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Sample records for 90-day rat feeding

  1. Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements.

  2. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Gao-Jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-Shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats.

  3. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  4. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  5. Safety assessment of genetically modified milk containing human beta-defensin-3 on rats by a 90-day feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Gao, Ming-Qing; Liang, Dong; Yin, Songna; Yao, Kezhen; Zhang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, transgenic technology has been widely applied in many fields. There is concern about the safety of genetically modified (GM) products with the increased prevalence of GM products. In order to prevent mastitis in dairy cows, our group produced transgenic cattle expressing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) in their mammary glands, which confers resistance to the bacteria that cause mastitis. The milk derived from these transgenic cattle thus contained HBD3. The objective of the present study was to analyze the nutritional composition of HBD3 milk and conduct a 90-day feeding study on rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups which consumed either an AIN93G diet (growth purified diet for rodents recommended by the American Institute of Nutrition) with the addition of 10% or 30% HBD3 milk, an AIN93G diet with the addition of 10% or 30% conventional milk, or an AIN93G diet alone. The results showed that there was no difference in the nutritional composition of HBD3 and conventional milk. Furthermore, body weight, food consumption, blood biochemistry, relative organ weight, and histopathology were normal in those rats that consumed diets containing HBD3. No adverse effects were observed between groups that could be attributed to varying diets or gender. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety Assessment of Food and Feed from GM Crops in Europe: Evaluating EFSA's Alternative Framework for the Rat 90-day Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bonnie; Du, Yingzhou; Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Appenzeller, Laura M

    2017-07-12

    Regulatory-compliant rodent subchronic feeding studies are compulsory regardless of a hypothesis to test, according to recent EU legislation for the safety assessment of whole food/feed produced from genetically modified (GM) crops containing a single genetic transformation event (European Union Commission Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). The Implementing Regulation refers to guidelines set forth by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for the design, conduct, and analysis of rodent subchronic feeding studies. The set of EFSA recommendations was rigorously applied to a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats. After study completion, the appropriateness and applicability of these recommendations were assessed using a battery of statistical analysis approaches including both retrospective and prospective statistical power analyses as well as variance-covariance decomposition. In the interest of animal welfare considerations, alternative experimental designs were investigated and evaluated in the context of informing the health risk assessment of food/feed from GM crops.

  7. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007a. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 364-377; Poulsen, M., Kroghsbo, S., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Jacobsen, H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Sudhakar, D., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007b. A 90-day safety in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 350-363; Schrøder, M., Poulsen, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Emami, K., Gatehouse, A., Shu, Q., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 339-349]. The overall objective of the project has been to develop and validate the scientific methodology necessary for assessing the safety of foods from genetically modified plants in accordance with the present EU regulation. The safety assessment in the project is combining the results of the 90-day rat feeding study on the GM food with and without spiking with the pure novel gene product, with the knowledge about the identity of the genetic change, the compositional data of the GM food, the results from in-vitro/ex-vivo studies as well as the results from the preceding 28-day toxicity study with the novel gene product, before the hazard characterisation is concluded. The results demonstrated the ability of the 90-day rat feeding study to detect the biological/toxicological effects of the

  8. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    high dose level and a dietary design based upon compositional data on the GM food and toxicity data on the gene product is sensitive and specific enough to verify the presence/absence of the biological/nutritional/toxicological effects of the novel gene insert and further by the use of spiking able......This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schroder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A......., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007a. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 364-377; Poulsen, M., Kroghsbo, S., Schroder, M., Wilcks, A., Jacobsen, H...

  9. Comparison of grain from corn rootworm resistant transgenic DAS-59122-7 maize with non-transgenic maize grain in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X Y; Huang, K L; Li, X; Qin, W; Delaney, B; Luo, Y B

    2008-06-01

    DAS-59122-7 (59122) is a transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) that contains genes encoding Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner strain 149B1 and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) protein from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Expression of these proteins in planta confers resistance to corn rootworms and other Coleopteran parasites and tolerance to herbicides containing glufosinate ammonium, respectively. In the current study, processed flours from 59122 maize grain or its near isogenic control line (091) were used at two concentrations (50% and 70% wt/wt) to produce diets that were fed to rats for 90 days in accordance with Chinese toxicology guidelines (GB15193.13-2003). A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional negative control. No significant differences in body weight and feed utilization were observed between rats consuming diets formulated with 59122 and 091 Control corn. Statistical differences (p<0.05) were observed in certain hematology and serum chemistry response variables between rats consuming diets formulated with 59122 or 091 Control flour compared to AIN93G diet. However, the mean value of these response variables in the 59122 groups were not statistically different from those observed in diets formulated with corresponding high and low concentrations of the flour from the 091 Control maize grain. Therefore, the statistical differences were considered to be related to consumption of diets containing high concentrations of maize flour (compared to AIN93G diets) regardless of source rather than to consumption of flour from 59122 maize grain. The results from this study demonstrated that 59122 maize grain is as safe as non-transgenic maize grain.

  10. Observation on Effect of 90- day Feeding of Evening Primrose Oil on Rats%月见草油90d喂养实验对大鼠的影响观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡怡秀; 刘秀英; 马征; 倪慧; 尹进

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the toxicity of subchronic feeding of evening primrose oil in rats- Methods Forty male and 40 female SD rats of clean grade, weighted about 70 g, were randomly divided into four groups, one central and three doses groups (each n=20). The rats in the closes groups were administered orally and respectively with evening prim-rose oil at 1.034 g/kg·bw, 2.069 g/kg·bw, and 3.103 g/kg·bw doses for 90 consecutive days, while the control rats were administered plant oil. The general condition, body weight, food consumption and food utilization rate of the rats were monitored. Blood was collected for teratology and serum biochemistry tests in the middle of and at the end of the test. Liver, kidney, spleen and testis were collected and weighed, and then visceral organs weight/body weight ratio was calculated. Liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, intestine, testis and ovary were subjected to histopathological examination. Results No adverse reaction was found during the experiment. The weight gain, food consumption and utilization rate, heamological indicators, biochemical items and the absolute, relative weight of the main visceral organs of the rats in the doses groups did not reveal any significant differences as opposed to those of the controls (P>0.05). Gross examination and histopathoiogical examination revealed no abnormal changes associated with the test substance. Conclusions In this test condition, administration of evening primrose oil for 90 days did not produce any adverse effects on rats. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of evening primrose oil in the 90-day feeding study was 3.103 g/kg·bw.%目的 了解月见草油以不同剂量水平较长期喂养后对受试动物的毒副作用. 方法 选择清洁级70 g左右的SD大鼠雌雄各40只,随机分为4组,即对照组及三个受试物组,每组雌雄各10只.剂量组分别以1.034、2.069、3.103g/kg·bw剂量的月见草油灌胃90d,对照组给予等体积植物油.于实

  11. The safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® as shown in a 90-day rodent feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marone Palma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to evaluate the safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®, a novel viscous dietary polysaccharide (fiber, when administered to Sprague Dawley® rats in the diet for 90 days. Methods Groups of ten male and ten female rats each consumed PGX mixed in the diet at levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0% for 90 days, then evaluated for toxicological effects on parameters that included neuromotor activity, body weight, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, hematology, and histopathology. Results Mean body weight, mean feed consumption and food efficiency in the treated groups were generally comparable to controls for both male and female rats. No changes were noted in neuromotor behavior, and histopathological analysis revealed no significant changes between treated and control animals. There were no differences in mean organ weight, organ-to-body weight or organ-to-brain weight values between controls and treated animals. Decreased red blood cell count occurred in the high dose males and increases in aspartate and alanine aminotransferase enzyme levels and triglycerides, while significant decreases in serum sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were observed in the females fed 5.0% PGX. However, the decreased mineral concentrations may be the result of significantly increased urinary volume in both males and females at the high dose, with a concomitant decrease in urinary specific gravity (males and females and protein concentration (females. These results were within historical control values, did not correlate with any histopathological changes, and were not considered adverse. Conclusion The results indicate a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for PGX at 5.0% of the diet, corresponding to an average daily intake of 3219 and 3799 mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively.

  12. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten; Wilcks, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    An animal model for safety assessment of genetically modified foods was tested as part of the SAFOTEST project. In a 90-day feeding study on Wistar rats, the transgenic KMD1 rice expressing Cry1Ab protein was compared to its non-transgenic parental wild type, Xiushui 11. The KMD1 rice contained 15......, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. The aim of the study was to use a known animal model in performance of safety assessment of a GM crop, in this case KMD1 rice. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of KMD1 rice when tested in the design...... used in this 90-day study. Nevertheless the experiences from this study lead to the overall conclusion that safety assessment for unintended effects of a GM crop cannot be done without additional test group(s)....

  13. Comparative 90-day dietary study of paraffin wax in Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, L C; Twerdok, L E; Francke-Carroll, S; Biles, R W; Schroeder, R E; Bolte, H; Faust, H; Hall, W C; Rojko, J

    2010-01-01

    Highly refined mineral hydrocarbons (MHCs) such as low melting point paraffin wax (LMPW) and low viscosity white oils can cause inflammatory changes in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of the Fischer-344 (F-344) rat. In contrast, only minimal MLN changes are seen in the Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rat with no changes in the liver. In this study, the response of female F-344 and S-D rats was compared after 90days dietary treatment with 0%, 0.2% or 2% LMPW. Effects in the F-344 rats were significantly greater than in the S-D rats: increased liver and splenic weights and inflammatory changes (hepatic microgranulomas) in these tissues were observed only in the F-344 rats. Microgranulomas in the MLNs were observed in both strains but the effects were substantially greater in the F-344 rats. Cellular markers of inflammation were examined in a subset of rats from each group using immunohistochemical staining. An increase in staining for CD3 (T-cells), CD8a (suppresser/cytotoxic T-cells) and CD4 (helper T-cells) correlated with an increase in lymphoid cells in the livers of treated F-344 rats. The majority of macrophages in the hepatic microgranulomas of treated F-344 rats were negative for the ED2 marker, indicating a likely origin from non-resident macrophages. Electron microscopy showed Kupffer cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in treated F-344 rats. However, lysozyme staining (indicating activation of epithelioid macrophages) decreased with increasing granuloma size. Non-ED2 expressing cells may have been recruited but not sufficiently activated to be lysozyme positive. Inflammatory changes in the cardiac mitral valve noted in previous studies of LMPW were also seen in the F-344 rats in this study but not in the S-D rats. Chemical analysis showed that MHC accumulated in livers from treated F-344 but not S-D rats and the concentration was more than 2-fold greater in MLNs from the F-344 than from the S-D rats. The F-344 appears to be more immunologically sensitive to

  14. A 90-day toxicology study of meat from genetically modified sheep overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hai; Wang, Zhixian; Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals.

  15. 90-Day subchronic toxicity study of sodium molybdate dihydrate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, F Jay; Sullivan, Frank M; Tiwary, Asheesh K; Carey, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the subchronic toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) in Sprague-Dawley rats given sodium molybdate dihydrate in the diet for 90days at dose levels of 0, 5, 17 or 60mgMo/kgbw/day. The study complied with OECD Test Guideline (TG) 408, with additional examination of estrus cycles and sperm count, motility, and morphology from OECD TG 416. The overall no-observed-adverse-effect level was 17mgMo/kgbw/day, based on effects on body weight, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency and renal histopathology (females only) at 60mgMo/kgbw/day. No treatment-related adverse effects on reproductive organ weights or histopathology, estrus cycles or sperm parameters were observed at any dose level. No adverse effects were observed in the high dose animals after the 60-day recovery period, with the exception that male rats did not fully recover from reduced body weight. Serum blood, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for molybdenum, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt and selenium; high levels of molybdenum and copper were found in the serum, blood, liver and kidneys of rats treated with 60mgMo/kgbw/day. In conclusion, the LOAEL and NOAEL for molybdenum were determined to be 60 and 17mgMo/kgbw/day, respectively.

  16. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Kroghsbo, Stine; Schrøder, Malene

    2007-01-01

    diets, but none of them were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, the design of the present animal study did not enable us to conclude on the safety of the GM food. Additional group(s) where the expressed gene products have been spiked to the diet should be included in order to be able......Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of a rice variety expressing the snowdrop Galanthus...... nivalis lectin (GNA lectin), and forms part of a EU-funded project where the objective has been to develop and validate sensitive and specific methods to assess the safety of genetically modified foods. Mate and female Wistar rats were given a purified diet containing either 60% genetically modified...

  17. Subchronic toxicity (90 days of StemEnhance™ in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Dirikolu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Levent Dirikolu1, Thushara Chakkath1, Susan Ball-Kell2, Christy Elamma2, David J Schaeffer11Department of Comparative Biosciences, 2Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USAAbstract: This study evaluated the subchronic toxicity of StemEnhance™, an extract of the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae that is used as a health supplement. Groups of 12 rats of each sex were given either 5% glycerin in water (control or 200 mg/kg of StemEnhance prepared in 5% glycerin in water for 90 days by oral gavage. The administration of StemEnhance had no effect on behavior, food and water intake, growth, or survival. Values at the end of dosing and observation periods did not reveal differences between treated and control groups for hematology and clinical chemistry. There were no significant differences in the gross and histopathology of the reproductive organs in either males or females. Sperm motility parameters were similar for control and treated males. Our results show that StemEnhance at doses ~7 times the maximum label-recommended daily dose did not produce adverse effects in Wistar rats after subchronic treatment.Keywords: algal toxicology, blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

  18. A 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity study of rebaudioside A in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Andrey I; Eapen, Alex K

    2008-01-01

    Rebaudioside A is one of several glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni (Compositae) stevia that has been identified as a potential sweetener. The present study (initiated in April 2006 and completed in October 2006) evaluated the safety of this sweetener when administered as a dietary admix at target exposure levels of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day to Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. There were no treatment-related effects on the general condition and behavior of the animals as determined by clinical observations, functional observational battery, and locomotor activity assessments. Evaluation of clinical pathology parameters revealed no toxicologically relevant, treatment-related effects on hematology, serum chemistry, or urinalysis. Macroscopic and microscopic findings revealed no treatment-related effects on any organ evaluated. Lower mean body weight gains were noted in males in the 2000 mg/kg/day group throughout the study, which was considered to be test article related; however, given the small magnitude of the difference as compared to controls, this effect was not considered to be adverse. Results of this study clearly demonstrate that dietary administration of high concentrations of rebaudioside A for 90 consecutive days to Sprague-Dawley rats was not associated with any signs of toxicity.

  19. Evaluation of toxicity of green tea catechins with 90-day dietary administration to F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, S; Imai, T; Hasumura, M; Cho, Y-M; Onose, J; Hirose, M

    2008-06-01

    Green tea catechins (GTC), polyphenols extracted from the stalks and leaves of Camellia sinensis, are found in the different types of tea beverages and as antioxidant additives to many foods, snacks, fats and fatty oils. As a part of their safety assessment, subchronic toxicity was investigated in male and female F344 rats with dietary administration at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.3%, 1.25% and 5.0% for 90 days. The average daily intakes of GTC in each group were 180, 764 and 3525mg/kg body weight/day, respectively for males, and 189, 820 and 3542mg/kg body weight/day, respectively for females. No mortality or obvious clinical signs were observed throughout the experimental period but body weights were reduced from week 1 to the end of the experiment in 5.0% males. In serum biochemistry, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in 5.0% males and females and aspartate transaminase in 5.0% females were increased, together with the relative liver weights in both sexes receiving 5.0%. Although decreases were evident for total cholesterol in 0.3-5.0% males and triglycerides in 1.25% and 5.0% males and 5.0% females, these changes were not considered to be adverse. Hematology and histopathological observation revealed no GTC-related toxicological changes. Based on above findings, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of GTC was estimated to be 1.25% (764mg/kg body weight/day for males and 820mg/kg body weight/day for females).

  20. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Morten; Kroghsbo, Stine; Schrøder, Malene; Wilcks, Andrea; Jacobsen, Helene; Miller, Andreas; Frenzel, Thomas; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Shu, Qingyao; Emami, Kaveh; Sudhakar, Duraialagraja; Gatehouse, Angharad; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Knudsen, Ib

    2007-03-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of a rice variety expressing the snowdrop Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA lectin), and forms part of a EU-funded project where the objective has been to develop and validate sensitive and specific methods to assess the safety of genetically modified foods. Male and female Wistar rats were given a purified diet containing either 60% genetically modified or parental rice for 90 days. This corresponds to a mean daily GNA lectin intake of approximately 58 and 67mg/kg body weight for males and females, respectively. Prior to the animal study comprehensive analytical characterization of both rice materials was performed. The chemical analyses showed a number of statistically significant differences, with the majority being within the ranges reported in the literature. In the animal study a range of clinical, biological, immunological, microbiological and pathological parameters were examined. A number of significant differences were seen between groups fed the two diets, but none of them were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, the design of the present animal study did not enable us to conclude on the safety of the GM food. Additional group(s) where the expressed gene products have been spiked to the diet should be included in order to be able to distinguish whether the observed effects were due to the GNA lectin per se or to secondary changes in the GM rice.

  1. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing rhIGF-1 protein in C57BL/6J rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoxue; Xie, Tingting; Cheng, Wenke; Qian, Lili; Yang, Shulin; Yang, Daichang; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2012-06-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing disease resistance traits offer new treatment strategies for human diseases, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of transgenic rice expressing the recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) compared to its parental wild rice. Male and female C57BL/6J rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet with 20% transgenic rhIGF-1 rice or 20% parental rice for 90 days. This corresponds to a mean daily rhIGF-1 protein intake of approximately 217.6 mg/kg body weight based on the average feed consumption. In the animal study a range of biological, biochemical, clinical, microbiological and pathological parameters were examined and several significant differences were observed between groups, but none of the effects were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, no adverse or toxic effects on C57BL/6J rats were observed in the design used in this 90-day study. These results will provide valuable information for the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops.

  2. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu HJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hwa Jung Ryu,1,* Mu Yeb Seo,2,* Sung Kyu Jung,1 Eun Ho Maeng,2 Seung-Young Lee,2 Dong-Hyouk Jang,2 Taek-Jin Lee,2 Ki-Yeon Jo,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Kyu-Bong Cho,4 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Beom Jun Lee,5 Sang Wook Son1 1Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gyunggido, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinheung College, Uijeongbu, 5College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work and both should be considered first authors Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there

  3. Pulmonary Toxicity of a Formulated Preparation of Fenvalerate in Rats Subchronically Exposed by Nose Only Inhalation for 90 Days

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective The pulmonary toxicity of a commercially available formulated preparation of Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid has been studied in rats following subchronic nose only inhalation exposure route. Method  Adult male rats were exposed to Fen for 4h/day, 5 days a week for 90 days by using Flow Past Dynamic Nose only Inhalation Chamber. Results Fen exposed rats showed a significant increase in enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) which are considered as biochemical indicators of pulmonary damage. The concomitant histopathological examination of Fen exposed rats' lung revealed inflammatory changes viz., influx of mononuclear cells admixed with a few giant cells in alveolar lumen, hypetrophied bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial lining cells and presence of edematous fluid in alveolar lumen alongwith congested parenchymatous blood vessels. Conclusion These results for the first time indicate the pulmonary toxic effects of a commonly used formulated Fen preparation by using rat model and nose only inhalation as the route of exposure.

  4. A 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity and mass balance study of corn starch fiber in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crincoli, Christine M; Nikiforov, Andrey I; Rihner, Marisa O; Lambert, Elizabeth A; Greeley, Melanie A; Godsey, Justin; Eapen, Alex K; van de Ligt, Jennifer L G

    2016-11-01

    The potential toxicity of corn starch fiber was assessed and compared to polydextrose, a commonly used bulking agent with a long history of safe use in the food supply. Groups of male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed 0 (control), 1,000, 3,000, or 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day corn starch fiber in the diet for 90 days. The polydextrose reference article was offered on a comparable regimen at 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Following a single gavage dose of [(14)C]-corn starch fiber on study day 13 or 90, the mass balance of the test article was assessed by analysis of excreta samples collected from 0 to 168 h post-dose. There were no toxicologically or biologically relevant findings in any of the test article-treated groups. The few minor differences observed between the corn starch fiber and polydextrose exposed groups were considered to be due to normal biological variation. Following [(14)C]-corn starch fiber dosing, nearly complete excretion of the administered dose occurred over 168 h post-dosing, with the majority excreted in the feces. The dietary no-observed-adverse-effect level of corn starch fiber after 90 days was 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Similar toxicity profiles for corn starch fiber and polydextrose were observed due to the structural and compositional similarities of these materials.

  5. 戊二醛90天喂养实验研究%Glutaraldehyde 90 Days Feeding Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许崇辉; 潘芳; 刘慧智; 温巧玲; 李华燕; 李妙珍

    2014-01-01

    Based on the relevant experimental glutaraldehyde toxicity testing on the first stage, subchronic toxicity test were carried out on the second phase of toxicity tests, in order to preliminarily probe glutaraldehyde"maximum no observed adverse effect level"(NOAEL) value. Referring to GB 15193.13-2003, three doses oral 90 days feeding experiment were performed. The animal growth, body weight growth and food utilization rate for 3 dose groups were not significantly different from those of control group. The red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells for high, medium dose group were higher than those of the control group. The difference was significant (P<0.05) or extremely significant (P<0.01), and there was a dose-effect relationship for low, middle, high dose groups. The preliminary estimate of glutaraldehyde NOAEL value was between low dose group (0.438mg/kg body weight) and middle dose group (4.38mg/kg body weight);Blood routine indexes might be used as an early indicators of intoxication for workers chronically exposed to glutaraldehyde.%[目的]在完成戊二醛毒性检验第1阶段相关实验的基础上,开展第2阶段毒性试验的亚慢性毒性试验,初步探讨戊二醛“最大未观察到有害作用剂量”值范围。[方法]参考GB 15193.13-2003进行高、中、低剂量经口90 d喂养实验。[结果]高、中、低3个剂量组动物在生长发育、体重增长趋势、脏器系数和食物利用率与空白对照组动物无明显差异。高、中剂量组在红细胞、血红蛋白、白细胞高于空白对照组,差异有显著意义(P<0.05)或极显著意义(P<0.01),且存在低、中、高3个剂量组的剂量-效应关系。[结论]戊二醛“最大未观察到有害作用剂量”值初步估计在低剂量组(0.438mg/kg体重)与中剂量组(4.38mg/kg体重)之间;血常规指标检测或可作为发现戊二醛职业接触工人慢性中毒的早期指标。

  6. Toxicity of 100 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles: a report of 90-day repeated oral administration in Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1,* Jong-Il Park,2,* Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,3 Nak-won Seong,2 Jun-Ho Kim,2 Geon-Yong Kim,2 Eun-Ho Meang,2 Jeong-Sup Hong,2 Su-Hyon Kim,2 Sang-Bum Koh,2 Min-Seok Kim,2 Cheol-Su Kim,4 Soo-Ki Kim,4 Sang Wook Son,5 Young Rok Seo,6 Boo Hyon Kang,7 Beom Seok Han,8 Seong Soo A An,9 Hyo-In Yun,9 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, Korea; 2General Toxicology Team, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul, Korea; 3Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 4Department of Microbiology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju-si, Gangwon, Korea; 5Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, Korea; 6Nonclinical Research Institute, Chemon Inc., Yongin, Gyeonggi, Korea; 7Toxicological Research Center, Hoseo University, Ansan, Chungnam, Korea; 8Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Korea; 9College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejon, Korea  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs are used commercially in health and fitness fields, but information about the toxicity and mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of NPs is still very limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect(s of 100 nm negatively (ZnOAE100[-] or positively (ZnOAE100[+] charged zinc oxide (ZnO NPs administered by gavage in Sprague Dawley rats, to establish a no observed adverse effect level, and to identify target organ(s. After verification of the primary particle size, morphology, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential of each test article, we performed a 90-day study according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 408. For the 90-day study, the high dose was set at 500 mg/kg and the middle and low doses were set at 125 mg/kg and 31.25 mg

  7. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  8. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content – A 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore...... depend on their ratio in the potato. To determine the influence of α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio in potatoes on toxicity, a GM potato line (SGT 9-2) with reduced α-solanine content, and the parental control line (Desirée wild-type) having a traditional α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio were (1) studied...... for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional...

  9. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content--a 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas; Shepherd, Louise V T; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard V; Meyer, Otto; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Belknap, William R; McCue, Kent F; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Stewart, Derek; Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2012-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore depend on their ratio in the potato. To determine the influence of α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio in potatoes on toxicity, a GM potato line (SGT 9-2) with reduced α-solanine content, and the parental control line (Desirée wild-type) having a traditional α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio were (1) studied for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional differences between the GM line and its wildtype control these did not raise concerns related to nutritional value or safety. Results of the feeding trials showed a low number of significant differences between potato lines with different α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio but none were considered to raise safety concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption.

  10. The Anatomic Pathology Evaluation of Liver with Diethylinitrosamine Treated via Intraperitoneal Injection Singly and Peros for 90 Days Carcinogenicity Study in F344 Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shan-shan; KANEKO Toyozo; XING Rui-chang; WANG Xiu-wen; LI Bo; ZHANG Lin; LI Bao-wen; LANG Shu-hui; YANG Yan-wei; ZHANG Di; ZHANG Yang; NARAMA Isao; KAWAYI Zeshow

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To establish the integrity experiment method of short(medium)-term carcinogenicity test pursuant to GLP, make into relative SOP and improve the safeguard in the center.Methods:Diethylinitrosamine(DEN) is known as carcinogenic agent,whose target organ is liver. Using the two-stage carcinogenesis test method, DEN was treated to F344 rats via intraperitoneal injection singly(200 mg/kg), and peros administrated for 90 days(10 ppm). The liver in any group rat will be examined by light microscopy.Results:In pathologic examination, no liver cell tumor was shown in the livers of the rats that were singly treated with a carcinogenic chemical-DEN.Foci of cellular alteration were observed in the livers of these rats. The proliferation lesions of liver from slight to seveity(foci of cellular alteration-hepatocelluar adenoma-hepatocellular carcinoma)were observed in the livers of the rats which exposed peros to a low dose of DEN for 90 days after initiation by a single intraperitoneal injection. The incidence of hepatocelluar tumor was 35% in male animal,which was not shown in the liver of female rat.Conclusion:For current results, it may be possible that low-dose DEN acts as a promotor of hepatocelluar tumor if it was exposed in a population for a long time. It is considered that male hormone has a synergistic effect on hepatocelluar tumor development of DEN. This two-stage carcinogenesis test might be a new model for the study of drug induced and promoted carcinogenesis,which could be used to evaluate the carcinogenesis of chemical compound fast.

  11. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  12. Metabonomics study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sishuo; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; He, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Yanfang; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-07-01

    Rice is one of the most important staple foods in the world. The Cry2A gene was inserted into the rice genome to help the plant combat insects. As the unintended effects of the genetically modified (GM) organisms are the most important barriers to the promotion of GM organisms, we have carried out a useful exploration to establish a new in vivo evaluation model for genetically modified foods by metabonomics methods. In this study, the rats were fed for 90 days with the GM and NON-GM rice diets. The changes in metabolites of the urine were detected using (1)H-NMR. The metabonomics were analyzed to see whether the GM rice can induce the metabolite changes in the rats' urine when compared with the NON-GM rice group. The multivariate analysis and ANOVA were used to determine the differences and the significance of differences respectively, and eventually we concluded that these differences did not have a biological significance. The conclusion of the metabonomics was comparable with that from the traditional method. As a non-invasive and dynamic monitoring method, metabonomics will be a new way of assessing the food safety of GM foods.

  13. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study.

  14. Subacute (90 Days) Oral Toxicity Studies of Kombucha Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  15. STS-90 Day 04 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this forth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk continue work with the Escher Staircase Behavior Testing of Adult Rats experiment. This is the first of two behavior testing sessions with the adult rats being used for this experiment. The rats will have a 'hyper drive' unit placed on their head which has recording electrodes made of microscopic wires that are positioned in the brain to record activity in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is that portion of the brain used to develop spatial maps to help us navigate from one place to the other. With the 'hyper drive' units in place, the rats will then be put through a maze or on a track. While the rat is maneuvering on the maze or track, the cell activity of the hippocampus will be measured and recorded.

  16. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  17. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Swedish Biofuel Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (SPA) in Rats with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    effects . Numeric results for rears, stereotypical grooming bouts, hind limb splay, and forelimb and hindlimb grip strengths are shown in Table 6 (above... effects and evidence of genotoxicity and mutagenicity were both negative . Limited and minor neurological effects at 2000 mg/m3 were found. Some mild... effect to the respiratory by gender . All remaining lesions in the respiratory system are common background lesions found in research rats. The

  18. A 90-day subchronic study of rats fed lean pork from genetically modified pigs with muscle-specific expression of recombinant follistatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shiying; Tang, Min; He, Xiaoyun; Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Wentao; Liang, Zhihong; Huang, Kunlun

    2015-11-01

    Because cardiovascular disease incidence has rapidly increased in recent years, people are choosing relatively healthier diets with low animal fat. A transgenic pig with low fat and a high percentage of lean meat was created in 2011; this pig overexpresses the follistatin (FST) gene. To evaluate the safety of lean pork derived from genetically modified (GM) pigs, a subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats. GM pork and non-GM pork were incorporated into the diet at levels of 3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% (w/w), and the main nutrients of the various diets were subsequently balanced. The safety of GM pork was assessed by comparison of the toxicology response variables in Sprague-Dawley rats consuming diets containing GM pork with those consuming non-GM pork. No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. The results demonstrate that GM pork is as safe for consumption as conventional pork.

  19. Assessment of the safety of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin: reverse mutation assay, acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity in rats, and acute no-effect level for diarrhea in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    A series of safety assessments were performed on hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin prepared by converting the reducing terminal glucose of resistant maltodextrin into sorbitol. The reverse mutation assay did not show mutagenicity. Acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats showed no death was observed in any groups, including the group receiving the highest single dose of 10 g/kg body weight or the highest dose of 5 g/kg body weight per day for 90 days. Mucous or watery stools were observed in the hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin treatment group on the acute study, which were transient and were associated with the osmotic pressure caused by intake of the high concentrations. Subchronic study showed dose-dependent increases in the weights of cecum alone, cecal contents alone, and cecum with cecal contents as well as hypertrophy of the cecal mucosal epithelium, which are considered to be common physiological responses after intake of indigestible carbohydrates. These results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin was 10 g/kg body weight or more on the acute oral toxicity study and 5.0 g/kg body weight/day or more on the 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study in rats. Further study performed in healthy adult humans showed that the acute no-effect level of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin for diarrhea was 0.8 g/kg body weight for men and more than 1.0 g/kg body weight for women. The results of the current safety assessment studies suggest that hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin is safe for human consumption.

  20. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Margaret H; Wang, Gensheng; Chen, Xue-Qing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  1. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 4: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects compared with cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ee Tsin; Kogel, Ulrike; Veljkovic, Emilija; Martin, Florian; Xiang, Yang; Boue, Stephanie; Vuillaume, Gregory; Leroy, Patrice; Guedj, Emmanuel; Rodrigo, Gregory; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The objective of the study was to characterize the toxicity from sub-chronic inhalation of test atmospheres from the candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), Tobacco Heating System version 2.2 (THS2.2), and to compare it with that of the 3R4F reference cigarette. A 90-day nose-only inhalation study on Sprague-Dawley rats was performed, combining classical and systems toxicology approaches. Reduction in respiratory minute volume, degree of lung inflammation, and histopathological findings in the respiratory tract organs were significantly less pronounced in THS2.2-exposed groups compared with 3R4F-exposed groups. Transcriptomics data obtained from nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma showed concentration-dependent differential gene expression following 3R4F exposure that was less pronounced in the THS2.2-exposed groups. Molecular network analysis showed that inflammatory processes were the most affected by 3R4F, while the extent of THS2.2 impact was much lower. Most other toxicological endpoints evaluated did not show exposure-related effects. Where findings were observed, the effects were similar in 3R4F- and THS2.2-exposed animals. In summary, toxicological changes observed in the respiratory tract organs of THS2.2 aerosol-exposed rats were much less pronounced than in 3R4F-exposed rats while other toxicological endpoints either showed no exposure-related effects or were comparable to what was observed in the 3R4F-exposed rats. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 6: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects of a mentholated version compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Kogel, Ulrike; Ho, Jenny; Tan, Wei Teck; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Vuillaume, Gregory; Bera, Monali; Martin, Florian; Rodrigo, Gregory; Esposito, Marco; Dempsey, Ruth; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity of a mentholated version of the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2M), a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), was characterized in a 90-day OECD inhalation study. Differential gene and protein expression analysis of nasal epithelium and lung tissue was also performed to record exposure effects at the molecular level. Rats were exposed to filtered air (sham), to THS2.2M (at 15, 23 and 50 μg nicotine/l), to two mentholated reference cigarettes (MRC) (at 23 μg nicotine/l), or to the 3R4F reference cigarette (at 23 μg nicotine/l). MRCs were designed to meet 3R4F specifications. Test atmosphere analyses demonstrated that aldehydes were reduced by 75%-90% and carbon monoxide by 98% in THS2.2M aerosol compared with MRC smoke; aerosol uptake was confirmed by carboxyhemoglobin and menthol concentrations in blood, and by the quantities of urinary nicotine metabolites. Systemic toxicity and alterations in the respiratory tract were significantly lower in THS2.2M-exposed rats compared with MRC and 3R4F. Pulmonary inflammation and the magnitude of the changes in gene and protein expression were also dramatically lower after THS2.2M exposure compared with MRCs and 3R4F. No menthol-related effects were observed after MRC mainstream smoke-exposure compared with 3R4F. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Continuous enteral feeding in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, S; Laouari, D; Motel, V; Kleinknecht, C

    1996-01-01

    Because of constant uremia-induced anorexia, food restriction of normal rats is generally used to study the consequences of uremia. The effects of a normal food supply in uremic rats has never been tested, since no author has succeeded in providing normal intakes. Uremic rats either fed ad lib (U rats, n = 12) or force-fed through a gastric catheter (UF rats, n = 10), and sham-operated rats (C rats, n = 10) were compared from days 7 to 21 after surgery. U rats had lower food intake (13.8 vs. 17 g/day), weight gain (5.16 vs. 6.23 g/day), length gain (4 vs. 5 mm/day), nitrogen balance (228 vs. 279 mg/day) and muscle fractional protein synthesis rate (9.5 vs. 10.6%) measured in vivo by 3H-phenylalanine injection (p feeding may provide a model for normal nutritional supply in uremia.

  4. Baroreflex Sensitivity Decreases During 90-Day Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Arzeno, N. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreases during spaceflight and simulated spaceflight (head down bed rest [BR]). However, previous studies have only examined BRS in response to a limited blood pressure (BP) range or to a single sudden change in BP. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine BRS during 90 days of 6deg head-down tilt BR over a broad range of BP perturbations. METHODS: Nineteen normal volunteers (12M, 7F) were tested one day before BR, and then near BR days 30, 60 and 90. BP was pharmacologically altered by continuous infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Electrocardiogram and continuous BP were collected during 10 min of normal saline (NS), followed by increasing concentrations of PE (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 micro-g/kg/min). After a 20 min break, NS was infused again for 10 min, followed by increasing concentrations of SNP (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 micro-g/kg/min). Baroreceptor sensitivity was measured as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) and mean RR were analyzed using data from only the NS infusions. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the effects of BR and gender. RESULTS: RR decreased (pdecreased with BR (p=0.027) and was lower (p=0.046) in men (0.39+/-0.02, mean+/-SEM) than women (0.48+/-0.02). The spontaneous baroreflex slope, our measure of BRS, increased with PE and decreased with SNP across BR (pdecrease in BRS from pre- to post-BR appeared to be larger in women (43.6+/-7.0%) than in men (31.3+/-3.9%, p=0.06). CONCLUSION: Parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity decrease during 90 days of BR, and BRS tends to diminish more in women than in men.

  5. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of FT Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    vapors of a distillate of light catalytic cracked naphtha (LCCN-D, CAS no. 64741-55-5) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Target exposure concentrations were 0...cracked naphtha distillate in rats. Int J Toxicol. (2001) 20:307-319. McDougal JN, Rogers JV. Local and systemic toxicity of JP-8 from cutaneous exposures...petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light catalytic reformed naphtha distillate in rats. J Toxicol

  6. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2). Part 5: microRNA expression from a 90-day rat inhalation study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol causes reduced effects on lung tissue compared with cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewer, Alain; Kogel, Ulrike; Talikka, Marja; Wong, Ee Tsin; Martin, Florian; Xiang, Yang; Guedj, Emmanuel; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-11-30

    Modified-risk tobacco products (MRTP) are designed to reduce the individual risk of tobacco-related disease as well as population harm compared to smoking cigarettes. Experimental proof of their benefit needs to be provided at multiple levels in research fields. Here, we examined microRNA (miRNA) levels in the lungs of rats exposed to a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) in a 90-day OECD TG-413 inhalation study. Our aim was to assess the miRNA response to THS2.2 aerosol compared with the response to combustible cigarettes (CC) smoke from the reference cigarette 3R4F. CC smoke exposure, but not THS2.2 aerosol exposure, caused global miRNA downregulation, which may be explained by the interference of CC smoke constituents with the miRNA processing machinery. Upregulation of specific miRNA species, such as miR-146a/b and miR-182, indicated that they are causal elements in the inflammatory response in CC-exposed lungs, but they were reduced after THS2.2 aerosol exposure. Transforming transcriptomic data into protein activity based on corresponding downstream gene expression, we identified potential mechanisms for miR-146a/b and miR-182 that were activated by CC smoke but not by THS2.2 aerosol and possibly involved in the regulation of those miRNAs. The inclusion of miRNA profiling in systems toxicology approaches increases the mechanistic understanding of the complex exposure responses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.503 Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  8. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis 90-Day Seasonal Forecast of Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) precipitation forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface precipitation anomalies. The ECCA uses...

  9. Evaluation of 90 day repeated dose oral toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bani, Sarang; Natarajan, Sankaran; Pandey, Anjali; S, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium. Despite many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of 3'-HPT has not been established. The present work investigated 90 day repeated oral dose and reproductive (developmental) toxicity of 3'-HPT as a test substance in rats as per OECD guidelines. 90 day toxicity was conducted in sixty Sprague Dawley rats of each sex (120 rats), grouped into six dosage groups of 0 (control), 0 (control recovery), 20 (low dose), 80 (mid dose), 200 (high dose) and 200 (high dose recovery) mg/kg bwt/day (body weight/day) respectively. For the reproductive toxicity study forty Wistar rats of each sex (80 rats) divided into four dosage groups received 0 (vehicle control), 20 (low dose), 100 (mid dose) and 200 (high dose) mg/kg bwt/day of 3'-HPT respectively for a period of two weeks while pre-mating, mating, on the day before sacrifice, in females during pregnancy and four days of lactation period. Results showed no significant differences in body weight, food intake, absolute organ weight, haematology, with no adverse effects (toxicity) on biochemical values nor any abnormal clinical signs or behavioural changes were observed in any of the control/treatment groups, including reproductive and developmental parameters, gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/kg bwt/day in rats after oral administration, implying 3'-HPT did not exhibit any toxicity under the study conditions employed.

  10. Alkaline Phosphatase: The Next Independent Predictor of the Poor 90-Day Outcome in Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kasztelan-Szczerbinska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determination of risk factors relevant to 90-day prognosis in AH. Comparison of the conventional prognostic models such as Maddrey’s modified discriminant function (mDF and Child-Pugh-Turcotte (CPT score with newer ones: the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score (GAHS; Age, Bilirubin, INR, Creatinine (ABIC score, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD, and MELD-Na in the death prediction. Patients and Methods. The clinical and laboratory variables obtained at admission were assessed. The mDF, CPT, GAHS, ABIC, MELD, and MELD-Na scores’ different areas under the curve (AUCs and the best threshold values were compared. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of the 90-day outcome. Results. One hundred sixteen pts fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty (17.4% pts died and one underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT within 90 days of follow-up. No statistically significant differences in the models‘ performances were found. Multivariate logistic regression identified CPT score, alkaline phosphatase (AP level higher than 1.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN, and corticosteroids (CS nonresponse as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions. The CPT score, AP > 1.5 ULN, and the CS nonresponse had an independent impact on the 90-day survival in AH. Accuracy of all studied scoring systems was comparable.

  11. Implications of the 90-day episode definition used for the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellimoottil, Chad; Ryan, Andrew M.; Hou, Hechuan; Dupree, James M.; Hallstrom, Brian; Miller, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Under the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model, hospitals are held accountable for nearly all Medicare payments that occur during the initial hospitalization through 90-days post-discharge (i.e., episode of care). It is unknown whether unrelated expenditures resulting from this “broad” episode definition will impact participating hospital’s average 90-day episode payments. Objective To compare the CJR program’s broad episode definition to a clinically-narrow episode definition Design We identified Medicare claims for patients in Michigan who underwent joint replacement from 2011 through 2013. Using specifications from the CJR model and the clinically-narrow Hospital Compare payment measure, we constructed episodes of care and calculated 90-day episode payments. We then compared hospitals’ average 90-day episode payments using the two episode definitions and fit linear regression models to understand whether payment differences were associated with specific hospital characteristics (average CMS-HCC risk score, rural hospital status, joint replacement volume, percentage of Medicaid discharges, teaching hospital status, number of beds, percentage of joint replacements performed on African American patients and median income of the hospital’s county). Setting All Michigan hospitals located in metropolitan statistical areas Participants Medicare beneficiaries Main Outcome and Measure(s) The correlation and difference between average 90-day episode payments using the broad CJR model episode definition and the clinically-narrow Hospital Compare episode definition. Results We identified 23,251 joint replacement episodes. 90-day episode payments using the broad CJR episode definition ranged from $17,349 to $29,465 (mean: $22,122, standard deviation: $2,600). Episode payments were slightly lower (mean: $21,670) when the Hospital Compare episode definition was used. Both methods were strongly correlated (r=0.99, p<0.001). The average

  12. A Risk Model to Predict 90-Day Mortality among Patients Undergoing Hepatic Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Omar; Pulitano, Carlo; Firoozmand, Amin; Dodson, Rebecca; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Choti, Michael A; Aldrighetti, Luca; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Reliable criteria to predict mortality after hepatectomy remain poorly defined. We sought to identify factors associated with 90-day mortality, as well as validate the “50-50” and peak bilirubin of >7 mg/dL prediction rules for mortality after liver resection. In addition, we propose a novel integer-based score for 90-day mortality using a large cohort of patients. STUDY DESIGN Data from 2,056 patients who underwent liver resection at 2 major hepatobiliary centers between 1990 and 2011 were identified. Perioperative laboratory data, as well as surgical and postoperative details, were analyzed to identify factors associated with liver-related 90-day death. RESULTS Indications for liver resection included colorectal metastasis (39%), hepatocellular carcinoma (19%), benign mass (17%), or noncolorectal metastasis (14%). Most patients had normal underlying liver parenchyma (71%) and resection involved ≥3 segments (36%). Overall morbidity and mortality were 19% and 2%, respectively. Only 1 patient fulfilled the 50-50 criteria; this patient survived and was discharged on day 8. Twenty patients had a peak bilirubin concentration >7 mg/dL and 5 died within 90 days; the sensitivity and spec-ificity of the >7-mg/dL rule were 25% and 99.3%, respectively, but overall accuracy was poor (area under the curve 0.574). Factors associated with 90-day mortality included international normalized ratio (odds ratio = 11.87), bilirubin (odds ratio = 1.16), and serum creatinine (odds ratio = 1.87) on postoperative day 3, as well as grade of postoperative complications (odds ratio = 5.08; all p sensitivity and specificity of 83.3% and 98.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The 50-50 and bilirubin >7-mg/dL rules were not accurate in predicting 90-day mortality. Rather, a composite integer-based risk score based on postoperative day 3 international normalized ratio, bilirubin, creatinine, and complication grade more accurately predicted 90-day mortality after hepatectomy. PMID

  13. [Clinical profile and 90-day mortality in centenarian patients attended in emergency departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Fernández-Alonso, Cesáreo; Hormigo, Ana Isabel; Jiménez-Díaz, Gregorio; Roiz, Honan; Bermejo-Boixareu, Cristina; Rodríguez-Salazar, Jaime; Fernández Pérez, Cristina; Gil-Gregorio, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    To determine the clinical profile and to develop a model to predict 90-day mortality in centenarian patients attended in emergency departments (ED). This was an observational, retrospective, multicentre cohort study including patients >99years attended in 5 ED in the Community of Madrid from January to December 2012. Demographic variables were recorded, as well as, comorbidities, cognitive, functional, social basal status, geriatric syndromes, acute episode, and hospital and social resources use, and 90-day mortality. The study included 209patients aged 101years (SD 1.7) of whom 161 (77.0%) were female. Sixty four (32.5%) had severe comorbidity (Charlson index≥3), 101 (49.8%) on multiple medication, 100 (52.6%) had cognitive impairment, 82 (42.3%) had severe functional dependence, 85 (40.7%) were institutionalised, and 190 (94.5%) had a geriatric syndrome. Dyspnoea (26.8%), followed by falls (12.4%) were the most common causes of attendance. One hundred and eighteen (56.5%) were admitted, and 58 out of 174 (33.3%) died in the first 90days. The model to predict 90-day overall mortality included male sex (OR 2.42 95% CI=0.97-6.04; P=.059), emergency care in the previous 3months (OR 4.08 95% CI=1.26-13.16; P=.019) and the hospitalization by index event (OR 8.63 95% CI=3.25-22.9; P<.001) and this model had an area under ROC curve of 0.776 (95% CI=0.70-0.85; P<.001). Centenarian patients attended in ED had a significant frailty and one in three cases died in the first 90days after being attended, and this was associated with male sex, emergency care in the previous 3months, and hospitalisation. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Sham-feeding response of rats to Polycose and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A

    1987-01-01

    Adult female rats were fitted with gastric fistulas and maintained at 85% of their ad lib body weight. Their real-feeding (fistula closed) and sham-feeding (fistula open) responses to polysaccharide (Polycose) and sucrose solutions were measured during 30 min/day one-bottle tests. The rats consumed similar amounts of a 1% Polycose solution during real- and sham-feeding tests, but their sham-intakes of 4%, 16% and 32% Polycose solutions greatly exceeded their real-intakes of these solutions. Similar results were obtained with sucrose solutions. The rats sham-fed more Polycose than sucrose at the 1% and 4% concentrations, while their sham-intakes of the 16% and 32% Polycose and sucrose solutions were comparable. In subsequent two-solution sham-feeding tests, the rats preferred 1% Polycose to 1% sucrose, but preferred sucrose to Polycose at 4%, 16% and 32% concentrations. These preference results indicate that rats find Polycose more palatable than sucrose at low concentrations, but sucrose more palatable at high concentrations. In addition, the findings that the rats preferred 4% sucrose to 4% Polycose in the two-bottle test, but sham-fed more 4% Polycose than 4% sucrose in the one-bottle tests, suggest that sucrose is more "orally-satiating" than is Polycose. These results provide further evidence for qualitative differences in the tastes of sucrose and polysaccharide. They also indicate that the amount of solution sham-fed does not necessarily reflect the palatability of the solution.

  15. Community pharmacy and mail order cost and utilization for 90-day maintenance medication prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Nikhil; Duncan, Ian; Rubinstein, Elan; Ahmed, Tamim; Pegus, Cheryl

    2012-04-01

    Pharmacy benefit management (PBM) companies promote mail order programs that typically dispense 90-day quantities of maintenance medications, marketing this feature as a key cost containment strategy to address plan sponsors' rising prescription drug expenditures. In recent years, community pharmacies have introduced 90-day programs that provide similar cost advantages, while allowing these prescriptions to be dispensed at the same pharmacies that patients frequent for 30-day quantities. To compare utilization rates and corresponding costs associated with obtaining 90-day prescriptions at community and mail order pharmacies for payers that offer equivalent benefits in different 90-day dispensing channels. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional investigation using pharmacy claims and eligibility data from employer group clients of a large PBM between January 2008 and September 2010. We excluded the following client types: government, third-party administrators, schools, hospitals, 340B (federal drug pricing), employers in Puerto Rico, and miscellaneous clients for which the PBM provided billing services (e.g., the pharmacy's loyalty card program members). All employer groups in the sample offered 90-day community pharmacy and mail order dispensing and received benefits management services, such as formulary management and mail order pharmacy, from the PBM. We further limited the sample to employer groups that offered equivalent benefits for community pharmacy and mail order, defined as groups in which the mean and median copayments per claim for community and mail order pharmacy, by tier, differed by no more than 5%. Enrollees in the sample were required to have a minimum of 6 months of eligibility in each calendar year but were not required to have filled a prescription in any year. We evaluated pharmacy costs and utilization for a market basket of 14 frequently dispensed therapeutic classes of maintenance medications. The proportional share of claims for

  16. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome After Paternal Exposure to Methotrexate Within 90 Days Before Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eck, Lasse Karlsen; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    group and no increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.66-2.59) among the children from exposed fathers. CONCLUSION: We found no association between paternal exposure to methotrexate within 90 days before pregnancy and congenital malformations, stillbirths, or preterm birth. Available......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between paternal exposure to methotrexate within the 90-day period before pregnancy and congenital malformations and stillbirth in the offspring. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide register study. Our cohort consisted of all live births in Denmark between 1997...... and 2011 identified from the Medical Birth Registry. Methotrexate-exposed fathers were identified from the National Prescription Registry. From the national Hospital Registry we identified paternity, live births, and stillbirths as well as discharge diagnoses on congenital malformations. RESULTS: We...

  17. Clinical profile of bronchiolitis in infants younger than 90 days in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Amir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is a self-limiting disease of children caused by viral infections of the small airways with a wide spectrum of illness severity. Search of the literature reveals a need for refinement of criteria for testing for concomitant severe bacterial infections as well as appropriate therapeutic interventions for patients <90-day-old diagnosed with clinical bronchiolitis. We believe that a better understanding of the disease spectrum will help optimize health-care delivery to these patients. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical profile at presentation, disease course and outcome of bronchiolitis in <3-month-old infants who presented to our Pediatric Emergency Department (PED during one disease season. Settings: Retrospective chart review during one bronchiolitis season, from November 1, 2011 to April 20, 2012. Subjects: All <90-day-old infants presenting with clinical bronchiolitis presenting to Urban PED of a tertiary care university hospital during one bronchiolitis season. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review based on computer records of all emergency department visits of infants less than 90 days with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis, covering the period between November 1, 2011 and April 30, 2012. Results: Out of the total of 1895 infants <90 days of age, 141 had a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis and 35 needed admission to hospital. Blood for culture was obtained from 47 infants, urine for culture was obtained from 46 infants and cerebrospinal fluid for culture was obtained from eight infants. One case of bacteremia was documented, but this was found to be a contaminant. No cases of meningitis occurred among these infants. However, one infant had a positive urine culture consistent with infection (Escherichia coli . Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be conclude that the risk of bacteremia or meningitis among infants <90 days of age with fever and bronchiolitis is low. The

  18. 78 FR 19176 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-day Finding on a Petition to List Sperm Whales in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Threatened Wildlife; 90-day Finding on a Petition to List Sperm Whales in the Gulf of Mexico as a Distinct...: We, NMFS, announce a 90-day finding on a petition from WildEarth Guardians to list the sperm whale... whales in the Gulf of Mexico to determine whether the petitioned action is warranted. To ensure that the...

  19. The PEARL score predicts 90-day readmission or death after hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, C; Steer, J; Heslop-Marshall, K; Stenton, S C; Hughes, R; Wijesinghe, M; Harrison, R N; Steen, N; Simpson, A J; Gibson, G J; Bourke, S C

    2017-01-01

    Background One in three patients hospitalised due to acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) is readmitted within 90 days. No tool has been developed specifically in this population to predict readmission or death. Clinicians are unable to identify patients at particular risk, yet resources to prevent readmission are allocated based on clinical judgement. Methods In participating hospitals, consecutive admissions of patients with AECOPD were identified by screening wards and reviewing coding records. A tool to predict 90-day readmission or death without readmission was developed in two hospitals (the derivation cohort) and validated in: (a) the same hospitals at a later timeframe (internal validation cohort) and (b) four further UK hospitals (external validation cohort). Performance was compared with ADO, BODEX, CODEX, DOSE and LACE scores. Results Of 2417 patients, 936 were readmitted or died within 90 days of discharge. The five independent variables in the final model were: Previous admissions, eMRCD score, Age, Right-sided heart failure and Left-sided heart failure (PEARL). The PEARL score was consistently discriminative and accurate with a c-statistic of 0.73, 0.68 and 0.70 in the derivation, internal validation and external validation cohorts. Higher PEARL scores were associated with a shorter time to readmission. Conclusions The PEARL score is a simple tool that can effectively stratify patients' risk of 90-day readmission or death, which could help guide readmission avoidance strategies within the clinical and research setting. It is superior to other scores that have been used in this population. Trial registration number UKCRN ID 14214. PMID:28235886

  20. The effects of firocoxib (Previcox™ in geriatric dogs over a period of 90 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in geriatric dogs with osteoarthritis has not been well studied in veterinary medicine. This study evaluated the effects of firocoxib administered to dogs over 7 years of age for 90 days. Pain and lameness scores were evaluated by the owner weekly for the 1st month and then biweekly through to the end of the study, the veterinarian evaluated the dogs monthly. Serum chemistry, including urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, aspartate transaminase, bile acids and bilirubin, urine specific gravity and a urine dipstick, were performed at monthly intervals. Forty-five dogs were enrolled into the treatment group and 9 into the control group. A total of 33 dogs completed the trial in the treatment group and 8 in the control group. Lameness and pain scores were found to be significantly lower in the treated group from day 30 for most parameters evaluated. Bile acids (although not comparable to controls, with higher mean value and a high standard deviation in the control group; in addition the control group had increased bile acids at day 0 and urea (within normal reference range provided (WNL were significantly different in the treatment group between days 0 and 90. Urea (WNL on days 30 and 90 and creatinine (WNL on day 90 were significantly different between the control group and the treatment group. The most common adverse events reported were diarrhoea, vomition, dark faeces and anorexia. This study showed that firocoxib was effective in managing pain associated with osteoarthritis for 90 days. Despite the geriatric high-risk population used for this study, minimal biochemical changes were seen and adverse drug events seen were in agreement with those previously reported.

  1. Daily Rhythms of Feeding in the Genetically Obese and Lean Zucker Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alingh Prins, Ab; Jong-Nagelsmit, Annemarie de; Keijser, Jan; Strubbe, Jan H.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding patterns were examined in obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/-) adult Zucker rats over the light-dark cycle during 14 days. Obese rats eat more than lean rats especially during the dark phase. Light and dark feeding expressed as percentage of 24 hr intake showed no significant differences between th

  2. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  3. In Vivo Evaluation of a Pneumatic Extracorporeal Ventricular Assist Device for up to 90 Day Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Jeff L; Grace, Brian W; Van Noy, Kelsey L; Handy, Kelly M; Costas, Gil G; Rodriguez-Sierra, Carlos A; Trejo, Alejandro; Pinzon, Javier; Cohn, William E

    In a previous study, we showed that the Vitalmex Extracorporeal Ventricular Assist Device-Pneumatic (EVAD-P)-a low-cost, pneumatically actuated, pulsatile blood pump-is easy to implant and safe for short-term in vivo support (30 ± 5 days). In the current study, we included additional 30 day experiments and assessed the safety and durability of the EVAD-P for up to 90 days of support. Using the same surgical procedure as in the previous study, we implanted the device into 14 healthy sheep. Group I subjects (n = 7) were evaluated for up to 30 days, and group II (n = 2) and group III (n = 5) subjects were evaluated for up to 49 and 93 days, respectively. After a system redesign, two of the five sheep in group III reached the scheduled end-point without device-related problems at a fixed beat rate of 56 bpm, a stroke volume (SV) of 58.0 ± 2.3 ml, and a flow of 3.5 ± 0.2 L/min. This study shows that the EVAD-P can provide safe pulsatile mechanical circulatory support (MCS) for up to 93 days. To further confirm that the system can consistently provide MCS for this duration, additional studies are recommended.

  4. Petroleum prices and profits in the 90 days following the invasion of Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    For the third in the past 20 years the world has experienced an interruption in the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and shut down of Kuwait oil production capacity followed by the United Nations boycott of Iraqi oil removed 8 percent of the world's oil supply. The result was a sharp increase in the process of crude oil and petroleum products. These events raised numerous questions about the performance of energy markets and energy firms. This report supplies a first answer for some of those questions. At the time this report was prepared the invasion has been in effect for 90 days. Not all the data is available to fully answer every question. Some issues can only be completely resolved after more time has passed in which the invasion and its effects have had an opportunity to be fully assimilated. This report was specifically requested by W. Henson Moore, Deputy Secretary of Energy as a way of supplying the American public with what could be said about the current situation. Rumors abound and mixconceptions have proliferated. This report strives to give a proper perspective on some of the more vexing issues which the invasion produced. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has addressed many questions in this report. By the way of summary these are the 10 most most frequently asked questions and EIA's quick answers. The page references tell the reader where to look in the report for further explanation. These are not the only issues addressed and EIA hopes that readers will be able to satisfy their curiosity about their own questions within the pages of this report.

  5. Atrial natriuretic peptide and feeding activity patterns in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents historical data about atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from its discovery as an atrial natriuretic factor (ANF to its role as an atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH. As a hormone, ANP can interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A and is related to feeding activity patterns in the rat. Food restriction proved to be an interesting model to investigate this relationship. The role of ANP must be understood within a context of peripheral and central interactions involving different peptides and pathways

  6. Effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-Day Bed Rest on Postural Control in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Julie; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Dean, S. Lance; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) has been used as a safe gr ound-based analog to mimic and develop countermeasures for the physiological effects of spaceflight, including decrements in postural stability. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-day bed rest on postural control in men and women. METHODS Twenty-nine subjects (18M,11F) underwent 13 days of ambula tory acclimatization and were placed in 6? HDT for 30 (n=12), 60 (n=8), or 90 (n=9) days, followed by 14 days of ambulatory recovery. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) was used to assess changes in sensory and motor components of postural control, and recovery after HDT. Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) objectively evaluate one?s ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Stability during the SOTs was assessed using peak-to-peak sway and convergence toward stability limits to derive an equilibrium score. Motor Control Tests (MCTs) evaluate one?s ability to recover from unexpected support surface perturbations, with performance determined by center-of-pressure path length. Whole-body kinematic data were collected to determine body-sway strategy used to maintain stability during each condition. Baselines were determined pre-HDT. Recovery was tracked post-HDT on days 0, 1, 2, and 4. RESULTS Immediately after HDT, subjects showed decreased performance on most SOTs, primarily on sway-referenced support conditions, typically returning to baseline levels within 4 days. MCT performance was not significantly affected. There were no significant gender or duration differences in performance. Kinematic data revealed a tendency to use ankle strategy to maintain an upright stance during most SOT conditions. Interestingly, six subjects (2M,4F) experienced orthostatic intolerance and were unable to complete day 0 testing. CONCLUSION HDT mimics some un loading mechanisms of spaceflight and

  7. 77 FR 47003 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Two Spring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... on Petitions To List the Two Spring Mountains Dark Blue Butterflies and Morand's Checkerspot Butterfly as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...), announce a 90-day finding on petitions to list the Spring Mountains dark blue butterflies (Euphilotes...

  8. Evolution of Blood Lactate and 90-Day Mortality in Septic Shock. A Post Hoc Analysis of the Finnaki Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varis, Elina; Pettilä, Ville; Poukkanen, Meri;

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlactatemia predicts mortality in patients with sepsis and septic shock, and its normalization is a potential treatment goal. We investigated the association of blood lactate and its changes over time with 90-day mortality in septic shock. We performed a post hoc analysis of 513 septic shock...

  9. 76 FR 36049 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Utah...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... applications, including the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and possibly memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's... components such as climate, plant life, and resident wildlife. We consider the ecological setting of the...

  10. 76 FR 47123 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Six Sand Dune...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... on a Petition To List Six Sand Dune Beetles as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife....S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list six sand... aegialian scarab (Aegialia hardyi) and Sand Mountain serican scarab (Serica psammobunus)] may be...

  11. 76 FR 31903 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Reclassify the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... Act, we may consider for listing any species, including subspecies, of fish, wildlife, or plants, or... of the TCP are covered by fees paid by foreign hunters to hunt a small, controlled number of markhor...

  12. 76 FR 55638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Snowy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... Kansas; the southern Texas coast into northeast Mexico; and the central Mexican plateau) (AOU 1957, pp... of plants, and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife...

  13. 77 FR 71757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Phoenix...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... on a Petition To List Phoenix dactylifera `Sphinx' (Sphinx Date Palm) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list Phoenix dactylifera `Sphinx' (sphinx... 103, Phoenix, Arizona 85021-4951. Please submit any new information, materials, comments, or...

  14. A comparison of the effects of atropine on real-feeding and sham-feeding of sucrose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A

    1988-02-01

    In Experiment 1 the influence of atropine methyl nitrate on the sham-feeding response of adult female rats to a sucrose solution was determined. Atropine (1 or 5 mg/kg) reliably suppressed the sham-intake of sucrose when the drug was administered 30 or 0 min prior to, or 17 min after the start of the feeding session. The suppressive effect was less, however, when the drug was administered 30 min before testing compared to the other two injection-test conditions. In Experiment 2 atropine failed to reliably decrease the real-feeding of a sucrose solution whether it was injected 30, 15, or 0 min prior to testing. These results were replicated in Experiment 3; atropine (0 min injection-test interval) reduced the sham-intake but not the real-intake of a sucrose solution. However, atropine decreased the rate of feeding under both real- and sham-feeding conditions. The fact that atropine reduced feeding rate but not meal size in the real-feeding condition was attributed to the drug's lack of effect on postingestive satiety. The present findings along with other recent results indicate that (1) the injection-test interval is a potentially important variable in studies involving atropine; (2) results obtained with sham-feeding animals do not always generalize to real-feeding animals; and (3) cholinergically-mediated cephalic responses are of questionable importance in the control of meal size.

  15. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary...... treatments namely hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and maize meal with molasses (MMMO). Ad libitum amount of each dietary treatment and hay were offered to nine steers for 90 days. Cooking loss (CL......) and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were determined on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Steers fed on HFMO diet had higher (P nutrient intake (86.39 MJ/d energy; 867 g/d CP), weight gain (919 g/d) and half carcass weight (75.8 kg) than those fed other diets...

  16. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, Lovince; Kimambo, Abiliza; Laswai, Germana

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 ± 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary...... treatments namely hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and maize meal with molasses (MMMO). Ad libitum amount of each dietary treatment and hay were offered to nine steers for 90 days. Cooking loss (CL......) and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were determined on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Steers fed on HFMO diet had higher (P nutrient intake (86.39 MJ/d energy; 867 g/d CP), weight gain (919 g/d) and half carcass weight (75.8 kg) than those fed other diets...

  17. Energy metabolism and nutrient oxidation in young pigs and rats during feeding, starvation and re-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, A; Jakobsen, Kirsten; Tauson, A -H

    2005-01-01

    -4 days of starvation and 4 days of re-feeding. O2 consumption and CO2 production were measured by open-air-circuit respiration units. In the feeding period, protein retention in relation to metabolic live mass (kg(0.75)) was identical for pigs and rats, while there was a tendency of a higher fat......The investigation included individual measurements of energy metabolism and oxidation of nutrients in 12 castrated male pigs (Sus scrofa) (20-40 kg) and 12 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) (65-105 g). Measurements were carried out in 5-6 days balance periods with ad libitum feeding, followed by 3...... retention in pigs than in rats. A substantial part of digested carbohydrate was not oxidized, but transferred to fat metabolism without significant differences (P > 0.05) between pigs and rats (18% vs. 22%). During starvation, nitrogen excretion in urine decreased to 226 mg/kg(0.75) in pigs and to 429 mg...

  18. Readmission Rate and Causes at 90-Day after Radical Cystectomy in Patients on Early Recovery after Surgery Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Buscarini, Maurizio; Gill, Harcharan S.; Skinner, Eila C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with high risk of early and late perioperative complications, and readmissions. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol has been applied to RC showing decreased hospital stay without increased morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the specific causes of hospital readmissions in RC patients treated before and after adoption of an ERAS protocol at our institution. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 207 RC patients on ERAS protocol at the Stanford University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. We focused on early (30-day) and late (90-day) postoperative readmission rate and causes. Results were compared with a pre-ERAS consecutive series of 177 RC patients from January 2009 to December 2011. Results: In the post-ERAS time period a total of 56 patients were readmitted, 41 within the first 30 days after surgery (20%) and 15 within the following 60 days (7%). Fever, often associated with dehydration, was the most common reason for presentation to the hospital, accounting for 57% of all readmissions. At 90 days infection accounted for 53% of readmissions. Of all the patients readmitted during the first 90 days after surgery, 32 had positive urine cultures, mostly caused by Enterococcus faecalis isolated in 18 (56%). Readmission rates did not increase since the introduction of the ERAS protocol, with an incidence of 27% in the post-ERAS group versus 30% in the pre-ERAS group. Conclusions: Despite accurate adherence to most recent perioperative antibiotic guidelines, the incidence of readmissions after RC due to infection still remains significant. PMID:28149935

  19. Prognostic Abilities and Quality Assessment of Models for the Prediction of 90-Day Mortality in Liver Transplant Waiting List Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthold, Marc; Kaltenborn, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background Model of end-stage liver disease (MELD)-score and diverse variants are widely used for prognosis on liver transplant waiting-lists. Methods 818 consecutive patients on the liver transplant waiting-list included to calculate the MELD, MESO Index, MELD-Na, UKELD, iMELD, refitMELD, refitMELD-Na, upMELD and PELD-scores. Prognostic abilities for 90-day mortality were investigated applying Receiver-operating-characteristic-curve analysis. Independent risk factors for 90-day mortality were identified with multivariable binary logistic regression modelling. Methodological quality of the underlying development studies was assessed with a systematic assessment tool. Results 74 patients (9%) died on the liver transplant waiting list within 90 days after listing. All but one scores, refitMELD-Na, had acceptable prognostic performance with areas under the ROC-curves (AUROCs)>0.700. The iMELD performed best (AUROC = 0.798). In pediatric cases, the PELD-score just failed to reach the acceptable threshold with an AUROC = 0.699. All scores reached a mean quality score of 72.3%. Highest quality scores could be achieved by the UKELD and PELD-scores. Studies specifically lack statistical validity and model evaluation. Conclusions Inferior quality assessment of prognostic models does not necessarily imply inferior prognostic abilities. The iMELD might be a more reliable tool representing urgency of transplantation than the MELD-score. PELD-score is assumedly not accurate enough to allow graft allocation decision in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:28129338

  20. Processes of 30–90 days sea surface temperature variability in the northern Indian Ocean during boreal summer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vialard, J.; Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Lengaigne, M.; Sengupta, D.; Goswami, B.N.

    of the convectively active region. The composites in Joseph and Sabin (2008) also clearly show signals in the Arabian Sea, but the authors focus on the potential feedbacks of SST variations in the Bay of Bengal on the active-break monsoon cycle. This study has two... (104%, Table 4). Heat fluxes con- tribute negatively to the 30–90 days SST variability (-15%). This could be the sign of a negative feedback of atmospheric heat fluxes on intraseasonal SST variations in this region. The Somalia upwelling region is known...

  1. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  2. Norepinephrine uptake by hypothalamic tissue from the rat related to feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gugten, J. van der; Slangen, J.L.

    1957-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) uptake by rat hypothalamus in vitro was studied in relation to food intake. Significant daily variations in NE uptake were observed in caudal hypothalamus from freely feeding rats. A maximal elevation occurred at the beginning of the night when food intake is also increasing to a

  3. Transgenic and conventional Brazilian soybeans don't cause or prevent preneoplastic colon lesions or oxidative stress in a 90-day in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Sbruzzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study presents the results of a 90-day safety assessment of rats fed with four varieties of soybeans, BRS 245 RR and BRS Valiosa RR (transgenic, BRS 133 and MG BR46 Conquista (non-transgenic. METHODS: Diets were prepared by incorporating toasted soybean flour to a commercial diet at 1%, 10% or 20% weight In the in vivo experimental the rats' body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, number of aberrant crypt foci, oxidative stress biomarkers, urea and creatinine levels were analyzed and compared between experimental groups, as well as histopathological observations (digestive tract, liver, kidneys. RESULTS: The results indicate that glyphosate-tolerant soy varieties neither induce nor prevent aberrant crypt foci induction, nor do their conventional counterparts. Similarly, none of the four soybean varieties tested induced changes in the digestive tract, liver or kidney. Serum biochemical parameters were also unchanged. CONCLUSION: The consumption of both, conventional and transgenic soybeans, were insufficient to ameliorate dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress.

  4. Effects of feeding lipids of different fatty acid compositions upon rat lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, P C; Costa-Rosa, L F; Curi, R

    1995-01-01

    Weanling Wistar rats were fed for 8 weeks on a low fat (3% by weight) diet (LF) or on diets containing 15% by weight hydrogenated coconut oil (coconut oil), cocoa butter, cashew kernel oil (cashew oil), canola oil or soya bean oil (soya oil). Each of the high fat diets resulted in inhibition of spleen lymphocyte proliferation in response to concanavalin A (Con A), a T-cell mitogen. Feeding the soya oil diet caused more than 95% inhibition of proliferation, compared with feeding the LF diet. Amongst the high fat diets, feeding the cashew, canola or soya oil diets resulted in inhibition of proliferation compared with feeding the coconut oil diet while feeding the soya oil diet resulted in inhibition of proliferation compared with feeding the cocoa butter or canola oil diets. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to Con A was also investigated using whole blood culture. Once again, feeding the soya oil diet resulted in a dramatic decrease in proliferation (80%) compared with feeding the LF diet. Feeding the soya oil diet also inhibited proliferation compared with feeding the coconut oil, cocoa butter or cashew oil diets. Feeding the canola oil diet resulted in inhibition of proliferation compared with feeding the LF or cocoa butter diets.

  5. Report of an Expert Panel on the reanalysis by of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doull, J; Gaylor, D; Greim, H A; Lovell, D P; Lynch, B; Munro, I C

    2007-11-01

    MON 863, a genetically engineered corn variety that contains the gene for modified Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein to protect against corn rootworm, was tested in a 90-day toxicity study as part of the process to gain regulatory approval. This study was reanalyzed by Séralini et al. who contended that the study showed possible hepatorenal effects of MON 863. An Expert Panel was convened to assess the original study results as analyzed by the Monsanto Company and the reanalysis conducted by Séralini et al. The Expert Panel concludes that the Séralini et al. reanalysis provided no evidence to indicate that MON 863 was associated with adverse effects in the 90-day rat study. In each case, statistical findings reported by both Monsanto and Séralini et al. were considered to be unrelated to treatment or of no biological or clinical importance because they failed to demonstrate a dose-response relationship, reproducibility over time, association with other relevant changes (e.g., histopathology), occurrence in both sexes, difference outside the normal range of variation, or biological plausibility with respect to cause-and-effect. The Séralini et al. reanalysis does not advance any new scientific data to indicate that MON 863 caused adverse effects in the 90-day rat study.

  6. Persistence of Trichinella spiralis in Rat Carcasses Experimentally Mixed in Different Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloniemi H

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis infected rat carcasses were incubated for 6 weeks in several animal feeds to assess how long Trichinella can present a risk for an outbreak in contaminated feeds. In groups of 6, 24 infected target rats were placed in silage, grained barley, propionic acid-preserved feed, and also into simulated pasture conditions. Test environments were sampled after one-, 2-, 4-, and 6-week-incubations. Trichinella larvae were recovered by digestion, and their infectivity was evaluated in rats. A two-week incubation reduced the number of recovered larvae, but still after 6 weeks low numbers were isolated from all feeds except from the experimental group simulating pasture conditions. After 2 weeks storage, the larvae were infective in all storage environments. However, up to 4 weeks, they survived only in the propionic acid-fermented feed and there in small numbers with reduced reproductive capability. This indicates the possibility of farm animals to get infection from rats or other infected material being hazardously mixed with hay or other feed. If silage is stored for at least one month before use, however, the risk from this forage appears to be minimized.

  7. Recovery from activity-stress ulcer by ad lib feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, M; Tanaka, M; Emoto, H; Ishii, H; Yokoo, H; Yoshida, M; Tsuda, A

    1997-12-31

    In order to investigate the recovery from activity-stress ulcers by ad lib-feeding and/or cessation of running, male Wistar rats were exposed to the activity-stress paradigm, and the rats that revealed hypothermia (their rectal temperature fell below 36 degrees C) were sacrificed either immediately or after several 24 h periods of healing. Rats that were sacrificed immediately after the appearance of hypothermia and those that were exposed to restricted feeding plus cessation of running revealed severe activity-stress ulcers, whereas few ulcers were observed in rats given ad lib-feeding and those that were given ad lib-feeding plus cessation of running. Although no significant differences in relative weights of spleen and thymus were obtained among the different recovery conditions, the relative weights of the adrenal glands were highest in the restricted feeding plus cessation of running group, whereas, the other animals exposed to the activity-stress paradigm showed no differences. These results indicate that activity-stress ulcers recover under conditions of ad lib-feeding within 24 h, but they are not influenced by cessation of running. These data also suggest that organ weights are not affected by any manipulations employed in the present study.

  8. Dietary and Food Processing for a 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiruo; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    A 4-day cycle dietary menu was developed to meet the requirements of balanced diet of the crew within the 90-day closed experiment of bioregenerative life support in the Lunar Palace 1. The menu consisted of items prepared from crops and insect grown inside the system, as well as prestored food. Dairy recipe was composed of breads, vegetables, meats and soups, which provided about 2900 kcal per crew member per day. During food processing, to maximize nutrient recovery and minimize waste production, the whole wheat grains and chufa nuts were milled. Further, the carrot leaves and yellow mealworms were used as salad materials and bread ingredients, respectively. The sensory acceptability of the dishes in the menu was evaluated by flavor, texture, and appearance. Our results show that all dishes in the 4-day cycle menu were highly acceptable, which satisfies nutritional requirement of the crew members in the closed habitation.

  9. Training and certification program of the operating staff for a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Prior to beginning a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system, a need was identified for a training and certification program to qualify an operating staff for conducting the test. The staff was responsible for operating and maintaining the test facility, monitoring and ensuring crew safety, and implementing procedures to ensure effective mission performance with good data collection and analysis. The training program was designed to ensure that each operating staff member was capable of performing his assigned function and was sufficiently cross-trained to serve at certain other positions on a contingency basis. Complicating the training program were budget and schedule limitations, and the high level of sophistication of test systems.

  10. Chronic loss of melanin-concentrating hormone affects motivational aspects of feeding in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joram D Mul

    Full Text Available Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH. MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding.Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI, both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch(+/+ or pmch(-/- rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch(-/- rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch(-/- rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system.Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption.

  11. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals.

  12. Influence of limited feeding on metabolic changes in lipids after single lethal irradiation of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropila, M.; Alers, I.; Alersova, E.; Dyatelinka, I.; Praslichka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))

    A study was made of the influence of adaptation of rats to limited feeding (2 h a day during 3 weeks) and the response of the adapted animals to whole body X-irradiation with a lethal dose of 14.35 Gy. The concentration of unesterified fatty acids in the blood and the total cholesterol content were shown to decrease between the 1st and 24th hours following irradiation: the content of phospholipids decreased 60 min after irradiation. In the bone marrow of rats adapted to limited feeding, a more pronounced accumulation of triacylglycerols was noted as late as 72 h after irradiation.

  13. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  14. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  15. Investigating the 90-day oscillations using ground-based, satellite and TIME-GCM model simulation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M.; Hagan, M. E.; Pautet, P. D.; Pugmire, J. R.; Pendleton, W. R., Jr.; Russell, J. M., III

    2016-12-01

    The Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) is an upper atmospheric observatory located high in the Andes mountain range at Cerro Pachón, Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°W, 2530 m). The Utah State University (USU) Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (MTM) was deployed in August, 2009 collocated with a Na wind/temperature lidar and a meteor wind radar from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) as well as other optical instrumentation. In this presentation, we focus on the characteristics of a unique 90-day oscillation identified in the first 18 months in both the mesospheric wind and temperature data from ALO. This event appeared to be long-lived but transient, with similar amplitude to the AO and SAO at this location. Additional mesospheric temperature data from nearby El Leoncito Observatory (31.8°S, 69.3°W), Argentina also showed the same oscillation. The existence and extent of this oscillation are being further examined using SABER/TIMED temperature. The National Center for Atmosphere Research (NCAR) Thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) simulation of 2009/10 results are utilized to investigate the possible source of this event and the spatial structures are compared with the results from the SABER temperature data.

  16. Seventeen Ketogenic steroids excretion in crewmen in a 90-day manned test of an advanced regenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, D. J.; Wamsley, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Seventeen KGS (17-Ketogenic steroids) and Na/K were determined in 19 urine specimens collected by each of 4 crewmen during the 90-day test. The specimens represented 10% aliquots of 24-hour collections stored frozen onboard the simulator until passthrough. Electrolytes were analyzed immediately after sample passthrough while the steroids were determined post-test on aliquots of the original sample held at 203 K. Steroid data was corrected for body weight and also for analytical variation in the laboratory urine pool control. Long-term nonspecific responses to low-level stress appear to be reflected by the individual and group mean 17-KGS excretion patterns. The first 39 and the last 20 days of the test were significantly different--and presumably more stressful to the crew--than the period from days 39 to 67. Reduction of adrenocortical function during the mid-test phase is attributed to either an adaptation to chronic or intermittent stress or was the result of an actual reduction in the operational demands of the test during this time. Most remarkable of the metabolic findings is the prevalance of high Na/K ratios and an abrupt peak on day 74 for all 4 crewmen.

  17. 78 FR 53391 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the North Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... have a diverse diet that appears to vary slightly across feeding aggregation areas. The species is... acknowledges that tissue from 17 different humpback whales has been detected in Japanese market whale products...

  18. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation, gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol, and diet (i.e., western-style diet vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day, but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females.

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA Feeding Protects Liver Steatosis in Obese Breast Cancer Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hakkak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem in the US and globally. Obesity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, hyperlipidemia, and liver steatosis development. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA is a dietary supplement used as an anti-obesity supplement. Previously, we reported that DHEA feeding protects 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced mammary tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of obesity and DHEA feeding on liver steatosis, body weight gain, and serum DHEA, DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels. Female Zucker rats were randomly assigned to either a control diet or a control diet with DHEA supplementation for 155 days. Livers were collected for histological examination. Serum was collected to measure DHEA, DHEA-S, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3. Our results show that DHEA-fed rats had significantly less liver steatosis (p < 0.001 than control-fed rats and gained less weight (p < 0.001. DHEA feeding caused significant decreases (p < 0.001 in the serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and significantly increased (p < 0.001 serum levels of DHEA and DHEA-S. Our results suggest that DHEA feeding can protect against liver steatosis by reducing body weight gain and modulating serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an obese breast cancer rat model.

  20. Effect of Feeding Status on Adjuvant Arthritis Severity, Cachexia, and Insulin Sensitivity in Male Lewis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Stofkova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of food restriction, overfeeding, and normofeeding on cachexia, inflammatory and metabolic parameters, and insulin sensitivity in chronic adjuvant arthritis (AA in rats. Food restriction during AA increased circulating ghrelin, corticosterone, decreased leptin, and ameliorated arthrogram score and systemic inflammation compared to normofeeding. Overfeeding worsened arthrogram score and systemic inflammation, and led to lipid accumulation in the liver, but not to alterations of adipokine and ghrelin plasma levels relative to normofeeding. Independently of feeding status, AA induced cachexia, in which modulation of mRNA expressions for appetite-regulating neuropeptides (NPY, AgRP, POMC, CART in the arcuate nucleus (ARC does not play a primary role. The overexpression of IL-1β mRNA in the ARC suggests its role in the mechanisms of impaired energy balance during AA under all feeding conditions. Normal HOMA index in all arthritic groups does not indicate the development of insulin resistance by feeding interventions in these rats.

  1. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  2. Food-entrained feeding and locomotor circadian rhythms in rats under different lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, P; Zamora, S; Madrid, J A

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that two endogenous timekeeping systems, a light-entrainable pacemaker (LEP) and a food-entrainable pacemaker (FEP), control circadian rhythms. To understand the function and interaction between these two mechanisms better, we studied two behavioral circadian rhythmicities, feeding and locomotor activity, in rats exposed to two conflicting zeitgebers, food restriction and light-dark cycles. For this, the food approaches and wheel-running activity of rats kept under light-dark (LD) 12:12, constant darkness (DD), or constant light (LL) conditions and subjected to different scheduled feeding patterns were continuously recorded. To facilitate comparison of the results obtained under the different lighting conditions, the period of the feeding cycles was set in all three cases about 1h less than the light-entrained or free-running circadian rhythms. The results showed that, depending on the lighting conditions, some components of the feeding and wheel-running circadian rhythms could be entrained by food pulses, while others retained their free-running or light-entrained state. Under LD, food pulses had little influence on the light-entrained feeding and locomotor rhythms. Under DD, relative coordination between free-running and food-associated rhythms may appear. In both cases, the feeding activity associated with the food pulses could be divided into a prominent phase-dependent peak of activity within the period of food availability and another afterward. Wheel-running activity mainly followed the food pulses. Under LL conditions, the food-entrained activity consisted mainly of feeding and wheel-running anticipatory activity. The results provide new evidence that lighting conditions influence the establishment and persistence of food-entrained circadian rhythms in rats. The existence of two coupled pacemakers, LEP and FEP, or a multioscillatory LEP may both explain our experimental results.

  3. 77 FR 71759 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Prairie...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... routinely feed on small rodents and other mammals, birds, and reptiles (Jones et al. 1985, p. 264; Fritzell... cottontail species in North America (Scharine et al. 2011, p. 885; Hall and Kelson 1981, p. 300; Chapman et... of the most intensively farmed regions in North America. This is supported by the findings of...

  4. Investigation of repeated dose (90 day oral toxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity and mutagenic potential of ‘Calebin A’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Majeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated repeated dose and reproductive toxicity of Calebin A in Wistar rats. A study for assessing the mutagenic potential of Calebin A through an AMES test is also described. Calebin A was orally administered to groups of 10 male and/or 10 female Wistar rats each, assigned to three dose levels (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg/body weight once daily for 90 consecutive days. None of the animals in any of the treatment/control groups exhibited any abnormal clinical signs/behavioral changes, reproductive as well as developmental parameters, or gross and microscopic changes in both male and female rats. Calebin A was also evaluated for its ability to induce reverse mutations at selected loci of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence and absence of Aroclor 1254 induced rat liver S9 cell lines. In conclusion, 100 mg/kg/d of Calebin A is not likely to produce any significant toxic effects in male and female Wistar rats and no reproductive or developmental toxicity was observed at the same dose and hence Calebin A at 100 mg/kg was determined as “No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL” under the test conditions.

  5. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieglinde Zelzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (n = 30 and high-fat diet (n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE, the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  6. Processes of 30-90 days sea surface temperature variability in the northern Indian Ocean during boreal summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vialard, J. [Univerite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Case 100, CNRS, IRD, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Goswami, B.N. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Lengaigne, M. [Univerite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Case 100, CNRS, IRD, Paris Cedex 05 (France); CSIR, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); Sengupta, D. [Indian Institute of Sciences, Centre of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2012-05-15

    During summer, the northern Indian Ocean exhibits significant atmospheric intraseasonal variability associated with active and break phases of the monsoon in the 30-90 days band. In this paper, we investigate mechanisms of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) signature of this atmospheric variability, using a combination of observational datasets and Ocean General Circulation Model sensitivity experiments. In addition to the previously-reported intraseasonal SST signature in the Bay of Bengal, observations show clear SST signals in the Arabian Sea related to the active/break cycle of the monsoon. As the atmospheric intraseasonal oscillation moves northward, SST variations appear first at the southern tip of India (day 0), then in the Somali upwelling region (day 10), northern Bay of Bengal (day 19) and finally in the Oman upwelling region (day 23). The Bay of Bengal and Oman signals are most clearly associated with the monsoon active/break index, whereas the relationship with signals near Somali upwelling and the southern tip of India is weaker. In agreement with previous studies, we find that heat flux variations drive most of the intraseasonal SST variability in the Bay of Bengal, both in our model (regression coefficient, 0.9, against {proportional_to}0.25 for wind stress) and in observations (0.8 regression coefficient); {proportional_to}60% of the heat flux variation is due do shortwave radiation and {proportional_to}40% due to latent heat flux. On the other hand, both observations and model results indicate a prominent role of dynamical oceanic processes in the Arabian Sea. Wind-stress variations force about 70-100% of SST intraseasonal variations in the Arabian Sea, through modulation of oceanic processes (entrainment, mixing, Ekman pumping, lateral advection). Our {proportional_to}100 km resolution model suggests that internal oceanic variability (i.e. eddies) contributes substantially to intraseasonal variability at small-scale in the Somali upwelling region

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Feeding Protects Liver Steatosis in Obese Breast Cancer Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkak, Reza; Bell, Andrea; Korourian, Soheila

    2017-03-20

    Obesity is a major health problem in the US and globally. Obesity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, hyperlipidemia, and liver steatosis development. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a dietary supplement used as an anti-obesity supplement. Previously, we reported that DHEA feeding protects 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of obesity and DHEA feeding on liver steatosis, body weight gain, and serum DHEA, DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. Female Zucker rats were randomly assigned to either a control diet or a control diet with DHEA supplementation for 155 days. Livers were collected for histological examination. Serum was collected to measure DHEA, DHEA-S, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3. Our results show that DHEA-fed rats had significantly less liver steatosis (p DHEA feeding caused significant decreases (p DHEA and DHEA-S. Our results suggest that DHEA feeding can protect against liver steatosis by reducing body weight gain and modulating serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an obese breast cancer rat model.

  8. 76 FR 12683 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... resembled D. ornatus based on bacular (penis bone) measurements. Measurements taken from the baculum, a bone found in the penis of some mammals, varies in shape and size by species and its characteristics are... kangaroo rat has an average total length of approximately 290 millimeters (mm) (11.4 inches (in))...

  9. [Experimental study of the aftereffects of feeding rats certain types of canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neĭman, I M; Andrianova, M M; Beloshapko, A A; Gortalum, G M; Kolosnitsyna, N V

    1978-01-01

    For 3 years fish canned goods were added to the ration of rats. These additions included atlantic herring in tomato gravy ("Stavrida"), dressed sprat in tomato gravy (sprats-small-sized) or sprat in vegetable oil ("Sprat"). Rats receiving canned "small-sized sprats" or "sprats developed much more often malignant tumors of different localization than did the animals fed on "Stavrida" or control rats. Feeding of rats on the vegetable oil from "stavrida" and "sprat" cans did not have any material effect on the development of tumours. Introduction of these samples of oil together with the food or parenterally to mice did not have any substantial influence on the development in them of skin tumors, induced with benzpyrene. The canned goods under investigation, especially of the "sprat" kinds, demonstrated small amounts of benzpyrene and carcinogenic nitroso-compounds.

  10. Chronic Rumex Patientia Seed Feeding Improves Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Due to anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Rumex patientia (RP, this research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic Rumex patientia feeding on alleviation of learning and memory disturbance in streptozotocindiabetic rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, RP-treatedcontrol and -diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered at a dose of 60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, RP-treated groups received RP seed powder mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6% for 4 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Results: It was found out that regarding initial latency, there was no significant difference among the groups. In addition, diabetic rats developed a significant impairment in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (p<0.01, as it is evident by a lower STL. Furthermore, RP treatment of diabetic rats did produce a significant improvement in retention and recall (p<0.05. Discussion: Taken together, chronic RP feeding could improve retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test in STZ-diabetic rats

  11. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  12. Evaluation of apple pomace based reconstituted feed in rats after solid state fermentation and ethanol recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devrajan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available To utilize apple pomace in an economical and effective way, a feed was developed by solid state fermentation (SSF using sequential interactive co-culture of Candida utilis and Kloeckera. Removal of ethanol and drying of the left - over residue. Feeding trial was conducted in white albino rats before and after reconstitution of apple pomace feed in the choice and no choice study. Feeding of apple pomace feed in the rats before reconstitution indicated that neither in fermented nor in unfermented form it was acceptable. In the no choice study both in 100% fermented and unfermented apple pomace group feed intake decreased continuously resulting in death of rats apparently due to decreased digestibility owing to high fibre content. Further, fermented or unfermented apple pomace based feed had lower digestibility and efficiency of conversion than the standard rat feed. Compared to the standard feed group, growth rates in all the feed groups were negative. The results of choice study of different feeds corroborated with the no-choice study mentioned earlier. Incorporation of fermented apple pomace into standard rat feed in the ratio of 1:1 gave better acceptability and digestibility. Reconstituted feed with 10% jaggery, 2% groundnut oil, 0.01% mixed flavour and 1% salt was the most acceptable. The post-mortem examination of the rats that died during the feeding trial revealed generalized oedema, probably due to some hepatotoxin in the feed. The blood glucose level in the apple pomace feed group except that was reconstituted with jaggery, showed a general hypoglycemia, though falling in the range. The increased ALT and AST levels in the serum also suggest damage to the liver. The mortality rate, post-mortem examination of the rats that died during the feeding trial and blood biochemical analysis of rat serum suggest a more elaborative study for extended period of time.Para utilizar bagaço de maçã de uma maneira econômica e eficaz, foi desenvolvido

  13. Effect of Feeding Chapaties Preserved with Sorbic Acid on Growth and Reproduction of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Satyanarayana Rao

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorbic acid, used in concentration of o.3% in chapaties and found satisfactory as a preservative, has been investigated for its safety of use by long term feeding studies with albino rats. The data obtained with regard to growth rate, food consumption, organ to body weight ratio and performance in reproduction show that the preserved foodstuffs containing sorbic acid in the concentration of o.3% are safe for consumption.

  14. Biokinetic study of radionuclides in rats after feeding a chitosan diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Y.; Kim, H.S.; Watanabe, Y.; Yukawa, M.; Imai, K.; Watari, K. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yan, A.; Inaba, J.

    2000-05-01

    Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. Chitin and chitosan are known to be one of the naturals chelating agents. We already reported that the whole-body retention of orally administered {sup 85}Sr in rats decreased remarkably after feeding a chitosan diet when comparing them with controls. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to the animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radionuclides in food. Wistar strain male rats were used in this experiment. These rats were fed with different diets in order to observe the removal of ingested radio-iron and zinc by chitosan. The whole-body retention of radio-iron was slightly lower in the 5%-chitosan diet group than non-chitosan diet group. In tissue distribution study, rats were sacrificed 14 days after administration. The relative concentration of iron in the blood and spleen was found to be lower in the 5%-chitosan diet group. The whole-body retention of {sup 65}Zn decreased sharply in the rats given 3% phytate water in advance of {sup 65}Zn administration when compared with the control rats. The rats given 5% chitosan and 1% phytate water also showed a significant reduction in radio-zinc. However, 5% chitosan diet on it's own did not have a significant effect on accelerating the removal of radio-zinc in the rats. Previous studies have shown that the administration of 1% phytate water is also not effective in reducing radio-zinc in rats. These results suggest that the effectiveness of phytate and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on their concentration. (author)

  15. Changes in satiety hormone concentrations and feed intake in rats in response to lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssten, Sofia D; Korczyńska, Marta Z; Zwijsen, Renate M L; Noordman, Wouter H; Madetoja, Mari; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2013-12-01

    A negative energy balance can be accomplished by reducing the caloric intake which results in an increased feeling of hunger. This physiological state is regulated by secretion of satiety hormones. The secretion of these hormones can be influenced by ingestion of e.g. fat. Fat, dairy beverage and synbiotic mixture have been found to have satiety-inducing effects in humans and rats. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the change of satiety hormone concentration in rats in response to feeding of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria. Two studies were conducted with Wistar rats randomly allocated into groups receiving Lactobacillus fermented (2 L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. salivarius and L. rhamnosus) milk. A single isocaloric oral dose with the test item or control was given to the rats. Blood samples were taken after dosing with the test product and the satiety hormones were measured. For the test groups, significant changes could be detected in PYY concentrations after 60 min, although some groups had a significant lower feed intake. In conclusion, some probiotic Lactobacillus strains may modify satiety hormones production. However, more studies are needed to evaluate their potential of prolonging satiety.

  16. Antinociceptive effect of black seed feeding in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza Vaez mahdavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: Diabetic rats display exaggerated hyperalgesic behavior in response to noxious stimuli that may resemble and model aspects of painful diabetic neuropathy in humans. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Nigella sativum (NS on formalin-induced nociceptive responses (standard formalin test in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats.  Methods: For this purpose, STZ-diabetic rats received Nigella sativum mixed with standard rat chow at a weight ratio of 6.25% orally for a period of one month.  Results: It was found out that NS treatment did cause a significant reduction in blood glucose in diabetic rats and NS-treated diabetic rats exhibited a lower nociceptive score as compared to untreated-diabetic ones. Meanwhile, NS treatment reduced the nociceptive score in both phases of the formalin test. In contrast, sodium salicylate as positive control only reduced this score in the second phase of the test.  Discussion: The results suggest therapeutic potential of NS feeding for treating painful diabetic neuropathy. 

  17. Chronic leptin infusion advances, and immunoneutralization of leptin postpones puberty onset in normally fed and feed restricted female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Does leptin play a vital role in initiating puberty in female rats and can it overrule a nutrionally imposed (i.e. a 30% feed restriction, FR) delay in puberty onset? Prepubertal female rats were chronically infused for 14 days with leptin (icv or sc) or leptin-antiserum (icv) while puberty onset wa

  18. Chronic leptin infusion advances, and immunoneutralization of leptin postpones puberty onset in normally fed and feed restricted female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Does leptin play a vital role in initiating puberty in female rats and can it overrule a nutrionally imposed (i.e. a 30% feed restriction, FR) delay in puberty onset? Prepubertal female rats were chronically infused for 14 days with leptin (icv or sc) or leptin-antiserum (icv) while puberty onset

  19. Effect of feeding grape pomace on selected metabolic parameters associated with high fructose feeding in growing Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Howard, Luke R; Rogers, Theodore J; Wilkes, Samuel E; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Prior, Ronald L

    2011-12-01

    The effect of feeding grape pomace on certain metabolic parameters associated with high fructose (HF) feeding was studied. Forty male growing Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into groups: (1) control; (2) HF; (3) HF with low-level (1.5% of diet) grape pomace (HF+LP), and (4) HF with high-level (5.0% of diet) grape pomace (HF+HP). The HF+LP and HF+HP diets provided 115 and 218 mg of procyanidins/kg, respectively. Compared with the controls, HF-fed animals consumed less and were smaller, whereas animals in the HF+LP and HF+HP groups were in between. A similar trend was observed for abdominal fat and abdominal fat as a percentage of body weight. No change in heart or kidney weight occurred. Liver weight as a percentage of body weight was higher for animals when fructose was included in the diet compared with those on control diet, and inclusion of grape pomace had no effect. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels tended to be higher in animals fed HF diet, and grape pomace reduced their levels to values similar to the control animals. Compared with control animals, HF-fed animals had higher weekly postprandial plasma triglycerides, which were reduced by feeding grape pomace, but no change in plasma cholesterol was observed. Glucose intolerance was observed in animals fed HF diet and was accompanied by a 25% increase in homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance. Inclusion of grape pomace increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. No significant change (P>.1) in HOMA of β-cell function or Quantitative Insulin-Sensitivity Check Index was observed. Overall, HF diet did not produce as strong a response of metabolic syndrome as has been shown in the literature. The inclusion of grape pomace in the diet was effective in modulating some aspects of metabolic parameters associated with metabolic syndrome, and the higher level of grape pomace in the diet produced a slightly better response than the lower level.

  20. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora.

  1. Seeking behavior, place conditioning, and resistance to conditioned suppression of feeding in rats intermittently exposed to palatable food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Santos, Jeffrey W; Smith, Karen L; Ferragud, Antonio; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    Binge eating disorder is characterized by excessive consumption of highly palatable food within short periods of time accompanied by loss of control over eating. Extensive evidence provides support for the consideration of binge eating disorder as an addiction-like disorder. In this study, we wanted to determine whether rats undergoing an operant binge-like eating procedure could develop maladaptive forms of conditioned feeding behaviors. For this purpose, we trained male rats to self-administer either a sugary, highly palatable diet ("Palatable" rats) or a chow diet ("Chow" rats) for 1 hour a day. After escalation and stabilization of palatable food intake, we tested Chow and Palatable rats in (a) a conditioned place preference test, (b) a second-order schedule of reinforcement, (c) a cue-induced suppression of feeding test. In the conditioned place preference task, Palatable rats spent significantly more time in the compartment that was previously paired with the palatable food, compared to Chow controls. Furthermore, in the second-order schedule of reinforcement task, Palatable rats exhibited active lever responding 4- to 6-fold higher than Chow control rats. Finally, in the cue-induced suppression of feeding test, although Chow control subjects reduced responding by 32% in the presence of the conditioned punishment, Palatable rats persevered in responding despite the aversive cue. These results further characterize this animal model of binge-like eating and provide additional evidence for the addictive properties of highly palatable food.

  2. Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillet, Céline A; Mendoza, Jorge; Pévet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    In mammals, the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland is tightly controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). In behaviourally arrhythmic SCN-lesioned rats, we investigated the effects of daily restricted feeding (RF) on pineal melatonin synthesis. RF restored not only a rhythmic transcription of the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin biosynthesis [arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)] and a rhythmic expression of c-FOS but also a rhythmic synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. In control rats without functional SCN and fed ad libitum, a daily immobilization stress did not restore any rhythmicity in the pineal gland. Interestingly, a combination of RF and daily stress prior to the time of food access did not markedly impair AaNat mRNA and c-FOS rhythmicity but did abolish the restoration of rhythmic pineal melatonin. These data indicate that the synchronizing effects of RF on the pineal rhythmicity are not due to, and cannot be mimicked by, high levels of circulating glucocorticoids. In keeping with the multi-oscillatory nature of the circadian system, the rhythmicity of pineal melatonin in mammals, until now an exclusive output of the SCN, can also be controlled by daily feeding cues when the SCN clock is lacking. Thus, the present study demonstrates that daily RF in SCN-lesioned rats provides, probably via sympathetic fibres, synchronizing stimuli strong enough to drive rhythmicity in the pineal gland.

  3. Effect of propolis feeding on rat tissues damaged by X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Seo, Eul Won [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Tae Jeong [Kaya Univ., Goryeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of propolis feeding on rat tissues damaged by X-ray irradiation. It was shown that the number of white blood cell in X-ray irradiated group supplemented with propolis increased as much to those of the control group and also the GOT activities among the blood components were decreased after propolis feeding. The mineral contents such as Mg, Fe, Ca, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, As in liver were increased as compared with those of the control group but maintained lower level than those of only irradiated groups, implying that the propolis feeding elevated the recovery capability of white blood cell effectively and propolis have a potential resistance to cell damage by X-ray. According to histological observations of the testis, intestine and liver tissues which are irradiated after feeding propolis, the numbers of damaged undifferentiated cells were decreased in testis and the shape of the goblet cells and inner and outer muscular layers in intestine were restored to the original state and the hepatocytes and interlobular veins were shown intact in liver, suggesting that propolis has a potential capacity to restore cell shapes or resist deformation of cell.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency at admission is not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: Observational FINNAKI cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Kokko, Tero I; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Nisula, Sara; Koskenkari, Juha; Liisanantti, Janne; Ohtonen, Pasi; Poukkanen, Meri; Laurila, Jouko J; Pettilä, Ville; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased mortality in patients that are critically ill. This study explored whether vitamin D levels were associated with 90-day mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods Plasma vitamin D levels were measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in a prospective multicentre observational study. Results 610 patients with severe sepsis were included; of these, 178 (29%) had septic shock. Vitamin D deficiency (D deficiency (28.3% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.789). Diabetes was more common among patients deficient compared to those not deficient in vitamin D (30% vs. 18%, p D deficiency (31% vs. 16%, p D levels could not predict 90-day mortality ( 0.9; and D deficiency detected upon ICU admission was not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Key messages In severe sepsis and septic shock, a vitamin D deficiency upon ICU admission was not associated with increased mortality. Compared to patients with sufficient vitamin D, patients with deficient vitamin D more frequently exhibited diabetes, elevated C-reactive protein levels, and hospital-acquired infections upon ICU admission, and they more frequently developed acute kidney injury.

  5. Influence of CO2 change during 90-day experiment on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegetables grown in Lunar Palace 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    To establish bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) on lunar or Mars bases in the future, it is necessary to firstly conduct manned simulation experiments on the ground. For this purpose, Lunar palace 1 as an integrative experimental facility for permanent astrobase life support artificial closed ecosystem was set up, and 90-day experiment was carried out in this system. Vegtables as one of the important plant units, provide various nutrient content for crews in the system, such as vitamin, antioxidants and so on. However, it is not clear yet that how the CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment to affect on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegtables grown in the system. In this study, red lettuce, red rape, romaine lettuce, and bibb lettuce grown in the system were chosen as the subject investigated. Growth, expressed as dry weight, length of shoot and root, leaf area, was mearsured, and photosynthesis,expressed as net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO _{2} concentration, chlorophyll contents and fluorescence was analyzed to detemind influence of CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment on growth in vegtables grown in the system.

  6. Quantifying hepatic glycogen synthesis by direct and indirect pathways in rats under normal ad libitum feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana F; Viega, Francisco J; Carvalho, Rui A; Jones, John G

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic glycogen synthesis from intact hexose (direct pathway) relative to that from gluconeogenic precursors (indirect pathway) was quantified in ad libitum-fed rats. Following (2)H(2)O administration and overnight feeding, the livers were removed and glycogen (2)H-enrichment was measured by (2)H NMR. Six controls and six rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (STZ; fasting blood glucose = 385 +/- 31 mg/dl) were studied. The indirect pathway contribution, estimated as glycogen hydrogen 5 relative to hydrogen 2 enrichment, was 54% +/- 4% for control rats-similar to values from healthy, meal-fed humans. In STZ-treated rats, the indirect pathway contribution was significantly higher (68% +/- 4%, P diabetic (T1D) patients. In conclusion, sources of hepatic glycogen synthesis in rats during ad libitum nocturnal feeding were quantified by analysis of glycogen enrichment from (2)H(2)O. STZ caused alterations resembling the pathophysiology of hepatic glycogen synthesis in T1D patients.

  7. Chenopodium ambrosioides associated with whole body vibration exercises alters the feed intake in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, André Luiz Bandeira Dionizio; Frederico, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Almeida, Lívia Pinto; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia Cunha; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Dionello, Carla de Fontoura; Morel, Danielle Soares; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-08-31

    The consequences of treatment involving the use of a natural product and whole body vibration (WBV) exercise have been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the joint treatment with an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and WBV on physiological parameters in rats. Wistar rats (n=20) were divided equally into four groups: control group (CG), treated with C. ambrosioides (CHE) group, exposed to 50 Hz of mechanial vibration (VBR), and treated with C. ambrosioides and exposed to 50 Hz of mechanical vibration (VBR + CHE) daily for 6 weeks. The body mass of the animals was determined weekly, the feed intake and the stool consistency were measured daily. One day after the 6 weeks of treatment, samples of blood were collected and used for biochemical analysis. Along 6 weeks, there was an increase (Pambrosioides caused alteration in the enzymatic activity of AST. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Effect of feeding graded doses of Citrinin on clinical and teratology in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N D; Sharma, A K; Patil, R D; Rahman, S; Leishangthem, G D; Kumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Citrinin is the one of the well-known mycotoxins, which is possibly spread all over the world. The graded doses of citrinin (1, 3 and 5 ppm CIT in feed) in female Wistar rats 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating and during organogenesis resulted in resorptions and post implantation losses, decreased fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths in fetuses of all groups. Various developmental anomalies recorded in fetuses of treated rats included gross (wrist drop, curled tail, stretched forelimb, subcutaneous haematoma), skeletal (incomplete ossification of skull bones, incomplete fusion of vertebral bodies, complete and partial agenesis of sternaebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, fused ribs and swing out ribs) and visceral (internal and external hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, microphthalmia, roundening of heart, contracted kidneys, dilated renal pelvis and cryptorchid testes). The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals.

  9. Effects of Dietary Different Doses of Copper and High Fructose Feeding on Rat Fecal Metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoli; Song, Ming; Yin, Xinmin; Schuschke, Dale A; Koo, Imhoi; McClain, Craig J; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-09-04

    The gut microbiota plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Increased fructose consumption and inadequate copper intake are two critical risk factors in the development of NAFLD. To gain insight into the role of gut microbiota, fecal metabolites, obtained from rats exposed to different dietary levels of copper with and without high fructose intake for 4 weeks, were analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF MS). In parallel, liver tissues were assessed by histology and triglyceride assay. Our data showed that high fructose feeding led to obvious hepatic steatosis in both marginal copper deficient rats and copper supplementation rats. Among the 38 metabolites detected with significant abundance alteration between groups, short chain fatty acids were markedly decreased with excessive fructose intake irrespective of copper levels. C15:0 and C17:0 long chain fatty acids, produced only by bacteria, were increased by either high copper level or high fructose intake. In addition, increased fecal urea and malic acid paralleled the increased hepatic fat accumulation. Collectively, GC × GC-TOF MS analysis of rat fecal samples revealed distinct fecal metabolome profiles associated with the dietary high fructose and copper level, with some metabolites possibly serving as potential noninvasive biomarkers of fructose induced-NAFLD.

  10. Fructose feeding in the suckling-weaning transition in rats: effects on hyperlipidemia in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R C; Hoedl, A; Turchinsky, J

    2003-02-01

    The sucking-weaning transition is characterized by high rates of growth and development and may be a sensitive period during which dietary intake could program metabolism to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in adulthood. Intake of a high fructose (FR) diet is known to induce hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in rats when they are consuming this diet. We examined whether a FR diet fed early in life produces detrimental changes in lipid and glucose metabolism that persist to adulthood. Weanling rats were fed 65% FR (wt/wt), a purified control diet (CNTL) or standard chow (CHOW) for 5 weeks. Beyond 9 weeks of age, all rats were fed CHOW. During FR feeding, plasma triglycerides (TG) were significantly elevated in the FR group (FR = 217 +/- 20; CNTL = 163 +/- 17; chow = 156 +/- 10). At 21 wks of age, TG's were similar in rats fed FR or CNTL versus CHOW at weaning (p > 0.87). Hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity was elevated in FR and CNTL groups vs. CHOW (65 +/- 7, 72 +/- 6 vs. 48 +/- 4 nmol NADPH/mg protein/min, p glucose homeostasis at 21 weeks of age. Early exposure to a diet high in simple sugars (FR or CNTL) and/or low in fiber during the suckling-weaning transition may contribute to modest dyslipidemia later in life. Together, changes observed in this study may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.

  11. Effects of neonatal overfeeding on juvenile and adult feeding and energy expenditure in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Stefanidis

    Full Text Available Overfeeding during perinatal life leads to an overweight phenotype that persists throughout the juvenile stage and into adulthood, however, the mechanism(s underlying this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that obesity due to neonatal overfeeding is maintained by changes in energy expenditure and that these changes differ between males and females. We investigated feeding, physical activity, hormonal and metabolic alterations that occur in adult rats made obese by having been nursed in small litters (SL compared with those from control litters (CL. There were no differences in absolute food intake between the groups, and juvenile and adult SL rats ate less chow per gram body weight than the CL did in the dark (active phase. Juvenile, but not adult SL rats did have reduced whole body energy expenditure, but there were no differences between the groups by the time they reached adulthood. Adult SL females (but not males had reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT temperatures compared with CL in the first half of the dark phase. Our results indicate a persistent overweight phenotype in rats overfed as neonates is not associated with hyperphagia at any stage, but is reflected in reduced energy expenditure into the juvenile phase. The reduced dark phase BAT activity in adult SL females is not sufficient to reduce total energy expenditure at this stage of life and there is an apparently compensatory effect that prevents SL and CL from continuing to diverge in weight that appears between the juvenile and adult stages.

  12. Two generation reproduction and teratogenicity studies of feeding quinocetone fed to Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yu-Lian; Ihsan, Awais; Dai, Meng-Hong; Huang, Ling-Li; Chen, Dong-Mei; Tao, Yan-Fei; Peng, Da-Peng; Liu, Zhen-Li; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of quinocetone, a growth promoting agent, Wistar rats were fed different diets containing 0, 50, 300 and 1800 mg/kg quinocetone or 300 mg/kg olaquindox. Groups of 15 males and 30 females (F(0)) were fed through a 10-week prebreed period as well as during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 12 males and 24 females of F(1) generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for F(2) generation. Selected F(1) weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights in F(0) and F(1) rats, fetal body weight on day 21 after birth and number of viable fetuses in F(0) and F(1) generation significantly decreased. In teratogenicity study, groups of 12 males and 24 females were fed with the same diets through a 12-week prebreed period and matting periods. Pregnant rats were subjected to cesarean section on GD 20 for teratogenic examination. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights and feed efficiency, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses significantly decreased. The NOAEL for reproduction/development of quinocetone for rats was estimated to be 300 mg/kg diet.

  13. Improvements of postburn renal function by early enteral feeding and their possible mechanisms in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhu; Zong-Cheng Yang; De-Chang Chen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of early enteral feeding (EEF) on postburn impairments of renal function and their possible mechanisms.METHODS: Wistar rats with 30 % of total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness burn were adopted as the experimental model. The effects of EEF on the postburn changes of gastric intramucosal pH (pHi), endotoxin levels in portal vein, water contents of renal tissue, and blood concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Ct), as well as the changes of clearance of creatinine (CCr) were dynamically observed within 48 h postburn.RESULTS: EEF could significantly improve gastric mucosal acidosis, reduce portal vein endotoxin levels and water contents of renal tissue, as well as blood concentrations of TNF<α after severe burns (P<0.01). The postburn elevations of BUN and BCr were not found to be recovered by EEF.However, the CCr in EEF group was greatly increased by 4.67-fold compared with that of the non-feeding burned control (16.43±2.90 vs. 3.52±0.79, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: EEF has beneficial effects on the improvement of renal function in severely burned rats, which may be related to its increase of splanchnic blood flow,decrease of the translocation of gut-origin endotoxin and the release of inflammatory mediators.

  14. Differential expression of CART in feeding and reward circuits in binge eating rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharne, Ashish P; Borkar, Chandrashekhar D; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2015-09-15

    Binge eating (BE) disrupts feeding and subverts reward mechanism. Since cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) mediates satiety as well as reward, its role in BE justifies investigation. To induce BE, rats were provided restricted access to high fat sweet palatable diet (HFSPD) for a period of 4 weeks. Immunoreactivity profile of the CART elements, and accompanying neuroplastic changes were studied in satiety- and reward-regulating brain nuclei. Further, we investigated the effects of CART, CART-antibody or rimonabant on the intake of normal chow or HFSPD. Rats fed on HFSPD showed development of BE-like phenotype as reflected by significant consumption of HFSPD in short time frame, suggestive of dysregulated satiety mechanisms. At the mid-point during BE, CART-immunoreactivity was significantly increased in hypothalamic arcuate (ARC), lateral (LH), nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT). However, for next 22-h post-binge time-period, the animals showed no interest in food, and low CART expression. Pre-binge treatment with rimonabant, a drug recommended for the treatment of BE, produced anorexia, increased CART expression in ARC and LH, but not in AcbSh and PVT. Higher dose of CART was required to produce anorexia in binged rats. While neuronal tracing studies confirmed CART fiber connectivity from ARC and LH to AcbSh, increase in CART and synaptophysin immunostaining in this pathway in BE rats suggested strengthening of the CART connectivity. We conclude that CART bearing ARC-LH-PVT-AcbSh reward circuit may override the satiety signaling in ARC-PVN pathway in BE rats.

  15. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Debora van der Merwe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis extract (GRE was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE/kg body weight (bw/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study. Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p < 0.05 compared to the control after 90 days, but no effect on body and organ weight parameters was observed. GRE significantly (p < 0.05 reduced serum total cholesterol and iron levels, whilst significantly (p < 0.05 increasing alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity after 90 days. Endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, i.e., catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, was not adversely affected. Glutathione reductase activity significantly (p < 0.05 increased after 28 days, while glutathione (GSH content was decreased after 90 days, suggesting an altered glutathione redox cycle. Quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis showed altered expression of certain antioxidant defense and oxidative stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  16. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Johanna Debora; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2015-12-18

    An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract (GRE) was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP) intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg body weight (bw)/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs) of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study). Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control after 90 days, but no effect on body and organ weight parameters was observed. GRE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced serum total cholesterol and iron levels, whilst significantly (p < 0.05) increasing alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity after 90 days. Endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, i.e., catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, was not adversely affected. Glutathione reductase activity significantly (p < 0.05) increased after 28 days, while glutathione (GSH) content was decreased after 90 days, suggesting an altered glutathione redox cycle. Quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed altered expression of certain antioxidant defense and oxidative stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  17. Thioperamide, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist, suppresses NPY-but not dynorphin A-induced feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, E; Fujimiya, M; Inui, A

    1998-09-25

    Whether or not neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced feeding in rats is influenced by the histaminergic system in the brain was investigated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of a selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist prior to i.c.v. administration of NPY. NPY (10 microg/10 microl) strongly induced feeding in sated rats during the light phase of the day. Dynorphin A1-17 (10 microg/10 microl), a kappa-opioid agonist, and rat pancreatic polypeptide (rPP, 30 microg/10 microl) also stimulated ingestive behavior in sated rats, but food intake in both cases was less than that induced by NPY. Thioperamide maleate, a specific histamine H3 receptor antagonist (408.5 microg/10 microl) reduced the feeding response to NPY by 52% (P < 0.0001), but not to dynorphin A1-17 and rPP. Thioperamide at i.c.v. doses of 40.8-408.5 microg/10 microl had no effect on food intake in sated rats. These results suggest that the thioperamide may have a specific effect on NPY receptor-mediated neuronal systems related to feeding.

  18. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  19. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Sarah I; Holmes, Nathan; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow) for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  20. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per;

    2016-01-01

    training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. PURPOSE: the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons...... inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days' follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE...

  1. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A; Lloyd, Jenny; Silber, Beata; Redman, Stephanie; Hutchison, Chris; Wesnes, Keith; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2008-12-01

    While Ayurvedic medicine has touted the cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera for centuries, there is a need for double-blind placebo-controlled investigations. One hundred and seven healthy participants were recruited for this double-blind placebo-controlled independent group design investigation. Sixty-two participants completed the study with 80% treatment compliance. Neuropsychological testing using the Cognitive Drug Research cognitive assessment system was conducted at baseline and after 90 days of treatment with a special extract of Bacopa monniera (2 x 150 mg KeenMind) or placebo. The Bacopa monniera product significantly improved performance on the 'Working Memory' factor, more specifically spatial working memory accuracy. The number of false-positives recorded in the Rapid visual information processing task was also reduced for the Bacopa monniera group following the treatment period. The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration.

  2. ICV leptin effects on spontaneous physical activity and feeding behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yang-Ho; Li, Changlong; Hartzell, Diane L; Little, Dianne E; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Baile, Clifton A

    2008-03-17

    Although leptin causes negative energy balance by reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure, the effect of leptin on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) is not clearly established. To test the hypothesis that leptin enhances SPA in rats, male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with either 10mug of leptin or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) before dark onset (12:00h) once daily for 5 successive days. The rats were individually housed in behavioral monitoring cages to measure feeding behavior and SPA throughout the study. Both groups had a diurnal pattern of SPA being low during the light period and high during the dark period. Specifically, there were two peaks of SPA during the dark period, with the first peak taking place around the dark onset and the second occurring approximately 6h towards the light onset. Leptin treatment resulted in a significant increase in SPA whether or not it was expressed in terms of light-dark, daily or diurnal basis. Increased SPA was consistently observed throughout the entire 5-day study in spite of the fact that the rats were consistently eating less and losing body weight. With reduction in weight of fat pads and increase in apoptosis of fat pads but no change in body temperature, leptin decreased size, duration and number of meals without altering eating rate, thereby increasing satiety. Our data show that increased activity is a key determinant in negative energy balance induced by leptin, which cannot be accounted for solely by the leptin-induced food intake reduction.

  3. Effect of Maternal Intake of Organically or Conventionally Produced Feed on Oral Tolerance Development in Offspring Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings’ response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems...

  4. Effect of intermittent chronic exposure to hypoxia on feeding behaviour of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. B.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1993-12-01

    Healthy albino male rats were exposed to a simulated high altitude (HA) equivalent to 25000 ft (7620 m) for 6 h daily, continuously for 21 days to study the feeding behaviour. The 24-h food and water intake and body weight once in 3 days were recorded. Blood samples were drawn once a week from the retro-orbital venous plexus for blood sugar analysis. All the parameters were recorded before, during and after exposure to simulated HA. The results show a decrease in 24-h food and water intake and decreased gain in body weight during hypoxic exposure, which showed a tendency to come back to control during the post-exposure period. The blood sugar reflected a state of mild hyperglycaemia during exposure to HA.

  5. High-fat diet feeding induces sex-dependent changes in inflammatory and insulin sensitivity profiles of rat adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrany, Maria E; Proenza, Ana M; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine, in rats of both sexes, the effect of HF diet feeding on the expression of adipokines involved in inflammatory status and insulin sensitivity and on the levels of proteins involved in lipid handling of retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (2.9% w/w fat) or an HF diet (30% w/w fat) for 14 weeks. Adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and inflammatory marker mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of insulin receptor, glucose transporter 4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, fatty acid synthase, hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase were determined by Western blot. HF diet feeding did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain but did promote an increase in adiposity although only in male rats. HF diet impaired glucose tolerance and the expression of inflammatory and insulin sensitivity markers in adipose tissue of male rats, but not in female rats. Male rats seem to be more prone to disorders associated with an unbalanced composition of the diet, even in the absence of hyperphagia. In contrast, female rats counteract excessive fat intake by improving their ability to use lipid fuels, which limits adiposity and maintains insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  7. Changes in medication regimen complexity and the risk for 90-day hospital readmission and/or emergency department visits in U.S. Veterans with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Felix K; Lew, Tiffany; Eraly, Satish A; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Hirsch, Jan D; Devor, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) hospitalization is associated with multiple medication modifications. These modifications often increase medication regimen complexity and may increase the risk of readmission and/or emergency department (ED) visit. To determine the association between changes in medication regimen complexity (MRC) during hospitalization of patients with heart failure and the risk of readmission or ED visit at 90 days. Secondary objectives include examining the association between changes in MRC and time to readmission as well as the relationship between number of medications and MRC. This was a retrospective cohort study that included U.S. Veterans hospitalized with heart failure. MRC was quantified using the medication regimen complexity index (MRCI). The change in MRCI was the difference between admission MRCI and discharge MRCI recorded during the index hospitalization. Demographic and clinical data were collected to characterize the study population. Patient data for up to one year after discharge was recorded to identify hospital readmissions and ED visits. A total of 174 patients were included in the analysis. Sixty-two patients (36%) were readmitted or had an ED visit at 90 days from the index hospitalization. The mean change (SD) in MRCI during the index hospitalization among the cohort was 4.7 (8.3). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, each unit increase in MRCI score was associated with a 4% lower odds of readmission or ED visit at 90 days but this finding was not statistically significant (OR 0.955; 95% CI 0.911-1.001). In the cox proportional hazard model, the median time to hospital readmission or ED visit was 214 days. Each unit increase in MRCI score was associated with a modest but non-significant increase in probability of survival from readmission or ED visit (HR 0.978; 95% CI 0.955, 1.001). Changes in medication regimen complexity that occur during hospitalization may also be associated with optimization of medical therapy and do

  8. Nature of elevated rat intestinal carbohydrase activities after high-carbohydrate diet feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, K.K.; Kwong, L.K.; Yamada, K.; Sunshine, P.; Koldovsky, O.

    1985-10-01

    Adult rats that were maintained on a low-carbohydrate intake showed rapid increase in the activities of sucrase, maltase, and lactase along the length of the small intestine when they were fed a high-starch diet. In the present study, the authors have identified these activity increases, and showed that they reflect proportional accumulations in enzyme-protein of sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, and neutral lactase. It was determined that each of these enzymes exists in adult rat intestine in single immunoreactive form and accounts as a group for all sucrase, cellobiase, and most maltase and lactase activities. Dietary change from low to high carbohydrate (starch) resulted in an increase in (TH)leucine accumulation in each of the enzymes, without a change in the amount of label accumulation in total intestinal proteins. The increase in label accumulation in the brush-border carbohydrase pools was matched generally by proportional elevation in the pool concentrations of sucrase-isomaltase and lactase but not maltase. These studies suggest that the elevation of intestinal carbohydrase concentrations induced by high-carbohydrate feeding may involve selective stimulation of their synthesis.

  9. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Bio-Derived Gevo Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) in Rats with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-31

    beef fat , HEFA-T) were established as non-mutagenic by Mattie et al. (2013). Riccio et al. (2010) found HEFA from mixed fats and oils (HEFA-F) to be...nose, oral cavity, abdomen and external genitalia as well as evaluations of respiration, circulatory effects, autonomic effects, central nervous...not be treated with an anticoagulant. V.4.3.2. Procedure(s) Following anesthesia per section V.4.1.2.1, the abdomen will be opened with scissors

  10. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) Bio-Based Jet Fuel in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    nociception , social interaction, the forced swim test, spontaneous locomotor activity, passive avoidance or Morris water maze performance. However...system. V.4. Technical Methods V.4.1. Pain / Distress Assessment V.4.1.1. APHIS Form 7023 Information V.4.1.1.1. Number of Animals V...4.1.1.1.1. Column C: 0 V.4.1.1.1.2. Column D: 150 V.4.1.1.1.3. Column E: 0 V.4.1.2. Pain Relief / Prevention V.4.1.2.1. Anesthesia

  11. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance...... training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. PURPOSE: the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons...... inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days' follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE...

  12. Two-generation reproduction and teratology studies of feeding aditoprim in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Tan, Ziqiang; Cheng, Guyue; Awais, Ihsan; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-12-01

    Aditoprim, a new bacteriostatic agent that belongs to diaminopyrimidines, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, good antibacterial activity and excellent pharmacokinetics. To evaluate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of aditoprim, different concentrations of aditoprim were administered to Wistar rats by feeding diets containing 0, 20, 100 and 1000 mg kg(-1) , respectively. Each group consisting of 18 males and 25 females (F0 ) was treated with different concentrations of aditoprim through a 13-week period before mating and during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 20 males and 25 females of the F1 generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for the F2 generation. Selected F1 weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At 1000 mg kg(-1) dose group, body weights in F0 and F1 rats, fetal body weight on day 21 (0, 4 and 21) after birth and number of viable fetuses in the F0 and F1 generation significantly decreased. Teratogenicity study was performed in combination with the F1 generation of a two-generation reproduction study. F1 parents of the reproduction study were mated after weaning of the F2a pups. Pregnant female rats were subjected to cesarean section on gestational day 20 for teratogenic examination. At 1000 mg kg(-1) group, body weights, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses were significantly decreased. No obvious external, skeletal or visceral malformations in fetuses were noted in any groups in the teratogenic test. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for reproduction/development toxicity of aditoprim was 100 mg kg(-1) diet (about 7.89-9.25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) ).

  13. Effect of complications within 90 days on patient-reported outcomes 3 months and 12 months following elective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotai, Silky; Parker, Scott L; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Sielatycki, J Alex; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT There is a paradigm shift toward rewarding providers for quality rather than volume. Complications appear to occur at a fairly consistent frequency in large aggregate data sets. Understanding how complications affect long-term patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following degenerative lumbar surgery is vital. The authors hypothesized that 90-day complications would adversely affect long-term PROs. METHODS Nine hundred six consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for degenerative lumbar disease over a period of 4 years were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal registry. The following PROs were recorded at baseline and 12-month follow-up: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, numeric rating scales for back and leg pain, quality of life (EQ-5D scores), general physical and mental health (SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] scores) and responses to the North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Previously published minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold were used to define meaningful improvement. Complications were divided into major (surgicalsite infection, hardware failure, new neurological deficit, pulmonary embolism, hematoma and myocardial infarction) and minor (urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and deep venous thrombosis). RESULTS Complications developed within 90 days of surgery in 13% (118) of the patients (major in 12% [108] and minor in 8% [68]). The mean improvement in ODI scores, EQ-5D scores, SF-12 PCS scores, and satisfaction at 3 months after surgery was significantly less in the patients with complications than in those who did not have major complications (ODI: 13.5 ± 21.2 vs 21.7 ± 19, lumbar spine surgery have significant impact on the short-term PROs. Patients with complications, however, do eventually achieve clinically meaningful outcomes and report satisfaction equivalent to those without major complications. This information allows a physician to

  14. Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or ‘minor’ stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Michael; Cupples, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Background Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ‘minor’ stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. Aim To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. Design and setting The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Method Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. Results A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. Conclusion There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed. PMID:27919935

  15. Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or 'minor' stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Michael; Cupples, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or 'minor' stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  16. Vitamin A and feeding statuses modulate the insulin-regulated gene expression in Zucker lean and fatty primary rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Unattended hepatic insulin resistance predisposes individuals to dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and many other metabolic complications. The mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance at the gene expression level remains unrevealed. To examine the effects of vitamin A (VA, total energy intake and feeding conditions on the insulin-regulated gene expression in primary hepatocytes of Zucker lean (ZL and fatty (ZF rats, we analyze the expression levels of hepatic model genes in response to the treatments of insulin and retinoic acid (RA. We report that the insulin- and RA-regulated glucokinase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expressions are impaired in hepatocytes of ZF rats fed chow or a VA sufficient (VAS diet ad libitum. The impairments are partially corrected when ZF rats are fed a VA deficient (VAD diet ad libitum or pair-fed a VAS diet to the intake of their VAD counterparts in non-fasting conditions. Interestingly in the pair-fed ZL and ZF rats, transient overeating on the last day of pair-feeding regimen changes the expression levels of some VA catabolic genes, and impairs the insulin- and RA-regulated gene expression in hepatocytes. These results demonstrate that VA and feeding statuses modulate the hepatic insulin sensitivity at the gene expression level.

  17. Nephrotoxic effects of aquoeus extract U & Dee Sweet Bitter (a Nigerian herbal remedy) in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezejiofor, N A; Maduagwuna, N; Igwebuike, Onyiaorah Victor; Hussaini, D C; Orisakwe, O E

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the extract of U & Dee Sweet Bitter, a Nigerian herbal remedy on the kidney was investigated in matured Wistar albino rats. Twenty male albino rats were allocated into four dose groups of five rats each, namely 0.00, 539, 1077, 1616 mg/kg of the herbal product orally for 90 days. Animals had access to deionized water and were fed ad libitum with rat chow for 90 days. The feed and fluid consumption of the animals were measured on daily basis, and the body weight was measured weekly. After 90 days, the animals were anaesthetized with ether, bled, sacrificed, kidney excised, and weighed. The parameters measured included food and fluid intake, body weight, absolute and relative weight of the kidney. A nonsignificant increase (p > .05) in feed and fluid intake occurred in all treated animals and a significant decrease (p Dee Sweet Bitter caused a significant (p Dee Sweet Bitter at all doses caused renal pathologic changes that include tubular necrosis, inflammation of the interstitial and glomerulus, and disorganization of the entire architecture. The results are indicative of nephrotoxicity.

  18. Large molecule protein feeding during the suckling period is required for the development of pancreatic digestive functions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Toshi; Koyama, Satomi; Harada, Etsumori; Yajima, Takaji

    2012-12-15

    We examined if large molecule protein feeding during the suckling period is prerequisite for the proper development of pancreatic digestive functions. Most amino acids in breast milk exist as the constituent of large proteins and not as oligopeptides or free amino acids. Accumulating evidence indicates the nutritional importance of large protein feeding for suckling infants; however, evidence on the physiological significance remains small. We thus artificially reared rat pups on a standard rat formula with milk protein or a formula with milk protein hydrolysate from 7 to 21 days of age, and thereafter, fed a standard solid diet until 42 days of age. Pancreas weight and the stock of pancreatic digestive enzymes in the hydrolysate-fed rats were significantly lower than those in the protein-fed rats during and also after the suckling period. Plasma insulin, a stimulator of amylase synthesis, was also significantly low in the hydrolysate-fed rats compared with the protein-fed rats. At 28 days of age, we evaluated the pancreatic secretory ability in response to dietary protein and cholecystokinin (CCK) by means of pancreatic duct cannulation. Pancreatic secretion stimulated by dietary protein in the hydrolysate-fed rats was significantly weaker than that in the protein-fed rats. No significant difference was observed in the increasing rate of pancreatic enzyme secretion in response to CCK between the two groups. These results suggest that the presence of large proteins in breast milk is significant for the development of pancreatic digestive functions and the outcomes could remain even later on in life.

  19. High-fat feeding reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rats: differential mechanisms for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang-Yao; Gao, Yu; Di, Yu-Wei; Pan, Li-Li; Zhou, Yu; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2006-08-01

    1. Chronic feeding with a high-fat diet can cause metabolic syndrome in rodents similar to humans, but the role of saturated versus unsaturated fats in vascular tension remains unclear. 2. The present study shows that rats on a diet rich in either saturated or unsaturated fat had higher blood pressure compared with chow-fed rats (approximately 130 vs 100 mmHg, respectively), along with hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Compared with responses of phenylephrine-preconstricted artery segments from chow-fed rats, vasorelaxation of isolated renal arteries from high-fat fed rats was reduced substantially (> 50%) in response to acetylcholine (0.01-10 micromol/L) and moderately to nitroprusside (>or=1 micromol/L) at low concentrations. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of arteries from high-fat fed rats was also more sensitive to inhibition by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine and methylene blue. 3. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the production of NO and endothelin-1 was significantly inhibited by unsaturated fatty acids. In comparison, saturated fatty acids stimulated endothelin-1 production without altering NO production. 4. The data indicate that both saturated and unsaturated high-fat feeding may result in an increase in blood pressure owing to reduced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the arterial system. The impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids may involve different mechanisms.

  20. Differential body weight and feeding responses to high-fat diets in rats and mice lacking cholecystokinin 1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sheng; Chen, Jie; Behles, R Ryan; Hyun, Jayson; Kopin, Alan S; Moran, Timothy H

    2007-07-01

    Prior data demonstrated differential roles for cholecystokinin (CCK)1 receptors in maintaining energy balance in rats and mice. CCK1 receptor deficiency results in hyperphagia and obesity of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats but not in mice. To ascertain the role of CCK1 receptors in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity, we compared alterations in food intake, body weight, fat mass, plasma glucose, and leptin levels, and patterns of hypothalamic gene expression in OLETF rats and mice lacking CCK1 receptors in response to a 10-wk exposure to HFD. Compared with Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) control rats, OLETF rats on HFD had sustained overconsumption over the 10-wk period. High fat feeding resulted in greater increases in body weight and plasma leptin levels in OLETF than in LETO rats. In situ hybridization determinations revealed that, while HFD reduced neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression in both the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of LETO rats, HFD resulted in decreased NPY expression in the Arc but not in the DMH of OLETF rats. In contrast to these results in OLETF rats, HFD increased food intake and induced obesity to an equal degree in both wild-type and CCK1 receptor(-/-) mice. NPY gene expression was decreased in the Arc in response to HFD, but was not detectable in the DMH in both wild-type and CCK1 receptor(-/-) mice. Together, these data provide further evidence for differential roles of CCK1 receptors in the controls of food intake and body weight in rats and mice.

  1. Levonorgestrel butanoate intramuscular injection does not reliably suppress ovulation for 90 days in obese and normal-BMI women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Alison B; Cherala, Ganesh; Li, Hong; Pau, Francis; Blithe, Diana L; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2017-01-01

    We performed a pilot evaluation of a new formulation of levonorgestrel butanoate (LB) designed to be a long-acting injectable (6 months) contraceptive to determine pharmacodynamic end points in normal-body mass index (BMI) and obese women. Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and normal-BMI, otherwise healthy, women received a single intramuscular injection of LB after ovulation was confirmed in a baseline cycle. The primary outcome was return of ovulation in days. A total of 14 women enrolled and completed the study [normal BMI n=9, median BMI 22.7kg/m(2) (range 19.4-25.8); obese n=5, median BMI 35.7kg/m(2) (30.1-39.2)]. The first 6 subjects (normal BMI=4/9, obese BMI=2/5) received 40 mg of LB, and the remaining 8 received 20 mg. All women except one returned to ovulation prior to 6 months. Return to ovulation occurred earlier in the obese group; 3/5 obese and 0/9 normal BMI subjects returned to ovulation within 90 days (p=.03). No serious adverse events were reported during the study. Return to ovulation was earlier than 6 months in both BMI groups but more so in the obese BMI group. Since return of ovulation was earlier than expected for this LB injectable formulation, additional steps are needed to develop a preparation suitable as a longer-lasting product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis(®)). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome.

  3. A 90 day safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein using an aquatic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao-Jun; Chen, Yi; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Jia-Mei; Ding, Jia-Tong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2015-04-15

    In fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and nontarget insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein (Huahui 1, HH1) on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days. After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight (on day 90: 27.7 ± 2.17, 27.4 ± 2.40, and 27.9 ± 1.67 g for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), body length (on day 90: 60.2 ± 1.55, 59.3 ± 2.33, and 59.7 ± 1.64 mm for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, or the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets. This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

  4. Meropenem vs standard of care for treatment of late onset sepsis in children of less than 90 days of age: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Cabre Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late onset neonatal sepsis (LOS with the mortality of 17 to 27% is still a serious disease. Meropenem is an antibiotic with wide antibacterial coverage. The advantage of it over standard of care could be its wider antibacterial coverage and thus the use of mono-instead of combination therapy. Methods NeoMero-1, an open label, randomised, comparator controlled, superiority trial aims to compare the efficacy of meropenem with a predefined standard of care (ampicillin + gentamicin or cefotaxime + gentamicin in the treatment of LOS in neonates and infants aged less than 90 days admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 550 subjects will be recruited following a 1:1 randomisation scheme. The trial includes patients with culture confirmed (at least one positive culture from normally sterile site except coagulase negative staphylococci in addition to one clinical or laboratory criterion or clinical sepsis (at least two laboratory and two clinical criteria suggestive of LOS in subjects with postmenstrual age The study will start recruitment in September 2011; the total duration is of 24 months. Trial registration EudraCT 2011-001515-31

  5. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist’s armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  6. Tracer kinetic analysis of Cori cycle activity in the rat: effect of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, M; Ui, M

    1977-02-01

    Turnover rates of blood glucose and lactate, along with the rates of their interconversion, were calculated from changes of their specific activities in rats infused with [U-14C] glucose and [U-14C] lactate based on a simple flux model of the Cori cycle. In the fasted state, most (75%) of the glucose metabolized was converted to lactate, whereas only a small fraction (35%) of the lactate metabolized was converted to glucose. Of the glucose metabolized, 27% returned from the lactate pool to the glucose pool. Feeding stimulated the outflow of glucose carbon from the Cori cycle via the action of secreted insulin. Insulin-induced stimulation of blood glucose removal was associated with increased glucose production, whereas anti-insulin serum-induced stimulation of glucose production was associated with increased glucose removal. It is argued that a "compensatory" mechanism independent of insulin and epinephrine might be in operation to minimize the glycemic changes that would otherwise occur in response to drastic metabolic changes.

  7. Area postrema lesions produce feeding deficits in the rat: effects of preoperative dieting and 2-deoxy-D-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, R J; Fox, E; Drugovich, M L

    1982-11-01

    To investigate the possible role of the area postrema (AP) in the control of food intake and body weight, male albino rats were divided into four groups: (a) animals dieted to 80% of their original body weights prior to receiving AP lesions, (b) nondieted animals with AP lesions, (c) animals dieted to 80% prior to receiving sham lesions, and (d) nondieted animals with sham lesions. Lesions of the AP in nondieted rats resulted in hypophagia, hypodipsia and body weight loss followed by recovery of normal intake and maintenance of body weight at a fixed percentage of the sham operated animals' weight. Reducing body weight prior to surgery led to body weight maintenance levels equivalent to those of the nondieted groups. We also tested the animals for sensitivity to glucoprivation caused by intraperitoneal injections of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). Injections of 2-DG produced hyperphagia in sham lesioned rats, but not in rats with AP lesions. Our data suggest that the effects of AP lesions on intake and body weight are similar, in several important respects, to the lateral hypothalamic feeding syndrome and to the effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. We discuss the results with respect to hierarchical levels of neural circuitry involved in controlling feeding behavior.

  8. Inhibitory effects of feeding with carrots or (-)-falcarinol on development of azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lesions in the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Christensen, Lars P; Vach, Werner; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Jelmera; Brandt, Kirsten

    2005-03-09

    The effects of intake of dietary amounts of carrot or corresponding amounts of (-)-(3R)-falcarinol from carrots on development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon preneoplastic lesions were examined in male BDIX rats. Three groups of eight AOM-treated rats were fed the standard rat feed Altromin supplemented with either 10% (w/w) freeze-dried carrots with a natural content of 35 mug falcarinol/g, 10% maize starch to which was added 35 mug falcarinol/g purified from carrots, or 10% maize starch (control). After 18 weeks, the animals were euthanized and the colon was examined for tumors and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), which were classified into four size classes. Although the number of small ACF was unaffected by the feeding treatments, the numbers of lesions as a function of increasing size class decreased significantly in the rats that received one of the two experimental treatments, as compared with the control treatment. This indicates that the dietary treatments with carrot and falcarinol delayed or retarded the development of large ACF and tumors. The present study provides a new perspective on the known epidemiological associations between high intake of carrots and reduced incidence of cancers.

  9. Subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondrial responses to short-term high-fat feeding in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the alterations in mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle that were elicited by short-term high-fat feeding in sedentary rats. Two groups of rats were pair-fed for 1 wk and received a low-fat or high-fat diet. Body composition, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis were measured. Mitochondrial mass, oxidative capacity, and energetic efficiency as well as parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were evaluated in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria from the skeletal muscle. Body energy, lipid content, and metabolic efficiency were significantly higher and energy expenditure was significantly decreased among rats that were fed a high-fat diet, as compared with controls. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency, oxidative capacity for lipid substrates, and antioxidant defense were significantly increased in rats that were fed a high-fat diet as compared with controls. Acute isocaloric high-fat feeding is able to induce increased phosphorylation efficiency in skeletal muscle subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria. This modification implies a reduced oxidation of energy substrates that may contribute to the early onset of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Endothelium-dependent Effect of Sesame Seed Feeding on Vascular Reactivity of Streptozotocin-diabetic Rats: Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghani, Mehrdad; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammad Reza; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Naderi, Gholamali; Roghani Dehkordi, Farshad; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders continue to constitute major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of sesame (Sesamum indicum L) seed feeding was studied on aortic reactivity of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Male diabetic rats received sesame seed-mixed food at weight ratios of 3% and 6% for 7 weeks, one week after diabetes induction. Contractile responses to KCl and phenylephrine (PE) and relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were obtained from aortic rings. Maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact rings to PE was significantly lower in sesame-treated diabetic rats (at a ratio of 6%) relative to untreated diabetics and endothelium removal abolished this difference. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was also significantly higher in sesame-treated diabetic rats (at a ratio of 6%) as compared to diabetic rats and pretreatment of rings with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly attenuated the observed response. Two-month diabetes also resulted in an elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and sesame treatment significantly reversed the increased MDA content and restored activity of SOD. We thus conclude that chronic treatment of diabetic rats with sesame seed could in a dose-manner prevent some abnormal changes in vascular reactivity through nitric oxide and via attenuation of oxidative stress in aortic tissue and endothelium integrity is necessary for this beneficial effect.

  11. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alberto Zanvit,2 Piero Nobili,2 Paolo Risso,3 Carlo Fornaini4 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, 2Stomatology Institute, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Health Science, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 4Teleo Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Nice, Nice, France Abstract: Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18. Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®. The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. Keywords: BLIS M18, caries prediction, dextranase, urease, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, plaque, salivary pH, bacteriocins

  12. Potential subchronic food safety of the stacked trait transgenic maize GH5112E-117C in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shiwen; Zou, Shiying; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Mei, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    The food safety of stacked trait genetically modified (GM) maize GH5112E-117C containing insect-resistance gene Cry1Ah and glyphosate-resistant gene G2-aroA was evaluated in comparison to non-GM Hi-II maize fed to Sprague-Dawley rats during a 90-day subchronic feeding study. Three different dietary concentrations (12.5, 25 and 50 %, w/w) of the GM maize were used or its corresponding non-GM maize. No biologically significant differences in the animals' clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were found between the stacked trait GM maize groups, and the non-GM maize groups. The results of the 90-day subchronic feeding study demonstrated that the stacked trait GM maize GH5112E-117C is as safe as the conventional non-GM maize Hi-II.

  13. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristobal Island, Galapagos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Riofrío-Lazo

    Full Text Available Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna. The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS = 55.8%, followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%, and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%, captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98% and arthropods (2%. Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs, showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.

  14. Breast feeding increases vasoconstriction induced by electrical field stimulation in rat mesenteric artery. Role of neuronal nitric oxide and ATP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blanco-Rivero

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate in rat mesenteric artery whether breast feeding (BF affects the vasomotor response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS, participation by different innervations in the EFS-induced response and the mechanism/s underlying these possible modifications. METHODS: Experiments were performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 months old, divided into three groups: Control (in oestrous phase, mothers after 21 days of BF, and mothers that had recovered their oestral cycle (After BF, in oestrous phase. Vasomotor response to EFS, noradrenaline (NA and nitric oxide (NO donor DEA-NO were studied. Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS and phosphorylated nNOS (P-nNOS protein expression were analysed and NO, superoxide anion (O(2(.-, NA and ATP releases were also determined. RESULTS: EFS-induced contraction was higher in the BF group, and was recovered after BF. 1 µmol/L phentolamine decreased the response to EFS similarly in control and BF rats. NA vasoconstriction and release were similar in both experimental groups. ATP release was higher in segments from BF rats. 0.1 mmol/L L-NAME increased the response to EFS in both control and BF rats, but more so in control animals. BF decreased NO release and did not modify O(2(.- production. Vasodilator response to DEA-NO was similar in both groups, while nNOS and P-nNOS expressions were decreased in segments from BF animals. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding increases EFS-induced contraction in mesenteric arteries, mainly through the decrease of neuronal NO release mediated by decreased nNOS and P-nNOS expression. Sympathetic function is increased through the increased ATP release in BF rats.

  15. Effects of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leucocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); G.R. Elliott (G.); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); I.L. Bonta

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids front in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A

  16. Effects of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leucocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); G.R. Elliott (G.); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); I.L. Bonta

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids front in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A

  17. Effect of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and its congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrelds, I.M.; Elliott, G.R.; Zijlstra, F.; Bonta, I.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids from in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A lower number

  18. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  19. Effects of high-sucrose feeding on insulin resistance and hemodynamic responses to insulin in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélançon, Sébastien; Bachelard, Hélène; Badeau, Mylène; Bourgoin, Frédéric; Pitre, Maryse; Larivière, Richard; Nadeau, André

    2006-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of a sucrose diet on vascular and metabolic actions of insulin in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male SHR were randomized to receive a sucrose or regular chow diet for 4 wk. Age-matched, chow-fed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as normotensive control. In a first series of experiments, the three groups of rats had pulsed Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters implanted to determine blood pressure, heart rate, and blood flows. Insulin sensitivity was assessed during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp performed in conscious rats. In a second series of experiments, new groups of rats were used to examine glucose transport activity in isolated muscles and to determine endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression in muscles and endothelin content in vascular tissues. Sucrose feeding was shown to markedly enhance the pressor response to insulin and its hindquarter vasoconstrictor effect when compared with chow-fed SHR. A reduction in eNOS protein content in muscle, but no change in vascular endothelin-1 protein, was noted in sucrose-fed SHR when compared with WKY rats, but these changes were not different from those noted in chow-fed SHR. Similar reductions in insulin-stimulated glucose transport were observed in soleus muscles from both groups of SHR when compared with WKY rats. In extensor digitorum longus muscles, a significant reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose transport was only seen in sucrose-fed rats when compared with the other two groups. Environmental factors, that is, high intake of simple sugars, could possibly potentiate the genetic predisposition in SHR to endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance.

  20. Influence of feeding status on neuronal activity in the hypothalamus during lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautron, L; Mingam, R; Moranis, A; Combe, C; Layé, S

    2005-01-01

    Fasting attenuates disease-associated anorexia, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which a 48 h fast alters hypothalamic neuronal activity in response to the anorectic effects of lipopolysaccharide in rats. Male rats were fed ad libitum or fasted, and were injected with i.p. saline or lipopolysaccharide (250 microg/kg). Immunohistochemistry for Fos protein was used to visualize neuronal activity in response to lipopolysaccharide within selected hypothalamic feeding regulatory nuclei. Additionally, food intake, body weight, plasma interleukin-1 and leptin levels, and the expression of mRNA for appetite-related neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript) were measured in a time-related manner. Our data show that the pattern of lipopolysaccharide-induced Fos expression was similar in most hypothalamic nuclei whatever the feeding status. However, we observed that fasting significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus, in association with an attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide reduced fasting-induced Fos expression in the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus. Lipopolysaccharide-induced circulating levels of interleukin-1 were similar across feeding status. Finally, fasting, but not lipopolysaccharide, affected circulating level of leptin and appetite-related neuropeptides expression in the arcuate nucleus. Together, our data show that fasting modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia and body weight loss in association with neural changes in specific hypothalamic nuclei.

  1. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    . This primarily results from the fact that defined single substances can be dosed to laboratory animals at very large multiples of the expected human exposure, thus giving a large margin of safety. In contrast foodstuffs are bulky, lead to satiation and can only be included in the diet at much lower multiples of expected human intakes. When testing whole foods, the possible highest concentration of the GM food and feed in the laboratory animal diet may be limited because of nutritional imbalance of the diet, or by the presence of compounds with a known toxicological profile. The aim of the 90-days rodent feeding study with the whole GM food and feed is to assess potential unintended effects of toxicological and/or nutritional relevance and to establish whether the GM food and feed is as safe and nutritious as its traditional comparator rather than determining qualitative and quantitative intrinsic toxicity of defined food constituents. The design of the study should be adapted from the OECD 90-day rodent toxicity study. The precise study design has to take into account the nature of the food and feed and the characteristics of the new trait(s) and their intended role in the GM food and feed. A 90-day animal feeding trial has a large capacity (sensitivity and specificity) to detect potential toxicological effects of single well defined compounds. This can be concluded from data reported on the toxicology of a wide range of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food substances, environmental, and agricultural chemicals. It is possible to model the sensitivity of the rat subchronic feeding study for the detection of hypothetically increased amount of compounds such as anti-nutrients, toxicants or secondary metabolites. With respect to the detection of potential unintended effects in whole GM food and feed, it is unlikely that substances present in small amounts and with a low toxic potential will result in any observable (unintended) effects in a 90-day rodent feeding

  2. Oral Feeding of Probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis: Colonic Morphological Changes in Rat Model of TNBS-Induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najma H. Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. It has been proposed that modifying the bacterial flora in intestine with probiotics may decrease the inflammatory process and prevent relapses in UC. We investigated the possible protective and therapeutic effects of a single strand of probiotic, Bifidobacterium infantis (BI, on colonic inflammation, in rats with regular feedings. Two groups of Lewis rats were prepared (n=8. The first group was the control, sham-fed group (n=4. The other group was the experimental BI-fed group (n=4. Colitis was induced in both groups by intrarectal administration of TNBS under light anesthesia. The sham-fed colitis induced groups received a daily oral gavage feeding of 1.0 mL distilled water, whereas the B. infantis-fed group received 0.205 g of B. infantis dissolved in 1.0 mL distilled water daily. The change in body weight and food and water intake was recorded over the course of each study and analyzed. The rats were euthanized and tissues from the descending colon were harvested and analyzed microscopically and histologically. Results of our study indicated significant reduction in inflammation, mucosal damage, and preservation of goblet cells, as compared to the control animals. Modulation of gastrointestinal (GI flora suggests a promising field in developing strategies for prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases by dietary modifications.

  3. 77 FR 3423 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the `I'iwi as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... (Hawaii Audubon Society 2011, p. 97), and are cup-shaped nests made of twigs and lined with lichens and... increases the risk of fire (Petition, p. 8). According to the petitioners, rats (Rattus spp.) consume native... alter fire characteristics by opening areas where successive fires can burn farther into native habitats...

  4. Dynamics of appetite-mediated gene expression in daidzein-fed female rats in the meal-feeding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Mina; Mizushige, Takafumi; Bhattarai, Keshab; Iwahara, Asami; Aida, Ryojiro; Segawa, Tomomi; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that daidzein decreased food intake in female rats. The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between dynamics of appetite-mediated neuropeptides and the anorectic effect of daidzein. We examined appetite-mediated gene expression in the hypothalamus and small intestine during the 3 meals per day feeding method. Daidzein had an anorectic effect specifically at the second feeding. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and galanin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly higher after feeding in the control but not in the daidzein group, suggesting that daidzein attenuated the postprandial increase in NPY and galanin expression. The daidzein group had higher corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus after feeding, and increased cholelcystokinin (CCK) mRNA levels in the small intestine, suggesting that CCK is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of this anorectic effect. Therefore, daidzein may induce anorexia by suppressing expression of NPY and galanin and increasing expression of CRH in the hypothalamus.

  5. Effect of feeding Cuminum cyminum fruits, Thymus vulgaris leaves or their mixture to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroun, E M; Mahmoud, O M; Adam, S E I

    2002-04-01

    Cuminum cyminum fruits and T. vulgaris leaves were fed to male Wistar rats at 2% or 10% of standard diet for 6 w. A mixture (5% +5%) of the 2 plants was also fed to rats for a similar period. Diets containing 2% C. cyminum fruits, 2% or 10% T. vulgaris leaves were not toxic to rats. Impairment of growth and enterohepatonephropathy were observed in the rats fed a diet containing 10% C. cyminum fruits. These changes were also seen in the rats fed the mixture of the 2 plants and were accompanied by leukopenia, anemia and increases in serum AST activity and urea and by decreased total protein and albumin levels.

  6. Effect of Restricted Feeding Times on the Longevity and Serum Biochemistry of Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hiragane, Rumi; Ono, Akifumi

    2003-01-01

    The effect of limiting the daily feeding times on longevity and serum biochemistry was studied in adult male Sprague--Dawley rats. Groups 1H, 6H and 12H received a commercial stock diet for one, six and twelve hours daily, respectively. The control group was fed the same diet ad libitum. The final body weight of group 1H was significantly lower, and longevity was significantly greater than in the other three groups. Group 1H consumed only 67% of the intake of the ad libitum group. After 36 we...

  7. Feeding flaxseed oil but not secoisolariciresinol diglucoside results in higher bone mass in healthy rats and rats with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, H A; Kovacs, H; Nitschmann, E; Bankovic-Calic, N; Aukema, H; Ogborn, M

    2007-05-01

    Flaxseed's oil and lignan, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), are implicated in attainment of health and treatment of renal injury and osteoporosis. To test for these benefits, weanling Han:SPRD-cy rats (n=171) with or without kidney disease were randomized to diets made with either corn oil or flaxseed oil and with or without SDG for 12 weeks. In females, weight was lower with the SDG diet. In males fed flaxseed oil, lean mass was higher and fat % was lower. In both sexes, fat % was lower in diseased rats. Bone mineral content (BMC) and density were higher in rats fed flaxseed oil and lower in diseased rats, additionally; BMC was lower in SDG-supplemented females. The benefit of flaxseed oil on body composition is sex specific but the effect on bone mass is not. Lastly, reduced weight due to early rat kidney disease is not due to loss of lean body mass.

  8. Feeding blueberry diets to young rats dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption through suppression of RANKL in stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB powder for two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21 significantly increased bone formation at PND35. However, the minimal level of dietary BB needed to produce these effects is, as yet, unknown. The current study examined the effects of three different levels of BB diet supplementation (1, 3, and 5% for 35 days beginning on PND25 on bone quality, and osteoclastic bone resorption in female rats. Peripheral quantitative CT scan (pQCT of tibia, demonstrated that bone mineral density (BMD and content (BMC were dose-dependently increased in BB-fed rats compared to controls (P<0.05. Significantly increased bone mass after feeding 5% BB extracts was also observed in a TEN (total enteral nutrition rat model in which daily caloric and food intake was precisely controlled. Expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand a protein essential for osteoclast formation was dose-dependently decreased in the femur of BB animals. In addition, expression of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ which regulates bone marrow adipogenesis was suppressed in BB diet rats compared to non-BB diet controls. Finally, a set of in vitro cell cultures revealed that the inhibitory effect of BB diet rat serum on RANKL expression was more profound in mesenchymal stromal cells compared to its effect on mature osteoblasts, pre-adipocytes and osteocytes. These results suggest that inhibition of bone resorption may contribute to increased bone mass during early development after BB consumption.

  9. Ginsenoside rich fraction of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer improve feeding behavior following radiation-induced pica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao; Rekha, Sathyanath; Cho, Hyeong-Keug Kim Jung-Hyo; Jang, Seong-Soon; Son, Chang-Gue

    2012-09-01

    Panax ginseng is an indigenous medicinal herb and has traditionally been used among Asian population for relief of many human ailments. We investigated the prophylactic role of Korean P. ginseng extract (KG) against X-ray irradiation-induced emesis in an acute rat pica model. Rats were treated with KG (12.5, 25, 50 mg/kg orally at -48, -24 and 0 h) prior to X-ray irradiation (6 Gy), and intake of kaolin and normal food and body weight changes examined as an index of the acute emetic stimulus. Levels of serotonin in small intestine tissue were assessed and histopathology of gastric tissue, small intestine and colon examined specific staining. Pre-treatment with KG (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) reduced X-ray irradiation-induced kaolin intake at 24h. Normal food intake was improved in rats treated with 25 mg/kg KG. The anti-emetic effect of KG was further confirmed on the basis of serotonin release, histopathological findings. Our findings collectively indicate that KG protects against X-ray irradiation-induced acute pica to a moderate extent, leading to improved feeding behavior in rats.

  10. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after...

  11. GABA-Mediated Inactivation of Medial Prefrontal and Agranular Insular Cortex in the Rat: Contrasting Effects on Hunger- and Palatability-Driven Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A; Spencer, Robert C; Sadeghian, Ken; Mena, Jesus D

    2016-03-01

    A microanalysis of hunger-driven and palatability-driven feeding was carried out after muscimol-mediated inactivation of two frontal regions in rats, the agranular/dysgranular insular cortex (AIC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Food and water intake, feeding microstructure, and general motor activity were measured under two motivational conditions: food-deprived rats given standard chow or ad libitum-fed rats given a palatable chocolate shake. Muscimol infusions into the AIC diminished intake, total feeding duration, and average feeding bout duration for the palatable-food condition only but failed to alter exploratory-like behavior (ambulation or rearing). In contrast, intra-vmPFC muscimol infusions did not alter the overall intake of chow or chocolate shake. However, these infusions markedly increased mean feeding bout duration for both food types and produced a modest but significant reduction of exploratory-like behavior. The lengthening of feeding-bout duration and reduction in rearing were mimicked by intra-vmPFC blockade of AMPA-type but not NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Neither water consumption nor the microstructure of water drinking was affected by inactivation of either site. These results indicate a regional heterogeneity in frontal control of feeding behavior. Neural processing in AIC supports palatability-driven feeding but is not necessary for intake of a standard food under a food-restriction condition, whereas ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and AMPA signaling therein, modulates the duration of individual feeding bouts regardless of motivational context. Results are discussed in the context of regionally heterogeneous frontal modulation of two distinct components of feeding behavior: reward valuation based upon taste perception (AIC) vs switching between ingestive and non-ingestive (eg, exploratory-like) behavioral repertoires (vmPFC).

  12. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics

  13. Effect of minimal enteral feeding on recovery in a methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S.S. Kuiken (Nicoline S. S.); E.H.H.M. Rings (Edmond); R. Havinga (Rick); A. Groen (Albert); W.J.E. Tissing (Wim)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Patients suffering from gastrointestinal mucositis often receive parenteral nutrition as nutritional support. However, the absence of enteral nutrition might not be beneficial for the intestine. We aimed to determine the feasibility of minimal enteral feeding (MEF) administratio

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Feeding Protects Liver Steatosis in Obese Breast Cancer Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Hakkak; Andrea Bell; Soheila Korourian

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the US and globally. Obesity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, hyperlipidemia, and liver steatosis development. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a dietary supplement used as an anti-obesity supplement. Previously, we reported that DHEA feeding protects 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of obesity and DHEA feeding on liver ...

  15. The feeding behavior of cross-intestine parabiotic rats are modulated by brain histamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism in which signals to regulate food intake are transmitted from the gastro-intestinal system to the brain, we analyzed changes in hypothalamic neuronal histamine using cross-intestine parabiotic rats. Pairs of weight matched Lewis rats were sewn together in such a way as to form a common abdominal cavity. The small intestines of rats were transected and reconnected so that food eaten by one rat passed through a segment of its partner's intestine before returning to the intestine of the first rat. Concentrations of neuronal histamine were measured in microdissected hypothalami using radioimmnoassay. Sustained alteration of food intake were observed in both rats, one rat eating an average of 2.2 times (SE 0.15) as much as the other, without development of any significant difference in body weight after seven weeks. We found significant increase in hypothalamic neuronal histamine concentrations in the arcuate and tublomamelary nuclei of the hypophagic rats.These results are supportive of the theory that histamine acts in response to signals from the gut to regulate food intake.

  16. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G;

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary......) and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were determined on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Steers fed on HFMO diet had higher (P nutrient intake (86.39 MJ/d energy; 867 g/d CP), weight gain (919 g/d) and half carcass weight (75.8 kg) than those fed other diets...

  17. Malnutrition during lactation as a metabolic imprinting factor inducing the feeding pattern of offspring rats when adults: The role of insulin and leptin

    OpenAIRE

    MOURA,A.S.; Franco de Sá,C.C.N.; Cruz,H.G.; C. L. Costa

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of malnutrition during early postnatal life and the feeding pattern of rat offspring when adults (2 months and 1 year old). In comparison with rats normally fed during lactation, we observed that adult offspring displayed a faster process of feeding reduction when a protein-free diet was offered. In addition, we studied the concentration of insulin and leptin in the lactating pups (10 days) and when these offspring became adult after th...

  18. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Moura Leandro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg (ALP, restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP, ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg (ALD and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD. The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises.

  19. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  20. Main and accessory olfactory bulbs and their projections in the brain anticipate feeding in food-entrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Mario; Pabello, Marcela; Moreno, Maria Luisa; Meza, Enrique

    2014-10-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) has a circadian clock independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but very little is known about the functional significance of its oscillations. The OB plays a major role in food intake as it contributes to the evaluation of the hedonic properties of food, it is necessary for a normal pattern of locomotor behavior and their ablation disrupts feeding patterns. Previously we demonstrated that OB of rabbit pups can be entrained by periodic nursing but it was not clear whether food was the entraining signal. Here we hypothesized that OB can be entrained by a food pulse during the day in adult rats under a restricted feeding schedule. Then we expect that OB will have a high activation before food presentation when animals show food anticipatory activity (FAA). To this aim we determined by immunohistochemistry the expression of FOS protein, as an indicator of neural activation, in the mitral and granular cell layers of the main and accessory OB. Additionally we also explored two of the OB brain targets, the piriform cortex (PC) and bed nuclei of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT), in three groups: ad libitum (ALF), restricted feeding (RF), and fasted rats after restricted feeding (RF-F). In ALF group FOS levels in both main and accessory OB were low during the day and high during the night at the normal onset of the increase of activity, in agreement with previous reports. On the contrary in RF and RF-F groups FOS was high at the time of FAA, just before food presentation, when animals are in a state of high arousal and during food consumption but was low during the night. In their brain targets, we observed a similar pattern as OB in all groups with the only difference being that FOS levels remained high during the night in RF-F group. We conclude that the OB is entrained by food restriction by showing high activation at the time of food presentation, which persists during fasting and impose a similar FOS pattern to the two brain targets

  1. Modulation of olfactory sensitivity and glucose sensing by the feeding state in obese Zucker rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline eAimé

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Zucker fa/fa rat has been widely used as an animal model to study obesity, since it recapitulates most of its behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions, such as hyperphagia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Although it is well established that olfaction is under nutritional and hormonal influences, little is known about the impact of metabolic dysfunctions on olfactory performances and glucose-sensing in the olfactory system of the obese Zucker rat. In the present study, using a behavioral paradigm based on a conditioned olfactory aversion, we have shown that both obese and lean Zucker rats have a better olfactory sensitivity when they are fasted than when they are satiated. Interestingly, the obese Zucker rats displayed a higher olfactory sensitivity than their lean controls. By investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in glucose-sensing in the olfactory system, we demonstrated that sodium-coupled glucose transporters 1 (SGLT1 and insulin dependent glucose transporters 4 (GLUT4 are both expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB. By comparing the expression of GLUT4 and SGLT1 in OB of obese and lean Zucker rats, we found that only SGLT1 is regulated in genotype-dependent manner. Next, we used glucose oxidase biosensors to simultaneously measure in vivo the extracellular fluid glucose concentrations ([Gluc]ECF in the OB and the cortex. Under metabolic steady state, we have determined that the OB contained twice the amount of glucose found in the cortex. In both regions, the [Gluc]ECF was 2 fold higher in obese rats compared to their lean controls. Under induced dynamic glycemia conditions, insulin injection produced a greater decrease of [Gluc]ECF in the OB than in the cortex. Glucose injection did not affect OB [Gluc]ECF in Zucker fa/fa rats. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of glucose for the OB network function and provide strong arguments towards establishing the OB glucose-sensing as a key factor for sensory

  2. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics i

  3. Mechanism for the increased defecation and jejunum mucosal protein content in rats by feeding germinated barley foodstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanauchi, O; Agata, K; Fushiki, T

    1997-03-01

    We investigated the effects of germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) on the fecal excretion and jejunum mucosal protein content in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed on various diets with the same protein and dietary fiber levels. Under these experimental conditions, GBF was confirmed to induce greater fecal output compared with commercial water-soluble or -insoluble dietary fibers. While the dietary fiber extracted from GBF increased the fecal output and mucosal protein content, the protein fraction of GBF degraded to the peptide form did not increase the fecal output or mucosal protein content. Increased mucosal protein and fecal output were thus found to require the presence of the dietary fiber fraction or possibly the protein fraction bound tightly to the dietary fiber of GBF. GBF feeding increased the volatile fatty acids concentration in the cecum, indicating that GBF may be efficiently fermented in the intestinal tract.

  4. Transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of rat skeletal muscle feed arteries. II. Impact of exercise training in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathan T.; Thorne, Pamela K.; Martin, Jeffrey S.; Rector, R. Scott; Davis, J. Wade; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2014-01-01

    We employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to determine the extent to which exercise training alters global gene expression in skeletal muscle feed arteries and aortic endothelial cells of obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Transcriptional profiles of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle feed arteries (SFA and GFA, respectively) and aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples from rats that underwent an endurance exercise training program (EndEx; n = 12) or a interval sprint training program (IST; n = 12) or remained sedentary (Sed; n = 12) were examined. In response to EndEx, there were 39 upregulated (e.g., MANF) and 20 downregulated (e.g., ALOX15) genes in SFA and 1 upregulated (i.e., Wisp2) and 1 downregulated (i.e., Crem) gene in GFA [false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%]. In response to IST, there were 305 upregulated (e.g., MANF, HSPA12B) and 324 downregulated genes in SFA and 101 upregulated and 66 downregulated genes in GFA, with an overlap of 32 genes between arteries. Furthermore, in aortic endothelial cells, there were 183 upregulated (e.g., eNOS, SOD-3) and 141 downregulated (e.g., ATF3, Clec1b, npy, leptin) genes with EndEx and 71 upregulated and 69 downregulated genes with IST, with an overlap of 35 between exercise programs. Expression of only two genes (Tubb2b and Slc9a3r2) was altered (i.e., increased) by exercise in all three arteries. The finding that both EndEx and IST produced greater transcriptional changes in the SFA compared with the GFA is intriguing when considering the fact that treadmill bouts of exercise are associated with greater relative increases in blood flow to the gastrocnemius muscle compared with the soleus muscle. PMID:24408995

  5. Early Oral Ovalbumin Exposure during Maternal Milk Feeding Prevents Spontaneous Allergic Sensitization in Allergy-Prone Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaweyah El-Merhibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data to support the practice of delaying the introduction of allergenic foods into the infant diet to prevent allergy development. This study investigated immune response development after early oral egg antigen (Ovalbumin; OVA exposure in a rat pup model. Brown Norway (BN rat pups were randomly allocated into groups: dam reared (DR, DR pups challenged daily (days 4–13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAc, DR pups challenged intermittently (on day 4, 10, 12, and 13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAi, formula-fed pups (FF, and FF pups challenged daily with oral OVA (FF + OVA. Immune parameters assessed included OVA-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgA. Ileal and splenic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1, mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad 2/4/7, and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 were determined. Ileum was stained for TGF-β1 and Smad4. Results. Feeding OVA daily to DR pups maintained systemic and local gut antibody and immunoregulatory marker mRNA responses. Systemic TGF-β1 was lower in DR + OVAi pups compared to DR and DR + OVAc pups. Feeding OVA to FF pups resulted in significantly greater OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and lower IgA and TGF-β1 and Smad expression compared to DR pups. Conclusions. Early daily OVA exposure in the presence of maternal milk maintains immune markers associated with a regulated immune response, preventing early allergic sensitization.

  6. Food viscosity as determinant for adaptive growth responses in rat intestine: long-term feeding of different hydroxyethyl celluloses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenhans, B; Caspary, W F

    2000-07-01

    Carbohydrate gelling agents can be regarded as being representative for the soluble and viscous fractions of dietary fibre. Their dietary concentration affects the consistency of the ingested food as well as the dilution of nutrients and energy. By feeding hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) differing in molecular mass, and thus in its viscosity properties, only the consistency of the diet was modified. Three HEC (of low (LV), medium (MV) and high viscosity (HV)) were employed in a 6-week feeding study with female rats to evaluate the effect of the viscosity on adaptive responses of intestinal growth variables. Each of the HEC was added in three increasing concentrations (8, 16, and 32%, w/w) to a fibre-free control diet to yield nine test groups besides a fibre-free and an additional, fibre-rich, cereal-based control group. Except for the highest concentration of the high viscosity product (32% HV-HEC), the dilution of the energy density of the diet was almost completely compensated by an increased food intake. With the same exception, energy utilisation was not impaired and, therefore, body-weight gains in the test groups were not significantly different from that in the control. Most other changes, e.g. increases in small intestinal length, mucosal DNA content, caecal and colonic weight, not only depended on the dietary concentration but also on the viscosity of HEC in a manner that either increasing the viscosity at a given dietary concentration or increasing the dietary concentration at a given viscosity led to the same results. These findings clearly prove the important role of the viscosity of the lumen content, as a mere physico-chemical factor, in determining adaptative growth responses in the intestinal tract of rats.

  7. Effects of food deprivation on the hypothalamic feeding-regulating peptides gene expressions in serotonin depleted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Hagimoto, Marina; Matsuura, Takanori; Ohkubo, Junichi; Ohno, Motoko; Maruyama, Takashi; Ishikura, Toru; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Uezono, Yasuhito; Toyohira, Yumiko; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Ueta, Yoichi

    2014-03-01

    We examined the effects of serotonin (5-HT) depletion induced by peripheral injection of 5-HT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) on the expression of feeding-regulating peptides expressions by using in situ hybridization histochemistry in adult male Wistar rats. PCPA pretreatment had no significant effect on basal levels of oxytocin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide-Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or orexin in the hypothalamus. Food deprivation for 48 h caused a significant decrease in CRH, TRH, POMC, and CART, and a significant increase in NPY, AgRP and MCH. After PCPA treatment, POMC and CART did not decrease despite food deprivation. NPY was significantly increased by food deprivation with PCPA, but was attenuated compared to food deprivation without PCPA. These results suggest that the serotonergic system in the hypothalamus may be involved in the gene expression of POMC, CART, and NPY related to feeding behavior.

  8. INFLUENCE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA (DRUM-STICK FRUIT EXTRACT ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE FOLLOWING REPEATED EXPOSURE TO LOW LEVELS OF ARSENIC THROUGH FEED ON RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav R. Pachade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Moringa oleifera fruits hot methanolic extract (MFE, if any, in minimizing the adverse reactions of repeated exposure to arsenic trioxide (AT in feed was investigated in Wistar rats with reference to haematological profile. Three groups of rats each containing 10 (5male+5female were used. The group I served as negative control. Rats of group II were fed arsenic trioxide (AT alone @ 100 ppm in feed while those of group III simultaneously received AT (@100 ppm and MFE (50 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Blood samples were collected from retroorbital plexus for estimation of hematological parameters (haemoglobin, PCV, TEC, MCH, MCHC, MCV of different groups on 0 day, 15th day and 29th day respectively. Exposure to AT through feed in group II resulted in significant (P<0.05 decrease in haemoglobin, TEC and MCHC, accompanied by increased MCV, with no significant alteration of PCV or MCH of the rats. While rats of group III treated with AT (@100 ppm and MFE (50 mg/kg/day also resulted in same consequences as it was in group II but it was slightly less than that of group II suggesting of mild non significant protective effect.

  9. Feeding blueberry diets dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional status is a critical factor that influences bone development. We previously reported that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB) powder for only two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21) significantly promoted bone formation. Howeve...

  10. Feeding and temperature responses to intravenous leptin infusion are differential predictors of obesity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruffin, M.; Adage, T; Kuipers, F; Strubbe, J H; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; Ruffin, Marie-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is frequently associated with leptin resistance. The present study investigated whether leptin resistance in rats is present before obesity develops, and thus could underlie obesity induced by 16 wk exposure to a liquid, palatable, high-energy diet (HED). Before HED exposure, male Wistar

  11. Two generation reproduction and teratogenicity studies of feeding cyadox in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Fang, Gui-Jie; Wang, Yu-Lian; Ihsan, Awais; Huang, Ling-Li; Zhou, Wen; Liu, Zhen-Li; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the teratogenic potential and reproductive toxicity of cyadox, a growth promoting agent, Wistar rats (F(0)) were fed with diets containing cyadox (0, 50, 150 and 2500 mg/kg) or olaquindox (150 mg/kg), approximately equivalent to cyadox 5, 15, 250 or olaquindox 15 mg/kg b.w./day across two generations. Half of the pregnant rats (F(0), F(1b)) were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 20 for teratogenic examination and the other half produced pups F(1a) and F(2a), respectively. At the 250 mg/kg b.w./day cyadox group, body weights of F(1b) pregnant rats and F(2a) on day 21 after birth decreased; fetal body lengths and tail lengths decreased; the number of fetal resorptions increased significantly; litter weights, number of viable fetuses decreased; number of embryo resorptions increased significantly; number of liveborn F(1a), F(1b) and F(2a) decreased. No macroscopic or microscopic change of any significance was found in the reproductive organs. Significant increases in the incidence of cervical ribs or lumbar ribs in F(2a) pups and significant increases of relative organ weight of testis and epididymis in F(1b) were observed at the 250 mg/kg b.w./day cyadox group. The NOAEL for reproduction/development of cyadox for rats was estimated to be 150 mg/kg diet, which was equivalent to approximately 15 mg/kg b.w./day.

  12. Protective effect of early enteral feeding on postburn impairment of liver function and its mechanism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhu; Zhong Cheng Yang; Ao Li; De Chang Cheng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the protective effect of early enteral feeding ( EEF ) on the postburn impairment of liver function and its mechanism.METHODS Wistar rats with 30% of total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness burn were employed. The effects of EEF on the postburn changes of gastric intramucosal pH, endotoxin levels in portal vein, water contents of hepatic tissue, blood concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase ( ALT ) and asparate aminotransferase (AST), as well as the blood contents of total (TB) and direct bilirubin (DB),total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB) were serially determined within 48h postburn.RESULTS EEF could significantly improve gastric mucosal acidosis, reduce portal vein endotoxin level and water content of hepatic tissue, as well as plasma concentrations of TNF-α at all timepoints after severe burns (P<0.01);postburn elevation of the plasma activities of ALT, AST and the contents of TB, DB were effectively prevented, whereas the plasma concentrations of TP and ALB were markedly increased 24 h and 48 h posturn in EEF group compared with that of the burn without EEF group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION EEF has significant beneficial effects on the improvement of hepatic function in rats after severe burn, and is probably related with an increase in splanchnic blood flow,reduction of the absorption of gut-origin endotoxin and the consequent release of inflammatory mediators.

  13. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation preventing this. There was no effect of long-term fructose diet and/or taurine supplementation on plasma triglycerides, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, as well as plasma HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol.In conclusion, the study suggests that long-term taurine supplementation improves glucose tolerance and normalize hepatic triglyceride content following long-term fructose feeding. However, as the combination of taurine and fructose also increased fasting glucose levels, the beneficial effect of taurine supplementation towards amelioration of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance may be questionable.

  14. Effect of long-term aluminum feeding on lipid/phospholipid profiles of rat brain myelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Kunjan R

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effect of long-term (90–100 days exposure of rats to soluble salt of aluminum (AlCl3 on myelin lipid profile was examined. The long-term exposure to AlCl3 resulted in a 60 % decrease in the total phospholipid (TPL content while the cholesterol (CHL content increased by 55 %. Consequently the TPL / CHL molar ratio decreased significantly by 62 %. The phospholipid composition of the myelin membrane changed drastically; the proportion of practically all the phospholipid classes decreased by 32 to 60 % except for phosphatidylcholine (PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Of the latter two, proportion of PC was unchanged while PE increased in proportion by 47 %. Quantitatively, all phospholipid classes decreased by from 42 to 76% with no change in the PE content. However the membrane fluidity was not altered in Al-treated rats. Many of the changes we observe here show striking similarities with the reported phospholipid profiles of Alzheimer brains.

  15. The influence of the feeding Flour Beetle Tribolium confusum-infested fodder on the selected indices of the health status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Ł B; Bakuła, T

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to demonstrate differences in the degree of fodder contamination with benzoquinones at various Tribolium confusum levels, the impact of infested feed on the beetle population and the impact of infested feed on the health status of rats. The feeding studies were done on female rats divided into 3 groups: a control group and two experimental groups. Experimental groups were fed with a fodder infested by 150 individuals of T. confusum per kg (group D1) and 300 individuals of T. confusum per kg (group D2). The insects were grown in the fodder for 5 months and the contaminated fodder was given to the laboratory animals for 8 weeks. After that period the rats were sacrificed, blood was drawn for morphological, biochemical and immunological analyses, as well as the samples of internal organs were taken for histopathology. Regardless of initial degree of infestation, after 5 months incubation period the content of benzoquinones in fodder reached the maximum level that reduced beetle population. The resulting concentration to benzoquinones had no effect upon feed intake nor growth of rate, whereas caused the presence of these substances in feces, urine and also in tissues which was indicated by pathological lesions observed in the study. The results obtained point to the possibility of the benzoquinones accumulation in the organisms of farm animals fed fodder containing pests.

  16. Plasma and tissue levels of proangiotensin-12 and components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) following low- or high-salt feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Sayaka; Kato, Johji; Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2010-05-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an essential regulator of the blood pressure and body fluid balance, but the processing cascade or role of the tissue RAS remains obscure. Proangiotensin-12 (proang-12), a novel angiotensin peptide recently discovered in rat tissues, is assumed to function as a factor of the tissue RAS. To investigate the tissue production of proang-12, we measured the circulating and tissue components of the RAS including proang-12 following low-, normal-, or high-salt feeding in rats. Twelve-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a low-salt 0.3% NaCl or high-salt 8% NaCl diet for 7 days and compared with those fed a normal-salt diet of 0.7% NaCl. Low-salt feeding elevated the plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, resulting in significant increases in Ang I and Ang II levels in the plasma or kidney tissue, as compared with the normal- or high-salt group. Despite the increases in plasma renin activity, Ang I, and Ang II, the proang-12 levels in plasma and various tissues including the kidneys, small intestine, cardiac ventricles, and brain remained unchanged following low-salt feeding. These results suggest that peptide levels of proang-12 in rat plasma and tissues are regulated in a manner independent of the circulating RAS.

  17. Orexin/Hypocretin-1 Receptor Antagonism Selectively Reduces Cue-Induced Feeding in Sated Rats and Recruits Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Mayer, Heather S; Petrovich, Gorica D

    2015-11-05

    The orexin/hypocretin system is important for reward-seeking behaviors, however less is known about its function in non-homeostatic feeding. Environmental influences, particularly cues for food can stimulate feeding in the absence of hunger and lead to maladaptive overeating behavior. The key components of the neural network that mediates this cue-induced overeating in sated rats include lateral hypothalamus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), yet the neuropharmacological mechanisms within this network remain unknown. The current study investigated a causal role for orexin in cue-driven feeding, and examined the neural substrates through which orexin mediates this effect. Systemic administration of the orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 had no effect on baseline eating, but significantly reduced cue-driven consumption in sated rats. Complementary neural analysis revealed that decreased cue-induced feeding under SB-334867 increased Fos expression in mPFC and paraventricular thalamus. These results demonstrate that OX1R signaling critically regulates cue-induced feeding, and suggest orexin is acting through prefrontal cortical and thalamic sites to drive eating in the absence of hunger. These findings inform our understanding of how food-associated cues override signals from the body to promote overeating, and indicate OX1R antagonism as a potential pharmacologic target for treatment of disordered eating in humans.

  18. Attenuation of uremia by orally feeding alpha-lipoic acid on acetaminophen induced uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Shrabani; Mandal, Shreya; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip K

    2013-04-01

    Uremia means excess nitrogenous waste products in the blood & their toxic effects. An acute acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl p-aminophenol; APAP) overdose may result into potentially fatal hepatic and renal necrosis in humans and experimental animals. The aims of this present study were to investigate the protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on oxidative stress & uremia on male albino rats induced by acetaminophen. The study was performed by 24 albino male Wister strain rats which were randomly divided into four groups: Group I, control - receives normal food and water, Groups II, III & IV receive acetaminophen interperitoneally at the dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 10 days, from 11th day Groups III & IV were treated with ALA at the dose of 5 mg & 10 mg/100 g/day for 15 days, respectively. After 25 days of treatment, it was observed that there was a significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine, sodium and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (p < 0.05) but a significant decrease in super oxide dismutase (SOD) & catalase activity & potassium level in uremic group is compared with control group & there was a significant increase in SOD & catalase (p < 0.05) & a significant decrease in serum urea, creatinine & Na and MDA (p < 0.05) in Group III & Group IV is compared with Group II & significant changes were observed in high ALA dose group. In conclusion it was observed that the ALA has nephroprotective activities by biochemical observations against acetaminophen induced uremic rats.

  19. Chronic vitamin A-enriched diet feeding regulates hypercholesterolaemia through transcriptional regulation of reverse cholesterol transport pathway genes in obese rat model of WNIN/GR-Ob strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam M Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Hepatic scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a high-density lipoprotein (HDL receptor, is involved in the selective uptake of HDL-associated esterified cholesterol (EC, thereby regulates cholesterol homoeostasis and improves reverse cholesterol transport. Previously, we reported in euglycaemic obese rats (WNIN/Ob strain that feeding of vitamin A-enriched diet normalized hypercholesterolaemia, possibly through hepatic SR-B1-mediated pathway. This study was aimed to test whether it would be possible to normalize hypercholesterolaemia in glucose-intolerant obese rat model (WNIN/GR/Ob through similar mechanism by feeding identical vitamin A-enriched diet. Methods: In this study, 30 wk old male lean and obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain were divided into two groups and received either stock diet or vitamin A-enriched diet (2.6 mg or 129 mg vitamin A/kg diet for 14 wk. Blood and other tissues were collected for various biochemical analyses. Results: Chronic vitamin A-enriched diet feeding decreased hypercholesterolaemia and normalized abnormally elevated plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C levels in obese rats as compared to stock diet-fed obese groups. Further, decreased free cholesterol (FC and increased esterified cholesterol (EC contents of plasma cholesterol were observed, which were reflected in higher EC to FC ratio of vitamin A-enriched diet-fed obese rats. However, neither lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity of plasma nor its expression (both gene and protein in the liver were altered. On the contrary, hepatic cholesterol levels significantly increased in vitamin A-enriched diet fed obese rats. Hepatic SR-B1 expression (both mRNA and protein remained unaltered among groups. Vitamin A-enriched diet fed obese rats showed a significant increase in hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA levels, while the expression of genes involved in HDL synthesis, namely, ATP-binding cassette protein 1 (ABCA1 and

  20. Herbal adaptogens combined with protein fractions from bovine colostrum and hen egg yolk reduce liver TNF-α expression and protein carbonylation in Western diet feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, C Brooks; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Lockwood, Christopher M; Heese, Alexander J; Zhu, Conan; Krieger, Anna E; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Hofheins, John C; Company, Joseph M; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kim, Dae Y; Booth, Frank W; Roberts, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    We examined if a purported anti-inflammatory supplement (AF) abrogated Western-diet (WD)-induced liver pathology in rats. AF contained: 1) protein concentrates from bovine colostrum and avian egg yolk; 2) herbal adaptogens and antioxidants; and 3) acetyl-L-carnitine. Nine month-old male Brown Norway rats were allowed ad libitum access to WD for 41-43 days and randomly assigned to WD + AF feeding twice daily for the last 31-33 days (n = 8), or WD and water-placebo feeding twice daily for the last 31-33 days (n = 8). Rats fed a low-fat/low-sucrose diet (CTL, n = 6) for 41-43 days and administered a water-placebo twice daily for the last 31-33 days were also studied. Twenty-four hours following the last gavage-feed, liver samples were analyzed for: a) select mRNAs (via RT-PCR) as well as genome-wide mRNA expression patterns (via RNA-seq); b) lipid deposition; and, c) protein carbonyl and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Serum was also examined for TAC, 8-isoprostane and clinical chemistry markers. WD + AF rats experienced a reduction in liver Tnf-α mRNA (-2.8-fold, p < 0.01). Serum and liver TAC was lower in WD + AF versus WD and CTL rats (p < 0.05), likely due to exogenous antioxidant ingredients provided through AF as evidenced by a tendency for mitochondrial SOD2 mRNA to increase in WD + AF versus CTL rats (p = 0.07). Liver fat deposition nor liver protein carbonyl content differed between WD + AF versus WD rats, although liver protein carbonyls tended to be lower in WD + AF versus CTL rats (p = 0.08). RNA-seq revealed that 19 liver mRNAs differed between WD + AF versus WD when both groups were compared with CTL rats (+/- 1.5-fold, p < 0.01). Bioinformatics suggest that AF prevented WD-induced alterations in select genes related to the transport and metabolism of carbohydrates in favor of select genes related to lipid transport and metabolism. Finally, serum clinical safety markers and liver pathology

  1. 轻型卒中90d预后及与药物依从性的关系分析%Analysis of the Relationship between 90 Days Prognosis of Patients with Minor Stroke and Drug Compliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清华; 张庆军; 李云霞; 靳令经; 聂志余

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨轻型卒中90 d预后及与二级预防药物依从性的关系。  方法连续纳入2014年8月-2015年7月我院神经内科住院的轻型卒中患者,发病90 d时随访其二级预防药物依从性、卒中复发情况和改良Rankin量表(modified Rankin Scale,mRS)评分。定义mRS评分≤2分为预后良好,mRS评分>2分为预后不良,分别用卡方检验或Fisher精确概率法分析早期神经功能恶化、90 d内卒中复发、用药依从性对轻型卒中90 d预后的影响。  结果发病90 d时成功随访轻型卒中患者292例,预后良好率为81.6%,90 d内卒中复发占10.4%。轻型卒中早期神经功能恶化占8.2%,早期神经功能恶化组预后不良率为58.3%,显著高于无早期神经功能恶化组的14.9%(P<0.001)。复发组预后不良的比例为86.7%,显著高于无复发组的6.7%(P<0.001)。早期神经功能恶化和卒中复发促进不良预后发生。轻型卒中患者90 d内抗血栓和降血脂药物依从性良好者所占比例分别为83.5%和78.1%,二级预防药物依从性与预后无显著相关。  结论轻型卒中90 d预后较好、复发率较低。轻型卒中90 d不良预后与早期神经功能恶化及卒中复发相关;而与二级预防药物依从性无明显相关。%Objective To explore the relationship between 90 days prognosis of patients with minor stroke and drug compliance. Methods A consecutive patients with minor stroke (NIHSS≤3) hospitalized in Tongji Hospital from August 1, 2014 to July 31, 2015 were enrolled in this study. Drug compliance for stroke secondary prevention, stroke recurrence and modiifed Rankin Scale (mRS) were investigated by telephone or outpatient service at 90 days after onset. mRS≤2 was deifned as good prognosis and mRS>2 was deifned as poor prognosis. The chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used statistically to analyze the early neurological deterioration (END), stroke recurrence

  2. Excitatory orexinergic innervation of rat nucleus incertus--Implications for ascending arousal, motivation and feeding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Anna; Siwiec, Marcin; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka; Blasiak, Tomasz; Czerw, Anna; Blasiak, Ewa; Kania, Alan; Rajfur, Zenon; Lewandowski, Marian H; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2015-12-01

    Orexin/hypocretin peptides play a central role in the integrated control of feeding/reward and behavioural activation, principally via interactions with other neural systems. A brainstem area involved in behavioural activation is the nucleus incertus (NI), located in the posterior ventromedial central grey. Several studies have implicated NI in control of arousal/stress and reward/feeding responses. Orexin receptor mRNA expression identifies NI as a putative target of orexin modulation. Therefore, in this study we performed neural tract-tracing and immunofluorescence staining to characterise the orexinergic innervation of NI. Our results indicate a convergent innervation of the NI area by different orexin neuron populations, with an abundance of orexin-A-containing axons making putative synaptic contacts with relaxin-3-positive NI neurons. The influence of orexin-A on NI neuron activity was investigated using patch-clamp recordings. Orexin-A depolarised the majority (64%) of recorded neurons and this effect was maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin and glutamate and GABA receptor antagonists, indicating a likely postsynaptic action. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed that in 'type I' NI neurons comprising relaxin-3-positive cells, orexin-A acted via L-type calcium channels, whereas in 'type II' relaxin-3-negative neurons, activation of a sodium/calcium exchanger was involved. A majority of the orexin-A sensitive neurons tested for the presence of orexin receptor mRNA, were OX2 mRNA-positive. Immunohistochemical staining for putative orexin receptors on NI neurons, confirmed stronger expression of OX2 than OX1 receptors. Our data demonstrate a strong influence of orexin-A on NI neurons, consistent with an important role for this hypothalamic/tegmental circuit in the regulation of arousal/vigilance and motivated behaviours.

  3. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Nejdet; Karadeniz, Ali; Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N; Unal, Bünyami

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina+lead (Sp+Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina+cadmium (Sp+Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  4. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  5. Serotonergic mechanisms involved in the suppression of feeding by 5-HTP in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, C Y; Tsai, C T

    1995-01-01

    The effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the serotonin precursor, on food intake in rats was investigated in this study. 5-HTP (100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced food intake by 68.9% of control level. The anorectic effect of 5-HTP was antagonized by cyproheptadine (CYP, 4 mg/kg, i.p.), a serotonin receptor blockade. However, the anorectic effect of 5-HTP was also antagonized by propranolol (PROP 1mg/kg, i.p.) and sulpiride (SULP, 20 mg/kg, i.p.), while Pinodol (PIN 2mg/kg, i.p.) and Haloperidol (HAL 0.5 mg/kg, i.p) did not affect the suppressive effect of 5-HTP on food intake by 5-HTP. These results indicates that the anorectic action of 5-HTP was mediated by the serotonergic mechanism through 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors.

  6. Parental Neuropathic Pain Influences Emotion-Related Behavior in Offspring Through Maternal Feeding Associated with DNA Methylation of Amygdale in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Qulian; Yang, Yong; Yan, Jianqin; Dai, Ruping; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain has currently become a remarkable public health concern, considerably damaging not only the physiological but also the psychological aspects of humans. This study investigated whether neuropathic pain affects maternal care and assessed the effect of parental neuropathic pain on the development of neuropathic pain and emotion among offspring. Our results showed that mother rats suffered from chronic constriction injury (CCI) exhibited defective maternal care. The offspring fed by CCI mother rats (own or cross-fed) showed a significant increase in anxiety and anxiety-related behavior compared with that fed by sham-operated mother rats. The offspring fed by CCI mother rats also displayed decreased oxytocin expression in their supraoptic nucleus than that fed by sham-operated mother rats. Moreover, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 expression in the amygdale was increased, whereas DNMT3a and DNMT3b expressions remained the same in offspring fed by CCI mother rats, as detected with immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, the total DNA methylation in amygdale was upregulated in offspring fed by CCI mother rats. Considering the above findings, the data of this study suggest that parental neuropathic pain influences emotion-related behavior in offspring through maternal feeding behavior rather than through genetic factors and pregnancy experience that was associated with DNA methylation of amygdale in offspring.

  7. Rat enterocytes secrete SLPs containing alkaline phosphatase and cubilin in response to corn oil feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Akhtar; Shao, Jian-su; Alpers, David H

    2003-08-01

    Surfactant-like particles (SLP) are unilamellar secreted membranes associated with the process of lipid absorption and isolated previously only from the apical surface of enterocytes. In this paper, the intracellular membrane has been isolated from corn oil-fed animals, identified by its content of the marker protein intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). Another brush-border protein, cubilin, and its anchoring protein megalin have been identified as components of extracellular SLP, but only cubilin is present to any extent in intracellular SLP. During fat absorption, IAP is modestly enriched in intracellular SLP, but full-length cubilin (migrating at 210 kDa in fat-fed mucosal fractions) falls by one-half, although fragments of cubilin are abundant in the intracellular SLP. Both IAP and cubilin colocalize to the same cells during corn oil absorption and colocalize around lipid droplets. This localization is more intense during feeding of corn oil with Pluronic L-81, a detergent that allows uptake of fatty acids and monoglycerides from the lumen, but blocks chylomicron secretion. Confocal microscopy confirms the colocalization of IAP and the ligand for cubilin, intrinsic factor. Possible roles for cubilin in intracellular SLP include facilitating movement of the lipid droplet through the cell and binding to the basolateral membrane before reverse endocytosis.

  8. Fructose supplementation worsens the deleterious effects of short-term high-fat feeding on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Tussellino, Margherita; Carotenuto, Rosa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the short-term effect of high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose feeding on hepatic lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in adult sedentary rats. Adult male rats were fed a high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose diet for 2 weeks. Body and liver composition, hepatic steatosis, plasma lipid profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity, together with whole-body and hepatic de novo lipogenesis, were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial mass, functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were also measured. Rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin and indexes of hepatic insulin resistance compared with rats fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet. Hepatic triglycerides and ceramide, as well as the degree of steatosis and necrosis, were significantly higher, while liver p-Akt was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet than in rats fed high-fat diet. A significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and hepatic fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase activity was found in rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet compared with those fed the high-fat diet. Significantly lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity but significantly higher oxidative stress was found in rats fed high-fat and high-fat-high-fructose diets compared with rats fed low-fat diet, while mitochondrial mass significantly increased only in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a Western diet, rich in saturated fats and fructose, is more conducive to the development of liver steatosis and deleterious to glucose homeostasis than a high-fat diet. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  9. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  10. Attenuation of Zn-induced hyperleptinemia/leptin resistance in Wistar rat after feeding modified poultry egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja Satish

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing exponentially world over. Leptin resistance/hyperleptinemia is attributed to its cause in majority of the obese humans where mutation in genetic component or ob gene has not been found operative. The generation of oxidative stress was suggested as its cause. In our previous study, we have reported that the inclusion of antioxidant enriched modified poultry egg (ME in diet reversed the ionic imbalance and ameliorated the oxidative stress caused by excessive Zn in diet. In the present study, the efficacy of ME verses conventional egg (CE was tested on Zn-induced leptin resistance in rat model to ascertain if the supplementation of antioxidants in the form of egg can reverse Zn-induced leptin resistance to leptin sensitive state. Methods Hyperleptinemia was induced in rats by feeding them Zn-supplemented hyperleptinemic diets-I and II (Zn-HL-Diet for 2 months. Thereafter, half of them were fed either on CE or ME mixed Zn-HL-diets I and II for another two months. The data was analyzed applying one way Anova and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. Results The results revealed that food intake, gain in body weight, height and number/unit surface area of intestinal microvillus and serum leptin, glucose, insulin and cortisol were higher in CE and Zn-HL-Diet treated groups; serum Zn, Cu, Mg were higher and Cu and Mg in tissues were lower in them than the control group. In ME treated groups, these parameters were lower and were close to the control group. These changes resulted from the restoration of ionic balance of Zn, Cu and Mg in the blood serum and tissues including liver and hair in ME treated rats. Conclusion The data suggest that Zn-induced leptin resistance can be attenuated through restoring the ionic balance of Zn, Cu and Mg through inclusion of antioxidants in diet such as these modified eggs. But further clinical studies are required before they are put to use for human consumption.

  11. FG 7142 specifically reduces meal size and the rate and regularity of sustained feeding in female rats: evidence that benzodiazepine inverse agonists reduce food palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina; Steardo, Luca; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2007-05-01

    Benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonists reduce food intake in males, but their actions in females, in whom stress-related eating disorders are more common, as well as their behavioral mode of action remain unclear. The consummatory effects of benzodiazepine receptor ligands have alternately been hypothesized to reflect changes in the hedonic evaluation of food or secondary effects of anxiety-related or cognitive properties. To test the anorectic mode of action of benzodiazepine inverse agonists, the effects of FG 7142 on feeding microstructure were studied in nondeprived female Wistar rats (n=32). Microstructure analysis used a novel meal definition that recognizes prandial drinking. On pharmacologically synchronized diestrus I, rats were pretreated (-30 min dark onset) with the benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist FG 7142 (i.p. 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15 mg/kg) in a between-subjects design. FG 7142 delayed the onset of (16-541%), decreased the amount eaten (36-52%) and drunk (63-87%), and reduced the time spent drinking (59-87%) within the first nocturnal meal. Dose-dependent incremental anorexia continued 6 h into the dark cycle, whereas FG 7142 did not suppress the quantity, duration or rate of drinking past the first meal. Treated rats ate smaller meals (17-42%) of normal duration. This reflected that FG 7142 slowed feeding within meals (9-38%) by decreasing the regularity and maintenance of feeding from pellet-to-pellet. FG 7142 did not influence postprandial satiety; meal frequency and inter-meal intervals were unaffected. FG 7142 anorexia was blocked by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil in a 2:1 molar ratio (n=17 rats). The very early, nonspecific (+10 min), but not subsequent (2.5, 4.5 h) feeding-specific phase, of FG 7142 anorexia was mirrored by anxiogenic-like behavior in FG 7142-treated (7.5 mg/kg) female rats (n=48) in the elevated plus-maze. Thus, benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonists preferentially lessen the maintenance of feeding in

  12. Inhibitory effect of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan-II (MTII) on feeding depends on dietary fat content and not obesity in rats on free-choice diets

    OpenAIRE

    José eVan Den Heuvel; Leslie eEggels; Andrea evan Rozen; Eric eFliers; Andries eKalsbeek; Roger eAdan; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Conflicting data exist on sensitivity changes of the melanocortin system during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that melanocortin sensitivity depends on diet composition, in particular on the fat content rather than the level of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diet composition on feeding responses to a melanocortin receptor agonist, using free-choice diets that differ in food components.Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to a chow (CH...

  13. Preliminary Assessment of the Oral Toxicity of 1-5-Diazido-3-Nitrazapentane, 2- and 6-Week Feeding Study, Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    TAB Unanounced Just1ficato 0, Distribution/ •-• ~~Avallabillty Codoegl IL Dfat f dpeelar - -- I. l Y ma DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY U. S. ARMY...May 91 Sep 92 TABLE 3. HEMATOLOGY Hematocrit Hemoglobin Erythrocyte Count Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts Mean Cell Volume Mean Cell ...Hemoglobin Mean Cell Hemoglobin Ccncentration TABLE 4. PREDICTED VERSES ACTUAL DAILY DOSE (MG/ML/DAY) (2-WEEK FEEDING STUDY) DANPE SOLUTIONS (MALE RATS

  14. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 1. A 4-week feeding study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M

    1989-01-01

    The nutritional properties of jojoba oil (JO) were examined in a 4-wk feeding study of rats fed a diet with JO at dose levels of 2.2, 4.5 and 9%, supplemented with a conventional fat up to 18%. General health, survival and food intake were not adversely affected. Body-weight gains showed a dose-related decline, which amounted to 20% of the body weight in the high-dose group of both sexes. Clinical chemistry revealed significantly increased levels of various enzymes that were indicative of cell damage. Haematology showed a dose-related increase in white blood cells. On necropsy an apparent distension of the small intestine was found. Histopathological evaluation revealed marked intestinal changes characterized by massive vacuolization and lipid deposition in the enterocytes, accompanied by distension of the villi and an increased cell turnover of small intestinal cells. Faeces production and faeces lipid content were increased with increasing JO levels. The recovery of JO in the faeces also increased in a dose-related manner and was found to be correlated with the intestinal histopathological changes. The significant adverse clinical and histopathological effects observed in this study imply that JO cannot be considered as a promising alternative dietary fat with a low digestibility.

  15. Increased sensitivity of the circadian system to temporal changes in the feeding regime of spontaneously hypertensive rats - a potential role for Bmal2 in the liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Polidarová

    Full Text Available The mammalian timekeeping system generates circadian oscillations that rhythmically drive various functions in the body, including metabolic processes. In the liver, circadian clocks may respond both to actual feeding conditions and to the metabolic state. The temporal restriction of food availability to improper times of day (restricted feeding, RF leads to the development of food anticipatory activity (FAA and resets the hepatic clock accordingly. The aim of this study was to assess this response in a rat strain exhibiting complex pathophysiological symptoms involving spontaneous hypertension, an abnormal metabolic state and changes in the circadian system, i.e., in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. The results revealed that SHR were more sensitive to RF compared with control rats, developing earlier and more pronounced FAA. Whereas in control rats, the RF only redistributed the activity profiles into two bouts (one corresponding to FAA and the other corresponding to the dark phase, in SHR the RF completely phase-advanced the locomotor activity according to the time of food presentation. The higher behavioral sensitivity to RF was correlated with larger phase advances of the hepatic clock in response to RF in SHR. Moreover, in contrast to the controls, RF did not suppress the amplitude of the hepatic clock oscillation in SHR. In the colon, no significant differences in response to RF between the two rat strains were detected. The results suggested the possible involvement of the Bmal2 gene in the higher sensitivity of the hepatic clock to RF in SHR because, in contrast to the Wistar rats, the rhythm of Bmal2 expression was advanced similarly to that of Bmal1 under RF. Altogether, the data demonstrate a higher behavioral and circadian responsiveness to RF in the rat strain with a cardiovascular and metabolic pathology and suggest a likely functional role for the Bmal2 gene within the circadian clock.

  16. Chelidonium majus is not hepatotoxic in Wistar rats, in a 4 weeks feeding experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gabriela; Di Sotto, Antonella; Franchitto, Antonio; Mammola, Caterina Loredana; Mariani, Paola; Mastrangelo, Sabina; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Vitalone, Annabella

    2009-12-10

    Aerial parts of Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae family) are traditionally used in the treatment of gallstones and dyspepsia, however several cases of hepatotoxicity are reported. In this work we evaluated the effects on liver function of a C. majus extract, obtained from the herbal material responsible for one case of hepatotoxicity. Experiments were performed in Wistar rats, after oral administration of doses corresponding to 1.5 and 3g/(kg day) of herbal drug, for 2 or 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected to perform biochemical analysis, whereas liver samples were used for histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination along with the determination of oxidative stress parameters. No significant modification in animal body weight, food consumption, enzyme activities, hepatic histomorphology and MDA formation, at either time or dosage level. Conversely, C. majus induced a slight but significant decrease of GSH levels and SOD activity, especially at the high dose. Our study suggests that C. majus, at doses about 50 and 100 times higher than those generally used in humans, does not alter hepatic function. However, the reduction in GSH levels and SOD activity suggests particular attention in use of C. majus or its preparations in situations (pharmacological treatments, physio-pathological conditions, etc.) that can compromise liver function.

  17. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Induction of insulin resistance by high-sucrose feeding does not raise mean arterial blood pressure but impairs haemodynamic responses to insulin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santuré, Marta; Pitre, Maryse; Marette, André; Deshaies, Yves; Lemieux, Christian; Larivière, Richard; Nadeau, André; Bachelard, Hélène

    2002-09-01

    1. This study was undertaken to further investigate the effects of a sucrose-enriched diet on vascular function and insulin sensitivity in rats. 2. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive a sucrose- or regular rat chow-diet for 4 weeks. A first group of sucrose- and chow-fed rats was instrumented with pulsed Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters to determine blood pressure, heart rate, regional blood flows and insulin sensitivity in conscious rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Glucose transport activity was examined in isolated muscles by using the glucose analogue [(3)H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose. A second group of sucrose- and chow-fed rats was used to obtain information regarding nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes protein expression in muscles, and determine endothelin content in vascular tissues isolated from both dietary groups. 3. Sucrose feeding was found to induce insulin resistance, but had no effect on resting blood pressure, heart rate, or regional haemodynamics. This insulin resistance was accompanied by alteration in the vascular responses to insulin. Insulin-mediated skeletal muscle vasodilation was impaired, whereas the mesenteric vasoconstrictor response was potentiated in sucrose-fed rats. A reduction in eNOS protein content in muscle and an increase in vascular endothelin peptide were noted in these animals. Moreover, a reduction in insulin-simulated glucose transport activity was also noted in muscles isolated from sucrose-fed rats. 4. Together these data suggest that a cluster of metabolic and haemodynamic abnormalities occur in response to the intake of simple sugars in rats.

  19. Reduction of colonic inflammation in HLA-B27 transgenic rats by feeding Marie Ménard apples, rich in polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnini, Cinzia; Luceri, Cristina; Toti, Simona; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Caderni, Giovanna; Femia, Angelo P; Giovannelli, Lisa; Lodovici, Maura; Pitozzi, Vanessa; Salvadori, Maddalena; Messerini, Luca; Martin, Rocio; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Gaj, Stan; Eijssen, Lars; Evelo, Chris T; Renard, Catherine M G C; Baron, Alain; Dolara, Piero

    2009-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are immunomediated ailments affecting millions of individuals. Although diet is regarded as an important factor influencing IBD, there are no accepted dietary recommendations presently available. We administered 7.6 % lyophilised apples obtained from two cultivars (Golden Delicious and Marie Ménard, low and high in polyphenols, respectively) to HLA-B27 transgenic rats which develop spontaneous IBD. After 3 months feeding, rats fed Marie Ménard apples had reduced myeloperoxidase activity (3.6 (sem 0.3) v. 2.2 (sem 0.2) U/g tissue; P bacteria of the Bacteriodes fragilis group. In conclusion, the administration of Marie Ménard apples, rich in polyphenols and used at present only in the manufacturing of cider, ameliorates colon inflammation in transgenic rats developing spontaneous intestinal inflammation, suggesting the possible use of these and other apple varieties to control inflammation in IBD patients.

  20. Feeding history and obese-prone genotype increase survival of rats exposed to a challenge of food restriction and wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Pierce, W David; Heth, C Donald; Russell, James C; Richard, Denis; Proctor, Spencer D

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that obese-prone genotype and history of food restriction confer a survival advantage to genetically obese animals under environmental challenge. Male juvenile JCR:LA-cp rats, obese-prone and lean-prone, were exposed to 1.5 h daily meals and 22.5-h voluntary wheel running, a procedure inducing activity anorexia (AA). One week before the AA challenge, obese-prone rats were freely fed (obese-FF), or pair fed (obese-PF) to lean-prone, free-feeding rats (lean-FF). Animals were removed from protocol at 75% of initial body weight (starvation criterion) or after 14 days (survival criterion). AA challenge induced weight loss in all rats, but percent weight loss was more rapid and sustained in lean-FF rats than in obese-FF or obese-PF animals (P Wheel running increased linearly in all groups; lean-FF increased more rapidly than obese-FF (P wheel running. Prior food restriction of juvenile obese-prone rats induces a survival benefit beyond genotype, that is related to achievement of homeostasis. This metabolic adaptive process may help explain the development of human obesity in the presence of an unstable food environment which subsequently transitions to an abundant food supply.

  1. Pair feeding-mediated changes in metabolism: stress response and pathophysiology in insulin-resistant, atherosclerosis-prone JCR:LA-cp rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James C; Proctor, Spencer D; Kelly, Sandra E; Brindley, David N

    2008-06-01

    Rats of the JCR:LA-cp strain, which are homozygous for the cp gene (cp/cp), are obese, insulin-resistant, and hyperinsulinemic. They exhibit associated micro- and macrovascular disease and end-stage ischemic myocardial lesions and are highly stress sensitive. We subjected male cp/cp rats to pair feeding (providing the rats each day with the amount of food eaten by matched freely fed animals), a procedure that alters the diurnal feeding pattern, leading to a state of intermittent caloric restriction. Effects on insulin, glucose, and lipid metabolism, response to restraint stress, aortic contractile/relaxant response, and myocardial lesion frequency were investigated. Pair-fed young (12-wk-old) cp/cp rats had lower insulin and glucose levels (basal and following restraint), consistent with increased insulin sensitivity, but a greater increase in plasma nonesterified fatty acids in response to restraint. These effects were unrelated to lipolytic rates in adipose tissue but may be related to reduced fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Older (24-wk-old) pair-fed cp/cp rats had significantly reduced plasma triglyceride levels, improved micro- and macrovascular function, and reduced severity of ischemic myocardial lesions. These changes indicate a significant amelioration of end-stage disease processes in this animal model and the complexity of metabolic/physiological responses in studies involving alterations in food intake. The effects illustrate the sensitivity of the JCR:LA-cp rat, an animal model for the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular disease, to the environmental and experimental milieu. Similar stress-related mechanisms may play a role in metabolically induced cardiovascular disease in susceptible human beings.

  2. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riofrío-Lazo, Marjorie; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna). The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS) = 55.8%), followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%), and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%), captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98%) and arthropods (2%). Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs), showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.

  3. Seasonal, sex and live weight variations in feed and water consumptions of adult captive African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse-1840) kept individually in cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzenda, T; Ayo, J O; Lakpini, C A M; Adelaiye, A B

    2013-06-01

    Adult African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) (AGRs) (n = 231) of both sexes (117 bucks, 114 does) were live-trapped in the wild in Zaria, Nigeria. Live weight (LW), daily feed consumption (FC) and water consumption (WC) of the AGRs were measured during the cold-dry (CDS), hot-dry (HDS) and rainy (RS) seasons for 2 years with the aim of determining seasonal, sex and LW variations. Feed consumption was significantly different (p HDS, while the highest was obtained during the RS. Water consumption was also lowest (p HDS but did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between the CDS and RS. Both feed and water consumptions were higher (p HDS, but the sex difference was not significant (p > 0.05) during the RS. Feed consumption correlated positively (p HDS). Intervention may be indicated during the HDS to improve feed and water consumptions for optimal performance of the AGRs.

  4. Exposure to butyl paraben during gestation and lactation in Hsd:Sprague dawley SD rats via dosed feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia K. Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Butyl paraben (BPB is an antimicrobial used in a variety of consumer products. Due to widespread human exposure and reported estrogenic activity, the National Toxicology Program quantified internal exposure during critical periods of development. Time-mated female Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats were administered 0, 1500, 5000 or 15,000 ppm BPB via NIH-07 feed, ad libitum, from gestation day (GD 6 to postnatal day (PND 28. Dam plasma, amniotic fluid and fetuses were collected on GD18 and pup and dam plasma were collected on PNDs 4, 10, 14, 21 and 28 and analyzed for free (unconjugated and total (unconjugated and conjugated BPB using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free BPB was below the limit of quantitation in fetuses (LOQ 1.91 ng BPB/g fetus and amniotic fluid (LOQ 0.17 ng BPB/mL amniotic fluid at 1500 ppm. Analyte levels in amniotic fluid were less than 1% of maternal plasma, suggesting limited placental transfer. Total BPB in PND4 pup plasma was less than 5% of dam plasma in all exposure groups, suggesting low lactational transfer. However, at nearly all time points and exposure groups, there were higher levels of free BPB in pup versus dam plasma, suggesting limited conjugation in pups. Pup conjugation of BPB was age-dependent, not reaching the percent-conjugation in dams (>99% until PNDs 21 to 28. These data illustrate low placental and lactational transfer of dietary BPB and that poor conjugation in pups during early lactation results in higher exposure to free BPB in pups compared to dams.

  5. Meat Characteristics, Fatty Liver Weight and Blood Biochemical Parameters in Force-Feeding Geese

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A study on growth performance, meat characteristics, fatty liver weight and serum biochemical parameters (ASAT, ALAT, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine) in Landes geese before and after force-feeding was carried out. The overfeeding of geese with corn was taken after 90-days of age. Frequency of daily force feeding was gradually increased from 2 to 5 until the 15th day of force feeding. During force-feeding period, the body weight inc...

  6. Chronic vitamin A-enriched diet feeding induces body weight gain and adiposity in lean and glucose-intolerant obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M; Sheril, Alex; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Previously, we reported that chronic feeding of a vitamin A-enriched diet to euglycaemic obese rats (WNIN/Ob) ameliorated obesity. Does this diet exert similar effects even with a different genetic background, i.e. obese rats of the WNIN/GR-Ob strain with impaired glucose tolerance? What is the main finding and its importance? Vitamin A-enriched diet aggravated weight gain and adiposity/obesity in both lean and glucose-intolerant obese rats of the WNIN/GR-Ob strain. Therefore, the role of genetic factors and their regulation by nutrients in determining health and disease conditions assumes greater significance in experimental and clinical research. Vitamin A and its metabolites are key regulators of the development of adipose tissue and its associated metabolic complications. Here, we tested, in a glucose-intolerant obese rat model (the WNIN/GR-Ob stain), whether feeding a vitamin A-enriched diet alters adiposity and its associated changes. For this purpose, 30-week-old male lean and obese rats were divided into two groups and received either stock diet or vitamin A-enriched diet [2.6 or 129 mg vitamin A (kg diet)(-1) , respectively] for 14 weeks. At the end, feeding of the vitamin A-enriched diet resulted in increased body weight gain/obesity and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RPWAT) in both lean and obese rats of the WNIN/GR-Ob strain, when compared with their respective control animals receiving stock diet, without affecting food intake. An improvement in hypertriglyceridaemia and circulatory non-esterified fatty acid levels and unaltered hepatic fatty acid oxidative and triglyceride secretory pathway proteins with vitamin A-enriched diet feeding are suggestive of enhanced hepatic clearance of circulatory lipids, resulting in increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Transcriptional analysis of RPWAT showed that feeding the vitamin A-enriched diet augmented the expression of adipogenic

  7. Time-restricted feeding on weekdays restricts weight gain: A study using rat models of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Magnus Kringstad; Choi, Man Hung; Kulseng, Bård; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan

    2017-05-01

    A recent study reported that a special weekly scheduled time-restricted feeding regimen (TRF), i.e., no food consumption for 15h during the light (inactive) phase per day for 5 weekdays, attenuated the outcome of diverse nutritional challenges in response to high-fat diet in mice. In the present study, we wanted to further test whether this TRF could restrict body weight gain in both juvenile and adult animals when fed a high-fat diet. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats at ages from 5 to 27weeks were used. First, we found that freely fed rats with 60% fat diet gained weight significantly, which was associated with more calorie intake (particularly during light phase) than those fed standard food (7% fat). Secondly, we found that TRF restricted high-fat diet-induced weight gain in both groups of juvenile rats (5 and 13weeks of age) compared to freely fed rats with high-fat diet, despite the same levels of 24h-calorie intake during either weekdays or the weekend. Thirdly, we found that TRF did not restrict high-fat diet-induce weight gain in adult rats (27weeks of age). Thus, we suggest that this special TRF regimen could be further tested in humans (particularly young adults) for the purpose of obesity prevention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antisense to NPY-Y1 demonstrates that Y1 receptors in the hypothalamus underlie NPY hypothermia and feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Valpuesta, F J; Nyce, J W; Griffin-Biggs, T A; Ice, J C; Myers, R D

    1996-07-22

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a highly potent endogenous peptide which when injected into the medial hypothalamus causes spontaneous eating behaviour and an intense fall in body temperature (Tb). This study used antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) to determine whether the Y1 subtype of NPY receptor could underlie these remarkable physiological responses. In the unrestrained rat, the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which is highly reactive to NPY was injected with antisense for NPY (aNPY), Y1 receptors (aNPY-Y1) and mismatched controls (mNPY; mNPY-Y1). After cannulae were implanted bilaterally in the brain of 19 rats, 0.4 or 0.8 microgram per 0.8 microliter of the phosphorothioate synthesised ODNs were delivered to the VMH of the rats at 12 h intervals over 2 d. Only the lower dose of aNPY-Y1, but not aNPY, evoked an intense phasic rise in the Tb following each micro-injection. Simultaneously, 0.4 microgram per 0.8 microliter of aNPY-Y1, but not aNPY, suppressed feeding behaviour after a sequence of micro-injections and on the following day. Body weights and locomotor activity of the rats likewise declined concomitantly with the hyperthermia and hypophagia caused by the Y1 receptor antisense. Neither of the control ODNs for NPY or Y1 receptors injected similarly in the VMH of the rats exerted any effects on these measures. These results clearly provide convincing evidence that in the VMH the Y1 subtype of NPY receptor mediates, in part, the neuronal mechanisms responsible for spontaneous feeding and hypothermia produced by native NPY when applied directly to this structure. The concurrent decline in body weight and activity caused by aNPY-Y1 could be caused by the episodes of hyperthermia.

  9. Effects of feeding fish oil on mesenteric lymph node cytokine responses in obese leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, M R; Proctor, S D; Field, C J

    2009-01-01

    berrant immune responses have been identified in obesity; however, immune cells of lymph nodes residing in the inflammatory environment of visceral adipose tissue have been largely overlooked. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce inflammation and modify T-cell function and therefore may improve immune function in obesity. Thus, we determined the effects of feeding fish oil (FO) containing EPA and DHA on mesenteric lymph node (MLN) immune cell function. In this study, 14-week-old obese, leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats (cp/cp) (n=10 per group) were randomized to one of three nutritionally adequate diets for 3 weeks: control (ctl, 0% EPA+DHA), low FO (LFO, 0.8% w/w EPA+DHA) or high FO (HFO, 1.4% w/w EPA+DHA). Lean JCR:LA-cp (Cp/cp or Cp/Cp) rats (n=5) were fed ctl diet. MLN cell phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition, phenotypes and cytokine production were measured. Obese ctl rats produced more IL-1beta, IL-4 and IL-10, despite a higher proportion of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and a lower (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio in MLN PL compared with lean ctl rats (PJCR:LA-cp rats have impaired responses of MLN immune cells to mitogen stimulation and altered PL fatty acid composition. Feeding FO lowered the ex vivo inflammatory response (HFO only) and production of Th2 cytokines, without changing IL-2 production from ConA-stimulated splenocytes, which may occur independent of leptin signalling.

  10. Effects of peripherally administered cholecystokinin-8 and secretin on feeding/drinking and oxytocin-mRFP1 fluorescence in transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motojima, Yasuhito; Kawasaki, Makoto; Matsuura, Takanori; Saito, Reiko; Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Ueno, Hiromichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohnishi, Hideo; Sakai, Akinori; Ueta, Yoichi

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral administration of cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 or secretin activates oxytocin (OXT)-secreting neurons in the hypothalamus. Although OXT is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, detailed mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the central OXTergic pathways after intraperitoneally (i.p.) administration of CCK-8 and secretin using male OXT-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) transgenic rats and male Wistar rats. I.p. administration of CCK-8 (50μg/kg) and secretin (100μg/kg) decreased food intake in these rats. While i.p. administration of CCK-8 decreased water intake, i.p. administration of secretin increased water intake. Immunohistochemical study revealed that Fos-Like-Immunoreactive cells were observed abundantly in the brainstem and in the OXT neurons in the dorsal division of the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (dpPVN). We could observe marked increase of mRFP1 fluorescence, as an indicator for OXT, in the dpPVN and mRFP1-positive granules in axon terminals of the dpPVN OXT neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) after i.p. administration of CCK-8 and secretin. These results provide us the evidence that, at least in part, i.p. administration of CCK-8 or secretin might be involved in the regulation of feeding/drinking via a OXTergic pathway from the dpPVN to the NTS.

  11. Consumption of Mercury-contaminated Rice Induces Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Aggravation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIU-LING JI; GUI-WEN JIN; JIN-PING CHENG; WEN-HUA WANG; JING LU; LI-YA QU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the oxidative stress induced by consumption of mercury-contaminated rice in rats, and to assess the possible public health risk of mercury contamination in Wanshan mining area. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were fed the mercury-contaminated rice produced from Wanshan area for 90 days. The antioxidant status and the free radicals in rat serum were evaluated. Results High mercury accumulation in organs of rats fed the mercury-contaminated rice confirmed the server pollution of mercury in Wanshan mining area. The intensity of electron spin resonance (ESR) signal increased by 87.38% in rats fed the rice from Wanshan compared with that in the control rats fed the rice from Shanghai, suggesting that chronic dietary consumption of rice from mercury mining area could induce an aggravation of free radicals. Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice was associated with significant decreases in the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and concentration of serum nitric oxide (NO), but it had no effect on serum nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice raised the level of serum malonyldialdehyde (MDA), indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress. Conclusion The long-term dietary consumption of mercury-contaminated rice induces the aggravation of free radicals and exerts oxidative stress.

  12. Effect of fat feeding on pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant enzyme systems in rat intestine: possible role in the turnover of enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Aasma; Gill, Ravinder; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Mohan, Harsh; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2009-06-01

    Immature epithelial cells generated in the crypt base undergo differentiation while progressing to the villus tip, where the cells upon apoptosis are detached from the underlying muscular tissue. We previously reported that lipid peroxidation might be involved in the turnover of enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis in rat intestine (Dig Dis Sci 52:1840-1844, 2007). To examine whether long-term feeding of fat with different fatty-acid composition influences this process, in the present study we investigated the effect of feeding fish oil (n - 3) and corn oil (n - 6) polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipid per-oxidation and anti-oxidant systems in different epithelial cell fractions isolated in rat intestine. Feeding fish oil or corn oil markedly enhanced lipid per-oxidation levels of enterocytes throughout villus height compared with control, but there was no difference in the distribution profile of pro- and anti-oxidant enzyme systems and lipid per-oxidation across the crypt-villus axis under these conditions. Analysis of lipid peroxidation levels in different cell fractions revealed that the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were 9- to 11-fold higher at the villus tip compared with at the crypt base. The activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were 2- to 5-fold higher in villus tip compared to the crypt region. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were 6- to 8-fold high at the crypt base compared with at villus tip cells. Immunocytolocalization of superoxide dismutase showed high staining in crypt base compared with that in villus, tip cells. These findings further suggest that generation of reactive oxygen species in enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis may be involved in turnover of enterocytes across the crypt-villus unit in rat intestine.

  13. Vitamin E levels in soleus muscles of experimentally induced hyperthyroid rats differ consequent to feeding of edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merican, Z; Suboh, B; Marzuki, A; Khalid, B A

    1999-12-01

    It has been shown that lipid peroxidation product levels in the soleus muscles of rats fed palm olein were lower than in the soleus muscles of rats fed soya bean oil. A study was carried out to test our hypothesis that the lower level of lipid peroxidation products in the soleus muscle of palm olein-fed rats is due, at least partly, to the higher amount of vitamin E in their soleus muscles. Experimentally induced hyperthyroid rats were fed either ground rat chow or ground rat chow mixed with palm olein oil or soya bean oil for a period of 8 weeks. Euthyroid rats fed ground rat chow for a similar period served as controls. At the end of the 8-week period, the rats were sacrificed and the α-tocopherol and tocotrienol levels in their soleus muscles were measured using high pressure liquid chromatography. It was found that the levels of α-tocopherol (23.682 ± 0.363), α-tocotrienol (1.974 ± 0.040) and γ-tocotrienol (1.418 ± 0.054) in μg/g tissue wet weight in the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed palm olein oil were statistically significantly higher than those found in the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed soya bean oil, which were 14.299 ± 0.378, 0.053 ± 0.053 and 0.184 ± 0.120μg/g tissue wet weight, respectively. The result shows that the increased level of a-tocopherol and tocotrienols found in the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed palm olein oil is responsible, at least partly, for the lower amount of lipid peroxidation products in these muscles compared with the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed soya bean oil in our earlier study.

  14. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-12-10

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 10⁵ Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8%) significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C) ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment of

  15. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Roxarsone (CAS No. 121-19-7) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Roxarsone is a veterinary drug used as a growth promoter and as an anticoccidial agent and for treatment of swine dysentery. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering roxarsone (greater than 99.4% pure) in feed to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 14 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Fourteen-Day and Thirteen-Week Studies: In the 14-day studies, the diets fed to rats contained 0 or 100-1,600 ppm roxarsone, and those fed to mice contained 0 or 60-1,000 ppm. Deaths occurred in rats and mice that received the highest doses. Rats that received 800 or 1,600 ppm lost weight. Male mice that received 1,000 ppm and female mice that received 500 ppm lost weight. In the first 13-week studies, roxarsone was fed to rats and mice at dietary concentrations of 0 or 50-800 ppm. Decreases (more than 10%) in final mean body weights of dosed rats relative to those of controls were observed for males that received 200, 400, or 800 ppm and for females that received 400 or 800 ppm. Deaths occurred in groups that received 800 ppm. Clinical signs of toxicity (trembling, ataxia, and pale skin) were seen primarily in rats that received 800 ppm. Kidney lesions were observed in rats that received 800 ppm. These lesions were characterized by tubular necrosis and mineralization in the rats that died during the studies and by tubular dilatation and casts, interstitial inflammation, and tubular epithelial cell regeneration in the rats that lived to the end of the studies. Additional 13-week studies were conducted in rats at dietary concentrations of 0, 100, or 400 ppm to demonstrate the absorption of roxarsone from the gastrointestinal tract; to determine its distribution in liver, kidney, and blood; and to study its effects on various hematologic and clinical chemical values. No deaths occurred. Renal lesions of minimal severity observed in male rats that received 400 ppm were characterized by tubular epithelial cell degeneration and regeneration, tubular

  16. Effect of crop protection and fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production systems on feed composition and physiological parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Hajslova, Jana; Schulzova, Vera; Cakmak, Ismail; Öztürk, Levent; Królikowski, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Ewelina; Baca, Elżbieta; Eyre, Mick; Steinshamn, Håvard; Jordon, Teresa; Leifert, Carlo

    2013-02-01

    Very little is known about the effects of an organic or conventional diet on animal physiology and health. Here, we report the effect of contrasting crop protection (with or without chemosynthetic pesticides) and fertilization (manure or mineral fertilizers) regimes on feed composition and growth and the physiological parameters of rats. The use of manure instead of mineral fertilizers in feed production resulted in lower concentrations of protein (18.8 vs 20.6%) and cadmium (3.33 vs 4.92 μg/100 g) but higher concentrations of polyphenols (1.46 vs 0.89 g/100 g) in feeds and higher body protein (22.0 vs 21.5%), body ash (3.59 vs 3.51%), white blood cell count (10.86 vs 8.19 × 10³/mm³), plasma glucose (7.23 vs 6.22 mmol/L), leptin (3.56 vs 2.78 ng/mL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (1.87 vs 1.28 μg/mL), corticosterone (247 vs 209 ng/mL), and spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 vs 5.03 × 10³ cpm) but lower plasma testosterone (1.07 vs 1.97 ng/mL) and mitogen stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes (182 vs 278 × 10³ cpm) in rats. There were no main effects of crop protection, but a range of significant interactions between fertilization and crop protection occurred.

  17. The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, Wiebke; Klaus, Susanne; Fink, Heidrun; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging experimental evidence that hyper-energetic diets not only cause obesity but also impact on behaviour in rodents. A hyper-energetic comfort diet/cafeteria diet (CD) fed during early development programmes anxiety-related behaviour in adult age, but little is known how an obesogenic CD impacts on behaviour when fed at a later age. To this end we fed CD to Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at either 6 weeks or 12 months old, for a period of 6 weeks. Anxiety-related behaviour was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field (OF). A glucose tolerance test was performed and metabolic indices, body weight and fat were measured. CD-fed young adult females, but not males, had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of carbohydrates and fats. Only in adult CD-fed rats of both sexes did this overconsumption led to increased weight gain. Protein intake was reduced in all CD groups. Fat mass (subcutaneous, perirenal, gonadal) increased in most CD groups, whereas brown fat increased only in adults. Triacylglycerol, free fatty acid and total cholesterol concentrations increased predominantly in adult CD-fed rats. Glucose tolerance was only impaired in adult males. CD-fed adult males showed fewer entries into the aversive open arms and groomed more on the EPM, whereas adult females spent more time on these arms. In the OF, CD-fed females of both ages visited the inner zone more frequently and travelled a longer distance. The behavioural data suggests anxiolysis in CD-fed females and signs of increased anxiety in adult males. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that feeding CD leads to both obesity and behavioural changes in rats. Overall, these effects were more pronounced in older rats, with the behavioural effects being particularly gender dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alterations in the molecular species of rat liver lecithin by corn-oil feeding to essential fatty acid-deficient rats as a function of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, L.M.G. van; Pieterson, W.A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1968-01-01

    The present paper describes, as a function of time, the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the molecular species pattern of rat liver lecithin which are observed when corn oil is fed to essential fatty acid-deficient rats. One of the most important changes observed was a very rapid

  19. Sex differences in the effect of high-fat diet feeding on rat white adipose tissue mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual-Cladera, Emilia; Lladó, Isabel; Gianotti, Magdalena; Proenza, Ana M

    2012-08-01

    Obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion, which is involved in insulin resistance development. Taking into account the sex differences previously found both in mitochondrial function and for the insulin sensitivity profile in different tissues, the aim of this study was to investigate whether a sex-dependent effect of a long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding exists on WAT mitochondrial function. Indeed, HFD effects on the levels of the key components of the insulin and adiponectin signaling pathways, and the consequences of these effects on the systemic profile of insulin sensitivity were also studied. Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a standard diet or an HFD. Serum markers of insulin sensitivity, protein, and mRNA levels of the main elements of the insulin and adiponectin signaling pathways, and the markers of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, were measured. Our results indicate that different physiological strategies are adopted by male and female rats in response to HFD. In this regard, HFD induced mitochondrial proliferation in males and mitochondrial differentiation in females, as well as a greater retroperitoneal WAT expandability capacity, which allows them to preserve a better insulin sensitivity profile than male rats for both control and HFD groups. Moreover, female WAT showed a decrease in adiponectin and insulin signaling pathway element levels. This sexual dimorphism suggests that there are different strategies for retroperitoneal WAT to maintain the energetic and metabolic homeostasis in response to HFD feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Central nervous system neuropeptide Y signaling via the Y1 receptor partially dissociates feeding behavior from lipoprotein metabolism in lean rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jennifer M; Stafford, John M; Saadat, Sanaz; Printz, Richard L; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Niswender, Kevin D

    2012-12-15

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels contribute to an atherogenic dyslipidemia that is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Numerous models of obesity are characterized by increased central nervous system (CNS) neuropeptide Y (NPY) tone that contributes to excess food intake and obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of NPY in lean fasted rats also elevates hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG. Thus, we hypothesize that elevated CNS NPY action contributes to not only the pathogenesis of obesity but also dyslipidemia. Here, we sought to determine whether the effects of NPY on feeding and/or obesity are dissociable from effects on hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. Pair-fed, icv NPY-treated, chow-fed Long-Evans rats develop hypertriglyceridemia in the absence of increased food intake and body fat accumulation compared with vehicle-treated controls. We then modulated CNS NPY signaling by icv injection of selective NPY receptor agonists and found that Y1, Y2, Y4, and Y5 receptor agonists all induced hyperphagia in lean, ad libitum chow-fed Long-Evans rats, with the Y2 receptor agonist having the most pronounced effect. Next, we found that at equipotent doses for food intake NPY Y1 receptor agonist had the most robust effect on VLDL-TG secretion, a Y2 receptor agonist had a modest effect, and no effect was observed for Y4 and Y5 receptor agonists. These findings, using selective agonists, suggest the possibility that the effect of CNS NPY signaling on hepatic VLDL-TG secretion may be relatively dissociable from effects on feeding behavior via the Y1 receptor.

  1. Effect of dietary protein quality and feeding level on milk secretion and mammary protein synthesis in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, D.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1985-04-01

    Protein synthesis was studied in mammary tissue of rats fed diets deficient in protein quality and/or restricted in food intake throughout gestation and lactation. Diets containing 25% wheat gluten (WG), wheat gluten plus lysine and threonine (WGLT), or casein (C) were pair-fed from conception until day 15 of lactation at 100% or 85% of WG ad libitum consumption (PF100 and PF85, respectively). A seventh group was fed C ad libitum. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo at day 15 of lactation from incorporation of (3-/sup 3/H)phenylalanine. At both PF100 and PF85, fractional and absolute rates of mammary gland protein synthesis were two- to three-fold higher in rats fed C than in those fed WG. Pup weights showed similar treatment effects. Both mammary protein synthesis rates and pup weights were significantly higher in rats fed C at PF85 than rats fed WG ad libitum. Food restriction from PF100 to PF85 depressed pup weights and mammary protein synthesis rates in rats fed WGLT, but had no effect in rats fed WG. These results demonstrate that when food intake is restricted, improvement of protein quality of the maternal diet increases milk output in the rat in association with increased rates of mammary protein synthesis.

  2. The effect of moxonidine on feeding and body fat in obese Zucker rats: role of hypothalamic NPY neurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Chen; King, Peter; Pickavance, Lucy; Brown, Michael; Ziegler, Dieter; Kaan, Elbert; Williams, Gareth

    1999-01-01

    The antihypertensive agent moxonidine, an imidazoline Ii-receptor agonist, also induces hypophagia and lowers body weight in the obese spontaneously hypertensive rat, but the central mediation of this action and the neuronal pathways that moxonidine may interact with are not known. We studied whether moxonidine has anti-obesity effects in the genetically-obese and insulin-resistant fa/fa Zucker rat, and whether these are mediated through inhibition of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones.Lean and obese Zucker rats were given moxonidine (3 mg kg−1 day−1) or saline by gavage for 21 days.Moxonidine decreased food intake throughout by 20% in obese rats (P<0.001) and by 8% in lean rats (P<0.001), and reduced weight gain that final body weight was 15% lower in obese (P<0.001) and 7% lower in lean (P<0.01) rats than their untreated controls. Plasma insulin and leptin levels were decreased in moxonidine-treated obese rats (P<0.01 and P<0.05), but unchanged in treated lean rats. Uncoupling protein-1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue was stimulated by 40–50% (P⩽0.05) in both obese and lean animals given moxonidine. Obese animals given moxonidine showed a 37% reduction in hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels (P=0.01), together with significantly increased NPY concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus (P<0.05), but no changes in the arcuate nucleus or other nuclei; this is consistent with reduced NPY synthesis in the arcuate nucleus and blocked release of NPY in the paraventricular nucleus. In lean animals, moxonidine did not affect NPY levels or NPY mRNA.The hypophagic, thermogenic and anti-obesity effects of moxonidine in obese Zucker rats may be partly due to inhibition of the NPY neurones, whose inappropriate overactivity may underlie obesity in this model. PMID:10369453

  3. Exposure of neonatal rats to maternal cafeteria feeding during suckling alters hepatic gene expression and DNA methylation in the insulin signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Zoe C; Akyol, Asli; McMullen, Sarah; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition in early life is a determinant of lifelong physiological and metabolic function. Diseases that are associated with ageing may, therefore, have their antecedents in maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. Rat mothers were fed either a standard laboratory chow diet (C) or a cafeteria diet (O) based upon a varied panel of highly palatable human foods, during lactation. Their offspring were then weaned onto chow or cafeteria diet giving four groups of animals (CC, CO, OC, OO n = 9-10). Livers were harvested 10 weeks post-weaning for assessment of gene and protein expression, and DNA methylation. Cafeteria feeding post-weaning impaired glucose tolerance and was associated with sex-specific altered mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and components of the insulin signalling pathway (Irs2, Akt1 and IrB). Exposure to the cafeteria diet during the suckling period modified the later response to the dietary challenge. Post-weaning cafeteria feeding only down-regulated IrB when associated with cafeteria feeding during suckling (group OO, interaction of diet in weaning and lactation P = 0.041). Responses to cafeteria diet during both phases of the experiment varied between males and females. Global DNA methylation was altered in the liver following cafeteria feeding in the post-weaning period, in males but not females. Methylation of the IrB promoter was increased in group OC, but not OO (P = 0.036). The findings of this study add to a growing evidence base that suggests tissue function across the lifespan a product of cumulative modifications to the epigenome and transcriptome, which may be both tissue and sex-specific.

  4. Safety Evaluation of Multiple Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus in Wistar Rats Based on the Ames Test and a 28-Day Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chih Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three lactic acid bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, HK006, and HK109, and Pediococcus pentosaceus PP31 exhibit probiotic potential as antiallergy agents, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the safety of these new strains requires evaluation when isolated from infant faeces or pickled cabbage. Multiple strains (HK006, HK109, and PP31 were subject to a bacterial reverse mutation assay and a short-term oral toxicity study. The powder product exhibited mutagenic potential in Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA98 and TA1535 (with or without metabolic activation. In the short-term oral toxicity study, rats received a normal dosage of 390 mg/kg/d (approximately 9×109 CFU/kg/d or a high dosage of 1950 mg/kg/d (approximately 4.5×1010 CFU/kg/d for 28 d. No adverse effects were observed regarding the general condition, behaviour, growth, feed and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry indices, organ weights, or histopathologic analysis of the rats. These studies have demonstrated that the consumption of multiple bacterial strains is not associated with any signs of mutagenicity of S. Typhimurium or toxicity in Wistar rats, even after consuming large quantities of bacteria.

  5. Effects of High-Fat Feeding on Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Nie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we examined the responses of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats fed either a standard chow or high-fat diet (HFD from weaning to 20 weeks of age. This comparison included gene expression profiling of skeletal muscle using Affymetrix gene array chips. The expression profiling is interpreted within the context of a wide array of physiological measurements. Genes whose expressions are different between the 2 strains regardless of diet, as well as genes that differ between strains only with HFD, were identified. In addition, genes that were regulated by diet in 1 or both strains were identified. The results suggest that both strains respond to HFD by an increased capacity to oxidize lipid fuels in the musculature but that this adaptation occurs more rapidly in WKY rats. The results also demonstrated an impaired cytokine signalling and heightened inflammatory status in the GK rats.

  6. Continuous feed medication with nitroscanate for the removal of Hymenolepis nana in naturally infected mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönenç, B; Sarimehmetoğlu, H O

    2001-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nitroscanate were investigated in naturally acquired Hymenolepis nana infections in rats and mice. The natural infection was determined by centrifugal flotation technique of faeces. The infected rats and mice were divided into two treatment and two control groups (N = 10). Nitroscanate at the dose of 50 mg/kg per day was given in the diet for 4 days. The rats and mice of treatment groups were necropsied on 7th day after the last treatment together with those of control groups. Following necrospsy, in the treatment group a geometric mean of 1.07 Hymenolepis nana were recovered out of ten mice, compared with 8.14 in the control group. In the rat treatment group no Hymenolepis nana were found in ten rats, while the control group showed a geometric mean of 6.23. Nitroscanate was found to be effective 100% and 86.8% at the treatment of H. nana infection in rats and mice respectively.

  7. The Effects of Long-Term Feeding of Rodent Food Bars on Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzyme Levels In Fisher Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Joel; Zirkle-Yoshida, M.; Piert, S.; Barrett, J.; Yul, D.; Dalton, B.; Girten, B.

    2001-01-01

    A specialized rodent food bar diet has been developed and utilized successfully for short-duration shuttle missions. Recent tests conducted in preparation for experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) indicated that long-term food bar feeding for three months induced hyperlipidemia in rats. This study examined oxidative stress status in livers of these same animals. Spectrophotometric analysis of 79 Fischer rat livers (40 female and 39 male) for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was conducted using Bioxytech LPO-587(TM) assay kit and SOD-525(Tm) assay kit, respectively. The treatment groups consisted of 20 male CHOW and 19 male FOOD BAR rats and 20 female CHOW and 20 female FOOD BAR rats. Statistical analysis to compare differences between groups was performed by standard analysis of variance procedures. The male FOOD BAR group LPO mean (3.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/g) was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) greater than that of the male CHOW group (2.1 +/-0.1 mmol/g). Moreover the female FOOD BAR group LPO mean (2.9 +/-0.1 mmol/g) was also significantly greater than the female CHOW group mean (2.2 +/-0.1 mmol/g). The mean values for SOD in both male and female groups showed no significant differences between CHOW and FOOD BAR groups. These results show that LPO levels were significantly higher in both the male and female FOOD BAR groups compared to CHOW groups and that there was no concomitant increase in SOD levels across the group. In addition, males showed a greater difference than females in terms of LPO levels. These findings suggest a need for further investigation into the use of the current food bar formulation for long-term experiments such as those planned for the ISS.

  8. Platycodon grandiflorum extract represses up-regulated adipocyte fatty acid binding protein triggered by a high fat feeding in obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoon Shin Park; Yoosik Yoon; Hong Seok Ahn

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum extract (PGE) on lipid metabolism and FABP mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue of high fat diet-induced obese rats.METHODS: PGE was treated to investigate the inhibitory effect on the pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 differentiation and pancreatic lipase activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 439.03 ± 7.61 g were divided into four groups: the control groups that fed an experimental diet alone (C and H group) and PGE treatment groups that administered PGE along with a control diet or HFD at a concentration of 150 mg/kg body weight (C + PGE and H + PGE group, respectively) for 7 wk. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerol (TG) concentrations were measured from the tail vein of rats. Adipocyte cell area was measured from subcutaneous adipose tissue and the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) mRNA expression was analyzed by northern blot analysis.RESULTS: PGE treatment inhibited 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation, and also decreased pancreatic lipase activity. In this experiment, PGE significantly reduced plasma TC and TG concentrations as well as body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue weight. PGE also significantly decreased the size of subcutaneous adipocytes. Furthermore, it significantly repressed the up-regulation of FABP mRNA expression induced by a high-fat feeding in subcutaneous adipose tissue.CONCLUSION: PGE has a plasma lipid lowering-effect and anti-obesity effect in obese rats fed a high fat diet.From these results, we can suggest the possibility that PGE can be used as a food ingredient or drug component to therapeutically control obesity.

  9. Hepatic-portal oleic acid inhibits feeding more potently than hepatic-portal caprylic acid in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Benthem, Lambertus; Arsenijevic, Denis; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Geary, Noni; Leonhardt, Monika; Geary, Nori

    2006-01-01

    In several human and animal studies, medium-chain triglycerides decreased food intake more than did long-chain triglycerides. It is possible that faster uptake and metabolism of medium-chain fatty acids in the liver is responsible for this difference. To test this hypothesis we compared the feeding

  10. Safety evaluation of transgenic low-gliadin wheat in Sprague Dawley rats: An alternative to the gluten free diet with no subchronic adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, Carmen Victoria; Barro, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Gluten-associated pathologies have increased in recent years and there is a greater demand for low or gluten-free products. Transgenic low-gliadin wheat lines showed low T-cell response, good bread-making properties, and excellent sensory assets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the whole-wheat flour from one transgenic low-gliadin line (named E82) in a 90-day feeding study. In this study males (n = 50) and females (n = 50) SD rats were used. They were fed with doses of 1.42, 2.83 and 5.67 g/kg/day of the transgenic E82 line, 5.67 g/kg/day of the WT and a blank group. We found that there were no significant differences in the development of animals. Biochemistry for liver and kidney function were similar for males and females of all groups. Other haematological and metabolic blood parameters, as well as organ weight did not show significant differences in the five groups of animals. In the histopathological study performed for the higher dose of transgenic E82 line, WT and blank group no abnormalities were observed. The whole-wheat flour of E82 line administered to rats at tested doses for 90 days did not have any adverse effects and there was no difference with the rats which ate WT wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  12. NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Propyl Gallate (CAS No. 121-79-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Propyl gallate is a white to nearly white odorless powder having a slightly bitter taste. Solutions of propyl gallate turn dark in the presence of iron or iron salts. Propyl gallate has been used since 1948 as an antioxidant to stabilize cosmetics, food packaging materials, and foods containing fats. As an additive, it may be found in edible fats, oils, mayonnaise, shortening, baked goods, candy, dried meat, fresh pork sausage, and dried milk, and it is used in hair grooming products, pressure-sensitive adhesives, lubricating oil additives, and transforming oils. A NTP Carcinogenesis bioassay of propyl gallate was conducted by feeding diets containing 6,000 or 12,000 ppm propyl gallate to groups of 50 F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 untreated rats and 50 untreated mice of each sex served as controls. Survival of rats and mice was not adversely affected by propyl gallate, but mean body weights of dosed rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. At 104 weeks, mean body weights of low-and high-dose rats were 4% and 8% lower than those of the controls for males and 11% and 19% lower than those of the controls for females. Similarly, mean body weights of low-and high-dose mice were 5% and 8% lower than those of the controls for males and 11% (both dose groups) lower than those of the controls for females. Thyroid follicular-cell adenomas or carcinomas (combined) occurred in male rats with a statistically significant (P<0.05) positive trend, but the incidences in the dosed groups were not statistically significant in direct comparisons with the control groups. Moreover, the incidence of high-dose male rats with follicular-cell tumors (3/50, 6%) was not statistically different from the historical control rate (14/584, 2.4%) for the laboratory that conducted this bioassay. Rare tumors (an astrocytoma or a glioma) were found in the brains of two low-dose female rats. The incidence of all brain tumors in the

  13. INCREASE IN DOPAMINE RELEASE FROM THE NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS IN RESPONSE TO FEEDING - A MODEL TO STUDY INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS AND NATURALLY ACTIVATED DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS IN THE RAT-BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC; TEISMAN, A; DEVRIES, JB

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactions between the in vivo release of dopamine and certain drugs, during conditions of increased dopaminergic activity. Dopaminergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens were activated by feeding hungry rats. 48-96 h after implantation of a micro

  14. Cordyceps sinensis biomass produced by submerged fermentation in high-fat diet feed rats normalizes the blood lipid and the low testosterone induced by diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire dos Santos, Leandro; Rubel, Rosália; Bonatto, Sandro José Ribeiro; Zanatta, Ana Lucia; Aikawa, Júlia; Yamaguchi, Adriana Aya; Torres, Maria Fernanda; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Habu, Sascha; Prado, Karin Braun; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation obtained from submerged fermentation on blood lipid and low testosterone induced by high-fat diet (HFD). The experiments were carried out using a long-term intake of HFD and HFD plus Simvastatin or C. sinensis (4 months). Our results show that plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL were decreased by Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation (CSBS). A long-term intake of HFD caused a significant liver damage which has been reverted by CSBS. CSBS normalized decreasing testosterone levels observed in high-fat diet feed rats. All these findings lead us to suggest that C. sinensis was able to decrease blood lipid concentration, increase hepatoprotective activity and normalize testosterone levels. PMID:27847459

  15. Effects of continuous tube feeding of dietary fat emulsions on eicosanoid production and on fatty acid composition during an acute septic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, T; Chavali, S R; Zhong, W W; Forse, R A

    1994-10-06

    The effects of a short-term (5 days) continuous intragastric tube feeding of diets containing n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from safflower oil (SO) or n - 3 PUFA from menhaden oil (MO) on the production of proinflammatory mediators, and on the number of animals surviving after an intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated in rats. The phospholipid fatty acid composition of cell membranes from several organs and of plasma were also analyzed. No marked differences in the number of animals surviving or in the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha were observed between the 2 groups of animals. However, 90 min after LPS exposure the plasma levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha decreased significantly (40% and 60%, respectively) for the group of rats fed MO diet compared to those fed SO diet (P < 0.05). Following continuous infusion of liquid MO diet, the amount of arachidonic acid (AA) detected was significantly lower in plasma (23%), spleen (43%), lungs (41%), and liver (38%), but was unchanged in the heart tissues. The percent of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) incorporated into phospholipids of plasma, spleen, lungs, liver, and heart were 7.6, 4.4, 2.1, 7.2, and 1.1%, respectively. These data indicate that after continuous MO feeding, a significant decrease in the production of proinflammatory eicosanoids was associated with a marked reduction in AA content. Further, these data suggest that nutritional intervention may have a therapeutic potential to ameliorate clinical symptoms due to excessive productions of eicosanoids during acute septic complications.

  16. Impact of Gentamicin Coadministration along with High Fructose Feeding on Progression of Renal Failure and Metabolic Syndrome in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid O. Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the impact of high fructose feeding in rat model of gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180–200 g were randomized into four groups; (C received standard rodents chow with free access to ad libitum drinking water for 8 weeks and was considered as control, (F received standard rodents chow with free access to drinking water supplemented with 20% (W/V fructose for the same abovementioned period, (FG was fed as group F and was given 80 mg/kg (body weight/day gentamicin sulphate intraperitoneally during the last 20 days of the feeding period, and (G was given gentamicin as above and fed as group C. Renal function was assessed at the end of the treatment period through measuring serum creatinine, uric acid and albumin, creatinine clearance, absolute and fractional excretion of both sodium and potassium, twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of albumin, and renal histology. For metabolic syndrome assessment, fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured and oral glucose tolerance test was performed throughout the treatment period. Results showed that gentamicin enhances progression of fructose induced metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, fructose pretreatment before gentamicin injection produced a comparable degree of renal dysfunction to those which were given fructose-free water but the picture of nephrotoxicity was somewhat altered as it was characterized by higher extent of glomerular congestion and protein urea. Overall, more vigilance is required when nephrotoxic drugs are prescribed for patients with fructose induced metabolic syndrome.

  17. Maternal high fat feeding does not have long-lasting effects on body composition and bone health in female and male Wistar rat offspring at young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Paula M; Castelli, Laura M; Amoye, Foyinsola; LeBlanc, Paul J; Peters, Sandra J; Roy, Brian D; Ward, Wendy E

    2013-12-06

    High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF) feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON) or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only) than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring.

  18. Effect of daytime-restricted feeding in the daily variations of liver metabolism and blood transport of serotonin in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés-Fuentes, Marlen; Vera-Rivera, Gabriela; De Ita-Pérez, Dalia; Méndez, Isabel; Miranda, María Isabel; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin is a signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract, platelets, and nervous tissue. In nervous system, serotonin and its metabolites are under the control of the circadian timing system, but it is not known if daily variations of serotonin exist in the liver. To explore this possibility, we tested if the rhythmic pattern of serotonin metabolism was regulated by daytime restricted feeding (DRF) which is a protocol associated to the expression of the food entraine...

  19. Uterine responses to feeding soy protein isolate and treatment with 17B-estradiol differ in ovariectomized female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are concerns regarding reproductive toxicity from consumption of soy foods, including an increased risk of endometriosis and endometrial cancer, as a result of phytoestrogen consumption. In this study, female rats were fed AIN-93G diets made with casein (CAS) or soy protein isolate (SPI) from ...

  20. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of acidogenic or alkalogenic diets in rats; effects of feeding NH4Cl, KHCO3 or KCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Kuijpers, M.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of diet-induced acid-base disturbances were examined in 4-week, 13-week and 18-month toxicity studies, and in a 30-month carcinogenicity study. Rats were fed a natural ingredient diet (controls), supplemented with 2% or 4% KHCO3 (base-forming diets), or with 1% or 2.1% NH4Cl (acid-formin

  1. Possible mechanisms behind the differential effects of soy protein and casein feedings on colon cancer biomarkers in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, E.H.; Geerse, G.J.; Klaassens, E.S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Alink, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the present studies, several hypotheses were tested to explain previously reported differential effects of soy and casein on colon cancer biomarkers like cell proliferation, fecal fat, fecal bile acid, alkaline phosphatase, and magnesium excretion in rats. In Study 1, the effect of methionine, a

  2. Effects of feeding dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the hepatic metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna, H.R.; Schwartz, A.; Hacobian, N.; Magee, P.N.

    1987-05-01

    The possibility that the anticarcinogenic action of the naturally occurring steroid DHEA could arise from its interference in the metabolic activation of DMBA was investigated. Young mature male Sprague Dawley rats were fed for 14 days with a diet containing a nontoxic dose of DHEA in the diet. Control rats were pairfed and received the same diet except DHEA. The animals were given interperitoneally 120 ..mu..Ci of (/sup 3/H)DMBA in DMSO. After 48 hours the rats were sacrificed. Liver weights at sacrifice were 11.7 +/- 0.9 g and 7.1 g +/- 0.6 g for DHEA fed and control animals respectively. Protein content of whole liver and hepatic microsomal protein was significantly higher in DHEA fed animals. Binding of DMBA to hepatic DNA was 6688 +/- 1308 and 4070 +/- 890 dpm/mg DNA for control and DHEA fed animals respectively. Furthermore the excretion of DMBA derived radioactivity in urine was 2.3 fold more in DHEA fed animals. These results suggest that DHEA could protect rats from the carcinogenic manifestations of DMBA by interfering at the biotransformation step of the carcinogen.

  3. Feeding blueberry diets to young rats dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption through suppression of rankl in stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB) powder for two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21) significantly increased bone formation at PND35. However, the minimal level of dietary BB needed to produce thes...

  4. Maternal “junk-food” feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Z. Y.; Muhlhausler, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal “junk-food” diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16±0.6 vs. 11±0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19±1.3 vs. 13±0.4 g/kg/d; Pjunk-food intake in postnatal life.—Ong, Z. Y., Muhlhausler, B. S. Maternal “junk-food” feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring. PMID:21427213

  5. General, kappa, delta and mu opioid receptor antagonists mediate feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist baclofen in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell in rats: reciprocal and regional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Patricia; Shimonova, Lyudmila; Khaimov, Arthur; Borukhova, Yaffa; Ilyayeva, Ester; Ranaldi, Robert; Bodnar, Richard J

    2012-03-14

    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of agonists of GABA and opioid receptors into the nucleus accumbens shell (NACs) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Correspondingly, general or selective opioid receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects GABA agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Regional interactions have been evaluated in feeding studies by administering antagonists in one site prior to agonist administration in a second site. Thus, opioid antagonist-opioid agonist and GABA antagonist-GABA agonist feeding interactions have been identified between the VTA and NACs. However, pretreatment with GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonists in the VTA failed to affect mu opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the NACs, and correspondingly, these antagonists administered in the NACs failed to affect mu opioid-induced feeding elicited from the VTA. To evaluate whether regional and reciprocal VTA and NACs feeding interactions occur for opioid receptor modulation of GABA agonist-mediated feeding, the present study examined whether feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist, baclofen microinjected into the NACs was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with general (naltrexone: NTX), mu (beta-funaltrexamine: BFNA), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine: NBNI) or delta (naltrindole: NTI) opioid antagonists in the VTA, and correspondingly, whether VTA baclofen-induced feeding was dose-dependently blocked by NACs pretreatment with NTX, BFNA, NBNI or NTI in rats. Bilateral pairs of cannulae aimed at the VTA and NACs were stereotaxically implanted in rats, and their food intakes were assessed following vehicle and baclofen (200 ng) in each site. Baclofen produced similar magnitudes of increased food intake following VTA and NACs treatment. Baclofen

  6. Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, J K; Vats, V; Yadav, S S

    2005-07-01

    Insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) is now recognized as a major contributor to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Sedentary lifestyle, consumption of energy-rich diet, obesity, longer lifespan, etc., are important reasons for this rise (J. R. Turtle, Int J Clin Prac 2000; 113: 23). Aqueous extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS) and Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn seeds (FG) have been shown to exert hypoglycaemic/antihyperglycaemic effect in experimental as well as clinical setting. As no work has been carried out so far to assess the effect of PM, OS and FG on fructose-induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, we undertook this study to assess whether these extracts attenuate the metabolic alteration induced by fructose-rich diet in rats. Five groups of rats (eight each) were fed chow diet, 66% fructose diet, 66% fructose diet + PM leaves extract (1 g/kg/day), 66% fructose diet + OS leaves extract (200 mg/kg/day) and 66% fructose diet + FG seeds extract (2 g/kg/day) for 30 days. Fructose feeding to normal rats for 30 days significantly increased serum glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels in comparison with control. Treatment with all the three plants extract for 30 days significantly lowered the serum glucose levels in comparison with control group. However, only PM extract substantially prevented hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, while OS and FG had no significant effect on these parameters. Results of this study, in addition to previous clinical benefits of PM seen in NIDDM subjects, are suggestive of usefulness of PM bark (Vijayasar) in insulin resistance, the associated disorder of type 2 diabetes; however, OS and FG may not be useful. Though several antidiabetic principles (-epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupin and pterostilbene) have been identified in the PM, yet future studies

  7. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar...... rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high......-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation...

  8. Buckwheat protein extract suppression of the growth depression in rats induced by feeding amaranth (Food Red No. 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashita, J; Nagai, H; Kato, N

    1996-09-01

    Dietary fiber has an ameliorative effect on the toxicity of amaranth (Food Red No. 2). To test the possibility that a buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) has dietary fiber-like activity by virtue of its low digestibility, we examined the influence of BWPE on amaranth toxicity in rats. The results show that BWPE-containing diet suppressed the growth depression induced by the dietary addition of 5% amaranth.

  9. The Effect of Exposure to Cd and Pb in the Form of a Drinking Water or Feed on the Accumulation and Distribution of These Metals in the Organs of Growing Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-02-01

    The degree of accumulation and distribution of Cd and Pb in the organs of young animals compared to the amount taken in with water or feed have not been thoroughly investigated yet. The experiment aimed to verify whether the source of toxic metals (feed, drinking water) administered to growing rats orally has an influence on the degree of accumulation of Cd and Pb in the organs (brain, spleen, lungs, heart, liver and kidneys). The rats received Cd and/or Pb respectively in the amount of 7 mg and/or 50 mg per 1 kg of feed or per 1 L of distilled water. The rats' organs accumulated in total about 0.5 % Cd and about 0.71 % Pb consumed with water and about 0.46 % Cd and about 0.63 % Pb taken in with feed. More than 60 % of Cd and more than 70 % of Pb absorbed by the studied organs was accumulated in the liver, and more than 30 % of Cd and 26-29 % of Pb in the kidneys and less than 1 % in other organs. The relationship between the distribution percentage of Cd in the studied organs can be presented as: liver > kidneys > brain > lungs > heart > spleen. The relationship between the distribution percentage of Pb can be presented as: liver > kidneys > brain > spleen > heart > lungs. Significantly (P water.

  10. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  11. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L.; Tovar, Armando R.; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M.; Raybould, Helen E.

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism. PMID:28196086

  12. Pathology review of proliferative lesions of the exocrine pancreas in two chronic feeding studies in rats with ammonium perfluorooctanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Caverly Rae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two chronic dietary studies, conducted years apart, with ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO in Sprague Dawley rats have been previously reported. Although both included male 300 ppm dietary dose groups, only the later study, conducted in 1990–1992 by Biegel et al., reported an increase in proliferative lesions (hyperplasia and adenoma of the acinar pancreas. An assessment of the significance of the differences between both studies requires careful consideration of: the diagnostic criteria for proliferative acinar cell lesions of the rat pancreas (for example, the diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell hyperplasia versus adenoma is based on the two-dimensional size of the lesion rather than distinct morphological differences; the basis for those criteria in light of their relevance to biological behavior; and the potential diagnostic variability between individual pathologists for difficult-to-classify lesions. A pathology peer review of male exocrine pancreatic tissues from the earlier study, conducted in 1981–1983 by Butenhoff et al., was undertaken. This review identified an increase in acinar cell hyperplasia but not adenoma or carcinoma in the earlier study. Both studies observed a proliferative response in the acinar pancreas which was more pronounced in the study by Biegel et al. Definitive reasons for the greater incidence of proliferative lesions in the later study were not identified, but some possible explanations are presented herein. The relevance of this finding to human risk assessment, in the face of differences in the biological behavior of human and rat pancreatic proliferative lesions and the proposed mechanism of formation of these lesions, are questionable.

  13. Serotonin 1A, 1B, and 7 receptors of the rat medial nucleus accumbens differentially regulate feeding, water intake, and locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clissold, Kara A; Choi, Eugene; Pratt, Wayne E

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) signaling has been widely implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviors in both humans and animal models. Recently, we reported that co-stimulation of 5-HT1&7 receptors of the anterior medial nucleus accumbens with the drug 5-CT caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake, water intake, and locomotion in rats (Pratt et al., 2009). The current experiments sought to determine which of three serotonin receptor subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7) might be responsible for these consummatory and locomotor effects. Food-deprived rats were given 2-h access to rat chow after stimulation of nucleus accumbens 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7 receptors, or blockade of the 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors. Stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors with 8-OH-DPAT (at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) caused a dose-dependent decrease in food and water intake, and reduced rearing behavior but not ambulation. In contrast, rats that received the 5-HT1B agonist CP 93129 (at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in water intake only; stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors (AS 19; at 0.0, 1.0, and 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) decreased ambulatory activity but did not affect food or water consumption. Blockade of 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors had no lasting effects on measures of food consumption. These data suggest that the food intake, water intake, and locomotor effects seen after medial nucleus accumbens injections of 5-CT are due to actions on separate serotonin receptor subtypes, and contribute to growing evidence for selective roles of individual serotonin receptors within the nucleus accumbens on motivated behavior. © 2013.

  14. Six-month feeding of low-dose fish oil decreases vascular expression of high mobility group box1 and receptor for advanced glycation end-products in rat chronic allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Zhu, Y; Wang, J; Guo, M; Li, Y; Li, Ji

    2013-06-01

    Chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a typical feature of chronic rejection of small bowel transplantations (SBTx). Our previous studies revealed that feeding fish oil, a natural source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), protected against CAV. The underlying mechanism remains to be clarified. The pathway mediated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligand, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), which may contribute to the pathogenesis of CAV, is potentially regulated by n-3 PUFAs. Using a chronic rejection model of rat SBTx, the present study investigated whether amelioration of CAV by fish oil feeding was associated with regulation of the RAGE signaling pathway. Moreover, our previous studies also showed that feeding low-dose fish oil for 3 months had no effect. Since an relatively short duration of treatment might fail to produce a visible response, we fed low-dose fish oil for 190 postoperative days. Male inbred Lewis rats and F344 rats were used to establish a chronic rejection model of SBTx. The recipient rats were administered phosphate-buffered saline or fish oil at a daily dose of 3 mL/kg. All rats survived over 190 postoperative days. The expression of HMGB1 and RAGE increased in CAV-bearing vessels. Feeding low-dose fish oil for 6 months attenuated CAV, and significantly reduced HMGB1 and RAGE expressions, indicating beneficial effects of low-dose fish oil on CAV may occur via down-regulation of the HMGB1-RAGE pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary fructose feeding increases adipose methylglyoxal accumulation in rats in association with low expression and activity of glyoxalase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterjohn, Christopher; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung; Noh, Sang K; Koo, Sung I; Bruno, Richard S

    2013-08-21

    Methylglyoxal is a precursor to advanced glycation endproducts that may contribute to diabetes and its cardiovascular-related complications. Methylglyoxal is successively catabolized to D-lactate by glyoxalase-1 and glyoxalase-2. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary fructose and green tea extract (GTE) differentially regulate methylglyoxal accumulation in liver and adipose, mediated by tissue-specific differences in the glyoxalase system. We fed six week old male Sprague-Dawley rats a low-fructose diet (10% w/w) or a high-fructose diet (60% w/w) containing no GTE or GTE at 0.5% or 1.0% for nine weeks. Fructose-fed rats had higher (P methylglyoxal, but GTE had no effect. Plasma and hepatic methylglyoxal were unaffected by fructose and GTE. Fructose and GTE also had no effect on the expression or activity of glyoxalase-1 and glyoxalase-2 at liver or adipose. Regardless of diet, adipose glyoxalase-2 activity was 10.8-times lower (P methylglyoxal (r = -0.61; P methylglyoxal accumulation is independent of GTE supplementation and that its preferential accumulation in adipose compared to liver is due to low constitutive expression of glyoxalase-2.

  16. Resveratrol Treatment Normalizes the Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricio, Victor; Oishi, Jorge Camargo; Biffe, Bruna Gabriele; Ruffoni, Leandro Dias Gonçalves; da Silva, Karina Ana; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Rodrigues, Gerson Jhonatan

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite knowing that resveratrol has effects on blood vessels, blood pressure and that phytostrogens can also improve the endothelium-dependent relaxation/vasodilation, there are no reports of reveratrol's direct effect on the endothelial function and blood pressure of animals with estrogen deficit (mimicking post-menopausal increased blood pressure). Objective To verify the effect of two different periods of preventive treatment with resveratrol on blood pressure and endothelial function in ovariectomized young adult rats. Methods 3-month old female Wistar rats were used and distributed in 6 groups: intact groups with 60 or 90 days, ovariectomized groups with 60 or 90 days, and ovariectomized treated with resveratrol (10 mg/kg of body weight per day) for 60 or 90 days. The number of days in each group corresponds to the duration of the experimental period. Vascular reactivity study was performed in abdominal aortic rings, systolic blood pressure was measured and serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration was quantified. Results Ovariectomy induced blood pressure increase 60 and 90 days after surgery, whereas the endothelial function decreased only 90 days after surgery, with no difference in NO concentration among the groups. Only longer treatment (90 days) with resveratrol was able to improve the endothelial function and normalize blood pressure. Conclusion Our results suggest that 90 days of treatment with resveratrol is able to improve the endothelial function and decrease blood pressure in ovariectomized rats.

  17. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Cupric Sulfate (CAS No. 7758-99-8) Administered in Drinking Water and Feed to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Charles

    1993-07-01

    Cupric sulfate is an inorganic salt which is widely used in industry, agriculture, and veterinary medicine. Its applications include use as an algicide in potable waters and as a feed additive and therapeutic agent in swine, sheep, and cattle. Because copper salts are found in human water supplies, toxicity studies of cupric sulfate pentahydrate were conducted in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice by the drinking water (2-week studies only) and dosed feed routes (2-week and 13-week studies). Animals were evaluated for hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, reproductive toxicity, tissue metal accumulation, and histopathology. In the 2-week drinking water studies, groups of five rats and five mice per sex received cupric sulfate at concentrations of 300 to 30,000 ppm for 15 days. One female rat, one male mouse, and three female mice in the 3000 ppm groups and all rats and mice in the 10,000 and 30,000 ppm groups died before the end of the studies. The remaining mice and rats in the 3000 ppm groups gained little or lost weight. Water consumption in the three highest dose groups of both species was reduced by more than 65%. Clinical signs observed in these groups were typical of those seen in moribund animals and were attributed to dehydration. The only gross or microscopic change specifically related to cupric sulfate toxicity was an increase in the size and number of cytoplasmic protein droplets in the epithelium of the renal proximal convoluted tubule in male rats from the 300 and 1000-ppm groups. In the 2-week feed studies, groups of five rats and five mice per sex were fed diets containing 1000 to 16,000 ppm cupric sulfate. No chemical-related deaths occurred in any dose group. Compared to the controls, rats and mice in the two highest dose groups had reduced body weight gains which were attributed to decreased feed consumption. Hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis of the squamous epithelium on the limiting ridge of the forestomach was seen in rats and

  18. Effect of Dose and Administration Period of Seed Cake of Genetically Modified and Non-Modified Flax on Selected Antioxidative Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flaxseed cake containing antioxidants is a valuable dietary component. Its nutritional effect may be diminished by the presence of anti-nutrients. The work was aimed at determining the effect of different contents of flaxseed cake in diets and their administration period on the development of rats and selected parameters of their health status. Diets with 15% and 30% addition of genetically modified (GM) flax seed cake with enhanced synthesis of polyphenols, as well as Linola non-GM flax were administered in short-term (33 days) and long-term (90 days) experiments. The 30% addition of flaxseed cake reduced digestibility of dietary nutrients, GM flaxseed cake lowered body weight gains. The relative weight of selected organs, hematological blood markers and serum activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST, ALT) were not affected. Flaxseed cake consumption reduced serum concentration of albumins and increased globulins. Administration of 30% flaxseed cake improved plasma total antioxidant status and 30% GM flaxseed cake lowered liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes, glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver concentration of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine were not changed. Most morphometric parameters of the small intestine did not differ between feeding groups. The administration of diets with 30% addition of flaxseed cake for 90 days improved the antioxidant status in rats.

  19. PUNARNAVA MANDUR: TOXICITY STUDY OF CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION IN WISTAR RATS

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    P. S. Jamadagni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Punarnava Mandur is an iron containing classical Ayurvedic formulation which was studied for repeated dose oral toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. Total 48 Wistar rats (24 male and 24 female were selected based on the body weight and were randomly distributed into four groups followed by administration of Punarnava Mandur at the dose of 0, 90, 450, 900 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. Body weight, Weekly Feed and Water consumption, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Differential leukocyte Count, Reticulocyte count and Organ weights were recorded and analyzed statistically. At termination, rats were sacrificed, examined for gross pathological changes, organs were collected, weighed and processed for histopathological evaluation. There was no effect on body weights and feed consumption, no abnormal findings in the histopathological evaluation of high dose group animals but there was significant increase in weight of liver in females of high dose group as compared to control. Hence, the dose level 450 mg/kg of Punarnava Mandur was found as NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level. However, the NOEL (No Observed Effect Level could not be established. It was suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses so as to establish target organ of toxicity.

  20. Feeding long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to obese leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA- cp rats modifies immune function and lipid-raft fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-05-01

    Dietary EPA and DHA modulate immunity and thereby may improve the aberrant immune function in obese states. To determine the effects of feeding fish oil (FO) containing EPA and DHA on splenocyte phospholipid (PL) and lipid-raft fatty acid composition, phenotypes and cytokine production, 14-week-old obese, leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats (cp/cp; n 10) were randomised to one of three nutritionally adequate diets for 3 weeks: control (Ctl, 0 % EPA+DHA); low FO (LFO, 0.8 % (w/w) EPA+DHA); high FO (HFO, 1.4 % (w/w) EPA+DHA). Lean JCR:LA-cp (+/ - or +/+) rats (n 5) were fed the Ctl diet. Obese Ctl rats had a higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in splenocyte PL than lean rats fed the same diet (P JCR:LA-cp rats. Feeding FO lowered the ex vivo inflammatory response, without altering IL-2 production from ConA-stimulated splenocytes which may occur independent of leptin signalling.

  1. Time-dependent effect of ethanol force-feeding on glycogen repletion: NMR evidence of a link with ATP turnover in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Gin, Henri; Roumes, Hélène; Kassem, Cendrella; Couzigou, Patrice; Gallis, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    The purpose was to study the hepatic effects of low-dose ethanol on the links between ATP and glycogen production. Fasted male Wistar rats received a single force-feeding of glucose plus ethanol or isocaloric glucose. At different times after force-feeding (0-10 h), glycogen repletion and ATP characteristics (content, apparent catalytic time constant, mitochondrial turnover) were monitored by (13)C- or (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in perfused and isolated liver. In vivo glycogen repletion after force-feeding was slower after glucose plus ethanol vs. glucose (12.04 ± 0.68 and 8.50 ± 0.86 μmol/h/g liver wet weight [ww], respectively), reaching a maximum at the 6th hour. From the 3rd to the 8th hour, glycogen content was lower after glucose plus ethanol vs. glucose. After glucose plus ethanol, the correlation between glycogen and ATP contents presented two linear steps: before and after the 3rd hour (30 and 102 μmol glycogen/g ww per μmol ATP/g ww, respectively, the latter being near the single step measured in glucose). After glucose plus ethanol, ATP turnover remained stable for 2 h, was 3-fold higher from the 3rd hour to the 8th hour, and was higher than after glucose (2.59 ± 0.45 and 1.39 ± 0.19 μmol/min/g ww, respectively). In the 1st hour, glucose plus ethanol induced a transient acidosis and an increase in the phosphomonoesters signal. In conclusion, after ethanol consumption, a large part of the ATP production was diverted to redox re-equilibrium during the first 2 h, thereby reducing the glycogen synthesis. Thereafter, the maintenance of a large oxidative phosphorylation allowed the stimulation of glycogen synthesis requiring ATP.

  2. Comparing serum responses to acute feedings of an extensively hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate versus a native whey protein concentrate in rats: a metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Lockwood, Christopher M; Pappan, Kirk; Childs, Thomas E; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Booth, Frank W

    2014-02-01

    We examined how gavage feeding extensively hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH) versus a native whey protein concentrate (WPC) transiently affected serum biochemical profiles in rodents. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were 8 h fasted and subsequently fed isonitrogenous amounts of WPH or WPC, or remained unfed (control). Animals were sacrificed 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min post-gavage for serum extraction, and serum was analyzed using untargeted global metabolic profiling via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography/MS/MS platforms. We detected 333 serum metabolites amongst the experimental and control groups. Both WPH and WPC generally increased amino acids (1.2-2.8-fold), branched-chain amino acids (1.2-1.7-fold), and serum di- and oligo-peptides (1.1-2.7-fold) over the 60 min time course compared with control (q protein sources led to a dramatic increase in free fatty acids compared with control (up to 6-fold increases, q protein sources.

  3. Methyl vitamins contribute to obesogenic effects of a high multivitamin gestational diet and epigenetic alterations in hypothalamic feeding pathways in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Huot, Pedro S P; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Kubant, Ruslan; Dodington, David W; Ward, Wendy E; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-03-01

    High multivitamin (HV, tenfold AIN-93G) gestational diets fed to Wistar rats increase food intake, obesity, and characteristics of metabolic syndrome in the offspring. We hypothesized that methyl vitamins, and specifically folate, in the HV gestational diet contribute to the obesogenic phenotypes consistent with their epigenetic effects on hypothalamic food intake regulatory mechanisms. Male offspring of dams fed the AIN-93G diet with high methyl vitamins (HMethyl; tenfold folate, vitamins B12, and B6) (Study 1) and HV with recommended folate (HVRF) (Study 2) were compared with those from HV and recommended vitamin (RV) fed dams. All offspring were weaned to a high fat diet for 8 wks. HMethyl diet, similar to HV, and compared to RV, resulted in higher food intake, body weight, and metabolic disturbances. Removing folate additions to the HV diet in HVRF offspring normalized the obesogenic phenotype. Methyl vitamins, and folate in HV diets, altered hypothalamic gene expression toward increased food intake concurrent with DNA methylation and leptin and insulin receptor signaling dysfunction. Methyl vitamins in HV gestational diets contribute to obesogenic phenotypes and epigenetic alterations in the hypothalamic feeding pathways in the offspring. Folate alone accounts for many of these effects. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Water-Soluble Chitosan Nanoparticles Inhibit Hypercholesterolemia Induced by Feeding a High-Fat Diet in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, a deacetylated product of chitin, has been demonstrated to lower cholesterol in humans and animals. However, chitosan is not fully soluble in water which would influence absorption in the human intestine. In addition, water-soluble chitosan (WSC has higher reactivity compared to chitosan. The present study was designed to clarify the effects of WSC and water-soluble chitosan nanoparticles (WSC-NPs on hypercholesterolemia induced by feeding a high-fat diet in male Sprague-Dawley rats. WSC-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method and the spray-drying technique. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape and had a smooth surface. The mean size of WSC-NPs was 650 nm variing from 500 to 800 nm. Results showed that WSC-NPs reduced the blood lipids and plasma viscosity significantly and increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD activities significantly. This paper is the first report of the lipid-lowering effects of WSC-NPs suggesting that the WSC-NPs could be used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 2. Intestinal transit time, stomach emptying and digestibility in short-term feeding studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M; Nugteren, D H

    1989-01-01

    The influence of jojoba oil (JO) incorporation in the diet on stomach emptying and intestinal transit time, and the digestion and absorption of JO were investigated in short-term feeding studies in rats. The animals were fed purified diets containing 18% (w/w) fat, of which half consisted of a mixture of lard and sunflower seed oil (SF) supplemented with an equivalent amount of JO. The control animals were fed a mixture of lard and SF (18%). No treatment-related differences were observed in the rate of stomach emptying or the intestinal transit time. Comparative lipid analysis of lymph, intestinal content, intestinal mucosa and faeces indicated that most of the ingested JO was degraded and absorbed. Part of the JO was present as wax ester in the lymph. Hydrolysis of JO was much slower than that of triacylglycerols and continued in the alimentary tract beyond the small intestine due to bacterial processes. JO did not influence the absorption of the conventional fat.

  6. Cholecystokinin but not ghrelin stimulates mucosal bicarbonate secretion in rat duodenum: independence of feeding status and cholinergic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Markus; Lindqvist, Ramin; Bengtsson, Magnus W; Jedstedt, Gunilla; Flemström, Gunnar

    2013-05-10

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important regulator of food digestion but its influence on small intestinal secretion has received little attention. We characterized effects of CCK-8, ghrelin and some related peptides on duodenal HCO3(-) secretion in vivo and demonstrated CCK-induced calcium signaling in acutely isolated enterocytes. A segment of proximal duodenum with intact blood supply was cannulated in situ in anaesthetized rats. Mucosal HCO3(-) secretion was continuously recorded (pH-stat). Peptides were administrated to the duodenum by close intra-arterial infusion. Clusters of duodenal enterocytes were attached to the bottom of a perfusion chamber. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was examined by dual-wavelength imaging. CCK-8 (3.0, 15 and 60 pmol/kg,h) caused dose-dependent increases (psecretion in both overnight fasted and continuously fed animals. The CCK1R-antagonist devazepide but neither the CCK2R-antagonist YMM022 nor the melatonin MT2-selective antagonist luzindole inhibited the rise in secretion. Atropine decreased sensitivity to CCK-8. The appetite-related peptide ghrelin was without effect on the duodenal secretion in fasted as well as fed animals. Superfusion with CCK-8 (1.0-50 nM) induced [Ca(2+)]i signaling in acutely isolated duodenal enterocytes. After an initial peak response, [Ca(2+)]i returned to near basal values within 3-5min. Devazepide but not YMM022 inhibited this [Ca(2+)]i response. Low doses of CCK-8 stimulate duodenal alkaline secretion and induce enterocyte [Ca(2+)]i signaling by an action at CCK1 receptors. The results point to importance of CCK in the rapid postprandial rise in mucosa-protective duodenal secretion.

  7. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

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    Maryam Maleki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug,reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris(TT is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This studyinvestigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent toshow its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats intofour groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersolublemorphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after whichthe treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25% orally for fourweeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of allrats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained werestatistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukeytest. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH levelthan the control group (p<0.027. LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addictedgroup (p<0.031. The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lowerthan the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosteronelevel (p<0.001. The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002 lower in the addictedgroup than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference betweenthe treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048. The treated controlgroup had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002. Overall, except forfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins andsexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05 in the hormonesin the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in

  8. Spontaneous renal tumors in two rats from a thirteen week rodent feeding study with grain from molecular stacked trait lepidopteran and coleopteran resistant (DP-ØØ4114-3) maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Jerry F; Banas, Deborah A; Gopinath, Chirukandath; Hall, William C; Hard, Gordon C; Takahashi, Michihito

    2013-03-01

    A thirteen week feeding study was conducted by feeding young adult male and female Sprague Dawley [Crl:CD®(SD)] rats diets containing grain from genetically modified (GM) DP-ØØ4114-3 maize that was either untreated (4114) or treated in the field with glufosinate ammonium (4114GLU). Control rats were fed diets containing the same concentration of near isogenic, non-GM maize grain (091) or one of three types of commercially available non-GM maize grain. At the end of the in-life phase, renal tubule tumors were reported in two male rats consuming diets containing 4114 maize grain. An expert panel of pathologists was convened as a Pathology Working Group (PWG) to review coded kidney histology sections from control (091) and treated (4114 and 4114GLU) male rats. The objectives were for the panel to characterize the histopathologic findings and to interpret their relationship to consumption of the indicated diet. The PWG concluded unanimously that the kidney tumors were characteristic of amphophilic-vacuolar (AV) tumors and AV atypical tubular hyperplasia which represent a distinctive phenotype that has been reported to occur sporadically in young Sprague Dawley Rats. The PWG determined that the neoplasms and atypical tubular hyperplasias were multicentric and bilateral which typifies tumors of familial origin. Degenerative/regenerative or cytotoxic changes consistent with nephrotoxicity leading to tumor induction were not observed in these rats and thus supports the conclusion that tumors were unrelated to consumption of the test diet. It was the unanimous opinion of the PWG that the proliferative renal tubule cell lesions were spontaneous and not related to consumption of diets containing 4114 maize grain.

  9. High-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and postnatal development in female rats increases susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth R; Alexander, Barbara T; Lee, Jonathan; Hutchens, Zachary M; Maric-Bilkan, Christine

    2013-02-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that both an adverse prenatal and early postnatal environment increase susceptibility to renal and metabolic dysfunction later in life; however, whether exposure to adverse conditions during both prenatal and postnatal development act synergistically to potentiate the severity of renal and metabolic injury remains unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet high in fat/fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation. After being weaned, female offspring were randomized to either standard diet or the high-fat/high-fructose diet, resulting in the following treatment groups: NF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; NF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally; HF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; HF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally. At the time of euthanasia (17 wk of age), HF-HF offspring weighed 30% more and had 110% more visceral fat than NF-NF offspring. The HF-HF offspring also had elevated blood glucose levels, glucose intolerance, 286% increase in urine albumin excretion, and 60% increase in glomerulosclerosis compared with NF-NF. In addition, HF-HF offspring exhibited a 100% increase in transforming growth factor-β protein expression and 116% increase in the abundance of infiltrated macrophages compared with the NF-NF offspring. These observations suggest that high-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and throughout postnatal life increases the susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

  10. Extremely rapid increase in fatty acid transport and intramyocellular lipid accumulation but markedly delayed insulin resistance after high fat feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonen, Arend; Jain, Swati S; Snook, Laelie A; Han, Xiao-Xia; Yoshida, Yuko; Buddo, Kathryn H; Lally, James S; Pask, Elizabeth D; Paglialunga, Sabina; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Harasim, Ewa; Wright, David C; Chabowski, Adrian; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms for diet-induced intramyocellular lipid accumulation and its association with insulin resistance remain contentious. In a detailed time-course study in rats, we examined whether a high-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid accumulation via alterations in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)-mediated fatty acid transport, selected enzymes and/or fatty acid oxidation, and whether intramyocellular lipid accretion coincided with the onset of insulin resistance. We measured, daily (on days 1-7) and/or weekly (for 6 weeks), the diet-induced changes in circulating substrates, insulin, sarcolemmal substrate transporters and transport, selected enzymes, intramyocellular lipids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and basal and insulin-stimulated sarcolemmal GLUT4 and glucose transport. We also examined whether upregulating fatty acid oxidation improved glucose transport in insulin-resistant muscles. Finally, in Cd36-knockout mice, we examined the role of FAT/CD36 in intramyocellular lipid accumulation, insulin sensitivity and diet-induced glucose intolerance. Within 2-3 days, diet-induced increases occurred in insulin, sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 (but not fatty acid binding protein [FABPpm] or fatty acid transporter [FATP]1 or 4), fatty acid transport and intramyocellular triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and ceramide, independent of enzymatic changes or muscle fatty acid oxidation. Diet-induced increases in mitochondria and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation occurred much later (≥21 days). FAT/CD36 ablation impaired insulin-stimulated fatty acid transport and lipid accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity and prevented diet-induced glucose intolerance. Increasing fatty acid oxidation in insulin-resistant muscles improved glucose transport. High-fat feeding rapidly increases intramyocellular lipids (in 2-3 days) via insulin-mediated upregulation of sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 and fatty acid

  11. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (CAS No. 78-11-5) with 80% D-Lactose Monohydrate (PETN, NF) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN, NF) is a drug used to prevent angina pectoris. PETN without a lactose stabilizer is used as an explosive. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering PETN, NF, to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex once by gavage or in feed for 14 days, 13 or 14 weeks, or 2 years. The PETN component was greater than 99% pure. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted with Salmonella typhimurium and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Fourteen-Day and Thirteen-Week Studies: All rats and mice lived to the end of the 14-day studies (dietary concentrations up to 50,000 ppm). Final mean body weights of dosed and control rats were comparable. The final mean body weight of female mice that received 50,000 ppm was 13% lower than that of controls. No clinical signs or toxic lesions were attributed to PETN, NF, administration. All rats and mice lived to the end of the 13-week (mice) and 14-week (rats) studies (dietary concentrations up to 50,000 ppm). Final mean body weights of dosed and control rats and mice were similar, although weight gains of female rats at 25,000 and 50,000 ppm were less than that of controls. The nitrite level in urine of rats and methemoglobin levels in whole blood of rats and mice were not affected by administration of PETN, NF. An adenoma of the Zymbal gland was seen in a female rat that received 50,000 ppm. A hepatocellular adenoma was seen in a female mouse that received 50,000 ppm. Based on these results and the NTP convention of limiting concentrations in 2-year feed studies to 5% of the diet, the 2-year studies were conducted by administering 0, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm PETN, NF, in feed for 104 weeks to groups of 50 male rats and for 103 weeks to groups of 49 or 50 mice of each sex. Groups of 50 female rats were given feed containing 0, 6,200, or 12,500 ppm PETN, NF, for 104 weeks. Body Weight and Survival in the Two-Year Studies: Mean body weights of high dose male rats were 2

  12. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Jin-Zhi Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group were administered diets containing 9, 3, 1, or 0% of MRPB derived from chicken bone for 13 weeks. Results: During the 13-week treatment period, no mortality occurred, and no remarkable changes in general condition and behavior were observed. The consumption of MRPB did not have any effect on body weight or feed and water consumption. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the weights of the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, and thymus in groups for both sexes. Serological examination showed serum alanine aminotransferase in both sexes was decreased significantly, indicating liver cell protection. No treatment-related histopathological differences were observed between the control and test groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the addition of 9% MRPB in the diet had no adverse effect on both male and female SD rats during the 90-day observation. Those results would provide useful information on the safety of a meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry.

  13. Trans and interesterified fat and palm oil during the pregnancy and lactation period inhibit the central anorexigenic action of insulin in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Kenia Pereira; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Letícia; da Silva Soares de Souza, Érica; Mucci, Daniela; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; de Albuquerque, Kelse Tibau; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fatima Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil and interesterified fat have been used to replace partially hydrogenated fats, rich in trans isomers, in processed foods. This study investigated whether the maternal consumption of normolipidic diets containing these lipids affects the insulin receptor and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) contents in the hypothalamus and the hypophagic effect of centrally administered insulin in 3-month-old male offspring. At 90 days, the intracerebroventricular injection of insulin decreased 24-h feeding in control rats but not in the palm, interesterified or trans groups. The palm group exhibited increases in the insulin receptor content of 64 and 69 % compared to the control and trans groups, respectively. However, the quantifications of PKB did not differ significantly across groups. We conclude that the intake of trans fatty acid substitutes during the early perinatal period affects food intake regulation in response to centrally administered insulin in the young adult offspring; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

  14. Assessment of changes in energy metabolism parameters provoked by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats and the protective effect of white grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Gabardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and conventional grape juices consumption on the behavior of rats and their neuroprotective effect on the activity of brain energy metabolism enzymes in different brain areas of adult rats on the experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy. Male Wistar rats (90-days-old were treated once a day with conventional or organic white grape juice by gavage for 14 days (7 μL/g. On the 15th day the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in a single dose of 3.0 mL/kg. Cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected to measure the activity of creatine kinase (CK and pyruvate kinase (PK. No changes in feeding behavior were observed after the treatment with the grapes juices. However, there was an increase in grooming behavior in the open field test provoked by both juices. CCl4 inhibited CK activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the rats and CCl4 also reduced PK activity in all brain structures studied. Furthermore, both white grape juices prevented the decrease in the activity of CK and PK. Therefore, we can suggest that organic and conventional white grape juices could restore the activity of enzymes with a central role in brain energy metabolism.

  15. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measured. Measurements of additional enzymes (of hepatic or other origin) and bile acids, may also be... latency period for development (e.g., carcinogenicity and life shortening). Extrapolation from the results... the test animal's life span. Target organ is any organ of a test animal showing evidence of an effect...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supply of drinking water. (F) The study should not be initiated until animals have been allowed a period... in a manner identical to the test group animals. Where a vehicle other than water is used to generate... content of at least 19%, and uniform conditions throughout the exposure chamber. Maintenance of slight...

  17. Evaluation of Safety of Iron-Fortified Soybean Sprouts, a Potential Component of Functional Food, in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Szaefer, Hanna; Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Ferritin-iron is currently considered as one of the most promising iron forms to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. We found that the cultivation of soybean seeds in a solution of ferrous sulfate results in material with extremely high iron content - 560.6 mg Fe/100 g of dry matter, while ferritin iron content was 420.5 mg/100 g dry matter. To assess the potential adverse effects of a preparation containing such a high concentration of iron, male and female Wistar rats were exposed via diet to 10, 30, 60 g soybean sprouts powder/kg feed for 90 days. There were no differences in final body weight and mean food consumption between controls and rats administered sprouts. No statistically significant differences in haematology and clinical chemistry parameters were found between controls and treated rats. Microscopic examination of 22 tissues did not reveal any pathology due to soybean sprouts intake. Long term administration of the test material did not cause oxidative damage to DNA and protein in the liver as evidenced by the unchanged basal levels of DNA damage as well as carbonyl groups content. Lipid peroxidation was slightly increased only in females. The activity of several antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was increased, which substantially enhanced the antioxidant status in the liver from the rats treated with soybean sprouts. Hence, the material tested can be recommended as a component of food supplements for individuals with iron deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  18. Influence of a multideficient diet from northeastern Brazil on resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity in conscious, freely moving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.F. Monteiro

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The "regional basic diet" or RBD is a multideficient diet (providing 8% protein which is known to produce dietary deficiencies in some populations in northeastern Brazil. The present study investigated the effects of RBD-induced malnutrition on resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity in conscious rats. Malnourished rats were obtained by feeding dams the RBD during mating and pregnancy (RBD-1 group or during nursing and a 10-day period after weaning (RBD-2 group. At 90 days of age, only RBD-2 rats weighed significantly (P<0.001 less than control rats born to dams fed a standard commercial diet (23% protein during pregnancy and nursing. Baseline mean arterial pressure and heart rate of both RBD-1 and RBD-2 rats were comparable to those of controls. The slopes for both reflex bradycardia and tachycardia (bpm/mmHg induced by intravenous phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were unchanged in either RBD-1 (-2.08 ± 0.11 and -3.10 ± 0.43, respectively or RBD-2 (-2.32 ± 0.30 and -3.73 ± 0.53, respectively rats, when compared to controls (-2.09 ± 0.10 and -3.17 ± 0.33, respectively. This study shows that, after a prolonged period of nutritional recovery, the patterns of resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity of both pre- and postnatally malnourished rats were similar to those of controls. The decreased body weight and the tendency to increased reflex tachycardia in RBD-2 rats may suggest that this type of maternal malnutrition during lactation is more critical than during pregnancy.

  19. Down-regulation of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum ryanodine channel in severely food-restricted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Vizotto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that myocardial dysfunction induced by food restriction is related to calcium handling. Although cardiac function is depressed in food-restricted animals, there is limited information about the molecular mechanisms that lead to this abnormality. The present study evaluated the effects of food restriction on calcium cycling, focusing on sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2, phospholamban (PLB, and ryanodine channel (RYR2 mRNA expressions in rat myocardium. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats, 60 days old, were submitted to ad libitum feeding (control rats or 50% diet restriction for 90 days. The levels of left ventricle SERCA2, PLB, and RYR2 were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Body and ventricular weights were reduced in 50% food-restricted animals. RYR2 mRNA was significantly decreased in the left ventricle of the food-restricted group (control = 5.92 ± 0.48 vs food-restricted group = 4.84 ± 0.33, P < 0.01. The levels of SERCA2 and PLB mRNA were similar between groups (control = 8.38 ± 0.44 vs food-restricted group = 7.96 ± 0.45, and control = 1.52 ± 0.06 vs food-restricted group = 1.53 ± 0.10, respectively. Down-regulation of RYR2 mRNA expressions suggests that chronic food restriction promotes abnormalities in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

  20. Toxicologic evaluation of DHA-rich algal oil: Genotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D; Tran, N; Peach, J; Bauter, M; Marone, P

    2012-10-01

    DHA-rich algal oil ONC-T18, tested in a battery of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests, did not show mutagenic or genotoxic potential. The acute oral LD50 in rats has been estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of body weight. In a 90-day subchronic dietary study, administration of DHA-rich algal oil at concentrations of 0, 10,000, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm in the diet for 13 weeks did not produce any significant toxicologic manifestations. The algal oil test article was well tolerated as evidenced by the absence of major treatment-related changes in the general condition and appearance of the rats, neurobehavioral endpoints, growth, feed and water intake, ophthalmoscopic examinations, routine hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis, or necropsy findings. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was the highest level fed of 50,000 ppm which is equivalent to 3,305 and 3,679 mg/kg bw/day, for male and female rats, respectively. The studies were conducted as part of an investigation to examine the safety of DHA-rich algal oil. The results confirm that it possesses a toxicity profile similar to other currently marketed algal oils and support the safety of DHA-rich algal oil for its proposed use in food.

  1. A simple method for measuring thickness of the mucus gel layer adherent to rat, frog and human gastric mucosa: influence of feeding, prostaglandin, N-acetylcysteine and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerss, S; Allen, A; Garner, A

    1982-08-01

    1. A technique has been developed for measuring thickness of the gastric surface mucus gel layer. Mucosal sections (1.6 mm) were cut from frog and rat stomach and human antrum, mounted transversely and viewed by an inverse microscope (x 200 magnification) under dark field illumination or phase contrast. The mucus layer was readily distinguishable and its dimensions could be recorded by means of an eyepiece graticule. 2. Mean mucus gel thickness in rat, frog was 73, 76, 55 and 192 micrometer respectively. However, there was variation in the average thickness of the gel layer between individual mucosae from the same species (up to twofold). Mucus thickness between adjacent regions of the same mucosal section also varied markedly (up to tenfold). 3. Topical administration of 16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2 by oral intubation caused a significant increase in thickness in both rat and frog at doses of 5 microgram/ml and 0.5 microgram/ml respectively. Feeding and exposure of the mucosa to N-acetylcysteine (10-20%, w/v) produced variable effects whereas pepsin (1 mg/ml) caused a marked reduction in thickness of the surface gel layer in both rat and frog. 4. The technique provides a rapid and simple method for determining gastrointestinal mucus thickness in relation to mucosal morphology. It is ideally suited for studying the control of mucus secretion and effect of drugs.

  2. Dietary subacute toxicity of ethylene thiourea in the laboratory rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenthal, R.I.; Kerchner, G.; Persing, R.; Baron, R.L.

    1978-09-01

    Ethylene thiourea (ETU) was fed to groups of rats at 0, 1, 5, 125 or 625 ppM for up to 90 days. Other groups of rats received either propylthiouracil (PTU; 125 ppM) or amitrole (50 ppM) in their diets as positive controls. Only those rats which received ETU at 125 or 625 ppM and those ingesting PTU or amitrole demonstrated a measurable toxic response. This toxicity was reflected as an alteration in thyroid function and a significant change in thyroid morphology. Ingestion of 625 ppM ETU or 125 ppM PTU resulted in very substantial decrease in serum triiodothyronine (T-3) and thyroxine (T-4). Marked increases in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were found in the 625 and 125 ppM ETU rats, the 125 PTU rats, and the rats receiving amitrole, each time this hormone was measured. Rats which ingested 625 ppM ETU also exhibited a decrease in iodide uptake by the thyroid. While a statistically significant increase in serum T-4 and degree of thyroid hyperplasia was observed for rats ingesting 25 ppM ETU for 60 days, normal thyroid hormone levels and thyroid morphology was found in rats on 25 ppM ETU for either 30 or 90 days. Based on diochemical and microscopic changes examined, the no-effect level for dietary ETU in this 90-day study is considered to be 25 ppM.

  3. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and guin

  4. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding acetyl-l-carnitine and/or R-α-lipoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiankang; Head, Elizabeth; Gharib, Afshin M.; Yuan, Wenjun; Ingersoll, Russell T.; Hagen, Tory M.; Cotman, Carl W.; Ames, Bruce N.

    2002-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidative damage to mitochondria, protein, and nucleic acid in the brain may lead to neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. The effects on cognitive function, brain mitochondrial structure, and biomarkers of oxidative damage were studied after feeding old rats two mitochondrial metabolites, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) [0.5% or 0.2% (wt/vol) in drinking water], and/or R-α-lipoic acid (LA) [0.2% or 0.1% (wt/wt) in diet]. Spatial memory was assessed by using the Morris water maze; temporal memory was tested by using the peak procedure (a time-discrimination procedure). Dietary supplementation with ALCAR and/or LA improved memory, the combination being the most effective for two different tests of spatial memory (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) and for temporal memory (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that oxidative damage to nucleic acids (8-hydroxyguanosine and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine) increased with age in the hippocampus, a region important for memory. Oxidative damage to nucleic acids occurred predominantly in RNA. Dietary administration of ALCAR and/or LA significantly reduced the extent of oxidized RNA, the combination being the most effective. Electron microscopic studies in the hippocampus showed that ALCAR and/or LA reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural decay. These results suggest that feeding ALCAR and LA to old rats improves performance on memory tasks by lowering oxidative damage and improving mitochondrial function. PMID:11854529

  5. The Effects of Feeding with Ferrous and Unicellular Yeast Enriched with Organic Chromium on the Blood Factors in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Amiri

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The study findings revealed that yeast enriched with probiotic-derived chromium can lead to appropriate changes in blood glucose, and serum lipids in diabetic rats. Moreover, treatment with iron increases glucose levels and causes undesirable changes in blood serum lipids of diabetic rats.

  6. Fish oil feeding is associated with an increased accumulation of dietary lipids in enterocytes: Results from an in vivo study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Marckmann, P.; Hansen, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Chronic fish oil consumption is associated with reduced postprandial lipaemia, but the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. We studied whether lipid absorption might be altered in rats fed fish oil. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed fish oil enriched chow (n = 6...... contents of enterocytes were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Two other groups of rats (2 x 6) fed the experimental diets were given an oral fat load and fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken. Results: The accumulation of H-3-lipids in enterocytes was higher in rats fed fish oil...... than in controls (area under the H-3-lipid time curve: 1041.3 versus 670.3 nmol oleic acid x min/mug DNA, P acids occurred in rats fed fish oil. The amount of non-absorbed H-3-lipid tended to be higher in the fish...

  7. Protective effect of chenodeoxycholic acid against lipid kidney injury induced by high-fructose feeding in rats and the underlying mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the intervention of chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA) on kidney of high-fructose-fed rats,and investigate the mechanism of CDCA on lipid kidney injury.Methods Forty-eight healthy male Wistar

  8. 长期饮酒减少大鼠睾丸间质细胞PBR和 StAR蛋白表达%Decreased protein expressions of PBR and StAR of Leydig cells in rats with chronic ethanol feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海东; 郑冬梅; 冯丽; 侯晓磊; 高聆; 赵家军

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究慢性饮酒对雄性大鼠睾丸外周型苯二氮类受体(PBR)和类固醇生成快速调节蛋白(StAR)表达的影响.方法 以不同浓度的乙醇饲养40只Wistar大鼠 20 周,检测睾丸组织PBR和StAR蛋白的表达.结果 慢性饮酒Wistar大鼠的睾丸曲精小管生精细胞层明显减少,管腔中可见断裂的精子鞭毛,少见完整的精子;免疫沉淀显示PBR和StAR蛋白表达下降,与对照组相比较,小、中、大剂量饮酒组PBR和StAR表达分别下降13.8%、20.9%、50.4%和34.5%、37.7%、95.2%;免疫组化显示小、中、大剂量饮酒组睾丸间质组织中的PBR和StAR表达面积分别减少33.27 %、37.71 %、63.59 %和27.12 %、51.84 %、58.41 %.结论 慢性饮酒能降低睾丸间质PBR和StAR蛋白表达,且其与乙醇浓度呈正相关.%Objective To investigate the expressions of peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) of testis in rats with chronic ethanol feeding.Methods Forty rats were treated with different ethanol dosages for twenty weeks, the morphology of testis and protein expressions of PBR and StAR were observed.Results In the ethanol-feeding rats, seminiferous tubular wall of testes became thin and the layer of germ cells was significantly reduced, moreover, the broken spermatozoon′s flagella were frequently observed and few integrated spermatozoa were produced.Compared with control group, the protein expressions of PBR and StAR protein were reduced by 13.8%, 20.9%, 50.4% and 34.5%, 37.7%, 95.2% in low-, middle- and high-dose ethanol feeding group respectively by immunoprecipitation.Similarly, both locating at interstitial cells in testes were also decreased by 33.27 %, 37.71 %, 63.59 % and 27.12 %, 51.84 %, 58.41% in the same ethanol feeding groups respectively by immunohistochemistry.Conclusion Both PBR and StAR protein expressions are decreased in interstitial cells of testes in chronic ethanol-feeding rats, which shows

  9. Effect of feed supplementation with a-ketoglutarate, combined with vitamin B6 or C, on the performance and haemoglobin and amino acid levels in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzynowski, Stefan Grzegorz; Filip, Rafal; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a-ketoglutarate (AKG), at pH 2 or 5, combined with vitamin B6 (AKG 2B, AKG 5B) or C (AKG 2C, AKG 5C), on the performance and haemoglobin and amino acid levels in growing rats. Eighty rats were divided into 5 treatment groups and stayed on trial...

  10. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. et Panz. Swingle in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjana Jaijoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the roots of Citrus aurantifolia were studied in both male and female rats. Oral administration of the extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality or differences on gross appearance of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for 90 days (10 male, 10 female. The examinations of signs, animal behavior and health monitoring showed no signs of abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. The test and control groups (on the 90th day and the satellite group (on the 118th day were analyzed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining hematological parameters, blood clinical chemistry and histopathology features. The oral administration of 1,200 mg/kg/ day of the extract of C. aurantifolia in male and female rats caused a significant increase in the liver enzymes, which remained within the normal range, but did not produce a significant histopathological change in the internal organs. In conclusion, the extract from the roots of C. aurantifolia administered orally did not cause acute or subchronic toxicities to male and female rats.

  11. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hshuan-Chen Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF diet (57.1% w/w. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1 control diet group (Con; (2 HF diet group (HF; and (3 HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model.

  12. Supplementation of a maternal low-protein diet in rat pregnancy with folic acid ameliorates programming effects upon feeding behaviour in the absence of disturbances to the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeham, Sarah F; Haase, Andrea; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2010-04-01

    Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with altered feeding behaviour in later life. When allowed to self-select their diet, rats subject to prenatal undernutrition show an increased preference for fatty foods. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of folic acid in the maternal diet to programming of appetite, since disturbances of the folate and methionine-homocysteine cycles have been suggested to impact upon epigenetic regulation of gene expression and hence programme long-term physiology and metabolism. Pregnant rats were fed diets containing either 9 or 18 % casein by weight, with folate provided at either 1 or 5 mg/kg diet. Adult male animals exposed to low protein (LP) in fetal life exhibited increased preference for high-fat food. Providing the higher level of folate in the maternal diet prevented this effect of LP, but offspring of rats fed 18 % casein diet with additional folate behaved in a similar manner to LP-exposed animals. Among day 20 gestation fetuses, it was apparent that both protein restriction and maternal folate supplementation could have adverse effects upon placental growth. Examination of methionine-homocysteine and folate cycle intermediates, tissue glutathione concentrations and expression of mRNA for methionine synthase, DNA methyltransferase 1 and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase revealed no gross disturbances of folate and one-carbon metabolism in either maternal or fetal tissue. The present findings indicated that any role for DNA methylation in programming of physiology is not related to major perturbations of folate metabolism, and is likely to be gene-specific rather than genome-wide.

  13. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  14. Effect of feed supplementation with phytohaemagglutinin in combination with a-ketoglutarate on growth and nitrogen elimination pathways in rats with acute renal failure induced by nephrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Rafat; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction:Phytomaemagglutinin (PHA) and alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) in growing rats stimulate a change in the proportion of N excretion via urine and faeces, in favour of faecal excretion. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect oforal supplementation of PHA and AKG on pathways...... of nitrogen excretion and serum levels of urea in uraemic conditions induced by nephrectomy. Material and methods: Experiment 1 - 12 rats were assigned to one of two groups, control and PHA. Experiment 2 - PHA was administered to 36 male rats which were assigned to 4 groups: 1) uraemic control, 2) uraemic...... + AKG, 3) Shap-operated, 4) Sham-operated + AKG. AKG was administered via drinking water, while PHA was administered via a stomach tube. Results: Lower daily weight gain (P

  15. One-year oral toxicity study on a genetically modified maize MON810 variety in Wistar Han RCC rats (EU 7th Framework Programme project GRACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljenková, Dagmar; Aláčová, Radka; Ondrejková, Júlia; Ambrušová, Katarína; Bartušová, Mária; Kebis, Anton; Kovrižnych, Jevgenij; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena; Wimmerová, Soňa; Černák, Martin; Krivošíková, Zora; Kuricová, Miroslava; Líšková, Aurélia; Spustová, Viera; Tulinská, Jana; Levkut, Mikuláš; Révajová, Viera; Ševčíková, Zuzana; Schmidt, Kerstin; Schmidtke, Jörg; Schmidt, Paul; La Paz, Jose Luis; Corujo, Maria; Pla, Maria; Kleter, Gijs A; Kok, Esther J; Sharbati, Jutta; Bohmer, Marc; Bohmer, Nils; Einspanier, Ralf; Adel-Patient, Karine; Spök, Armin; Pöting, Annette; Kohl, Christian; Wilhelm, Ralf; Schiemann, Joachim; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The GRACE (GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence; www.grace-fp7.eu ) project was funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE was to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in vitro and in silico studies on genetically modified (GM) maize in order to comparatively evaluate their use in GM plant risk assessment. In the present study, the results of a 1-year feeding trial with a GM maize MON810 variety, its near-isogenic non-GM comparator and an additional conventional maize variety are presented. The feeding trials were performed by taking into account the guidance for such studies published by the EFSA Scientific Committee in 2011 and the OECD Test Guideline 452. The results obtained show that the MON810 maize at a level of up to 33 % in the diet did not induce adverse effects in male and female Wistar Han RCC rats after a chronic exposure.

  16. Chronic high fat feeding increases anxiety-like behaviour and reduces transcript abundance of glucocorticoid signalling genes in the hippocampus of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanathan, Shathveekan; Thavartnam, Kabriya; Arif, Shahneen; Elegino, Trisha; McGowan, Patrick O

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of diets high in saturated fats and obesity have been associated with impaired physical and mental health. Previous studies indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption leads to systemic inflammation in humans and non-human animal models. Studies in non-human animals suggest that altered physiological responses to stress are also a consequence of high fat diet consumption. Glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms may link immune and stress-related pathways in the brain, and were shown to be significantly altered in the brains of female rat offspring of mothers exposed to chronic high fat diet during pregnancy and lactation. For adult females, the consequence of chronic high fat diet consumption on these signalling pathways and their relationship to stress-related behaviour is not known. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic consumption of a high fat diet compared to a low fat control diet among adult female Long Evans rats. We found significant differences in weight gain, caloric intake, anxiety-related behaviours, and glucocorticoid-related gene expression over a 10-week exposure period. As expected, rats in the high fat diet group gained the most weight and consumed the greatest number of calories. Rats in the high fat diet group showed significantly greater levels of anxiety-related behaviour in the Light Dark and Open Field tasks compared to rats in the low fat diet group. Rats consuming high fat diet also exhibited reduced transcript abundance in the hippocampus of stress-related mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor genes, as well as nuclear factor kappa beta gene expression, implicated in inflammatory processes. Together, these data indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption may increase anxiety-like behaviour at least in part via alterations in glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms in limbic brain regions.

  17. Effect of feed supplementation with phytohaemagglutinin in combination with a-ketoglutarate on growth and nitrogen elimination pathways in rats with acute renal failure induced by nephrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Rafat; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction:Phytomaemagglutinin (PHA) and alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) in growing rats stimulate a change in the proportion of N excretion via urine and faeces, in favour of faecal excretion. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect oforal supplementation of PHA and AKG on pathways of...

  18. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  19. Alkaline cooking (nixtamalisation) and the reduction in the in vivo toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn in a rat feeding bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K A; Riley, R T; Moore, N D; Burns, T D

    2013-01-01

    Nixtamalisation is a widely used food processing method in which whole kernel corn is cooked and steeped in alkaline water. It reduces the amount of fumonisin B1 (FB1) that can be detected after cooking. However, the fate of FB1 during nixtamalisation is not fully understood and potentially toxic reaction products, including matrix-associated "masked" FB1 forms that are not detected by routine analytical methods might remain in nixtamalised corn. To assess how nixtamalisation of whole kernel corn affects fumonisin toxicity, male rats were fed diets containing low, mid or high levels of uncooked (LU, MU, HU) or alkaline cooked (LC, MC, HC) FB1-contaminated corn for 3 weeks. The control diet contained uncontaminated corn only. Apoptotic kidney lesions of the type caused by FB1 were not found in the LC or MC groups. Lesions in the group fed HC were minimal and less severe than those found in the rats fed LU, MU or HU. Furthermore, significantly increased sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations indicative of FB1 exposure were found in the kidneys of the rats given LU, MU or HU. Concentrations were also elevated, but to a lesser extent, in rats fed HC, whereas sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations in rats given LC or MC did not differ from the control group. FB1 concentrations in the LC (0.08 mg kg(-1)), MC (0.13 mg kg(-1)) and HC (0.37 mg kg(-1)) diets were markedly reduced compared with their LU (1.8 mg kg(-1)), MU (3.5 mg kg(-1)) and HU (4.2 mg kg(-1)) counterparts as determined by HPLC (n =  1 analysis/diet). Taken together, the findings show that nixtamalisation is an effective cooking method for reducing the potential toxicity of FB1 contaminated corn.

  20. Induction of testicular damage by daily methamphetamine administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Chia; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Chen, Hung-En; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2014-02-28

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced brain damage and apoptosis within the central nervous system are well documented. This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of daily METH administration on the testes in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old, ~100 g, n = 64) were divided into two groups and treated with vehicle (saline, control) or METH (10 mg/kg) for 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that daily administration of METH decreased the body, testicular and epididymis weights as well as the serum levels of total testosterone. The increased apoptotic index (Bad/Bcl2 expression ratio) and levels of cleaved caspase-3 indicated that apoptosis had occurred in the testes of the METH-treated rats. The oxidative stress levels increased as the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased. The overall sperm counts decreased at 15 and 90 days, where- as morphologically abnormal sperm counts increased at 30, 60 and 90 days in the METH-treated rats. This study demonstrates that daily exposure to METH significantly reduced the number and quality of sperm in rats. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms likely include the reduction of serum testosterone levels and the increase of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat testes.

  1. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus Terrestris Fruit on Some Markers of Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic diabetes mellitus in the long run accompanies enhanced oxidative stress burden and decreases activity of antioxidant defense system. Due to significant role of these factors in development of some neurological disorders and with regard to antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of its oral administration on brain tissue level of some markers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, rats were divided into 4 groups, i.e. control, TT-treated control, diabetic, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was intraperitoneally administered (60mg/Kg. In addition, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 3% for 5 weeks. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitrite as well as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD in brain tissue were measured at the end of the study. Results: Diabetic rats showed a significant increase in tissue level of MDA (p<0.01 and nitrite (p<0.01 and a non-significant reduction of SOD activity. Furthermore, TT treatment significantly reduced level of MDA p<0.01 and nitrite (p<0.05. Also, SOD activity in treated-diabetic group was non-significantly higher as compared to diabetics. Conclusion: Chronic oral treatment with TT could attenuate some markers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in brain tissue in diabetic rats which this could possibly prevent some neurological disorders due to enhanced oxidative stress.

  2. Technical note: Detection of cat, dog, and rat or mouse tissues in food and animal feed using species-specific polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, I; García, T; Fajardo, V; Rojas, M; Hernández, P E; González, I; Martín, R

    2007-10-01

    A PCR method based on the nucleotide sequence variation in the 12S ribosomal RNA, mitochondrial gene has been developed for the specific and qualitative detection and identification of cat, dog, and rat or mouse tissue in food and feedstuffs. The primers designed generated specific fragments of 108, 101, and 96 bp in length for cat, dog, and rat or mouse tissues, respectively. Specificity of the primers was tested against 32 nontarget species including mammals, birds, fish, and plant species. This PCR method allowed detection of raw and heated cat, dog, and rat or mouse tissues in meat/oats mixtures even when the concentration of the target species was reduced to 0.1%. Furthermore, the performance of the method was not affected by prolonged heat-treatment (up to 133 degrees C for 20 min at 300 kPa), and consequently, it could be very useful to verify the origin of raw materials in food and feedstuffs submitted to denaturing technologies, for which other methods cannot be applied.

  3. In vivo evaluation of the sealing ability of two endodontic sealers in root canals exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days Avaliação, in vivo, da capacidade de selamento de dois cimentos endodônticos em canais radiculares expostos ao meio bucal por 45 e 90 dias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maria Poli Kopper

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study evaluated the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer (AH Plus and a zinc oxide-eugenol sealer (Endofill in dogs' teeth, exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days. Forty eight lower incisors from 8 dogs were endodonticaly treated. A stratified randomization determined the sealer use in each root canal. All canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique. The excess filling material at the cervical portion of the root canal was sectioned, leaving a 10-mm obturation length inside the canal. Teeth were provisionally sealed with glass ionomer cement for 24 h and the canals were exposed to the oral environment for either 45 or 90 days. Therefore, the experimental groups were as follows: A45- AH Plus for 45 days; A90- AH Plus for 90 days; E45- Endofill for 45 days; and E90- Endofill for 90 days (n=12. After the experimental period, the dogs were killed and the lower jaw was removed. The incisors were extracted and the roots were covered with two coats of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 96 h and submitted to diaphanization. Dye leakage (in mm was measured using stereomicroscopy (10x magnification. The results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons (á = 0.05. Group E90 (2.03±0.94 showed significantly higher mean leakage value than all other groups (pEste estudo in vivo avaliou a capacidade de selamento de um cimento endodôntico resinoso (AH Plus e um a base de óxido de zinco eugenol (Endofill, em dentes de cães, expostos ao meio bucal, por 45 e 90 dias. Foi realizado o tratamento endodôntico de 48 incisivos inferiores de 8 cães. Uma randomização estratificada determinou o tipo de cimento a ser usado em cada canal que foram tratados pela técnica de condensação lateral. Após a obturação, o excesso de material obturador, na porção cervical do canal radicular foi seccionado, restando o comprimento de 10 mm no interior do canal

  4. Fish Oil Feeding Modulates the Expression of Hepatic MicroRNAs in a Western-Style Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that fish oil supplementation has benefits against NAFLD. Our previous transcriptomic study has validated the effect of fish oil supplementation on altering hepatic gene expression in a NAFLD rat model. In the current study, we examined the effects of fish oil on the expression of hepatic microRNAs. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with a lab chow (CON, high-fat high-cholesterol diet (WD, or WD supplemented with fish oil (FOH, respectively. Small RNAs were extracted from livers for RNA-sequencing. A total of 79 miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs between FOH and WD groups, exemplified by rno-miR-29c-3p, rno-miR-30d-5p, rno-miR-33-5p, rno-miR-34a, and rno-miR-328a-3p. Functional annotation of DEMs predicted target genes suggested that the altered hepatic miRNAs contributed to fish oil modification of hepatic lipid metabolism and signaling transduction. Integrative analysis of DEMs and differentially expressed genes suggested that the expression difference of Pcsk9, Insig2, Per3, and Socs1/3 between FOH and WD groups may be due to miRNA modification. Our study reveals that fish oil supplementation alters hepatic expression of miRNAs, which may contribute to fish oil amelioration of NAFLD in rats.

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjana Jaijoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. A single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality, changes on gross appearance or histopathological changes of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats (10 male, 10 female daily with the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight continuously for 90 days. The examinations of signs, animal behavior and health monitoring showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. The test and control groups (on the 90th day and the satellite group (on the 118th day were analyzed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining hematology, blood clinical chemistry and histopathology. The results suggest that the water extract from the dried fruits of P. nigrum does not cause acute or subchronic toxicities in either male or female rats.

  6. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  7. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  8. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  9. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  10. Absence of adverse effects of sodium metabisulphite in manufactured biscuits: results of subacute (28-days) and subchronic (85-days) feeding studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, D; Jonker, D; Narbonne, J F; O'Brien, J; Antignac, E

    2001-02-01

    Sulphites are extensively used in the food and drinks industry. Their toxicity has been previously evaluated by addition to the diet or drinking water of laboratory animals. Because interactions between sulphites and food constituents occur, the present work was conducted to determine the subacute and subchronic toxicity of sulphite-bound compounds in a finished product: manufactured biscuits. The studies were performed on Sprague Dawley, rats for 28 and 85 days of dietary exposure. Diets were prepared from sulphited or untreated (controls) biscuits with the addition of sugar, protein, vitamins and minerals according to the nutritional requirements of the animals. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered diets containing sulphited biscuits at levels of 0, 10, 35 and 75%, corresponding to 10-15, 35-45, 150-170 and 310-340 mg SO2/kg diet. In both studies, no death or clinical abnormalities were reported. Growth rate, food consumption and food conversion efficiency were not affected by treatment. No dose-related changes were observed for haematology, clinical chemistry, ocular examination, renal-function, urinalysis, organ weights or gross and microscopic examinations. The liver concentrations of vitamins A, B1, C and E were not significantly changed except for an increase in vitamin E in high-dose males after 28 days' exposure. Based on these data, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of sulphites in baked biscuits was judged to be 310 mg SO2/kg diet or 25 mg/kg body weight/day.

  11. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of lycopene from Blakeslea trispora in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, D.; Kuper, C.F.; Fraile, N.; Estrella, A.; Rodríguez Otero, C.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene, as a suspension in sunflower oil (20% w/w), was tested for subchronic toxicity by administration at dietary concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0% to groups of 20 male and 20 female Wistar rats for a period of 90 days. The lycopene examined in this study was derived from a fungal biomas

  12. Intravitreal bevacizumab in pigmented rabbit eyes: histological analysis 90 days after injection Bevacizumabe intravítreo em olhos de coelhos não albinos: análise histológica 90 dias após a injeção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Diniz Arraes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate bevacizumab toxicity in neurosensorial retina and retinal pigment epithelium in pigmented rabbit eyes by means of histological studies. METHODS: Thirty eyes of fifteen rabbits were distributed into three groups: sham group (S, that received a 0.1 ml balanced saline solution (BSS intravitreal injection (10 eyes; group 1, that received a 1.25 mg (0.1 ml bevacizumab intravitreal injection (10 eyes; and group 2, that received a 2.5 mg (0.1 ml bevacizumab intravitreal injection (10 eyes. Rabbits were sacrificed 90 days after the procedure and both eyes of each rabbit were enucleated. A histological examination of neurosensorial retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE was performed. Its morphological features and layer thickness were also analyzed. RESULTS: No histological differences in neurosensorial retina or in retinal pigmented epithelium were found and layer thickness did not differ significantly between balanced saline solution-injected eyes and bevacizumab-injected eyes. CONCLUSION: After a 90-day follow-up period, a single 1.25 or 2.5 mg bevacizumab intravitreal injection did not lead to toxic damage in the neurosensorial retina and retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rabbit eyes, and it appears to be a safe procedure for retinal neovascular diseases.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a toxicidade do bevacizumabe na retina neurossensorial e epitélio pigmentado da retina (EPR em olhos de coelhos não albinos pelos estudos histológicos. MÉTODOS: Trinta olhos de 15 coelhos foram distribuídos em três grupos: 10 olhos no grupo placebo (P, que recebeu uma injeção intravítrea de 0,1 ml de solução salina balanceada (SSB; 10 olhos no grupo 1, que recebeu uma injeção intravítrea de 1,25 mg (0,1 ml de bevacizumabe; e 10 olhos no grupo 2, que recebeu uma injeção intravítrea de 2,5 mg (0,1 ml de bevacizumabe. Os coelhos tiveram seus dois olhos enucleados sob anestesia geral e submetidos à eutanásia 90 dias após a inje

  13. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Chelsea; Bernheim, Aude; Bergé, Jean-Baptiste; Kuntz, Marcel; Pascal, Gérard; Paris, Alain; Ricroch, Agnès E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to collect data concerning the effects of diets containing GM maize, potato, soybean, rice, or triticale on animal health. We examined 12 long-term studies (of more than 90 days, up to 2 years in duration) and 12 multigenerational studies (from 2 to 5 generations). We referenced the 90-day studies on GM feed for which long-term or multigenerational study data were available. Many parameters have been examined using biochemical analyses, histological examination of specific organs, hematology and the detection of transgenic DNA. The statistical findings and methods have been considered from each study. Results from all the 24 studies do not suggest any health hazards and, in general, there were no statistically significant differences within parameters observed. However, some small differences were observed, though these fell within the normal variation range of the considered parameter and thus had no biological or toxicological significance. If required, a 90-day feeding study performed in rodents, according to the OECD Test Guideline, is generally considered sufficient in order to evaluate the health effects of GM feed. The studies reviewed present evidence to show that GM plants are nutritionally equivalent to their non-GM counterparts and can be safely used in food and feed.

  14. A survey on cerebral infarction/transient ischemic attack inpatiants compliance with secondary stroke prevention and follow-up 90 days%脑梗死/短暂性脑缺血发作住院患者二级预防依从性研究及90天随访

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锐华; 张微微; 王力; 林琅; 李红涛; 郑婷; 王献伟; 李菁晶; 吕莹; 齐冬; 王拥军; 王春雪; 赵性泉; 王伊龙; 许明杰; 魏明; 李尧; 张茁

    2008-01-01

    Objective Poor compliance with evidence-based-medicine guidelines could significantlyinfluence the effect of stroke prevention strategies. The objectives of this survey are to investigate the currentstatus in Beijing of cerebral infarction/TIA(transient ischemic attack) inpatients' adherence to the evidence-based- medicine secondary prevention and behavior modifications both at the discharge and at 90-day followup. Methods The survey included cerebral infarction/ TIA patients successively admitted from 1, Oct2006 to 1, May 2007, used ACEI/ARB, Statin, anti-platelet agents therapy, accepted carotid endarterctomyor angioplasty or stentt, and modified behaviors to stop smoking and control weight. Data of patients duringhospitalization were obtained from the medical documents in the inpatient department of 7 centers. Thedetailed information included the medicine therapy, lifestyle modifications, patients' social demographicbackground (age, sex, education and way of payment), major risk factors for stroke, and ischemic eventsubtypes (TLA or cerebral infarction). Above information of part of patients were collected through telephoneinterview at 90- day follow-up if the patients were not able to visit the clinic. Results 708 cerebralinfarction/TIA inpatients who didn't have contraindicatious were included. Among them, the patents whohaven't used anti-platelet agents, nor taken statin, nor accepted ACEI/ARB were about 0.4%, 41.8% and63.6% respectively. Neither 27% of the patients have accepted the instructions on stop smoking. Whileabout 588 patients suitable to drug therapy were followed up at 90 days, but the percentage of these patientswho haven't compliance on anti-platelet agents, statin, ACEI/ARB was 26.9%, 52.6% and 59.4%respectively. Only 66.9% of the smoking patients have received the doctor instructions on smokingcessation. Conclusion Stroke recurrence rate in China is higher than that of average figures in westerncountries. One of the key reasons of high

  15. 乐果亚慢性染毒对大鼠谷氨酸递质系统和学习记忆的影响%Effects of 90-day oral dimethoate exposure on glutamatergic system and neurobehavioral performance in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强恩; 姚新民; 班婷婷; 姜楠; 邵春风; 常秀丽; 周志俊

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨有机磷农药乐果亚慢性染毒对大鼠学习记忆功能的影响及对中枢兴奋性氨基酸神经递质系统的可能作用.方法 48只成年雄性SD大鼠随机分成4组,每组12只.对3个实验组以乐果经口灌胃(5、10和20 mg/kg),每周5 d,每天1次,共13周;对照组给予等体积的生理盐水.染毒结束,每组随机取6只大鼠在Morris水迷宫中检测动物学习记忆功能的改变情况;其余大鼠断头处死进行生化测定.使用硫代乙酰胆碱-二硫代双硝基甲酸(Asch-DTNB)法测定海马中乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)活力;用反相高效液相色谱荧光法测定海马中谷氨酸含量;用配体受体结合实验测定N-甲基-D-天门冬氨酸(NMDA)受体的Bmax和Kd值.结果 大鼠定位航行实验中,随着训练期的增加,各组动物逃避潜伏期明显缩短;中、高剂量乐果染毒组的潜伏期比对照组长,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).空间探索实验中,高剂量组与对照组相比,穿越平台位置的次数明显减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).动物染毒后,低、中、高染毒组大鼠海马AChE活力分别为对照组的77.9%、62.8%和42.1%,差异有统计学意义,存在剂量-效应关系(P<0.01).中、高剂量组大鼠海马分区谷氨酸含量与对照组相比增加134.5%、132.9%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);中、高剂量组NMDA受体Bmax值与对照组相比降低21.2%、23.2%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);各剂量组受体Kd值增加22.2%~33.1%,且高剂量组与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).大鼠的空间记忆能力下降与海马中NMDA受体的亲和力下降在统计学上有相关关系(P<0.05).结论 乐果亚慢性染毒可引起大鼠中枢兴奋性氨基酸神经递质含量及NMDA受体密度和亲和力的改变,并在降低大鼠的学习记忆功能中可能发挥一定的作用.

  16. Hormonal imbalance and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism associated with chronic feeding of high sucrose low magnesium diet in weanling male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meenakshi; Mehra, Pranav; Bansal, Devi Dayal

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to determine chronic effect of high sucrose low magnesium (HSLM) diet in weanling rats on plasma thyroid profile, catecholamines and activities of key hepatic glycolytic, and gluconeogenic enzymes. Compared to control diet fed group, significantly elevated levels of plasma triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine, catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) and activity of hepatic glycolytic (hexokinase and glucokinase), and gluconeogenic (glucose-6-phosphatase) enzymes were observed in high sucrose and low magnesium fed groups. However, HSLM diet had an additive effect on all these three parameters. The study thus, assumes significance as it shows that hormonal imbalance and disorders in carbohydrate metabolism at an early stage of development can be due to dietary modification or due to deficiency of key element magnesium.

  17. Screening and confirming of target strains from the faeces of rats fed with lactobacilli strains feed to SD rat%乳杆菌喂食大鼠后目标菌克隆筛选与确认

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琼伟; 陶祝华; 朱一力; 郑刚; 李伟莉; 林蓉; 金嵘; 陈龙; 曾爱兵

    2011-01-01

    目的 确认乳杆菌能否顺利通过胃酸屏障并在肠道内定植为进一步研究乳杆菌对大鼠的生理代谢影响做基础,为乳杆菌菌株的应用提供有效依据.方法 采用浓度梯度药物平板筛选利福平耐受菌株,用耐利福平(15 mg/L)乳杆菌菌株喂食SD雄性大鼠并采集其新鲜粪便,在耐药平板上筛选出能在大鼠结肠内定植良好的耐药菌株,并得到16S rDNA的鉴定结果,利用16S rDNA序列同源性分析对乳酸菌进行分类鉴定.结果 粪便中检测出的乳杆菌耐药菌株经纯化鉴定后与所喂食的乳杆菌同源.结论 实验所筛选出的耐利福平乳杆菌在大鼠结肠内成功定植.%Objective To confirm whether lactobacilli could overcome the gastric acid barrier and localize in the intestines of rats, so to provide basis for further studies on the effect of lactobacilli's localization on rats' physiological characteristics and for the application of the strains. Method Plates with grediant concentration of rifampicin were used to screen the resistant strains. Rifampicin-resistant lactobacilli ( > 15 μg/mL) were fed to SD and then the fresh faeces of the SD male rats were collected. The strains which could localize in rats' colons well were then genetically identified with 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Result After purification, the lactobacilli resistant strains detected from the male rats' faeces were identified as homologous to the fed ones. Conclusion The lactobacifius strains screened in this study can localize stably in rat's colon.

  18. Effects of a high sucrose diet and intragastric sucrose feeding on the dentinogenesis, dental caries, and mineral excretion of the young rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkala, E; Hietala, E L; Puukka, M; Larmas, M

    2000-08-01

    Previous studies show that a high sucrose diet reduces the rate of primary dentinogenesis and increases dental caries, although their cause-effect relationship is still obscure. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the effect of sucrose load on the dentinogenesis and dental caries of young rat molars is mediated by systemic (intragastric) or by systemic and local (dietary) factors. At weaning (19 days), animals were randomized into the control, intragastric sucrose, and dietary sucrose groups for 4 weeks. The areas of dentin appositions and dentinal caries lesions were measured planimetrically. Caries was also determined with Shiffs staining and the width of predentin by histology. Urinary Ca, K, and Na levels were measured by flame photometry, urinary P levels using an UV method, and serum insulin levels using radioimmunoassay. Systemic and local sucrose load reduced dentin appositions and intragastric sucrose increased urinary Ca excretion. No differences in the width of predentin were noticed. Only dietary sucrose enhanced the occurrence and progression of caries. The present findings show that sucrose load reduces dentinogenesis by impairing the synthesis of dentin matrix, but also point out the crucial importance of the local sucrose challenge in the initiation of dental caries.

  19. Maternal "junk-food" feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2011-07-01

    Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal "junk-food" diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16 ± 0.6 vs. 11 ± 0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19 ± 1.3 vs. 13 ± 0.4 g/kg/d; Pjunk-food intake in postnatal life.

  20. Vegetable Protein Sources Used as Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effect of using some vegetal raw flours (Glycine hispida, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba, treated by autoclaving, introduced in the feeding white rats, was followed by the presented experiments. Feeding growing rats with diets containing raw grain legumes, as the main source of protein, reduce the rate of growth. This effect attenuates with the aging of rats. Inhibition of growth is the most evident in the consumption of raw beans (by 33% over the control group. Autoclaving reduces the level of anti-nutritive factors (with 0.2% - 36.73% and decreases the growth inhibition (with 10.7% - 27.51%.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of ammonium perfluorobutyrate in rats: Twenty-eight-day and ninety-day oral gavage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequential 28-day and 90-day oral toxicity studies were performed in male and female rats with ammonium perfluorobutyrate (NH4+PFBA) at doses up to 150 and 30 mg/kg/d, respectively. Ammonium perfluorooctanoate was used as a comparator at a dose of 30 mg/kg/d in the 28-d study. Fe...

  2. One‑year oral toxicity study on a genetically modified maize MON810 variety in Wistar Han RCC rats (EU 7th Framework Programme project GRACE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Kok, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The GRACE (GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence; www.grace-fp7.eu) project was funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE was to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in

  3. Brain glucosamine boosts protective glucoprivic feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osundiji, Mayowa A; Zhou, Ligang; Shaw, Jill; Moore, Stephen P; Yueh, Chen-Yu; Sherwin, Robert; Heisler, Lora K; Evans, Mark L

    2010-04-01

    The risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia is increased in diabetic patients who lose defensive glucoregulatory responses, including the important warning symptom of hunger. Protective hunger symptoms during hypoglycemia may be triggered by hypothalamic glucose-sensing neurons by monitoring changes downstream of glucose phosphorylation by the specialized glucose-sensing hexokinase, glucokinase (GK), during metabolism. Here we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of glucosamine (GSN), a GK inhibitor, on food intake at normoglycemia and protective feeding responses during glucoprivation and hypoglycemia in chronically catheterized rats. ICV infusion of either GSN or mannoheptulose, a structurally different GK inhibitor, dose-dependently stimulated feeding at normoglycemia. Consistent with an effect of GSN to inhibit competitively glucose metabolism, ICV coinfusion of d-glucose but not l-glucose abrogated the orexigenic effect of ICV GSN at normoglycemia. Importantly, ICV infusion of a low GSN dose (15 nmol/min) that was nonorexigenic at normoglycemia boosted feeding responses to glucoprivation in rats with impaired glucose counterregulation. ICV infusion of 15 nmol/min GSN also boosted feeding responses to threatened hypoglycemia in rats with defective glucose counterregulation. Altogether our findings suggest that GSN may be a potential therapeutic candidate for enhancing defensive hunger symptoms during hypoglycemia.

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document. ...

  5. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  6. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  7. Nasogastric feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000182.htm Nasogastric feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... the nose. It can be used for all feedings or for giving a person extra calories. It ...

  8. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child. These guidelines on breastfeeding and bottle feeding can help you make the decision that's right ... formula is a nutritious alternative to breast milk. Bottle feeding can offer more freedom and flexibility for moms, ...

  9. Effects of Lead on Temporal Response Properties of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Developing Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮迪云; 汤立新; 赵晨; 郭宇静

    1994-01-01

    Neonatal rats have taken in lead, during the period from their parturition to their weaning, from the milk of dams fed with water containing 0.2% lead acetate solutions. The alterations in the temporal response properties of retinal ganglion cells in adult rats (90 days) following the lead exposure at their developing stage have been studied. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the lead exposure in neonatal rats causes decreases in the optimal temporal frequency, bandwidth at half amplitude, temporal resolution and response phase of the retinal ganglion cells in adult rats. Compared with the sustained cells, the transient cells have a much greater alteration in temporal response properties.

  10. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring ... babies who are born prematurely, as are many twins and higher order multiples. Breast milk is easier ...

  11. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  12. Protective effect of citicoline against aluminum-induced cognitive impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Zaher, Ahmed O; Hamdy, Mostafa M; Abdel-Rahman, Mahran S; Abd El-Hamid, Doaa H

    2017-04-01

    The potential protective effect of citicoline on aluminum chloride-induced cognitive deficits was investigated in rats. In a Morris water maze, administration of aluminum chloride to rats for 90 days resulted in increased escape latency to reach the platform and decreased swimming speed in acquisition trials. Similarly, in probe trials, the time required to reach the hidden platform was increased and the time spent in the target quadrant was reduced. Also, administration of aluminum chloride to rats for 90 days increased the reference and working memory errors and time required to end the task in the radial arm maze. In addition, this treatment decreased the step-through latency in the passive avoidance test. Concurrently, treatment of rats with aluminum chloride for 90 days increased hippocampal glutamate, malondialdehyde, and nitrite levels and decreased intracellular reduced glutathione level. In the citicoline-treated group, aluminum chloride-induced learning and memory impairments as assessed by the Morris water maze, radial arm maze, and passive avoidance tests were inhibited. At the same time, treatment of rats with citicoline prevented the biochemical alterations induced by aluminum chloride in the hippocampus. It can be concluded that elevation of hippocampal glutamate level with consequent oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) overproduction may play an important role in aluminum-induced cognitive impairments. Also, our results suggest, for the first time, that citicoline can protect against the development of these cognitive deficits through inhibition of aluminum-induced elevation of glutamate level, oxidative stress, and NO overproduction in the hippocampus.

  13. Red yeast rice and coenzyme Q10 as safe alternatives to surmount atorvastatin-induced myopathy in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbaset, Marwan; Safar, Marwa M; Mahmoud, Sawsan S; Negm, Seham A; Agha, Azza M

    2014-06-01

    Statins are the first line treatment for the management of hyperlipidemia. However, the primary adverse effect limiting their use is myopathy. This study examines the efficacy and safety of red yeast rice (RYR), a source of natural statins, as compared with atorvastatin, which is the most widely used synthetic statin. Statin interference with the endogenous synthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) prompted the hypothesis that its deficiency may be implicated in the pathogenesis of statin-associated myopathy. Hence, the effects of combination of CoQ10 with either statin have been evaluated. Rats were rendered hyperlipidemic through feeding them a high-fat diet for 90 days, during the last 30 days of the diet they were treated daily with either atorvastatin, RYR, CoQ10, or combined regimens. Lipid profile, liver function tests, and creatine kinase were monitored after 15 and 30 days of drug treatments. Heart contents of CoQ9 and CoQ10 were assessed and histopathological examination of the liver and aortic wall was performed. RYR and CoQ10 had the advantage over atorvastatin in that they lower cholesterol without elevating creatine kinase, a hallmark of myopathy. RYR maintained normal levels of heart ubiquinones, which are essential components for energy production in muscles. In conclusion, RYR and CoQ10 may offer alternatives to overcome atorvastatin-associated myopathy.

  14. Study of Correlation between Genetic Polymorphism of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and 90-day Out-come of Ischemic Stroke in Chinese Han Population%脑源性神经生长因子的基因多态性与中国汉族人群缺血性卒中90天预后的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 吴慧; 翁迎峰

    2015-01-01

    assessed at the admission day with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Severity Scale (NIHSS).On post-infarction 3-month follow-up,the neural function recovery of patients was as-sessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).Results:The frequency of genotype AA at BDNF gene G196A in IS group was higher than that in control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P <0.05).There was no significant difference with regard to the genotype at BDNF gene G196A and the allele frequency between the mild patients and the severe patients (P =0.800).According to the outcomes on post-discharge 90-day follow-up,the relative risk of poor outcome in patients with genotype AA at BDNF gene G196A to that in patients with genotype GG at BDNF gene G196A was 0.046 (P =0.008,OR =0.406,95%CI :203-0.813).After the other risk factors had been adjusted with logistic regression method,the correlation was still significant(P =0.012,OR = 2.134,95%CI :1 .1 78-3.866).Conclusions:Perhaps there was no association between the polymorphism of BDNF gene G196A and the severity of neural function defect during acute phase of IS in Chinese Han popula-tion.The presence of genotype GA+AA at BDNF gene G196A was associated with much poorer outcome in patients with IS. Allele A might be the independent bioindicator of poor outcome of IS in Chinese Han population.

  15. Definition of morphological changes of hepar, myocardium and stomach cells in rats after carbamazepin and thyotriazolin administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opryshko V.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the histological changes in rats after new complex drug administration. Seventy male white rats were used for this experiment. During 90 days they received carbamazepin and thyotriazolin compound. Compound were administered orally via gavage. We observed damaging action of high dose carbamazepin on hepar, myocardium and stomach. Our data suggest that thyotriazolin reduce toxic effect of carbamazepin on hepar, myocardium and stomach.

  16. Effect of SDS-based decelullarization in the prevention of calcification in glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardium: study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collatusso, Claudinei; Roderjan, João Gabriel; Vieira, Eduardo Discher; Costa, Francisco Diniz Affonso da; Noronha, Lucia de; Fornazari, Daniele de Fátima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the SDS-based decellularization process as an anticalcification method in glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardium in subcutaneous rat model. Pericardium samples with 0.5 cm² area were divide in four groups: group GDA: 0.5% glutaraldehyde-preserved pericardium (GDA); group GDA-GL: GDA + 0.2% glutamic acid (GL); group D-GDA: decellularized (D) pericardium with 0.1% SDS + GDA and group D-GDA-GL: decellularized pericardium + GDA + 0.2% glutamic acid. After this samples were implanted in 18 rats in subcutaneous position till 90 days. Each animal received samples of the four groups. The explants were performed at 45 and 90 days. The explants were subjected to histology in glass slides stained with hematoxilin-eosin and alizarin red, morphometry evaluation and the calcium content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The inflammatory infiltrate was the same in all groups, however more intense in GDA and GDA-GL groups in 45 days, increasing at 90 days. The calcium contents for 45 days were: 32.52 ± 3.19 µg/mg in GDA group; 22.12 ± 3.87 µg/ mg in GDA-GL group; 1.06 ± 0.38 µg/mg in D-GDA group and 3.99 ± 5.78 µg/mg in D-GDA-GL (Ppericardium in subcutaneous rat model for 90 days.

  17. Enteral Nutrition for Feeding Severely Underfed Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Gentile

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium. In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to use oral nutrition support and/or artificial nutrition, besides ordinary food; enteral nutrition should be a preferred route of feeding if there is a functional accessible gastrointestinal tract. Refeeding of severely malnourished patients represents two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1 to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; (2 to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious rate of refeeding. The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of refeeding severely underfed patients and to present our experience with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of very severe undernutrition whilst avoiding refeeding syndrome, in 10 patients aged 22 ± 11.4 years and with mean initial body mass index (BMI of 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2. The mean BMI increased from 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2 to 17.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2 and the mean body weight from 27.9 ± 3.3 to 43.0 ± 5.7 kg after 90 days of intensive in-patient treatment (p < 0.0001. Caloric intake levels were established after measuring resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and nutritional support was performed with enteral feeding. Vitamins, phosphate, and potassium supplements were administered during refeeding. All patients achieved a significant modification of BMI; none developed refeeding syndrome. In conclusion, our findings show that, even in cases of extreme undernutrition, enteral feeding may be a well-tolerated way of feeding.

  18. Effect of electroacupuncture on the bio-chemical indices of bone and bone collagen metabo-lism and TNF-α in osteoporosis model rats without ovaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍圣涌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms of electroacu-puncture(EA) on postmenopausal osteoporosis(PMO).Methods Sixty female SD rats aged 6 months were selected,resected double ovaries and fed for 90 days in order to make the model of experimental osteoporosis,and then,they were randomly divided into a model control group

  19. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  20. Post-pyloric feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Niv; Zvi Fireman; Nachum Vaisman

    2009-01-01

    Postpyloric feeding is an important and promising alternative to parenteral nutrition. The indications for this kind of feeding are increasing and include a variety of clinical conditions, such as gastroparesis, acute pancreatitis, gastric outlet stenosis, hyperemesis (including gravida), recurrent aspiration, tracheoesophageal fistula and stenosis in gastroenterostomy. This review discusses the differences between pre- and postpyloric feeding, indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, and provides an overview of the techniques of placement of various postpyloric devices.

  1. Depletion of selected polychlorodibenzodioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans in farmed trout exposed to contaminated feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, G.; Dellatte, E.; Fochi, I.; Iacovella, N.; Domenico, A. di [Dept. Food Safety and Animal Health, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)]|[Dept. Environment and Primary Health Care, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Farmed fish can bioaccumulate persistent toxic substances when fed on animal-based fat feeds. This fact has recently prompted a re-evaluation of the overall toxicological risk associated with contamination levels recorded in farmed vs. wild salmons. The bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in farmed trout has recently been described nevertheless, poor information is available about their depletion under controlled conditions. In this paper, the results of a 90-day depletion study in groups of trout exposed to three different levels of feed contamination for 30 days are reported. As a follow-up of a PCB depletion study the present paper aims at giving indications for risk management in fish farming practices, to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the produce intended for human consumption.

  2. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  3. Danger of zooplankton feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, H.; Colin, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly and ther......Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly...

  4. Subchronic oral toxicity study of Vegeta in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi R. Dewoto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the safety and toxic effect of Vegeta giving orally for a period of 90 days in rats. Eighty rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were randomly devided into 4 groups. Each group consists of 20 rats, 10 male and 10 female rats. Each group received 0.25 g/ kgBW; 0.50 g / kgBW; 1.00 g / kgBW Vegeta (in aquadest solution respectively, and the control group received 5 mL /kgBW aquadest , given orally by gastric tube for 90 days. The rat’s body weight and behavior were daily evaluated. On the 90th day, the rats were decapitated and the blood samples were withdrawn for evaluation of Hemoglobin, leucocyte, SGPT, SGOT, creatinine, and ureum concentration. Visceral organs were also removed, being weighted and were examined microscopically. The results showed that Vegeta with dose of 0.25 g / kgBW; 0.50 g / kgBW, and 1.00 g / kgBW did not affect body weight, liver and renal function compared to control group. There was no significant difference for hemoglobin value compared to control group, but the number of leucocyte increased in 1.00 g / kgBW Vegeta dose group, which was possibly caused by infection. In Vegeta group, there was different spleen and brain weight in male rats, and different lung and heart weight in female rats compared to the control group. However, since it was not dose-related and there was no specific abnormality in microscopic examination compared to the control group, it was not indicated as Vegeta toxic effect. The No observed effect level (NOEL value of Vegeta for 90 day oral administration in male and female rats of Sprague-Dawley strain was 1.00 g / kgBW. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:223-8Keywords: Vegeta, subchronic toxicity, oral, rats

  5. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  6. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  7. Feeding biology of Cerambycids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    2017-01-01

    There are more than 36,000 species of Cerambycidae recognized throughout the world (see Chapter 1), occurring on all continents except Antarctica (Linsley 1959). Given such numbers, it is not surprising that cerambycids display great diversity in their feeding habits. Both adults and larvae are almost exclusively phytophagous. Some adults appear not to feed at all,...

  8. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Common illnesses ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Family health & safety ') ...

  10. Enteral nutrition for feeding severely underfed patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Maria Gabriella

    2012-09-01

    Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water) and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium). In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to use oral nutrition support and/or artificial nutrition, besides ordinary food; enteral nutrition should be a preferred route of feeding if there is a functional accessible gastrointestinal tract. Refeeding of severely malnourished patients represents two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1) to avoid "refeeding syndrome" caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; (2) to avoid "underfeeding" caused by a too cautious rate of refeeding. The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of refeeding severely underfed patients and to present our experience with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of very severe undernutrition whilst avoiding refeeding syndrome, in 10 patients aged 22 ± 11.4 years and with mean initial body mass index (BMI) of 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m(2). The mean BMI increased from 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m(2) to 17.3 ± 1.6 kg/m(2) and the mean body weight from 27.9 ± 3.3 to 43.0 ± 5.7 kg after 90 days of intensive in-patient treatment (p refeeding syndrome. In conclusion, our findings show that, even in cases of extreme undernutrition, enteral feeding may be a well-tolerated way of feeding.

  11. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  12. Structural Changes of the Testis and Changes in Semen Quality Parameters Caused by Intraperitoneal and Peroral Administration of Selenium in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Cabaj; Róbert Toman; Mária Adamkovičová; Peter Massányi; Svätoslav Hluchý; Norbert Lukáč; Jozef Golian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the structural changes in the testis and semen quality parameters of rat after a singleintraperitoneal and repeated peroral selenium administration. Rats were killed 36 hours following the intraperitonealadministration of selenium selenite (2 mg.kg-1 b.w.; 98% purity) and after 90 days of the peroral repeatedadministration of selenium in drinking water (5 mg.l-1). Testis samples were evaluated by histological andmorphometrical methods in light microscopy. Eva...

  13. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis; Naoel Hassan Feres; Leticia Martins Ignacio-Souza; Roberto Vilela Veloso; Vanessa Cristina Arantes; Nair Honda Kawashita; Edson Moleta Colodel; Bárbara Laet Botosso; Marise Auxiliadora de Barros Reis; Márcia Queiroz Latorraca

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and ...

  14. Effects of diet containing flaxseed flour (Linum usitatissimum) on body adiposity and bone health in young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; da Silva, Paula Cristina Alves; Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; dos Santos, Aline de Sousa; de Abreu, Maíra Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, Letícia Rozeno; Boueri, Bianca Ferolla da Camara; Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; do Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2016-02-01

    Flaxseed flour has been described as an excellent alpha-linolenic acid source. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of flaxseed flour on body adiposity and bone health in rats fed a flaxseed flour diet during lactation until 90 days. At birth, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C) and experimental (FF) groups, whose dams were treated with a control or flaxseed flour diet, respectively, during lactation. At 21 days, pups were weaned and fed a control and experimental diet until 90 days. Food intake, body mass and length were evaluated during a 21-90 day period. At 90 days, composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum hormonal profile, intra-abdominal fat mass, and lumbar vertebra and femur analyses was determined. Differences were deemed significant at p < 0.05. The FF group displayed the following (P < 0.05): a higher total lean mass (+7%), a lower total (-16%) and intra-abdominal (-24%) fat mass, a smaller adipocyte area (-30%), a higher femoral mass (+5%), bone mineral density (+5%) and radiodensity (+20%), and a higher maximum force (+10%) and breaking strength (+11%). The flaxseed flour diet displayed functional properties related to body growth maintenance associated with a lower risk of developing metabolic alterations, obesity and bone fragility.

  15. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals.

  16. Effect of sharply lowered muscular activity on the thyroid gland of the white rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekishev, K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of hypokinesia on the thyroid gland of 200 white rats was studied. The rats were kept in 16x6x6 cm cages for 90 days. The functional activity of the thyroids increased after 24 hrs of partial immobilization and peaked after 15 days. After 30 days of immobilization, the functional activity returned to normal in one third of the test animals and after 60 days in all animals. After 15 days of immobilization, the test animals began to lose weight (in comparison to the controls) and remained underweight for the rest of the test period (up to 90 days). When returned to normal conditions, they caught up with and even overtook in weight the control animals after about 1 month. All changes produced by hypokinesia were reversible after 1 month.

  17. Role of sensory factors in chewing and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Y

    1975-01-01

    Since feeding behavior has a complex physiological background, in the physiology of feeding behavoir not only the mechanisms in the hypothalamus, but also input and output physiologic factors which stimulate and/or inhibit the central network for feeding and aversion behavior, must be considered. Normal feeding and aversion behavior are accomplished by a series of highly co-ordinated physiological functions involving various parts of the body, and humoral, hormonal, metabolic, and sensory and motor functions for feeding behavior must be well considered from a wider wiew point. For this purpose, morphological, biochemical, and neurophysiological extensive approaches to study the feeding behavior mechanisms are essentially important. In the present paper, neurophysiological network concerning feeding and aversion behavior was under discussion. Particularly, relations between input, central and output factors for these behaviors were considered. As an input factor, a role of the nerve impulses of the chorda tympani and lingual nerves was evaluated. As a central factor, involvement of the neurons in the cortical taste area was discussed, and response patterns of cortical taste neurons to negative and positive taste information was analyzed with regard to taste perception mechanisms. In addition, mechanisms in the posterior hypothalamus for the taste aversion behavior were explained through ablation and recording techniques in the rat; and the neuromuscular mechanisms of chewing, which complete the feeding behavior, were also discussed. Importance of such comprehensive systematic approach to proper understanding of feeding and aversion behaviors was emphasized.

  18. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Missotten, Joris; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviat...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? ...

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    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is ... and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  6. Breast feeding in IMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A; Depondt, E; Evans, S; Daly, A; Hendriksz, C; Chakrapani A, A; Saudubray, J-M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has proven benefits for many infants with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) but, with the exception of phenylketonuria, there are few reports in other conditions. A questionnaire, completed by dietitians and clinicians from 27 IMD centres from 15 countries (caring for a total of over 8000 patients with IMDs on diet) identified breast feeding experience in IMD. Successful, demand breast feeding (in combination with an infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids) was reported in 17 infants with MSUD, 14 with tyrosinaemia type I, and 5 with homocystinuria. Eighty-nine per cent were still breast fed at 16 weeks. Fewer infants with organic acidaemias were demand breast fed (7 with propionic acidaemia; 6 with methylmalonic acidaemia and 13 with isovaleric acidaemia) (usually preceded by complementary feeds of a protein-free infant formula or infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids). Only 12 infants with urea cycle disorders were given demand breast feeds, but this was unsuccessful beyond 8 days in CPS deficiency. Further work is needed in developing guidelines for feeding and for clinical and biochemical monitoring for breast-fed infants with IMDs.

  7. Histological evaluation of the periodontal ligament from aged wistar rats supplemented with ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline N. Zanoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA is able to neutralize reactive oxygen species and is essential for collagen synthesis. In aging process oxidative stress is elevated. This study aims to investigate the effects of AA supplementation on the periodontal ligament (PL of rats during aging. Twenty five rats were used and divided into groups: J90 (90-day-old control, E345 (345-day-old control, E428 (428-day-old control, EA345 (345-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on and EA428 (428-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on. We analyzed the thickness, density of fibroblasts and blood vessels and collagen fibers types in the PL. In group J90 there was predominantly type III collagen fibers (87.64%. In animals supplemented with AA, the area filled by type I fibers (group EA345: 65.67%, group EA428: 52.23% was higher than type III fibers. PL in group EA428 was thicker than the one observed in group E428 (P < 0.05. During natural aging process, AA promoted the maturation of collagen fibers and enhanced angiogenesis in periodontal ligament. One can conclude that the supplementation with AA represented a beneficial factor for the development of PL in aged rats.

  8. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  9. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of acrylamide (CASRN 79-06-1) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed and drinking water studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Acrylamide, a water-soluble α,β-unsaturated amide, is a contaminant in baked and fried starchy foods, including french fries, potato chips, and bread, as a result of Maillard reactions involving asparagine and reducing sugars. Additional sources of acrylamide exposure include cigarettes, laboratory procedures involving polyacrylamide gels, and various occupations (e.g, monomer production and polymerization processes). Acrylamide is carcinogenic in experimental animals. To obtain data for developing quantitative risk assessments for dietary exposures to acrylamide, the Food and Drug Administration nominated acrylamide for an in-depth toxicological evaluation by the National Toxicology Program. As part of this evaluation, male and female B6C3F1/Nctr (C57BL/6N x C3H/HeN MTV-) mice and male and female F344/N Nctr rats were exposed to acrylamide (at least 99.4% pure) in drinking water for 2 years. 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of four male and four female F344/N rats were administered 0, 0.14, 0.35, 0.70, 1.41, 3.52, or 7.03 mM acrylamide in the drinking water (0, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, or 500 ppm acrylamide) or 0.0, 7.4, 18.5, 37, 74, 185, or 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet for 14 days. One male rat administered 7.03 mM acrylamide in the drinking water died on day 14. Male and female rats receiving 7.03 mM acrylamide weighed 56% and 64% of controls, respectively. Male and female rats fed 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet weighed 74% and 83% of controls, respectively. Female rats receiving 3.52 mM acrylamide in drinking water and male rats fed 185 mg acrylamide per kg diet weighed 85% and 89% of controls, respectively. Rats receiving 7.03 mM acrylamide in drinking water or 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet exhibited hind-leg paralysis on day 14. Mild to moderate dilatation of the urinary bladder was observed in all rats given 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet, and in three of four male rats and all four female rats given 7.03 mM acrylamide in drinking water, and in one of four male

  10. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  11. Effect of Diet on Metabolism of Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P. C.; Riskowski, G. L.; McKee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    In previous studies when rats were fed a processed, semipurified, extruded rodent food bar (RFB) developed for space science research, we noted a difference in the appearance of gastrointestinal tissue (GI); therefore the following study evaluated GI characteristics and growth and metabolic rates of rats fed chow (C) or RFB. Two hundred and twenty-four rats (78 g mean body weight) were randomly assigned to 28 cages and provided C or RFB. Each cage was considered the experimental unit and a 95 percent level of significance, indicated by ANOVA, was used for inference. After each 30-, 60-, and 90-day period, eight cages were shifted from the C to RFB diet and housing density was reduced by two rats per cage. The two rats removed from each cage were sacrificed and used for GI evaluation. Metabolic rates of the rats in each cage were determined by indirect calorimetry. No differences in body weight were detected at 0, 30, 60 or 90 days between C and RFB. Heat production (kcal/hr/kg), CO2 production (L/hr/kg) and O2 consumption (L/hr/kg) were different by light:dark and age with no effect of diet. Respiratory quotient was different by age with no effect of light:dark or diet. Rats on the C diet ate less food and drank more water than those on RFB. C rats produced more fecal and waste materials than the RFB. GI lengths increased with age but were less in RFB than C. GI full and empty weights increased with age but weighed less in RFB than C. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) numbers increased with age with no effect of diet. No differences in ileum-associated GALT area were detected between C and RFB. Switching C to RFB decreased GI length, GI full and empty weights, with no changes in GALT number or area. We concluded RFB decreased GI mass without affecting metabolic rate or general body growth.

  12. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dosed Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R

    1992-03-01

    Castor oil is a natural oil derived from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis. It is comprised largely of triglycerides with a high ricinolin content. Toxicity studies with castor oil were performed by incorporating the material at concentrations as high as 10% in diets given to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 13 weeks. Genetic toxicity studies also were performed and were negative for mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium, for induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and for induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice evaluated at the end of the 13-week studies. Exposure to castor oil at dietary concentrations as high as 10% in 13-week studies did not affect survival or body weight gains of rats or mice (10 per sex and dose). There were no biologically significant effects noted in hematologic analyses in rats. Mild increases in total bile acids and in serum alkaline phosphatase were noted at various times during the studies in rats receiving the higher dietary concentrations of castor oil. Liver weights were increased in male rats receiving the 10% dietary concentration and in male and female mice receiving diets containing 5% or 10% castor oil. However, there were no histopathologic lesions associated with these liver changes, nor were there any compound-related morphologic changes in any organ in rats or mice. No significant changes were noted in a screening for male reproductive endpoints, including sperm count and motility, and no changes were observed in the length of estrous cycles of rats or mice given diets containing castor oil. Thus, no significant adverse effects of castor oil administration were noted in these studies. Synonyms: Ricinus Oil, oil of Palma Christi, tangantangan oil, phorboyl, Neoloid.

  13. Feed intake of gilts following intracerebroventicular injection of the novel hypothalamic RFamide (RFa) neuropeptide, 26RFa

    Science.gov (United States)

    RFamide (RFa) peptides have been implicated in a broad spectrum of biological processes including energy expenditure and feed intake. 26RFa is a recently discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide that altered the release of pituitary hormones and stimulated feed intake via a NPY-specific mechanism in rat...

  14. High-rate nitrogen removal and its behavior of granular sequence batch reactor under step-feed operational strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chen; Wang, Yaqin; Wang, Yongjian; Lv, Junping; Li, Yaochen; Zhu, Jianrong

    2013-04-01

    Alternating anoxic/oxic (A/O) combined with the step-feed granular sequence batch reactor (step-feed SBR) was operated in laboratory scale to investigate nitrogen removal. The results showed that when the total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were 55 and 320 mg/L in the influent, the TIN removal efficiencies were 89.7-92.4% in the step-feed mode and 48.1-59.5% in the conventional alternating A/O single-feed mode within a 360 min cycle. The pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) were used to optimize the process of denitrification and nitrification in the step-feed mode. The optimized operational condition was achieved by shortening the cycle time to 207 min, resulting in a nitrogen removal rate of 0.27 kg N/m3 d, which was much higher than those achieved using activated sludge systems. The dominant community in the aerobic granules was coccus-like bacteria, and filamentous bacteria were hardly found. Granules were well maintained throughout the 90 days of continuous step-feed operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of birth weight and feeding system on fattening performance and feeding behaviour of Karayaka male lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yildirim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To determine effects of birth weight (BtW and feeding system on fattening performance and behavioural responses of lambs, after birth 28 Karayaka male lambs were divided into two BtW groups, namely a low BtW (4.1±0.06 kg and high BtW (5.0±0.09 kg. After weaning (90 days of age, seven lambs in each of these groups were fed individually ad libitum with total mixed ratio (TMR, consisted of 80% of a compound feed and 20% of roughage based on a dry matter basis (140 g crude protein and 2550 kcal ME/kg and the other seven lambs were fed on the same ingredients as that of TMR but each ingredient was put in separate troughs (free choice feeding, FCF. Therefore the lambs were distributed into four groups according to 2 (low vs high BtW × 2 (TMR vs FCF factorial design. Live weight gains and intakes of dry matter, feedstuffs and nutrients of the lambs were affected by the FCF, but not by the BtW and their interaction. The daily weight gain (P<0.01, intakes of soybean meal and corn (P<0.01, dry matter (P<0.05, protein and energy (P<0.01 of FCF-fed lambs were higher than those of TMR-fed lambs. FCF-fed lambs consumed less alfalfa hay, wheat bran and barley than TMR-fed lambs (P<0.01. The FCF increased rumination (P<0.01 and tend to rest more (P<0.05 compared to the TMR. The study suggests that FCF system can assist in enhancing the live weight gain by promoting the protein and energy intakes and by improving the welfare of lambs. 

  16. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double......-lumen duodenal perfusion/aspiration techniques over 6 hours. Subjects were assigned to no feeding (n = 7), duodenal feeding with a polymeric diet (n = 7) or low-fat elemental diet (n = 6), mid-distal jejunal feeding (n = 11), or intravenous feeding (n = 5). All diets provided 40 kcal/kg ideal body weight/d and 1...

  17. Stimulation of lateral hypothalamic kainate receptors selectively elicits feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettes, Stacey R; Heyming, Theodore W; Stanley, B Glenn

    2007-12-12

    Glutamate and its receptor agonists, NMDA, AMPA, and KA, elicit feeding when microinjected into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) of satiated rats. However, determining the relative contributions of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and KA receptors (KARs) to LH feeding mechanisms has been difficult due to a lack of receptor selective agonists and antagonists. Furthermore, LH injection of KA produces behavioral hyperactivity, questioning a role for KARs in feeding selective stimulation. In the present study, we used the KAR agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), which selectively binds the GluR5 subunit of KARs, to stimulate feeding, presumably via KAR activation. Using ATPA, we tested whether: (1) LH injection of ATPA elicits feeding, (2) prior treatment with the non-selective AMPA/KAR antagonist, CNQX, suppresses ATPA-elicited feeding, and (3) LH injection of ATPA elicits behavioral patterns specific for feeding. We found that injection of ATPA (0.1 and 1 nmol) elicited an intense feeding response (e.g., 4.8+/-1.6 g) that was blocked by LH pretreatment with CNQX, but was unaffected by pretreatment with the AMPAR selective antagonist, GYKI 52466. Furthermore, minute-by-minute behavioral analysis revealed that LH injection of ATPA increased time spent feeding to 55% of the initial test period with little or no effects on other behaviors at any time. In contrast, LH injection of KA similarly increased feeding but also produced intense locomotor activity. These data suggest that selective activation of LH KARs containing GluR5 subunit(s) is sufficient to elicit feeding.

  18. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L.; KITZINGER, Jenny; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  19. Permissive underfeeding versus target enteral feeding in adult critically ill patients (PermiT Trial: a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabi Yaseen M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional support is an essential part of the management of critically ill patients. However, optimal caloric intake has not been systematically evaluated. We aim to compare two strategies of enteral feeding: permissive underfeeding versus target feeding. Method/Design This is an international multi-center randomized controlled trial in critically ill medical- surgical adult patients. Using a centralized allocation, 862 patients will be randomized to permissive underfeeding or target feeding. Patients in the permissive group receive 50% (acceptable range is 40% to 60% of the calculated caloric requirement, while those in the targeted group receive 100% (acceptable range 70% to 100% of the calculated caloric requirement. The primary outcome is 90-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include ICU and hospital mortality, 28-day, and 180-day mortality as well as health care-associated infections, organ failure, and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. The trial has 80% power to detect an 8% absolute reduction in 90-day mortality assuming a baseline risk of death of 25% at an alpha level of 0.05. Discussion Patient recruitment started in November 2009 and is currently active in five centers. The Data Monitoring Committee advised continuation of the trial after the first interim analysis. The study is expected to finish by November 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68144998

  20. Neonatal caffeine exposure alters seizure susceptibility in rats in an age-related manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, R

    1995-10-27

    Early developmental exposure to caffeine in rats results in decreased susceptibility to certain chemically-induced seizures in the adult. To determine whether this effect first appears in adulthood or is present during preceding developmental stages, we exposed neonatal rats to caffeine and determined seizure thresholds in animals 28, 42 and 70-90 days of age. Rats were unhandled or received either vehicle (water) or caffeine (15-20 mg/kg/day) by gavage (0.05 ml/10 g) over postnatal days 2-6. At 28, 42, or 70-90 days of age, rats were infused intravenously with picrotoxin (PIC), bicuculline (BIC), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), caffeine (CAFF), strychnine (STR), or kainic acid (KA). Seizure thresholds for each compound were analyzed as a function of neonatal treatment, sex, and age. At 28 days, neonatally caffeine-exposed rats had a higher seizure threshold only for PTZ (P PIC (P < 0.0007) and PTZ (P < 0.0001) than did controls. These results at 28 and 42 days are compared with previously reported data that demonstrated that in adulthood, rats neonatally exposed to caffeine have higher thresholds for seizure induction with CAFF, PTZ, and KA. Thus, early developmental exposure to caffeine results in decreases in seizure susceptibility that are agent specific and may result in a delay in the decrease in seizure threshold that occurs for many agents between late juvenile ages and adulthood.

  1. Zebularine induces long-term survival of pancreatic islet allotransplants in streptozotocin treated diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrietta Nittby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coping with the immune rejection of allotransplants or autologous cells in patients with an active sensitization towards their autoantigens and autoimmunity presently necessitates life-long immune suppressive therapy acting on the immune system as a whole, which makes the patients vulnerable to infections and increases their risk of developing cancer. New technologies to induce antigen selective long-lasting immunosuppression or immune tolerance are therefore much needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The DNA demethylating agent Zebularine, previously demonstrated to induce expression of the genes for the immunosuppressive enzymes indolamine-2,3-deoxygenase-1 (IDO1 and kynureninase of the kynurenine pathway, is tested for capacity to suppress rejection of allotransplants. Allogeneic pancreatic islets from Lewis rats were transplanted under the kidney capsule of Fischer rats previously made diabetic by a streptozotocin injection (40 mg/kg. One group was treated with Zebularine (225 mg/kg daily for 14 days from day 6 or 8 after transplantation, and a control group received no further treatment. Survival of the transplants was monitored by blood sugar measurements. Rats, normoglycemic for 90 days after allografting, were subjected to transplant removal by nephrectomy to confirm whether normoglycemia was indeed due to a surviving insulin producing transplant, or alternatively was a result of recovery of pancreatic insulin production in some toxin-treated rats. Of 9 Zebularine treated rats, 4 were still normoglycemic after 90 days and became hyperglycemic after nephrectomy. The mean length of normoglycemia in the Zebularine group was 67±8 days as compared to 14±3 days in 9 controls. Seven rats (2 controls and 5 Zebularine treated were normoglycemic at 90 days due to pancreatic recovery as demonstrated by failure of nephrectomy to induce hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Zebularine treatment in vivo induces a long

  2. Comparative toxicity study on classical and modified version of Jawarish Jalinoos (a traditional Unani formulation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulam Mohammed Husain

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study demonstrates that the no observed adverse effect level of SFJJ and JJ is greater than 2024 mg/kg bw/d and 2000 mg/kg bw/d (p.o. in rats, respectively. Both formulations were found to be safe up to the tested dose levels and experimental conditions, and therefore safe for clinical use as specified in the literature.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Formation of the compensation answer in the system "lipid peroxidation - antioxidant protection" in rats with alimentary dislipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Iu K; Novgorodtseva, T P; Vitkina, T I; Lobanova, E G

    2011-01-01

    It is investigated conditions of system "lipid peroksidation - antioxidant protection" at rats of the line Wistar at prolonged formation alimentary dyslipidemia (DLP). It is established, that at formation DLP during 46 days in cells there was no increase in resistance and capacity of processes antioxidant protection. In prolonged DLP (90 days) was characterized by occurrence of the compensation-adaptive answer in the system "lipid peroksidation - antioxidant protection".

  5. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  6. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  7. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  8. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  9. [History of complementary feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D

    2010-12-01

    Complementary feeding, which embraces all solid and liquid foods other than breast milk or infant formula, is strongly influenced by cultural, familial and economic factors. For many times, there was a strong taboo on the use of colostrum ("the white blood") during the first week after delivery, sometimes even the first month. Therefore, the newborn baby received complementary foods as gruel, or panada. However, in the Greek civilization, wet nurses were asked by contract to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months and to start complementary feeding thereafter. From the sixteenth century onwards, many writers deplored the practice of giving gruel and panada during the first six months before the teeth erupted. In 1921, a Swedish pediatrician, Jundell, reported for the first time that starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age was associated with a better growth and resistance to infections. The recommendation of the World Health Organization to start complementary feeding after a 6-month period of exclusive breastfeeding is often in contradiction with the habits of the populations to propose very early other food sources than breast milk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  11. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  13. Zika Phase 1 Clinical Trial Material—From Research to Release in 90 Days | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 12 months, we’ve grown accustomed to seeing Zika in the news. The virus has been linked to thousands of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian babies. Numerous countries, including the United States, have reported Zika-related deaths. And

  14. Zika Phase I Clinical Trial Material—From Research to Release in 90 Days | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 12 months, we’ve grown accustomed to seeing Zika in the news. The virus has been linked to thousands of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian babies. Numerous countries, including the United States, have reported Zika-related deaths. And there is no vaccine available at this time. In the face of what has become a global health crisis, the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) responded to a call from Anthony Fauci, Ph.D., head, NIAID, to get a candidate vaccine into human trials by the summer of 2016.

  15. Zika Phase 1 Clinical Trial Material—From Research to Release in 90 Days | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 12 months, we’ve grown accustomed to seeing Zika in the news. The virus has been linked to thousands of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian babies. Numerous countries, including the United States, have reported Zika-related deaths. And

  16. NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-08-30

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

  17. Zika Phase I Clinical Trial Material—From Research to Release in 90 Days | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 12 months, we’ve grown accustomed to seeing Zika in the news. The virus has been linked to thousands of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian babies. Numerous countries, including the United States, have reported Zika-related deaths. And there is no vaccine available at this time. In the face of what has become a global health crisis, the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) responded to a call from Anthony Fauci, Ph.D., head, NIAID, to get a candidate vaccine into human trials by the summer of 2016.

  18. Cerebral cortex plasticity after 90 days of bed rest: data from TMS and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Donna R; Ramsey, David; Johnson, Kevin; Kola, Jejo; Ricci, Raffaella; Hicks, Christian; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Epstein, Charles; George, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Microgravity animal models have demonstrated corticospinal plasticity; however, little is understood of its functional significance. In this pilot study, we explored corticospinal plasticity in a bed rest model. We hypothesized that the lack of weight bearing would induce cortical reorganization correlating with performance. Four subjects underwent functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and functional mobility testing (FMT) before and after 90 d of bed rest. Recruitment curves (RC) were created by measuring motor evoked potentials over a range of TMS intensities with changes in the slope of the RC reflecting changes in corticospinal excitability. Significant leg RC slope decreases were observed on post-bed rest day 1 (P1) (t(2805) = -4.14, P < 0.0001), P2 (t(2805) = -6.59, P < 0.0001), P3 (t(2805) = -6.15, P < 0.0001), P5 (t(2805) = -7.93, P <0.0001), P8 (t(2805) = -3.30, P = 0.001), and P12 (t(2805)= -3.33, P = 0.0009), suggesting a group decrease in corticospinal excitability in the immediate post-bed rest period with recovery approaching baseline over the following 2 wk. Significant effects were observed for hand RC slopes only for P2 (t(2916) = 1.97, P = 0.049), P3 (t(2916) = -2.12, P = 0.034), and P12 (t(2916) = -2.19, P = 0.029); no significant effects were observed for days P0 (t(2916) = -1.32, ns), P1 (t(2916) = 1.00, ns), P5 (t(2916) = -0.21, ns), or P8 (t(2916) = -0.27, ns). fMRI showed no change in activation for the hand but an increase in activation post-bed rest for the leg. On an individual basis, a more heterogeneous response was found which showed a potential association with performance on FMT. Results of this research include a better understanding of the cortical plasticity associated with leg disuse and may lead to applications in patient and astronaut rehabilitation.

  19. 546 Meat quality of Suffolk and Bergamasca lambs slaughtered at 90 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty lambs, 10 Suffolk (S e 10 Bergamasca (B born from single (SI and twin type of birth (TW, were employed. Lambs fed the same diet. Chemical-physical analysis were performed on raw Longissimus lumborum (LL. B showed the lowest cooked loss on cooked LL, the highest value of a* and b* on raw meat. As regard fatty acid composition, LL of B showed the highest saturated fatty acids and the lowest value of polyunsaturated acids. Twin subjects showed raw meat with the lowest value of ether extract and with a healthy fatty acid composition.

  20. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... displaying each type of lesion. (ii) When applicable, all observed results, qualitative and quantitative... obtained by acute testing. The subchronic oral study has been designed to permit the determination of the... be used throughout the duration of the study and the research sample should be stored under...

  1. Evaluation of the 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity of Petroleum and Oil Shale JP-5 Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    report. Current Address: G. B. Baskin Delta Primate Research Center Covington, LA M. J. Cowan, Jr. Physiological Research Laboratories Division of...0) 0/47 (0) pheochromocytoma 4/50 (8) 4/50 (8) 8/50 (16) 1/50 (2) 0/50 (0) 8/47 ( 1 7 )b Lymphoreticular Thymus - thymoma 0/17 (0) 0/16 (0) 0/18 (0...1/50 (2) pheochromocytoma 3/44 (7) 1/45 (2) 1/47 (2) 0/49 (0) 1/50 (2) 3/50 (6) Uterus - carcinoma 1/44 (2) 1/44 (2) 0/44 (0) 2/47 (4) 5/50 (10) 5/48

  2. Imprinting Analysis of the Porcine MEST Gene in 75 and 90 Day Placentas and Prenatal Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenchang XU; Lijie SU; Quanyong ZHOU; Changchun LI; Shuhong ZHAO

    2007-01-01

    Imprinted genes play important roles in mammalian growth, development and behavior. Mouse mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST) has been identified as an imprinted gene and mapped to an imprinted region of mouse chromosome 6 (MMU6). It plays essential roles in embryonic and placental growth, and it is required for maternal behavior in adult female mouse. Here, we isolated the porcine MEST gene and detected a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region. The RsaI polymorphism was used to investigate the allele frequencies in different pig breeds and the imprinting status in prenatal porcine tissues.Allele frequencies were significantly different between the native Chinese and Landrace breeds, except that most of the native Yushan pigs (21/26) are heterozygous at this locus. The results indicate that MEST was imprinted in placentas on days 75 and 90 of gestation as well as in the 75 d fetal heart, muscle, kidney, lung and liver.

  3. Evaluation of 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity of Petroleum and Oil Shale Diesel Fuel Marine (DFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    and platelets found in humans after long-term exposure to benzene at high concentrations (Greenberg et al., 1939; Hardy and Elkins, 1948; Aksoy et al...ileum, kidneys, larynx, liver, lungs and bronchi, mammary gland, mesenteric and mandibular lymph nodes, nasal cavity, ovaries, pancreas, parathyroids...0 /3$(0)b 12/42(29) ?/44(16) 16/45(36) Fibroadenoma 1/36(3) 0/35(0) 0/33(0) 0/43(0) 3/44(7) 4/45(9) Cardiovascular Myocardial fibrosis/ degeneration

  4. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed intake is ... apportionment of consumed energy towards protein and ..... alia, genetic potential for protein deposition and its ... The content and dietary balance of feed nutrients, such as ...

  5. The effects of fluoride on testicular cell cycle and cell apoptosis of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张筱文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of fluoride on testicular cell cycle and cell apoptosis of male rats.Methods Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats,weighting 150-180 g,were randomly divided into 4 groups by body weight using random number table,normal sodium(control),the low-dose,medium-dose and high-dose groups(100,200,300 mg·kg-1·d-1Na F,respectively)by intragastric administration for 90 days,and bodyweight

  6. The basolateral amygdala mediates the effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Galarce, Ezequiel M.; McDannald, Michael A; Holland, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows that environmental cues that signal food delivery when rats are food-deprived can substantially potentiate feeding later when rats are food-sated. Similarly, cues associated with meal interruption, food removal or impending food scarcity may also induce increased eating. For example, after learning the association between a discrete “interruption” stimulus and the unexpected termination of food trials, sated rats show enhanced food consumption when exposed to that ...

  7. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  8. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal’s production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by­products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken. PMID:28507415

  9. The Effect of Apple Feeding on Markers of Colon Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreve......Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially...... chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple...... but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended...

  10. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly distributed diurnal feeding patterns. However, differences in feeding patterns resulting from feed presentation did not persist after 8 wk of age, when all calves were fed a mixed ration. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  12. Live feeds in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, Ph.; Sorgeloos, P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two decades intensive larviculture of several fish and shellfish species has expanded into a multimillion dollar industry. Although much progress has been made in identifying the dietary requirements of the larvae of various aquaculture species, the mass culture of their early larval stages still requires the use of live feeds. Selected either through trial and error approaches or because of their convenience in mass production and use, hatcheries are relying today on three grou...

  13. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  14. Residual Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz, Roberto D.; Paulino, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Low rates of return on investment for livestock operations are a fact of life. Producers have little impact on the market price for their cattle; therefore management must be focused on the things producers can actually do something about. For many years, genetic selection programs have focused on production (output) traits, with little attention given to production costs (inputs). Recently, this view has begun to change, and the efficiency of conversion of feed (i.e., t...

  15. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk, vi...

  16. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network....

  17. Food Safety Information RSS feed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is an RSS Feed of Food Safety information that’s produced in real-time by the CDC. This RSS feed is the integration of two other XML feeds, one from the USDA's...

  18. Modulatory role of chelating agents in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Mahmoud

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pretreatment of hypercholesterolemic rats with simvastatin, CaNa2EDTA or DMSA attenuated most of the changes induced by feeding rats with cholesterol-rich diet owing to their observed anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties.

  19. Multiple part feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design/methodology/approach - Th......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design....../methodology/approach - The necessary AIMM technologies exist at a mature level - the reason that no mobile manipulators have yet been implemented in industrial environments, is that research in the right applications have not been carried out. We propose a pragmatic approach consisting of: a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile...... manipulator system design ("Little Helper"), a suitable and comprehensive industrial application (multiple part feeding), and a general implementation concept for industrial environments (the "Bartender Concept"). Findings - Results from the three days of real-world demonstration show that "Little Helper...

  20. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubaczeuski, C.; Balbo, S.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Vettorazzi, J.F.; Santos-Silva, J.C.; Carneiro, E.M. [Laboratório de Pâncreas Endócrino e Metabolismo, Departamento de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bonfleur, M.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2015-02-24

    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats.

  1. Morphological changes induced by testosterone in the mammary glands of female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambô-Filho A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of androgens in postmenopausal women are considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Testosterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, induces epithelial dysplasia and mammary tumors in Noble rats. Since this model of hormone-induced neoplasia has not been reported in other rat strains, we studied the effect of testosterone on the mammary gland morphology of female Wistar rats. Sixty adult, non-castrated, female Wistar rats were implanted in the dorsum midline with a silicone tube containing 50 mg testosterone (testosterone propionate in 30 animals and non-esterified testosterone in the remaining 30 animals and 20 additional animals were implanted with empty tubes and used as control. Five animals per group were killed 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after implantation, and the mammary glands were dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and picrosyrius red for collagen visualization. Morphological and morphometric analysis demonstrated ductal proliferation and acinotubular differentiation with secretory activity in all treated animals, peaking at 90 days of androgen exposure. After 90 days the proliferation of acinar epithelial cells was evident, but there was a progressive reduction of secretory differentiation and an increase in intralobular collagen fibers. There was no morphological evidence of dysplastic changes or other pre-neoplastic lesions. Testosterone treatment applied to adult, non-castrated female Wistar rats induced a mammary gland hyperplasia resembling the lactating differentiation, with progressive reduction in secretory differentiation.

  2. 哺乳期过度喂养对断乳后大鼠胃组织脑肠肽生长激素释放肽及血清瘦素水平的影响%Effect of Over - Feeding during Lactation Period on Expressions of Ghrelin in Gastric Tissue and Leptin in Serum in Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳华; 侯淼; 祝丽珺; 郭梅; 张丽; 李晓南

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察哺乳期过度喂养大鼠断乳后胃组织脑肠肽生长激素释放肽(Ghrelin)表达和循环中瘦素(Leptin)水平的变化,探讨早期过度喂养导致成年期代谢综合征的病理生理机制.方法 应用SD大鼠模型,雄仔出生后分为正常喂养组(NF组,每窝10只)和哺乳期过度喂养组(OF组,每窝3只).出生3周断乳,均给予正常饮食.ELISA法及放射免疫分析法分别测定其血清Leptin、Ghrelin及胰岛素水平,实时定量PCR及免疫组织化学测定其胃组织Ghrehn mRNA和蛋白表达水平.结果 OF组大鼠从出生第2周起体质量持续显著高于NF组(P<0.05),并在16周时出现糖耐量受损,胰岛素水平显著增加(P<0.05).NF组和OF组血清Leptin水平自青春期迅速增加,第4周起,OF组epti水平显著高于NF组(F=7.94,P<0.05),血清Ghrelin在各时间点上均无组间差异(Pa>0.05).NF组和OF组胃组织Ghrelin mRNA的表达均随年龄逐渐增加,在8周时达高峰(P<0.05),但2组间在各个时间点上差异均无统计学意义(Pa>0.05).免疫组织化学显示Ghrelin阳性细胞面积的变化趋势同mRNA表达基本一致.结论 大鼠哺乳期过度喂养可导致其成年期肥胖和胰岛素抵抗.哺乳期过度喂养对大鼠胃组织Ghrelin表达和分泌无明显影响,但血清kptin水平持续升高,长期食欲调控的抵抗和代谢失衡可能参与成年期肥胖和代谢紊乱的发生.%Objective To observe the effects of over - feeding during lactation period on the ghrelin expression and leptin levels in gastric tissue and serum,and explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome induced by over - feeding. Methods Male Sprague - Dawley rats pup litters were adjusted to litter sizes of 10 rats( normal feeding group, NF group) or 3 rats( over - feeding group, OF group) in postnatal day 3,and then standard chow was given after weaning(postnatal day 21 ). Serum hormones insulin was assayed by specific radioimmunoas-say, leptin and

  3. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  4. The Inhibitory Effect of Long-term Feeding with Marine Collagen Peptide on the Spontaneous Tumor of Sprague-dawley Rat%海洋胶原肽长期喂养对SD大鼠自发肿瘤的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁江; 裴新荣; 王楠; 张召锋; 王军波; 李勇

    2011-01-01

    为探讨海洋胶原肽(MCP)对自然衰老过程中自发肿瘤的影响,选用4周龄初断乳sD大鼠,雌雄各半,随机分为四个组,分别在空白标准饲料的基础上添加0%、2.25%、4.5%和9%MCP进行终生喂养,并对各组自发肿瘤的发生情况和生存时间进行观察。结果表明,MCP干预组雌雄sD大鼠自发肿瘤率有一定程度的下降,其中雌性9%干预组、雄性4.5%和9%干预组与对照组的差异具有显著性。各组乳腺肿瘤潜伏期及生长时间没有显著的组间差异,而2.25%与4.5%MCP雌性干预组乳腺肿瘤的体积与对照组相比显著减小;雌雄9%MCP干预%To observe the effect of long-term feeding marine collagen peptide on the incidence and development of the spontaneous tumor, Sprague-Dawley rats at the age of 4-week were divided into the control group and three experimental groups. Control rats were fed with standard rat diet and the MCP-treated rats were fed with 2.25% ,4.5% and 9% (wt/wt) MCP throughout the lifespan. The results showed that the spontaneous tumor incidence of MCP-treated rats were obviously decreased compared with the control rats, with significance in the 9% MCP-treated female group and the 4.5% and 9% MCP-treated male groups; the long-term administration of MCP did not affect the palpable time and growth time of mammary gland tumor and the final volume of mammary gland tumor of the 2.25% and 4. 5% MCP-treated groups were significantly decreased compared with the control group; the lifespan of tumor-bearing rats in the MCP-treated groups were prolonged, with significance in the 9% MCP-treated groups; compared to the control group, the incidence of death from tumors was decreased in MCP-treated groups in comparison with the control group of both sexes. In conclusion, the long-term administration of MCP might have some inhibitory effect on the incidence and the development of spontaneous tumor.

  5. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  6. Effects of a single high dose of Chlorpyrifos in long-term feeding, ethanol consumption and ethanol preference in male Wistar rats with a previous history of continued ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Francisca; Sanchez-Amate, Maria Del Carmen; Lerma-Cabrera, José Manuel; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2014-06-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate compound that is slowly delivered in the organism after subcutaneous injection, keeping acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity mildly inhibited for weeks. We have previously reported reduced voluntary ethanol drinking 8 weeks post-CPF administration in Wistar rats when AChE activity was almost completely recovered. Additionally, the OPs disrupt the functioning of certain neurochemical systems and modify the formation and/or degradation of some neuropeptides with a known role in regulating voluntary consumption of alcohol. Moreover, chronic ethanol intake significantly alters the regional expression of some of these neurochemical systems. Thus, the present study explored whether a previous history with ethanol consumption modify the disturbance in the voluntary ethanol consumption induced by CPF administration. For this aim, we measured ethanol consumption in increasing concentrations (8%, 15% and 20% w/v) from 4 days to 8 weeks following a single dose of CPF. Two experiments were carried out; experiment 1 was conducted in ethanol-naïve rats and experiment 2, in animals with a previous history of ethanol drinking before CPF administration. Additionally, food and body weight measures were collected. We report here a significant increase in ethanol consumption and preference at high ethanol concentrations (15% and 20%) in CPF-treated animals with a previous history of ethanol consumption (experiment 1) and a long-lasting increase in food intake both in ethanol-exposed (experiment 1) and ethanol-naïve CPF-treated rats (experiment 2). Present data are discussed under the interesting idea that CPF targets neurobiological pathways critically involved with ethanol consumption. Additionally, we conclude that CPF effects on voluntary ethanol consumption are ethanol-experience dependent.

  7. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child.

  8. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children What are ... children with feeding and swallowing disorders ? What are feeding and swallowing disorders? Feeding disorders include problems gathering ...

  9. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How To Feed Your Baby Either breast- or bottle-feeding works well for babies with heart problems, but ... do best with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is ...

  10. Re-feeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadaba, A; Paine, J; Adlard, R; Dilkes, M

    2001-09-01

    The effect of a therapeutically administered high calorie diet in a severely malnourished patient is discussed in this case report. In patients with advanced head and neck cancer prolonged periods of malnutrition prior to admission are frequently encountered. This case report highlights the need to constantly monitor the electrolyte and vitamin levels during the early stages of instituting enteral or parenteral nutrition. By vigilant monitoring and a high index of suspicion re-feeding syndrome or severe hypophosphataemia and its associated complications can be avoided.

  11. Feeding the Beast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Anders; Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of fear, we argue, this predisposes people to vote for anti-immigration parties. Our analysis highlights the position of anti-immigration parties; hence, the Sweden Democrats (SD) in Sweden and the Danish People’s Party (DPP) in Denmark. We use frame analysis to detect recurrent frames in the media debate...... as such plays a similar role and provides the DPP with an identity. We conclude that we are confronted with a two-faced beast that feeds on perceptions of the people as ultimately afraid of what are not recognized as native goods....

  12. Food and feed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  13. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  14. Subchronic oral toxicity study on the three flavouring substances: octan-3-ol, 2-methylcrotonic acid and oct-3-yl 2-methylcrotonate in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R. H.; Mølck, A. M.; Poulsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered 0, 25, 100 or 400 mg octan-3-ol/kg body weight per day, 77 mg 2-methylcrotonic acid/kg body weight per day or 163 mg oct-3-yl 2-methylcrotonate/kg body weight per day by gavage for 90 days. Relative liver weights of high-dose octan-3-ol males...

  15. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  16. Oxytocin, feeding and satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy eSabatier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.

  17. INCREASING OF FALL RYE CORN FEEDING VALUE BY HYDROBARATHERNAL TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The results of production experience on hydrobarathernal treatment fall rye grain feeding are presented in the article. It is determined that ater high temperature and pressure impact on fall rye grain in aqueous media dextrinization of starch specifically amylopectin occurs to monosugar in the form of glucose, therewith, sugar content increases more than in twice in comparison with parent grain. It is revealed that replacement of milled corn grain mixture to fall rye grain hydrolyzate in rat...

  18. HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAT MYOCARDIUM IN CADMIUM TOXICOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on lungs, testicles and prostate are well known, so as cumulative and toxic effects on kidney, liver and bones; however, there have not been many published articles about the effects of cadmium on myocardium. The aim of this study was to estimate the morphological changes in rat myocardium chronically treated by cadmium. The study was carried out on male albino Wistar rats (n=30, age=35-37 days, body mass 120g +/- 10g. The animals were raised in controlled laboratory conditions and provided with standard laboratory rat food and tap water ad libitum. The rats were divided into two groups: ten animals composed the control group and did not undergo any treatment. The 20 experimental rats were exposed to 10mg of CdCl2 /L drinking water for 90 days. After 90 days, all animals were victimized and after the macroscopic inspection of the heart, myocardial tissue was routinely processed and embedded in paraffin. Sections 5 micrometers thick were stained by HE method and histochemical PAS-AB (pH 2, 5, Masson trichrome method for demonstrating collagen fibers and Toluidine blue for mast cells identification. Cross-striated banding pattern of cardiac cells was ruined. Noticeable atrophy and hydropic degeneration of subendocardial localized cardiac cells were found, with the focal presence of myocytolysis. Endothelial cell hyperplasia and edema of the intima were present on arteriolar type blood vessels causing the focal subocclusion. Fibrocytes, histiocytes and mast cells were numerous, perivascularly localized. Mast cells were polymorphic, larger than normal, oval and mostly degranulated. Instead of scanty endomysium, there is a noticeable interstitial fibrillar fibrosis with few fields of collagen in all myocardium layers between cardiac cells, which is particularly prominent around the larger blood vessels. Cadmium has pronounced vasculotropic properties causing morphological changes of cardiomyocytes, myocardial

  19. Enhanced post-ischemic neurogenesis in aging rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Fang Tan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis persists in adult mammals, but its rate declines dramatically with age. Evidence indicates that experimentally-reduced levels of neurogenesis (e.g. by irradiation in young rats has profound influence on cognition as determined by learning and memory tests. In the present study we asked whether in middle-aged, 10-13 months old rats, cell production can be restored towards the level present in young rats. To manipulate neurogenesis we induced bilateral carotid occlusion with hypotension. This procedure is known to increase neurogenesis in young rats, presumably in a compensatory manner, but until now, has never been tested in aging rats. Cell production was measured at 10, 35 and 90 days after ischemia. The results indicate that neuronal proliferation and differentiation can be transiently restored in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, the effects are more pronounced in the dorsal as opposed to ventral hippocampus thus restoring the dorso-ventral gradient seen in younger rats. Our results support previous findings showing that some of the essential features of the age-dependent decline in neurogenesis are reversible. Thus, it may be possible to manipulate neurogenesis and improve learning and memory in old age.

  20. Meal-feeding scheme: twenty years of research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Bazotte

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Shinomiya Hell was the first researcher to investigate the physiological adaptations to a meal-feeding scheme (MFS in Brazil. Over a period of 20 years, from 1979 to 1999, Naomi's group determined the physiological and metabolic adaptations induced by this feeding scheme in rats. The group showed the persistence of such adaptations even when MFS is associated with moderate exercise training and the performance to a session of intense physical effort. The metabolic changes induced by the feeding training were discriminated from those caused by the effective fasting period. Naomi made an important contribution to the understanding of the MFS but a lot still has to be done. One crucial question still remains to be satisfactorily answered: what is the ideal control for the MFS?

  1. Polymethylmethacrylate dermal fillers: evaluation of the systemic toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, C C G; Borghetti, R L; Nicoletti, N; da Silva, V D; Cherubini, K; Salum, F G; de Figueiredo, M A Z

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated local and systemic reactions after an intravascular injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) at two concentrations in a murine model. Thirty rats were divided equally into three groups: 2% PMMA, 30% PMMA, and a control group (normal saline only injection). The filler was injected into the ranine vein. The rats were sedated at 7 and 90 days and a clinical evaluation performed. After euthanasia, the right lung, liver, and right kidney were removed, weighed, and microscopically analyzed. The submandibular lymph nodes and tongue were removed and examined microscopically. Serum was subjected to liver and kidney function tests. No groups showed clinical alterations. Microspheres were not observed at any distant organ. Two samples from the 2% PMMA group showed a local inflammatory response at day 7 and another two samples from the 30% PMMA group at day 90. The group injected with 30% PMMA presented higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.047) after 90 days when compared with the other groups. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that intravascular injections of PMMA fillers show potential health risks such as chronic inflammation at the implantation site.

  2. Chlorpyrifos induced testicular damage in rats: ameliorative effect of glutathione antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Eman E; Yahia, Doha; El-Nisr, Neveen A

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testes of adult rats exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF). CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days, twice weekly. Coadministration of water-soluble nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) was performed in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase and GSH reductase were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased in the testicular tissues of the exposed animals. Testosterone level in the serum was significantly decreased. A decrease in the histochemical determination of testicular alkaline phosphatase was observed in CPF-treated rats. A significant decrease in all stages of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules was recorded in the exposed animals. Coadministration of GSH restored these parameters.

  3. Chlorpyrifos -induced testicular damage in rats: The effect of glutathione antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. El-Nisr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available   This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testis of adult rat exposed to Chlorpyriphos (CPF. CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days/ twice/ weekly. Co- administration of water soluble non enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH was given in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, oral, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased in the testicular tissues of the exposed animals. Testosterone hormone level in the serum was significantly decreased. The decrease in the histochemical determination of testicular alkaline phosphatase was observed in CPF-treated rats. A significant decrease in all stages of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules was recorded in the exposed animals. Co-dministration of GSH restored these parameters.

  4. Behavior, physiology, and energy deposition in rats chronically exposed to 2450-MHz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Andrea, J.A.; Gandhi, O.P.

    1987-11-01

    The research program was initiated to determine both the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the behavioral and physiological consequences of chronic c-w microwave radiation exposure at 2450 MHz in the laboratory rat. Whole-body average and local SARs at discrete sites within the body of rats and mice were determined experimentally using different exposure systems and analytical techniques. The whole-body average SAR and the distribution of SAR within the body depends on a variety of factors: type of exposure system, polarization of the field, size of the animal, and angle of radiation incident on the body. Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of chronic exposure to 2450-MHz microwave radiation on several measures of rat behavior and physiology. Groups of rats were exposed intermittently to 2450-MHz radiation at power densities of 0.5 mW/sq. cm. or 2.5 mW/sq. cm. for 90 days.

  5. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and different ATPases by a novel phosphorothionate (RPR-II) in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K; Jamil, K

    2000-10-01

    A novel phosphorothionate (2-butenoic acid-3-(diethoxy phosphinothioyl)-methyl ester (RPR-II), synthesized at the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, targets its effect on rat brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Na(+)-K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) ATPases, as evident in this investigation. Three subchronic doses 0.014 (low), 0.028 (medium), and 0.042 (high) mg kg(-1) were administered to rats daily for a period of 90 days RPR-II caused statistically significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition in brain AChE and also in Na(+)-K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) ATPases in both male and female rats after 45 and 90 days of treatment. The low dose was generally insignificant while the medium and high doses were significantly effective. Females were more susceptible than males with regard to brain AChE, Na(+)-K(+), and Mg(2+) ATPases, which indicates sexual dimorphism in the treated rats. Interestingly, after 28 days post-treatment, recovery of these enzymes was observed. The relative sensitivities of these enzymes indicated that brain AChE was more sensitive than any of the ATPases, but among the ATPases Na(+)-K(+) ATPase was more susceptible than Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) ATPases. This compound, besides inhibiting the target of organophosphates, AChE, also inhibited different ATPases, suggesting both synaptic transmission and nerve conduction were affected.

  6. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    The transition period from late gestation to early lactation is rather short, but it is nonetheless of major importance for the productivity of high-prolific sows. The transition period, here defined as the last 10 d of gestation and the first 10 d of lactation, encompasses substantial changes...... for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  7. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati...

  8. The identification of a novel phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, 1-ethyl-5-{5-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}-N-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-amine (EPPA-1), with improved therapeutic index using pica feeding in rats as a measure of emetogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T Gregg; Peterson, John J; Kou, Jen-Pyng; Capper-Spudich, Elizabeth A; Ball, Doug; Nials, Anthony T; Wiseman, Joanne; Solanke, Yemisi E; Lucas, Fiona S; Williamson, Richard A; Ferrari, Livia; Wren, Paul; Knowles, Richard G; Barnette, Mary S; Podolin, Patricia L

    2009-09-01

    Clinical utility of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents has, to date, been limited by adverse effects including nausea and emesis, making accurate assessment of emetic versus anti-inflammatory potencies critical to the development of inhibitors with improved therapeutic indices. In the present study we determined the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potencies of the first-generation PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram, the second-generation inhibitors, roflumilast and cilomilast, and a novel third generation inhibitor, 1-ethyl-5-{5-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}-N-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-amine (EPPA-1). The rank-order potency against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was roflumilast (IC(50) = 5 nM) > EPPA-1 (38) > rolipram (269) > cilomilast (389), and against LPS-induced pulmonary neutrophilia in the rat was EPPA-1 (D(50) = 0.042 mg/kg) > roflumilast (0.24) > rolipram (3.34) > cilomilast (4.54). Pica, the consumption of non-nutritive substances in response to gastrointestinal stress, was used as a surrogate measure for emesis, giving a rank-order potency of rolipram (D(50) = 0.495 mg/kg) > roflumilast (1.6) > cilomilast (6.4) > EPPA-1 (24.3). The low and high emetogenic activities of EPPA-1 and rolipram, respectively, detected in the pica model were confirmed in a second surrogate model of emesis, reversal of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated anesthesia in the mouse. The rank order of therapeutic indices derived in the rat [(pica D(50))/(neutrophilia D(50))] was EPPA-1 (578) > roflumilast (6.4) > cilomilast (1.4) > rolipram (0.15), consistent with the rank order derived in the ferret [(emesis D(50))/(neutrophilia D(50))]. These data validate rat pica feeding as a surrogate for PDE4 inhibitor-induced emesis in higher species, and identify EPPA-1 as a novel PDE4 inhibitor with an improved therapeutic index.

  9. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    challenging for larval rearing. After the start of exogenous feeding, another intense and likely critical period of change occurs in the early life stages of fish. This stage is the metamorphosis, during which the larvae transform organs and body morphology to become juveniles. Compared to other teleosts...... metamorphosis in flatfish species is often unsuccessful, resulting in different types of abnormal development. The objective of this thesis was to analyse the feeding behaviour of the flatfish species turbot (Psetta maxima L.) larvae during the two crucial life periods, 1) first feeding and 2) metamorphosis....... To analyse whether these two periods are critical for the correct development and survival of turbot, feeding behaviours of larvae during the period of first feeding and during the first stages of metamorphosis was studied using video recordings. This provided qualitative and quantitative descriptions...

  10. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  11. A toxicological safety assessment of a standardized extract of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin®) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Timothy S; Hirka, Gábor; Szakonyiné, Ilona Pasics; Gericke, Nigel; Endres, John R

    2014-12-01

    A well-characterized standardized hydroethanolic extract of a traditionally recognized mak (mild) variety of Sceletium tortuosum, a South African plant with a long history of traditional ingestion, is marketed under the trade name Zembrin(®) as an ingredient for use in functional foods and dietary supplements. It is standardized to contain 0.35-0.45% total alkaloids (mesembrenone and mesembrenol ≥60%, and mesembrine <20%). A 14-day repeated oral toxicity study was conducted at 0, 250, 750, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg bw/day. A 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study was conducted at 0, 100, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg bw/day. Because S. tortuosum has a long history of human use for relieving stress and calming, a functional observation battery, including spontaneous locomotor activity measured using LabMaster ActiMot light-beam frames system, was employed. Several parameters, such as locomotion, rearing behavior, spatial parameters, and turning behavior were investigated in the final week of the study. No mortality or treatment-related adverse effects were observed in male or female Crl:(WI)BR Wistar rats in the 14- or 90-day studies. In the 14- and 90-day studies, the NOAELs were concluded as 5000 and 600 mg/kg bw/d, respectively, the highest dose groups tested.

  12. Microarray analysis of transcripts with elevated expressions in the rat medial or lateral habenula suggest fast GABAergic excitation in the medial habenula and habenular involvement in the regulation of feeding and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franziska; Bernard, René; Derst, Christian; French, Leon; Veh, Rüdiger W

    2016-12-01

    In vertebrates the "anti-reward-system" mainly is represented by the habenula and its medial (MHb) and especially lateral (LHb) complexes. Considerable knowledge has accumulated concerning subnuclear structures and connectivities of MHb and LHb subnuclei. The present investigation aimed to obtain novel information, whether MHb or LHb or their subnuclei display field-characteristic gene products, which may shed light on biological functions of these areas. Unfortunately this was not the case. Microarray analysis of mRNAs in microdissected habenular and thalamic control areas yielded expression values of 17,745 RNAs representing protein-coding genes, to which annotated gene names could be assigned. High relative values of genes with known expression in MHb, LHb or thalamus in the corresponding areas indicated a high precision of the microdissection procedure. Note that the present report emphasizes differences between and not absolute expression values in the selected regions. The present investigation disclosed that the LHb genetically is much closer related to the thalamus as compared to the MHb. The results presented here focuse on gene transcripts related to major transmitter systems, catecholamines and neuropeptides. Quite surprisingly, our data indicate potentially inhibitory effects of acetylcholine and glutamate in the habenula. In addition, the absence of the K-Cl co-transporter 2 supports a largely excitatory role of GABAergic transmission especially in the MHb. Furthermore, several G-protein related receptors (Gpr83, Gpr139, Gpr149, Gpr151, Gpr158) and many neuropeptides related to feeding are differentially expressed in the habenular region, indicating that its involvement in the regulation of food consumption and energy expenditure may have been underestimated so far.

  13. Methylmercury chloride induces learning deficits in prenatally treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muesch, H.R.; Bornhausen, M.; Kriegel, H.; Greim, H.

    1978-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride (MMC) was given to pregnant rats on the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th day after conception in doses of 0.05 and 2.0 mg/kg/day. The female offspring of these animals were tested 90 days after birth for learning ability using operant conditioning procedures. The rats were kept at 90% of their normal body weight and trained in a lever-box to press a bar in order to obtain a food pellet. Significant differences in the acquisition speed became apparent when the ratio of bar presses to reward was increased in a classical contingency of differential reinforcement of high rates even at MMC-doses of 4 x 0.05 mg/kg. These differences were not found in the general motility level nor in motor coordination.

  14. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  15. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Kasiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW, dried Tubifex (DT, dried Gammarus (DG and prepared granulated feed (PGF, twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI, fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested.

  16. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid to n-3 LCPUFA and expression of PPAR-alpha, acyl Coenzyme A oxidase 1 and carnitine acyl transferase I are incremented after feeding rats with α-linolenic acid-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys; Gormaz, Juan Guillermo; D'Espessailles, Amanda; Espinosa, Alejandra; Masson, Lilia; Varela, Patricia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Valenzuela, Rodrigo

    2012-07-01

    High dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids may generate health disorders, such as cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Fish consumption rich in n-3 fatty acids is low in Latin America, it being necessary to seek other alternatives to provide α-linolenic acid (ALA), precursor of n-3 LCPUFA (EPA and DHA). Two innovative oils were assayed, chia (Salvia hispanica) and rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa). This study evaluated hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, expression of PPAR-α, acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I), and accumulation of EPA and DHA in plasma and adipose tissue in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three experimental groups were fed 21 days: sunflower oil (SFO, control); chia oil (CO); rosa mosqueta oil (RMO). Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids from plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and TLC. Expression of PPAR-α (RT-PCR) and ACOX1 and CAT-I (Western blot). CO and RMO increased plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p < 0.05, One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test). CO increased levels of ALA and EPA compared to RMO (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for DHA levels. CO also increased the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I. Only CAT-I levels were increased by RO. CO and RMO may be a nutritional alternative to provide ALA for its bioconversion to EPA and DHA, and to increase the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I, especially CO-oil.

  17. Honey improves lipid profile of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Nurmasitoh

    2016-04-01

    Honey supplementation was able to reduce the blood levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Honey supplementation accompanied by non-cholesterol feeds could more effectively lower total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL serum levels in Wistar rats.

  18. 链脲佐菌素联合高脂饲养诱导2型糖尿病大鼠模型的稳定性及其眼病特点%Stability of a rat model of type 2 diabetic mellitus induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat feeding and its eye disease characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 郑石磊; 刘学政

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Streptozotocin-induced diabetic ophthalmopathy is commonly used in animal models, but the pathological changes are local that mainly emphasize on the retina. Little evidence is found about the animal models of the pathology of diabetic ophthalmopathy. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the long-term stability of type 2 diabetic melitus rat models induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat feeding and to observe the characteristics of eye disease. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into control group and diabetes group. Control group was given normal feeding, while diabetes group was given intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin combined with high-fat feeding to establish diabetic models. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with the control group, at 1 month after modeling, the fasting blood glucose levels increased, and the insulin sensitivity index decreased in the diabetic group (P < 0.05). Evans blue staining results showed that, at 3 months after modeling, retinal cel lesions exacerbated in the diabetic group; at 5 months after modeling, retinal blood vessels traveled in circuity and disorderly, accompanied by the leakage in the diabetic group, Evans blue content in the retina increased as the time after modeling went by (P < 0.05). Under transmission electron microscopy, at 5 months after modeling, the eye lenses in the diabetes group were flocculent pieces, which were the typical characteristics of cataract. Experimental findings indicate that the rat model of type 2 diabetic melitus induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat feeding has a long-term stability, and its eye changes are consistent with the characteristics of diabetic ophthalmopathy. Therefore, it is an ideal animal model for diabetic ophthalmopathy.%背景:目前链脲佐菌素诱导糖尿病眼病动物模型的研究较为常见,但其病理改变较为局限且主要关注视网膜的改变,关于与临床上糖尿病眼病病理改变密切相关

  19. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised before and during Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Corvino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swimming before and during pregnancy on rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and their offspring. For this, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic (SD pregnant rats were mated and generated offspring with appropriate (control, C and small (IUGR for pregnancy age, respectively. Following that, C and IUGR groups were further distributed into nonexercised control (C, exercised control (Cex, nonexercised IUGR (IUGR, and exercised IUGR (IUGRex. IUGR rats presented lower mating rate than control rats. Regardless of physical exercise IUGR rats presented decreased body weight from birth to lactation. At 90 days of life, IUGR rats presented glucose intolerance. Maternal organ weights were increased and relative adiposity of IUGRex rats was lower than Cex. IUGR and IUGRex offspring presented reduced body weight than C and Cex, respectively. IUGRex dams presented an increased rate of appropriate for pregnancy age newborns. IUGEex male and female offspring relative brain weight was increased compared with Cex. Therefore, swimming before and during pregnancy prevented glucose intolerance, reduced general adiposity, and increased maternal and offspring organ weight in rats, showing the benefit of physical exercise for IUGR rats.

  20. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised before and during Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Repercussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, S. B.; Volpato, G. T.; Rudge, M. V. C.; Damasceno, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swimming before and during pregnancy on rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring. For this, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic (SD) pregnant rats were mated and generated offspring with appropriate (control, C) and small (IUGR) for pregnancy age, respectively. Following that, C and IUGR groups were further distributed into nonexercised control (C), exercised control (Cex), nonexercised IUGR (IUGR), and exercised IUGR (IUGRex). IUGR rats presented lower mating rate than control rats. Regardless of physical exercise IUGR rats presented d