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Sample records for 90-degree off-axis parabolic

  1. Study on the optical properties of the off-axis parabolic collimator with eccentric pupil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Gao, Xin; Duan, Jing; Zhang, Henjin

    2017-02-01

    The off-axis parabolic collimator with eccentric pupil has the advantages of wide spectrum, simple structure, easy assembly and adjustment, high performance price ratio. So, it is widely used for parameters testing and image quality calibration of ground-based and space-based cameras. In addition to the Strehl ratio, resolution, wavefront aberration, modulation transfer function, the general evaluation criteria on the imaging quality of the optical system, the beam parallelism characterize the collimator angle resolving capability and collimation condition of the collimator with the target board, can be measured easily ,quickly and operation process is simple, but the study mainly focus on how to measure it so far. In order to solve Quantitative calculation of this problem, firstly, the discussion of aberration condition of the off- axis parabolic is carried out based on the primary aberration theory. Secondly, analysis on the influencing factor on collimator optical properties is given, including the geometrical aberrations of spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism , the relation between the position of the eccentric pupil and the aberration and optical element surface wavefront aberration, after that, according to the basis of diffraction and wavefront aberration theory, the paper deduced calculation method of the beam parallelism, at last, an example of a 400mm diameter off-axis parabolic collimator with eccentric pupil is given to calculate, the practical results shows that calculation data is well in accordance with actual measurement data and results can meet the demand and has a guiding significance to the actual project manufacture and the theory analysis.

  2. Transmitting characteristic analysis of antenna with off-axis parabolic rotating surfaces configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianyu; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Huajun; Niu, Ye; Xianyu, Jiawei

    2017-03-20

    A novel optical antenna with an off-axis confocal parabolic rotating surfaces configuration is designed for achieving maximum transmission efficiency. An improved 3-D ray tracing method based on the vector theory of reflection is used to simulate spatial rays transmitting through the antenna system. Aberrations and the spatial divergence angles of the output beam, which are caused by on-axial defocusing and off-axial defocusing between the primary reflector and secondary reflector, are visualized and effects on receiver efficiency of the antenna system are analyzed in detail. This work will provide a reference for improving the transmission efficiency of long-range communication systems.

  3. Influence of temperature on the optical system with large diameter off-axis parabolic lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yaru; Ruan, Hao; Liu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this work, an optical system with large diameter off-axis parabolic lenses was adopted to achieve diffraction gratings by laser interference exposure. The diffraction wavefront aberration caused by temperature variations was simulated using ZEMAX. Through theoretical analysis and optical simulation, it is proved that the diffraction wavefront aberration of holographic grating caused by the pinhole's location errors (it is assumed that when the displacement of pinhole exists along one axis, the locations of the pinhole along the other two orthogonal axes are in a state of precise adjustment ) is much larger when the displacement occurs along z axis than along the other two axes, and the diffraction wavefront aberration is the smallest when the displacement occurs along x axis. If the ambient temperature changes by 1 degree, the PV value is 0.0631λ when the location of the pinhole changes by 0.121mm along z axis, 0.0034λor 0.0672λ when the location of the pinhole changes by 0.002mm along x axis or 0.03mm along y axis. To reach the diffraction limit (that means the PV value is 0.25λ), the decentering value of the pinhole along z axis should be less than 0.0341mm. In conclusion, the position error along z axis is an important factor to influence the PV value of diffraction grating, and the effect of temperature on the PV value of diffraction grating can be neglected.

  4. High-resolution, flat-field, plane-grating, f/10 spectrograph with off-axis parabolic mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieffer, Stephanie L; Rimington, Nathan W; Nayyar, Ved P; Schroeder, W Andreas; Longworth, James W

    2007-06-01

    A high-resolution, flat-field, plane-grating, f/10 spectrometer based on the novel design proposed by Gil and Simon [Appl. Opt. 22, 152 (1983)] is demonstrated. The spectrometer design employs off-axis parabolic collimation and camera mirrors in a configuration that eliminates spherical aberrations and minimizes astigmatism, coma, and field curvature in the image plane. In accordance with theoretical analysis, the performance of this spectrometer achieves a high spatial resolution over the large detection area, which is shown to be limited only by the quality of its optics and their proper alignment within the spatial resolution of a 13 microm x 13 microm pixelated CCD detector. With a 1500 lines/mm grating in first order, the measured spectral resolving power of lambda/Dlambda = 2.5(+/-0.5) x 10(4) allows the clear resolution of the violet Ar(I) doublet at 419.07 and 419.10 nm.

  5. Null test of an off-axis parabolic mirror. II. Configuration with planar reference wave and spherical return surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jan

    2009-03-01

    This paper complements our previous study on testing a 25.4 mm diameter diamond-turned 90 masculine off-axis commercial-quality parabolic mirror with a spherical test wave in a phase-shifting Fizeau interferometer (Opt. Express 17, 3196-3210 (2009). In this study I reverse the optical system and use the Fizeau interferometer with a planar reference surface, auxiliary components, and the surface of the transmission sphere as a reflecting spherical return surface. As in the previous paper, I present a description of the necessary steps for alignment and measurement validation. The reversal of the optical system, and associated co-ordinate systems, necessitates some changes of hardware and analysis that provide insight into the underlying symmetries, and may prove useful in a wider context.

  6. Off-axis mirror based optical system design for circularization, collimation, and expansion of elliptical laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan, Mert; Kirkici, Hulya; Cetinkaya, Hakan

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we present two optical system design methods for beam circularization, collimation, and expansion of semiconductor laser output beam for possible application in LIDAR systems. Two different optical mirror systems are investigated: an off-axis hyperbolic/parabolic mirror system and an off-axis parabolic mirror system. Equations specific to these mirror systems are derived and computer package programs such as ZEMAX and MATLAB are used to simulate the optical designs. The beam reshaping results are presented.

  7. Optimal geometry and dimensions for the receiver of a parabolic solar concentrator with an angle of 90 degrees; Determiancion de la geometria y dimensiones optimas de un receptor para un concentrador solar paraboloidal con angulo de apertura de 90 grados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Claudio A; Arancibia, Camilo [Centro de Investigacion en Energia UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez, Nestor [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The optimal geometry and dimensions for the receiver of a parabolic solar concentrator based on microwave communication antenna are obtained. First, the experiments for the determination of the angular error of the concentrator and the dimensions of its focal region are described. Results are also presented for the ray tracing study, from which the optimal characteristics of the receiver are obtained according to the experimental results. As the aluminum antenna has a rim angle of 90 Celsius degrees, it is necessary to use a cavity receiver to allow external as well as internal absorption of radiative flux. Cylindrical, conical and spherical geometric were considered, as well as combinations of them. The best results are achieved using a conical cavity. Its dimensions are calculated to maximize the radiative transfer efficiency from the aperture of the concentrator to the receiver. [Spanish] Se determinan la geometria y dimensiones optimas del receptor de un concentrador solar parabolico obtenido a partir de una antena de telecomunicaciones para microondas. Primeramente se describen los experimentos realizados para obtener el valor del error angular asociado al concentrador y de las dimensiones de su region focal. Tambien se presentan los resultados del estudio optico de trazado de rayos, que permitio determinar teoricamente las caracteristicas del receptor, de acuerdo a los resultados de los experimentos. Debido a que la antena de aluminio tiene un angulo de borde de 90 grados Celcius, es necesario usar un receptor tipo cavidad que permita la captacion de energia tanto interna como externa. Se consideraron geometrias cilindrica, conica, esferica y combinaciones entre ellas, resultando ser la conica la que da los mejores resultados. Las dimensiones del receptor fueron determinadas maximizando la eficiencia del transporte de radiacion de la apertura del concentrador al receptor.

  8. Coherent off-axis undulator radiation from short electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Neuman

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of off-axis undulator radiation is discussed. Of particular interest is coherent off-axis radiation, where the wavelengths of emission are longer than the electron bunch length. We show how this off-axis radiation may be used to measure relative electron bunch lengths. The theory is presented, and calculated spectra are presented in a number of cases of interest.

  9. Off-axis dose distribution for rectangle proton beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gou Cheng-Jun; Luo Zheng-Ming; Huang Chu-Ye; Feng Xiao-Ning; Wu Zhang-Wen

    2008-01-01

    This paper modifies an analytical algorithm originally developed for electron dose calculations to evaluate the off-axis dose distribution of rectangle proton beam. This spatial distribution could be described by Fermi-Eyges theory since a proton undergoes small-angle scattering when it passes through medium. Predictions of the algorithm for relative off-axis dose distribution by a 6 cm 6 cm initial monoenergetic proton beam are compared with the results from the published Monte Carlo simulations. The excellent levcl of agreement between the results of these two methods of dose calculation (< 2%) demonstrates that the off-axis dose distribution from rectangle proton beam may be computed with high accuracy using this algorithm. The results also prompts the necessity to consider the off-axis distribution when the proton is applied to clinical radiotherapy since the penumbra is significant at the distal of its range (about 0.6 cm at the Bragg-peak depth).

  10. Off-Axis Aspheric Surfacing Using Sub-Aperture Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunpeng; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Haobo; Tam, Hon-Yuen

    2013-10-01

    The off-axis aspheric surface used in modern optical systems widely can obtain nearly perfect quality, realize both small packet-size and low-mass, and avoid the central obscuration. But it is difficult to fabricate because of asymmetry. There are some key technologies during the testing and fabrication of off-axis asphere. In this article, we proposed a method of the best fit sphere based on non-negative minimized removal criterion. And a measured data fitting algorithm was presented to estimate the geometry parameters of off-axis aspheric surface. Then an off-axis mirror was fabricated, and the interferometrically measured data was corrected to eliminate the distortion introduced by null compensator in every run. Finally, the surface error of off-axis mirror reduced to pv = 0.372λ, rms = 0.046λ, the surface roughness reached 0.72 nm. These methods mentioned in the article are suitable for off-axis aspheric optics.

  11. Off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Price, Jeffery R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Hanson, Gregory R.

    2004-06-08

    Systems and methods are described for off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method of recording an off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: reflecting a reference beam from a reference mirror at a non-normal angle; reflecting an object beam from an object at an angle with respect to an optical axis defined by a focusing lens; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form the off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording the off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes by transforming axes of the recorded off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined as an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; applying a digital filter to cut off signals around an original origin; and then performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  12. Alignment method of off-axis RC reflective optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-min, Zhang; Xing, Song; Zhi-jun, Zhang; Hou, Xiao-hua

    2016-10-01

    Off-axis optical system has a wide application in space optics and remote detective area. The high surface shape accuracy can be ensured with the development of advanced manufacture technique. So the only condition which limits the wide application of off-axis optical system is how to realize the precise alignment of it. Based on a RC reflective optical system whose diameter is 400mm, the alignment method which combines the high resolution initial placement and computer-aided alignment is introduced. By designing a system which can measure the off-axis fabrication and off-axis angle precisely, the high resolution initial placement of off-axis mirror can be ensured with a measurement accuracy of +/-0.05mm and +/-10". The good initial placement can give a good initial state, so the computer-aided model can be converged well. The experiment shows that a system which has a good initial placement could have a good wave aberration of 0.04λ after three times iteration adjustment.

  13. Computer Controlled Polishing of the Off-axis Aspheric Mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the manufacturing and testing procedures to make large off-axis aspherical mirrors are presented. The difficulties in polishing and testing for both circular-aperture and rectangular-aperture mirrors are previewed, and a possible solution is given. The two mirrors have been polished by means of CCOS, and the final accuracy is 25nm rms for 770mm×210mm rectangular mirror and 20nm rms for φ600mm circular mirror. These results just meet the optical tolerances specified by the designer, and the manufacturing and testing procedures presented here show good ability to make the large off-axis aspherical mirrors.

  14. Alfven eigenmode structure during off-axis neutral beam injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, B.; Bass, E. M.; Classen, I.G.J.; Domier, C.W.; Grierson, B. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Nazikian, R.; Park, H. K.; Spong, D. A.; VanZeeland, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The spatial structure of Alfven eigenmodes on the DIII-D tokamak is compared for contrasting fast ion deposition profiles resulting from on- and off-axis neutral beam injection (NBI). In both cases, poloidal mode rotation and eigenmode twist, or radial phase variation, are correlated with the direct

  15. Transport Phenomena of Off-Axis Sputtering Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S.; Su, C. H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Zhang, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Various high quality epitaxial films, especially oxides, have been synthesized using off-axis sputtering deposition. In this presentation, we report the experiment results of ZnO films grown by the off-axis sputtering deposition. Films were synthesized in temperatures ranged from room temperature to 600 C, and pressures from 5 mTorr to 150 mTorr. Film growth rate was measured by surface profilometer, ellipsometer, and wavelength dispersive spectrometry. Due to the collisions between the sputtered species and the residue gases, the kinetic energy of species was reduced and the transport of depositing species changed from a ballistic movement for low pressure to a diffuse drift for high pressure in which the transport species were almost thermalized. The measurements show an increase of growth rates along the gravity vector when the Knodson (Knudsen??) number of transport species is less than 0.05, which suggests that gravity affected the transport characterization in off-axis sputtering deposition. Because the product of pressure (p) and travel distance (d) of sputtered species, p exceeds several mTorr-cm during film deposition, the classical simulations for sputtering process in high vacuum system may not be applied. Based on these experimental measurements, a transport process of the off-axis sputtering deposition is proposed. Several methods including the Monte Carlo method and gravity-driven flow dynamics simulation will be discussed.

  16. Effects of small misalignments on the intensity and Strehl ratio for a laser beam focused by an off-axis parabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Luca; Ferrara, Paolo; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Gizzi, Leonida A

    2016-08-10

    A general procedure is described to calculate the intensity and Strehl ratio, at a generic plane in the focal region, of a beam focused by an off-axis parabolic mirror in the presence of small misalignments. The general theoretical framework is first developed, which allows a full vector diffraction treatment in the case of general misalignments. Then, a parametric numerical study is reported, aimed at highlighting the tolerances of both the intensity and Strehl ratio for small misalignments, for different focusing and off-axis parabola parameters. A set of experimental measurements aimed at validating the theoretical model is also discussed.

  17. The manufacturing and metrology of off-axis mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, Karlheinz; Rascher, Rolf; Küpper, Lutz; Liebl, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Especially in the area of the large mirror manufacturing only a few manufacturers are capable to produce optical surfaces of high quality. Therefore a deterministic process should be developed in the project IFasO. In the field of telescope optics off-axis optical systems are becoming increasingly important. These systems try to avoid an obstructing of the incoming light by moving the secondary mirror out of the primary mirror's optical axis. This advantage leads to an increasing market for this type of optical surface. Until now off-axis mirrors were difficult or almost impossible to produce. With the processes developed in IFasO, high quality mirrors become possible. For this reason, this paper describes the manufacturing of off-axis surfaces and its problems. The mirror production used in the project IFasO is based on the specific design of the CNC center developed by the company Optotech. This center UPG2000 is capable of grinding, polishing, sagitta measurement and interferometric measurement in one mounting of the specimen. Usually a large optics has to be transported during their manufacturing after every individual process step. There is always a risk of damage of the specimen. The exact orientation of the surface relatively to the tool position is also required. This takes a huge amount of time and makes up most of the production time. In this presentation the use of UPG2000 and the next steps within the process development are described. In the current status the manufacturing of large off-axis elements with a PV < λ/10 rms is reproducible.

  18. Super Earth Explorer: Coronagraphic Off-Axis Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, J; Mawet, D; Baudoz, P; Beuzit, J L; Doyon, R; Marley, M; Stam, D; Tinetti, G; Traub, W; Trauger, J; Aylward, A; Cho, J Y K; Keller, C U; Udry, S

    2008-01-01

    The Super-Earth Explorer is an Off-Axis Space Telescope (SEE-COAST) designed for high contrast imaging. Its scientific objective is to make the physico-chemical characterization of exoplanets possibly down to 2 Earth radii >. For that purpose it will analyze the spectral and polarimetric properties of the parent starlight reflected by the planets, in the wavelength range 400-1250 nm

  19. Noise estimation for off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röder, Falk, E-mail: Falk.Roeder@Triebenberg.de [Triebenberg Labor, Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Lubk, Axel; Wolf, Daniel [Triebenberg Labor, Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Niermann, Tore [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Off-axis electron holography provides access to the phase of the elastically scattered wave in a transmission electron microscope at scales ranging from several hundreds of nanometres down to 0.1 nm. In many cases the reconstructed phase shift is directly proportional to projected electric and magnetic potentials rendering electron holography a useful and established characterisation method for materials science. However, quantitative interpretation of experimental phase shifts requires quantitative knowledge about the noise, which has been previously established for some limiting cases only. Here, we present a general noise transfer formalism for off-axis electron holography allowing to compute the covariance (noise) of reconstructed amplitude and phase from characteristic detector functions and general properties of the reconstruction process. Experimentally, we verify the presented noise transfer formulas for two different cameras with and without objects within the errors given by the experimental noise determination. - Highlights: • We derive a general noise transfer for the off-axis holographic reconstruction. • Noise transfer formulas given by F. Lenz are included as a special case. • We estimate the covariance of a hologram using the noise spread function. • We experimentally verify the derived noise transfer formulas.

  20. Ultrathin 90-degree sharp bends for spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yihao; Chen, Hongsheng; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2015-01-01

    surface plasmons around 90-degree sharp bends on ultrathin metallic films in the microwave regime. We demonstrate that by judiciously engineering the structure, the dispersion relation can be designed to reduce the scattering. Furthermore, the reflection can be suppressed by proper structural decoration...

  1. Impedances and power losses for an off-axis beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    1996-01-01

    A method for calculating coupling impedances and power losses for off-axis beams is developed. It is applied to calculate impedances of small localized discontinuities like holes and slots, as well as the impedance due to a finite resistivity of chamber walls, in homogeneous chambers with an arbitrary shape of the chamber cross section. The approach requires to solve a two-dimensional electrostatic problem, which can be easily done numerically in the general case, while for some particular cases analytical solutions are obtained.

  2. On the off-axis tensile test for unidirectional composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, M. P.; Herakovich, C. T.; Post, D.

    1982-01-01

    The off axis tensile test was examined experimentally to obtain actual displacement fields over the surface of graphite polyimide coupon specimens. The experimental results were compared with approximate analytical solutions and generated finite element results. An optical method of high sensitivity moire interferometry was used to determine the actual displacements to high precision. The approximate analytical solution and the finite element results compare very favorably with the measured centerline displacements in the test section, and the finite element displacement fields provide excellent agreement with the moire displacements throughout the specimen. A 15 degree fiber orientation and coupon aspect ratios of 5 and 15 are presented.

  3. Local charge measurement using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Gontard, L.C.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.0E.

    2016-01-01

    A model-independent approach based on Gauss’ theorem for measuring the local charge in a specimen from an electron-optical phase image recorded using off-axis electron holography was recently proposed. Here, we show that such a charge measurement is reliable when it is applied to determine...... the total charge enclosed within an object. However, the situation is more complicated for a partial charge measurement when the integration domain encloses only part of the object. We analyze in detail the effects on charge measurement of the mean inner potential of the object, of the presence of induced...

  4. Off-axis self-interference incoherent digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Philjun; Lee, Heejung; So, Byunghwy; Hwang, Wonsang; Bae, Yoonsung; Kim, Dugyoung

    2017-03-01

    3D imaging is demanding technology required in fluorescence microscopy. Even though holography is a powerful technique, it could not be used easily in fluorescence microscopy because of low coherence of fluorescence light. Lately, several incoherent holographic methods such as scanning holography, Fresnel in coherent correlation holography (FINCH), and self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) have been proposed. However, these methods have many problems to be overcome for practical applications. For example, DC term removal, twin image ambiguity, and phase unwrapping problems need to be resolved. Off-axis holography is a straightforward solution which can solve most of these problems. We built an off-axis SIDH system for fluorescence imaging, and investigated various conditions and requirements for practical holographic fluorescence microscopy. Our system is based on a modified Michelson interferometer with a flat mirror at one arm and a curved mirror at the other arm of the interferometer. We made a phantom 3D fluorescence object made of 2 single-mode fibers coupled to a single red LED source to mimic 2 fluorescence point sources distributed by a few tens of micrometers apart. A cooled EM-CCD was used to take holograms of these fiber ends which emit only around 180 nW power.

  5. APS-U LATTICE DESIGN FOR OFF-AXIS ACCUMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng; Borland, M.; Lindberg, R.; Sajaev, V.

    2017-06-25

    A 67-pm hybrid-seven-bend achromat (H7BA) lattice is being proposed for a future Advanced Photon Source (APS) multi-bend-achromat (MBA) upgrade project. This lattice design pushes for smaller emittance and requires use of a swap-out (on-axis) injection scheme due to limited dynamic acceptance. Alternate lattice design work has also been performed for the APS upgrade to achieve better beam dynamics performance than the nominal APS MBA lattice, in order to allow off-axis accumulation. Two such alternate H7BA lattice designs, which target a still-low emittance of 90 pm, are discussed in detail in this paper. Although the single-particle-dynamics performance is good, simulations of collective effects indicate that surprising difficulty would be expected accumulating high single-bunch charge in this lattice. The brightness of the 90-pm lattice is also a factor of two lower than the 67-pm H7BA lattice.

  6. Optical voice recorder by off-axis digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Osamu; Inokuchi, Hiroki; Nitta, Kouichi; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2014-11-15

    An optical voice recorder capable of recording and reproducing propagating sound waves by using off-axis digital holography, as well as quantitative visualization, is presented. Propagating sound waves temporally modulate the phase distribution of an impinging light wave via refractive index changes. This temporally modulated phase distribution is recorded in the form of digital holograms by a high-speed image sensor. After inverse propagation using Fresnel diffraction of a series of the recorded holograms, the temporal phase profile of the reconstructed object wave at each three-dimensional position can be used to reproduce the original sound wave. Experimental results using a tuning fork vibrating at 440 Hz and a human voice are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  7. Off-Axis Nulling Transfer Function Measurement: A First Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedova, G. Dalla; Menut, J.-L.; Millour, F.; Petrov, R.; Cassaing, F.; Danchi, W. C.; Jacquinod, S.; Lhome, E.; Lopez, B.; Lozi, J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We want to study a polychromatic inverse problem method with nulling interferometers to obtain information on the structures of the exozodiacal light. For this reason, during the first semester of 2013, thanks to the support of the consortium PERSEE, we launched a campaign of laboratory measurements with the nulling interferometric test bench PERSEE, operating with 9 spectral channels between J and K bands. Our objective is to characterise the transfer function, i.e. the map of the null as a function of wavelength for an off-axis source, the null being optimised on the central source or on the source photocenter. We were able to reach on-axis null depths better than 10(exp -4). This work is part of a broader project aiming at creating a simulator of a nulling interferometer in which typical noises of a real instrument are introduced. We present here our first results.

  8. Measurement of LINAC 90 degrees head leakage radiation TVL values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Mutic, Sasa; Low, Daniel

    2006-09-01

    One of the key components in modern LINAC room shielding design is the amount of 90 degrees head leakage radiation levels. With the general clinical acceptance of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique, accurate knowledge of this quantity has become even more important. Measurement of 90 degrees head leakage radiation of medical linear accelerators can be technically challenging due to the low dose rate causing poor signal-to-noise ratios in most detectors. 90 degrees leakage tenth-value layer (TVL) values in concrete have not been reported for the Elekta linear accelerators. This report describes our measurements of 90 degrees leakage TVL values for 6, 10, and 18 MV x-ray beams for an Elekta Precise Treatment System. A large-volume (1000 cm3) unpressurized ionization chamber and a high sensitivity electrometer, together with a separate chamber bias power supply, were used in these measurements in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. A lead enclosure, of minimum thickness 10 cm, was constructed inside the treatment room to house the ion chamber to reduce the influence of room-scattered radiation. A square aperture of 10 X 10 cm2 area was left in the shield and aimed towards the accelerator head. Measurements were performed with the chamber placed at approximately 2 m from the accelerator isocenter. Concrete slabs with individual dimensions of approximately 40 X 40 cm2 cross-sectional area and 5 cm thickness were placed between the accelerator head and the ion chamber for these measurements. The measurements were performed with total concrete thickness of up to 80 cm, so that values up to the third TVL were measured. These measurements showed thatthe first concrete TVL values are 22, 23, and 28 cm (8.6, 9.1, and 10.5 in.) for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams, while the average of the first 3 TVL's were 25, 26, and 29 cm (9.9, 10.2, and 11.5 in.). Measured values agreed to within 10% of previously reported values for Varian linear accelerators for

  9. Charged current disappearance measurements in the NuMI off-axis beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. H. Bernstein

    2003-09-25

    This article studies the potential of combining charged-current disappearance measurements of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} from MINOS and an off-axis beam. The author finds that the error on {Delta}m{sup 2} from a 100 kt-yr off-axis measurement is a few percent of itself. Further, the author found little improvement to an off-axis measurement by combining it with MINOS.

  10. Off-Axis Neutrino Scattering in GRB Central Engines

    CERN Document Server

    George, N D; McGhee, J M; Miller, W A; George, Nathan D.; Kheyfets, Arkady; Ghee, John M. Mc; Miller, Warner A.

    2003-01-01

    The search for an understanding of an energy source great enough to explain the gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomena has attracted much attention from the astrophysical community since its discovery. In this paper we extend the work of K. Asano and T. Fukuyama, and J. D. Salmonson and J. R. Wilson, and analyze the off-axis contributions to the energy-momentum deposition rate (MDR) from the neutrino anti-neutrino collisions above a rotating black hole/thin accretion disk system. Our calculations are performed by imaging the accretion disk at a specified observer using the full geodesic equations, and calculating the cumulative MDR from the scattering of all pairs of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos arriving at the observer. Our results shed light on the beaming efficiency of GRB models of this kind. Although we confirm Asano and Fukuyama's conjecture as to the constancy of the beaming for small angles away from the axis; nevertheless, we find the dominant contribution to the MDR comes from near the surface of the disk ...

  11. X-ray microfocusing with off-axis ellipsoidal mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu, E-mail: yumoto@spring8.or.jp; Koyama, Takahisa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ohashi, Haruhiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    High-precision ellipsoidal mirrors for two-dimensionally focusing X-rays to nanometer sizes have not been realized because of technical problems in their fabrication processes. The objective of the present study is to develop fabrication techniques for ellipsoidal focusing mirrors in the hard-X-ray region. We design an off-axis ellipsoidal mirror for use under total reflection conditions up to the X-ray energy of 8 keV. We fabricate an ellipsoidal mirror with a surface roughness of 0.3 nm RMS (root-mean-square) and a surface figure error height of 3.0 nm RMS by utilizing a surface profiler and surface finishing method developed by us. The focusing properties of the mirror are evaluated at the BL29XUL beamline in SPring-8. A focusing beam size of 270 nm × 360 nm FWHM (full width at half maximum) at an X-ray energy of 7 keV is observed with the use of the knife-edge scanning method. We expect to apply the developed fabrication techniques to construct ellipsoidal nanofocusing mirrors.

  12. Off-Axis Undulator Radiation for CLIC Drive Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Jeff, A; Welsch, CP

    2013-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) will use a novel acceleration scheme in which energy extracted from a very intense beam of relatively low-energy electrons (the Drive Beam) is used to accelerate a lower intensity Main Beam to very high energy. The high intensity of the Drive Beam, with pulses of more than 1015 electrons, poses a challenge for conventional profile measurements such as wire scanners. Thus, new non-invasive profile measurements are being investigated. In this paper we propose the use of relatively inexpensive permanent-magnet undulators to generate off-axis visible Synchrotron Radiation from the CLIC Drive Beam. The field strength and period length of the undulator should be designed such that the on-axis undulator wavelength is in the ultra-violet. A smaller but still useable amount of visible light is then generated in a hollow cone. This light can be reflected out of the beam pipe by a ring-shaped mirror placed downstream and imaged on a camera. In this contribution, results of SRW and ZEMA...

  13. 10 Degree Off-Axis Tensile Test for Intralaminar Shear Characterization of Fiber Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen for the...from Mod-I/epoxy, T-300/epoxy, and S-glass/ epoxy were used in the experimental program. It was found that the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen is

  14. An off-axis digital holographic microscope with quasimonochromatic partially spatially coherent illumination in transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenyuk, Anton A.; Tarakanchikova, Yana V.; Ryabukho, Vladimir P.

    2014-10-01

    We propose an off-axis imaging approach for digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with quasimonochromatic partially spatially coherent illumination in transmission, which is intended to provide the advantages of off-axis partially coherent DHM imaging with a comparatively simple optical scheme. This approach does not require a diffraction grating for creating the off-axis modality and also allows for convenient control of the spatial frequency of carrier interference fringes for hologram sampling optimization. Theoretical analysis of the off-axis imaging process in this microscope is performed. An off-axis DHM based on the proposed approach is built and quantitative phase imaging of test objects is performed with suppressed coherent noise.

  15. Concentration of off-axis radiation by solar concentrators for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Kent S.

    1989-01-01

    Four types of off-axis radiation are discussed. These are: (1) small off-axis angles during walk-off, (2) large off-axis angles, (3) an extended off-axis source such as Earth albedo, and (4) miscellaneous off-axis sources including radio frequency sources and local point sources. A code named OFFSET has been developed to represent the solar concentrator being developed for Space Station Freedom. It is a detailed, ray-tracing model which represents 50 ray originating points on the Sun and reflections from 10 points on each of the 456 concentrator facets. Results of this code are generally similar to the PIXEL results although there are small differences due to the more detailed representations of the Sun and concentrator that were used in the OFFSET code.

  16. Concentration of off-axis radiation by solar concentrators for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Kent S.

    1989-01-01

    Four types of off-axis radiation are discussed. These are: (1) small off-axis angles during walk-off, (2) large off-axis angles, (3) an extended off-axis source such as Earth albedo, and (4) miscellaneous off-axis sources including radio frequency sources and local point sources. A code named OFFSET has been developed to represent the solar concentrator being developed for Space Station Freedom. It is a detailed, ray-tracing model which represents 50 ray originating points on the Sun and reflections from 10 points on each of the 456 concentrator facets. Results of this code are generally similar to the PIXEL results although there are small differences due to the more detailed representations of the Sun and concentrator that were used in the OFFSET code.

  17. Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design.

  18. An effective correction algorithm for off-axis portal dosimetry errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Daniel W.; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Podgorsak, Matthew B. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Portal dosimetric images acquired for IMRT pretreatment verification show dose errors of up to 15% near the detector edges as compared to dose predictions calculated by a treatment planning system for these off-axis regions. A method is proposed to account for these off-axis effects by precisely correcting the off-axis output factors, which calibrate the imager for absolute dose. Using this method, agreement between the predicted and the measured doses improves by up to 15% for fields near the detector edges, resulting in passing rate improvements of as much as 60% for gamma evaluation of 3 mm, 3% within the collimator jaws.

  19. An effective correction algorithm for off-axis portal dosimetry errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel W; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2009-09-01

    Portal dosimetric images acquired for IMRT pretreatment verification show dose errors of up to 15% near the detector edges as compared to dose predictions calculated by a treatment planning system for these off-axis regions. A method is proposed to account for these off-axis effects by precisely correcting the off-axis output factors, which calibrate the imager for absolute dose. Using this method, agreement between the predicted and the measured doses improves by up to 15% for fields near the detector edges, resulting in passing rate improvements of as much as 60% for gamma evaluation of 3 mm, 3% within the collimator jaws.

  20. Test of a slow off-axis parabola at its center of curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, R E; Evans, C J; Shao, L

    1995-11-01

    We describe the interferometric testing of a slow (ƒ/16 at the center of curvature) off-axis parabola, intended for use in an x-ray spectrometer, that uses a spherical wave front matched to the mean radius of the asphere. We find the figure error in the off-axis mirror by removing the theoretical difference between the off-axis segment and the spherical reference from the measured wave-front error. This center of curvature test is easy to perform because the spherical reference wave front has no axis and thus alignment is trivial. We confirm that the test results are the same as the double-pass null test for a parabola that uses a plane autocollimating mirror. We also determine that the off-axis section apparently warped as the result of being cut from the symmetric parent part.

  1. Photographic simulation of off-axis blurring due to chromatic aberration in spectacle lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroslovački, Pavle; Guyton, David L

    2015-02-01

    Spectacle lens materials of high refractive index (nd) tend to have high chromatic dispersion (low Abbé number [V]), which may contribute to visual blurring with oblique viewing. A patient who noted off-axis blurring with new high-refractive-index spectacle lenses prompted us to do a photographic simulation of the off-axis aberrations in 3 readily available spectacle lens materials, CR-39 (nd = 1.50), polyurethane (nd = 1.60), and polycarbonate (nd = 1.59). Both chromatic and monochromatic aberrations were found to cause off-axis image degradation. Chromatic aberration was more prominent in the higher-index materials (especially polycarbonate), whereas the lower-index CR-39 had more astigmatism of oblique incidence. It is important to consider off-axis aberrations when a patient complains of otherwise unexplained blurred vision with a new pair of spectacle lenses, especially given the increasing promotion of high-refractive-index materials with high chromatic dispersion.

  2. Proto-Model of an Infrared Wide-Field Off-Axis Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sanghyuk; Chang, Seunghyuk; Kim, Geon Hee; Yang, Sun Choel; Kim, Myung Sang; Lee, Sungho; Lee, Hanshin; 10.5303/JKAS.2010.43.5.169

    2010-01-01

    We develop a proto-model of an off-axis reflective telescope for infrared wide-field observations based on the design of Schwarzschild-Chang type telescope. With only two mirrors, this design achieves an entrance pupil diameter of 50 mm and an effective focal length of 100 mm. We can apply this design to a mid-infrared telescope with a field of view of 8 deg X 8 deg. In spite of the substantial advantages of off-axis telescopes in the infrared compared to refractive or on-axis reflective telescopes, it is known to be difficult to align the mirrors in off-axis systems because of their asymmetric structures. Off-axis mirrors of our telescope are manufactured at the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI). We analyze the fabricated mirror surfaces by fitting polynomial functions to the measured data. We accomplish alignment of this two-mirror off-axis system using a ray tracing method. A simple imaging test is performed to compare a pinhole image with a simulated prediction.

  3. Fast processing of quantitative phase profiles from off-axis interferograms for real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Shaked, Natan T.

    2015-03-01

    We review new and efficient algorithms, lately presented by us, for rapid reconstruction of quantitative phase maps from off-axis digital interferograms. These algorithms improve the conventional Fourier-based algorithm by using the Fourier transforms and the phase unwrapping process more efficiently, and thus decrease the calculation complexity required for extracting the sample phase map from the recorded interferograms. Using the new algorithms, on a standard personal computer without using the graphic processing-unit programming or parallel computing, we were able to speed up the processing and reach frame rates of up to 45 frames per second for one megapixel off-axis interferograms. These capabilities allow real-time visualization, calculation and data extraction for dynamic samples and processes, inspected by off-axis digital holography. Specific applications include biological cell imaging without labeling and real-time nondestructive testing.

  4. Optical Design for the Off-axis Reflective Optics with Wide Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Reflective optics with wide field of view has been applied more and more widely in EUVL or space optics, and also plays an important role in promoting scientific and technological research. Among the reflective optics, the off-axis reflective optics is the most hopeful solution to the ever-highest demands of these applications. This paper gives the requirements of both the above mentioned applications and the similarities and differences between these two kinds of optical systems. Finally, a design example of off-axis reflective optics with wide field of view is presented and described.

  5. A two-dimensional matrix correction for off-axis portal dose prediction errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Daniel W. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Bakhtiari, Mohammad [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Podgorsak, Matthew B. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This study presents a follow-up to a modified calibration procedure for portal dosimetry published by Bailey et al. ['An effective correction algorithm for off-axis portal dosimetry errors,' Med. Phys. 36, 4089-4094 (2009)]. A commercial portal dose prediction system exhibits disagreement of up to 15% (calibrated units) between measured and predicted images as off-axis distance increases. The previous modified calibration procedure accounts for these off-axis effects in most regions of the detecting surface, but is limited by the simplistic assumption of radial symmetry. Methods: We find that a two-dimensional (2D) matrix correction, applied to each calibrated image, accounts for off-axis prediction errors in all regions of the detecting surface, including those still problematic after the radial correction is performed. The correction matrix is calculated by quantitative comparison of predicted and measured images that span the entire detecting surface. The correction matrix was verified for dose-linearity, and its effectiveness was verified on a number of test fields. The 2D correction was employed to retrospectively examine 22 off-axis, asymmetric electronic-compensation breast fields, five intensity-modulated brain fields (moderate-high modulation) manipulated for far off-axis delivery, and 29 intensity-modulated clinical fields of varying complexity in the central portion of the detecting surface. Results: Employing the matrix correction to the off-axis test fields and clinical fields, predicted vs measured portal dose agreement improves by up to 15%, producing up to 10% better agreement than the radial correction in some areas of the detecting surface. Gamma evaluation analyses (3 mm, 3% global, 10% dose threshold) of predicted vs measured portal dose images demonstrate pass rate improvement of up to 75% with the matrix correction, producing pass rates that are up to 30% higher than those resulting from the radial correction technique alone

  6. Micromechanical Analysis of Interfacial Debonding in Metal Matrix Composites Subjected to off-axis Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Zhu; Xuefeng Chen; Zhi Zhai; Qiang Chen; Shaohua Tian; Zhengjia He

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of interfacial debonding and fiber volume fraction on the stress -strain behavior of the fiber reinforced metal matrix composites subjected to off -axis loading .The generalized method of cells ( GMC) is used to analyze a representative element whose fiber shape is circular .The constant compliant interface model (CCI) is also adopted to study the response of composites with imperfect interfacial bonding .Results show that for the com-posites subjected to off-axis loading ,the mechanical behaviors are affected appreciably by the interfacial debonding and the fiber volume fraction .

  7. Off-Axis Astigmatic Gaussian Beam Combination Beyond the Paraxial Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zeng-Hui; L(U) Bai-Da

    2007-01-01

    Taking the off-axis astigmatic Gaussian beam combination as an example, the beam-combination concept is extended to the nonparaxial regime. The closed-form propagation expressions for coherent and incoherent combinations of nonparaxial off-axis astigmatic Gaussian beams with rectangular geometry are derived and illustrated with numerical examples. It is shown that the intensity distributions of the resulting beam depend on the combination scheme and beam parameters in general, and in the paraxial approximation (i.e., for the small f-parameter)our results reduce to the paraxial ones.

  8. Vortex Breakdown Generated by off-axis Bifurcation in a cylinder with rotating covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Anders; Brøns, Morten; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2006-01-01

    Vortex breakdown of bubble type is studied for the flow in a cylinder with rotating top and bottom covers. For large ratios of the angular velocities of the covers, we observe numerically that the vortex breakdown bubble in the steady regime may occur through the creation of an off-axis vortex ring...

  9. Validation of the BASALT model for simulating off-axis hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Navah X.; Archer, David; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2017-08-01

    Fluid recharge and discharge between the deep ocean and the porous upper layer of off-axis oceanic crust tends to concentrate in small volumes of rock, such as seamounts and fractures, that are unimpeded by low-permeability sediments. Basement structure, sediment burial, heat flow, and other regional characteristics of off-axis hydrothermal systems appear to produce considerable diversity of circulation behaviors. Circulation of seawater and seawater-derived fluids controls the extent of fluid-rock interaction, resulting in significant geochemical impacts. However, the primary regional characteristics that control how seawater is distributed within upper oceanic crust are still poorly understood. In this paper we present the details of the two-dimensional (2-D) BASALT (Basement Activity Simulated At Low Temperatures) numerical model of heat and fluid transport in an off-axis hydrothermal system. This model is designed to simulate a wide range of conditions in order to explore the dominant controls on circulation. We validate the BASALT model's ability to reproduce observations by configuring it to represent a thoroughly studied transect of the Juan de Fuca Ridge eastern flank. The results demonstrate that including series of narrow, ridge-parallel fractures as subgrid features produces a realistic circulation scenario at the validation site. In future projects, a full reactive transport version of the validated BASALT model will be used to explore geochemical fluxes in a variety of off-axis hydrothermal environments.

  10. Compressive damage mechanism of GFRP composites under off-axis loading: Experimental and numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H.W.; Li, H.Y.; Gui, L.L.;

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and computational studies of the microscale mechanisms of damage formation and evolution in unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer composites (GFRP) under axial and off-axis compressive loading are carried out. A series of compressive testing of the composites with different a...

  11. Extremely Soft X-ray Flash as the indicator of off-axis orphan GRB afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Yuji; Yamazaki, Ryo; Sakamoto, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    We verified the off-axis jet model of X-ray flashes (XRFs) and examined a discovery of off-axis orphan gamma-ray burst (GRBs) afterglows. The XRF sample was selected on the basis of the following three factors: (1) a constraint on the lower peak energy of the prompt spectrum $E^{src}_{obs}$, (2) redshift measurements, and (3) multi-color observations of an earlier (or brightening) phase. XRF020903 was the only sample selected basis of these criteria. A complete optical multi-color afterglow light curve of XRF020903 obtained from archived data and photometric results in literature showed an achromatic brightening around 0.7 days. An off-axis jet model with a large observing angle (0.21 rad, which is twice the jet opening half-angle, $\\theta_{jet}$) can naturally describe the achromatic brightening and the prompt X-ray spectral properties. This result indicates the existence of off-axis orphan GRB afterglow light curves. Events with a larger viewing angle ($>\\sim2\\theta_{jet}$) could be discovered using an 8-m ...

  12. Off-axis beam dynamics in rf-gun-based electron photoinjectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Mitchell, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Qian, H.; Venturini, M.; Qiang, J.; Filippetto, D.; Staples, J.; Jia, Q.; Sannibale, F.

    2016-11-01

    The need to operate an rf-gun-based electron photoinjector with a beam emitted away from the cathode center can occur under various circumstances. First, in some cases the cathode can be affected by ion back-bombardment that progressively reduces the quantum efficiency (QE) in its center, making off-axis operation mandatory; second, in some cases the drive laser intensity can be sufficiently high to generate QE depletion in the cathode area illuminated by the laser, forcing off-axis operation; last, in cathodes with nonuniform QE distribution it could be convenient to operate off axis to exploit a better QE. However, operation in this mode may lead to growth of the projected transverse beam emittances due to correlations between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom that are introduced within the gun and downstream rf cavities. A strategy is described to mitigate this emittance growth by allowing the beam to propagate along a carefully tuned off-axis trajectory in downstream rf cavities to remove the time-dependent rf kicks introduced in the gun. Along this trajectory, short range wakefields do not degrade the emittance, and long range wakefields degrade the emittance for very high repetition rate only.

  13. Fast phase processing in off-axis holography by CUDA including parallel phase unwrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backoach, Ohad; Kariv, Saar; Girshovitz, Pinhas; Shaked, Natan T

    2016-02-22

    We present parallel processing implementation for rapid extraction of the quantitative phase maps from off-axis holograms on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) of the computer using computer unified device architecture (CUDA) programming. To obtain efficient implementation, we parallelized both the wrapped phase map extraction algorithm and the two-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithm. In contrast to previous implementations, we utilized unweighted least squares phase unwrapping algorithm that better suits parallelism. We compared the proposed algorithm run times on the CPU and the GPU of the computer for various sizes of off-axis holograms. Using the GPU implementation, we extracted the unwrapped phase maps from the recorded off-axis holograms at 35 frames per second (fps) for 4 mega pixel holograms, and at 129 fps for 1 mega pixel holograms, which presents the fastest processing framerates obtained so far, to the best of our knowledge. We then used common-path off-axis interferometric imaging to quantitatively capture the phase maps of a micro-organism with rapid flagellum movements.

  14. GRB off-axis afterglows and the emission from the accompanying supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows are likely produced in the shock that is driven as the GRB jet interacts with the external medium. Long duration GRBs are also associated with powerful supernovae (SN). We consider the optical and radio afterglows of long GRBs for both blasts viewed along the jet axis ("on-axis" afterglows) and misaligned observes ("off-axis" afterglows). Comparing the optical emission from the afterglow with that of the accompanying SN, using SN 1998bw as an archetype, we find that only a few percent of afterglows viewed off-axis are brighter than the SN. For observable optical off-axis afterglows the viewing angle is at most twice the half-opening angle of the GRB jet. Radio off-axis afterglows should be detected with upcoming radio surveys within a few hundred Mpc. We propose that these surveys will act as "radio triggers," and that dedicated radio facilities should follow-up these sources. Follow-ups can unveil the presence of the radio supernova remnant, if present. In addition, they can ...

  15. GRB off-axis afterglows and the emission from the accompanying supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are likely produced in the shock that is driven as the GRB jet interacts with the external medium. Long-duration GRBs are also associated with powerful supernovae (SNe). We consider the optical and radio afterglows of long GRBs for both blasts viewed along the jet axis (`on-axis' afterglows) and misaligned observes (`off-axis' afterglows). Comparing the optical emission from the afterglow with that of the accompanying SN, using SN 1998bw as an archetype, we find that only a few per cent of afterglows viewed off-axis are brighter than the SN. For observable optical off-axis afterglows, the viewing angle is at most twice the half-opening angle of the GRB jet. Radio off-axis afterglows should be detected with upcoming radio surveys within a few hundred Mpc. We propose that these surveys will act as `radio triggers', and that dedicated radio facilities should follow-up these sources. Follow-ups can unveil the presence of the radio SN remnant, if present. In addition, they can probe the presence of a mildly relativistic component, either associated with the GRB jet or the SN ejecta, expected in these sources.

  16. Off-Axis Gaussian Beams with Random Displacement in Atmospheric Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Baykal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent work in which we study the propagation of the general Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams in wireless broadband access telecommunication systems is elaborated in this paper to cover the special case of an off-axis Gaussian beam. We mainly investigate the propagation characteristics in atmospheric turbulence of an off-axis Gaussian beam possessing Gaussian distributed random displacement parameters. Our interest is to search for different types of laser beams that will improve the performance of a wireless broadband access system when atmospheric turbulence is considered. Our formulation is based on the basic solution of the second order mutual coherence function evaluated at the receiver plane. For fixed turbulence strength, the coherence length calculated at the receiver plane is found to decrease as the variance of the random displacement is increased. It is shown that as the turbulence becomes stronger, coherence lengths due to off-axis Gaussian beams tend to approach the same value, irrespective of the variance of the random displacement. As expected, the beam spreading is found to be pronounced for larger variance of displacement parameter. Average intensity profiles when atmospheric turbulence is present are plotted for different values of the variance of the random displacement parameter of the off-axis Gaussian beam.

  17. Light curves and spectra from off-axis gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salafia, O. S.; Ghisellini, G.; Pescalli, A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Nappo, F.

    2016-10-01

    If gamma-ray burst prompt emission originates at a typical radius, and if material producing the emission moves at relativistic speed, then the variability of the resulting light curve depends on the viewing angle. This is due to the fact that the pulse evolution time-scale is Doppler contracted, while the pulse separation is not. For off-axis viewing angles θview ≳ θjet + Γ-1, the pulse broadening significantly smears out the light-curve variability. This is largely independent of geometry and emission processes. To explore a specific case, we set up a simple model of a single pulse under the assumption that the pulse rise and decay are dominated by the shell curvature effect. We show that such a pulse observed off-axis is (i) broader, (ii) softer and (iii) displays a different hardness-intensity correlation with respect to the same pulse seen on-axis. For each of these effects, we provide an intuitive physical explanation. We then show how a synthetic light curve made by a superposition of pulses changes with increasing viewing angle. We find that a highly variable light curve (as seen on-axis) becomes smooth and apparently single-pulsed (when seen off-axis) because of pulse overlap. To test the relevance of this fact, we estimate the fraction of off-axis gamma-ray bursts detectable by Swift as a function of redshift, finding that a sizeable fraction (between 10 per cent and 80 per cent) of nearby (z < 0.1) bursts are observed with θview ≳ θjet + Γ-1. Based on these results, we argue that low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts are consistent with being ordinary bursts seen off-axis.

  18. High efficiency off-axis current drive by high frequency fast waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, R.; Pinsker, R. I.; Moeller, C. P.; Porkolab, M.; Vdovin, V.

    2014-02-01

    Modeling work shows that current drive can be done off-axis with high efficiency, as required for FNSF and DEMO, by using very high harmonic fast waves ("helicons" or "whistlers"). The modeling indicates that plasmas with high electron beta are needed in order for the current drive to take place off-axis, making DIII-D a highly suitable test vehicle for this process. The calculations show that the driven current is not very sensitive to the launched value of n∥, a result that can be understood from examination of the evolution of n∥ as the waves propagate in the plasma. Because of this insensitivity, relatively large values (˜3) of n∥ can be launched, thereby avoiding some of the problems with mode conversion in the boundary found in some previous experiments. Use of a traveling wave antenna provides a very narrow n∥ spectrum, which also helps avoid mode conversion.

  19. Off-axis electron holography for the measurement of active dopants in silicon semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David

    2016-11-01

    There is a need in the semiconductor industry for a dopant profiling technique with nm-scale resolution. Here we demonstrate that off-axis electron holography can be used to provide maps of the electrostatic potential in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. In this paper we will discuss issues regarding the spatial resolution and precision of the technique. Then we will discuss problems with specimen preparation and how this affects the accuracy of the measurements of the potentials. Finally we show results from experimental off-axis electron holography applied to nMOS and pMOS CMOS devices grown on bulk silicon and silicon- on-insulator type devices and present solutions to common problems that are encountered when examining these types of devices.

  20. Ten deg off-axis tensile test for intralaminar shear characterization of fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen for the intralaminar shear characterization of unidirectional composites. Composite mechanics, a combined-stress failure criterion, and a finite element analysis were used to determine theoretically the stress-strain variation across the specimen width and the relative stress and strain magnitudes at the 10 deg plane. Strain gages were used to measure the strain variation across the specimen width at specimen midlength and near the end tabs. Specimens from Mod-I/epoxy, T-300/epoxy, and S-glass/epoxy were used in the experimental program. It was found that the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen is suitable for intralaminar shear characterization and it is recommended that it should be considered as a possible standard test specimen for such a characterization.

  1. A Comprehensive Analysis on Chandra Deep Follow-up GRBs: Implications for Off-Axis Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Ryan, David N Burrows Geoffrey Scott; Racusin, Judith L; Troja, Eleonora; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We present a sample of 27 GRBs with detailed Swift light curves supplemented by late time Chandra observations. By fitting to empirical mathematical functions, we find a higher fraction of jet-break candidates 56% than previous studies using Swift-only samples (12%) and different analysis techniques. To answer the missing jet-break problem in general, we further develop a numerical simulation based model which can be directly fit to the data using a Bayesian Monte Carlo method. Our numerical model takes into account all the factors that can shape a jet-break: (i) lateral expansion (ii) edge effects and (iii) off-axis effects. Comparing to the empirical function fit, our results provide improved fits to the light curves and better constraints on physical parameters. More importantly, our results suggest that off-axis effects are important and must be included in interpretations of GRB jet breaks.

  2. Nanostructured Diamond-Like Carbon Films Grown by Off-Axis Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Shan Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC films instead of the ultrasmooth film were obtained by pulsed laser ablation of pyrolytic graphite. Deposition was performed at room temperature in vacuum with substrates placed at off-axis position. The configuration utilized high density plasma plume arriving at low effective angle for the formation of nanostructured DLC. Nanostructures with maximum size of 50 nm were deposited as compared to the ultrasmooth DLC films obtained in a conventional deposition. The Raman spectra of the films confirmed that the films were diamond-like/amorphous in nature. Although grown at an angle, ion energy of >35 eV was obtained at the off-axis position. This was proposed to be responsible for subplantation growth of sp3 hybridized carbon. The condensation of energetic clusters and oblique angle deposition correspondingly gave rise to the formation of nanostructured DLC in this study.

  3. Interferometric phase microscopy using slightly-off-axis reflective point diffraction interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongyi; Zhong, Zhi; Shan, Mingguang; Liu, Lei; Guo, Lili; Zhang, Yabin

    2017-03-01

    An interferometric phase microscopy (IPM) is proposed using slightly-off-axis reflective point diffraction interferometry for quantitative phase imaging. A retro-reflector consisting two mirrors is used to generate an angle between the object beam and reference beam, and a 45° tilted polarizing beam splitter is used to split the horizontal and vertical components of the both beams. Two carrier interferograms with π/2 phase-shift can be acquired in one shot, and the phase distribution of a thin specimen can be retrieved using a fast reconstruction method. The new IPM without loss in the utilization of the input-plane field of view combines the real time and optimizing detector bandwidth measurement benefit associated with slightly-off-axis method, high stability associated with common path geometry, and simplicity in terms of procedure and setup. Experiments are carried out on both static and dynamic specimens to demonstrate the validity and stability of the proposed method.

  4. Simultaneous two-wavelength phase unwrapping using an external module for multiplexing off-axis holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, Nir A; Shaked, Natan T

    2017-01-01

    We present a dual-wavelength external holographic microscopy module for quantitative phase imaging of 3D structures with extended thickness range. This is done by simultaneous acquisition of two off-axis interferograms, each at a different wavelength, and generation of a synthetic wavelength, which is larger than the sample optical thickness, allowing two-wavelength unwrapping. The simultaneous acquisition is carried out by using optical multiplexing of the two interferograms onto the camera, where each of them has orthogonal off-axis interference fringe direction in relation to the other one. We used the system to quantitatively image a 7.96 μm step target and 30.5 μm circular copper pillars.

  5. Towards quantitative electrostatic potential mapping of working semiconductor devices using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    Pronounced improvements in the understanding of semiconductor device performance are expected if electrostatic potential distributions can be measured quantitatively and reliably under working conditions with sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution. Here, we employ off-axis electron...... holography to characterize an electrically-biased Si p-. n junction by measuring its electrostatic potential, electric field and charge density distributions under working conditions. A comparison between experimental electron holographic phase images and images obtained using three-dimensional electrostatic...

  6. Optimum signal-to-noise ratio in off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyroff, Christoph

    2011-04-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) is investigated and compared to direct absorption spectroscopy using multipass absorption cells [tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)]. Applying measured noise characteristics of a near-IR tunable diode laser and detector, it is shown that the optimum SNR is not generally reached at the highest effective absorption path length. Simulations are used to determine the parameters for maximized SNR of OA-ICOS.

  7. Magnetic microstructure of iron sulfide crystals in magnetotactic bacteria from off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, T. [Frontier Research System, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Posfai, M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Veszprem (Hungary); Chong, R.K.K. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Finlayson, A.P. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Frontier Research System, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Japan); Frankel, R.B. [Department of Physics, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)]. E-mail: rfrankel@calpoly.edu

    2006-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopy, off-axis electron holography and energy-selected imaging were used to study the crystallography, morphology, and magnetic microstructure of nanoscale greigite (Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}) magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria from a sulfidic habitat. The greigite magnetosomes were organized in chains, but were less ordered than magnetite magnetosomes in other bacteria. Nevertheless, the magnetosomes comprise a permanent magnetic dipole, sufficient for magnetotaxis.

  8. A comparison of on-axis and off-axis heliostat alignment strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.A.

    1996-03-01

    Heliostat installation and alignment costs will be an important element in future solar power tower projects. The predicted annual performances of on- and-off axis strategies are compared for 95 m{sup 2} flat-glass heliostats and an external, molten-salt receiver. Actual approaches to heliostat alignment that have been used in the past are briefly discussed, and relative strengths and limitations are noted. The optimal approach can vary with the application.

  9. Binocular Coordination of the Human Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex during Off-axis Pitch Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Kaufman, G. D.; Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.

    2006-01-01

    Head movements in the sagittal pitch plane typically involve off-axis rotation requiring both vertical and horizontal vergence ocular reflexes to compensate for angular and translational motion relative to visual targets of interest. The purpose of this study was to compare passive pitch VOR responses during rotation about an Earth-vertical axis (canal only cues) with off-axis rotation (canal and otolith cues). Methods. Eleven human subjects were oscillated sinusoidally at 0.13, 0.3 and 0.56 Hz while lying left-side down with the interaural axis either aligned with the axis of rotation or offset by 50 cm. In a second set of measurements, twelve subjects were also tested during sinusoidally varying centrifugation over the same frequency range. The modulation of vertical and horizontal vergence ocular responses was measured with a binocular videography system. Results. Off-axis pitch rotation enhanced the vertical VOR at lower frequencies and enhanced the vergence VOR at higher frequencies. During sinusoidally varying centrifugation, the opposite trend was observed for vergence, with both vertical and vergence vestibulo-ocular reflexes being suppressed at the highest frequency. Discussion. These differential effects of off-axis rotation over the 0.13 to 0.56 Hz range are consistent with the hypothesis that otolith-ocular reflexes are segregated in part on the basis of stimulus frequency. At the lower frequencies, tilt otolith-ocular responses compensate for declining canal input. At higher frequencies, translational otolith-ocular reflexes compensate for declining visual contributions to the kinematic demands required for fixating near targets.

  10. Lightweight off-axis 8-m class telescope: a case study to ELT approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Luna, Esteban; Salas, Luis; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene

    2004-07-01

    Two main trends presently prevail in ELT design: arrays of hundreds of small (1 - 2 m) hexagonal mirrors and the use of several large (~8m) monolithic mirrors. We present a conceptual study of an off axis 8 m telescope with different mirror options, which can be useful as an experiment towards the design of large multi-mirror telescopes, in terms of different mirror materials, ideas for the optics and new solutions for the telescope mechanical assembly.

  11. Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints’ Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2016-09-26

    The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure (~140 %) followed by AI (~105 %) and lastly LTL (~85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints’ applications. © 2016 The Author(s)

  12. Commissioning of the off-axis neutral beamline on the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, J. T.; Murphy, C. J.; Hong, R. M.

    2011-10-01

    One of the four neutral beam injection systems on DIII-D has recently been rebuilt to allow off-axis injection. A system of hydraulically operated pistons was fit to the beamline to allow tilting up to an angle of 16.5 deg, enabling injection of 5 MW of neutral beam power up to 40 cm below the plasma centroid. Off-axis injection required rebuilding the two ion sources to produce more strongly focused and narrower beams that can inject the power at an angle through the port box of the vacuum vessel. The internal beamline collimation system was replaced with a new system compatible with the stronger focused sources. An extensive alignment process was carried out for all beamline internal components and ion sources. Extensive analysis has been carried out using thermocouple and calorimetry data to document the performance of the collimation system, leading to an extension of the allowable pulse length. We present a description of the modifications that were made to the ion sources and collimation systems and the results of heating and performance studies for the off-axis beam injection system. Work supported by U.S. DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  13. Optical design of off-axis Cassegrain telescope using freeform surface at the secondary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Suryakant; Gupta, Amit; Singh, Ganga Sharan

    2015-02-01

    Freeform surfaces enable imaginative optics by providing abundant degrees of freedom for an optical designer as compared to spherical surfaces. An off-axis two-mirror-based telescope design is presented, in which the primary mirror is a concave prolate spheroid and the secondary mirror is freeform surface-based. The off-axis configuration is employed here for removing the central obscuration problem which otherwise limits the central maxima in the point spread function. In this proposed design, an extended X-Y polynomial is used as a surface descriptor for the off-axis segment of the secondary mirror. The coefficients of this extended polynomial are directly related to the Seidel aberrations, and are thus optimized here for a better control of asymmetric optical aberrations at various field points. For this design, the aperture stop is located 500 mm before the primary mirror and the entrance pupil diameter is kept as 80 mm. The effective focal length is 439 mm and covers a full field of view of 2 deg. The image quality obtained here is near diffraction limited which can be inferred from metrics such as the spot diagram and modulation transfer function.

  14. Simulation study on the emittance compensation of off-axis emitted beam in RF photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui-Xuan; Mitchell, Chad; Jia, Qi-Ka; Papadopoulos, Christos; Sannibale, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    To make full use of the photocathode material and improve its quantum efficiency lifetime, it can be necessary to operate the laser away from the cathode center in photoinjectors. In RF guns, the off-axis emitted beam will see a time-dependent RF effect, which would generate a significant growth in transverse emittance. It has been demonstrated that such an emittance growth can be almost completely compensated by orienting the beam on a proper orbit in the downstream RF cavities along the injector [1]. In this paper we analyze in detail the simulation techniques used in reference [1] and the issues associated with them. The optimization of photoinjector systems involving off-axis beams is a challenging problem. To solve this problem, one needs advanced simulation tools including both genetic algorithms and an efficient algorithm for 3D space charge. In this paper, we report on simulation studies where the two codes ASTRA and IMPACT-T are used jointly to overcome these challenges, in order to optimize a system designed to compensate for the emittance growth in a beam emitted off axis. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11375199), and Chinese Scholarship Council

  15. Light curves and spectra from off-axis gamma-ray burst single pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Salafia, Om S; Pescalli, Alessio; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Nappo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We set up a simple model to compute the bolometric light curve and time dependent spectrum of a single pulse of a Gamma-Ray Burst under the assumption that the pulse rise and decay are dominated by the shell curvature effect. For the first time, our model includes the effect of an arbitrary off-axis viewing angle. We show that a pulse observed off-axis is (i) longer, (ii) softer and (iii) displays a different hardness-intensity correlation with respect to the same pulse seen on-axis. For each of these effects, we provide an intuitive physical explanation. We then show how a synthetic light curve made by a superposition of pulses changes with increasing viewing angle. We find that many observed properties found in time-resolved spectral analysis of Gamma-Ray Burst light curves are reproduced in curves with a slightly off-axis viewing angle. Such properties include the fact that the spectral peak energy evolution tracks the variations in flux, leading them slightly. Based on these results, we argue that low lum...

  16. Real-time processing of off-axis interferograms: from the camera to the user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Gabay, Tamir; Shaked, Natan T.

    2014-07-01

    We review new algorithms that have been presented by us lately1 for fast reconstruction and phase unwrapping of sample wave-fronts recorded using off-axis digital holographic imaging. These algorithms enable reconstruction and phase unwrapping of sample wave-fronts up to 16 times faster than the conventional Fourier-based reconstruction algorithm. The algorithms exploit the compression properties of holographic imaging for decreasing the calculation complexity required for extracting the sample wave-front from the recorded interferogram. Using the presented algorithms, we were able to reconstruct, for the first time, 1 Mega pixels off-axis interferograms in more than 30 frames per second using a standard single-core personal computer on a Matlab-Labview interface, without using a graphic processing-unit programming or parallel computing. This computational speedup is important for real-time visualization, calculation and data extraction for dynamic samples and processes that are evaluated using off-axis digital holography such as biological cell imaging and real-time nondestructive testing.

  17. A TWO-DOF Controlled Lens Drive Actuator for Off-Axis Laser Beam Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Nakai, Takahiro

    This paper describes a two-degree-of-freedom (two-DOF) controlled electromagnetic actuator guided by an elastic hinge mechanism to realize off-axis laser beam cutting. In the laser beam cutting process, a focused laser beam melts and vaporizes part of the workpiece, and the molten material is blown away by an assist gas jet. The cutting speed and quality are related to the flow of the assist gas jet. In order to improve the removal capability of the molten material and to reduce gas consumption in off-axis laser beam cutting, the lens is driven radially by the proposed two-DOF actuator to generate relative motion between the assist gas nozzle and the laser. Experimental results show the prototype actuator possesses a positioning stroke of ±500µm within 3µm of tracking error and bandwidths more than 150Hz in the two-DOF directions. In the acceleration test supposed at a maximum acceleration of 2G, the prototype actuator maintains the relative displacement between the lens holder and the laser head within 10µm. Off-axis laser beam cutting by using the prototype actuator achieves high speed and less dross processing.

  18. Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints' Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Wang, Ying; Yudhanto, Arief; Joesbury, Adam; Potluri, Prasad; Lubineau, Gilles; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-04-01

    The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure ( 140 %) followed by AI ( 105 %) and lastly LTL ( 85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints' applications.

  19. Hybridization of phase retrieval and off-axis digital holography for high resolution imaging of complex shape objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a hybrid method of phase retrieval and off-axis digital holography is proposed for imaging of the complex shape objects. Off-axis digital hologram and in-line hologram are recorded. The approximate phase distributions in the recording plane and object plane are obtained by constrained optimization approach from the off-axis hologram, and they are used as the initial value and the constraints in the phase retrieval for eliminating the twin image of in-line holography. Numerical simulations and optical experiments were carried out to validate the proposed method.

  20. Thin Film Flat Panel Off-Axis Solar Concentrator with Flux Distribution Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Relatively small concentric thin film FRESNEL lenses and fresnel-like Multiple Parabolic Reflecting Surface (MPRS) reflectors have been successfully produced from...

  1. Transparent conducting zinc oxide thin film prepared by off-axis rf magnetron sputtering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Jayaraj; Aldrin Antony; Manoj Ramachandran

    2002-06-01

    Highly conducting and transparent ZnO : Al thin films were grown by off-axis rf magnetron sputtering on amorphous silica substrates without any post-deposition annealing. The electrical and optical properties of the films deposited at various substrate temperatures and target to substrate distances were investigated in detail. Optimized ZnO : Al films have conductivity of 2200 S cm–1 and average transmission in the visible range is higher than 85%. The conductivity and mobility show very little temperature dependence.

  2. Autofocusing of digital holographic microscopy based on off-axis illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Yao, Baoli; Min, Junwei; Guo, Rongli; Ma, Baiheng; Zheng, Juanjuan; Lei, Ming; Yan, Shaohui; Dan, Dan; Ye, Tong

    2012-09-01

    An auto-focusing method for digital holographic microscopy has been proposed by employing two off-axis illumination beams. When specimens are illuminated by two plane waves in different directions, it is found that the farther the reconstruction plane is from the image plane, the wider the two reconstructed images are separated from each other. Thus, the image plane can be determinated by finding the minimum of the variation between the two reconstructed object waves on both the amplitude and phase distributions. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by the corresponding simulation and experiment.

  3. Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoa; Ding, Huafeng; Sobh, Nahil; Do, Minh; Patel, Sanjay; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate real time off-axis Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) using a phase reconstruction algorithm based on NVIDIA's CUDA programming model. The phase unwrapping component is based on Goldstein's algorithm. By mapping the process of extracting phase information and unwrapping to GPU, we are able to speed up the whole procedure by more than 18.8× with respect to CPU processing and ultimately achieve video rate for mega-pixel images. Our CUDA implementation also supports processing of multiple images simultaneously. This enables our imaging system to support high speed, high throughput, and real-time image acquisition and visualization.

  4. Resolution improvement in off-axis digital holography using an iterative scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Liu, Cheng; Veetil, Suhas P.; Gao, Shumei; Wang, Jicheng; Wang, Yueke

    2014-08-01

    The image quality in off-axis digital holography (DH) is often degraded by inaccuracies in the reference wave used for reconstruction and the spatial filtering adopted to avoid twin images and zeroth order diffraction. To enhance the image quality in such cases, coherent diffraction imaging is combined with a DH technique to iteratively reconstruct the hologram. By using a small aperture on the sample plane as a spatial constraint and the recorded diffraction pattern as an intensity constraint, a higher spatial resolution than usual is obtained with the proposed method.

  5. Speckle-based off-axis holographic detection for non-contact photoacoustic tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buj C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A very fast innovative holographic off-axis non-contact detection method for Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT is introduced. It overcomes the main problems of most state-of-the-art photoacoustic imaging approaches that are long acquisition times and the requirement of acoustic contact. In order to increase the acquisition speed significantly, the surface displacements of the object, caused by the photoacoustic pressure waves, are measured interferometrically in two dimensions. Phase alterations in the observed speckle field are used to identify changes in the object’s topography. A sampling rate of up to 80 MHz is feasible, which reduces the occurrence of motion artefacts.

  6. Orbital Angular Momentum in Noncollinear Second Harmonic Generation by off-axis vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Giardina, Maurizio; Sibilia, Concita

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally study the behavior of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light in a noncollinear second harmonic generation (SHG) process. The experiment is performed by using a type I BBO crystal under phase matching conditions with femtosecond pumping fields at 830 nm. Two specular off-axis vortex beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum at the fundamental frequency (FF) are used. We analyze the behavior of the OAM of the SH signal when the optical vortex of each input field at the FF is displaced from the beam's axis. We obtain different spatial configurations of the SH field, always carrying the same zero angular momentum.

  7. Alignment of multiple-off-axis-beam imaging/interference systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, Shruthi K; Leibovici, Matthieu C R; Gaylord, Thomas K

    2016-04-20

    The alignment of components in complex multibeam arrangements is typically prone to errors that limit the performance of the system. A systematic procedure for aligning such systems is presented here. The method facilitates the precision alignment of the optical elements to achieve the accurate projection of multiple on- and off-axis images and the simultaneous interference of the multiple beams. In addition to the multibeam imaging/interference system presented, the procedure can be employed in other multibeam imaging and/or interfering configurations.

  8. Electron gun with off-axis beam injection for a race-track microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloev, A.V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Carrillo, D. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kubyshin, Yu.A., E-mail: iouri.koubychine@upc.ed [Institute of Energy Technologies, Technical University of Catalonia, Campus Sud, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pakhomov, N.I.; Shvedunov, V.I. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-01

    A miniature 12 MeV race-track microtron for medical applications is under construction at the Technical University of Catalonia in collaboration with several Spanish centers and companies and the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Moscow State University. As a source of electrons a compact 3D on-axis electron gun with an off-axis cathode has been designed to allow a direct and efficient injection into the accelerating structure. Its prototype has been built and successfully tested. Results of the electron gun design simulations and of the prototype performance are herein described.

  9. Manifestation of the rotational Doppler effect by use of an off-axis optical vortex beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basistiy, I V; Slyusar, V V; Soskin, M S; Vasnetsov, M V; Bekshaev, A Ya

    2003-07-15

    We report what is to our knowledge the first all-optical detection of the frequency beats between Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian LG0(1) modes in their axial superposition, caused by the rotational Doppler effect. The relation between the observable off-axis optical vortex rotation and the rotational frequency shift of the Laguerre-Gaussian component is ascertained. The results can be used as a physical basis for recognition of Laguerre-Gaussian mode spectra along their orbital angular momenta.

  10. The effects of eccentricities on the fracture of off-axis fiber composites. [carbon fiber reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Finite element analyses were performed to investigate theoretically the effects of in-plane and out-of-plane eccentricities, bending or twisting, and thickness nonuniformity on the axial stress and strain variations across the width of off-axis specimens. The results are compared with measured data and are also used to assess the effects of these eccentricities on the fracture stress of off-axis fiber composites. Guidelines for detecting and minimizing the presence of eccentricities are described.

  11. Optical evaluation of Fricke xylenol orange gel by light scattered at 90 degrees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, J; Alwan, R; Guermeur, F; Makovicka, L; Bailly, Y [IRMA/ENISYS/FEMTO-ST UMR 6174 CNRS, Universite de Franche-Comte, Pole Universitaire, BP 71427, 25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Spevacek, V; Cechak, T [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, Praha 1, 115 19 (Czech Republic); Martin, E [Department of Radiotherapy, CH Belfort-Montbeliard, 25209 Montbeliard (France)], E-mail: svobojir@kmlinux.fjfi.cvut.cz

    2009-05-01

    This communication presents optical method for evaluation of Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) using light scattered at 90 degrees to initial direction. Although Fricke gel is predominantly absorbing, gelatine matrix scatters enough light which could be collected and related to dose delivered to gel. Initials experiments were oriented to determination applicability of this approach.

  12. Simulation Study on the Emittance Compensation of Off-axis Emitted Beam in RF Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Rui-Xuan; Jia, Qi-Ka; Papadopoulos, Christos; Sannibale, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To make full use of photocathode material and improve its quantum efficiency lifetime, it can be necessary to operate laser away from the cathode center in photoinjectors. In RF guns, the off-axis emitted beam will see a time-dependent RF effect, which would generate a significant growth in transverse emittance. It has been demonstrated that such an emittance growth can be almost completely compensated by orienting the beam on a proper orbit in the downstream RF cavities along the injector. In this paper we analyze in detail the simulation techniques used in reference[1] and the issues associated with them. The optimization of photoinjector systems involving off-axis beams is a challenging problem. To solve this problem, one needs advanced simulation tools including both genetic algorithms and an efficient algorithm for 3D space charge. In this paper, we report on simulation studies where the two codes ASTRA and IMPACT-T are used jointly to overcome these challenges, in order to optimize a system designed to ...

  13. High efficiency off-axis current drive by high frequency fast waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, R.; Pinsker, R. I.; Moeller, C. P. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Porkolab, M.; Vdovin, V. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-02-12

    Modeling work shows that current drive can be done off-axis with high efficiency, as required for FNSF and DEMO, by using very high harmonic fast waves (“helicons” or “whistlers”). The modeling indicates that plasmas with high electron beta are needed in order for the current drive to take place off-axis, making DIII-D a highly suitable test vehicle for this process. The calculations show that the driven current is not very sensitive to the launched value of n{sub ∥}, a result that can be understood from examination of the evolution of n{sub ∥} as the waves propagate in the plasma. Because of this insensitivity, relatively large values (∼3) of n{sub ∥} can be launched, thereby avoiding some of the problems with mode conversion in the boundary found in some previous experiments. Use of a traveling wave antenna provides a very narrow n{sub ∥} spectrum, which also helps avoid mode conversion.

  14. Initial Off-Axis Neutral Beam Checkout and Physics Experiments on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, M. A.; Ferron, J. R.; Hyatt, A. W.; Murphy, C. J.; Petty, C. C.; Prater, R.; Scoville, J. T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Muscatello, C. M.; Park, J. M.; Murakami, M.; Pace, D. C.; Holcomb, C. T.; Grierson, B. A.; Tobias, B. J.; Solomon, W. M.; Moyer, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    Two of the eight neutral beam sources on DIII-D have been modified to allow vertical steering, with the injection angle varying from horizontal to downward at an angle of 16.5 degrees for off-axis deposition. Initial experiments to assess the basic beam functionality, geometry, and confinement were carried out. Dα images of beam into gas and plasma yield beam neutral profiles and are key in assessing beam shape and clipping. Neutron and fast-ion Dα (FIDA) diagnostics verify classical behavior of the off-axis beam ions in MHD-quiescent conditions. An initial physics experiment takes advantage of the downward steered beams to vary the fast-ion gradient ∇βf from centrally peaked to hollow. Systematic scans determine the stability and impact of reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes and toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes as a function of ∇βf . Supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, SC-G903402, DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-AC05-06OR23100, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC02-09CH11466, & DE-FG02-07ER54917.

  15. Reflective off-axis point-diffraction interferometer based on Michelson architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongyi; Guo, Lili; Zhong, Zhi; Shan, Mingguang; Zhang, Yabin

    2015-02-01

    A reflective off-axis point-diffraction interferometer based on Michelson architecture is built to measure static and dynamic quantitative phase in a single shot. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, a pinhole mirror, a reflective mirror and two lenses to build a 4f optical system. The pinhole mirror is used as a low-pass spatial filter to generate reference wave. By tilting the reflective mirror, a small angle is created between the object beam and the reference beam to enable an off-axis interferogram. To reconstruct an interferogram with a few fringes, Kreis Fourier method is used to recovery the specimen phase. Using a plano-convex cylinder lens and an evaporative alcohol drop as the specimens, experiments are run to verify the effectiveness and robustness with this interferometer. Experimental results show that this interferometer has not only simple setup and good anti-interference performance, but also good real-time ability, which makes it suitable for dynamic phase measurement.

  16. Fast imaging with inelastically scattered electrons by off-axis chromatic confocal electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changlin; Zhu, Ye; Lazar, Sorin; Etheridge, Joanne

    2014-04-25

    We introduce off-axis chromatic scanning confocal electron microscopy, a technique for fast mapping of inelastically scattered electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope without a spectrometer. The off-axis confocal mode enables the inelastically scattered electrons to be chromatically dispersed both parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis. This enables electrons with different energy losses to be separated and detected in the image plane, enabling efficient energy filtering in a confocal mode with an integrating detector. We describe the experimental configuration and demonstrate the method with nanoscale core-loss chemical mapping of silver (M4,5) in an aluminium-silver alloy and atomic scale imaging of the low intensity core-loss La (M4,5@840  eV) signal in LaB6. Scan rates up to 2 orders of magnitude faster than conventional methods were used, enabling a corresponding reduction in radiation dose and increase in the field of view. If coupled with the enhanced depth and lateral resolution of the incoherent confocal configuration, this offers an approach for nanoscale three-dimensional chemical mapping.

  17. Phase reconstruction of living human embryonic kidney 293 cells based on two off-axis holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjing; Yu, Yingjie; Duan, Yanhong; Asundi, Anand

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we validate experimentally the potential of off-axis digital micro-holography for 3D image reconstruction of a live Human Embryonic Kidney 293(HEK293) cell that is widely used as transfection and expression. A subtraction method of two off-axis holograms to reconstruct the phase of the live microscopic object is discussed. The presented subtraction method can remove some main noise, for example, the quadratic phase aberration introduced by microscope objective (MO), other phase aberration introduced by the liquid in tank and other interference noise introduced by the optical parts. Thus an improvement in the measurement precision of live cells in aqueous solution is observed. The potential of this method is demonstrated by providing the phase reconstruction results of a phase grating and a single HEK293 cell. The results showed good correspondence to the actual character of HEK293 cell prove the capability of digital micro-holography as a tool to monitor the dynamic transfection process of the living HEK 293 cells.

  18. Fabrication technique for the production of on- and off-axis conic surfaces of revolution (WAGNER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faehnle, Oliver W.; van Brug, Hedser H.; Frankena, Hans J.

    1997-11-01

    A new fabrication technique, derived from an earlier development to produce on- and off-axis optical surfaces of revolution is presented. Although based on a shape copying method, it is possible to generate different types of surfaces with the same machine tool. Load controlled point- contact machining is applied using a small tool which is guided along a pre-determined tool-path, not requiring an in-process tool-path control. This fabrication technique employs a self-correcting process and is characterized by an advantageous error propagation between tool and workpiece. The characteristics of this fabrication technique are discussed together with its application for the generation of on- and off-axis surfaces with conic sections as generators. The design of a first set-up for production of conic surfaces is presented with which it is possible to generate all kinds of conic surfaces on the same machine, featuring a pantograph enabling the production of different scales of the surfaces, together with the discussion of fist experimental data.

  19. Elimination of off-axis light leakage in a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Won; Park, Byung Wok; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Among various liquid crystal display modes, the in-plane switching mode exhibits the widest viewing angle because the liquid crystals are homogeneously-aligned initially and rotate within a plane parallel to the substrates when an in-plane field is applied. However, further improvement is still needed for viewing high-quality dark images from the bisector direction of the crossed polarizers. Several compensation schemes have been proposed to eliminate the off-axis light leakage in a homogeneously-aligned liquid crystal cell. Although a 100:1 iso-contrast contour at an wavelength of 550 nm can cover the entire viewing cone, light leakage at other wavelengths still remains very severe. In this paper we introduce achromatic optical compensation methods using uniaxial films to eliminate the off-axis light leakage at the dark state in homogeneously-aligned liquid crystal cell.Uniaxial films with different dispersion characteristics are used so that they can compensate one another to achieve achromatic optical compensation. The retardation values are optimized through numerical research with the aid of the Poincaré sphere.

  20. Dynamics of the off axis intense beam propagation in a spiral inflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of space charge dominated beam in a spiral inflector is discussed by developing equations of motion for centroid and beam envelope for the off axis beam propagation. Evolution of the beam centroid and beam envelope is studied as a function of the beam current for various input beam parameters. The transmission of beam through the inflector is also estimated as a function of the beam current for an on axis and off axis beam by tracking a large number of particles. Simulation studies show that shift of the centroid from the axis at the inflector entrance affects the centroid location at the exit of the inflector and causes reduction in the beam transmission. The centroid shift at the entrance in the horizontal plane (h plane) is more critical as it affects the centroid shift in the vertical plane (u plane) by a large amount near the inflector exit where the available aperture is small. The beam transmission is found to reduce with increase in the centroid shift as well as with the beam current.

  1. Propagation of the off-axis superposition of partially coherent beams through atmospheric turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang En-Tao; Ji Xiao-Ling; Lü Bai-Da

    2009-01-01

    The propagation properties of the off-axis superposition of partially coherent beams through atmospheric tur-bulence and their beam quality in terms of the mean-squared beam width w(z) and the power in the bucket (PIB)are studied in detail, where the effects of partial coherence, off-axis beam superposition and atmospheric turbulence are considered. The analytical expressions for the intensity, the beam width and the PIB are derived, and illustrative examples are given numerically. It is shown that the maximum intensity/max and the PIB decrease and ω(z) increases as the refraction index structure constant C2n increases. Therefore, the turbulence results in a degradation of the beam quality. However, the resulting partially coherent beam with a smaller value of spatial correlation parameter γ and larger values of separate distance Xd and beam number M is less affected by the turbulence than that with a larger value of γ and smaller values of xd and M. The main results obtained in this paper are explained physically.

  2. Measurement of multiaxial ply strength by an off-axis flexure test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, John H., Jr.; Naik, Rajiv A.

    1992-01-01

    An off-axis flexure (OAF) test was performed to measure ply strength under multiaxial stress states. This test involves unidirectional off-axis specimens loaded in bending, using an apparatus that allows these anisotropic specimens to twist as well as flex without the complications of a resisting torque. A 3D finite element stress analysis verified that simple beam theory could be used to compute the specimen bending stresses at failure. Unidirectional graphite/epoxy specimens with fiber angles ranging from 90 deg to 15 deg have combined normal and shear stresses on their failure planes that are typical of 45 deg plies in structural laminates. Tests for a range of stress states with AS4/3501-6 specimens showed that both normal and shear stresses on the failure plane influenced cracking resistance. This OAF test may prove to be useful for generating data needed to predict ply cracking in composite structures and may also provide an approach for studying fiber-matrix interface failures under stress states typical of structures.

  3. A vector model for off-axis hysteresis loops using anisotropy field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Ali; Torre, Edward Della; Cardelli, Ermanno; ElBidweihy, Hatem; Bennett, Lawrence H.

    2016-11-01

    A model for the off-axis vector magnetization of a distribution of uniaxial particles is presented. Recent work by the authors decomposed the magnetization into two components and modeled the total vector magnetization as their vector sum. In this paper, to account for anisotropy, the direction of the reversible magnetization component is specified by the vector sum of the applied field and an effective anisotropy field. The formulation of the new anisotropy field (AF) model is derived and its results are discussed considering (i) oscillation and rotational modes, (ii) lag angle, and (iii) unitary magnetization. The advantages of the AF model are outlined by comparing its results to the results of the classical Stoner-Wohlfarth model.

  4. Automated Fourier space region-recognition filtering for off-axis digital holographic microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xuefei; Pratap, Mrinalini; Zheng, Yujie; Wang, Yi; Nisbet, David R; Williams, Richard J; Rug, Melanie; Maier, Alexander G; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-01-01

    Automated label-free quantitative imaging of biological samples can greatly benefit high throughput diseases diagnosis. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a powerful quantitative label-free imaging tool that retrieves structural details of cellular samples non-invasively. In off-axis DHM, a proper spatial filtering window in Fourier space is crucial to the quality of reconstructed phase image. Here we describe a region-recognition approach that combines shape recognition with an iterative thresholding to extracts the optimal shape of frequency components. The region recognition technique offers fully automated adaptive filtering that can operate with a variety of samples and imaging conditions. When imaging through optically scattering biological hydrogel matrix, the technique surpasses previous histogram thresholding techniques without requiring any manual intervention. Finally, we automate the extraction of the statistical difference of optical height between malaria parasite infected and uninfected re...

  5. The T2K ND280 Off-Axis Pi-Zero Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Assylbekov, S; Berns, H; Beznosko, D; Bodek, A; Bradford, R; Buchanan, N; Budd, H; Caffari, Y; Connolly, K; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; Day, M; Dytman, S; Dziomba, M; Flight, R; Forbush, D; Gilje, K; Hansen, D; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Johnson, R A; Jung, C K; Kravtsov, V; Le, P T; Lopez, G D; Malafis, C J; Manly, S; Marino, A D; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Nagashima, G; Naples, D; Nielsen, B; Paolone, V; Paul, P; Qian, W; Ramos, K; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Schmidt, J; Schwehr, J; Siyad, M; Steffens, J; Tadepalli, A S; Taylor, I J; Toki, W; Vanek, C; Warner, D; Weber, A; Wilkes, R J; Wilson, R J; Yanagisawa, C; Yuan, T

    2011-01-01

    The Pi-Zero detector (P{\\O}D) is one of the subdetectors that makes up the off-axis near detector for the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long baseline neutrino experiment. The primary goal for the P{\\O}D is to measure the relevant cross sections for neutrino interactions that generate pi-zero's, especially the cross section for neutral current pi-zero interactions, which are one of the dominant sources of background to the electron neutrino appearance signal in T2K. The P{\\O}D is composed of layers of plastic scintillator alternating with water bags and brass sheets or lead sheets and is one of the first detectors to use Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) on a large scale.

  6. Iterative approach for zero-order term elimination in off-axis multiplex digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Xie, Dongzhuo; Yang, Yong; Zhai, Hongchen

    2017-01-01

    An iterative approach is proposed to eliminate the zero-order term from an off-axis multiplexed hologram that contains several sub-holograms. The zero-order components of each sub-hologram are effectively eliminated one by one using the proposed iterative procedure. Because of the reduction of the zero-order components in the frequency domain, enlarged filtering windows can be used to separate each of the +1 order components and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The proposed method does not require prior knowledge of the object images, and only needs each of the reference wave intensities, which can be acquired before acquisition of the multiplexed hologram. The feasibility of the proposed approach is confirmed through mathematical deductions and numerical simulations, and the robustness of the proposed approach is verified using a practical multiplexed hologram.

  7. Stress optical path difference analysis of off-axis lens ray trace footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chan, Chia-Yen; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Kun-Huan; Chen, Chih-Wen; Chan, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical and thermal stress on lens will cause the glass refractive index different, the refractive index of light parallel and light perpendicular to the direction of stress. The refraction index changes will introduce Optical Path Difference (OPD). This study is applying Finite Element Method (FEM) and optical ray tracing; calculate off axis ray stress OPD. The optical system stress distribution result is calculated from finite element simulation, and the stress coordinate need to rotate to optical path direction. Meanwhile, weighting stress to each optical ray path and sum the ray path OPD. The Z-direction stress OPD can be fitted by Zernike polynomial, the separated to sag difference, and rigid body motion. The fitting results can be used to evaluate the stress effect on optical component.

  8. Host galaxies of luminous quasars: population synthesis of optical off-axis spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wold, I; Wolf, M J; Hooper, E J

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of a connection between AGN activity and galaxy evolution. To obtain further insight into this potentially important evolutionary phase, we analyse the properties of quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we present a population synthesis modeling technique for off-axis spectra, the results of which constrain host colour and the stellar ages of luminous quasars (M_V(nuc) 10^40 erg s^-1) quasars to be located in redder host galaxies in comparison to th eir less luminous radio counterparts. While the host colour and age of our radio luminous sample is in close proximity to the green valley, our radio faint sample is consistent with quiescent star-forming galaxies. However, further observations are needed to confirm these results. Finally, we discuss future applications for our technique on a larger sample of objects being obtained via SALT and WIYN telescope observing campaigns.

  9. Towards quantitative electrostatic potential mapping of working semiconductor devices using off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Sadegh, E-mail: sadegh.yazdi@cen.dtu.dk [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco; Samaie Yekta, Maryam [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); McComb, David W. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Twitchett-Harrison, Alison C. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Pronounced improvements in the understanding of semiconductor device performance are expected if electrostatic potential distributions can be measured quantitatively and reliably under working conditions with sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution. Here, we employ off-axis electron holography to characterize an electrically-biased Si p–n junction by measuring its electrostatic potential, electric field and charge density distributions under working conditions. A comparison between experimental electron holographic phase images and images obtained using three-dimensional electrostatic potential simulations highlights several remaining challenges to quantitative analysis. Our results illustrate how the determination of reliable potential distributions from phase images of electrically biased devices requires electrostatic fringing fields, surface charges, specimen preparation damage and the effects of limited spatial resolution to be taken into account.

  10. Off-axis retrieval of orbital angular momentum of light stored in cold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, R A; Barbosa, P S; Martins, W S; Barreiro, S; Felinto, D; Bloch, D; Tabosa, J W R

    2014-01-01

    We report on the storage of orbital angu- lar momentum (OAM) of light of a Laguerre-Gaussian mode in an ensemble of cold cesium atoms and its re- trieval along an axis different from the incident light beam. We employed a time-delayed four-wave mixing configuration to demonstrate that at small angle (2o), after storage, the retrieved beam carries the same OAM as the one encoded in the input beam. A calculation based on mode decomposition of the retrieved beam over the Laguerre-Gaussian basis is in agreement with the experimental observations done at small angle values. However, the calculation shows that the OAM retrieving would get lost at larger angles, reducing the fidelity of such storing-retrieving process. In addition, we have also observed that by applying an external magnetic field to the atomic ensemble the retrieved OAM presents Larmor oscillations, demonstrating the possibility of its manipulation and off-axis retrieval.

  11. The T2K ND280 off-axis pi-zero detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assylbekov, S. [Colorado State University, Department of Physics, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Barr, G. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Berger, B.E. [Colorado State University, Department of Physics, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Berns, H. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Beznosko, D. [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bodek, A.; Bradford, R. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Buchanan, N. [Colorado State University, Department of Physics, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Budd, H. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Caffari, Y. [Colorado State University, Department of Physics, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Connolly, K. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Danko, I. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Das, R. [Colorado State University, Department of Physics, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Davis, S. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Day, M. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Dytman, S. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dziomba, M. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Flight, R. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Forbush, D. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Gilje, K. [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); and others

    2012-09-11

    The pi-zero detector (POD) is one of the subdetectors that makes up the off-axis near detector for the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long baseline neutrino experiment. The primary goal for the POD is to measure the relevant cross-sections for neutrino interactions that generate {pi}{sup 0}'s, especially the cross-section for neutral current {pi}{sup 0} interactions, which are one of the dominant sources of background to the {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} appearance signal in T2K. The POD is composed of layers of plastic scintillator alternating with water bags and brass sheets or lead sheets and is one of the first detectors to use Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) on a large scale.

  12. A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.

    2000-12-11

    Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided.

  13. Off-Axis Orbits in Realistic Helical Wigglers Fixed Points and Time Averaged Dynamical Variables

    CERN Document Server

    ThomasDonohue, John

    2004-01-01

    Many years ago Fajans, Kirkpatrick and Bekefi studied off-axis orbits in a realistic helical wiggler, both experimentally and theoretically. They found that as the distance from the axis of symmetry to the guiding center increased, both the mean axial velocity and the precession frequency of the guiding center varied. . They proposed a clever semi-empirical model which yielded an excellent description of both these variations. We point out that a approximate model proposed by us several years ago can be made to predict these delicate effects correctly, provided we extend our truncated quadratic Hamiltonian to include appropriate cubic terms. We develop an argument similar to the virial theorem to compare time averaged and fixed-point values of dynamical variables. Illustrative comparisons of our model with numerical calculation are presented.

  14. Hydrothermal Cooling Within the Lau Integrated Study Site: No Evidence for Off-axis Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Martinez, F.; Walker, S. L.; Buck, N.; Edwards, M. H.; Nakamura, K.

    2008-12-01

    Decades of intensive hydrothermal surveying, overwhelmingly concentrated within hundreds of meters of the axes of ridge crests, has supported the view that discrete fluid discharge is predominantly concentrated in this same region. This simple view, however, conflicts with emerging evidence for a crustal high-temperature, low-velocity volume (LVV) that extends 2-3 km beyond the ridge crest and generates strongly focused hydrothermal cooling along its off-axis vertical boundaries. In March/April 2008, we used high-resolution sampling of near-bottom waters along 175 km of the hydrothermally active Valu Fa Ridge (VFR) and Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) to comprehensively test the hypothesis that hydrothermal discharge is predominantly near-axis. Our sampling array included a suite of Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorders (temperature, light scattering, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP)) attached above (to a nominal altitude of 400 m) and below the deep-towed IMI120 sonar, plus CTDs and sensors at the bottom of the string (50 m) and on the clump weight (120 m). The ELSC between 19.9° and 21°S (spreading ~80 mm/yr) grades from a broad, flat valley in the north to a shallow high in the south. Ten survey lines at 1 km spacing were centered on the axis, plus five interleaved lines around the axial high of the ABE vent field (1300 km of track). The VFR from 21.9° to 22.4°S (~50 mm/yr) is a sharp ridge that deepens ~200 m within 1 km of the axis. Seven survey lines were run at 0.7 km spacing, plus two shorter lines adjacent to a broad overlapping spreading center (390 km). CTD tows and casts supplemented the IMI120 surveys. The surveys detected emissions from the several known on-axis vent fields, and also identified a substantial unexplored field near 20.65°S, ~10 km north of the ABE field. In neither survey area, however, did we detect evidence of high-temperature discharge beyond the near-axis (±1 km) zone. Because off-axis discharge may be largely low

  15. Optimization on manufacturing and testing technology for rectangle aperture off-axis aspheric mirror fine grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Guo, Peiji; Wang, Dongdong

    2016-10-01

    High precision aspheric surface can be obtained conveniently by using single point diamond turning technology, liquidmagnetic polishing technology and ion beam polishing technology, but the costs of manufacturing is too enormous to be widely used. In fact, in the field of optical processing, the most commonly used technical solution is still making a best fit sphere firstly compared with aspheric equation, and then remove the material on the glass to correct the error between aspheric and best fit sphere by precision grinding and precision polishing. The resolving of the best-fit sphere and the material removal, however, is a very important problem during the fabrications. The two dimensional maps of surface error between the best fit sphere and the corresponding aspheric surface shows W shaped which has the maximum removal at the center and the edge of the workpeace and gradually reduces to zero at the 70.7 percent of the diameter. In the process of deterministic optical manufacturing, the edge effect will arise because of the change of machining conditions when polishing tool locates in edge area, which will lower the surface accuracy of workpiece and debase machining efficiency. W shaped error distribution and the edge effect will make it difficult to remove the error on the edge of the workpiece. Aiming at the situation, an algorithm available for control of edge effect is proposed. Considering the requirement of minimum material removal and the control of edge effect, the radius of the anti-edge effect sphere is calculated by programming. The advantage of the algorithm is shown by the comparison of results derived from new algorithm and empirical equation. At the same time, the application in the off-axis asphere fabrications also proves the correctness of the algorithm. This algorithm is very helpful for the theory and practice of the fabrications of off-axis asphere.

  16. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in NoVA with a second off-axis detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena, Olga; /Fermilab; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; /Vanderbilt U.; Pascoli, Silvia; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP

    2005-10-01

    We consider a Super-NOVA-like experimental configuration based on the use of two detectors in a long-baseline experiment as NOVA. We take the far detector as in the present NOVA proposal and add a second detector at a shorter baseline. The location of the second off-axis detector is chosen such that the ratio L/E is the same for both detectors, being L the baseline and E the neutrino energy. We consider liquid argon and water- Cerenkov techniques for the second off-axis detector and study, for different experimental setups, the detector mass required for the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy, for different values of {theta}{sub 13}. We also study the capabilities of such an experimental setup for determining CP-violation in the neutrino sector. Our results show that by adding a second off-axis detector a remarkable enhancement on the capabilities of the current NOVA experiment could be achieved.

  17. Doping GaP Core-Shell Nanowire pn-Junctions: A Study by Off-Axis Electron Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Sadegh; Berg, Alexander; Borgström, Magnus T; Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco; Samuelson, Lars; Wagner, Jakob B

    2015-06-10

    The doping process in GaP core-shell nanowire pn-junctions using different precursors is evaluated by mapping the nanowires' electrostatic potential distribution by means of off-axis electron holography. Three precursors, triethyltin (TESn), ditertiarybutylselenide, and silane are investigated for n-type doping of nanowire shells; among them, TESn is shown to be the most efficient precursor. Off-axis electron holography reveals higher electrostatic potentials in the regions of nanowire cores grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism (axial growth) than the regions grown parasitically by the vapor-solid (VS) mechanism (radial growth), attributed to different incorporation efficiency between VLS and VS of unintentional p-type carbon doping originating from the trimethylgallium precursor. This study shows that off-axis electron holography of doped nanowires is unique in terms of the ability to map the electrostatic potential and thereby the active dopant distribution with high spatial resolution.

  18. Optimum aberration coefficients for recording high-resolution off-axis holograms in a Cs-corrected TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linck, Martin, E-mail: linck@ceos-gmbh.de [CEOS GmbH, Englerstr. 28, D-69126 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Amongst the impressive improvements in high-resolution electron microscopy, the Cs-corrector also has significantly enhanced the capabilities of off-axis electron holography. Recently, it has been shown that the signal above noise in the reconstructable phase can be significantly improved by combining holography and hardware aberration correction. Additionally, with a spherical aberration close to zero, the traditional optimum focus for recording high-resolution holograms ('Lichte's defocus') has become less stringent and both, defocus and spherical aberration, can be selected freely within a certain range. This new degree of freedom can be used to improve the signal resolution in the holographically reconstructed object wave locally, e.g. at the atomic positions. A brute force simulation study for an aberration corrected 200 kV TEM is performed to determine optimum values for defocus and spherical aberration for best possible signal to noise in the reconstructed atomic phase signals. Compared to the optimum aberrations for conventional phase contrast imaging (NCSI), which produce 'bright atoms' in the image intensity, the resulting optimum values of defocus and spherical aberration for off-axis holography enable 'black atom contrast' in the hologram. However, they can significantly enhance the local signal resolution at the atomic positions. At the same time, the benefits of hardware aberration correction for high-resolution off-axis holography are preserved. It turns out that the optimum is depending on the object and its thickness and therefore not universal. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimized aberration parameters for high-resolution off-axis holography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulation and analysis of noise in high-resolution off-axis holograms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improving signal resolution in the holographically reconstructed phase shift. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of &apos

  19. Ultrashort hard x-ray pulses generated by 90 degrees Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, A.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Schoenlein, R.W.; Glover, T.E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ultrashort x-ray pulses permit observation of fast structural dynamics in a variety of condensed matter systems. The authors have generated 300 femtosecond, 30 keV x-ray pulses by 90 degrees Thomson scattering between femtosecond laser pulses and relativistic electrons. The x-ray and laser pulses are synchronized on a femtosecond time scale, an important prerequisite for ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. Analysis of the x-ray beam properties also allows for electron bunch characterization on a femtosecond time scale.

  20. In-Plane Cracking Behavior and Ultimate Strength for 2D Woven and Braided Melt-Infiltrated SiC/SiC Composites Tensile Loaded in Off-Axis Fiber Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Yun, Hee Mann; DiCarlo, James A.

    2007-01-01

    The tensile mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in directions off the primary axes of the reinforcing fibers are important for architectural design of CMC components that are subjected to multi-axial stress states. In this study, 2D-woven melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC/SiC composite panels with balanced fiber content in the 0 degree and 90 degree directions were tensile loaded in-plane in the 0 degree direction and at 45 degree to this direction. In addition, a 2D triaxially-braided MI composite panel with balanced fiber content in the plus or minus 67 degree bias directions and reduced fiber content in the axial direction was tensile loaded perpendicular to the axial direction tows (i.e., 23 degrees from the bias fibers). Stress-strain behavior, acoustic emission, and optical microscopy were used to quantify stress-dependent matrix cracking and ultimate strength in the panels. It was observed that both off-axis loaded panels displayed higher composite onset stresses for through-thickness matrix cracking than the 2D-woven 0/90 panels loaded in the primary 0 degree direction. These improvements for off-axis cracking strength can in part be attributed to higher effective fiber fractions in the loading direction, which in turn reduces internal stresses on critical matrix flaws for a given composite stress. Also for the 0/90 panel loaded in the 45 degree direction, an improved distribution of matrix flaws existed due to the absence of fiber tows perpendicular to the loading direction. In addition, for the +67/0/-67 braided panel, the axial tows perpendicular to the loading direction were not only low in volume fraction, but were also were well separated from one another. Both off-axis oriented panels also showed relatively good ultimate tensile strength when compared to other off-axis oriented composites in the literature, both on an absolute strength basis as well as when normalized by the average fiber strength within the composites. Initial

  1. On- and off-axis spectral emission features from laser-produced gas breakdown plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S. S.; Skrodzki, P. J.; Miloshevsky, A.; Brumfield, B. E.; Phillips, M. C.; Miloshevsky, G.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-heated gas breakdown plasmas or sparks emit profoundly in the ultraviolet and visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum with contributions from ionic, atomic, and molecular species. Laser created kernels expand into a cold ambient with high velocities during its early lifetime followed by confinement of the plasma kernel and eventually collapse. However, the plasma kernels produced during laser breakdown of gases are also capable of exciting and ionizing the surrounding ambient medium. Two mechanisms can be responsible for excitation and ionization of surrounding ambient: viz. photoexcitation and ionization by intense ultraviolet emission from the sparks produced during the early times of its creation and/or heating by strong shocks generated by the kernel during its expansion into the ambient. In this study, an investigation is made on the spectral features of on- and off-axis emission features of laser-induced plasma breakdown kernels generated in atmospheric pressure conditions with an aim to elucidate the mechanisms leading to ambient excitation and emission. Pulses from an Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm with 6 ns pulse duration are used to generate plasma kernels. Laser sparks were generated in air, argon, and helium gases to provide different physical properties of expansion dynamics and plasma chemistry considering the differences in laser absorption properties, mass density and speciation. Point shadowgraphy and time-resolved imaging were used to evaluate the shock wave and spark self-emission morphology at early and late times while space and time resolved spectroscopy is used for evaluating the emission features as well as for inferring plasma fundaments at on- and off-axis. Structure and dynamics of the plasma kernel obtained using imaging techniques are also compared to numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics code. The emission from the kernel showed that spectral features from ions, atoms and molecules are separated in

  2. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the

  3. Optical reconstruction of digital off-axis Fresnel holograms using phase-only LCOS SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, P. A.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Krasnov, V. V.; Porshneva, L. A.; Starikov, R. S.; Starikov, S. N.

    2014-09-01

    Optical reconstruction of digital holograms using SLM is used for imaging of 3D scenes, interferometry, microscopy, and etc. In this article reconstruction of digital off-axis Fresnel holograms using phase-only LCOS SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS" is described. Experimental and numerically simulated results of reconstruction are presented.

  4. Extending the detection limit of dopants for focused ion beam prepared semiconductor specimens examined by off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, David; Rivallin, Pierrette; Hartmann, Jean-Michel;

    2009-01-01

    Silicon specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared for examination by off-axis electron holography using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. FIB milling modifies the surfaces of the specimens due to gallium implantation and the creation of defects which has the effect of reducing the activ...

  5. Step-flow growth of fluorescent 4H-SiC layers on 4 degree off-axis substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hens, P.;

    2013-01-01

    Homoepitaxial layers of fluorescent 4H-SiC were grown on 4 degree off-axis substrates by sublimation epitaxy. Luminescence in the green spectral range was obtained by co-doping with nitrogen and boron utilizing donor-acceptor pair luminescence. This concept opens possibilities to explore green...

  6. The measurement of electrostatic potentials in core/shell GaN nanowires using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi; Ciechonski, R;

    2013-01-01

    Core-shell GaN nanowires are expected to be building blocks of future light emitting devices. Here we apply off-axis electron holography to map the electrostatic potential distributions in such nanowires. To access the cross-section of selected individual nanowires, focused ion beam (FIB) milling...

  7. First Muon-Neutrino Disappearance Study with an Off-Axis Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Ajima, Y; Aihara, H; Albert, J B; Andreopoulos, C; Andrieu, B; Anerella, M D; Aoki, S; Araoka, O; Argyriades, J; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Badertscher, A; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Bertram, I; Besnier, M; Beucher, J; Beznosko, D; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S B; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Brook-Roberge, D G; Buchanan, N; Budd, H; Calland, R; Calvet, D; Rodriguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Carver, A; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cazes, A; Cervera, A; Chavez, C; Choi, S; Christodoulou, G; Coleman, J; Collazuol, G; Coleman, W; Connolly, K; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davies, G S; Davis, S; Day, M; De Rosa, G; de André, J P A M; de Perio, P; Dealtry, T; Delbart, A; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Tran, P Dinh; Dobson, J; Dore, U; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Dziomba, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escallier, J E; Escudero, L; Esposito, L S; Fechner, M; Ferrero, A; Finch, A J; Frank, E; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Galymov, V; Ganetis, G L; Gannaway, F C; Gaudin, A; Gendotti, A; George, M A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Ghosh, A K; Golan, T; Goldhaber, M; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gomi, S; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Grant, A; Gumplinger, P; Guzowski, P; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamano, K; Hansen, C; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Harrison, P F; Hartfiel, B; Hartz, M; Haruyama, T; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hayashi, K; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Henderson, R; Higashi, N; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Hiraki, T; Hirose, E; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Hyndman, A; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Iida, M; Ikeda, M; Ilic, J; Imber, J; Ishida, T; Ishihara, C; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iwasaki, M; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Joo, K K; Jover-Manas, G V; Jung, C K; Kaji, H; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Karlen, D; Kasami, K; Kato, I; Kawamuko, H; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khanam, F; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kim, J; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kimura, N; Kirby, B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Koike, S; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kouzuma, Y; Kowalik, K; Kravtsov, V; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kubota, J; Kudenko, Y; Kulkarni, N; Kurimoto, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Laing, A; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lee, K P; Le, P T; Levy, J M; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Litos, M; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Lux, T; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Makida, Y; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marone, A J; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Maryon, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matsumura, C; Matsuoka, K; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; McLachlan, T; Messina, M; Metcalf, W; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A D; Mituka, G; Miura, M; Mizouchi, K; Monfregola, L; Moreau, F; Morgan, B; Moriyama, S; Muir, A; Murakami, A; Muratore, J F; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagai, N; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakajima, K; Nakamoto, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Navin, M L; Nicholls, T C; Nielsen, B; Nielsen, C; Nishikawa, K; Nishino, H; Nitta, K; Nobuhara, T; Nowak, J A; Obayashi, Y; Ogitsu, T; Ohhata, H; Okamura, T; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Ozaki, T; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Paul, P; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perkin, J D; Pettinacci, V; Pierre, F; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Qian, W; Raaf, J L; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Raufer, T M; Ravonel, M; Raymond, M; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roney, J M; Rossi, B; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sabouri, S; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sarrat, A; Sasaki, K; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Scully, D I; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Shibata, M; Shimizu, Y; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Sinclair, P D; Siyad, M; Smith, B M; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Stahl, A; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Stone, J; Stodulski, M; Strabel, C; Sulej, R; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, Y; Swierblewski, J; Szeglowski, T; Szeptycka, M; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Taguchi, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takenaga, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, M M; Tanimoto, N; Tashiro, K; Taylor, I; Terashima, A; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Toki, W; Tobayama, S; Tomaru, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Veledar, O; Wachala, T; Walding, J J; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wanderer, P J; Wang, J; Ward, M A; Ward, G P; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; West, N; Whitehead, L H; Wikström, G; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, S; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamanoi, Y; Yamaoka, H; Yamauchi, T; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2012-01-01

    We report a measurement of muon-neutrino disappearance in the T2K experiment. The 295-km muon-neutrino beam from Tokai to Kamioka is the first implementation of the off-axis technique in a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. With data corresponding to 1.43 10**20 protons on target, we observe 31 fully-contained single muon-like ring events in Super-Kamiokande, compared with an expectation of 104 +- 14 (syst) events without neutrino oscillations. The best-fit point for two-flavor nu_mu -> nu_tau oscillations is sin**2(2 theta_23) = 0.98 and |\\Delta m**2_32| = 2.65 10**-3 eV**2. The boundary of the 90 % confidence region includes the points (sin**2(2 theta_23),|\\Delta m**2_32|) = (1.0, 3.1 10**-3 eV**2), (0.84, 2.65 10**-3 eV**2) and (1.0, 2.2 10**-3 eV**2).

  8. Application of High Harmonic Fast Waves to Off-Axis Current Drive in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, R.; Pinsker, R. I.; Moeller, C. P.; Porkolab, M.; Vdovin, V. L.

    2013-10-01

    High harmonic fast waves, also called ``whistlers'' or ``helicons,'' may be an effective means of driving current off-axis in high performance discharges in DIII-D. Modeling using the GENRAY ray tracing code APP shows that fast waves launched with frequency 500 MHz tend to spiral around the magnetic axis. If the electron beta is above 1.7%, the waves are damped around ρ = 0 . 5 for a broad range of conditions. The fast wave current drive in the test discharge is 2 to 4 times larger per MW than that from the electron cyclotron heating or neutral beam injection systems on DIII-D. Interestingly, the current drive location and magnitude are nearly independent of the launched n| | over the range 2 to 4. Use of a moderately large value, n| | = 3 , reduces the possibility of mode conversion to the slow wave. A traveling wave antenna is expected to be effective at launching the wave with a narrow spectrum of n| |, which also helps avoid mode conversion. A test of the physics of high harmonic fast wave current drive is planned for DIII-D. Work supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  9. Searches for sterile neutrinos using the T2K off-axis near detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dewhurst, Debra

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the results from a number of short-baseline neutrino experiments and the reanalysis of previous reactor experiments with updated antineutrino fluxes suggest some incompatibility with the standard three-neutrino model. A possible solution to these anomalies is the existence of neutrinos that do not interact via the electroweak force, known as sterile neutrinos. The existence of sterile neutrinos can be investigated with the T2K Experiment. Here we present a search for the disappearance of electron neutrinos over a baseline of 280 m using the T2K off-axis near detector. The data analysed corresponds to an exposure of $5.9 \\times 10^{20}$ protons on target. The region $\\sin^2 2 \\theta > 0.2$ and $\\Delta m^2 > 8~\\textrm{eV}^2$ is excluded at 95% CL. We also present an introduction to a new analysis looking for muon neutrino disappearance with the T2K near detector, which is in its early stages but promises to have interesting results in 2015.

  10. Measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Adam, J; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F D M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Frank, E; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Golan, T; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kim, S B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Taylor, I J; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2013-11-22

    The T2K Collaboration reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector measurements are used to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters. The Super-Kamiokande far detector, which is 295 km downstream of the neutrino production target, collected data corresponding to 3.01×10(20) protons on target. In the absence of neutrino oscillations, 205±17 (syst) events are expected to be detected while only 58 muon neutrino event candidates are observed. A fit to the neutrino rate and energy spectrum, assuming three neutrino flavors and normal mass hierarchy yields a best-fit mixing angle sin2(θ23)=0.514±0.082 and mass splitting |Δm(32)(2)|=2.44(-0.15)(+0.17)×10(-3) eV2/c4. Our result corresponds to the maximal oscillation disappearance probability.

  11. Metallicity Distribution Functions, Radial Velocities, and Alpha Element Abundances in Three Off-Axis Bulge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christian I; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Pilachowski, Catherine A; Koch, Andreas; De Propris, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundance ratios of [Fe/H], [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for 264 red giant branch (RGB) stars in three Galactic bulge off-axis fields located near (l,b)=(-5.5,-7), (-4,-9), and (+8.5,+9). The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of moderate resolution (R~18,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N~75-300) spectra obtained with the Hydra spectrographs on the Blanco 4m and WIYN 3.5m telescopes. The targets were selected from the blue side of the giant branch to avoid cool stars that would be strongly affected by CN and TiO; however, a comparison of the color-metallicity distribution in literature samples suggests our selection of bluer targets should not present a significant bias against metal-rich stars. We find a full range in metallicity that spans [Fe/H]\\approx-1.5 to +0.5, and that, in accordance with the previously observed minor-axis vertical metallicity gradient, the median [Fe/H] also declines with increasing Galactic latitude in ...

  12. Millimeter-Wave Phaseless Antenna Measurement Based on a Modified Off-Axis Holography Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleya, Ana; Ala-Laurinaho, Juha; Laviada, Jaime; Álvarez, Yuri; Las-Heras, Fernando; Räisänen, Antti V.

    2016-02-01

    A novel scheme for planar near-field phaseless antenna measurement based on off-axis holography is presented. Separation of the image terms of the hologram is artificially increased by multiplexing the measurements of two sub-sampled holograms generated with two 180° phase-shifted reference waves. Combination of both sub-sampled holograms produces replicas of the image terms at half a period distance of the originals in the spectral domain, while the amplitude of the original image terms is highly reduced, easing the filtering process of the desired replica. The higher separation of the image terms reduces overlapping making the method suitable also for the characterization of medium and low gain antennas in the near-field. As the separation is artificially increased, the reference antenna can be placed close to the antenna under test allowing to reduce the scan distance and the sensitivity to scan axis errors. Nevertheless, spatial multiplexing requires the retrieved data to be spatially low-pass filtered to remove the effect of the aliasing. Mirror reflection is used for illuminating the acquisition plane with the reference wave, being the phase shift achieved by means of a mechanical displacement of the mirror. The effect of the location of the reference antenna on the position and shape of the image terms and their replicas has been studied through numerical simulations for a setup in the W-band. Experimental validation of the method is presented for the characterization of three different antennas at 94 GHz.

  13. Electromagnetic scattering by a uniaxial anisotropic sphere located in an off-axis Bessel beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Tan; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Shang, Qing-Chao; Li, Zheng-Jun; Bai, Lu

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic scattering of a zero-order Bessel beam by an anisotropic spherical particle in the off-axis configuration is investigated. Based on the spherical vector wave functions, the expansion expression of the zero-order Bessel beam is derived, and its convergence is numerically discussed in detail. Utilizing the tangential continuity of the electromagnetic fields, the expressions of scattering coefficients are given. The effects of the conical angle of the wave vector components of the zero-order Bessel beam, the ratio of the radius of the sphere to the central spot radius of the zero-order Bessel beam, the shift of the beam waist center position along both the x and y axes, the permittivity and permeability tensor elements, and the loss of the sphere on the radar cross section (RCS) are numerically analyzed. It is revealed that the maximum RCS appears in the conical direction or neighboring direction when the sphere is illuminated by a zero-order Bessel beam. Furthermore, the RCS will decrease and the symmetry is broken with the shift of the beam waist center.

  14. MODELING SiC/SiC COMPOSITES WITH OFF-AXIS FIBERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, Charles H.

    2008-03-04

    SiC is an excellent material for fusion reactor environments, including first wall plasma facing materials and breeder-blanket modules. In the form of woven or braided composites with high-strength SiC fibers it has the requisite mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties to be a useful and versatile material system for fusion applications [1-7]. The use of SiC-reinforced composites for fusion reactors or other nuclear applications will not be restricted to 0/90 aligned fiber architecture in all cases. It is important to understand the role of fiber orientation in the strength, toughness, and time-dependent properties for such materials. The use of high-strength ceramic fibers for composites is predicated on optimizing the strength, fracture resistance, and retained strength in aggressive environments, which argues for the best use of fiber strengths, namely on-axis loading for full load transfer to the high-strength fibers. Relatively few researchers have systematically studied the effects of fiber orientation on composite properties [8-10], and none have, to the best of our knowledge, performed any time-dependent testing of composites with off-axis or inclined fiber orientations.

  15. First muon-neutrino disappearance study with an off-axis beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Abgrall, N.; Ajima, Y.; Aihara, H.; Albert, J. B.; Andreopoulos, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anerella, M. D.; Aoki, S.; Araoka, O.; Argyriades, J.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Bertram, I.; Besnier, M.; Beucher, J.; Beznosko, D.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. D. M. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S. B.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Brook-Roberge, D. G.; Buchanan, N.; Budd, H.; Calland, R. G.; Calvet, D.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Carver, A.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cazes, A.; Cervera, A.; Chavez, C.; Choi, S.; Christodoulou, G.; Coleman, J.; Collazuol, G.; Coleman, W.; Connolly, K.; Curioni, A.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, S.; Day, M.; de Rosa, G.; de André, J.. P. A. M.; de Perio, P.; Dealtry, T.; Delbart, A.; Densham, C.; di Lodovico, F.; di Luise, S.; Dinh Tran, P.; Dobson, J.; Dore, U.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziomba, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escallier, J. E.; Escudero, L.; Esposito, L. S.; Fechner, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finch, A. J.; Frank, E.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Galymov, V.; Ganetis, G. L.; Gannaway, F. C.; Gaudin, A.; Gendotti, A.; George, M. A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Ghosh, A. K.; Golan, T.; Goldhaber, M.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gomi, S.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Grant, A.; Gumplinger, P.; Guzowski, P.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamano, K.; Hansen, C.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartfiel, B.; Hartz, M.; Haruyama, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Hayashi, K.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Henderson, R.; Higashi, N.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirose, E.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Hyndman, A.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Iida, M.; Ikeda, M.; Ilic, J.; Imber, J.; Ishida, T.; Ishihara, C.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iwasaki, M.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Joo, K. K.; Jover-Manas, G. V.; Jung, C. K.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Karlen, D.; Kasami, K.; Kato, I.; Kawamuko, H.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khanam, F.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. B.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, B.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Kogan, G.; Koike, S.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kouzuma, Y.; Kowalik, K.; Kravtsov, V.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kubota, J.; Kudenko, Y.; Kulkarni, N.; Kurimoto, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lee, K. P.; Le, P. T.; Levy, J. M.; Licciardi, C.; Lim, I. T.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Litos, M.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, G. D.; Loverre, P. F.; Ludovici, L.; Lux, T.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Makida, Y.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marchionni, A.; Marino, A. D.; Marone, A. J.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Maryon, T.; Marzec, J.; Masliah, P.; Mathie, E. L.; Matsumura, C.; Matsuoka, K.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; McLachlan, T.; Messina, M.; Metcalf, W.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A. D.; Mituka, G.; Miura, M.; Mizouchi, K.; Monfregola, L.; Moreau, F.; Morgan, B.; Moriyama, S.; Muir, A.; Murakami, A.; Muratore, J. F.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagai, N.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamoto, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Naples, D.; Navin, M. L.; Nicholls, T. C.; Nielsen, B.; Nielsen, C.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishino, H.; Nitta, K.; Nobuhara, T.; Nowak, J. A.; Obayashi, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Ohhata, H.; Okamura, T.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oser, S. M.; Otani, M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Ozaki, T.; Pac, M. Y.; Palladino, V.; Paolone, V.; Paul, P.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perkin, J. D.; Pettinacci, V.; Pierre, F.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Qian, W.; Raaf, J. L.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Raufer, T. M.; Ravonel, M.; Raymond, M.; Reeves, M.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rondio, E.; Roney, J. M.; Rossi, B.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sabouri, S.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sarrat, A.; Sasaki, K.; Scholberg, K.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Scully, D. I.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Sinclair, P. D.; Siyad, M.; Smith, B. M.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Stahl, A.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Stone, J.; Strabel, C.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Szeptycka, M.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Taguchi, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takenaga, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, M. M.; Tanimoto, N.; Tashiro, K.; Taylor, I.; Terashima, A.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Toki, W.; Tobayama, S.; Tomaru, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Veledar, O.; Wachala, T.; Walding, J. J.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wanderer, P. J.; Wang, J.; Ward, M. A.; Ward, G. P.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; West, N.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wikström, G.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, S.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamanoi, Y.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamauchi, T.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.

    2012-02-01

    We report a measurement of muon-neutrino disappearance in the T2K experiment. The 295-km muon-neutrino beam from Tokai to Kamioka is the first implementation of the off-axis technique in a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. With data corresponding to 1.43×1020 protons on target, we observe 31 fully-contained single μ-like ring events in Super-Kamiokande, compared with an expectation of 104±14(syst) events without neutrino oscillations. The best-fit point for two-flavor νμ→ντ oscillations is sin⁡2(2θ23)=0.98 and |Δm322|=2.65×10-3eV2. The boundary of the 90% confidence region includes the points (sin⁡2(2θ23),|Δm322|)=(1.0,3.1×10-3eV2), (0.84, 2.65×10-3eV2) and (1.0, 2.2×10-3eV2).

  16. Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters from Muon Neutrino Disappearance with an Off-Axis Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Curioni, A.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Frank, E.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Gaudin, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Jung, C. K.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, S. B.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Kogan, G.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lee, K. P.; Licciardi, C.; Lim, I. T.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, G. D.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Masliah, P.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Metelko, C.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Naples, D.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Otani, M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Pac, M. Y.; Palladino, V.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Taylor, I. J.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.

    2013-11-01

    The T2K Collaboration reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector measurements are used to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters. The Super-Kamiokande far detector, which is 295 km downstream of the neutrino production target, collected data corresponding to 3.01×1020 protons on target. In the absence of neutrino oscillations, 205±17 (syst) events are expected to be detected while only 58 muon neutrino event candidates are observed. A fit to the neutrino rate and energy spectrum, assuming three neutrino flavors and normal mass hierarchy yields a best-fit mixing angle sin⁡2(θ23)=0.514±0.082 and mass splitting |Δm322|=2.44-0.15+0.17×10-3eV2/c4. Our result corresponds to the maximal oscillation disappearance probability.

  17. Synthesis of ZnO:As Films Using Off-Axis Sputtering Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As a novel oxide semiconductor material, ZnO is interesting for use in many applications. For fabricating electronic devices, it is important to have n- and p- type ZnO materials. Arsenic has been proven to be one of the p-type dopants for ZnO materials. However, information in studying the ZnAsO ternary compound films has been scarce. In order to investigate the morphology, structure and electrical properties of ZnAsO ternary compounds, ZnO:As films have been synthesized using off-axis sputtering deposition on various substrates including (100) Si and (0001) sapphire crystals. Films are grown under various growth conditions. ZnO:As targets with the atomic weight ratios of arsenic to zinc from 0.01 to 0.10 are used for film synthesis. The growth temperatures and pressures range from 350 to 550C and 5 to 150 mTorr, respectively. Argon to oxygen gas ratio for film growth is varied to examine the film quality as well. Film surface morphology, crystal structure, and compositions, are characterized using atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. The compositions of target material and ZnO:As films grown under various conditions are then assessed. The electrical properties were also measured. The detail of these measurements will be discussed in the presentation.

  18. Robust, compact implementation of an off-axis digital holographic microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J Kent; Rider, Stephanie; Serabyn, Eugene; Kühn, Jonas; Liewer, Kurt; Deming, Jody; Showalter, Gordon; Lindensmith, Chris; Nadeau, Jay

    2015-06-29

    Recent advances in digital technologies, such as high-speed computers and large-format digital imagers, have led to a burgeoning interest in the science and engineering of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). Here we report on a novel off-axis DHM, based on a twin-beam optical design, which avoids the limitations of prior systems, and provides many advantages, including compactness, intrinsic stability, robustness against misalignment, ease of use, and cost. These advantages are traded for a physically constrained sample volume, as well as a fixed fringe spacing. The first trade is not overly restrictive for most applications, and the latter provides for a pre-set assembly alignment that optimizes the spatial frequency sampling. Moreover, our new design supports use in both routine laboratory settings as well as extreme environments without any sacrifice in performance, enabling ready observation of microbial species in the field. The instrument design is presented in detail here, along with a demonstration of bacterial video imaging at sub-micrometer resolution at temperatures down to -15 °C.

  19. Modal Survey Test of the SOTV 2X3 Meter Off-Axis Inflatable Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Robert C.; Lassiter, John O.; McGee, Jennie K.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has had several projects involving inflatable space structures. Projects in solar thermal propulsion have had the most involvement, primarily inflatable concentrators. A flight project called Shooting Star Experiment initiated the first detailed design, analysis and testing effort involving an inflatable concentrator that supported a Fresnel lens. The lens was to concentrate the sun's rays to provide an extremely large heat transfer for an experimental solar propulsion engine. Since the conclusion of this experiment, research and development activities for solar propulsion at Marshall Space Flight Center have continued both in the solar propulsion engine technology as well as inflatable space structures. Experience gained in conducting modal survey tests of inflatable structures for the Shooting Star Experiment has been used by dynamic test engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center to conduct a modal survey test on a Solar Orbital Transfer Vehicle (SOTV) off-axis inflatable concentrator. This paper describes how both previously learned test methods and new test methods that address the unique test requirements for inflatable structures were used. Effects of the inherent nonlinear response of the inflatable concentrator on test methods and test results are noted as well. Nine analytical mode shapes were successfully correlated to test mode shapes. The paper concludes with several "lessons learned" applicable to future dynamics testing and shows how Marshall Space Flight Center has utilized traditional and new methods for modal survey testing of inflatable space structures.

  20. Symmetrical optical imaging system with bionic variable-focus lens for off-axis aberration correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    A bionic variable-focus lens with symmetrical layered structure was designed to mimic the crystalline lens. An optical imaging system based on this lens and with a symmetrical structure that mimics the human eye structure was proposed. The refractive index of the bionic variable-focus lens increases from outside to inside. The two PDMS lenses with a certain thickness were designed to improve the optical performance of the optical imaging system and minimise the gravity effect of liquid. The paper presents the overall structure of the optical imaging system and the detailed description of the bionic variable-focus lens. By pumping liquid in or out of the cavity, the surface curvatures of the rear PDMS lens were varied, resulting in a change in the focal length. The focal length range of the optical imaging system was 20.71-24.87 mm. The optical performance of the optical imaging system was evaluated by imaging experiments and analysed by ray tracing simulations. On the basis of test and simulation results, the optical performance of the system was quite satisfactory. Off-axis aberrations were well corrected, and the image quality was greatly improved.

  1. Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters from Muon Neutrino Disappearance with an Off-axis Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Rodriguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Frank, E; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Golan, T; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kim, S B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Guerra, E S Pinzon; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sanchez, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Taylor, I J; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2013-01-01

    The T2K collaboration reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector measurements are used to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters. The Super-Kamiokande far detector, which is 295 km downstream of the neutrino production target, collected data corresponding to $3.01 \\times 10^{20}$ protons on target. In the absence of neutrino oscillations, $205 \\pm 17$ (syst.) events are expected to be detected and only 58 muon neutrino event candidates are observed. A fit to the neutrino rate and energy spectrum assuming three neutrino flavors, normal mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{23}\\leq \\pi/4$ yields a best-fit mixing angle $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{23})=1.000$ and mass splitting $|\\Delta m^2_{32}| =2.44 \\times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$/c$^4$. If $\\theta_{23}\\geq \\pi/4$ is assumed, the best-fit mixing angle changes to $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{23})=0.999$ and the mass splitting remains unchanged.

  2. Effect of Reynolds number on flow and mass transfer characteristics of a 90 degree elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Ikarashi, Yuya; Yamagata, Takayuki; Taguchi, Syoichi

    2016-11-01

    The flow and mass transfer characteristics of a 90 degree elbow was studied experimentally by using the mass transfer measurement by plaster dissolution method, the surface flow visualization by oil film method and stereo PIV measurement. The experiments are carried out in a water tunnel of a circular pipe of 56mm in diameter with a working fluid of water. The Reynolds number was varied from 30000 to 200000. The experimental result indicated the change of the mass transfer coefficient distribution in the elbow with increasing the Reynolds number. This phenomenon is further examined by the surface flow visualization and measurement of secondary flow pattern in the elbow, and the results showed the suggested change of the secondary flow pattern in the elbow with increasing the Reynolds numbers.

  3. Radio follow-up observations of stellar tidal disruption flares: Constraints on off-axis jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Körding E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN and X-ray binaries have shown that relativistic jets are ubiquitous when compact objects accrete. One could therefore anticipate the launch of a jet after a star is disrupted and accreted by a massive black hole. This birth of a relativistic jet may have been observed recently in two stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs, which were discovered in gamma-rays by Swift. Yet no transient radio emission has been detected from the tens of TDF candidates that were discovered at optical to soft X-ray frequencies. Because the sample that was followed-up at radio frequencies is small, the non-detections can be explained by Doppler boosting, which reduces the jet flux for off-axis observers. Plus, the existing followup observation are mostly within ∼ 10 months of the discovery, so the non-detections can also be due to a delay of the radio emission with respect to the time of disruption. To test the conjecture that all TDFs launch jets, we obtained 5 GHz follow-up observations with the Jansky VLA of six known TDFs. To avoid missing delayed jet emission, our observations probe 1–8 years since the estimated time of disruption. None of the sources are detected, with very deep upper limits at the 10 micro Jansky level. These observations rule out the hypothesis that these TDFs launched jets similar to radio-loud quasars. We also constrain the possibility that the flares hosted a jet identical to Sw 1644+57.

  4. A Comprehensive Analysis of GRB Afterglows with Deep Chandra Follow-up: Implications for Off-Axis Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, David N.; Zhang, Binbin; et al.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of 27 GRBs with detailed Swift light curves supplemented by late time Chandra observations. By fitting to empirical mathematical functions, we find a higher fraction of jet-break candidates (56%) than previous studies using Swift-only samples and different analysis techniques (12%). To answer the missing jet-break problem in general, we further develop a numerical simulation-based model which can be directly fit to the data using Monte Carlo methods. Our numerical model takes into account all the factors that can shape a jet break: (i) lateral expansion (ii) edge effects and (iii) off-axis effects. Comparing to the empirical function fit, our results provide improved fits to the light curves and better constraints on physical parameters. More importantly, our results suggest that off-axis effects are important and must be included in interpretations of GRB jet breaks.

  5. Phase-derivative-based estimation of a digital reference wave from a single off-axis digital hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Davood

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a method to obtain an estimated digital reference wave from a single off-axis digital hologram that matches the actual experimental reference wave as closely as possible. The proposed method is independent of a reference flat plate and speckles. The digital reference wave parameters are estimated directly from the recorded phase information. The parameters include both the off-axis tilt angle and the curvature of the reference wave. Phase derivatives are used to extract the digital reference wave parameters without the need for a phase unwrapping process. Thus, problems associated with phase wrapping are avoided. Experimental results for the proposed method are provided. The simulated effect of the digital reference wave parameters on the reconstructed image phase distribution is shown. The pseudo phase gradient originating from incorrect estimation of the digital reference wave parameters and its effect on object reconstruction are discussed.

  6. Multipole contribution from an off-axis orbit in an IR quadrupole and the consequences on the dynamic aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M.; Caspi, S.; Forest, E.; Robin, D.; Zholents, A.; Cai, Y.; Destaebler, H.; Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1994-06-01

    The low-energy beam of the proposed PEP-II B factory enters the first quadrupole (Q1) after the interaction point off axis in order to separate the low-energy beam from the high-energy beam. The off-axis beam orbit in Q1 gives rise to significant feed-down terms from higher multipoles that originate from systematic effects and random fabrication errors. The authors study superconducting and permanent magnet designs of Q1, and look at the effect these different designs have on the dynamic aperture. Including a dipole field in a superconducting design allows one to offset the magnetic axis from the mechanical axis, thereby maintaining the separation of the beams while greatly reducing the feed-down effect. They illustrate relevant points of the discussion with tracking results for the PEP-II low-energy ring.

  7. Numerical Investigation on Fluid Flow in a 90-Degree Curved Pipe with Large Curvature Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism of fluid flows in curved pipes, a large number of theoretical and experimental researches have been performed. As a critical parameter of curved pipe, the curvature ratio δ has received much attention, but most of the values of δ are very small (δ<0.1 or relatively small (δ≤0.5. As a preliminary study and simulation this research studied the fluid flow in a 90-degree curved pipe of large curvature ratio. The Detached Eddy Simulation (DES turbulence model was employed to investigate the fluid flows at the Reynolds number range from 5000 to 20000. After validation of the numerical strategy, the pressure and velocity distribution, pressure drop, fluid flow, and secondary flow along the curved pipe were illustrated. The results show that the fluid flow in a curved pipe with large curvature ratio seems to be unlike that in a curved pipe with small curvature ratio. Large curvature ratio makes the internal flow more complicated; thus, the flow patterns, the separation region, and the oscillatory flow are different.

  8. Manufacturing progress of production of high aspherical axis and off-axis astronomical and space optics for the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Aleksandr P.; Abdulkadyrov, Magomed A.; Belousov, Sergey P.; Ignatov, Aleksandr N.; Patrikeev, Vladimir E.

    2016-10-01

    The article describes the technology of production of astronomical and space mirrors from Astrositall CO-115M including its properties and stability of these properties over time and presents the results of material long-term testing. The article also describes computer-controlled methods of large-scaled optics production and testing, including high aspherical, off-axis and thin mirrors, using the examples of production of mirrors at JSC LZOS.

  9. Geometrical control of 3C and 6H-SiC nucleation on low off-axis substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokubavicius, Valdas; Liljedahl, Rickard; Ou, Yiyu;

    2011-01-01

    Growth of 3C or 6H-SiC epilayers on low off-axis 6H-SiC substrates can be mastered by changing the size of the on axis plane formed by long terraces in the epilayer using geometrical control. The desired polytype can be selected in thick (~200 μm) layers of both 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC polytypes on sub...

  10. Large-charge quasimonoenergetic electron beams produced by off-axis colliding laser pulses in underdense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. G.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhang, B.; He, S. K.; Teng, J.; Hong, W.; Dong, K. G.; Wu, Y. C.; Zhu, B.; Gu, Y. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Electrons can be efficiently injected into a plasma wave by colliding two counterpropagating laser pulses in a laser wakefield acceleration. However, the generation of a high-quality electron beam with a large charge is difficult in the traditional on-axis colliding scheme due to the growth of the electron beam duration coming from the increase of the beam charge. To solve this problem, we propose an off-axis colliding scheme, in which the collision point is away from the axis of the driver pulse. We show that the electrons injected from the off-axis region are highly concentered on the tail of the bubble even for a large trapped charge, thus feeling almost the same accelerating field. As a result, quasimonoenergetic electron beams with a large charge can be produced. The validity of this scheme is confirmed by both the particle-in-cell simulations and the Hamiltonian model. Furthermore, it is shown that a Laguerre-Gauss (LG) laser can be adopted as the injection pulse to realize the off-axis colliding injection in three dimensions symmetrically, which may be useful in simplifying the technical layout of the real experiment setup.

  11. Discovery of off-axis jet structure of TeV blazar Mrk 501 with mm-VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, S; Giroletti, M; Doi, A; Giovannini, G; Orienti, M; Hada, K; Ros, E; Niinuma, K; Nagai, H; Savolainen, T; Krichbaum, T P; Pérez-Torres, M Á

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution millimeter wave very-long-baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) is an ideal tool for probing the structure at the base of extragalactic jets in detail. The TeV blazar Mrk 501 is one of the best targets among BL Lac objects for studying the nature of off-axis jet structures because it shows different jet position angles at different scales. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of the off-axis jet structure through high-resolution mm-VLBI images at the jet base and physical parameters such as kinematics, flux densities, and spectral indices. We performed Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations over six epochs from 2012 February to 2013 February at 43 GHz. Quasi-simultaneous Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) observations at 86 GHz were performed in May 2012. We discover a new jet component at the northeast direction from the core in all the images at 43 and 86 GHz. The new component shows the off-axis location from the persistent jet extending to the southeast. The 43 GHz ima...

  12. Triple Isotope Water Measurements of Lake Untersee Ice using Off-Axis ICOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, E. S.; Huang, Y. W.; Andersen, D. T.; Gupta, M.; McKay, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Untersee (71.348°S, 13.458°E) is the largest surface freshwater lake in the interior of the Gruber Mountains of central Queen Maud Land in East Antarctica. The lake is permanently covered with ice, is partly bounded by glacier ice and has a mean annual air temperature of -10°C. In contrast to other Antarctic lakes the dominating physical process controlling ice-cover dynamics is low summer temperatures and high wind speeds resulting in sublimation rather than melting as the main mass-loss process. The ice-cover of the lake is composed of lake-water ice formed during freeze-up and rafted glacial ice derived from the Anuchin Glacier. The mix of these two fractions impacts the energy balance of the lake, which directly affects ice-cover thickness. Ice-cover is important if one is to understand the physical, chemical, and biological linkages within these unique, physically driven ecosystems. We have analyzed δ2H, δ18O, and δ17O from samples of lake and glacier ice collected at Lake Untersee in Dec 2014. Using these data we seek to answer two specific questions: Are we able to determine the origin and history of the lake ice, discriminating between rafted glacial ice and lake water? Can isotopic gradients in the surface ice indicate the ablation (sublimation) rate of the surface ice? The triple isotope water analyzer developed by Los Gatos Research (LGR 912-0032) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology and incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for high sensitivity and optimal instrument stability. This analyzer measures δ2H, δ18O, and δ17O from water, as well as the calculated d-excess and 17O-excess. The laboratory precision in high performance mode for both δ17O and δ18O is 0.03 ‰, and for δ2H is 0.2 ‰. Methodology and isotope data from Lake Untersee samples are presented. Figure: Ice samples were collected across Lake Untersee from both glacial and lake ice regions for this study.

  13. State of the art in atomic resolution off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linck, Martin, E-mail: mlinck@lbl.gov [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zum Triebenberg 50, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Freitag, Bert; Kujawa, Stephan [FEI Company, Eindhoven, Building AAE, Achtseweg Noord 5, P.O. Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lehmann, Michael; Niermann, Tore [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    As proposed by Hannes Lichte, to resolve structure-property relations not only the question 'Which atom is where?' but also the question 'Which fields are around?' has to be answered. High-resolution off-axis electron holography opens up an access to these key questions in that it allows accessing the complete exit-wave of the object provided within the information limit of the microscope, i.e. amplitude and phase including atomic details such as position and species, and moreover, information about large area electric potentials and magnetic fields, which a conventional transmission electron microscope is blind for-also when using a Cs-corrector. For an excellent object exit-wave reconstruction, special care has to be taken on the hologram quality, i.e. interference fringe contrast and electron dose. Severe restrictions are given to signal resolution by the limited brightness of the electron source. Utilizing a new high-brightness Schottky field electron emitter in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope operated at 300 kV, the phase signal resolution at atomic resolution can significantly be enhanced. An improvement by at least a factor of 2.88 compared to the most recently reported single hologram at atomic resolution is found. To proof the applicability of this setup to real materials science problems, a grain boundary of gold has been investigated holographically. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of the brightness on the reconstructed signal in electron holography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factor 2.8 gain in signal quality by setup with a high brightness electron gun. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of a grain boundary in gold with a state-of-the-art holography setup. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-posteriori aberration fine-tuning for true one Angstrom resolution in the object wave. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mistilt analysis on the atomic scale by numerical wave optics.

  14. Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low temperature (90 degrees C) with addition of diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Haga, Mioko; Kuzawa, Keiko; Ishimoto, Hiroji; Tamada, Osamu; Ito, Kazuhiko; Nishiyama, Takashi; Downs, Robert T; Rakovan, John F

    2006-05-20

    Paper sludge ash was partially converted into zeolites by reaction with 3M NaOH solution at 90 degrees C for 24 h. The paper sludge ash had a low abundance of Si and significant Ca content, due to the presence of calcite that was used as a paper filler. Diatomite was added to the NaOH solution to increase its Si content in order to synthesize zeolites with high cation exchange capacity. Diatomite residue was filtered from solution before addition of ash. The original ash without addition of diatomite yielded hydroxysodalite with a cation exchange capacity ca. 50 cmol/kg. Addition of Si to the solution yielded Na-P1 (zeolite-P) with a higher cation exchange capacity (ca. 130 cmol/kg). The observed concentrations of Si and Al in the solution during the reaction explain the crystallization of these two phases. The reaction products were tested for their capacity for PO(4)(3-) removal from solution as a function of Ca(2+) content, suggesting the formation of an insoluble Ca-phosphate salt. The product with Na-P1 exhibits the ability to remove NH(4)(+) as well as PO(4)(3-) from solution in concentrations sufficient for application in water purification. Both NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) removal showed little variation with pH between 5 and 9. Alternative processing methods of zeolite synthesis, including the addition of ash to an unfiltered Si-NaOH solution and addition of a dry ash/diatomite mixture to NaOH solution, were tested. The third process yielded materials with lower cation exchange capacity due to formation of hydroxysodalite. The second process results in a product with relatively high cation exchange capacity, and reduces the number of processing steps necessary for zeolite synthesis.

  15. Imaging on the surfaces of an uneven thickness medium based on hybrid phase retrieval with the assistance of off-axis digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Panezai, Spozmai; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2017-10-01

    A hybrid phase retrieval method with the assistance of off-axis digital holography is proposed for imaging objects on the surfaces of a transparent medium with uneven thickness. The approximate phase distribution is obtained by a constrained optimization approach from the off-axis hologram, and it is used in an iterative procedure for retrieving the complex field of the object from the Gabor hologram. Furthermore, principal component analysis is introduced for compensating for phase aberrations caused by the medium. Numerical simulations and optical experiments were carried out to validate the proposed method. The quality of the reconstructed image is improved remarkably compared to only off-axis digital holography.

  16. Progress toward fully noninductive discharge operation in DIII-D using off-axis neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Hyatt, A. W.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Petrie, T. W.; Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Holcomb, C. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States); Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Turco, F.; Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, 116th St and Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Heidbrink, W. W. [University of California, Irvine, University Dr., Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L. [University of California, Los Angeles, PO Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States); In, Y. [FAR-TECH, Inc., 10350 Science Center Dr., San Diego, California 92121-1136 (United States); Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The initial experiments on off-axis neutral beam injection into high noninductive current fraction (f{sub NI}), high normalized pressure (β{sub N}) discharges in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] have demonstrated changes in the plasma profiles that increase the limits to plasma pressure from ideal low-n instabilities. The current profile is broadened and the minimum value of the safety factor (q{sub min}) can be maintained above 2 where the profile of the thermal component of the plasma pressure is found to be broader. The off-axis neutral beam injection results in a broadening of the fast-ion pressure profile. Confinement of the thermal component of the plasma is consistent with the IPB98(y,2) scaling, but global confinement with q{sub min}>2 is below the ITER-89P scaling, apparently as a result of enhanced transport of fast ions. A 0-D model is used to examine the parameter space for f{sub NI}=1 operation and project the requirements for high performance steady-state discharges. Fully noninductive solutions are found with 4<β{sub N}<5 and bootstrap current fraction near 0.5 for a weak shear safety factor profile. A 1-D model is used to show that a f{sub NI}=1 discharge at the top of this range of β{sub N} that is predicted stable to n=1, 2, and 3 ideal MHD instabilities is accessible through further broadening of the current and pressure profiles with off-axis neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron current drive.

  17. Significant flux trapping in single grain GdBCO bulk superconductor under off-axis field cooled magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Ida, Tetsuya; Miki, Motohiro; Teshima, Hidekazu; Morita, Mitsuru; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2017-03-01

    A single grain bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) exhibits intensified flux trapping performance upon field cooled magnetization. The world record of trapped flux is 17.6 T achieved by using stacked two-fold GdBCO bulks. However, the majority of magnetization studies focused on the magnetization along the crystallographic c-axis. In the present study, we clarify the flux trapping performance under field cooled magnetization using an off-axis magnetic field with respect to the c-axis. The results show that the trapped flux is almost polarized along the applied field as expected. This tendency remains up to a high off-axis angle θ around 60°. It is worth mentioning that, with θ of 30°, the maximum trapped flux component B // max parallel to the c-axis significantly remains more than 96% of 1.6 T which occurs under on-axis magnetization. Meanwhile, the angular dependence of the c-axis parallel component exhibits that observed flux density is higher than that expected from 1.6 cosθ. In addition, to visualize the flux line upon magnetization at θ of 90°, we successfully demonstrate the continuous flux line trace using steel wires; different trapped flux behaviour appears when applied field penetrates the bulk through the growth sectors centre and along the growth sector boundary, respectively. We interpret these results may come from the microstructure as a result of melt growth. It is highly emphasized that the off-axis magnetization with the finite inclination angle is quite useful for introducing into the design of HTS applications.

  18. Off-axis sparse aperture imaging using phase optimization techniques for application in wide-area imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Neifeld, Mark; Bhagavatula, Vijaya Kumar; Haberfelde, Thomas; Brady, David

    2009-10-01

    Sparse apertures find imaging applications in diverse fields such as astronomy and medicine. We are motivated by the design of a wide-area imaging system where sparse apertures can be used to construct novel and efficient optical designs. Specifically, we investigate the use of sparse apertures for off-axis imaging at infrared wavelengths while combating the effects of chromaticity to preserve resolution. In principle, several such sparse apertures can be interleaved within a common aperture to simultaneously image in multiple directions. This can ultimately lead to the design of wide-area imaging systems that require considerably less optical and electronic hardware. The resolution achievable using a sparse aperture is the same as that of a fully open aperture. In the case of off-axis imaging, however, the point spread function (PSF) introduces a blur due to chromaticity that degrades the resolution of the system. Of course, the blur can be eliminated by imaging at a single wavelength. However the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is poor, which ultimately degrades image quality. To improve SNR, it is necessary to widen the band of wavelengths, which of course degrades resolution due to chromaticity. Hence there is a fundamental trade between the SNR and the resolution as a function of bandwidth. We show that by using a combination of microprisms and phase optimized micropistons it is possible to reduce the chromatic blur over a band of wavelengths and improve the PSF considerably to restore the resolution of the image. The concepts are validated by means of simulations and verified with experimental data to demonstrate the advantages of phase optimized micropistons in off-axis sparse aperture imaging systems.

  19. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A G; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L; Hares, J D; Hassett, J; Hatch, B W; Meadowcroft, A L; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Datte, P S; Landen, O L; Palmer, N E; Piston, K W; Rekow, V V; Hilsabeck, T J; Kilkenny, J D

    2016-11-01

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  20. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A. G.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.; Hares, J. D.; Hassett, J.; Hatch, B. W.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Datte, P. S.; Landen, O. L.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K. W.; Rekow, V. V.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2016-11-01

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  1. Time and dose-dependent deformation of SiC/SiC composites With off-axis fiber alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, C.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The use of SiC-reinforced composites for fusion reactors or other nuclear applications will not be restricted to 0/90 aligned fiber architecture in all cases. It is important to understand the role of fiber orientation in the strength, toughness, and time-dependent properties for such materials. The use of high-strength ceramic fibers for composites is predicated on optimizing the strength, fracture resistance, and retained strength in aggressive environments, which argues for the best use of fiber strengths, namely on-axis loading for full load transfer to the high-strength fibers. Relatively few researchers have systematically studied the effects of fiber orientation on composite properties, and none have, to the best of our knowledge, performed any time-dependent testing of composites with off-axis fiber orientations. We have performed mechanical property tests on Hi-Nicalon Type-S fiber SiC/SiC composites as a function of fiber orientation. The mechanical testing consisted of 4- point bend strength, 4-point single-edge notched bend fracture toughness, and 4-point bend slow crack growth testing on two composite architectures from ambient to 1600 deg. C (1873 K). The two composite materials that were tested included a {+-}55 deg.-braided-weave composite with Type-S fibers inclined at 55 deg. to the principal composite axes to simulate a tubular-weave architecture and a Type-S 0/90 satin-weave composite as a reference material. A time-dependent fiber-bridging model that accounts for fiber orientation has been developed and its predictions are compared to the strength and crack growth data. The level of agreement suggests that existing models of off-axis bridging fibers are adequate for fusion reactor designs using SiC/SiC composites in off-axis orientations. However, the strength data suggests that off-axis orientations are much weaker than aligned fiber orientations and, thus, care must be taken to ensure that some fraction of

  2. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhee, A. G., E-mail: macphee2@llnl.gov; Hatch, B. W.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Datte, P. S.; Landen, O. L.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K. W.; Rekow, V. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.; Hares, J. D. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Isis Building, Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BD (United Kingdom); Hassett, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Meadowcroft, A. L. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  3. Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuche, E; Marquet, P; Depeursinge, C

    2000-08-10

    Off-axis holograms recorded with a CCD camera are numerically reconstructed with a calculation of scalar diffraction in the Fresnel approximation. We show that the zero order of diffraction and the twin image can be digitally eliminated by means of filtering their associated spatial frequencies in the computed Fourier transform of the hologram. We show that this operation enhances the contrast of the reconstructed images and reduces the noise produced by parasitic reflections reaching the hologram plane with an incidence angle other than that of the object wave.

  4. Magnetic domain structure in nanocrystalline Ni-Zn-Co spinel ferrite thin films using off-axis electron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Ray, N. M.; Petuskey, W. T.; Smith, D. J.; McCartney, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    We report a study of the magnetic domain structure of nanocrystalline thin films of nickel-zinc ferrite. The ferrite films were synthesized using aqueous spin-spray coating at low temperature (˜90 °C) and showed high complex permeability in the GHz range. Electron microscopy and microanalysis revealed that the films consisted of columnar grains with uniform chemical composition. Off-axis electron holography combined with magnetic force microscopy indicated a multi-grain domain structure with in-plane magnetization. The correlation between the magnetic domain morphology and crystal structure is briefly discussed.

  5. Surface plasmon polariton propagation along a 90 degrees bent line defect in a periodically corrugated metal surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Volkov, V.S.; Leosson, Kristjan

    2001-01-01

    Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) excited in the wavelength range of 720-860 nm at a gold (45-nm-thick) film surface with lithographically fabricated (170-nm-wide and 50-nm-high) scatterers arranged in a 400-nm-period triangular lattice containing a 90 degrees bent line defect...

  6. Energy deposition in a thin copper target downstream and off-axis of a proton-radiography target

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, G A; Snead, C L; Hanson, A L; Murray, M M

    2002-01-01

    A series of proton energy-deposition experiments was conducted to measure the energy deposited in a copper target located downstream and off-axis of a high-energy proton-radiography target. The proton/target interactions involved low-intensity bunches of protons at 24 GeV/c onto a spherical target consisting of concentric shells of tungsten and copper. The energy-deposition target was placed at five locations downstream of the proton-radiography target, off-axis of the primary beam transport, and was either unshielded or shielded by 5 or 10 cm of lead. Maximum temperature rises measured in the energy-deposition target due to single bunches of 5x10 sup 1 sup 0 protons on the proton-radiography target were approximately 20 mK per bunch. The data indicated that the scattered radiation was concentrated close to the primary transport axis of the beam line. The energy deposited in the energy-deposition target was reduced by moving the target radially away from the primary transport axis. Placing lead shielding in f...

  7. THE ABUNDANCE OF X-SHAPED RADIO SOURCES. I. VLA SURVEY OF 52 SOURCES WITH OFF-AXIS DISTORTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, David H.; Cohen, Jake P.; Lu, Jing [Department of Physics MS-057, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454-0911 (United States); Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi, E-mail: roberts@brandeis.edu [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Cheung identified a sample of 100 candidate X-shaped radio galaxies using the NRAO FIRST survey; these are small-axial-ratio extended radio sources with off-axis emission. Here, we present radio images of 52 of these sources that have been made from archival Very Large Array data with resolution of about 1″. Fifty-one of the 52 were observed at 1.4 GHz, 7 were observed at 1.4 and 5 GHz, and 1 was observed only at 5 GHz. We also present overlays of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey red images for 48 of the sources, and DSS II overlays for the remainder. Optical counterparts have been identified for most sources, but there remain a few empty fields. Our higher resolution VLA images along with FIRST survey images of the sources in the sample reveal that extended extragalactic radio sources with small axial ratios are largely (60%) cases of double radio sources with twin lobes that have off-axis extensions, usually with inversion-symmetric structure. The available radio images indicate that at most 20% of sources might be genuine X-shaped radio sources that could have formed by a restarting of beams in a new direction following an interruption and axis flip. The remaining 20% are in neither of these categories. The implications of this result for the gravitational wave background are discussed in Roberts et al.

  8. Characterization of Al-Doped ZnO Transparent Conducting Thin Film Prepared by Off-Axis Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Liang Ou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The off-axis sputtering technique was used to deposit Al-doped ZnO (AZO films on glass substrates at room temperature. For the illustration of the sample position in the sputtering chamber, the value of R/r is introduced. Here, r is the radius of AZO target and R is the distance between the sample and the center of substrate holder. A systematic study for the effect of deposition parameters on structural, optical, and electrical properties of AZO films has been investigated in detail. As the sample position of R/r is fixed at 1.8, it is found that the as-deposited AZO film has relatively low resistivity of 2.67 × 10−3 Ω-cm and high transmittance above 80% in the visible region. Additionally, after rapid thermal annealing (RTA at 600°C with N2 atmosphere, the resistivity of this AZO film can be further reduced to 1.19 × 10−3 Ω-cm. This indicates the AZO films prepared by off-axis magnetron sputtering and treated via the appropriate RTA process have great potential in optoelectronic applications.

  9. The Abundance of X-Shaped Radio Sources I. VLA Survey of 52 Sources With Off-Axis Distortions

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, David H; Lu, Jing; Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Cheung (2007) identified a sample of 100 candidate X-shaped radio galaxies using the NRAO FIRST survey; these are small-axial-ratio extended radio sources with off-axis emission. Here we present radio images of 52 of these sources that have been made from archival Very Large Array data with resolution of about 1 arcsec. Fifty-one of the 52 were observed at 1.4 GHz, seven were observed at 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz, and one was observed only at 5 GHz. We also present overlays of the SDSS red images for 41 of the sources, and DSS II overlays for the remainder. Optical counterparts have been identified for most sources, but there remain a few empty fields. Our higher resolution VLA images along with FIRST survey images of the sources in the sample reveal that extended extragalactic radio sources with small axial ratios are largely (60%) cases of double radio sources with twin lobes that have off-axis extensions, usually with inversion-symmetric structure. The available radio images indicate that at most 20% sources might...

  10. Domain structure and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFe/Pd multilayers using off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Desai, E-mail: dzhang28@asu.edu [School of Engineering for Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Shaw, Justin M., E-mail: justin.shaw@nist.gov [Electromagnetics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Smith, David J., E-mail: David.Smith@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, United States (United States); McCartney, Martha R., E-mail: Molly.McCartney@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, United States (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Multilayers of Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Pd with different bilayer thicknesses, have been deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering on thermally oxidized Si wafers. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the highly textured crystalline films had columnar structure, while scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively indicated some layer waviness and surface roughness. The magnetic domain structure and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Pd multilayers were investigated by off-axis electron holography and magnetic force microscopy. The Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10} layer thickness was the primary factor determining the magnetic domain size and the perpendicular magnetization: both decreased as the thickness increased. The strongest PMA was observed in the sample with the thinnest magnetic layer of 0.45 nm. - Highlights: • Multilayers of C{sub o90}F{sub e10}/Pd with different bilayer thickness were deposited using sputtering. • Sample examined using (S)TEM and off-axis electron holography.. • C{sub o90}F{sub e10} layer thickness was the primary factor determining magnetic domain morphology. • Perpendicular magnetic isotropy (PMA) decreased as C{sub o90}F{sub e10} layer thickness increased.

  11. A Study on the Instantaneous Turbulent Flow Field in a 90-Degree Elbow Pipe with Circular Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the special application of 90-degree elbow pipe in the HTR-PM, the large eddy simulation was selected to calculate the instantaneous flow field in the 90-degree elbow pipe combining with the experimental results. The characteristics of the instantaneous turbulent flow field under the influence of flow separation and secondary flow were studied by analyzing the instantaneous pressure information at specific monitoring points and the instantaneous velocity field on the cross section of the elbow. The pattern and the intensity of the Dean vortex and the small scale eddies change over time and induce the asymmetry of the flow field. The turbulent disturbance upstream and the flow separation near the intrados couple with the vortexes of various scales. Energy is transferred from large scale eddies to small scale eddies and dissipated by the viscous stress in the end.

  12. Comparison of 180-degree and 90-degree needle rotation to reduce wound size in PIT-injected juvenile Chinook salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-04-30

    Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.

  13. A strong adaptable autofocusing approach of off-axis infrared digital holography under different quality conditions of holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative autofocusing criterion for the reconstruction of infrared digital holograms. This criterion has the advantages of fast, efficient and precision when determining the reconstruction distance of off-axis digital holography. This criterion is a mean-free high frequency calculation process. We focus on the problem of mean value drifting found in previous published methods and design our new approach to solve it. Unlike the previous methods perform well only with high quality holograms, our method is effective for both high and low quality holograms. Even when hologram is degraded by destructive interference, our method still performs well. This method helps to automatically determine the precise reconstruction distance, and we are sure that this technology can be applied in industrial applications in the future.

  14. Structural Design of a 4-Meter Off-Axis Space Telescope for the Habitable-Zone Exoplanet Direct Imaging Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William, Sr.; Stahl, H Philip

    2017-01-01

    This design study was conducted to support the HABEX project. There are a number of companion papers at this conference which go into detail on what all the HABEX goals are. The objective of this paper is to establish a baseline primary mirror design which satisfies the following structural related requirements. The designs in this study have a high TRL (Technology Readiness Level), realistic manufacturing limits and performance in line with the HABEX mission. A secondary goal of the study was to evaluate a number competing criteria for the selection. Questions such as differences in the on axis versus off axis static and dynamic response to disturbances. This study concentrates on the structural behavior, companion papers cover thermal and long term stability aspects of the problem.

  15. Propagation properties of off-axis Hermite-cosh-Gaussian beam combinations through a first-order optical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Qian-Jin; Chen Da-Ming; Yu Yong-Ai; Hu Qi-Quan

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Collins integral formula, the analytic expressions of propagation of the coherent and the incoherent off-axis Hermite-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beam combinations with rectangular symmetry passing through a paraxial first-order optical system are derived, and corresponding numerical examples are given and analysed. The resulting beam quality is discussed in terms of power in the bucket (PIB). The study suggests that the resulting beam cannot keep the initial intensity shape during the propagation and the beam quality for coherent mode is not always better than that for incoherent mode. Reviewing the numerical simulations of Gaussian, Hermite-Gaussian (HG) and cosh-Gaussian (ChG) beam combinations indicates that the Hermite polynomial exerts a chief influence on the irradiance profile of composite beam and far field power concentration.

  16. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of a Polymer Matrix Composite with Different Microstructures Subjected to Off-Axis Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the comprehensive influence of three microstructure parameters (fiber cross-section shape, fiber volume fraction, and fiber off-axis orientation and strain rate on the macroscopic property of a polymer matrix composite. During the analysis, AS4 fibers are considered as elastic solids, while the surrounding PEEK resin matrix exhibiting rate sensitivities are described using the modified Ramaswamy-Stouffer viscoplastic state variable model. The micromechanical method based on generalized model of cells has been used to analyze the representative volume element of composites. An acceptable agreement is observed between the model predictions and experimental results found in the literature. The research results show that the stress-strain curves are sensitive to the strain rate and the microstructure parameters play an important role in the behavior of polymer matrix.

  17. Off-axis magmatism along a subaerial back-arc rift: Observations from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamling, Ian J; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrun; Bannister, Stephen; Palmer, Neville

    2016-06-01

    Continental rifting and seafloor spreading play a fundamental role in the generation of new crust. However, the distribution of magma and its relationship with tectonics and volcanism remain poorly understood, particularly in back-arc settings. We show evidence for a large, long-lived, off-axis magmatic intrusion located on the margin of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geodetic data acquired since the 1950s show evidence for uplift outside of the region of active extension, consistent with the inflation of a magmatic body at a depth of ~9.5 km. Satellite radar interferometry and Global Positioning System data suggest that there was an increase in the inflation rate from 2003 to 2011, which correlates with intense earthquake activity in the region. Our results suggest that the continued growth of a large magmatic body may represent the birth of a new magma chamber on the margins of a back-arc rift system.

  18. Off axis holography of doped and intrinsic silicon nanowires: Interpretation and influence of fields in the vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, M I den; Rouviere, J L; Gentile, P; Oehler, F [INAC/SP2M, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38052 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Schmid, H; Bjoerk, M T; Riel, H; Karg, S; Riess, W [IBM Research GmbH, Saeumerstrasse 4, 8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland); Cooper, D; Dhalluin, F; Ferret, P; Rivallin, P [LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38052 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Baron, T, E-mail: martien.den-hertog@cea.f [LTM, CNRS UMR-5129, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38052 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-02-01

    Intrinsic and axially modulated doped silicon nanowires (NWs) were studied by off-axis electron holography. Phase gradients in the vacuum were observed and compared to simulations of NWs with a varying charge density at the wire-oxide interface. It seems that intrinsic NWs are positively charged with a charge density around 2x10{sup 10} e.c. (electron charges) cm{sup -2} and axially modulated doped NWs (with n-doped regions) are negatively charged with a charge density around -1x10{sup 12} e.c. cm{sup -2}. Expected fringing fields around the doped regions are incidentally observed but smaller than predicted by simulations. The effect of the surface charge on the reference wave is evaluated, and should not modify the obtained phase image.

  19. Off-axis phonon and photon propagation in porous silicon superlattices studied by Brillouin spectroscopy and optical reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, L. C., E-mail: lcparsons@mun.ca; Andrews, G. T., E-mail: tandrews@mun.ca [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2014-07-21

    Brillouin light scattering experiments and optical reflectance measurements were performed on a pair of porous silicon-based optical Bragg mirrors which had constituent layer porosity ratios close to unity. For off-axis propagation, the phononic and photonic band structures of the samples were modeled as a series of intersecting linear dispersion curves. Zone-folding was observed for the longitudinal bulk acoustic phonon and the frequency of the probed zone-folded longitudinal phonon was shown to be dependent on the propagation direction as well as the folding order of the mode branch. There was no conclusive evidence of coupling between the transverse and the folded longitudinal modes. Two additional observed Brillouin peaks were attributed to the Rayleigh surface mode and a possible pseudo-surface mode. Both of these modes were dispersive, with the velocity increasing as the wavevector decreased.

  20. Deep-turbulence wavefront sensing using digital-holographic detection in the off-axis image plane recording geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mark F.; Raynor, Robert A.; Banet, Matthias T.; Marker, Dan K.

    2017-03-01

    This paper develops wave-optics simulations which explore the estimation accuracy of digital-holographic detection for wavefront sensing in the presence of distributed-volume or "deep" turbulence and detection noise. Specifically, the analysis models spherical-wave propagation through varying deep-turbulence conditions along a horizontal propagation path and formulates the field-estimated Strehl ratio as a function of the diffraction-limited sampling quotient and signal-to-noise ratio. Such results will allow the reader to assess the number of pixels, pixel field of view, pixel-well depth, and read-noise standard deviation needed from a focal-plane array when using digital-holographic detection in the off-axis image plane recording geometry for deep-turbulence wavefront sensing.

  1. Near-diffraction-limited segmented broad area diode laser based on off-axis spectral beam combining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, O.B.; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Andersen, Peter E.;

    2006-01-01

    The beam quality of a 500-mu m-wide broad area diode laser with five active segments has been improved beyond the beam quality of the individual segments. The principle of this new laser system is based on off-axis feedback in combination with spectral beam combining. By using a double......-feedback scheme we are able to improve the beam quality of the laser by a factor of 23 from M-2 = 55 for the free-running diode laser to M-2 = 2.4 for the laser with feedback at a drive current of 2.2 A. The improved M-2 value is a factor of 3.4 below M-2 = 8.2 for a single free-running segment. This is the first...... time that the beam quality of a segmented broad area diode laser has been improved beyond the beam quality of the individual segments....

  2. Simple, portable, and low-cost microscope based on off-axis digital holography using two spherical waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yujie; Liu, Yunhui; Lau, Tak Kit

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we present a highly compact and low-cost holographic microscope which is especially suitable for observing transparent samples with certain specific supports such as microchannels. This microscope employs only an inexpensive laser diode, a dual precision round aperture, and a digital light sensor. The total cost of the system except for the digital sensor is less than 400 US dollars, and a hand-held system can be made based on our setup. Besides the simple, cheap, and compact setup, this system can capture the off-axis interference pattern of two spherical waves and reconstruct the quantitative phase profile along with the amplitude image of the observed sample with the twin image eliminated in real time. Experimental results show that the resolution of our system is better than 2 μm, and the 3D structure of blood cells can be retrieved.

  3. Design of CMOS compatible and compact, thermally-compensated electro-optic modulator based on off-axis microring resonator for dense wavelength division multiplexing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Raktim; Banik, Abhik D; Varshney, Shailendra K

    2014-09-22

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate the performance of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) off-axis microring resonator (MRR) as electro-optic modulator (EOM). Adding an extra off-axis inner-ring in conventional microring structure provides control to compensate thermal effects on EOM. It is shown that dynamically controlled bias-voltage applied to the outer ring has the potency to quell the thermal effects over a wide range of temperature. Thus, besides the appositely biased conventional microring, off-axis inner microring with pre-emphasized electrical input message signal enables our proposed structure suitable for high data-rate dense wavelength division multiplexing scheme of optical communication within a very compact device size.

  4. Experimental Study of the Effect of W-weir on Reduction of Scour Depth at 90 Degree Sharp Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Atashi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Flow patterns within the river bend is three dimensional. Occurrence of secondary flow due to centrifugal force and formation of helicoidally vortex in river bend usually causes the outer bank of river erodes whilst the sediment are deposited in inner bend which appears in the form of point bars. To reduce the river bank scour, many techniques have been developed which may be classified as covering technique and modified flow patterns methods. The W-weir is among such structures. In the present paper, by measuring three components of flow velocity with and without presence of W-weir, variation of flow patterns and shear stress distribution in a 90-degree sharp bend have been investigated. The main purpose of this study is to see the installation of different locations of W-weir in the bend on reduction of outer bank scour. In the present paper, by measuring three components of flow velocity with and without presence of W-weir, variation of flow patterns and shear stress distribution in a 90-degree sharp bend have been investigated. The analyses of data showed more uniform flow upstream of the weir and also revealed that the effect of transverse and centrifugal forces are modified in such a way that the secondary flow is diminished. The results showed that for 30, 60 and 90-degree bends maximum erosion depth in the vicinity of the outer bank with Froude number of 0.206 in comparison with 0.137 has increased up to 84, 90 and 118 % respectively. In both Froude numbers, installation of W-Weir in 30 degree has the most reduction in bed in comparison with 60 and 90 degree. Materials and Methods: To reach the goal of this study a physical model of 90 degree sharp bend was constructed in the hydraulic lab of Shahid Chamran university of Ahvaz. The ratio of R(radius/b(flume width was less than 2 which shows a sharp bend. The W-weir was built with 1mm galvanized steel. Flume bed was covered with sediment of D50=1.5mm. The W-weir was

  5. Electrical properties of SiO{sub 2}/SiC interfaces on 2°-off axis 4H-SiC epilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivona, M., E-mail: marilena.vivona@imm.cnr.it [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, n. 5 – Zona Industriale, I-95121 Catania (Italy); Fiorenza, P. [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, n. 5 – Zona Industriale, I-95121 Catania (Italy); Sledziewski, T.; Krieger, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-University (FAU) Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Physics, Staudtstrasse 7/Bld. A3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Chassagne, T.; Zielinski, M. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, BP267, F-73375 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex (France); Roccaforte, F. [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, n. 5 – Zona Industriale, I-95121 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Processing and electrical characterization of MOS capacitors fabricated on 4H-SiC epilayers grown on 2°-off axis heavily doped substrates. • Excellent characteristics of the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface in terms of flatness, interface state density and oxide reliability. • Electrical behavior of the MOS devices comparable with that obtained for the state-of-the-art of 4°-off axis 4H-SiC material. • Demonstration of the maturity of the 2°-off axis material for application in 4H-SiC MOSFET device technology. - Abstract: In this paper, the electrical properties of the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface on silicon carbide (4H-SiC) epilayers grown on 2°-off axis substrates were studied. After epilayer growth, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) allowed to obtain an atomically flat surface with a roughness of 0.14 nm. Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, fabricated on this surface, showed an interface state density of ∼1 × 10{sup 12} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} below the conduction band, a value which is comparable to the standard 4°-off-axis material commonly used for 4H-SiC MOS-based device fabrication. Moreover, the Fowler–Nordheim and time-zero-dielectric breakdown analyses confirmed an almost ideal behavior of the interface. The results demonstrate the maturity of the 2°-off axis material for 4H-SiC MOSFET device fabrication.

  6. Growth of strained ZnSe layers on GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition carried out in an off-axis deposition geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguli, Tapas [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452 013 (India)], E-mail: tapas@cat.ernet.in; Porwal, Sanjay; Sharma, Tarun; Ingale, Alka; Kumar, Shailendra; Tiwari, Pragya [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452 013 (India); Balamurugan, A.K.; Rajagopalan, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Division, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Chandrasekaran, K.S.; Arora, B.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, TIFR, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Rustagi, K.C. [Department of Physics, IIT, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-07-31

    We have deposited thin layers of ZnSe on (001) oriented GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition at different incident laser fluence (referred to as normal geometry) and in an off-axis geometry where the plasma plume direction is at an angle of {approx} 25{sup o} away from the direction of the substrate. The crystalline quality of these layers has been studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and Raman scattering. We find that we are in a position to deposit pseudomorphic strained layers of ZnSe on GaAs in the off-axis deposition geometry when the ZnSe layer thickness is less than the critical thickness of ZnSe on GaAs i.e. 150 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence and electrical transport measurements have also been carried out in all the ZnSe layers and the results of all the above characterizations have been compared for the normal geometry and the off-axis geometry of deposition. All the results indicate that the ZnSe layers deposited in the off-axis geometry have better crystalline quality and an improved interface as compared to the ones deposited in the normal geometry. We attribute this improvement in the overall quality of the ZnSe layers in the off-axis geometry to the reduction in the average energy of the plume particles that reach the GaAs substrate in the off-axis geometry.

  7. Multileaf collimator tongue-and-groove effect on depth and off-axis doses: A comparison of treatment planning data with measurements and Monte Carlo calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Jung [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Siyong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Park, Yang-Kyun [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, Jung-in [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Min [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    To investigate how accurately treatment planning systems (TPSs) account for the tongue-and-groove (TG) effect, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and radiochromic film (RCF) measurements were performed for comparison with TPS results. Two commercial TPSs computed the TG effect for Varian Millennium 120 multileaf collimator (MLC). The TG effect on off-axis dose profile at 3 depths of solid water was estimated as the maximum depth and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the dose dip at an interleaf position. When compared with the off-axis dose of open field, the maximum depth of the dose dip for MC and RCF ranged from 10.1% to 20.6%; the maximum depth of the dose dip gradually decreased by up to 8.7% with increasing depths of 1.5 to 10 cm and also by up to 4.1% with increasing off-axis distances of 0 to 13 cm. However, TPS results showed at most a 2.7% decrease for the same depth range and a negligible variation for the same off-axis distances. The FWHM of the dose dip was approximately 0.19 cm for MC and 0.17 cm for RCF, but 0.30 cm for Eclipse TPS and 0.45 cm for Pinnacle TPS. Accordingly, the integrated value of TG dose dip for TPS was larger than that for MC and RCF and almost invariant along the depths and off-axis distances. We concluded that the TG dependence on depth and off-axis doses shown in the MC and RCF results could not be appropriately modeled by the TPS versions in this study.

  8. Planar anchoring strength and pitch measurements in achiral and chiral chromonic liquid crystals using 90-degree twist cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Christine K.; Laderman, Laura I.; Zimmermann, Natalie; Kitzerow, Heinz-S.; Collings, Peter J.

    2013-12-01

    Chromonic liquid crystals are formed by molecules that spontaneously assemble into anisotropic structures in water. The ordering unit is therefore a molecular assembly instead of a molecule as in thermotropic liquid crystals. Although it has been known for a long time that certain dyes, drugs, and nucleic acids form chromonic liquid crystals, only recently has enough knowledge been gained on how to control their alignment so that studies of their fundamental liquid crystal properties can be performed. In this article, a simple method for producing planar alignment of the nematic phase in chromonic liquid crystals is described, and this in turn is used to create twisted nematic structures of both achiral and chiral chromonic liquid crystals. The optics of 90-degree twist cells allows the anchoring strength to be measured in achiral systems, which for this alignment technique is quite weak, about 3×10-7 J/m2 for both disodium cromoglycate and Sunset Yellow FCF. The addition of a chiral amino acid to the system causes the chiral nematic phase to form, and similar optical measurements in 90-degree twist cells produce a measurement of the intrinsic pitch of the chiral nematic phase. From these measurements, the helical twisting power for L-alanine is found to be (1.1±0.4)×10-2 μm-1 wt%-1 for 15 wt% disodium cromoglycate.

  9. Dependence of NaI(Tl) detector intrinsic effciency on source-detector distance, energy and off-axis distance: Their implications for radioactivity measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F O Ogundare; E O Oniya; F A Balogun

    2008-05-01

    In this work the dependence of intrinsic effciency of a NaI(Tl) detector of radius 3.82 cm and height 7.62 cm on source{detector distance (), source-off-axis distance (0) and -photon energy have been investigated using analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The results showed that, for a given off-axis distance, there exists a value of the ratio of source-detector distance () to detector radius () where intrinsic efficiency is minimum. This / value at which minimum e±ciency occurs approaches zero as off-axis distance increases and it is almost constant with increase in energy. In the region where / < 0:01, a criteria given by Jehouani et al [1] for good photon detection, intrinsic efficiency decreases with increasing off-axis distance. The implications of the results for radioactivity measurement and radiation protection are discussed. Chacteristics of intrinsic e±ciency in the regions / < 0:01 and / > 10 are also compared.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis, off-axis electron holography and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Williams, Wyn;

    2014-01-01

    The hydrothermal synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) (<50 nm) from mixed FeCl3 / FeCl2 precursor solution at pH ~ 12 has been confirmed using complementary characterisation techniques of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Off-axis electron holography allowed for visuali...

  11. Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by off-axis grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plate on the laboratory X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Fakhrtdinov, Rashid; Irzhak, Dmitry; Firsov, Alexander; Firsov, Anatoly; Svintsov, Alexander; Erko, Alexey; Roshchupkin, Dmitry

    2017-02-01

    The results of studying a two-dimensional X-ray focusing by an off-axis grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plate on the laboratory X-ray source are presented. This optics enables obtaining a focal spot of 2 μm on the laboratory X-ray source with a focusing efficiency of 30% at a high signal/noise ratio.

  12. Towards quantitative off-axis electron holographic mapping of the electric field around the tip of a sharp biased metallic needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Larson, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We apply off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy in the transmission electron microscope to map the electric field generated by a sharp biased metallic tip. A combination of experimental data and modelling provides quantitative information about the potential and the field around the ...

  13. Parabolic-like maps

    CERN Document Server

    Lomonaco, Luciana Luna Anna

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of parabolic-like mapping, which is an object similar to a polynomial-like mapping, but with a parabolic external class, i.e. an external map with a parabolic fixed point. We prove a straightening theorem for parabolic-like maps, which states that any parabolic-like map of degree 2 is hybrid conjugate to a member of the family Per_1(1), and this member is unique (up to holomorphic conjugacy) if the filled Julia set of the parabolic-like map is connected.

  14. Multi-Dimensional Simulations for Early Phase Spectra of Aspherical Hypernovae: SN 1998bw and Off-Axis Hypernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Mazzali, Paolo A; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Early phase optical spectra of aspherical jet-like supernovae (SNe) are presented. We focus on energetic core-collapse SNe, or hypernovae. Based on hydrodynamic and nucleosynthetic models, radiative transfer in SN atmosphere is solved with a multi-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, SAMURAI. Since the luminosity is boosted in the jet direction, the temperature there is higher than in the equatorial plane by ~ 2,000 K. This causes anisotropic ionization in the ejecta. Emergent spectra are different depending on viewing angle, reflecting both aspherical abundance distribution and anisotropic ionization. Spectra computed with an aspherical explosion model with kinetic energy 20 x 10^{51} ergs are compatible with those of the Type Ic SN 1998bw if ~ 10-20% of the synthesized metals are mixed out to higher velocities. The simulations enable us to predict the properties of off-axis hypernovae. Even if an aspherical hypernova explosion is observed from the side, it should show hypernova-like spectra but ...

  15. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.

  16. Design and optimization for main support structure of a large-area off-axis three-mirror space camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Gong, Xiaoxue; Ma, Dong-Mei

    2017-02-01

    To ensure excellent dynamic and static performance of large-area, off-axis three-mirror anastigmat (TMA)-space cameras, and to realize a lighter weight for the entire system, a truss support structure design is applied in this study. In contrast to traditional methods, this paper adopts topology optimization based on the solid isotropic materials with penalization method on the truss structure design. Through reasonable object function and constraint choice, optimal topology results that have concerned the effect of gravity in the X, Y, and Z axis are achieved. Subsequently, the initial truss structure is designed based on the results and manufacturing technology. Moreover, to reduce the random vibration response of the secondary mirror and fold mirror without mechanical performance decline of the whole truss, a weighted optimization of truss size is proposed and the final truss structure is achieved. Finite element analysis and experiments have confirmed the reliability of the design and optimization method. The designed truss-structure camera maintains excellent static performance with the relative optical axis angle between the primary mirror and corresponding mirrors (secondary mirror and fold mirror) being less than 5.3 in. Dynamic performances, such as random and sinusoidal vibration responses, also met the requirements that the acceleration RMS value for mount points of the fold mirror should be less than 20 g and the primary frequency reached 97.2 Hz.

  17. Strain mapping at the nanoscale using precession electron diffraction in transmission electron microscope with off axis camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigouroux, M. P.; Delaye, V.; Bernier, N.; Lafond, D.; Audoit, G.; Bertin, F. [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 GRENOBLE Cedex 9 (France); Cipro, R.; Baron, T.; Martin, M. [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LTM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Rouvière, J. L. [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 GRENOBLE Cedex 9 (France); Chenevier, B. [Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); LMGP, CNRS, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 GRENOBLE Cedex 1 (France)

    2014-11-10

    Precession electron diffraction is an efficient technique to measure strain in nanostructures by precessing the electron beam, while maintaining a few nanometre probe size. Here, we show that an advanced diffraction pattern treatment allows reproducible and precise strain measurements to be obtained using a default 512 × 512 DigiSTAR off-axis camera both in advanced or non-corrected transmission electron microscopes. This treatment consists in both projective geometry correction of diffraction pattern distortions and strain Delaunay triangulation based analysis. Precision in the strain measurement is improved and reached 2.7 × 10{sup −4} with a probe size approaching 4.2 nm in diameter. This method is applied to the study of the strain state in InGaAs quantum-well (QW) devices elaborated on Si substrate. Results show that the GaAs/Si mismatch does not induce in-plane strain fluctuations in the InGaAs QW region.

  18. Precise Measurement of the Neutrino Mixing Parameter θ23 from Muon Neutrino Disappearance in an Off-Axis Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Floetotto, L.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iwai, E.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lee, K. P.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Naples, D.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    New data from the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment produce the most precise measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter θ23. Using an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV and a data set corresponding to 6.57×1020 protons on target, T2K has fit the energy-dependent νμ oscillation probability to determine oscillation parameters. The 68% confidence limit on sin2(θ23) is 0.514-0.056+0.055 (0.511±0.055), assuming normal (inverted) mass hierarchy. The best-fit mass-squared splitting for normal hierarchy is Δm322=(2.51±0.10)×10-3 eV2/c4 (inverted hierarchy: Δm132=(2.48±0.10)×10-3 eV2/c4). Adding a model of multinucleon interactions that affect neutrino energy reconstruction is found to produce only small biases in neutrino oscillation parameter extraction at current levels of statistical uncertainty.

  19. Fast In Situ Airborne Measurement of Ammonia Using a Mid-Infrared Off-Axis ICOS Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leen, J. Brian; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas S.; Hubbe, John M.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbell, Mike R.

    2013-08-23

    A new ammonia (NH3) analyzer was developed based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy. Its feasibility was demonstrated by making tropospheric measurements in flights aboard the Department of Energy Gulfstream-1 aircraft. The ammonia analyzer consists of an optical cell, quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data acquisition electronics, and analysis software. The NH3 mixing ratio is determined from high-resolution absorption spectra obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the NH3 fundamental vibration band near 9.67 μm. Excellent linearity is obtained over a wide dynamic range (0–101 ppbv) with a response rate (1/e) of 2 Hz and a precision of ±90 pptv (1σ in 1 s). Two research flights were conducted over the Yakima Valley in Washington State. In the first flight, the ammonia analyzer was used to identify signatures of livestock from local dairy farms with high vertical and spatial resolution under low wind and calm atmospheric conditions. In the second flight, the analyzer captured livestock emission signals under windy conditions. Finally, our results demonstrate that this new ammonia spectrometer is capable of providing fast, precise, and accurate in situ observations of ammonia aboard airborne platforms to advance our understanding of atmospheric compositions and aerosol formation.

  20. Precise Measurement of the Neutrino Mixing Parameter \\theta_{23} from Muon Neutrino Disappearance in an Off-axis Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de, P; De, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di, F; Di, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Floetotto, L; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iwai, E; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Lamont, I; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pinzon, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2014-01-01

    New data from the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment produce the most precise measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter theta_{23}. Using an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV and a data set corresponding to 6.57 x 10^{20} protons on target, T2K has fit the energy-dependent nu_mu oscillation probability to determine oscillation parameters. Marginalizing over the values of other oscillation parameters yields sin^2 (theta_{23}) = 0.514 +0.055/-0.056 (0.511 +- 0.055), assuming normal (inverted) mass hierarchy. The best-fit mass-squared splitting for normal hierarchy is Delta m^2_{32} = 2.51 +- 0.10 x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4 (inverted hierarchy: Delta m^2_{13} = 2.48 +- 0.10 x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4). Adding a model of multinucleon interactions that affect neutrino energy reconstruction is found to produce only small biases in neutrino oscillation parameter extraction at current levels of statistical uncertainty.

  1. In situ measurement of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide in freshwater ecosystems by off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Valencia, Rodrigo; Magana-Rodriguez, Felipe; Gerardo-Nieto, Oscar; Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando; Martinez-Cruz, Karla; Anthony, Katey Walter; Baer, Doug; Thalasso, Frederic

    2014-10-07

    A novel low-cost method for the combined, real-time, and in situ determination of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations in freshwater ecosystems was designed and developed. This method is based on the continuous sampling of water from a freshwater ecosystem to a gas/liquid exchange membrane. Dissolved gas is transferred through the membrane to a continuous flow of high purity nitrogen, which is then measured by an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS). This method, called M-ICOS, was carefully tested in a laboratory and was subsequently applied to four lakes in Mexico and Alaska with contrasting climates, ecologies, and morphologies. The M-ICOS method allowed for the determination of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations with a frequency of 1 Hz and with a method detection limit of 2.76 × 10(-10) mol L(-1) for methane and 1.5 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for carbon dioxide. These detection limits are below saturated concentrations with respect to the atmosphere and significantly lower than the minimum concentrations previously reported in lakes. The method is easily operable by a single person from a small boat, and the small size of the suction probe allows the determination of dissolved gases with a minimized impact on shallow freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Radiant fluxes from on- and off-axis point sources irradiating a circular disc through two different homogeneous isotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryka, S.

    2014-07-01

    The multidomain integral equation method is used to calculate fluxes of radiation from various on- and off-axis point sources passing through two different homogeneous isotropic media and striking a surface of a circular disc perpendicular to the optical axes of these sources. This method is dedicated to radiation passing through attenuating or nonattenuating media with a Fresnel interface and is applicable for arbitrary radiation patterns of point sources. The paper presents, firstly, the generalized multidomain integral equation method, expressed by double iterated integrals, for calculating radiant fluxes from arbitrary emitting point sources. This generalized method is simplified then to the form of multidomain single integral equation method applicable for rotationally symmetrical radiation patterns with optical axes perpendicular to the disc. Next, the simplified method is used for computer simulation of radiant fluxes incident on the disc from small Lambertian and Gaussian sources represented by point source models. All numerical results obtained from this simulation have shown high accuracy and efficiency of the presented method. Selected results are illustrated graphically and validated by Optical Software for Layout and Optimization (OSLO) from Lambda Research Corporation. Potential applications of the presented method include optical sensing and metrology, optical coupling, immersion microscopes, light-extraction problems and creative lighting design.

  3. Parabolic scaling beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2014-06-15

    We generalize the concept of diffraction free beams to parabolic scaling beams (PSBs), whose normalized intensity scales parabolically during propagation. These beams are nondiffracting in the circular parabolic coordinate systems, and all the diffraction free beams of Durnin's type have counterparts as PSBs. Parabolic scaling Bessel beams with Gaussian apodization are investigated in detail, their nonparaxial extrapolations are derived, and experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  4. Nanoscale structural characterization of epitaxial graphene grown on off-axis 4H-SiC (0001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimova Rositza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we present a nanometer resolution structural characterization of epitaxial graphene (EG layers grown on 4H-SiC (0001 8° off-axis, by annealing in inert gas ambient (Ar in a wide temperature range (Tgr from 1600 to 2000°C. For all the considered growth temperatures, few layers of graphene (FLG conformally covering the 100 to 200-nm wide terraces of the SiC surface have been observed by high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR-XTEM. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (t-AFM showed the formation of wrinkles with approx. 1 to 2 nm height and 10 to 20 nm width in the FLG film, as a result of the release of the compressive strain, which builds up in FLG during the sample cooling due to the thermal expansion coefficients mismatch between graphene and SiC. While for EG grown on on-axis 4H-SiC an isotropic mesh-like network of wrinkles interconnected into nodes is commonly reported, in the present case of a vicinal SiC surface, wrinkles are preferentially oriented in the direction perpendicular to the step edges of the SiC terraces. For each Tgr, the number of graphene layers was determined on very small sample areas by HR-XTEM and, with high statistics and on several sample positions, by measuring the depth of selectively etched trenches in FLG by t-AFM. Both the density of wrinkles and the number of graphene layers are found to increase almost linearly as a function of the growth temperature in the considered temperature range.

  5. U-Series Disequilibria From the East Pacific Rise (9N, 10N and 11N): evidence for off-axis magmatism along fast spreading ridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, C.; Turner, S.; Niu, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Lavas erupted along Mid-Ocean Ridges provide important information on melt formation and movement beneath the oceanic lithosphere. Despite the fact that the majority of lavas are erupted along the spreading axis itself, it has been proposed that a small quantity of lavas are erupted off-axis at distances >5 km [1]. The East Pacific Rise has a fast (5.5 cm/yr) half spreading rate and so the age of lavas sampled off-axis are well constrained assuming an on-axis origin. Zou et al. [2] tested this assumption by comparing U-series disequilibria in lavas sampled away from the ridge with that observed at the present day axis. They found larger U-Th disequilibria than predicted by decay of the ridge signal in a number of lavas and interpreted this to indicate that these lavas were erupted off-axis. These are important results and so we have analysed U-Th disequilibria in lavas from three traverses along the East Pacific Rise (9°3 N, 10°4N and 11°5N) extending to a maximum distance of 31 km East and West from the ridge axis (corresponding to an age ≤550 ka), including reanalysing the critical samples analysed by Zou et al. [2]. Our analyses of four samples analysed by Zou et al. [2] confirm greater U-Th disequilibria than predicted by decay of the axis signal. However, we could not reproduce the U-excesses in two lavas. Relative to a calculated decay curve assuming an initial (230Th/238U) of 1.23 at the ridge, all of our analyses from 9°3N have greater Th excesses (2-6%) than predicted. Similarly, the lavas from the traverse at 10°4N have (230Th/238U) ratios up to 1.067 (6% Th excess) some 13 km from the ridge axis which is comparable to ratios of 1.042 (4% Th excess) 23 km distant from the ridge at 9°3N. Thus, lavas in a zone 13-30 km off- axis to both sides of the axis have greater Th excess than predicted by decay from the ridge. In contrast, we have found U excesses in lavas from the traverse at 11°5N. 226Ra data will be presented for those samples with

  6. Loss of passive external rotation at 90 degrees abduction is predictive of a medially healed Bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Allen; Ramsey, Matthew L; Williams, Gerald R

    2006-07-01

    This prospective study correlates passive range of external rotation with arthroscopic findings in patients with anterior instability for the purpose of defining criteria that can be used to detect a medially healed Bankart lesion. External rotation at 90 degrees abduction (ER90) was assessed on examination with the patient under anesthesia in bilateral shoulders of 46 consecutive patients with unidirectional, anterior glenohumeral instability. Arthroscopy was used to identify 22 patients with a detached Bankart lesion (group I) and 24 patients with a medially healed Bankart lesion (group II). Differences in ER90 between symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders for both groups were compared. The t test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test measured significance. In group I, mean ER90 in the symptomatic shoulder was 5 degrees greater than in the asymptomatic shoulder; in group II, mean ER90 in the symptomatic shoulder was 7.4 degrees less than in the asymptomatic shoulder (P Bankart lesion. If a loss of 5 degrees or more of ER90 in the affected shoulder is found on examination under anesthesia, one should have a high degree of suspicion for the presence of a medially healed Bankart lesion. Level II, development of diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients.

  7. Thermodynamics of chemical free energy generation in off-axis hydrothermal vent systems and its consequences for compartmentalization and the emergence of life

    CERN Document Server

    Simoncini, E; Gallori, E; .,

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how chemical free energy can be produced by a geological process. We provide a thermodynamic framework in which to assess how life emerged at the off-axis hydrothermal vent system; the RNA - clays system has been investigated from the entropic point of view, showing that the stabilization of the system in a state further away from equilibrium state, by an inorganic heterogeneous compartmetalization phenomena, is able to produce chemical free energy useful for RNA self - replication.

  8. Tuning of a high magnification compact parabolic telescope for centimeter-scale laser beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacca, Matteo; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Buy, Christelle; Laporte, Matthieu; Pillant, Gabriel; Genin, Eric; La Penna, Paolo; Barsuglia, Matteo

    2016-02-20

    Off-axis parabolic telescopes, widely used in astronomy and laser optics, if perfectly tuned, are virtually free from aberrations along the parabola's axis direction, but their alignment is very critical. We present a detailed method to align a high magnification off-axis afocal parabolic telescope. The method is composed of two steps: an initial pre-alignment using autocollimators, followed by a fine tuning with a collimated laser beam. Due to the large telescope magnification, the outcoming beam cannot be measured without being refocused. The beam is therefore reflected on a flat mirror and sent back through the telescope. This double-pass configuration allows the measurement of the beam quality without the need for large additional optics. In the fine-tuning step, a numerical simulation is also used to identify the degrees of freedom to be adjusted. The experimental results presented are obtained with one of the mode-matching parabolic telescopes of the gravitational wave interferometric detector Advanced Virgo.

  9. Computation of the off-axis effective area of the New Hard X-ray Mission modules by means of an analytical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, D

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important parameters determining the sensitivity of X-ray telescopes is their effective area as a function of the X-ray energy. The computation of the effective area of a Wolter-I mirror, with either a single layer or multilayer coating, is a very simple task for a source on-axis at astronomical distance. Indeed, when the source moves off-axis the calculation is more complicated, in particular for new hard X-ray imaging telescopes (NuSTAR, ASTRO-H, NHXM, IXO) beyond 10 keV, that will make use of multilayer coatings to extend the reflectivity band in grazing incidence. Unlike traditional single-layer coatings (in Ir or Au), graded multilayer coatings exhibit an oscillating reflectivity as a function of the incidence angle, which makes the effective area not immediately predictable for a source placed off-axis within the field of view. For this reason, the computation of the off-axis effective area has been so far demanded to ray- tracing codes, able to sample the incidence of photons onto the m...

  10. A compact and stable eddy covariance set-up for methane measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. D. Hendriks

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Fast Methane Analyzer (FMA is assessed for its applicability in a closed path eddy covariance field set-up in a peat meadow. The FMA uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy combined with a highly specific narrow band laser for the detection of CH4 and strongly reflective mirrors to obtain a laser path length of 2–20×103 m. Statistical testing and a calibration experiment showed high precision (7.8×10−3 ppb and accuracy (<0.30% of the instrument, while no drift was observed. The instrument response time was determined to be 0.10 s. In the field set-up, the FMA is attached to a scroll pump and combined with a 3-axis ultrasonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer for measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour. The power-spectra and co-spectra of the instruments were satisfactory for 10 Hz sampling rates.

    Due to erroneous measurements, spikes and periods of low turbulence the data series consisted for 26% of gaps. Observed CH4 fluxes consisted mainly of emission, showed a diurnal cycle, but were rather variable over. The average CH4 emission was 29.7 nmol m−2 s−1, while the typical maximum CH4 emission was approximately 80.0 nmol m−2 s−1 and the typical minimum flux was approximately 0.0 nmol m−2 s−1. The correspondence of the measurements with flux chamber measurements in the footprint was good and the observed CH4 emission rates were comparable with eddy covariance CH4 measurements in other peat areas.

    Additionally, three measurement techniques with lower sampling frequencies were simulated, which might give the possibility to measure CH4 fluxes without an external pump and save energy. Disjunct eddy covariance appeared to be the most reliable substitute for 10 Hz eddy covariance, while relaxed eddy accumulation gave

  11. A compact and stable eddy covariance set-up for methane measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. D. Hendriks

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A DLT-100 Fast Methane Analyser (FMA from Los Gatos Research (LGR Ltd. is assessed for its applicability in a closed path eddy covariance field set-up. The FMA uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS combined with a highly specific narrow band laser for the detection of CH4 and strongly reflective mirrors to obtain a laser path length of 2×10³ to 20×10³ m. Statistical testing, a calibration experiment and comparison with high tower data showed high precision and very good stability of the instrument. The measurement cell response time was tested to be 0.10 s. In the field set-up, the FMA is attached to a scroll pump and combined with a Gill Windmaster Pro 3 axis Ultrasonic Anemometer and a Licor 7500 open path infrared gas analyzer. The power-spectra and co-spectra of the instrument are satisfactory for 10 Hz sampling rates. The correspondence with CH4 flux chamber measurements is good and the observed CH4 emissions are comparable with (eddy covariance CH4 measurements in other peat areas.

    CH4 emissions are rather variable over time and show a diurnal pattern. The average CH4 emission is 50±12.5 nmol m−2 s−1, while the typical maximum CH4 emission is 120±30 nmol m−2 s−1 (during daytime and the typical minimum flux is –20±2.5 nmol m−2 s−1 (uptake, during night time.

    Additionally, the set-up was tested for three measurement techniques with slower measurement rates, which could be used in the future to make the scroll pump superfluous and save energy. Both disjunct eddy covariance as well as slow 1 Hz eddy covariance showed results very similar to normal 10 Hz eddy covariance. Relaxed eddy accumulation (REA only matched with normal 10 Hz eddy covariance over an averaging period of at least several weeks.

  12. Parabolic trough systems; Parabolrinnensysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, M. [Flabeg Solar International GmbH (Germany); Lerchenmueller, H.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, A. [PSE GmbH (Germany); Luepfert, E.; Hennecke, K. [DLR, Koeln (Germany); Schiel, W. [SBP (Germany); Brakmann, G. [Fichtner Solar GmbH (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The technology of parabolic trough power plants is presented: History, comparative assessment of different types of parabolic trough collectors, fresnel collectors, solar tracking systems, thermal efficiency, further research, performance of the SEGS parabolic trough power station in California. [German] Die Technik von Parabolrinnen-Kraftwerken wird vorgestellt: Entwicklungsgeschichte, Vergleich verschiedener Parabolrinnenkollektoren, fresnel kollektoren, Nachfuehrsysteme, thermischer Wirkungsgrad, weiterer Forschungsbedarf und Betriebserfahrung mit dem SEGS Parabolrinnenkraftwerk in Kalifornien. (uke)

  13. Volatile Content of the Mid-ocean Ridge Mantle Inferred from Off-axis Seamounts and Intra-transform Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Saal, A. E.; Hauri, E. H.; Nagle, A.; Forsyth, D. W.; Niu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Off-axis seamounts and intra-transform lavas provide more direct geochemical information of the mantle than axial lavas. These smaller volumes of melts undergo lower extent of crystal fractionation and mixing compared to basalts erupting within the ridge axis due to a lack of long-lived magma chambers or along axis melt migration. Therefore, their study provide not only a more reliable approach to determine the volatile content of the intrinsic components forming the Earth's upper mantle, but also help constrain mantle convection, heterogeneity, and crustal recycling. Samples from the Quebrada-Discovery-Gofar (QDG) transform fault system (EPR 3°-5°S) and from northern EPR seamounts (5°-15° N) were collected during KN182-13 (R/V Knorr) and RAIT 02 (R/V Thomas Washington) expeditions, respectively. 159 submarine glasses were analyzed for major elements, trace elements, and volatile elements by triplicate analyses, as well as for Sr and Nd isotopes in a subset of samples. The QDG and northern EPR seamounts have similar trace element and isotopic composition that is consistent with melting of two-component mantle common to both regions. The degree of trace element enrichment (e.g. Th/La), isotopic composition, and depth of melt segregation (e.g. Sm/Yb) have a positive correlation and range from ultra depleted to relatively enriched compositions. In order to investigate the primary volatile content of submarine glasses we first considered shallow level processes, such as volatile degassing, sulfide saturation and interaction of melt with hydrothermally altered material. The vapor-melt equilibrium pressure (Dixon et al., 1995) indicates that the majority of the samples were super-saturated in CO2-H2O vapor at the pressure of eruption, which implies rapid magma ascent rate that prevented complete CO2 degassing. Samples that were sulfide saturated (Liu et al., 2007) and contaminated by seawater or seawater derived material (high Cl/K) were filtered out. F/Nd, Cl/K, and

  14. Parabolic Dish Stirling Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washom, B.

    1984-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and assembly of a commercially designed parabolic dish Stirling 25 kWe module is examined. The cost, expected performance, design uniquenesses, and future commercial potential of this module, which is regarded as the most technically advanced in the parabolic dish industry is discussed.

  15. 3D Seismic Reflection Images of An Off-Axis Melt Lens And Its Associated Upper Crust Around 9°39'N, East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S.; Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Canales, J.; Nedimović, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    During the 3D multi-channel seismic (MCS) survey MGL0812 aboard the R/V Langseth, several mid-crust reflectors were discovered off axis on both flanks of the East Pacific Rise from 9°35.6-57.0'N. The reversed polarity of these off-axis reflections with respect to the seafloor and Moho reflections and the high attenuation of the crust detected beneath two of them in the north suggest that they arise from melts residing at the mid-crust level outside the axial low velocity zone (Canales et al. 2010). These off-axis melt lenses (OAML) are probable sites of off-axis volcanism and potential heat sources for localized hydrothermal circulation on the ridge flanks. We focus here on a prominent OAML discovered on the eastern flank around 9°39'N. Results from 1D travel time modeling and 2D streamer tomography of downward continued shot gathers show the presence of a thinner seismic layer 2A above the center of the OAML compared with its surrounding crust. We attribute this thinning to the effects of alteration associated with localized off-axis hydrothermal circulation driven by the OAML, where precipitation of secondary minerals infills pore space within the lower basalt section, leading to increased seismic velocities and thereby converting the lowermost seismic layer 2A into seismic layer 2B. To further constrain the respective 3D geometries of the OAML and the AMC, their spatial relations, and the spatial extent and shape of the region of altered upper crust associated with the OAML, we conduct 3D processing of a small MCS grid that encompasses most of this OAML, aimed at imaging both on- and off-axis melt lens events and the base of seismic layer 2A. This grid covers an ~4 km x 24 km area centered on the ridge crest between ˜9°37.5'-40'N and extending on both flanks, within which a third order ridge axis discontinuity and two high temperature hydrothermal vents identified during Alvin dives in 1991 and 1994 are present. The data were recorded by four 468-channel

  16. Structure and Dynamics of the Southeast Indian Ridge, 129°E to 140°E, and Off-axis Volcanism: Preliminary Results of the STORM Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briais, Anne; Barrère, Fabienne; Boulart, Cédric; Ceuleneer, Georges; Ferreira, Nicolas; Hanan, Barry; Hémond, Christophe; Macleod, Sarah; Maia, Marcia; Maillard, Agnès; Merkuryev, Sergey; Park, Sung-Hyun; Révillon, Sidonie; Ruellan, Etienne; Schohn, Alexandre; Watson, Sally; Yang, Yun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    We present observations of the South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR) collected during the STORM cruise (South Tasmania Ocean Ridge and Mantle) on the N/O L'Atalante early 2015. The SEIR between Australia and Antarctica displays large variations of axial morphology despite an almost constant intermediate spreading rate. The Australia-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) between 120°E and 128°E is a section of the mid-ocean ridge where the magma budget is abnormally low, and which marks the boundary between Indian and Pacific mantle domains with distinct geochemical isotopic compositions. The STORM project focuses on the area east of the discordance from 128 to 140°E, where gravity highs observed on satellite-derived maps of the flanks of the SEIR reveal numerous volcanic seamounts. A major objective of the STORM cruise was to test the hypothesis of a mantle flow from the Pacific to the Indian domains. We collected multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data between 136 and 138°E to map off-axis volcanic ridges up to 10 Ma-old crust. We mapped the SEIR axis between 129 and 140°E, and the northern part of the George V transform fault. We collected rock samples on seamounts and in the transform fault, basaltic glass samples along the ridge axis, and near-bottom samples and in-situ measurements in the water column. Our observations reveal that the off-axis seamounts form near the SEIR axis, are not associated to off-axis deformation of the ocean floor, and are often located near the traces of ridge axis discontinuities. We also observe a general shallowing of the ridge axis from the AAD to the George V TF and the presence of robust axial segments near the transform fault. Our new data allow us to describe the complex evolution of the transform fault system. They also permit to locate new hydrothermal systems along the ridge axis.

  17. A method for measuring coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering at a far off-axis high-energy neutrino beam target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, S. J. [Fermilab; Cooper, R. L. [Indiana U.; DeJongh, F. [Fermilab; Empl, A. [Houston U.; Garrison, L. M. [Indiana U.; Hime, A. [Los Alamos; Hungerford, E. [Houston U.; Kobilarcik, T. [Fermilab; Loer, B. [Fermilab; Mariani, C. [Virginia Tech.; Mocko, M. [Los Alamos; Muhrer, G. [Los Alamos; Pattie, R. [North Carolina State U.; Pavlovic, Z. [Los Alamos; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab; Scholberg, K. [Duke U.; Tayloe, R. [Indiana U.; Thornton, R. T. [Indiana U.; Yoo, J. [Fermilab; Young, A. [North Carolina State U.

    2014-04-03

    We present an experimental method for measuring the process of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS). This method uses a detector situated transverse to a high-energy neutrino beam production target. This detector would be sensitive to the low-energy neutrinos arising from decay-at-rest pions in the target. We discuss the physics motivation for making this measurement and outline the predicted backgrounds and sensitivities using this approach. We report a measurement of neutron backgrounds as found in an off-axis surface location of the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) target. The results indicate that the Fermilab BNB target is a favorable location for a CENNS experiment.

  18. Reduction of electrical damage in specimens prepared using focused ion beam milling for dopant profiling using off-axis electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David; Truche, Robert; Rouviere, Jean-Luc

    2008-04-01

    GaAs specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) milling for examination using off-axis electron holography. By lowering the FIB operating voltage from 30 to 8 kV, we have shown a systematic reduction of the electrically 'inactive' thickness from 220 to 100 nm, resulting in a significant increase in the step in phase measured across the junctions as well as an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that the step in phase measured across the junctions can be influenced by the intensity of the electron beam.

  19. Reduction of electrical damage in specimens prepared using focused ion beam milling for dopant profiling using off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, David [CEA LETI-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: david.cooper@cea.fr; Truche, Robert [CEA LETI-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Rouviere, Jean-Luc [CEA DRFMC-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-15

    GaAs specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) milling for examination using off-axis electron holography. By lowering the FIB operating voltage from 30 to 8 kV, we have shown a systematic reduction of the electrically 'inactive' thickness from 220 to 100 nm, resulting in a significant increase in the step in phase measured across the junctions as well as an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that the step in phase measured across the junctions can be influenced by the intensity of the electron beam.

  20. A New Method for Measuring Coherent Elastic Neutrino Nucleus Scattering at an Off-Axis High-Energy Neutrino Beam Target

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, S J; DeJongh, F; Empl, A; Garrison, L M; Hime, A; Hungerford, E; Kobilarcik, T; Loer, B; Mariani, C; Mocko, M; Muhrer, G; Pattie, R; Pavlovic, Z; Ramberg, E; Scholberg, K; Tayloe, R; Thornton, R T; Yoo, J; Young, A

    2013-01-01

    We present a new experimental method for measuring the process of Coherent Elastic Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CENNS). This method uses a detector situated transverse to a high energy neutrino beam production target. This detector would be sensitive to the low energy neutrinos arising from pion decays-at-rest in the target. We discuss the physics motivation for making this measurement and outline the predicted backgrounds and sensitivities using this approach. We report a measurement of neutron backgrounds as found in an off-axis surface location of the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) target. The results indicate that the Fermilab BNB target is a favorable location for a CENNS experiment.

  1. Application of very high harmonic fast waves for off-axis current drive in the DIII-D and FNSF-AT tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, R.; Moeller, C. P.; Pinsker, R. I.; Porkolab, M.; Meneghini, O.; Vdovin, V. L.

    2014-08-01

    Fast waves at frequencies far above the ion cyclotron frequency and approaching the lower hybrid frequency (also called 'helicons' or ‘whistlers’) have application to off-axis current drive in tokamaks with high electron beta. The high frequency causes the whistler-like behaviour of the wave power nearly following field lines, but with a small radial component, so the waves spiral slowly towards the plasma centre. The high frequency also contributes to strong damping. Modelling predicts robust off-axis current drive with good efficiency compared to alternatives in high performance discharges in DIII-D and Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) when the electron beta is above about 1.8%. Detailed analysis of ray behaviour shows that ray trajectories and damping are deterministic (that is, not strongly affected by plasma profiles or initial ray conditions), unlike the chaotic ray behaviour in lower frequency fast wave experiments. Current drive was found to not be sensitive to the launched value of the parallel index of refraction n‖, so wave accessibility issues can be reduced. Use of a travelling wave antenna provides a very narrow n‖spectrum, which also helps avoid accessibility problems.

  2. Electron Traps in GaAs Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on On-axis (100 and Off-axis Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarmiento

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS was used to characterize the electron traps present in the bulkGaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE on on-axis (100 and off-axis (4° towards the (111 Adirection substrates. Two electron traps were obtained for each sample having identical correspondingpeak locations in the DLTS spectra. The layer grown on the on-axis substrate has electron traps withactivation energies of EC–0.454 eV and EC–0.643 eV and capture cross-sections of 1.205 x 10-14 cm2 and3.88 x 10-15 cm2, respectively. The layer grown on the off-axis substrate has traps with activation energiesof EC–0.454 eV and EC–0.723 eV and capture cross-sections of 2.060 x 10-14 cm2 and 4.40 x 10-14 cm2.The electron traps are possibly the M4 (or EL3 and EL2 (or EB4 traps commonly found in GaAs layers.Due to the high trap concentrations obtained and to the non-uniform trap concentration profile, Asdesorption may be considerable during growth.

  3. Control and uniformity of 280-nm features in i-line lithography using optical proximity corrections and off-axis illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Pat G.; Garofalo, Joseph G.; Hansen, M.; Grodnensky, Ilya M.; Zych, Ludwik J.; Takahashi, R.; Yarbrough, Willie J.; Ehrlacher, Edward; Reim, A.; Vella, R. M.; Dunbar, A.; Colina, Albert; Herrero, B.; Castro, D.

    1997-07-01

    The feasibility of manufacturing 280 nm gates for ASIC technology using i-line lithography is examined. Off-axis illumination, sub-resolution assist features and proximity effect bias corrections were considered. The experiments were performed with a reticle designed to evaluate the effects of line pitch, bias and field uniformity on the feature dimensions. Results show that dense and isolated features were found to print at about the same linewidth under all three illumination conditions. However, deviations as large as 40 nm were found at intermediate pitches, implying that some form of optical proximity correction is needed to maintain critical dimension (CD) control for a mask pattern with varying feature densities. Sub-resolution assist lines adjacent to isolated 280 nm lines significantly improved the apparent wall angle of the features compared to true isolated features. The use of these features comes at a cost; the sub-resolution features can be printed under certain conditions and could possibly lead to device failure. Multi-dimensional matrices of CD measurements with varying dose, focus, bias and pitch, when displayed in an appropriate manner, are being used to identify the relative advantages of different illumination conditions. Off-axis illumination offers a large depth of focus for all pitches if proximity effect biasing is applied. Conventional illumination with biasing can improve exposure latitude.

  4. Calculation of focal length for off-axis TMA aerospace mapping camera%离轴三反航天测绘相机焦距的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭疆; 孙继明; 邵明东; 胡海飞

    2012-01-01

    To calculate the focal length of an off-axis Three Mirror Anastigmat(TMA) camera precisely and to guarantee its mapping precision,this paper researches and amends the classic mapping model and related formulas. First, the intersection angle of the off-axis TMA camera is re-defined, and the classic calculating formula for the focal length is modified. Then, the effect of earth curvature on the calculating focal length is analyzed, and the formula is further corrected. Examples indicate that when GSD is set to be 2 m,and the size of CCD, orbital altitude and the off-axis angle are 8 jj.m,700 km and 7? respectively, the relative error of the focal length of a tilt-looking camera calculated by the classic formula and that calculated by the modified formula can reach to 2. 6%, which will effect significantly on the mapping precision. Therefore, it suggests that the calculating formula for focal length of tilt-looking camera should take the off-axis angle into account when a off-axis TMA camera is used in photography. Furthermore, the classic calculating formula is still applicable for the ortho-looking camera.%为了精确计算离轴三反相机的焦距以保证其测绘精度,对经典测绘模型和相关公式进行了必要的修正.首先,重新定义了离轴三反测绘相机的交会角,并对经典焦距计算公式做了修正;其次,分析了地球曲率对离轴三反测绘相机焦距计算的影响,进一步修正了焦距计算公式.实例计算表明:当要求地面像元分辨率为2 m,在CCD像元尺寸为8μm,轨道高度为700 km,离轴角为7°条件下,应用经典计算公式得出的斜视相机焦距与应用修正后的计算公式所得出的斜视相机焦距相对偏差达到2.6%,说明对测绘精度影响很大.因此,在采用离轴三反相机进行摄影测量时,斜视相机焦距的计算应考虑离轴角后对经典公式进行必要的修正,而正视相机的焦距计算可以沿用经典计算公式.

  5. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  6. Ab initio structures for 90 degrees -twisted s-trans-1,3-butadiene and cyclooctatetraene: the naked sp2-sp2 bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, David; Craig, Norman C; Matlin, Albert R

    2008-03-20

    The bond length of a carbon-carbon sp2-sp2 sigma-bond without the perturbing effects of pi-interactions has been estimated by high level calculations on two prototypical systems: a 90 degrees -twisted form of butadiene and the tub conformer of cyclooctatetraene. The former system yields a value of 1.4818 A, considerably longer than previous estimates. The corresponding bond length in the latter is slightly shorter due to some pi-electron delocalization.

  7. The Role of Anti-Phase Domains in InSb-Based Structures Grown on On-Axis and Off-Axis Ge Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, M. C.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Hossain, K.; Holland, O. W. [Amethyst Research, Inc., 1405 4th Ave NW, Ardmore, OK 73401 (United States)

    2011-12-26

    Anti-phase domains form in InSb epilayers and InSb/Al{sub 0.20}In{sub 0.80}Sb single quantum wells when grown upon on-axis (001) Ge substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Domain formation is partially suppressed through growth on Ge substrates with surfaces that are several degrees off the (001) or (211) axis. By using off-axis Ge substrates, room-temperature electron mobilities increased to {approx}60,000 cm{sup 2}/V-s and {approx}14,000 cm{sup 2}/V-s for a 4.0-{mu}m-thick InSb epilayer and a 25-nm InSb quantum well, respectively.

  8. Characterization of electrical properties in axial Si-Ge nanowire heterojunctions using off-axis electron holography and atom-probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Zhaofeng [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA; Perea, Daniel E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Yoo, Jinkyoung [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; He, Yang [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA; Colby, Robert J. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Barker, Josh E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Gu, Meng [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Mao, Scott X. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA; Wang, Chongmin [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Picraux, S. T. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Smith, David J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA; McCartney, Martha R. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA

    2016-09-13

    Doped Si-Ge nanowire (NW) heterojunctions were grown using the vapor-liquid-solid method with AuGa and Au catalyst particles. Transmission electron microscopy and off-axis electron holography (EH) were used to characterize the nanostructure and to measure the electrostatic potential profile across the junction resulting from electrically active dopants, while atom-probe tomography (APT) was used to determine the Si, Ge and total (active and inactive) dopant concentration profiles. A comparison of the measured potential profile with simulations indicated that Ga dopants unintentionally introduced during AuGa catalyst growth were electronically inactive despite APT results that showed considerable amounts of Ga in the Si region. 10% P in Ge and 100% B in Si were estimated to be activated, which was corroborated by in situ electron-holography biasing experiments. This combination of EH, APT, in situ biasing and simulations allows a better knowledge and understanding of the electrically active dopant distributions in NWs.

  9. Thermal optical path difference analysis of off-axis lens ray trace foot-print at Cassegrain telescope correct lens assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chan, Chia-Yen; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chan, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2012-10-01

    The Cassegrain telescope system in this study, is discussion correct lens thermal OPD (Optical Path Difference) effect optical performance. The correct lens assembly are includes several components such as correct lens, lens mount, spacer, mount barrel and retainer. The heat transfer from surrounding to the correct lens barrel will causes optical system aberration. Meanwhile, the off-axis rays path of the OPD must consider lens incidence point and emergence point. The correct lens temperature distribution is calculate the lens barrel heat transfer analysis, the thermal distortion and stress are solve by FEM (Finite Element Method) software. The temperature calculation results can be weighting to each incidence ray path and calculate thermal OPD. The thermal OPD on Z-direction can be fitted by rigid body motion and Zernike polynomial. The fitting results can be used to evaluate the thermal effect on correct lens assembly in telescope system.

  10. Design Trade Study for a 4-Meter Off-Axis Primary Mirror Substrate and Mount for the Habitable-Zone Exoplanet Direct Imaging Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William R.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-01-01

    An extensive trade study was conducted to evaluate primary mirror substrate design architectures for the HabEx mission baseline 4-meter off-axis telescope. The study’s purpose is not to produce a final design, but rather to established a design methodology for matching the mirror’s properties (mass and stiffness) with the mission’s optical performance specifications (static dynamic wavefront error, WFE). The study systematically compares the effect of proven design elements (closed-back vs. open-back vs. partial-back; meniscus vs. flat back vs. shaped back; etc.), which can be implemented with proven space mirror materials (ULE and Zerodur), on static and dynamic WFE. Additionally, the study compares static and dynamic WFE of each substrate point design integrated onto three and six point mounts.

  11. Investigation of (Fe,Co)NbB-Based Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloys by Lorentz Microscopy and Off-Axis Electron Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changlin; Kirmse, Holm; Long, Jianguo; Laughlin, David E; McHenry, Michael E; Neumann, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties of a (Fe,Co)NbB-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy was investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructures of (Fe0.5Co0.5)80Nb4B13Ge2Cu1 nanocrystalline alloys annealed at different temperatures were characterized by TEM and electron diffraction. The magnetic structures were analyzed by Lorentz microscopy and off-axis electron holography, including quantitative measurement of domain wall width, induction, and in situ magnetic domain imaging. The results indicate that the magnetic domain structure and particularly the dynamical magnetization behavior of the alloys strongly depend on the microstructure of the nanocrystalline alloys. Smaller grain size and random orientation of the fine particles decrease the magneto-crystalline anisotropy and suggests better soft magnetic properties which may be explained by the anisotropy model of Herzer.

  12. Towards quantitative off-axis electron holographic mapping of the electric field around the tip of a sharp biased metallic needle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beleggia, M. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Kasama, T. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Larson, D. J.; Kelly, T. F. [CAMECA Instruments, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53711 (United States); Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungzentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Pozzi, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-07-14

    We apply off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy in the transmission electron microscope to map the electric field generated by a sharp biased metallic tip. A combination of experimental data and modelling provides quantitative information about the potential and the field around the tip. Close to the tip apex, we measure a maximum field intensity of 82 MV/m, corresponding to a field k factor of 2.5, in excellent agreement with theory. In order to verify the validity of the measurements, we use the inferred charge density distribution in the tip region to generate simulated phase maps and Fresnel (out-of-focus) images for comparison with experimental measurements. While the overall agreement is excellent, the simulations also highlight the presence of an unexpected astigmatic contribution to the intensity in a highly defocused Fresnel image, which is thought to result from the geometry of the applied field.

  13. Dopant profiling of focused ion beam milled semiconductors using off-axis electron holography; reducing artifacts, extending detection limits and reducing the effects of gallium implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, David, E-mail: david.cooper@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC, F38054 Grenoble (France); Ailliot, Cyril; Barnes, Jean-Paul; Hartmann, Jean-Michel [CEA, LETI, MINATEC, F38054 Grenoble (France); Salles, Phillipe; Benassayag, Gerard [CEMES-CNRS, nMat group, 29 rue Jean Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-04-15

    Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is one of the few specimen preparation techniques that can be used to prepare parallel-sided specimens with nm-scale site specificity for examination using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, FIB milling results in the implantation of Ga, the formation of amorphous surface layers and the introduction of defects deep into the specimens. Here we show that these effects can be reduced by lowering the operating voltage of the FIB and by annealing the specimens at low temperature. We also show that the electrically inactive thickness is dependent on both the operating voltage and type of ion used during FIB milling.

  14. Bisimide amine cured epoxy /IME/ resins and composites. II - Ten-degree off-axis tensile and shear properties of Celion 6000/IME composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Bisimide amines (BIAs), which are presently used as curing agents in a state-of-the-art epoxy resin, are oligomeric and polymeric mixtures. A series of composites consisting of the novel BIA-cured epoxy resin reinforced with Celion 6000 graphite fibers were fabricated and evaluated, and the ten-degree, off-axis uniaxial tensile and shear properties of these composites were determined. The use of the intralaminar shear strain-to-failure was used in the calculation of resin shear strain-to-failure. Study results indicate that several of these novel composite systems exhibit shear strain properties that are superior to those of the control composite system of the present experiments, which employed a sulfone curing agent.

  15. Effect of magnetic field and soft potential barrier on off-axis donor binding energy in a nanotube with two quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Jesus D. [Grupo en Teoria de la Materia Condensada, Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta (Colombia); Grupo de Fisica Mesoscopica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Rondano, F.J. [Grupo en Teoria de la Materia Condensada, Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta (Colombia); Barba-Ortega, J., E-mail: jjbarbao@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Fisica Mesoscopica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-12-15

    We analyze the effect of the magnetic field parallel to the axis and different potential shape on the ground-state binding energy of the off-axis donors in cylindrical nanotubes containing two GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells (QWs) in a section of the tube layer. We express the wave function as a product of combinations of s and p subband wave functions and an envelope function that depends only on the electron-ion separation. By using the variational principle we derive a differential equation for the envelope function, which we solve numerically. Two peaks in the curves for the dependence of the ground-state binding energies on the donor distance from the axis are presented and it is shown that the increasing the magnetic field increasing the binding energy while the impurity is located in the QW1, whereas the opposite occurs when the impurity is located in the QW2.

  16. Epitaxial growth and characterization of Eu0.5Sr0.5CoO3 thin films by off-axis sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Daeyoung; Wu, Youngsu; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Bog G.; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2009-09-01

    We report the epitaxial growth and physical properties of Eu0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (ESCO) thin films deposited on (001) LaAlO3 (LAO) and (001) SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by off-axis rf sputtering. The magnetic properties of a grown film are governed by the crystallinity of the thin film and strain effects due to the substrate. The temperature-dependent resistivity of an optimized ESCO thin film on a LAO substrate shows a characteristic sudden decrease near the ferromagnetic transition temperature, indicating metallic double-exchange-like behavior, while the resistivity of ESCO on a STO substrate displays insulatinglike behavior because of substrate strain. These results suggest that optimized ESCO film on LAO is ideal as a bottom electrode for strained dielectric and ferroelectric heterostructures.

  17. Analysis of off-axis solenoid fields using the magnetic scalar potential: An application to a Zeeman-slower for cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Sérgio R.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Bhattacharya, M.

    2015-06-01

    In a region free of currents, magnetostatics can be described by the Laplace equation of a scalar magnetic potential, and one can apply the same methods commonly used in electrostatics. Here, we show how to calculate the general vector field inside a real (finite) solenoid, using only the magnitude of the field along the symmetry axis. Our method does not require integration or knowledge of the current distribution and is presented through practical examples, including a nonuniform finite solenoid used to produce cold atomic beams via laser cooling. These examples allow educators to discuss the nontrivial calculation of fields off-axis using concepts familiar to most students, while offering the opportunity to introduce themes of current modern research.

  18. Simple analysis of off-axis solenoid fields using the scalar magnetostatic potential: application to a Zeeman-slower for cold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Sérgio R; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2010-01-01

    In a region free of currents, magnetostatics can be described by the Laplace equation of a scalar magnetic potential, and one can apply the same methods commonly used in electrostatics. Here we show how to calculate the general vector field inside a real (finite) solenoid, using only the magnitude of the field along the symmetry axis. Our method does not require integration or knowledge of the current distribution, and is presented through practical examples, including a non-uniform finite solenoid used to produce cold atomic beams via laser cooling. These examples allow educators to discuss the non-trivial calculation of fields off-axis using concepts familiar to most students, while offering the opportunity to introduce important advancements of current modern research.

  19. Calibration of δ13C and δ18O measurements in CO2 using Off-axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectrometer (ICOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jobin; Külls, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The δ13C and δ18O of CO2 has enormous potential as tracers to study and quantify the interaction between the water and carbon cycles. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) being the conventional method for stable isotopic measurements, has many limitations making it impossible for deploying them in remote areas for online or in-situ sampling. New laser based absorption spectroscopy approaches like Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (ICOS) have been developed for online measurements of stable isotopes at an expense of considerably less power requirement but with precision comparable to IRMS. In this research project, we introduce a new calibration system for an Off- Axis ICOS (Los Gatos Research CCIA-36d) for a wide range of varying concentrations of CO2 (800ppm - 25,000ppm), a typical CO2 flux range at the plant-soil continuum. The calibration compensates for the concentration dependency of δ13C and δ18O measurements, and was performed using various CO2 standards with known CO2 concentration and δC13 and δO18 values. A mathematical model was developed after the calibration procedure as a correction factor for the concentration dependency of δ13C and δ18O measurements. Temperature dependency of δ13C and δ18O measurements were investigated and no significant influence was found. Simultaneous calibration of δ13C and δ18O is achieved using this calibration system with an overall accuracy of (~ 0.75±0.24 ‰ for δ13C, ~ 0.81 ±0.26‰ for δ18O). This calibration procedure is found to be appropriate for making Off-Axis ICOS suitable for measuring CO2 concentration and δ13C and δ18O measurements at atmosphere-plant-soil continuum.

  20. Parabolic Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Chadzitaskos, Goce

    2013-01-01

    We present a proposal of a new type of telescopes using a rotating parabolic strip as the primary mirror. It is the most principal modification of the design of telescopes from the times of Galileo and Newton. In order to demonstrate the basic idea, the image of an artificial constellation observed by this kind of telescope was reconstructed using the techniques described in this article. As a working model of this new telescope, we have used an assembly of the primary mirror---a strip of acrylic glass parabolic mirror 40 cm long and 10 cm wid shaped as a parabolic cylinder of focal length 1 m---and an artificial constellation, a set of 5 apertures in a distance of 5 m illuminated from behind. In order to reconstruct the image, we made a series of snaps, each after a rotation of the constellation by 15 degrees. Using Matlab we reconstructed the image of the artificial constellation.

  1. Ex Vivo Assessment of a Parabolic-Tip Inflow Cannula for Pediatric Continuous-Flow VADs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michael T; Grzywinski, Matthew F; Voorhees, Hannah J; Kameneva, Marina V; Olia, Salim E

    2016-01-01

    To address the challenge of unloading the left ventricle during pediatric mechanical circulatory support using next-generation rotary blood pumps, a novel inflow cannula was developed. This unique inflow cannula for pediatric, continuous-flow, left ventricular assist devices (VADs) with a parabolic-shaped inlet entrance was evaluated alongside a bevel-tip and fenestrated-tip cannula via an ex vivo, isolated-heart experimental setup. Performance was characterized using two clinical scenarios of over-pumping and hypovolemia, created by varying pump speed and filling preload pressure, respectively, at ideal and off-axis cannula placement to assess ventricular unloading and positional sensitivity. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed on the resultant hemodynamics and intra-ventricular boroscopic images to classify conditions of nonsuction, partial, gradual or severe entrainment, and ventricular collapse. The parabolic-tip cannula was found to be significantly less sensitive to placement position (p parabolic-tip cannula showed complete resistance to entrainment, whereas the fenestrated-tip had partial entrainment in 90% and 87% of the over-pumping and hypovolemic studies, respectively. We conclude that future pediatric VAD designs may benefit from incorporating the parabolic-tip inflow cannula design to maximize unloading of the left ventricle in ideal and nonoptimal conditions.

  2. Parabolic k-ample bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Indranil

    2011-01-01

    We construct projectivization of a parabolic vector bundle and a tautological line bundle over it. It is shown that a parabolic vector bundle is ample if and only if the tautological line bundle is ample. This allows us to generalize the notion of a k-ample bundle, introduced by Sommese, to the context of parabolic bundles. A parabolic vector bundle $E_*$ is defined to be k-ample if the tautological line bundle ${\\mathcal O}_{{\\mathbb P}(E_*)}(1)$ is $k$--ample. We establish some properties of parabolic k-ample bundles.

  3. Three-dimensional profile measurement of pyramid micro-structure array: research on twice reflection of the dihedral of 90 degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Shi, Rui

    2016-10-01

    Optical micro-structure array, including microlens array and pyramid array, has the function of integral imaging or diffraction beam-splitting. Careful measurement of the 3D profile of the array is a basic approach for insuring its quality. However, due to the limited numerical aperture of microscopy, when the surface is too steep, typically larger than 45 degrees, little light will be reflected or scattered back to the measurement equipment. The signal-to-noise-ratio will drop below the measurable threshold and information will be lost during measurement. In our case, the dihedral of the sample surface is 90 degrees. Intuitively, the reflected rays should be parallel to the incident rays after twice reflection and can be picked up by the detector. Nevertheless, the white-light interference microscope still showed no information on the 45- degree-inclined surface. In this paper, we study the twice-reflection of the dihedral angle of 90 degrees. We put it in the test beam of a spherical interferometer to simulate the situation in microscope. Simulation and real experiments suggest that the twice-reflection beam is of low spatial coherence and may act as the background intensity in white-light interferogram. This result cannot lead to a novel testing approach directly but points out the problem. We will sprout new idea based on it.

  4. In-situ potential mapping of space charge layer in GaN nanowires under electrical field by off-axis electron holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ potential mapping of space charge (SC layer in a single GaN nanowire (NW contacted to the Au metal electrode has been conducted using off-axis electron holography in order to study the space distribution of SC layer under electric biases. Based on the phase image reconstructed from the complex hologram the electrostatic potential at the SC layer was clearly revealed; the SC width was estimated to be about 76 nm under zero bias condition. In order to study dynamic interrelation between the SC layer and bias conditions, the variation of the electrostatic potential due to change of the SC widths respond to the different bias conditions have also been examined. The measured SC layers are found to vary between 68 nm and 91 nm, which correspond to the saturated SC layers at the GaN-Au contact under the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively. By plotting the square widths of the SC layer against the applied voltages, donor density of GaN NWs was derived to be about 4.3*106 cm−3. Our experiments demonstrate that in-situ electron holography under electric field can be a useful method to investigate SC layers and donor density in single NW and other heterostructures.

  5. In-situ potential mapping of space charge layer in GaN nanowires under electrical field by off-axis electron holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Chen; Yanguo Wang; Jie Guo; Jikang Jian; Lin Gu; Zhihua Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In situ potential mapping of space charge (SC) layer in a single GaN nanowire (NW) contacted to the Au metal electrode has been conducted using off-axis electron holography in order to study the space distribution of SC layer under electric biases. Based on the phase image reconstructed from the complex hologram the electrostatic potential at the SC layer was clearly revealed;the SC width was estimated to be about 76 nm under zero bias condition. In order to study dynamic interrelation between the SC layer and bias conditions, the variation of the electrostatic potential due to change of the SC widths respond to the different bias conditions have also been examined. The measured SC layers are found to vary between 68 nm and 91 nm, which correspond to the saturated SC layers at the GaN-Au contact under the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively. By plotting the square widths of the SC layer against the applied voltages, donor density of GaN NWs was derived to be about 4.3*106 cm ? 3. Our experiments demon-strate that in-situ electron holography under electric field can be a useful method to investigate SC layers and donor density in single NW and other heterostructures.

  6. An off Axis Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer and a Rapid Scan Spectrometer with a Room-Temperature External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Kang, Cheolhwa; Xu, Yunjie

    2009-06-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a new type of mid-infrared tunable diode lasers with superior output power and mode quality. Recent developments, such as room temperature operation, wide frequency tunability, and narrow line width, make QCLs an ideal light source for high resolution spectroscopy. Two slit jet infrared spectrometers, namely an off-axis cavity enhanced absorption (CEA) spectrometer and a rapid scan spectrometer with an astigmatic multi-pass cell assembly, have been coupled with a newly purchased room temperature tunable mod-hop-free QCL with a frequency coverage from 1592 cm^{-1} to 1698 cm^{-1} and a scan rate of 0.1 cm^{-1}/ms. Our aim is to utilize these two sensitive spectrometers, that are equipped with a molecular jet expansion, to investigate the chiral molecules-(water)_n clusters. To demonstrate the resolution and sensitivity achieved, the rovibrational transitions of the static N_2O gas and the bending rovibrational transitions of the Ar-water complex, a test system, at 1634 cm^{-1} have been measured. D. Hofstetter and J. Faist in High performance quantum cascade lasers and their applications, Vol.89 Springer-Verlag Berlin & Heidelberg, 2003, pp. 61-98. Y. Xu, X. Liu, Z. Su, R. M. Kulkarni, W. S. Tam, C. Kang, I. Leonov and L. D'Agostino, Proc. Spie, 2009, 722208 (1-11). M. J. Weida and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 1997, 106, 3078-3089.

  7. A new, very massive modular Liquid Argon Imaging Chamber to detect low energy off-axis neutrinos from the CNGS beam. (Project MODULAr)

    CERN Document Server

    Baibussinov, B; Battistoni, G; Benetti, P; Borio, A; Calligarich, E; Cambiaghi, M; Cavanna, F; Centro, Sandro; Cocco, A G; Dolfini, R; Berzolari, A Gigli; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Ferrari, A; Fiorillo, G; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A M; Mannocchi, G; Mauri, F; Menegolli, A; Meng, G; Montanari, C; Palamara, O; Periale, L; Piazzoli, A; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rubbia, Carlo; Sala, P; Satta, G; Varanini, F; Ventura, Sandro; Vignoli, C

    2007-01-01

    The paper is considering an opportunity for the CERN/GranSasso (CNGS) neutrino complex, concurrent time-wise with T2K and NOvA, to search for theta_13 oscillations and CP violation. Compared with large water Cherenkov (T2K) and fine grained scintillators (NOvA), the LAr-TPC offers a higher detection efficiency and a lower backgrounds, since virtually all channels may be unambiguously recognized. The present proposal, called MODULAr, describes a 20 kt fiducial volume LAr-TPC, following very closely the technology developed for the ICARUS-T60o, and is focused on the following activities, for which we seek an extended international collaboration: (1) the neutrino beam from the CERN 400 GeV proton beam and an optimised horn focussing, eventually with an increased intensity in the framework of the LHC accelerator improvement program; (2) A new experimental area LNGS-B, of at least 50000 m3 at 10 km off-axis from the main Laboratory, eventually upgradable to larger sizes. A location is under consideration at about ...

  8. Model-independent measurement of the charge density distribution along an Fe atom probe needle using off-axis electron holography without mean inner potential effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migunov, V., E-mail: v.migunov@fz-juelich.de; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); London, A. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik and Center of Nanointegration (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-04-07

    The one-dimensional charge density distribution along an electrically biased Fe atom probe needle is measured using a model-independent approach based on off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. Both the mean inner potential and the magnetic contribution to the phase shift are subtracted by taking differences between electron-optical phase images recorded with different voltages applied to the needle. The measured one-dimensional charge density distribution along the needle is compared with a similar result obtained using model-based fitting of the phase shift surrounding the needle. On the assumption of cylindrical symmetry, it is then used to infer the three-dimensional electric field and electrostatic potential around the needle with ∼10 nm spatial resolution, without needing to consider either the influence of the perturbed reference wave or the extension of the projected potential outside the field of view of the electron hologram. The present study illustrates how a model-independent approach can be used to measure local variations in charge density in a material using electron holography in the presence of additional contributions to the phase, such as those arising from changes in mean inner potential and specimen thickness.

  9. Extensive multiband study of the X-ray rich GRB 050408. A likely off-axis event with an intense energy injection

    CERN Document Server

    De Postigo, A U; Johannesson, G; Gorosabel, J; Sokolov, V V; Castro-Tirado, A J; Balega, Y Y; Spiridonova, O I; Jelinek, M; Guziy, S; Pérez-Ramírez, D; Hjorth, J; Laursen, P; Bersier, D; Pandey, S B; Bremer, M; Monfardini, A; Huang, K Y; Urata, Y; Ip, W H; Tamagawa, T; Kinoshita, D; Mizuno, T; Arai, Y; Yamagishi, H; Soyano, T; Usui, F; Tashiro, M; Abe, K; Onda, K; Aslan, Z; Khamitov, I; Ozisik, T; Kiziloglu, U; Bikmaev, I; Sakhibullin, N A; Burenin, R; Pavlinsky, M; Sunyaev, R; Bhattacharya, D; Kamble, A P; Chandra, C H I; Trushkin, S A; Balega, Yu.Yu.

    2006-01-01

    Aims. Understand the shape and implications of the multiband light curve of GRB 050408, an X-ray rich (XRR) burst. Methods. We present a multiband optical light curve, covering the time from the onset of the gamma-ray event to several months after, when we only detect the host galaxy. Together with X-ray, millimetre and radio observations we compile what, to our knowledge, is the most complete multiband coverage of an XRR burst afterglow to date. Results. The optical and X-ray light curve is characterised by an early flattening and an intense bump peaking around 6 days after the burst onset. We explain the former by an off-axis viewed jet, in agreement with the predictions made for XRR by some models, and the latter with an energy injection equivalent in intensity to the initial shock. The analysis of the spectral flux distribution reveals an extinction compatible with a low chemical enrichment surrounding the burst. Together with the detection of an underlying starburst host galaxy we can strengthen the link...

  10. Session: Parabolic Troughs (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.

    2008-04-01

    The project description is R and D activities at NREL and Sandia aimed at lowering the delivered energy cost of parabolic trough collector systems and FOA awards to support industry in trought development. The primary objectives are: (1) support development of near-term parabolic trought technology for central station power generation; (2) support development of next-generation trought fields; and (3) support expansion of US trough industry. The major FY08 activities were: (1) improving reflector optics; (2) reducing receiver heat loss (including improved receiver coating and mitigating hydrogen accumulation); (3) measuring collector optical efficiency; (4) optimizing plant performance and reducing cost; (5) reducing plant water consumption; and (6) directly supporting industry needs, including FOA support.

  11. Parabolic Stein Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Aytuna, Aydin

    2011-01-01

    An open Riemann surface is called parabolic in case every bounded subharmonic function on it reduces to a constant. Several authors introduced seemingly different analogs of this notion for Stein manifolds of arbitrary dimension. In the first part of this note we compile these notions of parabolicity and give some immediate relations among them. In section 3 we relate some of these notions to the linear topological type of the Fr\\'echet space of analytic functions on the given manifold. In sections 4 and 5 we look at some examples and show, for example, that the complement of the zero set of a Weierstrass polynomial possesses a continuous plurisubharmonic exhaustion function that is maximal off a compact subset.

  12. Mahonians and parabolic quotients

    CERN Document Server

    Caselli, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    We study the distribution of the major index with sign on some parabolic quotients of the symmetric group, extending and generalizing simultaneously results of Panova [G. Panova, Bijective enumeration of permutations starting with a longest increasing subsequence, Discrete Math. Theor. Comput. Sci. Proc. AN (2010), 841--850], Gessel-Simion [M. Wachs, An involution for signed Eulerian numbers, Discrete Math. 99 (1992), 59--62] and Adin-Gessel-Roichman [R. Adin, I. Gessel and Y. Roichman, Signed Mahonians, J. Combin. Theory Ser. A 109 (2005), 25--43]. We further consider and compute the distribution of the flag-major index on some parabolic quotients of wreath products and other related groups. All these distributions turn out to have very simple factorization formulas.

  13. Investigation of non-isothermal fluid mixing and wall temperature fluctuation in a T-junction which has a 90-degree bend in the upsteram area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuki, K.; Toda, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Okuyama, K. [Hitachi coap, Hitachi (Japan); Hashizume, H.; Muramatsu, T. [Oarai Engineering center, (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In a region where two fluids with different temperatures are mixed together, unsteady temperature fluctuation occurs in going through the unstable fluid mixing process, and structural materials in the surrounding area are damaged by high-cycle thermal fatigue. In this study, in order to clarify the relation between the fluid mixing and the wall temperature fluctuation in a T-junction area which has a 90-degree bend in the upstream area, a PIV measuring system is used to visualize the flow field first, and its effect on the wall temperature fluctuation is estimated by measuring the fluid temperature fluctuation near the wall with a thin thermocouple. It is confirmed that jet flow, which is flowing out from a branch pipe into a main pipe, vibrates unsteadily and that its behavior is strongly affected by circulating flow, Karman-like vortices formed behind the jet flow, and especially by flow fluctuation which exists as background-flow in the main pipe. In particular, the frequency band of the flow fluctuation existing in the main pipe flow almost corresponds to that of the vibration of the jet flow in the case that the flow rate of branch pipe flow is relatively lower than that of the main pipe flow. Furthermore, it is shown that the band of dominant frequency of the temperature fluctuation in the vicinity of wall is almost the same as the flow fluctuation and the vibration of jet flow mentioned above. In addition, visualization experiment of secondary flow formed in the 90-degree bend clarifies that its flow pattern changes unsteadily and intensely and that its frequency band is nearly equal to that of the temperature fluctuation. It is concluded that the flow fluctuation in the main pipe is due to unsteady decay process of the secondary flow itself and that the fluid mixing and the temperature fluctuation in the T-junction area with the 90-degree bend upstream are strongly dominated by the unsteadiness of the secondary flow generated in the bend as well as by the

  14. Courant Algebroids in Parabolic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    To a smooth manifold $M$, a parabolic geometry associates a principal bundle, which has a parabolic subgroup of a semisimple Lie group as its structure group, and a Cartan connection. We show that the adjoint tractor bundle of a regular normal parabolic geometry can be endowed with the structure of a Courant algebroid. This gives a class of examples of transitive Courant algebroids that are not exact.

  15. An empirical method for calculating melt compositions produced beneath mid-ocean ridges: Application for axis and off-axis (seamounts) melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yaoling; Batiza, Rodey

    1991-12-01

    We present a new method for calculating the major element compositions of primary melts parental to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). This model is based on the experimental data of Jaques and Green (1980), Falloon et al. (1988), and Falloon and Green (1987, 1988) which are ideal for this purpose. Our method is empirical and employs solid-liquid partition coefficients (Di) from the experiments. We empirically determine Di = ƒ(P,F) and use this to calculate melt compositions produced by decompression-induced melting along an adiabat (column melting). Results indicate that most MORBs can be generated by 10-20% partial melting at initial pressures (P0) of 12-21 kbar. Our primary MORB melts have MgO = 10-12 wt %. We fractionate these at low pressure to an MgO content of 8.0 wt % in order to interpret natural MORB liquids. This model allows us to calculate Po, Pƒ, To, Tƒ, and F for natural MORB melts. We apply the model to interpret MORB compositions and mantle upwelling patterns beneath a fast ridge (East Pacific Rise (EPR)8°N to 14°N), a slow ridge (mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) at 26°S), and seamounts near the EPR (Lament seamount chain). We find mantle temperature differences of up to 50°-60°C over distances of 30-50 km both across axis and along axis at the EPR. We propose that these are due to upward mantle flow in a weakly conductive (versus adiabatic) temperature gradient. We suggest that the EPR is fed by a wide (-100 km) zone of upwelling due to plate separation but has a central core of faster buoyant flow. An along-axis thermal dome between the Siqueiros transform and the 11°45' Overlapping Spreading center (OSC) may represent such an upwelling; however, in general there is a poor correlation between mantle temperature, topography, and the segmentation pattern at the EPR. For the Lament seamounts we find regular across-axis changes in Po and F suggesting that the melt zone pinches out off axis. This observation supports the idea that the EPR is fed by a

  16. An empirical method for calculating melt compositions produced beneath mid-ocean ridges: for axis and off-axis (seamounts) melting application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Rodey

    1991-12-01

    We present a new method for calculating the major element compositions of primary melts parental to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). This model is based on the experimental data of Jaques and Green (1980), Falloon et al. (1988), and Falloon and Green (1987, 1988) which are ideal for this purpose. Our method is empirical and employs solid-liquid partition coefficients (Di) from the experiments. We empirically determine Di=f(P,F) and use this to calculate melt compositions produced by decompression-induced melting along an adiabat (column melting). Results indicate that most MORBs can be generated by 10-20% partial melting at initial pressures (P0) of 12-21 kbar. Our primary MORB melts have MgO=10-12 wt %. We fractionate these at low pressure to an MgO content of 8.0 wt% in order to interpret natural MORB liquids. This model allows us to calculate Po, Pf, To, Tf, and F for natural MORB melts. We apply the model to interpret MORB compositions and mantle upwelling patterns beneath a fast ridge (East Pacific Rise (EPR) 8°N to 14°N), a slow ridge (mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) at 26°S), and seamounts near the EPR (Lamont seamount chain). We find mantle temperature differences of up to 50°-60°C over distances of 30-50 km both across axis and along axis at the EPR. We propose that these are due to upward mantle flow in a weakly conductive (versus adiabatic) temperature gradient. We suggest that the EPR is fed by a wide (~100 km) zone of upwelling due to plate separation but has a central core of faster buoyant flow. An along-axis thermal dome between the Siqueiros transform and the 11°45' Overlapping Spreading Center (OSC) may represent such an upwelling; however, in general there is a poor correlation between mantle temperature, topography, and the segmentation pattern at the EPR. For the Lamont seamounts we find regular across-axis changes in Po and F suggesting that the melt zone pinches out off axis. This observation supports the idea that the EPR is fed by a broad

  17. 虚拟3D摄影移轴技术研究%Off-Axis Technology of Virtual 3D Cinematography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙略

    2010-01-01

    虚拟3D摄影技术指计算机动画制作系统中用于拍摄三维场景以获取立体数字影像的技术.一般情况下,3D摄影系统中双机的主轴需要形成汇聚才能产生立体视觉效果,在真实3D摄影系统中,通常以旋转(Toe In)摄影机的方式形成汇聚.在虚拟3D摄影系统中,由于虚拟摄影机的特殊性质,可以通过移轴(Off Axis)技术形成汇聚.移轴技术可以消除普通3D摄影技术不可避免的梯形变形以及清晰度差异,提高3D影像的质量.本文在分析梯形变形与清晰度差异产生原理的基础上,对虚拟3D摄影系统的移轴控制技术进行讨论,进一步分析如何通过移轴技术消除垂直视差与清晰度差异,从而在理论上证明移轴技术是更为理想的3D摄影控制技术,并最终提出在真实3D摄影系统中引入移轴技术的设想.

  18. On the calibration of continuous, high-precision delta18O and delta2H measurements using an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Caylor, Kelly K; Dragoni, Danilo

    2009-02-01

    The (18)O and (2)H of water vapor serve as powerful tracers of hydrological processes. The typical method for determining water vapor delta(18)O and delta(2)H involves cryogenic trapping and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Even with recent technical advances, these methods cannot resolve vapor composition at high temporal resolutions. In recent years, a few groups have developed continuous laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) approaches for measuring delta(18)O and delta(2)H which achieve accuracy levels similar to those of lab-based mass spectrometry methods. Unfortunately, most LAS systems need cryogenic cooling and constant calibration to a reference gas, and have substantial power requirements, making them unsuitable for long-term field deployment at remote field sites. A new method called Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) has been developed which requires extremely low-energy consumption and neither reference gas nor cryogenic cooling. In this report, we develop a relatively simple pumping system coupled to a dew point generator to calibrate an ICOS-based instrument (Los Gatos Research Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer (WVIA) DLT-100) under various pressures using liquid water with known isotopic signatures. Results show that the WVIA can be successfully calibrated using this customized system for different pressure settings, which ensure that this instrument can be combined with other gas-sampling systems. The precisions of this instrument and the associated calibration method can reach approximately 0.08 per thousand for delta(18)O and approximately 0.4 per thousand for delta(2)H. Compared with conventional mass spectrometry and other LAS-based methods, the OA-ICOS technique provides a promising alternative tool for continuous water vapor isotopic measurements in field deployments.

  19. Observation of Muon Neutrino Charged Current Events in an Off-Axis Horn-Focused Neutrino Beam Using the NOvA Prototype Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Enrique Arrieta [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The NOνA is a long base-line neutrino oscillation experiment. It will study the oscillations between muon and electron neutrinos through the Earth. NOνA consists of two detectors separated by 810 km. Each detector will measure the electron neutrino content of the neutrino (NuMI) beam. Differences between the measurements will reveal details about the oscillation channel. The NOνA collaboration built a prototype detector on the surface at Fermilab in order to develop calibration, simulation, and reconstruction tools, using real data. This 220 ton detector is 110 mrad off the NuMI beam axis. This off-axis location allows the observation of neutrino interactions with energies around 2 GeV, where neutrinos come predominantly from charged kaon decays. During the period between October 2011 and April 2012, the prototype detector collected neutrino data from 1.67 × 1020 protons on target delivered by the NuMI beam. This analysis selected a number of candidate charged current muon neutrino events from the prototype data, which is 30% lower than predicted by the NOνA Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis suggests that the discrepancy comes from an over estimation of the neutrino flux in the Monte Carlo simulation, and in particular, from neutrinos generated in charged kaon decays. The ratio of measured divided by the simulated flux of muon neutrinos coming from charged kaon decays is: 0.70+0.108 -0.094. The NOνA collaboration may use the findings of this analysis to introduce a more accurate prediction of the neutrino flux produced by the NuMI beam in future Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. 压缩感知重建离轴菲涅耳全息图%Reconstruction of Off-axis Fresnel Hologram by Compressive Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁嘉文; 李海; 杨初平; 李婉琪; 钟金钢

    2015-01-01

    Based on the classical numerical reconstruction method, the reconstructed image according to different depth section of the three-dimensional object would be disturbed by the twin image and out-of-focus section image. Therefore, a numerical reconstruction method according to compressive sensing theory for a single off-axis Fresnel hologram is proposed to achieve tomographic imaging. First, the adaptive filtering method is applied to the hologram to eliminate the twin image. And then, based on the compressive sensing theory, different depth section images can be reconstructed with the background out-of-focus object inhibited. The numerical simulation and digital holography experiment employing test targets are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the method.%针对基于传统数字全息重建算法对待测物体的不同纵向深度截面进行聚焦重构时,聚焦面物体会受到共轭像及背景离焦物体的干扰,本文提出基于压缩感知理论,构建单幅离轴菲涅耳数字全息图层析成像的算法框架。该方法通过自适应空间滤波技术对全息图进行处理,基于压缩感知理论重构不同纵向深度截面图像,并有效抑制背景离焦物体的干扰,最终达到层析成像的目标。计算机数值模拟以及三维待测物体实验结果表明该方法的有效性和可行性。

  1. Variation of kQclin,Qmsrfclin,fmsr for the small-field dosimetric parameters percentage depth dose, tissue-maximum ratio, and off-axis ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescon, Paolo; Beddar, Sam; Satariano, Ninfa; Das, Indra J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the ability of different dosimeters to correctly measure the dosimetric parameters percentage depth dose (PDD), tissue-maximum ratio (TMR), and off-axis ratio (OAR) in water for small fields. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to estimate the variation of kQclin,Qmsrfclin,fmsr for several types of microdetectors as a function of depth and distance from the central axis for PDD, TMR, and OAR measurements. The variation of kQclin,Qmsrfclin,fmsr enables one to evaluate the ability of a detector to reproduce the PDD, TMR, and OAR in water and consequently determine whether it is necessary to apply correction factors. The correctness of the simulations was verified by assessing the ratios between the PDDs and OARs of 5- and 25-mm circular collimators used with a linear accelerator measured with two different types of dosimeters (the PTW 60012 diode and PTW PinPoint 31014 microchamber) and the PDDs and the OARs measured with the Exradin W1 plastic scintillator detector (PSD) and comparing those ratios with the corresponding ratios predicted by the MC simulations. Results: MC simulations reproduced results with acceptable accuracy compared to the experimental results; therefore, MC simulations can be used to successfully predict the behavior of different dosimeters in small fields. The Exradin W1 PSD was the only dosimeter that reproduced the PDDs, TMRs, and OARs in water with high accuracy. With the exception of the EDGE diode, the stereotactic diodes reproduced the PDDs and the TMRs in water with a systematic error of less than 2% at depths of up to 25 cm; however, they produced OAR values that were significantly different from those in water, especially in the tail region (lower than 20% in some cases). The microchambers could be used for PDD measurements for fields greater than those produced using a 10-mm collimator. However, with the detector stem parallel to the beam axis, the microchambers could be used for TMR measurements for all

  2. Measurement of OCS, CO2, CO and H2O aboard NASA's WB-57 High Altitude Platform Using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, J. B.; Owano, T. G.; Du, X.; Gardner, A.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere and has been implicated in controlling the sulfur budget and aerosol loading of the stratosphere. In the troposphere, OCS is irreversibly consumed during photosynthesis and may serve as a tracer for gross primary production (GPP). Its primary sources are ocean outgassing, industrial processes, and biomass burning. Its primary sinks are vegetation and soils. Despite the importance of OCS in atmospheric processes, the OCS atmospheric budget is poorly determined and has high uncertainty. OCS is typically monitored using either canisters analyzed by gas chromatography or integrated atmospheric column measurements. Improved in-situ terrestrial flux and airborne measurements are required to constrain the OCS budget and further elucidate its role in stratospheric aerosol formation and as a tracer for biogenic volatile organics and photosynthesis. Los Gatos Research has developed a flight capable mid-infrared Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) analyzer to simultaneously quantify OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O in ambient air at up to 2 Hz. The prototype was tested on diluted, certified samples and found to be precise (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O to better than ±4 ppt, ±0.2 ppm, ±0.31 ppb, and ±3.7 ppm respectively, 1s in 1 sec) and linear (R2 > 0.9997 for all gases) over a wide dynamic range (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O ranging from 0.2 - 70 ppb, 500 - 3000 ppm, 150 - 480 ppb, and 7000 - 21000 ppm respectively). Cross-interference measurements showed no appreciable change in measured OCS concentration with variations in CO2 (500 - 3500 ppm) or CO. We report on high altitude measurements made aboard NASA's WB-57 research aircraft. Two research flights were conducted from Houston, TX. The concentration of OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O were continuously recorded from sea level to approximately 60,000 feet. The concentration of OCS was observed to increase with altitude through the troposphere due to the

  3. The role of low-temperature (off-axis) alteration of the oceanic crust in the global Li-cycle: Insights from the Troodos ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, L. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Pope, M.; Spence, J.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the global Li-cycle, as recorded in the Li concentration and/or isotopic composition of seawater, have the potential to provide important insight into the controls on the long-term C-cycle. Understanding the magnitude and isotopic composition of the fluxes of Li into and out-of the ocean, and the controls on any variability in these, is necessary if we are to correctly interpret the paleo-record of the Li-cycle. Here the low-temperature (off-axis) hydrothermal sink is investigated using the volcanic section of the exceptionally preserved Troodos ophiolite. Using glass to define the protolith Li content, the uptake flux of Li is determined using bulk-rock analyses from four hydrologically distinct sections through the lava pile of the ophiolite. Differences in paleo-hydrological conditions in the crust appear to have played a significant role in controlling the uptake flux of Li with an 'average' uptake flux of equivalent to 14-21 × 109 mol yr-1 - this is considerably larger than generally assumed. Bulk-rock samples that contain a large seawater Li component have δ7Li of ∼10 ± 2‰. Celadonite separates have a δ7Li of ∼6 ± 1‰, considerably lighter than bulk-rock samples with the same Li content. Because celadonite is a significant repository for Li within the Troodos upper crust this means that another phase(s) must have markedly heavier δ7Li than the average bulk-rock; i.e. changes in the average mineralogy of altered crust will lead to changes in the bulk isotopic fractionation between the Li added to the upper oceanic crust and seawater (ΔSW-lava). The shallowest samples in three of the four studied sections are isotopically lighter than deeper samples (but do not contain significant celadonite), again indicating that variations in alteration conditions and/or mineralogy can lead to variations in ΔSW-lava. Comparison with other studies of altered upper oceanic crust suggests that changes in alteration conditions lead to significant

  4. Commercialization of parabolic dish systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washom, B.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of recent federal tax and regulatory legislation on the commercialization of parabolic solar reflector technology is assessed. Specific areas in need of technical or economic improvement are noted.

  5. Invariant foliations for parabolic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is proved for parabolic equations that under certain conditions the weak (un-)stable manifolds possess invariant foliations, called strongly (un-)stable foliations. The relevant results on center manifolds are generalized to weak hyperbolic manifolds.

  6. The planar parabolic optical antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, David T; Coenen, Toon; García de Abajo, F Javier; Brongersma, Mark L; Polman, Albert

    2013-01-09

    One of the simplest and most common structures used for directing light in macroscale applications is the parabolic reflector. Parabolic reflectors are ubiquitous in many technologies, from satellite dishes to hand-held flashlights. Today, there is a growing interest in the use of ultracompact metallic structures for manipulating light on the wavelength scale. Significant progress has been made in scaling radiowave antennas to the nanoscale for operation in the visible range, but similar scaling of parabolic reflectors employing ray-optics concepts has not yet been accomplished because of the difficulty in fabricating nanoscale three-dimensional surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that plasmon physics can be employed to realize a resonant elliptical cavity functioning as an essentially planar nanometallic structure that serves as a broadband unidirectional parabolic antenna at optical frequencies.

  7. Parabolic sheaves on logarithmic schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Borne, Niels; Vistoli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    We show how the natural context for the definition of parabolic sheaves on a scheme is that of logarithmic geometry. The key point is a reformulation of the concept of logarithmic structure in the language of symmetric monoidal categories, which might be of independent interest. Our main result states that parabolic sheaves can be interpreted as quasi-coherent sheaves on certain stacks of roots.

  8. Parabolic metamaterials and Dirac bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, D. J.; Movchan, N. V.; Movchan, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    A new class of multi-scale structures, referred to as `parabolic metamaterials' is introduced and studied in this paper. For an elastic two-dimensional triangular lattice, we identify dynamic regimes, which corresponds to so-called `Dirac Bridges' on the dispersion surfaces. Such regimes lead to a highly localised and focussed unidirectional beam when the lattice is excited. We also show that the flexural rigidities of elastic ligaments are essential in establishing the `parabolic metamaterial' regimes.

  9. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  10. Experimental Investigation on the Scour Hole Geometric Dimensions in Different Spur Dikes in 90 Degree Bend for Non-Submerged Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somayeh rahimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Outer bank region is always exposed to destruction and scour due to secondary flow. Different methods are generally used to protect the outer bank. One of the most common and economical ways is spur dike. As an obstacle in the flow, spur dikes protect the outer bank through decreasing the velocity and forming vortexes between them and as a result sedimentation along that area. However, the spur dike increases the shear stress and local scour around the spur, especially its nose.. This study investigates the scour hole dimensions around three types of spur dike including permeable, impermeable and bandal-like spur dike which is done as a combination of permeable and impermeable spur dike. Few studies were focused on field applications and laboratory experiments to investigate the practical applicability of the bandal-like structure in natural rivers. Rahman et al. (4 Studied the prediction of main channel degradation and local scour around hydraulic structures (impermeable and bandal-like spur dikes under non-submerged condition. Teraguchi et al. (9 Investigated the influenced of submerged condition on flow characteristics and sediment transport process caused by bandal-like structures with different spacing and alignment under live-bed scour condition through laboratory experiments. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out in the Physical Modeling Laboratory of Faculty of Water Science Engineering of Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz. The main channel consisted of a 5m long upstream and a 3m long downstream straight reaches. A 90 degree bend was located between the two straight reach. The channel was of rectangular cross section, having a width of 0.7m and depth of 0.6m, with mild bends (ratio of radius to a width equal to 4 and it was filled with almost uniform sediment with a median particle size of D50=1.5 mm. The discharges were measured using an ultrasonic flow meter, which was installed on the pipe inlet of the

  11. Engineering parabolic beams with dynamic intensity profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas, Adrian; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2013-08-01

    We present optical fields formed by superposing nondiffracting parabolic beams with distinct longitudinal wave-vector components, generating light profiles that display intensity fluxes following parabolic paths in the transverse plane. Their propagation dynamics vary depending on the physical mechanism originating interference, where the possibilities include constructive and destructive interference between traveling parabolic beams, interference between stationary parabolic modes, and combinations of these. The dark parabolic region exhibited by parabolic beams permits a straightforward superposition of intensity fluxes, allowing formation of a variety of profiles, which can exhibit circular, elliptic, and other symmetries.

  12. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  13. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  14. OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM FOR PARABOLIC VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪更生

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal control problems of systems governed by a parabolic variational inequality coupled with a semilinear parabolic differential equations.The maximum principle and some kind of approximate controllability are studied.

  15. Self-similar parabolic plasmonic beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Turitsyn, Sergei K; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-02-15

    We demonstrate that an interplay between diffraction and defocusing nonlinearity can support stable self-similar plasmonic waves with a parabolic profile. Simplicity of a parabolic shape combined with the corresponding parabolic spatial phase distribution creates opportunities for controllable manipulation of plasmons through a combined action of diffraction and nonlinearity.

  16. Plane and parabolic solar panels

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, J H O

    2009-01-01

    We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

  17. Parabolic tapers for overmoded waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, J.L.

    1983-11-25

    A waveguide taper with a parabolic profile, in which the distance along the taper axis varies as the square of the tapered dimension, provides less mode conversion than equal length linear tapers and is easier to fabricate than other non-linear tapers.

  18. Sensitivity of film measured off-axis ratios to film calibration curve using radiochromic film; Sensibilidade das razoes fora do eixo central medidas para a curva de calibracao de filmes usando filme radiocromico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Diana [Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M. [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Mexico City (Mexico). Unidad de Radioneurocirugia. Lab. de Fisica Medica

    2011-07-01

    Off-axis ratios of conical beams generated with a stereotactic radiosurgery-dedicated Linac were measured with EBT2 film and stereotactic diode. The sensitivity of both full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbras (80-20% and 90-10%, respectively), with respect to the characteristics of the film calibration curve fit, was investigated. In all cases, penumbras resulted to be more sensitive than FWHM. However, these differences were, in general, smaller than the ones found between EBT2 reference values and the stereotactic diode measurements. The larger variation in OAR parameters was found to depend on whether the fit intersected or not the origin. A 1D gamma-index analysis showed this difference can be important in all measured conical beams. (author)

  19. A predictive model that describes the effect of prolonged heating at 70 to 90 degrees C and subsequent incubation at refrigeration temperatures on growth from spores and toxigenesis by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in the presence of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, P S; Peck, M W

    1999-08-01

    Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability such as cook-chill and sous-vide foods rely on a minimal heat treatment at 70 to 95 degrees C and then storage at a refrigeration temperature for safety and preservation. These foods are not sterile and are intended to have an extended shelf life, often up to 42 days. The principal microbiological hazard in foods of this type is growth of and toxin production by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum. Lysozyme has been shown to increase the measured heat resistance of nonproteolytic C. botulinum spores. However, the heat treatment guidelines for prevention of risk of botulism in these products have not taken into consideration the effect of lysozyme, which can be present in many foods. In order to assess the botulism hazard, the effect of heat treatments at 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C combined with refrigerated storage for up to 90 days on growth from 10(6) spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum (types B, E, and F) in an anaerobic meat medium containing 2,400 U of lysozyme per ml (50 microg per ml) was studied. Provided that the storage temperature was no higher than 8 degrees C, the following heat treatments each prevented growth and toxin production during 90 days; 70 degrees C for >/=2,545 min, 75 degrees C for >/=463 min, 80 degrees C for >/=230 min, 85 degrees C for >/=84 min, and 90 degrees C for >/=33.5 min. A factorial experimental design allowed development of a predictive model that described the incubation time required before the first sample showed growth, as a function of heating temperature (70 to 90 degrees C), period of heat treatment (up to 2,545 min), and incubation temperature (5 to 25 degrees C). Predictions from the model provided a valid description of the data used to generate the model and agreed with observations made previously.

  20. Nonlinear elliptic-parabolic problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Inwon C

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a notion of viscosity solutions for a general class of elliptic-parabolic phase transition problems. These include the Richards equation, which is a classical model in filtration theory. Existence and uniqueness results are proved via the comparison principle. In particular, we show existence and stability properties of maximal and minimal viscosity solutions for a general class of initial data. These results are new even in the linear case, where we also show that viscosity solutions coincide with the regular weak solutions introduced in [Alt&Luckhaus 1983].

  1. Emitting system of fiber-array 3D laser imaging using off-axis three-mirror system%离轴三反光纤阵列激光三维成像发射系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯佳; 何志平; 舒嵘

    2016-01-01

    离轴三反光纤阵列激光三维成像发射系统中,大功率激光器发出的激光经阵列光纤分束,由光纤的芯径和单元发散角计算离轴三反光学系统的焦距,由光纤的数值孔径确定系统的入瞳直径范围,光纤阵列的长度决定了光学系统的发射总视场.离轴三反光学系统采用正向设计、反向使用的思路,将光纤阵列置于离轴三反光学系统焦面位置,反向追迹光线,可以得到光纤阵列上各元激光经光学系统后的高斯光束发散角大小和相邻元之间的角度关系.文中的设计实例实现了51元激光,每一元以20μrad的较小发散角出射,实例表明,该发射系统能实现多元激光微弧度量级的发散角出射,在目标面上形成间隔均匀、圆对称性良好的足印光斑.该发射系统在设计的发射总视场内,理论上不存在波束数的限制,这是区别于其他发射系统的另一优势.%A novel emitting system of fiber-array 3D laser imaging using off-axis three-mirror system was proposed. High-power laser was split to certain number of beams by fiber splitting and output with fiber-array. The off-axis three-mirror was designed as normal telescope system, and its focus length was the divergence angle divided by the core diameter of the fiber, while the F number in image space was determined by the Numerical Aperture (NA) of the fiber. The total field of view was the focus length divided by the length of the fiber-array. The fiber-array was set on the focus plane of the off-axis three-mirror system, and rays were traced in the opposite way of design. The example system realized divergence angle as 20μrad of 51 fiber beams, and it showed that the divergence angle of every fiber beam satisfied the target value well and the footprint between the neighbouring beams has good uniformity on the target surface. Besides, this emitting system was suitable for any number of laser beams within the total design field of view.

  2. The 30 degree tilt position vs the 90 degree lateral and supine positions in reducing the incidence of non-blanching erythema in a hospital inpatient population: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Trudie

    2004-07-01

    Manual repositioning of patients by nursing staff is a recognised technique for preventing pressure ulcer formation. The 30 degree tilt is a method of positioning patients that, in the laboratory setting, reduced the contact pressure between the patient and the support surface. A randomised controlled trial was used to examine the effects of the 30 degree tilt position in reducing the incidence of non-blanching erythema (i.e. established pressure damage) in a hospital inpatient population (n=23) when compared to the use of the 90 degree lateral and supine position (n=23). The primary outcome of the trial was the incidence of pressure damage, defined as non-blanching erythema. In this study no subject developed pressure damage that presented with visible breaks in the epidermis, but all damage was restricted to areas of non-blanching erythema (five of the 39 subjects who completed the study exhibited such injury). The main findings of this study were that patient positioning using the 30 degree tilt method did not reduce the incidence of pressure damage compared with either the 90 degree lateral or supine positions. This study also investigated the feasibility of using the 30 degree tilt position with medical inpatients; it found that 78% of subjects experienced difficulty in adopting and maintaining the position. This finding seriously questions the practicality of using the 30 degree tilt method with a predominantly ill population.

  3. Magnetic microstructure in a stress-annealed Fe73.5Si15.5B7Nb3Cu1 soft magnetic alloy observed using off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kovács

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu alloys are attractive for high frequency applications due to their low coercivity and high saturation magnetization. Here, we study the effect of stress annealing on magnetic microstructure in Fe73.5Si15.5B7Nb3Cu1 using off-axis electron holography and the Fresnel mode of Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. A stress of 50 MPa was applied to selected samples during rapid annealing for 4 s, resulting in uniaxial anisotropy perpendicular to the stress direction. The examination of focused ion beam milled lamellae prepared from each sample revealed a random magnetic domain pattern in the sample that had been rapidly annealed in the absence of stress, whereas a highly regular domain pattern was observed in the stress-annealed sample. We also measured a decrease in domain wall width from ∼ 94 nm in the sample annealed without stress to ∼ 80 nm in the stress-annealed sample.

  4. Modular off-axis solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesniak, Adam P; Hall, John C

    2015-01-27

    A solar concentrator including a housing defining a vertical axis and including a receiving wall connected to a reflecting wall to define an internal volume and an opening into the internal volume, wherein the reflecting wall defines at least one primary optical element, and wherein at least a portion of the reflecting wall includes a layer of reflective material, the housing further including a cover connected to the receiving wall and the reflecting wall to seal the opening, and at least one receiver mounted on the receiving wall such that a vertical axis of the receiver is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the housing, the receiver including at least one photovoltaic cell.

  5. Numerical Solution of Parabolic Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerby, Ole

    These lecture notes are designed for a one-semester course on finite-difference methods for parabolic equations. These equations which traditionally are used for describing diffusion and heat-conduction problems in Geology, Physics, and Chemistry have recently found applications in Finance Theory....... Among the special features of this book can be mentioned the presentation of a practical approach to reliable estimates of the global error, including warning signals if the reliability is questionable. The technique is generally applicable for estimating the discretization error in numerical...... approximations which depend on a step size, such as numerical integration and solution of ordinary and partial differential equations. An integral part of the error estimation is the estimation of the order of the method and can thus satisfy the inquisitive mind: Is the order what we expect it to be from theopry...

  6. International Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrohe, Elmar; Seiler, Jörg; Walker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This volume covers the latest research on elliptic and parabolic equations and originates from the international Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations, held September 10-12, 2013 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover. It represents a collection of refereed research papers and survey articles written by eminent scientist on advances in different fields of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations, including singular Riemannian manifolds, spectral analysis on manifolds, nonlinear dispersive equations, Brownian motion and kernel estimates, Euler equations, porous medium type equations, pseudodifferential calculus, free boundary problems, and bifurcation analysis.

  7. Analysis of the Quality of Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, Thomas; Ord, Stephan F.

    2016-01-01

    Parabolic flights allow researchers to conduct several 20 second micro-gravity experiments in the course of a single day. However, the measurement can have large variations over the course of a single parabola, requiring the knowledge of the actual flight environment as a function of time. The NASA Flight Opportunities program (FO) reviewed the acceleration data of over 400 parabolic flights and investigated the quality of micro-gravity for scientific purposes. It was discovered that a parabolic flight can be segmented into multiple parts of different quality and duration, a fact to be aware of when planning an experiment.

  8. Homogenization of a nonlinear degenerate parabolic equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The homogenization of one kind of nonlinear parabolic equation is studied. The weak convergence and corrector results are obtained by combining carefully the compactness method and two-scale convergence method in the homogenization theory.

  9. Reflective Properties of a Parabolic Mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Gordon P.

    1991-01-01

    An incident light ray parallel to the optical axis of a parabolic mirror will be reflected at the focal point and vice versa. Presents a mathematical proof that uses calculus, algebra, and geometry to prove this reflective property. (MDH)

  10. POSITIVE EQUILIBRIUM SOLUTIONS OF SEMILINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The author studies semilinear parabolic equations with initial and periodic boundary value conditions. In the presence of non-well-ordered sub- and super-solutions:"subsolution (≤) supersolution", the existence and stability/instability of equilibrium solutions are obtained.

  11. Accretion and Subduction of Oceanic Lithosphere: 2D and 3D Seismic Studies of Off-Axis Magma Lenses at East Pacific Rise 9°37-40'N Area and Downgoing Juan de Fuca Plate at Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuoshuo

    Two thirds of the Earth's lithosphere is covered by the ocean. The oceanic lithosphere is formed at mid-ocean ridges, evolves and interacts with the overlying ocean for millions of years, and is eventually consumed at subduction zones. In this thesis, I use 2D and 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) data to investigate the accretionary and hydrothermal process on the ridge flank of the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°37-40'N and the structure of the downgoing Juan de Fuca plate at the Cascadia subduction zone offshore Oregon and Washington. Using 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) data, I image a series of off-axis magma lenses (OAML) in the middle or lower crust, 2-10 km from the ridge axis at EPR 9°37-40'N. The large OAMLs are associated with Moho travel time anomalies and local volcanic edifices above them, indicating off-axis magmatism contributes to crustal accretion though both intrusion and eruption (Chapter 1). To assess the effect of OAMLs on the upper crustal structure, I conduct 2-D travel time tomography on downward continued MCS data along two across-axis lines above a prominent OAML in our study area. I find higher upper crustal velocity in a region ~ 2 km wide above this OAML compared with the surrounding crust. I attribute these local anomalies to enhanced precipitation of alteration minerals in the pore space of upper crust associated with high-temperature off-axis hydrothermal circulation driven by the OAML (Chapter 2). At Cascadia, a young and hot end-member of the global subduction system, the state of hydration of the downgoing Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate is important to a number of subduction processes, yet is poorly known. As local zones of higher porosity and permeability, faults constitute primary conduits for seawater to enter the crust and potentially uppermost mantle. From pre-stack time migrated MCS images, I observe pervasive faulting in the sediment section up to 200 km from the deformation front. Yet faults with large throw and

  12. Partial differential equations of parabolic type

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2008-01-01

    This accessible and self-contained treatment provides even readers previously unacquainted with parabolic and elliptic equations with sufficient background to understand research literature. Author Avner Friedman - Director of the Mathematical Biosciences Institute at The Ohio State University - offers a systematic and thorough approach that begins with the main facts of the general theory of second order linear parabolic equations. Subsequent chapters explore asymptotic behavior of solutions, semi-linear equations and free boundary problems, and the extension of results concerning fundamenta

  13. Steadily translating parabolic dissolution fingers

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratiuk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution fingers (or wormholes) are formed during the dissolution of a porous rock as a result of nonlinear feedbacks between the flow, transport and chemical reactions at pore surfaces. We analyze the shapes and growth velocities of such fingers within the thin-front approximation, in which the reaction is assumed to take place instantaneously with the reactants fully consumed at the dissolution front. We concentrate on the case when the main flow is driven by the constant pressure gradient far from the finger, and the permeability contrast between the inside and the outside of the finger is finite. Using Ivantsov ansatz and conformal transformations we find the family of steadily translating fingers characterized by a parabolic shape. We derive the reactant concentration field and the pressure field inside and outside of the fingers and show that the flow within them is uniform. The advancement velocity of the finger is shown to be inversely proportional to its radius of curvature in the small P\\'{e}clet...

  14. Suppression of zero-order image in off-axis digital holography based on homomorphic filtering%同态滤波法抑制离轴数字全息零级项

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 薛东旭; 盖琦; 吴永丽; 马忠洪

    2012-01-01

    针对离轴数字全息图受记录器件像元尺寸的限制而在数字再现时存在再现像受零级项串扰的问题,提出了一种抑制离轴数字全息零级项的方法.根据图像灰度可由图像照度及表面反射率共同决定的原理,将全息图看作入射分量和反射分量的乘积,利用入射分量变化缓慢且集中在低频段,反射分量反映图像细节并集中在高频段的特性,用同态滤波方法处理数字全息图.设计了同态滤波器,其上下限分别为0.001和1,直径为300 pixel.用该方法实现了对衍射距离为34 cm的菲涅尔数字全息图的零级项抑制,并对重构出的物光对比度以及物体的细节信息进行了增强.%In consideration of the crosstalk between reconstructed image and zero-order image existed in the digital reconstruction for off-axis digital holography, this paper presents a method to suppress the zero-order image. Based on the principle that the pixel gray-scale of the image is decided both by the image illumination and surface reflectance, the hologram is considered as a product of the incident and reflected components. The incident components which change slowly are mainly concentrated in the low-frequency region, and the reflected components which determine the detail of the image are concentrated in the high-frequency region. A reasonable homomorphic filter with the upper and lower limits of 0. 001 and 1 respectively and a diameter of 300 pixel is designed and processed into the hologram. The results show that the zero-order image can be suppressed with only one Fresnel digital hologram at a distance of 34 cm. Meanwhile, the contrast and the details of reconstructed image at thesame distance are improved.

  15. A new method for continuous measurements of oceanic and atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2: performance of off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS coupled to non-dispersive infrared detection (NDIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Arévalo-Martínez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new system for continuous, highly-resolved oceanic and atmospheric measurements of N2O, CO and CO2 is described. The system is based upon off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS and a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR both coupled to a Weiss-type equilibrator. Performance of the combined setup was evaluated by testing its precision, accuracy, long-term stability, linearity and response time. Furthermore, the setup was tested during two oceanographic campaigns in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean in order to explore its potential for autonomous deployment onboard voluntary observing ships (VOS. Improved equilibrator response times for N2O (2.5 min and CO (45 min were achieved in comparison to response times from similar chamber designs used by previous studies. High stability of the OA-ICOS analyzer was demonstrated by low optimal integration times of 2 and 4 min for N2O and CO respectively, as well as detection limits of −1/2. Results from a direct comparison of the method presented here and well-established discrete methods for oceanic N2O and CO2 measurements showed very good consistency. The favorable agreement between underway atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2 measurements and monthly means at Ascension Island (7.96° S 14.4° W further suggests a reliable operation of the underway setup in the field. The potential of the system as an improved platform for measurements of trace gases was explored by using continuous N2O and CO2 data to characterize the development of the seasonal equatorial upwelling in the Atlantic Ocean during two R/V Maria S. Merian cruises. A similar record of high-resolution CO measurements was simultaneously obtained offering for the first time the possibility of a comprehensive view on the distribution and emissions of these climate relevant gases on the area. The relatively simple underway N2O/CO/CO2 setup is suitable for long-term deployment on board of research and commercial vessels although

  16. Complete Measurement of Stable Isotopes in N2O (δ15N, δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ18O, δ17O) Using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, J. B.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate contamination in water is a worldwide environmental problem and source apportionment is critical to managing nitrate pollution. Fractionation caused by physical, chemical and biological processes alters the isotope ratios of nitrates (15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O) and biochemical nitrification and denitrification impart different intramolecular site preference (15N14NO vs. 14N15NO). Additionally, atmospheric nitrate is anomalously enriched in 17O compared to other nitrate sources. The anomaly (Δ17O) is conserved during fractionation processes, providing a tracer of atmospheric nitrate. All of these effects can be used to apportion nitrate in soil. Current technology for measuring nitrate isotopes is complicated and costly - it involves conversion of nitrate to nitrous oxide (N2O), purification, preconcentration and measurement by isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Site specific measurements require a custom IRMS. There is a pressing need to make this measurement simpler and more accessible. Los Gatos Research has developed a next generation mid-infrared Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) analyzer to quantify all stable isotope ratios of N2O (δ15N, δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ18O, δ17O). We present the latest performance data demonstrating the precision and accuracy of the OA-ICOS based measurement. At an N2O concentration of 322 ppb, the analyzer quantifies [N2O], δ15N, δ15Na, δ15Nb, and δ18O with a precision of ±0.05 ppb, ±0.4 ‰, ±0.45 ‰, and ±0.6 ‰, and ±0.8 ‰ respectively (1σ, 100s; 1σ, 1000s for δ18O). Measurements of gas standards demonstrate accuracy better than ±1 ‰ for isotope ratios over a wide dynamic range (200 - 100,000 ppb). The measurement of δ17O requires a higher concentration (1 - 50 ppm), easily obtainable through conversion of nitrates in water. For 10 ppm of N2O, the instrument achieves a δ17O precision of ±0.05 ‰ (1σ, 1000s). This performance is sufficient to quantify atmospheric

  17. Large mass self-similar solutions of the parabolic-parabolic Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biler, Piotr; Corrias, Lucilla; Dolbeault, Jean

    2011-07-01

    In two space dimensions, the parabolic-parabolic Keller-Segel system shares many properties with the parabolic-elliptic Keller-Segel system. In particular, solutions globally exist in both cases as long as their mass is less than a critical threshold M(c). However, this threshold is not as clear in the parabolic-parabolic case as it is in the parabolic-elliptic case, in which solutions with mass above M(c) always blow up. Here we study forward self-similar solutions of the parabolic-parabolic Keller-Segel system and prove that, in some cases, such solutions globally exist even if their total mass is above M(c), which is forbidden in the parabolic-elliptic case.

  18. Mineral resource analysis by parabolic fractals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-yun; YANG Yong-guo; BAO Zheng-yu; KE Xian-zhong; LIU Xiao-long

    2009-01-01

    Elemental concentration distributions in space have been analyzed using different approaches. These analyses are of great significance for the quantitative characterization of various kinds of distribution patterns. Fractal and multi-fiactal methods have been extensively applied to this topic. Traditionally, approximately linear-fractal laws have been regarded as useful tools for characterizing the self-similarities of element concentrations. But, in nature, it is not always easy to fred perfect linear fractal laws. In this paper the parabolic fractal model is used. First a two dimensional multiplicative multi-fractal cascade model is used to study the concentration patterns. The results show the parabolic fractal (PF) properties of the concentrations and the validity of non-linear fractal analysis. By dividing the studied area into four sub-areas it was possible to show that each part follows a non-linear para-bolic fractal law and that the dispersion within each part varies. The ratio of the polynomial coefficients of the fitted parabolic curves can reflect, to some degree, the relative concentration and dispersal distribution patterns. This can provide new insight into the ore-forming potential in space. The parabolic fractal evaluations of ore-forming potential for the four subareas are in good agreement with field investigation work and geochemical mapping results based on analysis of the original data.

  19. Piecewise-Planar Parabolic Reflectarray Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Richard; Zawadzki, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The figure shows a dual-beam, dualpolarization Ku-band antenna, the reflector of which comprises an assembly of small reflectarrays arranged in a piecewise- planar approximation of a parabolic reflector surface. The specific antenna design is intended to satisfy requirements for a wide-swath spaceborne radar altimeter, but the general principle of piecewise-planar reflectarray approximation of a parabolic reflector also offers advantages for other applications in which there are requirements for wideswath antennas that can be stowed compactly and that perform equally in both horizontal and vertical polarizations. The main advantages of using flat (e.g., reflectarray) antenna surfaces instead of paraboloidal or parabolic surfaces is that the flat ones can be fabricated at lower cost and can be stowed and deployed more easily. Heretofore, reflectarray antennas have typically been designed to reside on single planar surfaces and to emulate the focusing properties of, variously, paraboloidal (dish) or parabolic antennas. In the present case, one approximates the nominal parabolic shape by concatenating several flat pieces, while still exploiting the principles of the planar reflectarray for each piece. Prior to the conception of the present design, the use of a single large reflectarray was considered, but then abandoned when it was found that the directional and gain properties of the antenna would be noticeably different for the horizontal and vertical polarizations.

  20. Random perturbations of nonlinear parabolic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Several aspects of regularity theory for parabolic systems are investigated under the effect of random perturbations. The deterministic theory, when strict parabolicity is assumed, presents both classes of systems where all weak solutions are in fact more regular, and examples of systems with weak solutions which develop singularities in finite time. Our main result is the extension of a regularity result due to Kalita to the stochastic case. Concerning the examples with singular solutions (outside the setting of Kalita's regularity result), we do not know whether stochastic noise may prevent the emergence of singularities, as it happens for easier PDEs. We can only prove that, for a linear stochastic parabolic system with coefficients outside the previous regularity theory, the expected value of the solution is not singular.

  1. Parabolic flight as a spaceflight analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2016-06-15

    Ground-based analog facilities have had wide use in mimicking some of the features of spaceflight in a more-controlled and less-expensive manner. One such analog is parabolic flight, in which an aircraft flies repeated parabolic trajectories that provide short-duration periods of free fall (0 g) alternating with high-g pullout or recovery phases. Parabolic flight is unique in being able to provide true 0 g in a ground-based facility. Accordingly, it lends itself well to the investigation of specific areas of human spaceflight that can benefit from this capability, which predominantly includes neurovestibular effects, but also others such as human factors, locomotion, and medical procedures. Applications to research in artificial gravity and to effects likely to occur in upcoming commercial suborbital flights are also possible. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Parabolic non-diffracting beams: geometrical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Julián-Macías, Israel; Ortega-Vidals, Paula

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work is to present a geometrical characterization of parabolic non-diffracting beams. To this end, we compute the corresponding angular spectrum of the separable non-diffracting parabolic beams in order to determine the one-parameter family of solutions of the eikonal equation associated with this type of beam. Using this information, we compute the corresponding wavefronts and caustic, and find that qualitatively the caustic corresponds to the maximum of the intensity pattern and the wavefronts are deformations of conical surfaces.

  3. Controllable parabolic-cylinder optical rogue wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Chen, Lang; Belić, Milivoj; Petrović, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate controllable parabolic-cylinder optical rogue waves in certain inhomogeneous media. An analytical rogue wave solution of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated coefficients and an external potential in the form of modulated quadratic potential is obtained by the similarity transformation. Numerical simulations are performed for comparison with the analytical solutions and to confirm the stability of the rogue wave solution obtained. These optical rogue waves are built by the products of parabolic-cylinder functions and the basic rogue wave solution of the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Such rogue waves may appear in different forms, as the hump and paw profiles.

  4. Asymptotical Properties for Parabolic Systems of Neutral Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Bao-tong; HAN Mao-an

    2005-01-01

    Asymptotical properties for the solutions of neutral parabolic systems with Robin boundary conditions were analyzed by using the inequality analysis. The oscillations problems for the neutral parabolic systems were considered and some oscillation criteria for the systems were established.

  5. A NEWTON MULTIGRID METHOD FOR QUASILINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xijun

    2005-01-01

    A combination of the classical Newton Method and the multigrid method, i.e.,a Newton multigrid method is given for solving quasilinear parabolic equations discretized by finite elements. The convergence of the algorithm is obtained for only one step Newton iteration per level. The asymptotically computational cost for quasilinear parabolic problems is O(NNk) similar to multigrid method for linear parabolic problems.

  6. Chernoff's distribution and parabolic partial differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Groeneboom; S.P. Lalley; N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe give an alternative route to the derivation of the distribution of the maximum and the location of the maximum of one-sided and two-sided Brownian motion with a negative parabolic drift, using the Feynman-Kac formula with stopping times. The derivation also uses an interesting

  7. Orbit Connections in a Parabolic Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Departamento de Matematica , 13560, Slo Carlos, S.P. Brasil. This research has been supported in part by CAPES-qoordena~io de Aperfeiqoamento de Pessoal...de Nivel Superior , Brasilia, D.F., Brasil under contract Proc. #3056/78. 1k ORBIT CONNECTIONS IN A PARABOLIC EQUATION by Jack K. Hale and Arnaldo S

  8. Stokes' theorem, volume growth and parabolicity

    CERN Document Server

    Valtorta, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    We present some new Stokes'type theorems on complete non-compact manifolds that extend, in different directions, previous work by Gaffney and Karp and also the so called Kelvin-Nevanlinna-Royden criterion for (p-)parabolicity. Applications to comparison and uniqueness results involving the p-Laplacian are deduced.

  9. CONTINUOUS DEPENDENCE FOR A BACKWARD PARABOLIC PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继军

    2003-01-01

    We consider a backward parabolic problem arising in the description of the behavior of the toroidal part of the magenetic field in a dynamo problem. In our backward time problem, the media parameters are spatial distributed and the boundary conditions are of the Robin type. For this ill-posed problem, we prove that the solution depends continuously on the initial-time geometry.

  10. Discontinuous mixed covolume methods for parabolic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ailing; Jiang, Ziwen

    2014-01-01

    We present the semidiscrete and the backward Euler fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for parabolic problems on triangular meshes. We give the error analysis of the discontinuous mixed covolume schemes and obtain optimal order error estimates in discontinuous H(div) and first-order error estimate in L(2).

  11. An Approximation of Ultra-Parabolic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first and second order of accuracy difference schemes for the approximate solution of the initial boundary value problem for ultra-parabolic equations are presented. Stability of these difference schemes is established. Theoretical results are supported by the result of numerical examples.

  12. ANISOTROPIC PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH MEASURE DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fengquan; Zhao Huixiu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of solutions to anisotropic parabolic equations with right hand side term in the bounded Radon measure M(Q) and the initial condition in M(Ω) or in Lm space (with m "small").

  13. Chernoff's distribution and parabolic partial differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Groeneboom; S.P. Lalley; N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe give an alternative route to the derivation of the distribution of the maximum and the location of the maximum of one-sided and two-sided Brownian motion with a negative parabolic drift, using the Feynman-Kac formula with stopping times. The derivation also uses an interesting relatio

  14. Parabolic dish collectors - A solar option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscello, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of several parabolic-dish high temperature solar thermal systems currently undergoing performance trials. A single parabolic dish has the potential for generating 20 to 30 kW of electricity with fluid temperatures from 300 to 1650 C. Each dish is a complete power-producing unit, and may function either independently or as part of a group of linked modules. The two dish designs under consideration are of 11 and 12 meter diameters, yielding receiver operating temperatures of 925 and 815 C, respectively. The receiver designs described include (1) an organic working fluid (toluene) Rankine cycle engine; (2) a Brayton open cycle unit incorporating a hybrid combustion chamber and nozzle and a shaft-coupled permanent magnet alternator; and (3) a modified Stirling cycle device originally designed for automotive use. Also considered are thermal buffer energy storage and thermochemical transport and storage.

  15. Who dares to join a parabolic flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Zander, Tina; Schneider, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Parabolic flights represent an important tool in space research to investigate zero gravity on airplanes. Research on these flights often target psychological and biological processes in humans to investigate if and how we can adapt to this unique environment. This research is costly, hard to conduct and clearly heavily relies on humans participating in experiments in this (unnatural) situation. The present study investigated N =66 participants and N =66 matched control persons to study if participants in such experimental flights differ in terms of their personality traits from non-parabonauts. The main finding of this study demonstrates that parabonauts score significantly lower on harm avoidance, a trait closely linked to being anxious. As anxious humans differ from non-anxious humans in their biology, the present observations need to be taken into account when aiming at the generalizability of psychobiological research findings conducted in zero gravity on parabolic flights.

  16. Antiperiodic Problems for Nonautonomous Parabolic Evolution Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the antiperiodic problem of nonautonomous semilinear parabolic evolution equation in the form u′(t=A(tu(t+f(t,u(t, t∈R, u(t+T=-u(t, t∈R, where (Att∈R (possibly unbounded, depending on time, is a family of closed and densely defined linear operators on a Banach space X. Upon making some suitable assumptions such as the Acquistapace and Terreni conditions and exponential dichotomy on (Att∈R, we obtain the existence results of antiperiodic mild solutions to such problem. The antiperiodic problem of nonautonomous semilinear parabolic evolution equation of neutral type is also considered. As sample of application, these results are applied to, at the end of the paper, an antiperiodic problem for partial differential equation, whose operators in the linear part generate an evolution family of exponential stability.

  17. Moving interfaces and quasilinear parabolic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Prüss, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors develop a comprehensive approach for the mathematical analysis of a wide array of problems involving moving interfaces. It includes an in-depth study of abstract quasilinear parabolic evolution equations, elliptic and parabolic boundary value problems, transmission problems, one- and two-phase Stokes problems, and the equations of incompressible viscous one- and two-phase fluid flows. The theory of maximal regularity, an essential element, is also fully developed. The authors present a modern approach based on powerful tools in classical analysis, functional analysis, and vector-valued harmonic analysis. The theory is applied to problems in two-phase fluid dynamics and phase transitions, one-phase generalized Newtonian fluids, nematic liquid crystal flows, Maxwell-Stefan diffusion, and a variety of geometric evolution equations. The book also includes a discussion of the underlying physical and thermodynamic principles governing the equations of fluid flows and phase transitions...

  18. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-06-15

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  19. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  20. A short proof of increased parabolic regularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pankavich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.

  1. Building a parabolic solar concentrator prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar-Romero, J F M; Montiel, S Vazquez y; Granados-AgustIn, F; Rodriguez-Rivera, E; Martinez-Yanez, L [INAOE, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Pue., 72840 (Mexico); Cruz-Martinez, V M, E-mail: jfmescobar@yahoo.com [Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca, Camino a Acatilma Km 2.5, Huajuapan de Leon, Oax., 69000 (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In order to not further degrade the environment, people have been seeking to replace non-renewable natural resources such as fossil fuels by developing technologies that are based on renewable resources. An example of these technologies is solar energy. In this paper, we show the building and test of a solar parabolic concentrator as a prototype for the production of steam that can be coupled to a turbine to generate electricity or a steam engine in any particular industrial process.

  2. Parabolic cylinder functions of large order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. S.

    2006-06-01

    The asymptotic behaviour of parabolic cylinder functions of large real order is considered. Various expansions in terms of elementary functions are derived. They hold uniformly for the variable in appropriate parts of the complex plane. Some of the expansions are doubly asymptotic with respect to the order and the complex variable which is an advantage for computational purposes. Error bounds are determined for the truncated versions of the asymptotic series.

  3. INVERSE COEFFICIENT PROBLEMS FOR PARABOLIC HEMIVARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenhai; I.Szántó

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the class of inverse problems for a nonlinear parabolic hemivariational inequality.The unknown coefficient of the operator depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients.It is proved that the convergence of solutions for the corresponding direct problems continuously depends on the coefficient convergence.Based on this result the existence of a quasisolution of the inverse problem is obtained.

  4. Study on a Cross Diffusion Parabolic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Ling Hsiao; Gerald Warnecke

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a kind of strongly coupled cross diffusion parabolic system, which can be used as the multi-dimensional Lyumkis energy transport model in semiconductor science. The global existence and large time behavior are obtained for smooth solution to the initial boundary value problem. When the initial data are a small perturbation of an isothermal stationary solution, the smooth solution of the problem under the insulating boundary condition, converges to that stationary solution exponentially fast as time goes to infinity.

  5. Controllability of nonlinear degenerate parabolic cascade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Birba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article studies of null controllability property of nonlinear coupled one dimensional degenerate parabolic equations. These equations form a cascade system, that is, the solution of the first equation acts as a control in the second equation and the control function acts only directly on the first equation. We prove positive null controllability results when the control and a coupling set have nonempty intersection.

  6. Parabolic resection for mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Daniel H; Drake, Charles G; Recchia, Dino

    2010-02-01

    Parabolic resection, named for the shape of the cut edges of the excised tissue, expands on a common 'trick' used by experienced mitral surgeons to preserve tissue and increase the probability of successful repair. Our objective was to describe and clinically analyze this simple modification of conventional resection. Thirty-six patients with mitral regurgitation underwent valve repair using parabolic resection in combination with other techniques. Institution specific mitral data, Society of Thoracic Surgeons data and preoperative, post-cardiopulmonary bypass (PCPB) and postoperative echocardiography data were collected and analyzed. Preoperative echocardiography demonstrated mitral regurgitation ranging from moderate to severe. PCPB transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated no regurgitation or mild regurgitation in all patients. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 2.8%. Serial echocardiograms demonstrated excellent repair stability. One patient (2.9%) with rheumatic disease progressed to moderate regurgitation 33 months following surgery. Echocardiography on all others demonstrated no or mild regurgitation at a mean follow-up of 22.8+/-12.8 months. No patient required mitral reintervention. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated 80% freedom from cardiac death, reintervention and greater than moderate regurgitation at four years following repair. Parabolic resection is a simple technique that can be very useful during complex mitral reconstruction. Early and intermediate echocardiographic studies demonstrate excellent results.

  7. Simulation of parabolic reflectors for ultraviolet phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David Robert

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UVR) phototherapy is widely used to treat an array of skin conditions, including psoriasis, eczema and vitiligo. For such interventions, a quantified dose is vital if the treatment is to be both biologically effective and to avoid the detrimental effects of over-dosing. As dose is absorbed at surface level, the orientation of patient site with respect to the UVR lamps modulates effective dose. Previous investigations have modelled this behaviour, and examined the impact of shaped anodized aluminium reflectors typically placed around lamps in phototherapy cabins. These mirrors are effective but tend to yield complex patterns of reflection around the cabin which can result in substantial dose inhomogeneity. There has been some speculation over whether using the reflective property of parabolic mirrors might improve dose delivery or homogeneity through the treatment cabin. In this work, the effects of parabolic mirrors are simulated and compared with standard shaped mirrors. Simulation results strongly suggest that parabolic reflectors reduce total irradiance relative to standard shaped reflectors, and have a negligible impact on dose homogeneity.

  8. Simulation of parabolic reflectors for ultraviolet phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Grimes, David

    2016-08-21

    Ultraviolet (UVR) phototherapy is widely used to treat an array of skin conditions, including psoriasis, eczema and vitiligo. For such interventions, a quantified dose is vital if the treatment is to be both biologically effective and to avoid the detrimental effects of over-dosing. As dose is absorbed at surface level, the orientation of patient site with respect to the UVR lamps modulates effective dose. Previous investigations have modelled this behaviour, and examined the impact of shaped anodized aluminium reflectors typically placed around lamps in phototherapy cabins. These mirrors are effective but tend to yield complex patterns of reflection around the cabin which can result in substantial dose inhomogeneity. There has been some speculation over whether using the reflective property of parabolic mirrors might improve dose delivery or homogeneity through the treatment cabin. In this work, the effects of parabolic mirrors are simulated and compared with standard shaped mirrors. Simulation results strongly suggest that parabolic reflectors reduce total irradiance relative to standard shaped reflectors, and have a negligible impact on dose homogeneity.

  9. Femtosecond parabolic pulse shaping in normally dispersive optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoivanov, Igor A; Iakushev, Sergii O; Shulika, Oleksiy V; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel

    2013-07-29

    Formation of parabolic pulses at femtosecond time scale by means of passive nonlinear reshaping in normally dispersive optical fibers is analyzed. Two approaches are examined and compared: the parabolic waveform formation in transient propagation regime and parabolic waveform formation in the steady-state propagation regime. It is found that both approaches could produce parabolic pulses as short as few hundred femtoseconds applying commercially available fibers, specially designed all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber and modern femtosecond lasers for pumping. The ranges of parameters providing parabolic pulse formation at the femtosecond time scale are found depending on the initial pulse duration, chirp and energy. Applicability of different fibers for femtosecond pulse shaping is analyzed. Recommendation for shortest parabolic pulse formation is made based on the analysis presented.

  10. Bifurcation and stability for a nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafee, N.

    1973-01-01

    Theorems are developed to support bifurcation and stability of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations in the solution of the asymptotic behavior of functions with certain specified properties.

  11. Measurement of Liquid Viscosities in Tapered or Parabolic Capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov; Zorin; Starov

    1999-08-01

    The possibility of using tapered or parabolic capillaries for measurement of liquid viscosities is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. It is demonstrated that even small deviations in capillary radius from a constant value may substantially affect measurement results. Equations are derived which allow correct analysis of the measurement results in tapered or parabolic capillaries. The following cases are analyzed: a water imbibition into a tapered or parabolic capillary and displacement of one liquid by another immiscible liquid in tapered or parabolic capillaries. Two possibilities are considered: (a) the narrow end of the capillary as capillary inlet and (b) the wide end of the capillary as capillary inlet. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Optimal Wentzell Boundary Control of Parabolic Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yousong, E-mail: yousong.luo@rmit.edu.au [RMIT University, School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences (Australia)

    2017-04-15

    This paper deals with a class of optimal control problems governed by an initial-boundary value problem of a parabolic equation. The case of semi-linear boundary control is studied where the control is applied to the system via the Wentzell boundary condition. The differentiability of the state variable with respect to the control is established and hence a necessary condition is derived for the optimal solution in the case of both unconstrained and constrained problems. The condition is also sufficient for the unconstrained convex problems. A second order condition is also derived.

  13. Linear Parabolic Maps on the Torus

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Nishikawa, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    We investigate linear parabolic maps on the torus. In a generic case these maps are non-invertible and discontinuous. Although the metric entropy of these systems is equal to zero, their dynamics is non-trivial due to folding of the image of the unit square into the torus. We study the structure of the maximal invariant set, and in a generic case we prove the sensitive dependence on the initial conditions. We study the decay of correlations and the diffusion in the corresponding system on the plane. We also demonstrate how the rationality of the real numbers defining the map influences the dynamical properties of the system.

  14. Surface roughness estimation of a parabolic reflector

    CERN Document Server

    Casco, Nicolás A

    2010-01-01

    Random surface deviations in a reflector antenna reduce the aperture efficiency. This communication presents a method for estimating the mean surface deviation of a parabolic reflector from a set of measured points. The proposed method takes into account systematic measurement errors, such as the offset between the origin of reference frame and the vertex of the surface, and the misalignment between the surface rotation axis and the measurement axis. The results will be applied to perform corrections to the surface of one of the 30 m diameter radiotelescopes at the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronom\\'ia (IAR).

  15. Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.

  16. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Richard B [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  17. SURFACE FINITE ELEMENTS FOR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Dziuk; C.M. Elliott

    2007-01-01

    In this article we define a surface finite element method (SFEM) for the numerical solution of parabolic partial differential equations on hypersurfaces Γ in (R)n+1. The key idea is based on the approximation of Γ by a polyhedral surface Γh consisting of a union of simplices (triangles for n = 2, intervals for n = 1) with vertices on Γ. A finite element space of functions is then defined by taking the continuous functions on Γh which are linear affine on each simplex of the polygonal surface. We use surface gradients to define weak forms of elliptic operators and naturally generate weak formulations of elliptic and parabolic equations on Γ. Our finite element method is applied to weak forms of the equations. The computation of the mass and element stiffness matrices are simple and straightforward.We give an example of error bounds in the case of semi-discretization in space for a fourth order linear problem. Numerical experiments are described for several linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. In particular the power of the method is demonstrated by employing it to solve highly nonlinear second and fourth order problems such as surface Allen-Cahn and Cahn-Hilliard equations and surface level set equations for geodesic mean curvature flow.

  18. Focusing parabolic guide for very small samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hils, T.; Boeni, P.; Stahn, J

    2004-07-15

    Modern materials can often only be grown in small quantities. Therefore, neutron-scattering experiments are difficult to perform due to the low signal. In order to increase the flux at the sample position, we have developed the concept of a small focusing guide tube with parabolically shaped walls that are coated with supermirror m=3. The major advantage of parabolic focusing is that the flux maximum occurs not at the exit of the tube. It occurs at the focal point that can be several centimeters away from the exit of the tube. We show that an intensity gain of 6 can easily be obtained. Simulations using the software package McStas demonstrate that gain factors up to more than 50 can be realised on a spot size of approximately 1.2 mm diameter. For PGAA we expect flux gains of up to three orders of magnitude if multiplexing is used. We show that elliptic ballistic guides lead to flux gains of more than 6.

  19. Focusing parabolic guide for very small samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hils, T.; Boeni, P.; Stahn, J.

    2004-07-01

    Modern materials can often only be grown in small quantities. Therefore, neutron-scattering experiments are difficult to perform due to the low signal. In order to increase the flux at the sample position, we have developed the concept of a small focusing guide tube with parabolically shaped walls that are coated with supermirror m=3. The major advantage of parabolic focusing is that the flux maximum occurs not at the exit of the tube. It occurs at the focal point that can be several centimeters away from the exit of the tube. We show that an intensity gain of 6 can easily be obtained. Simulations using the software package McStas demonstrate that gain factors up to more than 50 can be realised on a spot size of approximately 1.2 mm diameter. For PGAA we expect flux gains of up to three orders of magnitude if multiplexing is used. We show that elliptic ballistic guides lead to flux gains of more than 6.

  20. A nonlocal parabolic system with application to a thermoelastic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    1999-01-01

    problem is first transformed into an equivalent nonlocal parabolic systems using a transformation, and then the existence and uniqueness of the solutions are demonstrated via the theoretical potential representation theory of the parabolic equations. Finally some realistic situations in the applications are discussed using the results obtained in this paper.

  1. Almost Periodic Viscosity Solutions of Nonlinear Parabolic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shilin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the comparison result 2007 on Hamilton-Jacobi equations to nonlinear parabolic equations, then by using Perron's method to study the existence and uniqueness of time almost periodic viscosity solutions of nonlinear parabolic equations under usual hypotheses.

  2. Carleman Estimates for Parabolic Equations with Nonhomogeneous Boundary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oleg Yu IMANUVILOV; Jean Pierre PUEL; Masahiro YAMAMOTO

    2009-01-01

    The authors prove a new Carleman estimate for general linear second order parabolic equation with nonhomogeneous boundary conditions.On the basis of this estimate,improved Carleman estimates for the Stokes system and for a system of parabolic equations with a penalty term are obtained.This system can be viewed as an approximation of the Stokes system.

  3. Flux form Semi-Lagrangian methods for parabolic problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonaventura, Luca

    2015-01-01

    A semi-Lagrangian method for parabolic problems is proposed, that extends previous work by the authors to achieve a fully conservative, flux-form discretization of linear and nonlinear diffusion equations. A basic consistency and convergence analysis are proposed. Numerical examples validate the proposed method and display its potential for consistent semi-Lagrangian discretization of advection--diffusion and nonlinear parabolic problems.

  4. A numerical study of mixed parabolic-gradient systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, J.G.; Sommeijer, B.P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of parabolic equations coupled to gradient equations. The gradient equations are ordinary differential equations whose solutions define positions of particles in the spatial domain of the parabolic equations. The vector field of the gradient equati

  5. The parabolic equation method for outdoor sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arranz, Marta Galindo

    The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations...

  6. STABILITY OF A PARABOLIC FIXED POINT OF REVERSIBLE MAPPINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBIN; YOUJIANGONG

    1994-01-01

    KAM theorem of reversible system is used to provide a sufficient condition which guarantees the stability of a parabolic fixed point of reversible mappings, The main idea is to discuss when the parabolic fixed point is surrounded by closed invariant carves and thus exhibits stable behaviour.

  7. On the dynamics of a mixed parabolic-gradient system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Krottje (Johannes)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn the current paper the dynamics of a mixed parabolic-gradient system is examined. Thesystem, which is a coupled system of parabolic equations and gradient equations, acts as a first model for the outgrowth of axons in a developing nervous system. For modeling considerations it is relev

  8. Manipulation of dielectric particles with nondiffracting parabolic beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C; Petrov, Dmitri

    2014-12-01

    The trapping and manipulation of microscopic particles embedded in the structure of nondiffracting parabolic beams is reported. The particles acquire orbital angular momentum and exhibit an open trajectory following the parabolic fringes of the beam. We observe an asymmetry in the terminal velocity of the particles caused by the counteracting gradient and scattering forces.

  9. Surface plasmon polariton beam focusing with parabolic nanoparticle chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Evlyukhin, Andrey B.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the focusing of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) beams with parabolic chains of gold nanoparticles fabricated on thin gold films. SPP focusing with different parabolic chains is investigated in the wavelength range of 700–860 nm, both experimentally and theoretically. Mapping of SPP...

  10. Polaron Energy and Effective Mass in Parabolic Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-Ping; LIANG Xi-Xia

    2005-01-01

    @@ The energy and effective mass of a polaron in a parabolic quantum well are studied theoretically by using LLP-like transformations and a variational approach. Numerical results are presented for the polaron energy and effective mass in the GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As parabolic quantum well. The results show that the energy and the effective mass of the polaron both have their maxima in the finite parabolic quantum well but decrease monotonously in the infinite parabolic quantum well with the increasing well width. It is verified that the bulk longitudinal optical phonon mode approximation is an adequate formulation for the electron-phonon coupling in parabolic quantum well structures.

  11. Optical, Energetic and Exergetic Analyses of Parabolic Trough Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (O)ZT(U)RK Murat; (C)(I)(C)EK BEZ(I)R Nalan; (O)ZEK Nuri

    2007-01-01

    Parabolic trough collectors generate thermal energy from solar energy. Especially, they are very convenient for applications in high temperature solar power systems. To determine the design parameters, parabolic trough collectors must be analysed with optical analysis. In addition, thermodynamics (energy and exergy) analysis in the development of an energy efficient system must be achieved. Solar radiation passes through Earth's atmosphere until it reaches on Earth's surface and is focused from the parabolic trough collector to the tube receiver with a transparent insulated envelope. All of them constitute a complex mechanism. We investigate the geometry of parabolic trough reflector and characteristics of solar radiation to the reflecting surface through Earth's atmosphere, and calculate the collecting total energy in the receiver. The parabolic trough collector,of which design parameters are given, is analysed in regard to the energy and exergy analysis considering the meteorological specification in May, June, July and August in Isparta/Turkey, and the results are presented.

  12. Concentration phenomena in the semilinear parabolic equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN; Zhong

    2001-01-01

    [1]Fujita, H., On the blowing up of solutions of the Chauch problem for u=Δu+u1+α, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo Sect. I, 966, 3: 09.[2]Ni, W. -M., Sacks, P. E., Tavantzis, J., On the asymptotic behavior of solutions of certain quasilinear equations of parabolic type, J. Differential Equations, 984, 54: 97.[3]Cazenave, T., Lions, P. L., Solutions globales d'equations de la chaleur semilineaires, Comm. in Partial Differential Equations, 984, 9(0): 955.[4]Giga, Y., A bound for global solutions of semilinear heat equations, Commun. Math. Phys., 986, 03: 45.[5]Galaktionov, V., Vazquez, J. L., Continuation of blow-up solutions of nonlinear heat equations in several space dimensions, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 997, 50: .[6]Rey, O., The role of the Green's function in a nonlinear elliptic equation involving the critical Sobolev exponent, J. Func. Anal., 990, 89: .[7]Wei Juncheng, Asymptotic behavior of least energy solution to a semilinear Dirichlet problem near the critical exponent, J. Math. Soc. Japan, 998, 50(): 39.[8]Lions, P. L., The concentration-compactness principle in the calculus of variations, The limit case ,2, Rev. Mat. Iberoamerioana, 985, : 45, 45.[9]Brezis, H., Elliptic equations with limiting Sobolev exponents——the impact of topology, Commun. Pure and Appl. Math., 986, XXXXIX: S7.[10]Sacks, J., Uhlenbeck, K., The existence of minimal immersions of 2-spheres, Ann. Math., 98, 3: .[11]Zhu Xiping, Nontrivial solutions of quasilinear elliptic equation involving critical growth, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. A, 988, (3): 225.[12]Pohozaev, S. I., Eigenfunctions of the equation -Δu+λf(u)=0, Soviet. Math. Dold., 965, 6: 408.[13]Gidas, B., Ni, W. -M., Nirenberg, L., Symmetry and related properties via the maximum principle, Comm. Math. Phys., 979, 68: 209.[14]Ni, W. -M., Sacks, P. E., Singular behaviour in nonlinear parabolic equations, Tran. of the AMS, 985, 287(2): 657.[15]Ni, W. -M., Sacks, P. E

  13. Parabolic refined invariants and Macdonald polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony

    2013-01-01

    A string theoretic derivation is given for the conjecture of Hausel, Letellier, and Rodriguez-Villegas on the cohomology of character varieties with marked points. Their formula is identified with a refined BPS expansion in the stable pair theory of a local root stack, generalizing previous work of the first two authors in collaboration with G. Pan. Haiman's geometric construction for Macdonald polynomials is shown to emerge naturally in this context via geometric engineering. In particular this yields a new conjectural relation between Macdonald polynomials and refined local orbifold curve counting invariants. The string theoretic approach also leads to a new spectral cover construction for parabolic Higgs bundles in terms of holomorphic symplectic orbifolds.

  14. Antireflection Pyrex envelopes for parabolic solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, H. L.; Pettit, R. B.

    1983-11-01

    Antireflective (AR) coatings, applied to the glass envelopes used in parabolic trough solar collectors around the receiver tube in order to reduce thermal losses, can increase solar transmittance by 7 percent. An AR surface has been formed on Pyrex by first heat treating the glass to cause a compositional phase separation, removing a surface layer after heat treatment through the use of a preetching solution, and finally etching in a solution that contains hydrofluorosilic and ammonium bifluoride acids. AR-coated samples with solar transmittance values of more than 0.97, by comparison to an untreated sample value of 0.91, have been obtained for the 560-630 C range of heat treatment temperatures. Optimum values have also been determined for the other processing parameters.

  15. Photon-Atom Coupling with Parabolic Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Sondermann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Efficient coupling of light to single atomic systems has gained considerable attention over the past decades. This development is driven by the continuous growth of quantum technologies. The efficient coupling of light and matter is an enabling technology for quantum information processing and quantum communication. And indeed, in recent years much progress has been made in this direction. But applications aside, the interaction of photons and atoms is a fundamental physics problem. There are various possibilities for making this interaction more efficient, among them the apparently 'natural' attempt of mode-matching the light field to the free-space emission pattern of the atomic system of interest. Here we will describe the necessary steps of implementing this mode-matching with the ultimate aim of reaching unit coupling efficiency. We describe the use of deep parabolic mirrors as the central optical element of a free-space coupling scheme, covering the preparation of suitable modes of the field incident on...

  16. Analysis of the Quality of Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, Thomas; Ord, Stephan F.

    2016-01-01

    Parabolic flight allows researchers to conduct several micro-gravity experiments, each with up to 20 seconds of micro-gravity, in the course of a single day. However, the quality of the flight environment can vary greatly over the course of a single parabola, thus affecting the experimental results. Researchers therefore require knowledge of the actual flight environment as a function of time. The NASA Flight Opportunities program (FO) has reviewed the acceleration data for over 400 parabolas and investigated the level of micro-gravity quality. It was discovered that a typical parabola can be segmented into multiple phases with different qualities and durations. The knowledge of the microgravity characteristics within the parabola will prove useful when planning an experiment.

  17. New method to solve electromagnetic parabolic equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小峰; 黄思训; 康林春

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new method to solve the electromagnetic parabolic equation (EMPE) by taking the vertically-layered inhomogeneous characteristics of the atmospheric refractive index into account. First, the Fourier transform and the convo-lution theorem are employed, and the second-order partial differential equation, i.e., the EMPE, in the height space is transformed into first-order constant coefficient differential equations in the frequency space. Then, by use of the lower triangular characteristics of the coefficient matrix, the numerical solutions are designed. Through constructing ana-lytical solutions to the EMPE, the feasibility of the new method is validated. Finally, the numerical solutions to the new method are compared with those of the commonly used split-step Fourier algorithm.

  18. Two new designs of parabolic solar collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Sadaghiyani Omid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two new compound parabolic trough and dish solar collectors are presented with their working principles. First, the curves of mirrors are defined and the mathematical formulation as one analytical method is used to trace the sun rays and recognize the focus point. As a result of the ray tracing, the distribution of heat flux around the inner wall can be reached. Next, the heat fluxes are calculated versus several absorption coefficients. These heat flux distributions around absorber tube are functions of angle in polar coordinate system. Considering, the achieved heat flux distribution are used as a thermal boundary condition. After that, Finite Volume Methods (FVM are applied for simulation of absorber tube. The validation of solving method is done by comparing with Dudley's results at Sandia National Research Laboratory. Also, in order to have a good comparison between LS-2 and two new designed collectors, some of their parameters are considered equal with together. These parameters are consist of: the aperture area, the measures of tube geometry, the thermal properties of absorber tube, the working fluid, the solar radiation intensity and the mass flow rate of LS-2 collector are applied for simulation of the new presented collectors. After the validation of the used numerical models, this method is applied to simulation of the new designed models. Finally, the outlet results of new designed collector are compared with LS-2 classic collector. Obviously, the obtained results from the comparison show the improving of the new designed parabolic collectors efficiency. In the best case-study, the improving of efficiency are about 10% and 20% for linear and convoluted models respectively.

  19. Sener Parabolic trough Collector Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, N.; Vazquez, J.; Domingo, M.

    2006-07-01

    Parabolic trough technology is nowadays the most extended solar system for electricity production or steam generation for industrial processes. It is basically composed of a collector field which converts solar irradiation into thermal energy- and a conventional thermal-toelectric conversion Rankine cycle. In these plants, a storage system can be implemented in order to increase plant production. Collector field represents more than half the total plant cost. Therefore, SENER has made an effort to improve current state of the art of parabolic trough collector (PTC from now on) design in order to reduce plant costs. Main characteristic of SENER design lies on the use of a torque tube as the central body of the collector. This tube is made of steel sheet, with a thickness depending on wind load requirements on the collector. This concept is very cost-effective, since the man-power needed to manufacture the tube has been minimized. Continuous cylindrical shape of the torque tube provides a high torsional stiffness, which is one of the main parameters affecting collector optical efficiency. Cantilever arms connect the mirrors to the central torque tube. These components are usually made of welded tube profiles. In SENER's new design, these cantilever arms are made using metal sheet stamping techniques (SENER patent), thus reducing manufacturing and mounting costs. SENER PTC module (called SENERTROUGH) is 12 meters long and has an aperture width of 5,76 m. HCE and curved mirrors existing in the market - as well as new products from different manufacturers - can be easily attached to collector structure. Two prototype modules of SENERTROUGH have been mounted and tested at the CIEMAT-PSA facilities. Several performance tests were performed in order to assure the validity of the concept. (Author)

  20. Parabolic features and the erosion rate on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    The impact cratering record on Venus consists of 919 craters covering 98 percent of the surface. These craters are remarkably well preserved, and most show pristine structures including fresh ejecta blankets. Only 35 craters (3.8 percent) have had their ejecta blankets embayed by lava and most of these occur in the Atla-Beta Regio region; an area thought to be recently active. parabolic features are associated with 66 of the 919 craters. These craters range in size from 6 to 105 km diameter. The parabolic features are thought to be the result of the deposition of fine-grained ejecta by winds in the dense venusian atmosphere. The deposits cover about 9 percent of the surface and none appear to be embayed by younger volcanic materials. However, there appears to be a paucity of these deposits in the Atla-Beta Regio region, and this may be due to the more recent volcanism in this area of Venus. Since parabolic features are probably fine-grain, wind-deposited ejecta, then all impact craters on Venus probably had these deposits at some time in the past. The older deposits have probably been either eroded or buried by eolian processes. Therefore, the present population of these features is probably associated with the most recent impact craters on the planet. Furthermore, the size/frequency distribution of craters with parabolic features is virtually identical to that of the total crater population. This suggests that there has been little loss of small parabolic features compared to large ones, otherwise there should be a significant and systematic paucity of craters with parabolic features with decreasing size compared to the total crater population. Whatever is erasing the parabolic features apparently does so uniformly regardless of the areal extent of the deposit. The lifetime of parabolic features and the eolian erosion rate on Venus can be estimated from the average age of the surface and the present population of parabolic features.

  1. Parabolic features and the erosion rate on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    The impact cratering record on Venus consists of 919 craters covering 98 percent of the surface. These craters are remarkably well preserved, and most show pristine structures including fresh ejecta blankets. Only 35 craters (3.8 percent) have had their ejecta blankets embayed by lava and most of these occur in the Atla-Beta Regio region; an area thought to be recently active. parabolic features are associated with 66 of the 919 craters. These craters range in size from 6 to 105 km diameter. The parabolic features are thought to be the result of the deposition of fine-grained ejecta by winds in the dense venusian atmosphere. The deposits cover about 9 percent of the surface and none appear to be embayed by younger volcanic materials. However, there appears to be a paucity of these deposits in the Atla-Beta Regio region, and this may be due to the more recent volcanism in this area of Venus. Since parabolic features are probably fine-grain, wind-deposited ejecta, then all impact craters on Venus probably had these deposits at some time in the past. The older deposits have probably been either eroded or buried by eolian processes. Therefore, the present population of these features is probably associated with the most recent impact craters on the planet. Furthermore, the size/frequency distribution of craters with parabolic features is virtually identical to that of the total crater population. This suggests that there has been little loss of small parabolic features compared to large ones, otherwise there should be a significant and systematic paucity of craters with parabolic features with decreasing size compared to the total crater population. Whatever is erasing the parabolic features apparently does so uniformly regardless of the areal extent of the deposit. The lifetime of parabolic features and the eolian erosion rate on Venus can be estimated from the average age of the surface and the present population of parabolic features.

  2. Proceedings of the Fifth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of the Fifth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Annual Review are presented. The results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program were emphasized. Among the topics discussed were: overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development along with associated hardware and test results; distributed systems operating experience; international parabolic dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. Solar electric generation was also addressed.

  3. Parabolic Bundles on Algebraic Surfaces I -- The Donaldson-Uhlenbeck Compactification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balaji; A Dey; R Parthasarathi

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to construct the parabolic version of the Donaldson-Uhlenbeck compactification for the moduli space of parabolic stable bundles on an algebraic surface with parabolic structures along a divisor with normal crossing singularities. We prove the non-emptiness of the moduli space of parabolic stable bundles of rank 2.

  4. A Microscopic Convexity Principle for Spacetime Convex Solutions of Fully Nonlinear Parabolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Qiang CHEN; Bo Wen HU

    2013-01-01

    We study microscopic spacetime convexity properties of fully nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations.Under certain general structure condition,we establish a constant rank theorem for the spacetime convex solutions of fully nonlinear parabolic equations.At last,we consider the parabolic convexity of solutions to parabolic equations and the convexity of the spacetime second fundamental form of geometric flows.

  5. Offset semi-parabolic nanoantenna made of a photonic crystal parabolic mirror and a plasmonic bow-tie antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Haroldo T

    2014-10-10

    In a parabolic mirror, light coming parallel to the antenna passes through its focal point. In this work, a waveguide feeds a semi-parabolic photonic crystal mirror and the emerging beam feeds a bow-tie antenna placed at the mirror's focal point-it is shown that the antenna system can not only feed a bow-tie antenna (producing a localized moderately high electric field) but also produces a directional radiation beam. The semi-parabolic mirror is also modified to reduce reflection back to the feeding waveguide.

  6. Pseudo almost periodic solutions to parabolic boundary value inverse problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We first define the pseudo almost periodic functions in a more general setting.Then we show the existence,uniqueness and stability of pseudo almost periodic solutions of parabolic inverse problems for a type of boundary value problems.

  7. OSCILLATION OF NONLINEAR IMPULSIVE PARABOLIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH SEVERAL DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiChenpei; ZouMin; LiuAnping; XiaoLi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, oscillatory properties for solutions of certain nonlinear impulsive parabolic equations with several delays are investigated and a series of new sufficient conditions for oscillations of the equation are established.

  8. A Note about Parabolic Systems and Analytic Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STR?HMER Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the question whether certain parabolic systems in the sense of Petrovskii fulfill the resolvent estimate required for the generation of an analytic semigroup and apply the result to a problem concerning the diffusion of gases.

  9. A SINGLE STEP SCHEME WITH HIGH ACCURACY FOR PARABOLIC PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈传淼; 胡志刚

    2001-01-01

    A single step scheme with high accuracy for solving parabolic problem is proposed. It is shown that this scheme possesses good stability and fourth order accuracy with respect to both time and space variables, which are superconvergent.

  10. Parabolic Equations in Musielak-Orlicz-Sobolev Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Ahmed Oubeid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We prove in this paper the existence of solutions of nonlinear parabolic problems in Musielak-Orlicz-Sobolev spaces. An approximation and a trace results in inhomogeneous Musielak-Orlicz-Sobolev spaces have also been provided.

  11. HYPERBOLIC-PARABOLIC CHEMOTAXIS SYSTEM WITH NONLINEAR PRODUCT TERMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hua; Wu Shaohua

    2008-01-01

    We prove the local existence and uniqueness of week solution of the hyperbolic-parabolic Chemotaxis system with some nonlinear product terms. For one dimensional case, we prove also the global existence and uniqueness of the solution for the problem.

  12. An X-band parabolic antenna based on gradient metasurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Wang; Yang, Helin, E-mail: emyang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn; Tian, Ying; Guo, Linyan [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Huang, Xiaojun [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); College of physics and electrical engineering, Kashgar University, Kashgar, 844000 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We present a novel parabolic antenna by employing reflection gradient metasurface which is composed of a series of circle patches on a grounded dielectric substrate. Similar to the traditional parabolic antenna, the proposed antenna take the metasurface as a “parabolic reflector” and a patch antenna was placed at the focal point of the metasurface as a feed source, then the quasi-spherical wave emitted by the source is reflected and transformed to plane wave with high efficiency. Due to the focus effect of reflection, the beam width of the antenna has been decreased from 85.9° to 13° and the gain has been increased from 6.5 dB to 20.8 dB. Simulation and measurement results of both near and far-field plots demonstrate good focusing properties of the proposed parabolic antenna.

  13. On Doubly Degenerate Quasilinear Parabolic Equations of Higher Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Hai LIU

    2005-01-01

    We deal with the existence of periodic solutions for doubly degenerate quasilinear parabolic equations of higher order, which can degenerate, on a part of the boundary, on a segment in the interior of the domain and in time.

  14. Homogenization of attractors for a class of nonlinear parabolic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-lian; ZHANG Xing-you

    2004-01-01

    The relation between the global attractors Aε for a calss of quasilinear parabolic equations and the global attractor A0for the homogenized equation is discussed, and an explicit error estimate between Aε and A0 is given.

  15. The homogenization of a class of degenerate quasilinear parabolic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xingyou; HUANG Yong

    2003-01-01

    The homogenization of a class of degenerate quasilinear parabolic equations is studied. The Ap weight theory and the classical compensated compactness method are incorporated to obtain the homogenized equation.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS IN PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH NONLINEARITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the identification of parameters in parabolic equations with nonlinearity. Some approximation processes for the identification problem are given. Our results improve and generalize the previous results.

  17. Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.

  18. Differentiability at lateral boundary for fully nonlinear parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feiyao; Moreira, Diego R.; Wang, Lihe

    2017-09-01

    For fully nonlinear uniformly parabolic equations, the first derivatives regularity of viscosity solutions at lateral boundary is studied under new Dini type conditions for the boundary, which is called Reifenberg Dini conditions and is weaker than usual Dini conditions.

  19. FASTRACK (TM): Parabolic and Suborbital Experiment Support Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Romero, V.

    2016-01-01

    FASTRACK was developed by NASA Kennedy Space Center and Space Florida to provide capabilities to conduct frequent, affordable, and responsive flight opportunities for reduced gravity experiments, technology development, and hardware testing on suborbital vehicles and parabolic flights.

  20. Quasiconformal mappings and degenerate elliptic and parabolic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Chiarenza

    1987-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two Harnak inequalities are proved concerning a degenerate elliptic and a degenerate parabolic equation. In both cases the weight giving the degeneracy is a power of the jacobian of a quasiconformal mapping.

  1. Flux form Semi-Lagrangian methods for parabolic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura Luca

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A semi-Lagrangian method for parabolic problems is proposed, that extends previous work by the authors to achieve a fully conservative, flux-form discretization of linear and nonlinear diffusion equations. A basic consistency and stability analysis is proposed. Numerical examples validate the proposed method and display its potential for consistent semi-Lagrangian discretization of advection diffusion and nonlinear parabolic problems.

  2. MAXIMUM PRINCIPLES FOR SECOND-ORDER PARABOLIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Vitolo

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the parabolic counterpart of previous ones about elliptic operators in unbounded domains. Maximum principles for second-order linear parabolic equations are established showing a variant of the ABP-Krylov-Tso estimate, based lower bound for super-solutions due to Krylov and Safonov. The results imply the uniqueness for the Cauchy-Dirichlet problem in a large class of infinite cylindrical and non-cylindrical domains.

  3. The parabolic trigonometric functions and the Chebyshev radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Dattoli, G.; Migliorati, M.; Ricci, P. E.

    2011-01-01

    The parabolic trigonometric functions have recently been introduced as an intermediate step between circular and hyperbolic functions. They have been shown to be expressible in terms of irrational functions, linked to the solution of third degree algebraic equations. We show the link of the parabolic trigonometric functions with the Chebyshev radicals and also prove that further generalized forms of trigonometric functions, providing the natural solutions of the quintic algebraic equation, ca...

  4. Comparison principle for parabolic equations in the Heisenberg group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bieske

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We define two notions of viscosity solutions to parabolic equations in the Heisenberg group, depending on whether the test functions concern only the past or both the past and the future. We then exploit the Heisenberg geometry to prove a comparison principle for a class of parabolic equations and show the sufficiency of considering the test functions that concern only the past.

  5. Null controllability for a parabolic-elliptic coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Cara, E; de Menezes, S B

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the null controllability of some parabolic-elliptic systems. The control is distributed, locally supported in space and appears only in one PDE. The arguments rely on fixed-point reformulation and suitable Carleman estimates for the solutions to the adjoint system. Under appropriate assumptions, we also prove that the solution can be obtained as the asymptotic limit of some similar parabolic systems.

  6. Three-dimensional nonparaxial beams in parabolic rotational coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dongmei; Gao, Yuanmei; Zhao, Juanying; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Zhigang

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a class of three-dimensional nonparaxial optical beams found in a parabolic rotational coordinate system. These beams, representing exact solutions of the nonparaxial Helmholtz equation, have inherent parabolic symmetries. Assisted with a computer-generated holography, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of different modes of these beams. The observed transverse beam patterns along the propagation direction agree well with those from our theoretical predication.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of non-linear parabolic microporous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Pradeep Ramiah; Sharifi, Payam; Wolff, Justin; Kohli, Punit

    2015-01-01

    Large scale fabrication of non-linear microporous membranes is of technological importance in many applications ranging from separation to microfluidics. However, their fabrication using traditional techniques is limited in scope. We report on fabrication and characterization of non-linear parabolic micropores (PMS) in polymer membranes by utilizing flow properties of fluids. The shape of the fabricated PMS corroborated well with simplified Navier-Stokes equation describing parabolic relationship of the form L - t(1/2). Here, L is a measure of the diameter of the fabricated micropores during flow time (t). The surface of PMS is smooth due to fluid surface tension at fluid-air interface. We demonstrate fabrication of PMS using curable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The parabolic shape of micropores was a result of interplay between horizontal and vertical fluid movements due to capillary, viscoelastic, and gravitational forces. We also demonstrate fabrication of asymmetric "off-centered PMS" and an array of PMS membranes using this simple fabrication technique. PMS containing membranes with nanoscale dimensions are also possible by controlling the experimental conditions. The present method provides a simple, easy to adopt, and energy efficient way for fabricating non-linear parabolic shape pores at microscale. The prepared parabolic membranes may find applications in many areas including separation, parabolic optics, micro-nozzles / -valves / -pumps, and microfluidic and microelectronic delivery systems.

  8. Thermodynamics and the segmented compound parabolic concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyolar, Bennett; Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflector profiles are complex and can be difficult to manufacture using traditional methods. Computer numeric control machines, however, can approximate complex profiles by bending a series of small flat segments. We investigate the relationship between the number of segments and the optical transmission of a CPC approximated by equal length segments whose start and end points lie along the CPC profile. We also investigate a separate method for generating CPC-like profiles by adjusting the angle of each segment to satisfy the edge-ray principle. Three variations of this method are examined where the edge-ray condition is taken from the start, mid, and end points of each segment. A flux efficiency (FE) to compare concentrators, which combines the concentration ratio and optical efficiency, is introduced and directly relates to the maximum achievable flux on the absorber. We demonstrate that the FE defined is another way to look at the compromises one makes for a geometric concentrator designed under real-world constraints.

  9. Parabolic Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H.; Netter, J.; Bingham, C.; Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2007-03-01

    Parabolic trough receivers, or heat collection elements (HCEs), absorb sunlight focused by the mirrors and transfer that thermal energy to a fluid flowing within them. Thje absorbing tube of these receivers typically operates around 400 C (752 F). HCE manufacturers prevent thermal loss from the absorbing tube to the environment by using sputtered selective Cermet coatings on the absorber and by surrounding the absorber with a glass-enclosed evacuated annulus. This work quantifies the heat loss of the Solel UVAC2 and Schott PTR70 HCEs. At 400 C, the HCEs perform similarly, losing about 400 W/m of HCE length. To put this in perspective, the incident beam radiation on a 5 m mirror aperture is about 4500 W/m, with about 75% of that energy ({approx} 3400 W/m) reaching the absorber surface. Of the 3400 W/m on the absorber, about 3000 W/m is absorbed into the working fluid while 400 W/m is lost to the environment.

  10. Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Initial Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalya Pikra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses initial trials of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC in Bandung. PTSC model consists of concentrator, absorber and tracking system. Concentrator designs are made with 2m aperture width, 6m length and 0.75m focal distance. The design is equipped with an automatic tracking system which is driven using 12V and 24Watt DC motor with 0.0125rpm rotational speed. Absorber/receiver is designed with evacuated tube type, with 1 inch core diameter and tube made of AISI304 and coated with black oxide, the outer tube is borosilicate glass with a 70 mm diameter and 1.5 m length. Working fluid stored in single type of thermal storage tank, a single phase with 37.7 liter volume. PTSC model testing carried out for 2 hours and 10 minutes produces heat output and input of 11.5 kW and 0.64 kW respectively. 

  11. Affective states and adaptation to parabolic flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Aurélie; Langlet, Cécile; Tzanova, Tzvetomira; Hainaut, Jean-Philippe; Monfort, Vincent; Bolmont, Benoît

    2017-05-01

    This exploratory study investigates (i) inter-individual variations of affective states before a parabolic flight (i.e., PF) on the basis of quality of adaptation to physical demands, and (ii) intra-individual variations of affective states during a PF. Mood-states, state-anxiety and salivary cortisol were assessed in two groups with a different quality of adaptation (an Adaptive Group, i.e., AG, and a Maladaptive Group, i.e., MG) before and during a PF. Before PF, MG scored higher on mood states (Anger-Hostility, Fatigue-Inertia) than AG. During the flight, while AG seemed to present ;normal; affective responses to the demanding environment (e.g., increase in salivary cortisol), MG presented increases in mood states such as Confusion-Bewilderment or Tension-Anxiety. The findings suggest that the psychological states of MG could have disturbed their ability to integrate sensory information from an unusual environment, which led to difficulties in coping with the physical demands of PF.

  12. The 1D parabolic-parabolic Patlak-Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis: The particular integrable case and soliton solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, Maria

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the one-dimensional parabolic-parabolic Patlak-Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis. For the case when the diffusion coefficient of chemical substance is equal to two, in terms of travelling wave variables the reduced system appears integrable and allows the analytical solution. We obtain the exact soliton solutions, one of which is exactly the one-soliton solution of the Korteweg-de Vries equation.

  13. Thermal distortion testing of a 90-degree deployment hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Lance

    2003-09-01

    Virtually all modern spacecraft have at least one (if not many) deployable items, some of which require a high degree of positional accuracy and repeatability. There are many variables that affect the deployment performance, and often the most critical and difficult variable to quantify is the affect of the thermal environment on the deployment mechanisms. Temperature changes before and after deployment can greatly affect the final deployment position and the subsequent thermal distortion of the mechanism, and it is critical to properly quantify these factors. Historically the affects of temperature change on deployment mechanisms have been evaluated via analysis due to the relative cost and difficulty in performing a test. However, during the design process of a recent Lockheed Martin deployment hinge, the engineers wanted to provide their customer with a more reliable empirical assessment. Thus, it was decided to conduct a thermal distortion and repeatability test on the hinge during the qualification phase. Testing of this nature is very rare for relatively inexpensive deployment hinges and is usually reserved for high precision, actively-latched optical hinges. Results of this testing are presented, along with lessons learned when performing the test.

  14. Parabolic trough Project in Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, A.; Cadenas, R.; Almanza, R.; Martinez, I.; Ruiz, V.

    2006-07-01

    Federal Electricity Commission (CFE), the most important electricity Company in Mexico wants to install a parabolic trough row in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal field. Cerro Prieto (CP) is the most important geothermal field in Mexico; this area has the highest levels of irradiance in the country. The levels of irradiance make it feasible to set up a solar collector field in the geothermal field to build a hybrid system in order to increase the steam and electricity production. There are several alternative in the hybrid system, depending where the solar field place is located. Two new options are presented in this paper. The first one uses water from the condenser in DSG with the solar field and steam is separated in the first separator. The second option (DSG), the steam produced is separated in an expansion vessel; the water is reinjected in the solar field and the steam goes to the turbine. This project plans to install an experimental facility to research and learning about the technology, CFE main objective will be the electricity generation; using steam from solar collectors using the existing turbines in CPIV; the second objective is to instruct the workers in the operation of the real facility. The third objective is to study the geothermal flow in the absorbers in Direct Steam Generation (DSG), which has salt and silica dissolved, and look for a possible solution for steam generation. The geothermal facilities have considerable experience using the brine flow, so it is not considered an impediment in the solar-geothermal hybrid system. (Author)

  15. Off-axis electron holography of ferromagnetic multilayer nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtari-Zavareh, Azadeh; Carignan, L. P.; Yelon, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have used electron holography to investigate the local magnetic behavior of isolated ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) in their remanent states. The NWs consisted of periodic magnetic layers of soft, high-saturation magnetization CoFeB alloys, and non-magnetic layers of Cu. All NWs were fabricated...

  16. The off-axis pyroelectric effect observed for lithium tetraborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketsman, I. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Wooten, D. [Air Force Institute of Technology, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7765 (United States); Xiao, Jie [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Losovyj, Ya.B. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); J. Bennett Johnston Sr. Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Highway, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Burak, Ya.V.; Adamiv, V.T. [Institute of Physical Optics, 23 Dragomanov Street, Lviv 79005 (Ukraine); Sokolov, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Petrosky, J.; McClory, J. [Air Force Institute of Technology, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7765 (United States); Dowben, P.A., E-mail: pdowben@unl.ed [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States)

    2010-01-25

    We find a pyroelectric current along the <110> direction of stoichiometric Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} so that the pyroelectric coefficient is nonzero but roughly 10{sup -3} smaller than along the <001> direction of spontaneous polarization. Abrupt decreases in the pyroelectric coefficient along the <110> direction can be correlated with anomalies in the elastic stiffness C{sub 33}{sup D} contributing to concept that the pyroelectric coefficient is not simply a vector but has qualities of a tensor, as expected. The time dependent surface photovoltaic charging suggests that an inverse piezoelectric effect occurs at the (110) surface but not the (100) surface. Both effects along the <110> direction or at the (110) surface are distinct the conventional as a bulk pyroelectric effect.

  17. Off-axis Modal Active Vibration Control Of Rotational Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhani, B.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; van Amerongen, J.

    Collocated active vibration control is an effective and robustly stable way of adding damping to the performance limiting vibrations of a plant. Besides the physical parameters of the Active Damping Unit (ADU) containing the collocated actuator and sensor, its location with respect to the

  18. Method of making a modular off-axis solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesniak, Adam P.; Hall, John C.

    2017-05-23

    A method of making a solar concentrator may include forming a receiving wall having an elongated wall, a first side wall and a second side wall; attaching the first side wall and the second side wall to a reflecting wall to form a housing having an internal volume with an opening; forming a lip on the receiving wall and the reflecting wall; attaching a cover to the receiving wall and the reflecting wall at the lip to seal the opening into the internal volume, thereby creating a rigid structure; and mounting at least one receiver having at least one photovoltaic cell on the elongated wall to receive solar radiation entering the housing and reflected by the receiving wall, the receiver having an axis parallel with a surface normal of the photovoltaic cell, such that the axis is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the opening.

  19. Off-axis electron holography of ferromagnetic multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtari-Zavareh, Azadeh; Kavanagh, K. L. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A1S6 (Canada); Carignan, L. P. [Apollo Microwaves, 1650 Trans-Canada Highway, Dorval, Quebec H9P 1H7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, H3C 3A7 Canada (Canada); Department of Electrical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, H3C 3A7 Canada (Canada); Yelon, A.; Ménard, D. [Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, H3C 3A7 Canada (Canada); Kasama, T. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Herring, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Institute for Microstructure Research, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); McCartney, M. R. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We have used electron holography to investigate the local magnetic behavior of isolated ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) in their remanent states. The NWs consisted of periodic magnetic layers of soft, high-saturation magnetization CoFeB alloys, and non-magnetic layers of Cu. All NWs were fabricated by pulsed-potential electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina membranes. The NW composition and layer thicknesses were measured using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The magnetization of individual NWs depended upon the thicknesses of the layers and the direction of an external magnetic field, which had been applied in situ. When the CoFeB was thicker than the diameter (50 nm), magnetization was axial for all external field directions, while thinner layers could be randomized via a perpendicular field. In some cases, magnetization inside the wire was detected at an angle with respect to the axis of the wires. In thinner Cu/CoFeB (<10 nm each) multilayer, magnetic field vortices were detected, associated with opposing magnetization in neighbouring layers. The measured crystallinity, compositions, and layer thicknesses of individual NWs were found to be significantly different from those predicted from calibration growths based on uniform composition NWs. In particular, a significant fraction of Cu (up to 50 at. %) was present in the CoFeB layers such that the measured magnetic induction was lower than expected. These results will be used to better understand previously measured effective anisotropy fields of similar NW arrays.

  20. X-ray Flashes from Off-axis Nonuniform Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Ping Jin; Da-Ming Wei

    2004-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the outflows in gamma-ray bursts are jetted and some jets may have structures like ∈(θ) ∝θ-κ. We check the possibility that X-ray flashes come from such jets. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses have shown that this model can reproduce most of the observational features of both X-ray flashes and gamma-ray bursts. Using the usual parameters of gamma-ray bursts, we have carried out numerical calculations for both uniform and nonuniform jets, of their fluxes, spectra and peak energies. It seems that nonuniform jets are more appropriate to these observational properties than uniform jets. We have also shown that in our model the observational ratio of gamma-ray bursts to X-ray flashes is about a few units.

  1. Undulating fins produce off-axis thrust and flow structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveln, Izaak D; Bale, Rahul; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Curet, Oscar M; Patankar, Neelesh A; MacIver, Malcolm A

    2014-01-15

    While wake structures of many forms of swimming and flying are well characterized, the wake generated by a freely swimming undulating fin has not yet been analyzed. These elongated fins allow fish to achieve enhanced agility exemplified by the forward, backward and vertical swimming capabilities of knifefish, and also have potential applications in the design of more maneuverable underwater vehicles. We present the flow structure of an undulating robotic fin model using particle image velocimetry to measure fluid velocity fields in the wake. We supplement the experimental robotic work with high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics, simulating the hydrodynamics of both a virtual fish, whose fin kinematics and fin plus body morphology are measured from a freely swimming knifefish, and a virtual rendering of our robot. Our results indicate that a series of linked vortex tubes is shed off the long edge of the fin as the undulatory wave travels lengthwise along the fin. A jet at an oblique angle to the fin is associated with the successive vortex tubes, propelling the fish forward. The vortex structure bears similarity to the linked vortex ring structure trailing the oscillating caudal fin of a carangiform swimmer, though the vortex rings are distorted because of the undulatory kinematics of the elongated fin.

  2. Influence of aerosols on off-axis laser detection capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.T.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation coming from a laser which operates in the coastal zone can be detected not only when a detector is placed in front of the laser beam but also when it is located outside the main beam direction. The reason is that in a real detection scheme the power collected by a detector not only com

  3. Performance Simulation Comparison for Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic trough systems are the most used concentrated solar power technology. The operating performance and optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collectors (PTCs are different in different regions and different seasons. To determine the optimum design and operation of the parabolic trough solar collector throughout the year, an accurate estimation of the daily performance is needed. In this study, a mathematical model for the optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collector was established and three typical regions of solar thermal utilization in China were selected. The performance characteristics of cosine effect, shadowing effect, end loss effect, and optical efficiency were calculated and simulated during a whole year in these three areas by using the mathematical model. The simulation results show that the optical efficiency of PTCs changes from 0.4 to 0.8 in a whole year. The highest optical efficiency of PTCs is in June and the lowest is in December. The optical efficiency of PTCs is mainly influenced by the solar incidence angle. The model is validated by comparing the test results in parabolic trough power plant, with relative error range of 1% to about 5%.

  4. A Contribution for the Construction of Parabolic Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    de Paula, L A N; Assis, A K T

    2008-01-01

    We present a new procedure for the construction of parabolic mirrors using low cost materials. We build a spinning system composed of nylon threads, fish hooks and a plastic bucket. We pour liquid plaster into the bucket and set it in constant rotational motion relative to the earth. A liquid substance assumes a parabolic profile when spinning at constant angular velocity relative to an inertial frame under the influence of an uniform vertical gravitational field. By keeping the bucket under rotation for a long time, the plaster solidifies into a parabolic format. We utilize this solidified plaster paraboloid as a model to construct a counter-mould of glass fibre and resin. Over this counter-mould it is placed stretched laminated foil and then it is poured thick plaster over it. In this way it is obtained a parabolic mirror made of laminated foil and plaster. Our only objective here is to present a new method for the construction of parabolic mirror using low cost materials. This allows further exploration of...

  5. Fabrication, Designing & Performance Analysis of Solar Parabolic Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur G. Tayade,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A parabolic trough solar collector uses a parabolic cylinder to reflect and concentrate sun radiations towards a receiver tube located at the focus line of the parabolic cylinder. The receiver absorbs the incoming radiations and transforms them into thermal energy, the latter being transported and collected by a fluid medium circulating within the receiver tube.This method of concentrated solar collection has the advantage of high efficiency and low cost, and can be used either for thermal energy collection, for generating electricity or for both, This paper focused on the fabrication and designing of solar parabolic trough, The designing of trough is depend upon the following parameters : Aperture of the concentrator , Inner diameter of absorber tube, Outer diameter of absorber tube, Inner diameter of glass tube, Outer diameter of glass tube, Length of parabolic trough, Concentration ratio, Collector aperture area, Specular reflectivity of concentrator, Glass cover transitivity for solar radiation, Absorber tube emissivity/emissivity, Intercept factor, Emissivity of absorber tube surface and Emissivity of glass. The performance analysis will be based on the Experimental data collection and calculations with reference to: Thermal performance calculations, Overall loss coefficient and heat correlations. Heat transfer coefficient on the inside surface of the absorber tube and Heat transfer coefficient between the absorber tube and the Cover.

  6. Accelerated parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction with fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm and its application in parabolic Radon domain hybrid demultiple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-xiao; Li, Zhen-chun

    2017-08-01

    Adaptive multiple subtraction is an important step for successfully conducting surface-related multiple elimination in marine seismic exploration. 2D adaptive multiple subtraction conducted in the parabolic Radon domain has been proposed to better separate primaries and multiples than 2D adaptive multiple subtraction conducted in the time-offset domain. Additionally, the parabolic Radon domain hybrid demultiple method combining parabolic Radon filtering and parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction can better remove multiples than the cascaded demultiple method using time-offset domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction and the parabolic Radon transform method sequentially. To solve the matching filter in the optimization problem with L1 norm minimization constraint of primaries, traditional parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction uses the iterative reweighted least squares (IRLS) algorithm, which is computationally expensive for solving a weighted LS inversion in each iteration. In this paper we introduce the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm (FISTA) as a faster alternative to the IRLS algorithm for parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction. FISTA uses the shrinkage-thresholding operator to promote the sparsity of estimated primaries and solves the 2D matching filter with iterative steps. FISTA based parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction reduces the computation time effectively while achieving similar accuracy compared with IRLS based parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction. Additionally, the provided examples show that FISTA based parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction can better separate primaries and multiples than FISTA based time-offset domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction. Furthermore, we introduce FISTA based parabolic Radon domain 2D adaptive multiple subtraction into the parabolic Radon domain hybrid demultiple method to improve its computation

  7. Internal jugular pressure increases during parabolic flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David S; Lee, Stuart M C; Matz, Timothy P; Westby, Christian M; Scott, Jessica M; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2016-12-01

    One hypothesized contributor to vision changes experienced by >75% of International Space Station astronauts is elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). While no definitive data yet exist, elevated ICP might be secondary to the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift, resulting in venous congestion (overfilling and distension) and inhibition of cerebrospinal and lymphatic fluid drainage from the skull. The objective of this study was to measure internal jugular venous pressure (IJVP) during normo- and hypo-gravity as an index of venous congestion. IJVP was measured noninvasively using compression sonography at rest during end-expiration in 11 normal, healthy subjects (3 M, 8 F) during normal gravity (1G; supine) and weightlessness (0G; seated) produced by parabolic flight. IJVP also was measured in two subjects during parabolas approximating Lunar (1/6G) and Martian gravity (1/3G). Finally, IJVP was measured during increased intrathoracic pressure produced using controlled Valsalva maneuvers. IJVP was higher in 0G than 1G (23.9 ± 5.6 vs. 9.9 ± 5.1 mmHg, mean ± SD P < 0.001) in all subjects, and IJVP increased as gravity levels decreased in two subjects. Finally, IJVP was greater in 0G than 1G at all expiration pressures (P < 0.01). Taken together, these data suggest that IJVP is elevated during acute exposure to reduced gravity and may be elevated further by conditions that increase intrathoracic pressure, a strong modulator of central venous pressure and IJVP However, whether elevated IJVP, and perhaps consequent venous congestion, observed during acute microgravity exposure contribute to vision changes during long-duration spaceflight is yet to be determined. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Molten salt parabolic trough system with synthetic oil preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Minoru; Hino, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    Molten salt parabolic trough system (MSPT), which can heat the heat transfer fluid (HTF) to 550 °C has a better performance than a synthetic oil parabolic trough system (SOPT), which can heat the HTF to 400 °C or less. The utilization of HTF at higher temperature in the parabolic trough system is able to realize the design of a smaller size of storage tank and higher heat to electricity conversion efficiency. However, with MSPT there is a great amount of heat loss at night so it is necessary to circulate the HTF at a high temperature of about 290 °C in order to prevent solidification. A new MSPT concept with SOPT preheating (MSSOPT) has been developed to reduce the heat loss at night. In this paper, the MSSOPT system, its performance by steady state analysis and annual performance analysis are introduced.

  9. Interaction Potential between Parabolic Rotator and an Outside Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At micro/nanoscale, the interaction potential between parabolic rotator and a particle located outside the rotator is studied on the basis of the negative exponential pair potential 1/Rn between particles. Similar to two-dimensional curved surfaces, we confirm that the potential of the three-dimensional parabolic rotator and outside particle can also be expressed as a unified form of curvatures; that is, it can be written as the function of curvatures. Furthermore, we verify that the driving forces acting on the particle may be induced by the highly curved micro/nano-parabolic rotator. Curvatures and the gradient of curvatures are the essential elements forming the driving forces. Through the idealized numerical experiments, the accuracy of the curvature-based potential is preliminarily proved.

  10. Decomposition method for solving parabolic equations in finite domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison among Adomian decomposition method (ADM), Wavelet-Galerkin method (WGM),the fully explicit (1,7) finite difference technique (FTCS), the fully implicit (7,1) finite difference method (BTCS), (7,7)Crank-Nicholson type finite difference formula (C-N), the fully explicit method (1,13) and 9-point finite difference method, for solving parabolic differential equations with arbitrary boundary conditions and based on weak form functionals in finite domains.The problem is solved rapidly, easily and elegantly by ADM. The numerical results on a 2D transient heat conducting problem and 3D diffusion problem are used to validate the proposed ADM as an effective numerical method for solving finite domain parabolic equations. The numerical results showed that our present method is less time consuming and is easier to use than other methods. In addition, we prove the convergence of this method when it is applied to the nonlinear parabolic equation.

  11. Graphene Nanoribbon Conductance Model in Parabolic Band Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ahmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental measurements have been done on GNR conductance. In this paper, analytical model of GNR conductance is presented. Moreover, comparison with published data which illustrates good agreement between them is studied. Conductance of GNR as a one-dimensional device channel with parabolic band structures near the charge neutrality point is improved. Based on quantum confinement effect, the conductance of GNR in parabolic part of the band structure, also the temperature-dependent conductance which displays minimum conductance near the charge neutrality point are calculated. Graphene nanoribbon (GNR with parabolic band structure near the minimum band energy terminates Fermi-Dirac integral base method on band structure study. While band structure is parabola, semiconducting GNRs conductance is a function of Fermi-Dirac integral which is based on Maxwell approximation in nondegenerate limit especially for a long channel.

  12. First Middle East Aircraft Parabolic Flights for ISU Participant Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Frischauf, Norbert; Cohen, Dan; Foster, Matthew; Spannagel, Ruven; Szeszko, Adam; Laufer, Rene

    2017-02-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights are widely used throughout the world to create microgravity environment for scientific and technology research, experiment rehearsal for space missions, and for astronaut training before space flights. As part of the Space Studies Program 2016 of the International Space University summer session at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, a series of aircraft parabolic flights were organized with a glider in support of departmental activities on `Artificial and Micro-gravity' within the Space Sciences Department. Five flights were organized with manoeuvres including several parabolas with 5 to 6 s of weightlessness, bank turns with acceleration up to 2 g and disorientation inducing manoeuvres. Four demonstration experiments and two experiments proposed by SSP16 participants were performed during the flights by on board operators. This paper reports on the microgravity experiments conducted during these parabolic flights, the first conducted in the Middle East for science and pedagogical experiments.

  13. In-plane elastic stability of fixed parabolic shallow arches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI JianGuo; FENG Jian; CHEN Yao; HUANG LiFeng

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of fixed parabolic shallow arches subjected to a vertical uniform load is inves-tigated to evaluate the in-plane buckling load. The virtual work principle method is used to establish the non-linear equilibrium and buckling equations. Analytical solutions for the non-linear in-plane sym-metric snap-through and antisymmetric bifurcation buckling loads are obtained. Based on the least square method, an approximation for the symmetric buckling load of fixed parabolic arch is proposedto simplify the solution process. And the relation between modified slenderness and buckling modes are discussed. Comparisons with the results of finite element analysis demonstrate that the solutions are accurate. A cable-arch structure is presented to improve the in-plane stability of parabolic arches. The comparison of buckling loads between cable-arch systems and arches only show that the effect of cables becomes more evident with the increase of arch's modified slenderness.

  14. In-plane elastic stability of fixed parabolic shallow arches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of fixed parabolic shallow arches subjected to a vertical uniform load is inves- tigated to evaluate the in-plane buckling load. The virtual work principle method is used to establish the non-linear equilibrium and buckling equations. Analytical solutions for the non-linear in-plane sym- metric snap-through and antisymmetric bifurcation buckling loads are obtained. Based on the least square method, an approximation for the symmetric buckling load of fixed parabolic arch is proposed to simplify the solution process. And the relation between modified slenderness and buckling modes are discussed. Comparisons with the results of finite element analysis demonstrate that the solutions are accurate. A cable-arch structure is presented to improve the in-plane stability of parabolic arches. The comparison of buckling loads between cable-arch systems and arches only show that the effect of cables becomes more evident with the increase of arch’s modified slenderness.

  15. Analysis and conceptual design of a lunar radiator parabolic shade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Clark, Craig S.

    1991-01-01

    On the moon, the available heat sink temperature for a vertical unshaded radiator at the equator is 322 K. A method of reducing this heat sink temperature using a parabolic trough shading device was investigated. A steady state heat balance was performed to predict the available heat sink temperature. The effect of optical surface properties on system performance was investigated. Various geometric configurations were also evaluated. A flexible shade conceptual design is presented which greatly reduces the weight and stowed volume of the system. The concept makes use of the natural catenary shape assumed by a flexible material when supported at two points. The catenary shape is very near parabolic. The lunar radiator parabolic shade design presented integrates the energy collection and rejection of a solar dynamic power cycle with the moderate temperature waste heat rejection of a lunar habitat.

  16. First Middle East Aircraft Parabolic Flights for ISU Participant Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Frischauf, Norbert; Cohen, Dan; Foster, Matthew; Spannagel, Ruven; Szeszko, Adam; Laufer, Rene

    2017-06-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights are widely used throughout the world to create microgravity environment for scientific and technology research, experiment rehearsal for space missions, and for astronaut training before space flights. As part of the Space Studies Program 2016 of the International Space University summer session at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, a series of aircraft parabolic flights were organized with a glider in support of departmental activities on `Artificial and Micro-gravity' within the Space Sciences Department. Five flights were organized with manoeuvres including several parabolas with 5 to 6 s of weightlessness, bank turns with acceleration up to 2 g and disorientation inducing manoeuvres. Four demonstration experiments and two experiments proposed by SSP16 participants were performed during the flights by on board operators. This paper reports on the microgravity experiments conducted during these parabolic flights, the first conducted in the Middle East for science and pedagogical experiments.

  17. Real Parabolic Vector Bundles over a Real Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Amrutiya

    2014-02-01

    We define real parabolic structures on real vector bundles over a real curve. Let $(X, _X)$ be a real curve, and let $S\\subset X$ be a non-empty finite subset of such that $_X(S) = S$. Let ≥ 2 be an integer. We construct an -fold cyclic cover : $Y→ X$ in the category of real curves, ramified precisely over each point of , and with the property that for any element of the Galois group , and any $y\\in Y$, one has $_Y(gy) = g^{-1}_Y(y)$. We established an equivalence between the category of real parabolic vector bundles on $(X,_X)$ with real parabolic structure over , all of whose weights are integral multiples of 1/, and the category of real -equivariant vector bundles on $(Y, _Y)$.

  18. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  19. Regularity for solutions of non local parabolic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lara, Héctor A Chang

    2011-01-01

    We study the regularity of solutions of parabolic fully nonlinear nonlocal equations. We proof $C^\\a$ regularity in space and time and for translation invariant equations and under different assumptions on the kernels $C^{1,\\a}$ in space and time regularity. The proofs rely on a weak parabolic ABP inspired in recent work done by L. Silvestre and the classic ideas of K. Tso and L. Wang. Our results remain uniform as $\\s\\to2$ allowing us to understand the non local theory as an extension to the classical one.

  20. NEW ALTERNATING DIRECTION FINITE ELEMENT SCHEME FOR NONLINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔霞

    2002-01-01

    A new alternating direction (AD) finite element (FE) scheme for 3-dimensional nonlinear parabolic equation and parabolic integro-differential equation is studied. By using AD,the 3-dimensional problem is reduced to a family of single space variable problems, calculation work is simplified; by using FE, high accuracy is kept; by using various techniques for priori estimate for differential equations such as inductive hypothesis reasoning, the difficulty arising from the nonlinearity is treated. For both FE and ADFE schemes, the convergence properties are rigorously demonstrated, the optimal H1- and L2-norm space estimates and the O((△t)2) estimate for time variable are obtained.

  1. Focusing of Intense Laser via Parabolic Plasma Concave Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Wu, Fengjuan; Zhang, Zhimeng; Shan, Lianqiang; Cao, Leifeng; Zhang, Baohan

    2015-12-01

    Since laser intensity plays an important role in laser plasma interactions, a method of increasing laser intensity - focusing of an intense laser via a parabolic plasma concave surface - is proposed and investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The geometric focusing via a parabolic concave surface and the temporal compression of high harmonics increased the peak intensity of the laser pulse by about two orders of magnitude. Compared with the improvement via laser optics approaches, this scheme is much more economic and appropriate for most femtosecond laser facilities. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11174259, 11175165), and the Dual Hundred Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics

  2. General difference schemes with intrinsic parallelism for nonlinear parabolic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毓麟; 袁光伟

    1997-01-01

    The boundary value problem for nonlinear parabolic system is solved by the finite difference method with intrinsic parallelism. The existence of the discrete vector solution for the general finite difference schemes with intrinsic parallelism is proved by the fixed-point technique in finite-dimensional Euclidean space. The convergence and stability theorems of the discrete vector solutions of the nonlinear difference system with intrinsic parallelism are proved. The limitation vector function is just the unique generalized solution of the original problem for the parabolic system.

  3. Nonlinear Parabolic Equations with Singularities in Colombeau Vector Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirjana STOJANOVI(C)

    2006-01-01

    We consider nonlinear parabolic equations with nonlinear non-Lipschitz's term and singular initial data like Dirac measure, its derivatives and powers. We prove existence-uniqueness theorems in Colombeau vector space gC1,w2,2([O,T),Rn),n ≤ 3. Due to high singularity in a case of parabolic equation with nonlinear conservative term we employ the regularized derivative for the conservative term, in order to obtain the global existence-uniqueness result in Colombeau vector space gC1,L2([O,T),Rn),n ≤ 3.

  4. Some remarks on singular solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations. III: viscosity solutions, including parabolic operators

    CERN Document Server

    Caffarelli, Luis; Nirenberg, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The paper concerns singular solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations, which include removable singularities for viscosity solutions, a strengthening of the Hopf Lemma including parabolic equations, Strong maximum principle and Hopf Lemma for viscosity solutions including also parabolic equations.

  5. Well-posedness of nonlocal parabolic differential problems with dependent operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Hanalyev, Asker

    2014-01-01

    The nonlocal boundary value problem for the parabolic differential equation v'(t) + A(t)v(t) = f(t) (0 ≤ t ≤ T), v(0) = v(λ) + φ, 0 parabolic equations with dependent coefficients are established.

  6. On the regularity of optimal control for a parabolic system of order 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella Fiodo

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available An optimal control problem for a parabolic operator of order 2m with the boundary conditions containing the control is considered. A regularity theorem for the parabolic problem and the regularity of the optimal control is proved.

  7. 高能拍瓦激光系统中大口径离轴抛物面聚焦特性研究%Study on Focusing Characteristic of Large Aperture Off-Axis Paraboloidal Mirror in the High-Energy Petawatt Laser System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳峰; 朱健强; 赵东峰

    2012-01-01

    为进行快点火实验,需对高能拍瓦激光聚焦系统中的核心元件即大口径离轴抛物面,进行深入量化研究,以便对其结构选型和精密调整提供准确的理论依据.利用基于严格的矢量衍射理论的数值计算方法,并结合像差分析得到了大孔径、大离轴量的抛物面镜(OAP)的物理光学成像特性.首先用理想平行光入射,得出OAP的三维平动公差与其焦深密切相关,OAP绕旋转刘称轴的转动可归结为平动问题,其公差与焦深也有简单关系;入射光轴失准时,像散占主导作用,并可由一结构因子来定性描述其对像斑的影响.其次当入射光有一定的发散角时,除引起最佳像面位置变化外,还会由于OAP不对称性而引起的彗差使得像斑的峰值光强大大降低,并论述了OAP的结构参数对此的影响.%To realize the fast ignition experiments,deep and quantitative research needs to be taken on the large aperture off-axis paraboloidal mirror (OAP) which is the core component in the high-energy petawatt laser focusing system,in order to provide an accurate basic theory for the OAP structure model selection and precision adjustments. This paper uses a numerical calculation method based on the rigorous vector diffraction theory combining with wavefront aberration analysis,by which the physical optical imaging characteristics of a large aperture and far off-axis OAP are obtained. First,using parallel light incidence,a conclusion can be obtained that the tolerances of OAP translation and revolving around its symmetric axis are closely related with its focal depth. When the optical axis misalignment occurs,astigmatism will play a leading role in the influence on the optical spot which can be described qualitatively by a structural factor. Then,when the incident light has a divergence angle,the best image plane location will change and coma is produced to decrease the power density of the optical spot owing to the asymmetry of

  8. A Comparative Discussion of Calculation Hologram with Detour Phase and Modified Off-axis Reference Beam%迂回位相型计算全息图和修正离轴参考光计算全息图的对比讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹杰茜; 黄水平

    2015-01-01

    It got the detour phase hologram and Boqi hologram using the Matlab language, and got reconstructed image by Fourier transformation. The characteristics of two computing holograms were elaborated, and the quality, quantity, size, program running speed of the reconstructed image were made a comparison. Computing hologram with Detour phase is easy to record and convenient delivery. Boqi coding are used to get the modified off-axis reference beam as computing hologram has a high quality reconstructed image,and com-puting speed is faster. The complex two-dimensional images which can consider using this encoding method to calculate the holographic.%使用Matlab语言得到了迂回位相全息图和博奇型全息图,由傅里叶逆变换得到再现像。阐述了两种计算全息图各自的特点,对再现像的质量、数量、大小、程序运行速度作出对比讨论。迂回位相计算全息图有便于记录、方便传递的特点。利用博奇编码得到的修正离轴参考光计算全息图有高质量的再现像,而且计算速度也比较快,对于复杂的二维图像,可以考虑利用这种编码方法进行计算全息。

  9. A parabolic singular perturbation problem with an internal layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Shih, S.D.

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented to approximate with singular perturbation methods a parabolic differential equation for the quarter plane with a discontinuity at the corner. This discontinuity gives rise to an internal layer. It is necessary to match the local solution in this layer with the one in a corner l

  10. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  11. Proton driven plasma wakefield generation in a parabolic plasma channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golian, Y.; Dorranian, D.

    2016-11-01

    An analytical model for the interaction of charged particle beams and plasma for a wakefield generation in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. In the suggested model, the plasma density profile has a minimum value on the propagation axis. A Gaussian proton beam is employed to excite the plasma wakefield in the channel. While previous works investigated on the simulation results and on the perturbation techniques in case of laser wakefield accelerations for a parabolic channel, we have carried out an analytical model and solved the accelerating field equation for proton beam in a parabolic plasma channel. The solution is expressed by Whittaker (hypergeometric) functions. Effects of plasma channel radius, proton bunch parameters and plasma parameters on the accelerating processes of proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration are studied. Results show that the higher accelerating fields could be generated in the PWFA scheme with modest reductions in the bunch size. Also, the modest increment in plasma channel radius is needed to obtain maximum accelerating gradient. In addition, the simulations of longitudinal and total radial wakefield in parabolic plasma channel are presented using LCODE. It is observed that the longitudinal wakefield generated by the bunch decreases with the distance behind the bunch while total radial wakefield increases with the distance behind the bunch.

  12. Viscosity solutions of fully nonlinear functional parabolic PDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wei-an

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available By the technique of coupled solutions, the notion of viscosity solutions is extended to fully nonlinear retarded parabolic equations. Such equations involve many models arising from optimal control theory, economy and finance, biology, and so forth. The comparison principle is shown. Then the existence and uniqueness are established by the fixed point theory.

  13. Almost periodic solutions to systems of parabolic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janpou Nee

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that the second-order differential solution is 2-almost periodic, provided it is 2-bounded, and the growth of the components of a non-linear function of a system of parabolic equation is bounded by any pair of con-secutive eigenvalues of the associated Dirichlet boundary value problems.

  14. Improved Green's function parabolic equation method for atmospheric sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The numerical implementation of the Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) method for atmospheric sound propagation is discussed. Four types of numerical errors are distinguished: (i) errors in the forward Fourier transform; (ii) errors in the inverse Fourier transform; (iii) errors in the refra

  15. Stability test for a parabolic partial differential equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajta, Miklos

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes a stability test applied to coupled parabolic partial differential equations. The PDE's describe the temperature distribution of composite structures with linear inner heat sources. The distributed transfer functions are developed based on the transmission matrix of each layer.

  16. Nyquist stability test for a parabolic partial differential equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajta, Miklos; Hamza, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes a Nyquist stability test applied to a parabolic partial differential equation. The PDE describes the temperature distribution of composite structures with linear inner heat source. The distributed transfer functions have been developed by the transmission matrix method. To

  17. The ellipse in parabolic motion: An undergraduate experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Bernal, M. A.; Mancera-Piña, P. E.; Cerecedo-Núñez, H. H.; Padilla-Sosa, P.; Núñez-Yépez, H. N.; Salas-Brito, A. L.

    2014-04-01

    We present a simple method of experimentally studying the elliptic shape of the joined apices of parabolic projectile trajectories in the undergraduate laboratory. The experimental data agrees well with theoretical results, and we find that this experiment provides an interesting twist to the venerable undergraduate experiment on projectile motion.

  18. On some perturbation techniques for quasi-linear parabolic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Malyshev

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a nonhomogeneous quasi-linear parabolic equation and introduce a method that allows us to find the solution of a nonlinear boundary value problem in “explicit” form. This task is accomplished by perturbing the original equation with a source function, which is then found as a solution of some nonlinear operator equation.

  19. MULTIGRID FOR THE MORTAR FINITE ELEMENT FOR PARABOLIC PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-jun Xu; Jin-ru Chen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a mortar finite element method for parabolic problem is presented. Multigrid method is used for solving the resulting discrete system. It is shown that the multigrid method is optimal, I.e, the convergence rate is independent of the mesh size L and the time step parameter т.

  20. Boundary control of parabolic systems - Finite-element approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasiecka, I.

    1980-01-01

    The finite element approximation of a Dirichlet type boundary control problem for parabolic systems is considered. An approach based on the direct approximation of an input-output semigroup formula is applied. Error estimates are derived for optimal state and optimal control, and it is noted that these estimates are actually optimal with respect to the approximation theoretic properties.

  1. Parabolic vortex equations and instantons of infinite energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biquard, Olivier; García-Prada, Oscar

    1997-02-01

    We study the vortex equations on parabolic bundles over a Riemann surface and prove a Hitchin-Kobayashi-type correspondence relating the existence of solutions to a certain stability condition. This is achieved by translating our problem into a four-dimensional one, via dimensional reduction arguments. In return we obtain examples of instantons of infinite energy.

  2. Negative Trions Trapped by a Spherical Parabolic Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a negatively charged exciton trapped by a spherical parabolic quantum dot has been investigated. The energy spectra of low-lying states are calculated by means of matrix diagonalization. The important feature of the low-lying states of the negatively charged excitons in a spherical quantum dot is obtained via an analysis of the energy spectra.

  3. On an algorithm for solving parabolic and elliptic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzo, N.; Saveliev, V. I.; Chetverushkin, B. N.

    2015-08-01

    The present-day rapid growth of computer power, in particular, parallel computing systems of ultrahigh performance requires a new approach to the creation of models and solution algorithms for major problems. An algorithm for solving parabolic and elliptic equations is proposed. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by solving astrophysical problems on high-performance computer systems with massive parallelism.

  4. Compactness of the commutators of parabolic singular integrals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the authors prove that the commutator [b,T] of the parabolic singular integrals is a compact operator on Lp(Rn)(1 < p < ∞) if and only if b ∈ VMO(Rn,ρ).The result is substantial improvement and extension of some known results.

  5. Null controllability for a fourth order parabolic equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hang

    2009-01-01

    In the paper,the null interior controllability for a fourth order parabolic equation is obtained.The method Is based on Lebeau-Rabbiano inequality which is a quantitative unique continuation property for the sum of eigenfunctions of the Laplacian.

  6. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  7. The fundamental solutions for fractional evolution equations of parabolic type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. El-Borai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental solutions for linear fractional evolution equations are obtained. The coefficients of these equations are a family of linear closed operators in the Banach space. Also, the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions is studied. A mixed problem of general parabolic partial differential equations with fractional order is given as an application.

  8. Numerical and asymptotic aspects of parabolic cylinder functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    Several uniform asymptotics expansions of the Weber parabolic cylinder functions are considered, one group in terms of elementary functions, another group in terms of Airy functions. Starting point for the discussion are asymptotic expansions given earlier by F.W.J. Olver. Some of his results are

  9. Integral representations for computing real parabolic cylinder functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, A.; Segura, J.; Temme, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Integral representations are derived for the parabolic cylinder functions U(a,x), V(a,x) and W(a,x) and their derivatives. The new integrals will be used in numerical algorithms based on quadrature. They follow from contour integrals in the complex plane, by using methods from asymptotic analysis (s

  10. SOLVING ∂¯b ON PARABOLIC LAMINATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2014-01-01

    Let X be a compact set which is laminated by parabolic Riemiann surfaces. For the CR positive line bundle L, there exists an integer N ∈ N such that for any s > N and any continuous v∈V(0,1) X N LN s, there exists a continuous u∈LN s solving ∂¯bu=v.

  11. Parabolic stable Higgs bundles over complete noncompact Riemann surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉禹; 王友德

    1999-01-01

    Let M be an open Riemann surface with a finite set of punctures, a complete Poincar(?)-like metric is introduced near the punctures and the equivalence between the stability of an indecomposable parabolic Higgs bundle, and the existence of a Hermitian-Einstein metric on the bundle is established.

  12. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-10-01

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  13. An Application of Calculus: Optimum Parabolic Path Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Merve; Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Yurtsever, Hasan Ali

    2009-01-01

    A practical and technological application of calculus problem is posed to motivate freshman students or junior high school students. A variable coefficient of friction is used in modelling air friction. The case in which the coefficient of friction is a decreasing function of altitude is considered. The optimum parabolic path for a flying object…

  14. Parabolic troughs to increase the geothermal wells flow enthalpy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Engineering Institute, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Building 12, Cuidad Universitaria, Mexico D.F., A.P. 70-472, C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This work investigates the feasibility of using parabolic trough solar field to increase the enthalpy from geothermal wells' flow in order to increase the steam tons; in addition, it is possible to prevent silica deposition in the geothermal process. The high levels of irradiance in Northwestern Mexico make it possible to integrate a solar-geothermal hybrid system that uses two energy resources to provide steam for the geothermal cycle, like the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The plant consists of a geothermal well, a parabolic trough solar field in series, flash separator, steam turbine and condenser. Well '408' of Cerro Prieto IV has enthalpy of 1566kJ/kg and its quality must be increased by 10 points, which requires a {delta}h of 194.4kJ/kg. Under these considerations the parabolic troughs area required will be 9250m{sup 2}, with a flow of 92.4tons per hour (25.67kg/s). The solar field orientation is a N-S parabolic trough concentrator. The silica content in the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine causes problems for scaling at the power facility, so scale controls must be considered. (author)

  15. Lateral migration of a capsule in a parabolic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, S; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2016-07-26

    Red blood cells migrate to the center of the blood vessel in a process called axial migration, while other blood cells, such as white blood cells and platelets, are disproportionately found near the blood vessel wall. However, much is still unknown concerning the lateral migration of cells in the blood; the specific effect of hydrodynamic factors such as a wall or a shear gradient is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the lateral migration of a capsule using the boundary integral method, in order to compute exactly an infinite computational domain for an unbounded parabolic flow and a semi-infinite computational domain for a near-wall parabolic flow in the limit of Stokes flow. We show that the capsule lift velocity in an unbounded parabolic flow is linear with respect to the shear gradient, while the lift velocity in a near-wall parabolic flow is dependent on the distance to the wall. Then, using these relations, we give an estimation of the relative effect of the shear gradient as a function of channel width and distance between the capsule and the wall. This estimation can be used to determine cases in which the effect of the shear gradient or wall can be neglected; for example, the formation of the cell-free layer in blood vessels is determined to be unaffected by the magnitude of the shear gradient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Application of Calculus: Optimum Parabolic Path Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Merve; Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Yurtsever, Hasan Ali

    2009-01-01

    A practical and technological application of calculus problem is posed to motivate freshman students or junior high school students. A variable coefficient of friction is used in modelling air friction. The case in which the coefficient of friction is a decreasing function of altitude is considered. The optimum parabolic path for a flying object…

  17. Low-crosstalk Si arrayed waveguide grating with parabolic tapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tong; Fu, Yunfei; Qiao, Lei; Chu, Tao

    2014-12-29

    A silicon arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with low channel crosstalk was demonstrated by using ultra-short parabolic tapers to connect the AWG's free propagation regions and single-mode waveguides. The tapers satisfied the requirements of low-loss mode conversion and lower channel crosstalk from the coupling of neighboring waveguides in the AWGs. In this work, three different tapers, including parabolic tapers, linear tapers, and exponential tapers, were theoretically analyzed and experimentally investigated for a comparison of their effects when implemented in AWGs. The experimental results showed that the AWG with parabolic tapers had a crosstalk improvement up to 7.1 dB compared with the others. Based on the advantages of parabolic tapers, a 400-GHz 8 × 8 cyclic AWG with 2.4 dB on-chip loss and -17.6~-25.1 dB crosstalk was fabricated using a simple one-step etching process. Its performance was comparable with that of existing AWGs with bi-level tapers, which require complicated two-step etching fabrication processes.

  18. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30–60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments. PMID:19727328

  19. Compound parabolic concentrator with cavity for tubular absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    1983-01-01

    A compond parabolic concentrator with a V-shaped cavity is provided in which an optical receiver is emplaced. The cavity redirects all energy entering between the receiver and the cavity structure onto the receiver, if the optical receiver is emplaced a distance from the cavity not greater than 0.27 r (where r is the radius of the receiver).

  20. Nonlinear Hyperbolic-Parabolic System Modeling Some Biological Phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shaohua; CHEN Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system modeling some biological phenomena. By semigroup theory and Leray-Schauder fixed point argument, the local existence and uniqueness of the weak solutions for this system are proved. For the spatial dimension N = 1, the global existence of the weak solution will be established by the bootstrap argument.

  1. Anisotropic uniqueness classes for a degenerate parabolic equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vil' danova, V F [Bashkir State Pedagogical University, Ufa (Russian Federation); Mukminov, F Kh [Bashkir State University, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-30

    Anisotropic uniqueness classes of Tacklind type are identified for a degenerate linear parabolic equation of the second order in an unbounded domain. The Cauchy problem and mixed problems with boundary conditions of the first and third type are considered. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  2. Electromagnetic Casimir Forces of Parabolic Cylinder and Knife-Edge Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Noah; Emig, Thorsten; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Jaffe, Robert L; Kardar, Mehran

    2011-01-01

    An exact calculation of electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly conducting parabolic cylinder is employed to compute Casimir forces in several configurations. These include interactions between a parabolic cylinder and a plane, two parabolic cylinders, and a parabolic cylinder and an ordinary cylinder. To elucidate the effect of boundaries, special attention is focused on the "knife-edge" limit in which the parabolic cylinder becomes a half-plane. Geometrical effects are illustrated by considering arbitrary rotations of a parabolic cylinder around its focal axis, and arbitrary translations perpendicular to this axis. A quite different geometrical arrangement is explored for the case of an ordinary cylinder placed in the interior of a parabolic cylinder. All of these results extend simply to nonzero temperatures.

  3. Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.

  4. Theory of Parabolic Arcs in Interstellar Scintillation Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Cordes, J M; Stinebring, D R; Coles, W A; Cordes, James M.; Rickett, Barney J.; Stinebring, Daniel R.; Coles, William A.

    2004-01-01

    Our theory relates the secondary spectrum, the 2D power spectrum of the radio dynamic spectrum, to the scattered pulsar image in a thin scattering screen geometry. Recently discovered parabolic arcs in secondary spectra are generic features for media that scatter radiation at angles much larger than the rms scattering angle. Each point in the secondary spectrum maps particular values of differential arrival-time delay and fringe rate (or differential Doppler frequency) between pairs of components in the scattered image. Arcs correspond to a parabolic relation between these quantities through their common dependence on the angle of arrival of scattered components. Arcs appear even without consideration of the dispersive nature of the plasma. Arcs are more prominent in media with negligible inner scale and with shallow wavenumber spectra, such as the Kolmogorov spectrum, and when the scattered image is elongated along the velocity direction. The arc phenomenon can be used, therefore, to constrain the inner scal...

  5. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  6. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  7. Secondary concentrators for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Poon, P. T.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of different concepts are currently being studied with the objective to lower the cost of parabolic mirrors and to provide alternatives. One of the considered approaches involves the use of compound concentrators. A compound solar concentrator is a concentrator in which the sunlight is reflected or refracted more than once. It consists of a primary mirror or lens, whose aperture determines the amount of sunlight gathered, and a smaller secondary mirror or lens. Additional small optical elements may also be incorporated. The possibilities and problems regarding a use of compound concentrators in parabolic dish systems are discussed. Attention is given to concentrating secondary lenses, secondary imaging and concentrating mirrors, conical secondary mirrors, compound elliptic secondary concentrating mirrors, and hyperbolic trumpet secondary concentrating mirrors.

  8. Parabolic discounting of monetary rewards by physical effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Tobler, Philippe N; Kaiser, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    When humans and other animals make decisions in their natural environments prospective rewards have to be weighed against costs. It is well established that increasing costs lead to devaluation or discounting of reward. While our knowledge about discount functions for time and probability costs is quite advanced, little is known about how physical effort discounts reward. In the present study we compared three different models in a binary choice task in which human participants had to squeeze a handgrip to earn monetary rewards: a linear, a hyperbolic, and a parabolic model. On the group as well as the individual level, the concave parabolic model explained most variance of the choice data, thus contrasting with the typical hyperbolic discounting of reward value by delay. Research on effort discounting is not only important to basic science but also holds the potential to quantify aberrant motivational states in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Evolution of laser pulse shape in a parabolic plasma channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, M.; Gupta, D. N.; Suk, H.

    2017-01-01

    During high-intensity laser propagation in a plasma, the group velocity of a laser pulse is subjected to change with the laser intensity due to alteration in refractive index associated with the variation of the nonlinear plasma density. The pulse front sharpened while the back of the pulse broadened due to difference in the group velocity at different parts of the laser pulse. Thus the distortion in the shape of the laser pulse is expected. We present 2D particle-in-cell simulations demonstrating the controlling the shape distortion of a Gaussian laser pulse using a parabolic plasma channel. We show the results of the intensity distribution of laser pulse in a plasma with and without a plasma channel. It has been observed that the plasma channel helps in controlling the laser pulse shape distortion. The understanding of evolution of laser pulse shape may be crucial while applying the parabolic plasma channel for guiding the laser pulse in plasma based accelerators.

  10. Propagation equation for tight-focusing by a parabolic mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couairon, A; Kosareva, O G; Panov, N A; Shipilo, D E; Andreeva, V A; Jukna, V; Nesa, F

    2015-11-30

    Part of the chain in petawatt laser systems may involve extreme focusing conditions for which nonparaxial and vectorial effects have high impact on the propagation of radiation. We investigate the possibility of using propagation equations to simulate numerically the focal spot under these conditions. We derive a unidirectional propagation equation for the Hertz vector, describing linear and nonlinear propagation under situations where nonparaxial diffraction and vectorial effects become significant. By comparing our simulations to the results of vector diffraction integrals in the case of linear tight-focusing by a parabolic mirror, we establish a practical criterion for the critical f -number below which initializing a propagation equation with a parabolic input phase becomes inaccurate. We propose a method to find suitable input conditions for propagation equations beyond this limit. Extreme focusing conditions are shown to be modeled accurately by means of numerical simulations of the unidirectional Hertz-vector propagation equation initialized with suitable input conditions.

  11. 'Parabolic' trapped modes and steered Dirac cones in platonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, R C; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Brun, M; Smith, M J A

    2015-05-08

    This paper discusses the properties of flexural waves governed by the biharmonic operator, and propagating in a thin plate pinned at doubly periodic sets of points. The emphases are on the design of dispersion surfaces having the Dirac cone topology, and on the related topic of trapped modes in plates for a finite set (cluster) of pinned points. The Dirac cone topologies we exhibit have at least two cones touching at a point in the reciprocal lattice, augmented by another band passing through the point. We show that these Dirac cones can be steered along symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone by varying the aspect ratio of rectangular lattices of pins, and that, as the cones are moved, the involved band surfaces tilt. We link Dirac points with a parabolic profile in their neighbourhood, and the characteristic of this parabolic profile decides the direction of propagation of the trapped mode in finite clusters.

  12. Inverse Coefficient Problems for Nonlinear Parabolic Differential Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Hua OU; Alemdar HASANOV; Zhen Hai LIU

    2008-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a class of inverse problems for a nonlinear parabolic differential equation.The unknown coefficient of the equation depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients.It is proved that the convergence of solutions for the corresponding direct problems continuously depends on the coefficient convergence.Based on this result the existence of a quasisolution of the inverse problem is obtained in the appropriate class of admissible coefficients.

  13. Proceedings: Fourth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The results of activities within the parabolic dish technology and applications development program are presented. Stirling, organic Rankine and Brayton module technologies, associated hardware and test results to date; concentrator development and progress; economic analyses; and international dish development activities are covered. Two panel discussions, concerning industry issues affecting solar thermal dish development and dish technology from a utility/user perspective, are also included.

  14. Local H\\"older continuity for doubly nonlinear parabolic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Kuusi, Tuomo; Urbano, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We give a proof of the H\\"older continuity of weak solutions of certain degenerate doubly nonlinear parabolic equations in measure spaces. We only assume the measure to be a doubling non-trivial Borel measure which supports a Poincar\\'e inequality. The proof discriminates between large scales, for which a Harnack inequality is used, and small scales, that require intrinsic scaling methods.

  15. Regularity problem for quasilinear elliptic and parabolic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Koshelev, Alexander

    1995-01-01

    The smoothness of solutions for quasilinear systems is one of the most important problems in modern mathematical physics. This book deals with regular or strong solutions for general quasilinear second-order elliptic and parabolic systems. Applications in solid mechanics, hydrodynamics, elasticity and plasticity are described. The results presented are based on two main ideas: the universal iterative method, and explicit, sometimes sharp, coercivity estimates in weighted spaces. Readers are assumed to have a standard background in analysis and PDEs.

  16. Quantum product and parabolic orbits in homogeneous spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pech, Clélia

    2012-01-01

    Chaput, Manivel and Perrin proved a formula describing the quantum product by Schubert classes associated to cominuscule weights in a rational projective homogeneous space X. In the case where X has Picard rank one, we link this formula to the stratification of X by P-orbits, where P is the parabolic subgroup associated to the cominuscule weight. We deduce a decomposition of the Hasse diagram of X, i.e the diagram describing the cup-product with the hyperplane class.

  17. Long term behaviour of singularly perturbed parabolic degenerated equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Faye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider models built in [4] for short-term, mean-term and long-term morphodynamics of dunes and megariples. We give an existence and uniqueness result for long term dynamics of dunes. This result is based on a periodic-in-time-and-space solution existence result for degenerated parabolic equation that we set out. Finally the mean-term and long-term models are homogenized.

  18. Stability and Boundedness of Solutions to Nonautonomous Parabolic Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gil'

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of linear nonautonomous parabolic integrodifferential equations. We will assume that the coefficients are slowly varying in time. Conditions for the boundedness and stability of solutions to the considered equations are suggested. Our results are based on a combined usage of the recent norm estimates for operator functions and theory of equations on the tensor product of Hilbert spaces.

  19. Performance of a blood chemistry analyzer during parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Brian S.; Claassen, Dale E.; Guikema, James A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the Vision System Blood Analyzer during parabolic flight on a KC-135 aircraft (NASA 930) has been tested. This fully automated instrument performed flawlessly in these trials, demonstrating its potential for efficient, reliable use in a microgravity environment. In addition to instrument capability, it is demonstrated that investigators could readily fill specially modified test packs with fluid during zero gravity, and that filled test packs could be easily loaded into VISION during an episode of microgravity.

  20. Parabolic-trough solar collectors and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Zarza, E.; Valenzuela, L. [CIEMAT-Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes, km. 4, Tabernas (Almeria) 04200 (Spain); Perez, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, Almeria 04120 (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an overview of the parabolic-trough collectors that have been built and marketed during the past century, as well as the prototypes currently under development. It also presents a survey of systems which could incorporate this type of concentrating solar system to supply thermal energy up to 400 C, especially steam power cycles for electricity generation, including examples of each application. (author)

  1. APPROXIMATE CONTROLLABILITY OF A CLASS OF QUASILINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chunpeng; Yin Jingxue; Huang Xingbo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study the approximate controllability of a class ofquasilinear parabolic equations in a bounded spacial domain Ω RN when the controlacts on any open and nonempty subset of Ω. The approximate controllability inLp(Ω)for N + 2 ≤ p < +∞ is proved. The proof combines a variational approach to thecontrollability problem for linear equations and a fixed point method.

  2. Tropospheric Refraction Modeling Using Ray-Tracing and Parabolic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pechac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Refraction phenomena that occur in the lower atmospheresignificantly influence the performance of wireless communicationsystems. This paper provides an overview of corresponding computationalmethods. Basic properties of the lower atmosphere are mentioned.Practical guidelines for radiowave propagation modeling in the loweratmosphere using ray-tracing and parabolic equation methods are given.In addition, a calculation of angle-of-arrival spectra is introducedfor multipath propagation simulations.

  3. Null controllability for linear parabolic cascade systems with interior degeneracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriss Boutaayamou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the null controllability problem for linear degenerate parabolic systems with one control force through Carleman estimates for the associated adjoint problem. The novelty of this article is that for the first time it is considered a problem with an interior degeneracy and a control set that only requires to contain an interval lying on one side of the degeneracy points. The obtained result improves and complements a number of earlier works. As a consequence, observability inequalities are established.

  4. Abacus models for parabolic quotients of affine Weyl groups

    CERN Document Server

    Hanusa, Christopher R H

    2011-01-01

    We introduce abacus diagrams that describe minimal length coset representatives in affine Weyl groups of types B, C, and D. These abacus diagrams use a realization of the affine Weyl group of type C due to Eriksson to generalize a construction of James for the symmetric group. We also describe several combinatorial models for these parabolic quotients that generalize classical results in affine type A related to core partitions.

  5. Parabolic dish reflectors for solar applications approximated by simple surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Broman, Lars; Broman, Arne

    1996-01-01

    Two different concentrating mirrors have been constructed that resemble parabolic dish reflectors. Both mirrors are made of slightly curved strips of flat, bendable material. The strips of the most simplified mirror have only large-radius circles and straight lines as boundaries. The necessary equations for making the mirrors have been derived. Also a simple way to make a stiff, lightweight frame and support for the mirror strips has been developed. Models of the mirrors have been built and s...

  6. Schauder estimates for parabolic equation of bi-harmonic type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Global Schauder estimates for the initial-value parabolic problem of the bi-harmonic type are proved, and the existence and uniqueness of the solutions in the suitable space are obtained. Similarly to the second-order case, first a formal expression of solutions by the Fourier transform is obtained, and then the regularity, uniqueness and existence of solutions using the potential theory and approximation argument are got.out approach is simple and straightforward.

  7. Adaptive Mixed Finite Element Methods for Parabolic Optimal Control Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zuliang Lu

    2011-01-01

    We will investigate the adaptive mixed finite element methods for parabolic optimal control problems. The state and the costate are approximated by the lowest-order Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element spaces, and the control is approximated by piecewise constant elements. We derive a posteriori error estimates of the mixed finite element solutions for optimal control problems. Such a posteriori error estimates can be used to construct more efficient and reliable adaptive mixed finite element ...

  8. Performance of a blood chemistry analyzer during parabolic flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B S; Claassen, D E; Guikema, J A

    1990-01-01

    We have tested the performance of the VISION System Blood Analyzer, produced by Abbott Laboratories, during parabolic flight on a KC-135 aircraft (NASA 930). This fully automated instrument performed flawlessly in these trials, demonstrating its potential for efficient, reliable use in a microgravity environment. In addition to instrument capability, we demonstrated that investigators could readily fill specially modified test packs with fluid during zero gravity, and that filled test packs could be easily loaded into VISION during an episode of microgravity.

  9. Thermal distortion analysis of a deployable parabolic reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, L. R.; Honeycutt, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    A thermal distortion analysis of the ATS-6 Satellite parabolic reflector was performed using NASTRAN level 15.1. The same NASTRAN finite element method was used to conduct a one g static load analysis and a dynamic analysis of the reflector. In addition, a parametric study was made to determine which parameters had the greatest effect on the thermal distortions. The method used to model the construction of the reflector is described and the results of the analyses are presented.

  10. A stability analysis for a semilinear parabolic partial differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafee, N.

    1973-01-01

    The parabolic partial differential equation considered is u sub t = u sub xx + f(u), where minus infinity x plus infinity and o t plus infinity. Under suitable hypotheses pertaining to f, a class of initial data is exhibited: phi(x), minus infinity x plus infinity, for which the corresponding solutions u(x,t) appraoch zero as t approaches the limit of plus infinity. This convergence is uniform with respect to x on any compact subinterval of the real axis.

  11. Gradient estimates for parabolic and elliptic systems from linear laminates

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongjie

    2012-01-01

    We establish several gradient estimates for second-order divergence type parabolic and elliptic systems. The coefficients and data are assumed to be H\\"older or Dini continuous in the time variable and all but one spatial variables. This type of systems arises from the problems of linearly elastic laminates and composite materials. For the proof, we use Campanato's approach in a novel way. Non-divergence type equations under a similar condition are also discussed.

  12. Long term behaviour of singularly perturbed parabolic degenerated equation

    CERN Document Server

    Faye, Ibrahima; Seck, Diaraf

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider models for short-term, mean-term and long-term morphodynamics of dunes and megariples. We give an existence and uniqueness result for long term dynamics of dunes. This result is based on a time-space periodic solution existence result for degenerated parabolic equation that we set out. Finally the mean-term and long-term models are homogenized.

  13. Discontinuous Mixed Covolume Methods for Linear Parabolic Integrodifferential Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The semidiscrete and fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for the linear parabolic integrodifferential problems on triangular meshes are proposed. The error analysis of the semidiscrete and fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume scheme is presented and the optimal order error estimate in discontinuous H(div and first-order error estimate in L2 are obtained with the lowest order Raviart-Thomas mixed element space.

  14. Synergies between optical and physical variables in intercepting parabolic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José; López-Moliner, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Interception requires precise estimation of time-to-contact (TTC) information. A long-standing view posits that all relevant information for extracting TTC is available in the angular variables, which result from the projection of distal objects onto the retina. The different timing models rooted in this tradition have consequently relied on combining visual angle and its rate of expansion in different ways with tau being the most well-known solution for TTC. The generalization of these models to timing parabolic trajectories is not straightforward. For example, these different combinations rely on isotropic expansion and usually assume first-order information only, neglecting acceleration. As a consequence no optical formulations have been put forward so far to specify TTC of parabolic targets with enough accuracy. It is only recently that context-dependent physical variables have been shown to play an important role in TTC estimation. Known physical size and gravity can adequately explain observed data of linear and free-falling trajectories, respectively. Yet, a full timing model for specifying parabolic TTC has remained elusive. We here derive two formulations that specify TTC for parabolic ball trajectories. The first specification extends previous models in which known size is combined with thresholding visual angle or its rate of expansion to the case of fly balls. To efficiently use this model, observers need to recover the 3D radial velocity component of the trajectory which conveys the isotropic expansion. The second one uses knowledge of size and gravity combined with ball visual angle and elevation angle. Taking into account the noise due to sensory measurements, we simulate the expected performance of these models in terms of accuracy and precision. While the model that combines expansion information and size knowledge is more efficient during the late trajectory, the second one is shown to be efficient along all the flight.

  15. Monte Carlo method for solving a parabolic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a numerical method based on random sampling for a parabolic problem. This method combines use of the Crank-Nicolson method and Monte Carlo method. In the numerical algorithm, we first discretize governing equations by Crank-Nicolson method, and obtain a large sparse system of linear algebraic equations, then use Monte Carlo method to solve the linear algebraic equations. To illustrate the usefulness of this technique, we apply it to some test problems.

  16. Theoretical analysis of a parabolic torus reflector antenna with multibeam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彪; 杨可忠; 钟顺时

    1995-01-01

    The parametric equations and the formulas of unit normal vector and surface element for aparabolic torus reflector antenna are derived and the mechanism of producing multibeam is proposed, Based on physical optics, the radiation pattern formulas for the antenna are given, with which the effects of geometric parameters on the antenna are studied. The good agreement between the calculated patterns and the measured ones shows that the theory is helpful for designing parabolic torus antennas.

  17. Synergies between optical and physical variables in intercepting parabolic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José eGómez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interception requires precise estimation of time-to-contact (TTC information. A long-standing view posits that all relevant information for extracting TTC is available in the angular variables, which result from the projection of distal objects onto the retina. The different timing models rooted in this tradition have consequently relied on combining visual angle and its rate of expansion in different ways with tau being the most well-known solution for TTC. The generalization of these models to timing parabolic trajectories is not straightforward. For example, these different combinations rely on isotropic expansion and usually assume first-order information only, neglecting acceleration. As a consequence no optical formulations have been put forward so far to specify TTC of parabolic targets with enough accuracy. It is only recently that context-dependent physical variables have been shown to play an important role in TTC estimation. Known physical size and gravity can adequately explain observed data of linear and free-falling trajectories respectively. Yet, a full timing model for specifying parabolic TTC has remained elusive. We here derive two formulations that specify TTC for parabolic ball trajectories. The first specification extends previous models in which known size is combined with thresholding visual angle or its rate of expansion to the case of fly balls. To efficiently use this model, observers need to recover the 3D radial velocity component of the trajectory which conveys the isotropic expansion. The second one uses knowledge of size and gravity combined with ball visual angle and elevation angle. Taking into account the noise due to sensory measurements, we simulate the expected performance of these models in terms of accuracy and precision. While the model that combines expansion information and size knowledge is more efficient during the late trajectory, the second one is shown to be efficient along all the flight.

  18. Parabolic similariton Yb-fiber laser with triangular pulse evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel mode-locked fiber laser design which features a passive nonlinear triangular pulse formation and self-similar parabolic pulse amplification intra cavity. Attribute to the nonlinear reshaping progress in the passive fiber, a triangular-profiled pulse with negative-chirp is generated and paved the way for rapid and efficient self-similar parabolic evolution in a following short-length high-gain fiber. In the meanwhile, the accompanied significantly compressed narrow spectrum from this passive nonlinear reshaping also gives the promise of pulse stabilization and gain-shaping robustness without strong filtering. The resulting short average intra-cavity pulse duration, low amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and low intra-cavity power loss are essential for the low-noise operation. Simulations predict this modelocked fiber laser allows for high-energy ultra-short transform-limited pulse generation exceeding the gain bandwidth. The output pulse has a de-chirped duration (full-width at half maximum, FWHM) of 27 fs. In addition to the ultrafast laser applications, the proposed fiber laser scheme can support low-noise parabolic and triangular pulse trains at the same time, which are also attractive in optical pulse shaping, all-optical signal processing and high-speed communication applications.

  19. Asymptotic analysis of a coupled nonlinear parabolic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan QIAO; Sining ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with asymptotic analysis of a parabolic system with inner absorptions and coupled nonlinear boundary fluxes. Three simultaneous blow-up rates are established under different dominations of nonlinearities, and simply represented in a characteristic algebraic system introduced for the problem. In particular, it is observed that two of the multiple blow-up rates are absorption-related. This is substantially different from those for nonlinear parabolic problems with absorptions in all the previous literature, where the blow-up rates were known as absorption-independent. The results of the paper rely on the scaling method with a complete classification for the nonlinear parameters of the model. The first example of absorption-related blow-up rates was recently proposed by the authors for a coupled parabolic system with mixed type nonlinearities. The present paper shows that the newly observed phenomena of absorption-related blow-up rates should be due to the coupling mechanism, rather than the mixed type nonlinearities.

  20. Circulatory filling pressures during transient microgravity induced by parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Ricky D.; Fanton, John W.; White, C. D.; Vernalis, Mariana N.; Crisman, R. P.; Koenig, S. C.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical concepts hold that blood in the gravity dependent portion of the body would relocate to more cephalad compartments under microgravity. The result is an increase in blood volume in the thoraic and cardiac chambers. However, experimental data has been somewhat contradictory and nonconclusive. Early studies of peripheral venous pressure and estimates of central venous pressure (CVP) from these data did not show an increase in CVP under microgravity. However, CVP recorded in human volunteers during a parabolic flight revealed an increase in CVP during the microgravity state. On the STS 40 shuttle mission, a payload specialist wore a fluid line that recorded CVP during the first few hours of orbital insertion. These data revealed decreased CVP. When this CVP catheter was tested during parabolic flight in four subjects, two had increased CVP recordings and two had decreased CVP measurements. In 1991, our laboratory performed parabolic flight studies in several chronic-instrumented baboons. It was again noted that centrally recorded right atrial pressure varied with exposure to microgravity, some animals having an increase, and others a decrease.