boundary. We also present numerical results. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.
H-Optimal Control in Coefficients for Dirichlet Parabolic Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. G. Balanenko
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper the Dirichlet optimal control problem associated with a linear parabolic equation the coefficients of which we take as controls in L1(Ω has been studied. Since equations of this type can exhibit the Lavrentieff phenomenon and non-uniqueness of weak solutions, it is shown that the optimal control problem in the coefficients can be stated in different settings depending on the choice of the class of admissible solutions. Using the direct method in the Calculus of Variations, the solvability of the above optimal control problems in the so-called class of inadmissible solutions has been discussed.
Increasing Powers in a Degenerate Parabolic Logistic Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
José Francisco RODRIGUES; Hugo TAVARES
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of the positive solutions of the problem (O)tu-△u =au-b(x)up inΩ×R+,u(0)=u0,u(t)│(o)Ω =0,as p → +∞,where Ω is a bounded domain,and b(x) is a nonnegative function.The authors deduce that the limiting configuration solves a parabolic obstacle problem,and afterwards fully describe its long time behavior.
A solution to parabolic system with the fractional Laplacian
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Lin; FANG Dao-yuan
2009-01-01
The existence of a solution to the parabolic system with the fractional Laplacian(-Δ) a/2,α＞ 0 is proven, this solution decays at different rates along different time sequences going to infinity. As an application, the existence of a solution to the generalized Navier-Stokes equations is proven, which decays at different rates along different time sequences going to infinity. The generalized Navier-Stokes equations are the equations resulting from replacing -Δin the Navier-Stokes equations by (-Δ)m, m＞0. At last, a similar result for 3-D incompressible anisotropic Navier-Stokes system is obtained.
Invariant sets for discontinuous parabolic area-preserving torus maps
Ashwin, P; Nishikawa, T; Zyczkowski, K; Ashwin, Peter; Fu, Xin-Chu; Nishikawa, Takashi; Zyczkowski, Karol
1999-01-01
We analyze a class of piecewise linear parabolic maps on the torus, namely those obtained by considering a linear map with double eigenvalue one and taking modulo one in both components. We show that within this two parameter family of maps, the set of noninvertible maps is open and dense. For certain cases (where the entries in the matrix are rational) we show that the maximal invariant set has positive Lebesgue measure and give bounds on the measure. For certain examples we find expressions for the measure of the invariant set.
THE SPACE-TIME FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR PARABOLIC PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李宏; 刘儒勋
2001-01-01
Adaptive space-time finite element method, continuous in space but discontinuous in time for semi-linear parabolic problems is discussed. The approach is based on a combination of finite element and finite difference techniques. The existence and uniqueness of the weak solution are proved without any assumptions on choice of the spacetime meshes. Basic error estimates in L∞ (L2) norm, that is maximum-norm in time, L2norm in space are obtained. The numerical results are given in the last part and the analysis between theoretic and experimental results are obtained.
Analyzing Parabolic Profile Path for Underwater Towed-Cable
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Vineet KSrivastava
2014-01-01
This article discusses the dynamic state analysis of underwater towed-cable when tow-ship changes its speed in a direction making parabolic profile path. A three-dimensional model of underwater towed system is studied. The established governing equations for the system have been solved using the central implicit finite-difference method. The obtained difference non-linear coupled equations are solved by Newton’s method and satisfactory results were achieved. The solution of this problem has practical importance in the estimation of dynamic loading and motion, and hence it is directly applicable to the enhancement of safety and the effectiveness of the offshore activities.
Approximate Solutions of Delay Parabolic Equations with the Dirichlet Condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deniz Agirseven
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Finite difference and homotopy analysis methods are used for the approximate solution of the initial-boundary value problem for the delay parabolic partial differential equation with the Dirichlet condition. The convergence estimates for the solution of first and second orders of difference schemes in Hölder norms are obtained. A procedure of modified Gauss elimination method is used for the solution of these difference schemes. Homotopy analysis method is applied. Comparison of finite difference and homotopy analysis methods is given on the problem.
Space-time isogeometric analysis of parabolic evolution problems
Langer, Ulrich; Moore, Stephen E.; Neumüller, Martin
2016-07-01
We present and analyze a new stable space-time Isogeometric Analysis (IgA) method for the numerical solution of parabolic evolution equations in fixed and moving spatial computational domains. The discrete bilinear form is elliptic on the IgA space with respect to a discrete energy norm. This property together with a corresponding boundedness property, consistency and approximation results for the IgA spaces yields an a priori discretization error estimate with respect to the discrete norm. The theoretical results are confirmed by several numerical experiments with low- and high-order IgA spaces.
Properties of positive solutions to a nonlinear parabolic problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the properties of positive solutions to a quasilinear parabolic equation with the nonlinear absorption and the boundary flux. The necessary and sufficient conditions on the global existence of solutions are described in terms of different parameters appearing in this problem. Moreover, by a result of Chasseign and Vazquez and the comparison principle, we deduce that the blow-up occurs only on the boundary (?)Ω. In addition, for a bounded Lipschitz domainΩ, we establish the blow-up rate estimates for the positive solution to this problem with a= 0.
Limits of Femtosecond Fiber Amplification by Parabolic Pre-Shaping
Fu, Walter; McComb, Timothy S; Lowder, Tyson L; Wise, Frank W
2016-01-01
We explore parabolic pre-shaping as a means of generating and amplifying ultrashort pulses. We develop a theoretical framework for modeling the technique and use its conclusions to design a femtosecond fiber amplifier. Starting from 9 ps pulses, we obtain 4.3 $\\mu$J, nearly transform-limited pulses 275 fs in duration, simultaneously achieving over 40 dB gain and 33-fold compression. Finally, we show that this amplification scheme is limited by Raman scattering, and outline a method by which the pulse duration and energy may be further improved and tailored for a given application.
GENERALIZED DERIVATIONS ON PARABOLIC SUBALGEBRAS OF GENERAL LINEAR LIE ALGEBRAS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈正新
2014-01-01
Let P be a parabolic subalgebra of a general linear Lie algebra gl(n, F) over a field F, where n ≥ 3, F contains at least n different elements, and char(F) 6= 2. In this article, we prove that generalized derivations, quasiderivations, and product zero derivations of P coincide, and any generalized derivation of P is a sum of an inner derivation, a central quasiderivation, and a scalar multiplication map of P. We also show that any commuting automorphism of P is a central automorphism, and any commuting derivation of P is a central derivation.
A compound parabolic concentrator as an ultracold neutron spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hickerson, K.P., E-mail: hickerson@gmail.com; Filippone, B.W., E-mail: bradf@caltech.edu
2013-09-01
The design principles of nonimaging optics are applied to ultracold neutrons (UCN). In particular a vertical compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that efficiently redirects UCN vertically into a bounded spatial volume where they have a maximum energy mga that depends only on the initial phase space cross sectional area πa{sup 2} creates a spectrometer which can be applied to neutron lifetime and gravitational quantum state experiments. -- Highlights: • Nonimaging optics is applied to ultracold neutrons. • A novel ultracold neutron spectrometer is discussed. • New uses may include a neutron lifetime experiment.
Filter regularization for an inverse parabolic problem in several variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Huy Tuan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The backward heat problem is known to be ill possed, which has lead to the design of several regularization methods. In this article we apply the method of filtering out the high frequencies from the data for a parabolic equation. First we identify two properties that if satisfied they imply the convergence of the approximate solution to the exact solution. Then we provide examples of filters that satisfy the two properties, and error estimates for their approximate solutions. We also provide numerical experiments to illustrate our results.
Piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for gas-dynamical simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the piecewise parabolic method, a higher-order extension of of Godunov's method. There are several new features of this method which distinguish it from other higher-order Godunov-type methods. We use a higher-order spatial interpolation than previously used, which allows for a steeper representation of discontinuities, particularly contact discontinuities. We introduce a simpler and more robust algorithm for calculating the nonlinear wave interactions used to compute fluxes. Finally, we recognize the need for additional dissipation in any higher-order Godunov method of this type, and introduce it in such a way so as not to degrade the quality of the results
Piecewise parabolic methdo (PPM) for gas-dynamical simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the piecewise parabolic method, a higher-order extension of of Godunov's method. There are several new features of this method which distinguish it from other higher-order Godunov-type methods. We use a higher-order spatial interpolation than previously used, which allows for a steeper representation of discontinuities, particularly contact discontinuities. We introduce a simpler and more robust algorithm for calculating the nonlinear wave interactions used to compute fluxes. Finally, we recognize the need for additional dissipation in any higher-order Godunov method of this type, and introduce it in such a way so as not to degrade the quality of the results
Piecewise-parabolic methods for astrophysical fluid dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woodward, P.R.
1983-11-01
A general description of some modern numerical techniques for the simulation of astrophysical fluid flow is presented. The methods are introduced with a thorough discussion of the especially simple case of advection. Attention is focused on the piecewise-parabolic method (PPM). A description of the SLIC method for treating multifluid problems is also given. The discussion is illustrated by a number of advection and hydrodynamics test problems. Finally, a study of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of supersonic jets using PPM with SLIC fluid interfaces is presented.
Piecewise-parabolic methods for astrophysical fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general description of some modern numerical techniques for the simulation of astrophysical fluid flow is presented. The methods are introduced with a thorough discussion of the especially simple case of advection. Attention is focused on the piecewise-parabolic method (PPM). A description of the SLIC method for treating multifluid problems is also given. The discussion is illustrated by a number of advection and hydrodynamics test problems. Finally, a study of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of supersonic jets using PPM with SLIC fluid interfaces is presented
Runge-Kutta methods for parabolic equations and convolution quadrature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the approximation properties of Runge-Kutta time discretizations of linear and semilinear parabolic equations, including incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We derive asymptotically sharp error bounds and relate the temporal order of convergence, which is generally noninteger, to spatial regularity and the type of boundary conditions. The analysis relies on an interpretation of Runge-Kutta methods as convolution quadratures. In a different context, these can be used as efficient computational methods for the approximation of convolution integrals and integral equations. They use the Laplace transform of the confolution kernal via a discrete operational calculus. 23 refs., 2 tabs
Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03 kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8 without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.
ACCELERATION METHODS OF NONLINEAR ITERATION FOR NONLINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guang-wei Yuan; Xu-deng Hang
2006-01-01
This paper discusses the accelerating iterative methods for solving the implicit scheme of nonlinear parabolic equations. Two new nonlinear iterative methods named by the implicit-explicit quasi-Newton (IEQN) method and the derivative free implicit-explicit quasi-Newton (DFIEQN) method are introduced, in which the resulting linear equations from the linearization can preserve the parabolic characteristics of the original partial differential equations. It is proved that the iterative sequence of the iteration method can converge to the solution of the implicit scheme quadratically. Moreover, compared with the Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method, the DFIEQN method has some advantages, e.g., its implementation is easy, and it gives a linear algebraic system with an explicit coefficient matrix, so that the linear (inner) iteration is not restricted to the Krylov method. Computational results by the IEQN, DFIEQN, JFNK and Picard iteration meth-ods are presented in confirmation of the theory and comparison of the performance of these methods.
Parabolic starlike mappings of the unit ball $B^n$
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samira Rahrovi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Let $f$ be a locally univalent function on the unit disk $U$. We consider the normalized extensions of $f$ to the Euclidean unit ball $B^nsubseteqmathbb{C}^n$ given by$$Phi_{n,gamma}(f(z=left(f(z_1,(f'(z_1^gammahat{z}right,$$ where $gammain[0,1/2]$, $z=(z_1,hat{z}in B^n$ and$$Psi_{n,beta}(f(z=left(f(z_1,(frac{f(z_1}{z_1}^betahat{z}right,$$in which $betain[0,1]$, $f(z_1neq 0$ and $z=(z_1,hat{z}inB^n$. In the case $gamma=1/2$, the function $Phi_{n,gamma}(f$ reduces to the well known Roper-Suffridge extension operator. By using different methods, we prove that if $f$ is parabolic starlike mapping on $U$ then $Phi_{n,gamma}(f$ and $Psi_{n,beta}(f$ are parabolic starlike mappings on $B^n$.
Performance analysis of a novel rotationally asymmetrical compound parabolic concentrator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • A novel rotationally asymmetrical compound parabolic concentrator is presented. • The electrical and optical performances are investigated. • It increases the maximum power output by 3.33× and the short circuit current by 3.01×. • The RACPC is an attractive alternative design for the BICPV systems. - Abstract: The low-concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) system has been identified as one of the potential solutions in lowering the overall installation cost of a building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system. This paper evaluates the performance of a novel type of LCPV concentrator known as the rotationally asymmetrical compound parabolic concentrator (RACPC). A specific RACPC design with a geometrical concentration ratio of 3.6675× was fabricated and integrated with a 1 cm by 1 cm monocrystalline laser grooved buried contact silicon solar cell. This design was tested indoors to evaluate its current–voltage (I–V), angular response and thermal characteristics. Under standard test conditions, it was found that the RACPC increases the short circuit current by 3.01× and the maximum power by 3.33× when compared with a bare solar cell. The opto-electronic gain from the experiment showed good agreement when compared with the simulation results, with a deviation of 11%
A quasi-linear parabolic system of chemotaxis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a quasi-linear parabolic system with respect to unknown functions u and v on a bounded domain of n -dimensional Euclidean space. We assume that the diffusion coefficient of u is a positive smooth function A ( u , and that the diffusion coefficient of v is a positive constant. If A ( u is a positive constant, the system is referred to as so-called Keller-Segel system. In the case where the domain is a bounded domain of two-dimensional Euclidean space, it is shown that some solutions to Keller-Segel system blow up in finite time. In three and more dimensional cases, it is shown that solutions to so-called Nagai system blow up in finite time. Nagai system is introduced by Nagai. The diffusion coefficients of Nagai system are positive constants. In this paper, we describe that solutions to the quasi-linear parabolic system exist globally in time, if the positive function A ( u rapidly increases with respect to u .
Optical properties of Dirac electrons in a parabolic well.
Kim, S C; Lee, J W; Yang, S-R Eric
2013-09-01
A single electron transitor may be fabricated using qunatum dots. A good model for the confinement potential of a quantum dot is a parabolic well. Here we consider such a parabolic dot made of graphene. Recently, we found counter intuitively that resonant quasi-boundstates of both positive and negative energies exist in the energy spectrum. The presence of resonant quasi-boundstates of negative energies is a unique property of massless Dirac fermions. As magnetic field B gets smaller the energy width of these states become broader and for sufficiently weak value of B resonant quasi-bound states disappear into a quasi-continuum. In the limit of small B resonant and nonresonant states transform into discrete anomalous states with a narrow probability density peak inside the well and another broad peak under the potential barrier. In this paper we compute the optical strength between resonant quasi-bound states as a function of B, and investigate how the signature of resonant quasi-bound states of Dirac electrons may appear in optical measurements.
Some Ergodic Theorems for a Parabolic Anderson Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yong LIU; Feng Xia YANG
2012-01-01
In this paper,we study some ergodic theorems of a class of linear systems of interacting diffusions,which is a parabolic Anderson model.First,under the assumption that the transition kernel a =(a(i,j))i,j∈s is doubly stochastic,we obtain the long-time convergence to an invariant probability measure Vh starting from a bounded a-harmonic function h based on self-duality property,and then we show the convergence to the invariant probability measure vh holds for a broad class of initial distributions.Second,if (a(i,j))i,j∈s is transient and symmetric,and the diffusion parameter c remains below a threshold,we are able to determine the set of extremal invariant probability measures with finite second moment.Finally,in the case that the transition kernel (a(i,j))i,j∈s is doubly stochastic and satisfies Case Ⅰ (see Case Ⅰ in [Shiga,T.:An interacting system in population genetics.J.Math.Kyoto Univ.,20,213-242 (1980)]),we show that this parabolic Anderson model locally dies out independent of the diffusion parameter c.
Thermal and optical efficiency investigation of a parabolic trough collector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Tzivanidis
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Solar energy utilization is a promising Renewable Energy source for covering a variety of energy needs of our society. This study presents the most well-known solar concentrating system, the parabolic trough collector, which is operating efficiently in high temperatures. The simulation tool of this analysis is the commercial software Solidworks which simulates complicated problems with an easy way using the finite elements method. A small parabolic trough collector model is designed and simulated for different operating conditions. The goal of this study is to predict the efficiency of this model and to analyze the heat transfer phenomena that take place. The efficiency curve is compared to a one dimensional numerical model in order to make a simple validation. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the absorber and inside the tube is presented while the heat flux distribution in the outer surface of the absorber is given. The heat convection coefficient inside the tube is calculated and compared with the theoretical one according to the literature. Also the angle efficiency modifier is calculated in order to predict the thermal and optical efficiency for different operating conditions. The final results show that the PTC model performs efficiently and all the calculations are validated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In this paper,we investigate the Legendre Galerkin spectral approximation of quadratic optimal control problems governed by parabolic equations.A spectral approximation scheme for the parabolic optimal control problem is presented.We obtain a posteriori error estimates of the approximated solutions for both the state and the control.
Kamel, Osman M.; Ammar, M. K.
2006-12-01
Firstly we derive Gauss' perturbation equation for parabolic motion using Murray-Dermott and Kovalevsky procedures. Secondly, we easily deduce the variations of the orbital elements for the parabolic trajectories due to a small impulse at any point along the path and at the vertex of the parabola.
Computing the real parabolic cylinder functions U(a,x), V(a,x)
Gil, A.; Segura, J.; Temme, N.M.
2006-01-01
Methods for the computation of real parabolic cylinder functions U(a,x) and V(a,x) and their derivatives are described. We give details on power series, asymptotic series, recursion and quadrature. A combination of these methods can be used for computing parabolic cylinder functions for unrestricted
Non-Parabolic Hydrodynamic Formulations for the Simulation of Inhomogeneous Semiconductor Devices
Smith, A. W.; Brennan, K. F.
1996-01-01
Hydrodynamic models are becoming prevalent design tools for small scale devices and other devices in which high energy effects can dominate transport. Most current hydrodynamic models use a parabolic band approximation to obtain fairly simple conservation equations. Interest in accounting for band structure effects in hydrodynamic device simulation has begun to grow since parabolic models cannot fully describe the transport in state of the art devices due to the distribution populating non-parabolic states within the band. This paper presents two different non-parabolic formulations or the hydrodynamic model suitable for the simulation of inhomogeneous semiconductor devices. The first formulation uses the Kane dispersion relationship ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = W(1 + alphaW). The second formulation makes use of a power law ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = xW(exp y)) for the dispersion relation. Hydrodynamic models which use the first formulation rely on the binomial expansion to obtain moment equations with closed form coefficients. This limits the energy range over which the model is valid. The power law formulation readily produces closed form coefficients similar to those obtained using the parabolic band approximation. However, the fitting parameters (x,y) are only valid over a limited energy range. The physical significance of the band non-parabolicity is discussed as well as the advantages/disadvantages and approximations of the two non-parabolic models. A companion paper describes device simulations based on the three dispersion relationships; parabolic, Kane dispersion and power law dispersion.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The present paper deals with the long-time behavior of a class of nonautonomous retarded semilinear parabolic differential equations. When the time delays are small enough and the spectral gap conditions hold, the inertial manifolds of the nonautonomous retard parabolic equations are constructed by using the Lyapunov-Perron method.
Difference schemes with intrinsic parallelism for quasi-linear parabolic systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周毓麟
1997-01-01
The boundary value problem for quasi-linear parabolic system is solved by the finite difference method with intrinsic parallelism The existence and uniqueness and convergence theorems of the discrete vector solu tions of the nonlinear difference system with intrinsic parallelism are proved The limiting vector function is just the unique generalized solution of the original problem for the parabolic system
H(o)lder Continuity of Weak Solutions for Parabolic Equations with Nonstandard Growth Conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meng XU; Ya Zhe CHEN
2006-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the interior regularity including the local boundedness and the interior H(o)lder continuity of weak solutions for parabolic equations of the p(x,t)-Laplacian type. We improve the Moser iteration technique and generalize the known results for the elliptic problem to the corresponding parabolic problem.
Tapering of Polymer Optical Fibers for Compound Parabolic Concentrator Fiber Tip Fabrication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Nielsen, Kristian;
2015-01-01
We propose a process for Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) Compound Parabolic Compound (CPC) tip manufacturing using a heat and pull fiber tapering technique. The POF, locally heated above its glass transition temperature, is parabolically tapered down in diameter, after which it is cut to the desired...
Some integral representations and limits for (products of) the parabolic cylinder function
D. Veestraeten
2015-01-01
Veestraeten [1] recently derived inverse Laplace transforms for Laplace transforms that contain products of two parabolic cylinder functions by exploiting the link between the parabolic cylinder function and the transition density and distribution functions of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. This pa
A comparison principle for singular parabolic equations in the Heisenberg group
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo Ochoa
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In this work, we prove a comparison principle for singular parabolic equations with boundary conditions in the context of the Heisenberg group. In particular, this result applies to interesting equations, such as the parabolic infinite Laplacian, the mean curvature flow equation and more general homogeneous diffusions.
A Two-Species Cooperative Lotka-Volterra System of Degenerate Parabolic Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiebao Sun
2011-01-01
parabolic equations. We are interested in the coexistence of the species in a bounded domain. We establish the existence of global generalized solutions of the initial boundary value problem by means of parabolic regularization and also consider the existence of the nontrivial time-periodic solution for this system.
Higher-order effects on self-similar parabolic pulse in the microstructured fibre amplifier
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Wei-Ci; Xu Wen-Cheng; Feng Jie; Chen Wei-Cheng; Li Shu-Xian; Lin Song-Hao
2008-01-01
By considering higher-order effects, the properties of self-similar parabolic pulses propagating in the microstructured fibre amplifier with a normal group-velocity dispersion have been investigated. The numerical results indicate that the higher-order effects can badly distort self-similar parabolic pulse shape and optical spectrum, and at the same time the peak shift and oscillation appear, while the pulse still reveals highly linear chirp but grows into asymmetry. The influence of different higher-order effects on self-similar parabolic pulse propagation has been analysed. It shows thatthe self-steepening plays a more important role. We can manipulate the geometrical parameters of the microstructured fibre amplifier to gain a suitable dispersion and nonlinearity coefficient which will keep high-quality self-similar parabolic pulse propagation. These results are significant for the further study of self-similar parabolic pulse propagation.
Adaptive distributed parameter and input estimation in linear parabolic PDEs
Mechhoud, Sarra
2016-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the on-line estimation of distributed source term, diffusion, and reaction coefficients of a linear parabolic partial differential equation using both distributed and interior-point measurements. First, new sufficient identifiability conditions of the input and the parameter simultaneous estimation are stated. Then, by means of Lyapunov-based design, an adaptive estimator is derived in the infinite-dimensional framework. It consists of a state observer and gradient-based parameter and input adaptation laws. The parameter convergence depends on the plant signal richness assumption, whereas the state convergence is established using a Lyapunov approach. The results of the paper are illustrated by simulation on tokamak plasma heat transport model using simulated data.
Properties of Unsymmetrical Parabolic Confinement Potential Quantum Dot Qubit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Shi-Hua; XIAO Jing-Lin
2008-01-01
On the condition of electric-LO phonon strong coupling in unsymmetrical parabolic confinement potential quantum dot (QD), we obtain the eigenenergies of the ground state and the first-excited state, the eigenfunctions of the ground state, and the first-excited state by using variational method of Pekar type. This system in QD may be employed as a two-level quantum system-qubit. When the electron is in the superposition state of the ground state and the first-excited state, we obtain the time evolution of the electron density. The relations both the probability density of electron and the period of oscillation with the electron-LO-phonon coupling strength, the confinement strengths in the xy-plane and the z-direction are discussed.
Bilinear reduced order approximate model of parabolic distributed solar collectors
Elmetennani, Shahrazed
2015-07-01
This paper proposes a novel, low dimensional and accurate approximate model for the distributed parabolic solar collector, by means of a modified gaussian interpolation along the spatial domain. The proposed reduced model, taking the form of a low dimensional bilinear state representation, enables the reproduction of the heat transfer dynamics along the collector tube for system analysis. Moreover, presented as a reduced order bilinear state space model, the well established control theory for this class of systems can be applied. The approximation efficiency has been proven by several simulation tests, which have been performed considering parameters of the Acurex field with real external working conditions. Model accuracy has been evaluated by comparison to the analytical solution of the hyperbolic distributed model and its semi discretized approximation highlighting the benefits of using the proposed numerical scheme. Furthermore, model sensitivity to the different parameters of the gaussian interpolation has been studied.
Evaluation of Surface Slope Irregularity in Linear Parabolic Solar Collectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Francini
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology, very simple in its application, for measuring surface irregularities of linear parabolic collectors. This technique was principally developed to be applied in cases where it is difficult to use cumbersome instruments and to facilitate logistic management. The instruments to be employed are a digital camera and a grating. If the reflector surface is defective, the image of the grating, reflected on the solar collector, appears distorted. Analyzing the reflected image, we can obtain the local slope of the defective surface. These profilometric tests are useful to identify and monitor the mirror portions under mechanical stress and to estimate the losses caused by the light rays deflected outside the absorber.
The JPL parabolic dish project. [solar collectors technology development
Truscello, V. C.; Williams, A. N.
1980-01-01
The parabolic dish solar collector is a highly versatile concentrating collector system that can produce heat for many thermal processes and electricity by coupling the collector to a suitable heat engine. This paper discusses a project for the development of these collector systems and summarizes contracts with industry for developing the dish subsystems which include concentrator, receiver, and heat engine. An early market for dishes is the dispersed small community market which depends heavily on oil to operate diesel or steam turbine plants in order to generate electricity. The present contracts with industry for conducting engineering experiments using the developed dish hardware to demonstrate the technology in these early opportunity markets is also discussed.
Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1984-03-01
The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.
Ray analysis of parabolic-index segmented planar waveguides.
Rastogi, V; Ghatak, A K; Ostrowsky, D B; Thyagarajan, K; Shenoy, M R
1998-07-20
A ray analysis of periodically segmented waveguides with parabolic-index variation in the high-index region is presented. We carried out the analysis using ray transfer matrices, which is convenient to implement and which can be extended to study different types of graded-index segmented waveguide. Results of this ray tracing approach clearly illustrate the waveguiding properties and the existence of stable and unstable regions of operation in segmented waveguides. We also illustrate the tapering action exhibited by segmented waveguides in which the duty cycle varies along the length of the waveguide. This analysis, although restricted to multimode structures, provides a clear visualization of the waveguiding properties in terms of ray propagation in segmented waveguides.
Three-dimensional rogue waves in nonstationary parabolic potentials.
Yan, Zhenya; Konotop, V V; Akhmediev, N
2010-09-01
Using symmetry analysis we systematically present a higher-dimensional similarity transformation reducing the (3+1) -dimensional inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with variable coefficients and parabolic potential to the (1+1) -dimensional NLS equation with constant coefficients. This transformation allows us to relate certain class of localized exact solutions of the (3+1) -dimensional case to the variety of solutions of integrable NLS equation of the (1+1) -dimensional case. As an example, we illustrated our technique using two lowest-order rational solutions of the NLS equation as seeding functions to obtain rogue wavelike solutions localized in three dimensions that have complicated evolution in time including interactions between two time-dependent rogue wave solutions. The obtained three-dimensional rogue wavelike solutions may raise the possibility of relative experiments and potential applications in nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates.
The parabolic Anderson model random walk in random potential
König, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
This is a comprehensive survey on the research on the parabolic Anderson model – the heat equation with random potential or the random walk in random potential – of the years 1990 – 2015. The investigation of this model requires a combination of tools from probability (large deviations, extreme-value theory, e.g.) and analysis (spectral theory for the Laplace operator with potential, variational analysis, e.g.). We explain the background, the applications, the questions and the connections with other models and formulate the most relevant results on the long-time behavior of the solution, like quenched and annealed asymptotics for the total mass, intermittency, confinement and concentration properties and mass flow. Furthermore, we explain the most successful proof methods and give a list of open research problems. Proofs are not detailed, but concisely outlined and commented; the formulations of some theorems are slightly simplified for better comprehension.
Strong Superconvergence of Finite Element Methods for Linear Parabolic Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kening Wang
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study the strong superconvergence of a semidiscrete finite element scheme for linear parabolic problems on =Ω×(0,], where Ω is a bounded domain in ℛ(≤4 with piecewise smooth boundary. We establish the global two order superconvergence results for the error between the approximate solution and the Ritz projection of the exact solution of our model problem in 1,(Ω and ( with 2≤<∞ and the almost two order superconvergence in 1,∞(Ω and ∞(. Results of the =∞ case are also included in two space dimensions (=1 or 2. By applying the interpolated postprocessing technique, similar results are also obtained on the error between the interpolation of the approximate solution and the exact solution.
Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in parabolic flight
Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Roberts, Dale C.
2002-01-01
Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gains) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. Our earlier work demonstrated this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for saccadic eye movements: we asked for gain decrease in one context state and gain increase in another context state, and then determined if a change in the context state would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal and vertical eye position and head orientation could serve, to varying degrees, as cues for switching between two different saccade gains. In the present study, we asked whether gravity magnitude could serve as a context cue: saccade adaptation was performed during parabolic flight, which provides alternating levels of gravitoinertial force (0 g and 1.8 g). Results were less robust than those from ground experiments, but established that different saccade magnitudes could be associated with different gravity levels.
Active matter in lateral parabolic confinement: From subdiffusion to superdiffusion
Ribeiro, H. E.; Potiguar, F. Q.
2016-11-01
In this work we studied the diffusive behavior of active brownian particles under lateral parabolic confinement. The results showed that we go from subdiffusion to ballistic motion as we vary the angular noise strength and confinement intensity. We argued that the subdiffusion regimes appear as consequence of the restricted space available for diffusion (achieved either through large confinement and/or large noise); we saw that when there are large confinement and noise intensity, a similar configuration to single file diffusion appears; on the other hand, normal and superdiffusive regimes may occur due to low noise (longer persistent motion), either through exploring a wider region around the potential minimum in the transverse direction (low confinement), or by forming independent clusters (high confinement).
Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1995-11-01
Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.
Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System on Parabolic Flights
Dong, Wenbo; Pletser, Vladimir; Yang, Yang
2016-07-01
The Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System (MAIS) aims at reducing on-orbit vibrations, providing a better controlled lower gravity environment for microgravity physical science experiments. The MAIS will be launched on Tianzhou-1, the first cargo ship of the China Manned Space Program. The principle of the MAIS is to suspend with electro-magnetic actuators a scientific payload, isolating it from the vibrating stator. The MAIS's vibration isolation capability is frequency-dependent and a decrease of vibration of about 40dB can be attained. The MAIS can accommodate 20kg of scientific payload or sample unit, and provide 30W of power and 1Mbps of data transmission. The MAIS is developed to support microgravity scientific experiments on manned platforms in low earth orbit, in order to meet the scientific requirements for fluid physics, materials science, and fundamental physics investigations, which usually need a very quiet environment, increasing their chances of success and their scientific outcomes. The results of scientific experiments and technology tests obtained with the MAIS will be used to improve future space based research. As the suspension force acting on the payload is very small, the MAIS can only be operative and tested in a weightless environment. The 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, German Aerospace Centre) granted a flight opportunity to the MAIS experiment to be tested during its 27th parabolic flight campaign of September 2015 performed on the A310 ZERO-G aircraft managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency). The experiment results confirmed that the 6 degrees of freedom motion control technique was effective, and that the vibration isolation performance fulfilled perfectly the expectations based on theoretical analyses and simulations. This paper will present the design of the MAIS and the experiment results obtained during the
Numerical investigation of thermal performance of heat loss of parabolic trough receiver
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Modibo; Kane; TRAORE
2010-01-01
Based on the analysis of computation methods and heat transfer processes of the parabolic trough receiver running in steady state, a two-dimensional empirical model was developed to investigate the thermal performance of heat loss of parabolic trough receivers under steady state equilibrium. A numerical simulation was conducted for the parabolic trough receiver involved in a literature. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results show that the empirical model is accurate enough and can be used to investigate the thermal performance of heat loss of parabolic trough receivers. The thermal performance of heat loss of UVAC3 and the new-generation UVAC2008 was investigated respectively. The simulation results show that selective coatings and annular pressure influence the thermal performance of heat loss of parabolic trough receivers greatly, wind velocity influences the thermal performance of thermal loss of parabolic trough receivers only a little in contrast with the emittance of selective coatings and air pressure in annular space. And the thermal performance of thermal loss of the new-generation parabolic trough receiver has been improved in a large amount.
Propagation of hypergeometric laser beams in a medium with a parabolic refractive index
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An expression to describe the complex amplitude of a family of paraxial hypergeometric laser beams propagating in a parabolic-index fiber is proposed. A particular case of a Gaussian optical vortex propagating in a parabolic-index fiber is studied. Under definite parameters, the Gaussian optical vortices become the modes of the medium. This is a new family of paraxial modes derived for the parabolic-index medium. A wide class of solutions of nonparaxial Helmholtz equations that describe modes in a parabolic refractive index medium is derived in the cylindrical coordinate system. As the solutions derived are proportional to Kummer’s functions, only those of them which are coincident with the nonparaxial Laguerre–Gaussian modes possess a finite energy, meaning that they are physically implementable. A definite length of the graded-index fiber is treated as a parabolic lens, and expressions for the numerical aperture and the focal spot size are deduced. An explicit expression for the radii of the rings of a binary lens approximating a parabolic-index lens is derived. Finite-difference time-domain simulation has shown that using a binary parabolic-index microlens with a refractive index of 1.5, a linearly polarized Gaussian beam can be focused into an elliptic focal spot which is almost devoid of side-lobes and has a smaller full width at half maximum diameter of 0.45 of the incident wavelength. (paper)
Parabolic flight induces changes in gene expression patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Paul, Anna-Lisa; Manak, Michael S; Mayfield, John D; Reyes, Matthew F; Gurley, William B; Ferl, Robert J
2011-10-01
Our primary objective was to evaluate gene expression changes in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to parabolic flight as part of a comprehensive approach to the molecular biology of spaceflight-related adaptations. In addition, we wished to establish parabolic flight as a tractable operations platform for molecular biology studies. In a succession of experiments on NASA's KC-135 and C-9 parabolic aircraft, Arabidopsis plants were presented with replicated exposure to parabolic flight. Transcriptome profiling revealed that parabolic flight caused changes in gene expression patterns that stood the statistical tests of replication on three different flight days. The earliest response, after 20 parabolas, was characterized by a prominence of genes associated with signal transduction. After 40 parabolas, this prominence was largely replaced by genes associated with biotic and abiotic stimuli and stress. Among these responses, three metabolic processes stand out in particular: the induction of auxin metabolism and signaling, the differential expression of genes associated with calcium-mediated signaling, and the repression of genes associated with disease resistance and cell wall biochemistry. Many, but not all, of these responses are known to be involved in gravity sensing in plants. Changes in auxin-related gene expression were also recorded by reporter genes tuned to auxin signal pathways. These data demonstrate that the parabolic flight environment is appropriate for molecular biology research involving the transition to microgravity, in that with replication, proper controls, and analyses, gene expression changes can be observed in the time frames of typical parabolic flight experiments.
A compact representation of drawing movements with sequences of parabolic primitives.
Polyakov, Felix; Drori, Rotem; Ben-Shaul, Yoram; Abeles, Moshe; Flash, Tamar
2009-07-01
Some studies suggest that complex arm movements in humans and monkeys may optimize several objective functions, while others claim that arm movements satisfy geometric constraints and are composed of elementary components. However, the ability to unify different constraints has remained an open question. The criterion for a maximally smooth (minimizing jerk) motion is satisfied for parabolic trajectories having constant equi-affine speed, which thus comply with the geometric constraint known as the two-thirds power law. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that parabolic segments provide a compact representation of spontaneous drawing movements. Monkey scribblings performed during a period of practice were recorded. Practiced hand paths could be approximated well by relatively long parabolic segments. Following practice, the orientations and spatial locations of the fitted parabolic segments could be drawn from only 2-4 clusters, and there was less discrepancy between the fitted parabolic segments and the executed paths. This enabled us to show that well-practiced spontaneous scribbling movements can be represented as sequences ("words") of a small number of elementary parabolic primitives ("letters"). A movement primitive can be defined as a movement entity that cannot be intentionally stopped before its completion. We found that in a well-trained monkey a movement was usually decelerated after receiving a reward, but it stopped only after the completion of a sequence composed of several parabolic segments. Piece-wise parabolic segments can be generated by applying affine geometric transformations to a single parabolic template. Thus, complex movements might be constructed by applying sequences of suitable geometric transformations to a few templates. Our findings therefore suggest that the motor system aims at achieving more parsimonious internal representations through practice, that parabolas serve as geometric primitives and that non-Euclidean variables are
A Parabolic Equation Approach to Modeling Acousto-Gravity Waves for Local Helioseismology
Del Bene, Kevin; Lingevitch, Joseph; Doschek, George
2016-07-01
A wide-angle parabolic-wave-equation algorithm is developed and validated for local-helioseismic wave propagation. The parabolic equation is derived from a factorization of the linearized acousto-gravity wave equation. We apply the parabolic-wave equation to modeling acoustic propagation in a plane-parallel waveguide with physical properties derived from helioseismic data. The wavenumber power spectrum and wave-packet arrival-time structure for receivers in the photosphere with separation up to 30° is computed, and good agreement is demonstrated with measured values and a reference spectral model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren; Eckardt, André
2013-01-01
We theoretically study the adiabatic preparation of an antiferromagnetic phase in a mixed Mott insulator of two bosonic atom species in a one-dimensional optical lattice. In such a system one can engineer a tunable parabolic inhomogeneity by controlling the difference of the trapping potentials...... felt by the two species. Using numerical simulations we predict that a finite parabolic potential can assist the adiabatic preparation of the antiferromagnet. The optimal strength of the parabolic inhomogeneity depends sensitively on the number imbalance between the two species. We also find...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋斌恒; 袁聪
2002-01-01
We study some classes of functions satisfying the assumptions similar to but weaker than those for the classical B2 function classes used in the research of quasi-linear parabolic equations as well as the ones used in the research of degenerate parabolic equations including porous medium equationsl.Comsequently,we prove that a function in such a class is continuous.As an application,we obtain the estimate for the continuous modulus of the solutions of a few degenerate parabolic equations in divergence form,including the anisotropic porous equations.
An Investigation on the Parabolic Subgroups of the General Linear Groups by Using GAP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SaadABedaiwi; LIShang-zhi
2004-01-01
A typical example for the algebraic groups is the general linear groups G=GL(n,F), we have studied the structure of such groups and paid special attention to its important substructures, namely the Parabolic subgroups. For a given G we computed all the Parabolic subgroups and determined their number, depending on the fact that any finite group has a composition series and the composition factors of a composition series are simple groups which are completely classified, we report here some investigations on the computed Parabolic subgroups. This has been done with the utility of GAP.
Observation of spectral self-imaging by nonlinear parabolic cross-phase modulation.
Lei, Lei; Huh, Jeonghyun; Cortés, Luis Romero; Maram, Reza; Wetzel, Benjamin; Duchesne, David; Morandotti, Roberto; Azaña, José
2015-11-15
We report an experimental demonstration of spectral self-imaging on a periodic frequency comb induced by a nonlinear all-optical process, i.e., parabolic cross-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber. The comb free spectral range is reconfigured by simply tuning the temporal period of the pump parabolic pulse train. In particular, undistorted FSR divisions by factors of 2 and 3 are successfully performed on a 10 GHz frequency comb, realizing new frequency combs with an FSR of 5 and 3.3 GHz, respectively. The pump power requirement associated to the SSI phenomena is also shown to be significantly relaxed by the use of dark parabolic pulses.
A Parabolic Equation Approach to Modeling Acousto-Gravity Waves for Local Helioseismology
Del Bene, Kevin; Lingevitch, Joseph; Doschek, George
2016-08-01
A wide-angle parabolic-wave-equation algorithm is developed and validated for local-helioseismic wave propagation. The parabolic equation is derived from a factorization of the linearized acousto-gravity wave equation. We apply the parabolic-wave equation to modeling acoustic propagation in a plane-parallel waveguide with physical properties derived from helioseismic data. The wavenumber power spectrum and wave-packet arrival-time structure for receivers in the photosphere with separation up to 30° is computed, and good agreement is demonstrated with measured values and a reference spectral model.
A Liouville-Type Theorem for Higher-Order Parabolic Inequalities and Its Applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Lan WANG; Ying WANG; Zhao Yin XIANG
2011-01-01
In this paper,we establish a Liouville-type theorem for a system of higher-order parabolic inequalities by using the method of test functions and an integral estimate.As an application,we observe the Fujita blow-up phenomena for the corresponding parabolic system,which in particular fills up the gap in the recent result of Pang et.al.(Existence and nonexistence of global solutions for a higher-order semilinear parabolic system,Indiana Univ.Math.J.,55(2006),1113-1134).Moreover,the importance of this observation is that we do not impose any regularity assumption on the initial data.
Xiang, Tian
2015-06-01
In this paper, we are concerned with a general class of quasilinear parabolic-parabolic chemotaxis systems with/without growth source, under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a smooth bounded domain Ω ⊂Rn with n ≥ 2. It is recently known that blowup is possible even in the presence of superlinear growth restrictions. Here, we derive new and interesting characterizations on the growth versus the boundedness. We show that the hard task of proving the L∞-boundedness of the cell density can be reduced to proving its Lr-boundedness. In other words, we show that the Lr-boundedness of the cell density can successfully guarantee its L∞-boundedness and hence its global boundedness, where r = n + ɛ or n/2 + ɛ depending on whether the growth restriction is essentially linear (including no growth) or superlinear. Hence, a blowup solution also blows up in Lp-norm for any suitably large p. More detailed information on how the growth source affects the boundedness of the solution is derived. These results reveal deep understandings of blowup mechanism for chemotaxis models. Then we use these criteria to establish uniform boundedness and hence global existence of the underlying models: logistic source in 2-D, cubic source as initially proposed by Mimura and Tsujikawa in 3-D, [ (n - 1) + ɛ ]st source in n-D with n ≥ 4. As a consequence, in a chemotaxis-growth model, blowup is impossible if the growth effect is suitably strong. Finally, we underline that our results remove the commonly assumed convexity on the domain Ω.
Time-Periodic Solution of a 2D Fourth-Order Nonlinear Parabolic Equation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Xiaopeng Zhao; Changchun Liu
2014-08-01
By using the Galerkin method, we study the existence and uniqueness of time-periodic generalized solutions and time-periodic classical solutions to a fourth-order nonlinear parabolic equation in 2D case.
Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile
2011-01-01
We prove global existence of nonnegative weak solutions for a strongly coupled, fourth order degenerate parabolic system governing the motion of two thin fluid layers in a porous medium when capillarity is the sole driving mechanism.
Study on Clutter Model and Characteristics of Airborne Radar with Parabolic Conformal Phased Array
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hao Jiang; Nini Rao; Xingbo Chen; Jiabin Zhou; Chaoyang Qiu; Wen Zhai; Zhimei Hao
2016-01-01
The studies on clutter modeling and suppression of airborne radar with a parabolic conformal array are uncommon due to the complexity of this type of antenna array configuration. The correct understanding of clutter characteristics for airborne radar with a parabolic conformal antenna array is the prerequisite and foundation of optimal suppression of this type of clutter. This paper establishes the model of clutter echo of airborne parabolic conformal phased array radar and analyzes the structure characteristics and the distribution features of this type of clutter. The simulation results show that this type of clutter has the following characteristics: 1) The main lobe on the azimuth is seriously broadened, 2) the power spectrum presents strong heterogeneity, and 3) the freedom degrees are high. Based on the existing related clutter suppression methods, we verified the correctness of the constructed clutter model. This work has an important guidance to further study on clutter suppression methods in airborne parabolic conformal array radar.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a forward-backward system of stochastic differential equations in an infinite-dimensional framework and its relationships with a semilinear parabolic differential equation on a Hilbert space, in the spirit of the approach of Pardoux-Peng. We prove that the stochastic system allows us to construct a unique solution of the parabolic equation in a suitable class of locally Lipschitz real functions. The parabolic equation is understood in a mild sense which requires the notion of a generalized directional gradient, that we introduce by a probabilistic approach and prove to exist for locally Lipschitz functions.The use of the generalized directional gradient allows us to cover various applications to option pricing problems and to optimal stochastic control problems (including control of delay equations and reaction-diffusion equations),where the lack of differentiability of the coefficients precludes differentiability of solutions to the associated parabolic equations of Black-Scholes or Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman type
A Second Order Difference Scheme with Nonuniform Rectangular Meshes for Nonlinear Parabolic System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng-su Wan; Guang-nan Chen
2009-01-01
In this paper,a difference scheme with nonuniform meshes is proposed for the initial-boundary problem of the nonlinear parabolic system.It is proved that the difference scheme is second order convergent in both space and time.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
The authors prove the local existence and uniqueness of weak solution of a hyperbolic-parabolic system and establish the global existence of the weak solution for this system for the spatial dimension n = 1.
Sound field computations in the Bay of Bengal using parabolic equation method
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Navelkar, G.S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.
Effect of the cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal on acoustic propagation was analysed by parabolic equation (PE) method. Source depth, frequency and propagation range considered respectively for the two numerical experiments are 150 m, 400 Hz, 650...
Focusing characteristics of a 4$\\pi$ parabolic mirror light-matter interface
Alber, Lucas; Bader, Marianne; Mantel, Klaus; Sondermann, Markus; Leuchs, Gerd
2016-01-01
Focusing with a 4$\\pi$ parabolic mirror allows for concentrating light from nearly the complete solid angle. So far, this idea could not be exploited to enable diffraction limited focusing from more than half solid angle. We present the focusing properties of a 4$\\pi$ parabolic mirror experimentally characterized with a single $^{174}$Yb$^{+}$ ion as a mobile point scatterer. The ion is trapped in a vacuum environment with a movable high optical access Paul trap. We demonstrate an effective focal spot size of 209 nm in lateral and 551 nm in axial direction. Such tight focusing allows us to build an efficient light-matter interface. Our findings agree with numerical simulations incorporating a finite ion temperature and interferometrically measured wavefront aberrations induced by the parabolic mirror. We point at further technological improvements and discuss the general scope of applications of a 4$\\pi$ parabolic mirror.
Zamboni-Rached, Michel
2014-01-01
We propose in detail Antennas for generating Non-Diffracting Beams of Microwaves, for instance with frequencies of the order of 10 GHz, obtaining fair results even when having recourse to realistic apertures endowed with reasonable diameters. Our first proposal refers mainly to sets of suitable annular slits, having in mind various possible applications, including remote sensing. Our second proposal --which constitutes one of the main aims of this paper-- refers to the alternative, rather simple, use of a Parabolic Reflector, illuminated by a spherical wave source located on the paraboloid axis but slightly displaced with respect to the Focus of the Paraboloid. Such a parabolic reflector yields "extended focus" (non-diffracting) beams. [OCIS codes: 999.9999; 070.7545; 050.1120; 280.0280; 050.1755; 070.0070; 200.0200. Keywords: Non-Diffracting Waves; Microwaves; Remote sensing; Annular Arrays; Bessel beams; Extended focus; Reflecting paraboloids; Parabolic reflectors; Parabolic antennas].
PreGarside monoids and groups, parabolicity, amalgamation, and FC property
Godelle, Eddy
2012-01-01
We define the notion of preGarside group slightly lightening the definition of Garside group so that all Artin-Tits groups are preGarside groups. This paper intends to give a first basic study on these groups. Firstly, we introduce the notion of parabolic subgroup, we prove that any preGarside group has a (partial) complemented presentation, and we characterize the parbolic subgroups in terms of these presentations. Afterwards we prove that the amalgamated product of two preGarside groups along a common parabolic subgroup is again a preGarside group. This enables us to define the family of preGarside groups of FC type as the smallest family of preGarside groups that contains the Garside groups and that is closed by amalgamation along parabolic subgroups. Finally, we make an algebraic and combinatorial study on FC type preGarside groups and their parabolic subgroups.
Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.
2008-05-01
Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.
A SECOND ORDER DIFFERENCE SCHEME WITH NONUNIFORM MESHES FOR NONLINEAR PARABOLIC SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WAN Zhengsu; CHEN Guangnan
2003-01-01
In this paper, a difference scheme with nonuniform meshes is established for the initial-boundary problem of the nonlinear parabolic system. It is proved that the difference scheme is second order convergent in spacestep and timestep.
Quasi-sure Limit Theorem of Parabolic Stochastic Partial Differential Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xi Cheng ZHANG
2004-01-01
In this paper we prove a quasi-sure limit theorem of parabolic stochastic partial differential equations with smooth coefficients and some initial conditions, by the way, we obtain the quasi-sure continuity of the solution.
Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications allowing moving up from UHF, S or X to get higher gain for a given diameter.
Global attractors of a degenerate parabolic equation and their error estimates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Xiaohong; ZHANG Xingyou
2004-01-01
The existences of the global attractor A? for a degenerate parabolic equation and of the homogenized attractorA0 for the corresponding homogenized equation are studied, and explicit estimates for the distance between A? and A0 are given.
A Class of Quasilinear Parabolic Systems with Cross—Diffusion Effects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WanliYANG
1999-01-01
This paper,using the duality technique and Hoelder's inequality,proves the global existence of solutions for a class of the quasilinear parabolic systems with Crossdiffusion effects and competition interaction on and smooth bounded domain in RN.
Asymptotic behavior of solutions to nonlinear parabolic equation with nonlinear boundary conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diabate Nabongo
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We show that solutions of a nonlinear parabolic equation of second order with nonlinear boundary conditions approach zero as t approaches infinity. Also, under additional assumptions, the solutions behave as a function determined here.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weifeng Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study an optimal control problem governed by a semilinear parabolic equation, whose control variable is contained only in the boundary condition. An existence theorem for the optimal control is obtained.